The sample Of Dr Iwan E-book”The Beauty Of Simple Perfect Early ceramic Collections”

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The Beauty Of simple perfect

 early Blue White Ceramic Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

Introductions

I am starting collecting antique ceramic from 1976 when on duty at Solok West Sumatra. Every Sunday I went to my father and mother in law house at Padang Panjang for rest from my full time work.

After went to the church I visit Bukittinggi the beautiful city and I found there many antique ceramic there, I stil remember some native minangkabau trader like Aladin shop, Mr Datuk(in memoriam) and his son Man Datuk(now he atill trading at Bali) retc

I learn to identification the guinined antique ceramic collections from them, and after that I seeking the antique ceramic book auctions white many rare ceramic informations.

I am hunting the rare best  ceramic collections  and also artifact for basic study of the rare scarce early ceramic from china,Japan,Thailand and anamis also euro.

I have upload Some of my collections in my web blog

Hhtp://www.Driwansuwandy.wordpress.com

After that I creting the limited E-book In CD-Rom edition special for Senior collectors as the guide for arranging their collections and help them from the fullish fake repro traders.

After almost 40 years experienced I decided to collect the very best ceramic collections and made the CD-rom  Of that collections The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Found in Indonesia which the sample I have upload at my web blod, and now this the sample of my new e-book CD-Rom

The Beuaty Of Simple Perfect Early Ceramic Collections

I hope this information wuill help the collectors to choose the future collections which will be more valuable collections in the future

Simple,perfect and best colour MBlue yuhunchuping vase decoration

This Only the sample Of CD=rom, the complete Cd exist but only for premium member, I f you want to get that CD please subscribed via comment  of the web blog

Jakarta October 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

INTRODUCTIONS

«
 

 

Please compare flower decoration left Anamese vs right Yuan -style

 

Best perfect decoration

 

Bold dark blue bead jarlet

 

Best style flower decoration

 

The beast and the beauty,s red flower body decorations

Best dark red body decoration
Dark brown red bold body decoration (anamese?)
Darkred splash body decoration
Simple perfect red decoration
simple decoration with bright red colour

Look click

http://u21museums.unimelb.edu.au/museumcollections/hongkong/art_gallery/waterpot.html

 

Blue and White Oriental Porcelain: A Guide to Changes and Styles


by priceminer (11/11/09).

Top of Form

Bottom of Form

 

“Of a strong build, suitable for export and of good material, with a clear white body often left unglazed on a flat base. The glaze is thick and rather bubbly, and the blue is of a bright violet tone.”

— R.L. Hobson,author and Chinese Ceramics Specialist, British Museum, 1915.

 

A stoneware water pot with underglaze blue splashes, Tang Dynasty (618-907).

The technique of painting a color under a glaze first developed during the Tang Dynasty (618-907), when celadon enjoyed great popularity. (The Song also delved into some aspects of underglaze porcelain). Although this new decorative style was initially considered vulgar and unworthy of the educated, underglaze painting evolved and matured. The most important period is the Yuan, due to scarcity. Considering the difficulty with firing, some beautiful pieces were produced but few pieces come on to the market.

In simple terms, the unfired porcelain is left to become dry enough to handle, then painted in under glaze cobalt blue (or copper red or iron black). The items are put aside so the paint can dry, and then dipped in or brushed with glaze prior to firing in the kiln. This basic method has been refined over time, as potters sought to remedy the many flaws that spoiled early production. Ironically, those telltale flaws characteristic to one or another period, are of most help in dating Chinese porcelain.

The development of underglaze blue to decorate white porcelain began on a regular basis and with great skill at Jingdezhen in the Yuan period, and was perfected during the Ming Dynasty. Until the Ming, the blue pigment—called cobalt—was imported exclusively from Persia (present day Iran, where the color Mohammedan blue come from) but fortunately a native cobalt was discovered in the early part of the Ming era.

 

A Ming Dynasty celestial globe vase with dragon and floral de

read more click

http://www.jiangtea.com/2012/06/19/chinese-ceramics/

sign from the Yung-lo reign (1403-24).

Within this important era, blue and white porcelain underwent several variations in manufacture. The most vital innovation relates to the modulation in the blue pigment, which can range from a grayish, washed-out blue to blue-black to a brilliant blue.

 

Other variations are the individual glazes, the variety of shapes, the style of decoration, and the calligraphy of the Imperial reign marks.

The dating of early blue and white Chinese porcelain made some headway when Oxford research scientists discovered that the Persian cobalt has no manganese, yet the Chinese cobalt contained a high proportion of manganese oxide. In effect, blue and white wares containing traces of manganese cannot be earlier than Ming. As no blue and white piece can be genuinely attributed to the reign of Hongwu, the first Ming emperor (1368-1398), most pieces are classed as “early 15th century.”

Under the Ming ruler Yongle (1403-24) production of blue and white porcelain flourished, and under his Imperial patronage, a wide range of archaistic floral, fruit and vine motifs and styles ensued, including an occasional Islamic decoration. This period is artistically rich, maintaining the devotion to floral emblems and their significance which had prevailed from early ages in China. In particular, the lotus, chrysanthemum and peony were most popular, used with foliate or geometric borders or rim decoration. Later reproductions of Yongle wares are difficult to distinguish from originals except under expert scrutiny. Reign marks are rarely found on Imperial pieces until the Xuande- era.

 

Yongle characteristics include good, sturdy shapes and curved bodies, with attractive and restrained decoration. If it is a double-sided piece, the decoration is usually similar on both sides. The color is intense violet blue with numerous small dark flecks, and the glaze is very soft and smooth but with the “orange peel” effect of small brown flecks caused by iron impurities.

The classic period in the development of blue and white Oriental porcelain is considered to be the Xuande reign (1426-35), when the marking of ceramics became established practice and a number of innovations occurred. The variety of shapes expanded to include not only dishes but bowls, wine cups, ewers, flasks, vases, lidded boxes and jars, and utensils for Buddhist ceremonial offerings—all richly decorated in the typical blue-black pigment associated with early Ming wares. The glaze has a thick texture, little light reflection and fewer impurities. With the change to the native cobalt, the blue alters to a more subdued color than at the beginning of the century.

An exciting range of shapes and forms came from the Xuande era, which is characterized by a bluish white glaze (usually more uniform than on past porcelain).

 

Minute flecks still occur but are less visible, and the flower scroll decoration is more conventional in style than at beginning of century. Representations of Taoist symbol (mythical characters), the Eight Precious Objects, the Three Friends (pine, prunus, bamboo), phoenix and sacred fungus, among other subjects, are prevalent. The dragon is always vigorously painted, spreading his tail and claws very dramatically against a plain white ground.

After Xuande there was a 20-year interregnum as the successive three emperors appear to have had no interest in ceramics—no more than a few pieces bearing a reign mark from the mid-century. It was to be redressed by Chenghua (1465-87), who revitalized blue and white. Technically, Chenghua pieces are superior, although the former decoration was somewhat curbed due to the taste of the Emperor who followed the dictates of his concubine Wan, and eunuchs.

 

A Ming Dynasty underglaze blue bowl from the Chenghua period.

Chenghua decoration lacks vitality, but has a greater sophistication and effeminacy. The designs become more naturalistic as flowers become swirling wreaths with leafy tendrils, and these designs are sometimes painted on the inside of pieces.

 

There is a new artistic direction as scenes of children or comic figures appear, greatly contrasting with the rest of the decoration; these pieces bear no marks.

Repeated shapes are characteristic of Chenghua pieces, although fragile flared bowls called “palace bowls” are also a characteristic product. Reign marks (nienhao) in two vertical rows are written within a circle or rectangle.

The Hongzhi ruler (1488-1505) continues the wares of previous reigns, with the same classical themes but a less lively depiction. The blue is grayish and varied, with the six characters written under the base in two ways; the characters are small and unevenly spaced, or written larger and in a regular form. Some unmarked bowls decorated with children’s games appear in this period.

The classical period of blue and white Oriental porcelain concludes with the Zhengde ruler (1506-21), when examples range from superb to mediocre. Some later pieces reflect an Islamic innovation, as Arabic or Persian script and quotations from the Koran are used. At the time, Muslim eunuchs and a number of Muslim communities within China held sway at court, and it is thought their influence was reflected in this new decoration. It is seen on small pieces such as writing utensils, candlesticks, vases and screens. Such pieces always have the dynastic mark written in six characters.

 

A Jiajing period Ming Dynasty square dish.

In the Jiajing reign—from 1522 to 1566—blue and white porcelain was characterized by a brilliant rich blue, and decorations of Taoist symbols such as the Eight Immortals or the shou dominate. In everyday pieces we see children’s games, dragons, phoenixes and floral motifs depicted.

Due to economic conditions, Jingdezhen was forced to reduce its output during the Longqmg reign (1567-72). Lan Pu describes it thus: “The clay is adhesive and rich. The body partly thick, partly thin. The technique of manufacture is excellent …. the glaze is lustrous, thick like a layer of fat.”

Blue and white wares produced in the Wanli reign (1573-1620) are characterized by a fine body, a brilliant glaze and deep violet-blue decoration¬—although such pieces are rare. The shapes become a little different from earlier forms, and a return to archaistic shapes signals a decline in creativity. There are repeating themes of dragons, Eight Precious Objects, etc., but also a more vital depiction of figures in everyday life. Delicate pieces such as stem cups and incense burners attributed to Wanli are seen bearing the marks of Xuande or Chenghua.

 

The popularity of blue and white Oriental porcelain was supported by the burgeoning export industry, which widely transported its wares. Products were mainly Chinese, but vast orders from foreign countries were generally fashioned for the foreign tastes and designs of countries in Europe, the Near East and Japan.

Chinese reign marks did not become established practice for marking ceramics until the Xuande reign (1426-35). The six characters are precisely written, placed either under the base in two vertical lines or near the outer rim in a single horizontal line. The top two characters are the emperor’s second name (left) and the character for “great” (right).

The middle characters name the dynasty, and the lower two characters are “made in the reign of …” and the emperor’s first name. It is not accurate to date Chinese porcelain using reign marks. While no doubt some deliberately meant to deceive’ usually it was a simple case of tribute—some potters who admired a previous golden age are known to have reused those marks as a form those marks as a form of respect

‘read more click

http://www.artforum.com.sg/artists_by_country/ceramics/china.html

CHINA – CERAMICS

Best Collections

Look click

 

http://www.jiangtea.com/2012/06/19/chinese-ceramics/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEA ·

 

Chinese ceramic ware shows a continuous development since the pre-dynastic periods, and is one of the most significant forms of Chinese art. China is richly endowed with the raw materials needed for making ceramics. The first types of ceramics were made during the Palaeolithic era. Chinese Ceramics range from construction materials such as bricks and tiles, to hand-built pottery vessels fired in bonfires or kilns, to the sophisticated Chinese porcelain wares made for the imperial court. Porcelain is also occasionally called “china” in English.

This could be divided into: Imperial porcelain “Guan yao – Imperial kiln/ware” ;Ordinary porcelain “Min yao – peoples ware”

 

Imperial kiln/ware – Guan yao
With this we mean “porcelain specifically made for the Chinese Emperor and the Imperial household”. If we forget the really old stuff and focus on the white bodied stoneware we in the west call porcelain the first specifically “Imperial” kiln was set up in Jingdezhen during the Yuan dynasty (1279-1368 ). From then on, during the Ming and Qing dynasties, “Imperial porcelain” was ordered from and made by this separate Imperial kiln – located at Zhushan (Pearl Hill) in the city of Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, where still today a thriving porcelain industry is fully functioning.

Peoples ware – Min yao
Most of the Chinese porcelain we see today are “Min yao – min=peoples yao=ware”, mostly bowls and all kinds of pieces connected to the way of life. This kind of porcelain have not changed very much over the years and might therefore be hard to date properly.

Types of Chinese porcelain wares

 

Tang Sancai burial wares

Sancai means three-colours. However, the colours of the glazes used to decorate the wares of the Tang dynasty were not limited to three in number. In the West, Tang sancai wares were sometimes referred to as egg-and-spinach by dealers for the use of green, yellow and white. Though the latter of the two colours might be more properly described as amber and off-white / cream.

Sancai wares were northern wares made using white and buff-firing secondary kaolins and fire clays. At kiln sites located at Tongchuan, Neiqui county in Hebei and Gongxian in Henan, the clays used for burial wares were similar to those used by Tang potters. The burial wares were fired at a lower temperature than contemporaneous whitewares. Burial wares, such as the well-known representations of camels and horses, were cast in sections, in moulds with the parts luted together using clay slip. In some cases, a degree of individuality was imparted to the assembled figurines by hand-carving.

 

Jian tea wares

Jian blackwares, mainly comprising tea wares, were made at kilns located in Jianyang of Fujian province. They reached the peak of their popularity during the Song dynasty. The wares were made using locally won, iron-rich clays and fired in an oxidising atmosphere at temperatures in the region of 1300 °C. The glaze was made using clay similar to that used for forming the body, except fluxed with wood-ash. At high temperatures the molten glaze separate to produce a pattern called hare’s fur. When Jian wares were set tilted for firing, drips run down the side, creating evidence of liquid glaze pooling.
At the time, tea was prepared by whisking powdered leaves that had been pressed into dried cakes together with hot water, (somewhat akin to matcha in Japanese Tea Ceremony). The water added to this powder produced a white froth that would stand out better against a dark bowl. Tastes in preparation changed during the Ming dynasty; the Hongwu Emperor himself preferred leaves to powdered cakes, and would accept only leaf tea as tribute from tea-producing regions. Leaf tea, in contrast to powdered tea, was prepared by steeping whole leaves in boiling water – a process that led to the invention of the teapot and subsequent popularity of Yixing wares over the dark tea bowls.
Jian tea wares of the Song dynasty were also greatly appreciated and copied in Japan, where they were known as tenmoku wares.

 

Ding ware
Ding ware was produced in Ding Xian (modern Chu-yang), Hebei Province, slightly south-west of Beijing. Already in production when the Song emperors came to power in 940, Ding ware was the finest porcelain produced in northern China at the time, and was the first to enter the palace for official imperial use. Its paste is white, generally covered with an almost transparent glaze that dripped and collected in “tears,” (though some Ding ware was glazed a monochrome black or brown, white was the much more common type). Overall, the Ding aesthetic relied more on its elegant shape than ostentatious decoration; designs were understated, either incised or stamped into the clay prior to glazing. Due to the way the dishes were stacked in the kiln, the edged remained unglazed, and had to be rimmed in metal such as gold or silver when used as tableware. Some hundred years later, a Southern Song era writer commented that it was this defect that led to its demise as favoured imperial ware.Since the Song court lost access to these northern kilns when they fled south, it has been argued that Qingbai ware was viewed as a replacement for Ding.

 

Ru ware
Like Ding ware, was produced in North China for imperial use. The Ru kilns were near the Northern Song capital at Kaifeng. In similar fashion to Longquan celadons, Ru pieces have small amounts of iron in their glaze that oxidize and turn greenish when fired in a reducing atmosphere. Ru wares range in colour—from nearly white to a deep robin’s egg—and often are covered with reddish-brown crackles. The crackles, or “crazing,” are caused when the glaze cools and contracts faster than the body, thus having to stretch and ultimately to split, The art historian James Watt comments that the Song dynasty was the first period that viewed crazing as a merit rather than a defect. Moreover, as time went on, the bodies got thinner and thinner, while glazes got thicker, until by the end of the Southern Song the ‘green-glaze’ was thicker than the body, making it extremely ‘fleshy’ rather than ‘bony,’ to use the traditional analogy . Too, the glaze tends to drip and pool slightly, leaving it thinner at the top, where the clay peeps through.

 

Jun ware
Jun ware was a third style of porcelain used at the Northern Song court. Characterized by a thicker body than Ding or Ru ware, Jun is covered with a turquoise and purple glaze, so thick and viscous looking that it almost seems to be melting off its substantial golden-brown body. Not only are Jun vessels more thickly potted, their shape is much more robust than the fine Jun pieces, yet both types were appreciated at court of Emperor Huizong. Jun production was centered at Jun-tai in Yüzhou city, Henan Province.

 

Guan ware
Guan  ware, literally means “official” ware; so certain Ru, Jun, and even Ding could be considered Guan in the broad sense of being produced for the court. Strictly speaking, however, the term only applies to that produced by an official, imperially run kiln, which did not start until the Southern Song fled the advancing Jin and settled at Lin’an. It was during this period that walls become so thin and glaze so thick that the latter superseded the former in breadth. As the clay in the foothills around Lin’an, was a brownish colour, and the glaze so viscus, ‘’Guan’’ ware became known for its “brown mouth”  indicating the top rim or a vessel where the glaze is thinner and the body shows through.

Guan ceramics have been much admired over the years, and very subject to copy. Indeed Gao Lain spends the greatest part of his commentary on describing Guan and its partner Ge ware , as though that were the most troublesome, least easily identified type of pottery.

 

Ge ware
Ge , literally means ‘big-brother’ ware, because legend has it that of two brothers working in Longquan, one made the typical celadon style ceramics, but the elder made ge ware, produced in his private kiln. Ming commentator, Gao Lian claims that the ge kiln took its clay from the same site as Guan ware, which is what accounts for the difficulty in distinguishing one from the other . Overall, Ge remains somewhat elusive, but basically comprises two types—one with a ‘warm rice-yellow glaze and two sets of crackles, a more prominent set of darker colour interspersed with a finer set of reddish lines (called chin-ssu t’ieh-hsien or ‘golden floss and iron threads’, which can just faintly be detected on this bowl: . The other Ge ware is much like Guan ware, with grayish glaze and one set of crackles. Once thought to have only been manufactured alongside Longquan celadon, per its legendary founding, Ge is now believed to have also been produced at Jingdezhen.

While similar to Guan ware, Ge typically has a grayish-blue glaze that is fully opaque with an almost matte finish . Its crackle pattern is exaggerated, often standing out in bold black. Though still shrouded in mystery, many specialists believe that Ge ware did not develop until the very late Southern Song or even the Yuan. In any case, enthusiasm for it persisted throughout the Ming; Wen Zhenheng preferred it to all other types of porcelain, in particular for brush washers and water droppers . Differences between later Ming imitations of Song/Yuan Ge include: Ming versions substitute a white porcelain body; they tend to be produced in a range of new shapes, for example those for the scholar’s studio; glazes tend to be thinner and more lustrous; and slip is applied to the rim and base to simulate the “brown mouth and iron foot” of Guan ware.

 

Qingbai wares
Qingbai wares were made at Jingdezhen and at many other southern kilns from the time of the Northern Song Dynasty until they were eclipsed in the 14th century by underglaze-decorated blue and white wares. Qingbai in Chinese literally means “clear blue-white”. The qingbai glaze is a porcelain glaze, so-called because it was made using pottery stone. The qingbai glaze is clear, but contains iron in small amounts. When applied over a white porcelain body the glaze produces a greenish-blue colour that gives the glaze its name. Some have incised or moulded decorations.

The Song dynasty qingbai bowl illustrated was likely made at the Jingdezhen village of Hutian, which was also the site of the Imperial kilns established in 1004. The bowl has incised decoration, possibly representing clouds or the reflection of clouds in the water. The body is white, translucent and has the texture of very-fine sugar, indicating that it was made using crushed and refined pottery stone instead of pottery stone and kaolin. The glaze and the body of the bowl would have been fired together, in a saggar, possibly in a large wood-burning dragon-kiln or climbing-kiln, typical of southern kilns in the period.

 

Blue and white wares

Following in the tradition of earlier qingbai porcelains, blue and white wares are glazed using a transparent porcelain glaze. The blue decoration is painted onto the body of the porcelain before glazing, using very finely ground cobalt oxide[mixed with water. After the decoration has been applied the pieces are glazed and fired.

It is believed that underglaze blue and white porcelain was first made in the Tang Dynasty. Only three complete pieces of Tang blue and white porcelain are known to exist, but shards dating to the 8th or 9th century have been unearthed at Yangzhou in the Jiangsu province. It has been suggested that the shards originated from a kiln in the province of Henan. In 1957, excavations at the site of a pagoda in the province Zhejiang uncovered a Northern Song bowl decorated with underglaze blue and further fragments have since been discovered at the same site. In 1970, a small fragment of a blue and white bowl, again dated to the 11th century, was also excavated in the province of Zhejiang.

Starting early in the 14th century, blue and white porcelain rapidly became the main product of Jingdezhen, reaching the height of its technical excellence during the later years of the reign of the Kangxi Emperor[38] and continuing in present times to be an important product of the city.

The tea caddy illustrated shows many of the characteristics of blue and white porcelain produced during the Kangxi period. The translucent body showing through the clear glaze is of great whiteness and the cobalt decoration, applied in many layers, has a fine blue hue. The decoration, a sage in a landscape of lakes and mountains with blazed rocks is typical of the period. The piece would have been fired in a saggar  in a reducing atmosphere in a wood-burning egg-shaped kiln, at a temperature approaching 1350 °C.

 

Blanc de Chine
Blanc de Chine is a type of white porcelain made at Dehua in the Fujian province. It has been produced from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese Export Porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere.
The area along the Fujian coast was traditionally one of the main ceramic exporting centers. Over one-hundred and eighty kiln sites have been identified extending in historical range from the Song period to present. 
The porcelain body is not very plastic but vessel forms have been made from it. lists the following types of product: figures, boxes, vases and jars, cups and bowls, fishes, lamps, cup-stands, censers and flowerpots, animals, brush holders, wine and teapots, Buddhist and Taoist figures, secular figures and puppets. There was a large output of figures, especially religious figures, e.g. Guanyin, Maitreya, Lohan and Ta-mo figures.

 

Read More click

 

http://www.brandongallery.com/listcollection.asp?Type=Collection

Collections Identifications


A CHIZHOU PILLOW, SONG DYNASTY

Famille Verte Bowl,Kangxi.

Large Kangxi Charger – Documented Museum Exhibit

A LONQUAN Celadon Dish, Song Dynasty

Ming dynasty blue & white cover jar, 16th C.

A YUEYAO Jar, Southern & Northern Dynasty

Wu-Cai bowl, Kangxi.

Green Glazed Jar, Han Dynasty

Bencharong Porcelain Bowl, 18th C. For Royal Thai.

San-Cai Bowl,Kangxi.

Painted Cizhou Wine Jar, Yuan Dynasty

Polychrome Big Charger,Ming Wanli.

Blue & White Plate,Jiaqing Era,1796-1820

Museum Quality Pottery Jar, Han Dynasty

BINH THUAN SHIP WRECK, MING DYNASTY

A San-cai small bowl,Tang Dynasty

Magnificent White Glazed Tripod Plate, Tang Dynast

Green Glazed Pottery Ink Stone, Tang Dynasty

A Rare Green Glazed Pig, Tang Dynasty.

Museum Quality Pottery Jar, Western Zhou.

Blue & White tea-caddy,Ming Dynasty.

YUEYAO Cup & Dish set,Southern & Northern Dynasty

Qing-Bai high foot cup, Yuan dynasty 1280-1368.

Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty

Green Glazed Figure, Kangxi period

Carved Blue & White Bowl, Yuan Dynasty

Painted Cizhou Bowl, Song Dynasty

Carved Yingqing Dish, Song Dynasty

Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty

Carved Yingqing pot, Southern Song Dynasty

White Glazed Octagonal Cup, Yuan Dynasty

Celadon small cup, Jin Dynasty

Carved Celadon Bowl, Ming Dynasty

Carved Celadon Washer, Yuan Dynasty

Carved Celadon Bowl, Yuan Dynasty

Swatow Blue & White Charger, Ming Dynasty

White Glazed Small Bowl, Ming Dynasty

Neolithic painted pottery jar, YangShao culture.

Blue & White Jar, 16th C. Ming Dynasty

Very Rare Armorial Plate with Xuantong Mark, 1910.

Dayazhai Yellow-Ground Bowl, Tongzhi to Guangxu.

Yellow Ground Bottle Vase,Ming Dynasty,Jiajing Era

Doucai Dish, Yongzheng period. Qing Dynasty.

Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty

Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty

Qing Bai Bowl, Song Dynasty

Look More Click

http://www.onlinegalleries.com/art-and-antiques/antique-ceramics/asian-ceramics

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 Value

IMAGE

CAPTION

SELLING PRICE

 

Han Dynasty
Incense Burner (green glaze)
Pottery
22 cm h

cer002

S$1,500

     
 

Han Dynasty
Vase (green glaze)
Pottery
41 cm h
cer003

S$5,000

     
 

Han Dynasty
Vase (green glaze)
Pottery
45.5 cm h
cer004

S$3,000

     
 


Sui Dynasty
Water Bottle (green glaze)
Pottery
32 cm h
cer006

S$2,000

     
 


Yuan Dynasty
Jar (blue & white underglaze)
Porcelain
9 cm h
cer007

S$900

     
 


Ming Dynasty
Jar (blue & white underglaze)
Porcelain
7.5 cm h
cer008

S$900

     
 

Ming Dynasty
Bowl (blue and white underglaze)
Porcelain
6.5 cm h
cer009

S$500

     
 

Ming Dynasty
Blue and White Covered Jar
Porcelain
7 cm h
cer010

S$600

 

Yuan Dynasty
Kendi (early Dehua white glaze)
Porcelain
10.7 cm h
cer012

S$2,500

     
 

Yuan Dynasty
Covered Box (early Dehua white glaze)
Porcelain
15 cm d
cer013

S$1,000

     
 

Yuan Dynasty
Bowl (early Dehua white glaze)
Porcelain
5 cm h
cer014

S$1,000

   

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THE SIMPLE PERFECT OF EARLY BLUE AND WHITE CERAMIC

A.China

1)Tang Dinasty

 

 

Read more click

http://www.worthpoint.com/article/blue-and-white-oriental-porcelain-a-guide-to-changes-and-styles

 

 

 

 READ MORE CLICK

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+Tang+dynasty+CERAMIC&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=eQ7vduOVNVtBtM:&imgrefurl=http://www.cnngo.com/singapore/play/displaying-tang-dynasty-treasures-ninth-century-shipwreck-786465&docid=5wt7SxT6Py22lM&imgurl=http://i.cdn.cnngo.com/sites/default/files/imagecache/624x468_gallery/2010/07/29/4_main.jpg&w=624&h=416&ei=Fp1wUJ-FKsimrAeWwYBI&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=762&vpy=138&dur=717&hovh=183&hovw=275&tx=137&ty=118&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=104&tbnw=139&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:5,s:0,i:85

 

 

READ MORE CLICK

http://www.christies.com/lotfinder/lot/a-blue-and-amber-glazed-pottery-bowl-tang-5417761-details.aspx

 

 

A BLUE AND AMBER-GLAZED POTTERY BOWL

TANG DYNASTY (618-907)

Images

 

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Price Realized (Set Currency)

$7,500

  • Sales totals are hammer price plus buyer’s premium and do not reflect costs, financing fees or application of buyer’s or seller’s credits.

Estimate

$6,000 – $8,000

Sale Information

Sale 2427
Fine Chinese Ceramics and Works of Art Part I and Part II Including Property from the Arthur M. Sackler Collections
24 – 25 March 2011
New York, Rockefeller Plaza

Lot Description

A BLUE AND AMBER-GLAZED POTTERY BOWL
TANG DYNASTY (618-907)
With rounded sides rising from the flared foot to the slightly everted rim, the center of the interior decorated with a grouping of small five-petalled flowers with blue-splashed petals and amber centers below eight sections of blue stripes at the rim, all reserved on a straw glaze that continues over the rim atop a white slip that ends mid-body to expose the buff-colored body
6 3/8 in. (16.1 cm.) diam.

Provenance

Acquired in Hong Kong in 1987

 

 

 

The repro Collections

Eric Scollon Ceramic Sex Toys

 

 

Read more click

http://www.coolhunting.com/design/eric-scollon-ce.php

 

 

 

 

 

2)Sung Dinasty

 

No Yet collections found

3)Yuan Dinasty

Dr Iwan Have this yuan cup found at West Borneo

 

Look click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+yuan+dynasty+CERAMIC&start=137&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=tHNrxRYki2dD9M:&imgrefurl=http://www.brandongallery.com/listcollection.asp%3FType%3DCollection&docid=w40plYwRdVASWM&imgurl=http://www.brandongallery.com/images/yuenb%2526wbowl-1.jpg&w=350&h=284&ei=TaZwUKHWA4mqrAedjoDIDA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=834&vpy=151&dur=578&hovh=202&hovw=249&tx=127&ty=135&sig=117954604287720468075&page=8&tbnh=159&tbnw=201&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:137,i:217

 

Look click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+Sung+dynasty+CERAMIC&start=119&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=8VWG6064SJNwlM:&imgrefurl=http://www.alaintruong.com/tag/Yuan%2520dynasty/p70-0.html&docid=ygpnNdgj1ZehiM&imgurl=http://p8.storage.canalblog.com/89/71/119589/74377676.jpg&w=660&h=681&ei=aaRwUJj5MYiIrAecvYDACg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=447&vpy=97&dur=826&hovh=228&hovw=221&tx=113&ty=131&sig=117954604287720468075&page=7&tbnh=167&tbnw=170&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:119,i:169

 

 Look click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+Sung+dynasty+CERAMIC&start=119&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=8VWG6064SJNwlM:&imgrefurl=http://www.alaintruong.com/tag/Yuan%2520dynasty/p70-0.html&docid=ygpnNdgj1ZehiM&imgurl=http://p8.storage.canalblog.com/89/71/119589/74377676.jpg&w=660&h=681&ei=aaRwUJj5MYiIrAecvYDACg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=447&vpy=97&dur=826&hovh=228&hovw=221&tx=113&ty=131&sig=117954604287720468075&page=7&tbnh=167&tbnw=170&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:119,i:169

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+Sung+dynasty+CERAMIC&start=101&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=iIuFTENyountXM:&imgrefurl=http://www.artforum.com.sg/artists_by_country/ceramics/china.html&docid=Dw9qv47cxXovFM&imgurl=http://www.artforum.com.sg/images_by_country/ceramics/cer007.jpg&w=261&h=300&ei=cKFwULOEFIXsrAfI34GwBA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=247&vpy=169&dur=1326&hovh=240&hovw=208&tx=131&ty=131&sig=117954604287720468075&page=6&tbnh=157&tbnw=139&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:101,i:70

 

 

Please compare flower decoration left Anamese vs right Yuan -style

 

Best perfect decoration

 

Bold dark blue bead jarlet

 

Best style flower decoration

Qingbai in Chinese literally means “clear blue-white“.

Look click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+Sung+dynasty+CERAMIC&start=155&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=VLeEP6NDnnfsvM:&imgrefurl=http://www.jiangtea.com/2012/06/19/chinese-ceramics/&docid=zKLvAVBuGYdrSM&imgurl=http://u.jimdo.com/www19/o/s40a31b7bf0a26a00/img/i926825f9b140b507/1340090300/std/image.jpg&w=479&h=352&ei=5qRwUKmiKMLrrQfE7YCIBg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=694&vpy=81&dur=15039&hovh=192&hovw=262&tx=103&ty=141&sig=117954604287720468075&page=9&tbnh=157&tbnw=209&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:155,i:269

Yuan Cup(Dr Iwan collections)

Look click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=lUPYi3wCz9T_HM:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/10/page/5/&docid=vVXaie_sVrvfiM&imgurl=http://driwancybermuseum.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/pa020120.jpg%253Fw%253D1024%2526h%253D768&w=1024&h=768&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=751&vpy=131&dur=1311&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=156&ty=115&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=113&tbnw=172&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:18,s:0,i:126

 

 

 

 

 

 

Read more click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=NBx4bYng6QMtkM:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/10/page/5/&docid=vVXaie_sVrvfiM&imgurl=http://uniquecollection.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/p31700613.jpg%253Fw%253D300%2526h%253D225%2526h%253D225&w=300&h=224&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1006&vpy=162&dur=702&hovh=179&hovw=240&tx=146&ty=103&sig=117954604287720468075&page=2&tbnh=161&tbnw=214&start=21&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:21,i:152

 Also click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=I04EbbEKliQBDM:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/10/page/5/&docid=vVXaie_sVrvfiM&imgurl=http://uniquecollection.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/p3170059.jpg%253Fw%253D768%2526h%253D1024%2526h%253D1024&w=768&h=1024&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=578&vpy=2&dur=1061&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=101&ty=58&sig=117954604287720468075&page=3&tbnh=182&tbnw=137&start=36&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:36,i:195

 

Look more click

 

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=anamese+vietnam+ceramic+collections+by+Driwan&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=3WGFYNMLKvSg_M:&imgrefurl=http://uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/57/%3Farchives-list%3D1&docid=XfsdMmsrHF02vM&imgurl=http://uniquecollection.files.wordpress.com/2009/12/pc240087.jpg&w=2048&h=1536&ei=e0BxUNXfO4OyrAeU9IDAAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=555&vpy=118&dur=483&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=149&ty=126&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=151&tbnw=209&start=0&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0,i:94

 

 

 

Artifact Yuan ceramic click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=anamese+vietnam+ceramic+collections+by+Driwan&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=9BPZlxXsMm4LBM:&imgrefurl=http://uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/29/&docid=m9c_mrPt4eb3RM&imgurl=http://uniquecollection.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/pc240110.jpg%253Fw%253D300%2526h%253D225&w=300&h=224&ei=e0BxUNXfO4OyrAeU9IDAAw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=458&vpy=100&dur=858&hovh=179&hovw=240&tx=138&ty=121&sig=117954604287720468075&page=6&tbnh=152&tbnw=203&start=73&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:14,s:73,i:357

 

More Click

 

http://uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/57/?archives-list=1

December 24, 2009 by uniquecollection

 

Indonesia repro with bluur flower decoration

 

Please compare flower decoration left Anamese vs right Yuan -style

 

 

Best perfect decoration

 

 

Bold dark blue bead jarlet

 

 

Best style flower decoration

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a Comment »

December 24, 2009 by uniquecollection

 

Simple bottom decoration

 

Upper part of cloud decoration in the body

 

 

simple best cloud decorations

 

 

Best blue and style flower decoration in the body

 

 

Best perfect spout,s dragon decoration

 

 

Best and perfect neck-body border key fret decoration

 

 

Bold Necklet decoration

 

 

Simple necklet decoration

 

 

Simple bold neck decoration

 

 

Simple neck decoration

 

 

Simple inner mouth decoration

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a Comment »

December 24, 2009 by uniquecollection

 

The best moulded imperial dragon of Qingbai yubunchuping ewer

 

Simple,perfect and best colour MBlue yuhunchuping vase decoration

Simple perfect best Qingbai colour imperial dragon spouted decoration

Another type of very rare yuan ceramic was the Qing Bai light blue green colour, many of this type ceramic with moulded and incised decoration, not mony fine condition Yuan Qingbai found in Indonesia and must be carefull to the repro and restored item. Some of the best IMUCS private collection will put in IMUCS cyabermuseum, please jion the collector choice t0 chooese with one the best item compared with your owncollections.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a Comment »

December 24, 2009 by uniquecollection

 

Simple,perfect and best colour MBlue yuhunchuping vase decoration

The very rare blue of Yuan ceramic were import from the middle east that is why called Mohhamedan Blue or Sunipo (please read the information in this blog”The unique red and blue Yuan-Ming ceramic collection”. This type of colour  was first use during  Yuan Dynasty very beautiful like Saffir blue and use for imperial court or give to the friedly King. In Indonesia still hard to find the guinine and fine conditions item, many brokken restored and must be carefull to the repro one. The artifact were IMUCS private collection found in Indonesia, we will put some of the best collector choice in our IMUCS Cybermuseum, please collector to choice which one the best collection with your comment especilly compared with your own collections.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a Comment »

 

The beast and the beauty,s red flower body decorations

Best dark red body decoration
Dark brown red bold body decoration (anamese?)
Darkred splash body decoration
Simple perfect red decoration
simple decoration with bright red colour

 

simple decoration with bright red colour

Very dificult to produce the red in glazed ceramic, the collour gradation from best ruby red, red brown, and brown depend on the firing technology that is why during Yuan dynasty  didn’t produced for daily used, only the best red colour used in the imperial court and some as the given to friend’s King or Sultan, please look carefully verious exciting red colour from our artifact collectiions found in Indonesia. Please comment and choose the best one to put in the IMUCS cybermuseum. Thank very much to joined the collector choice program.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a Comment »

December 23, 2009 by uniquecollection

 

Simple bottom decoration

 

flower bouqet body decorations

 

 

Dark red flower body decoration

 

 

simple redbrown body decoration

 

 

Neck,mouth and lips of red yuhunchuping vase yuan dynasty

 

simple bracelet neck decoration

RED IN GLAZED YUAN DYNASTY CERAMIC WERE THE VERY RARE CHINESE ART WORKS. In Indonesia until this day not much gunine items found, at Central Musuem Jakarta have only two items yubunchuping vase without neck and mouth. Many new reproductions from China and Indonesia have seen this day, to help the collector for identified their collections , IMUCS cyber musuem will put some best illustrations of our artifact collections. I hope all colectors all over the world to choose from some illustations the best one  to put permanetly in our cybermusuem, and you will joined our collector choice program.

Dr, Iwan S.

Posted in Uncategorized | Leave a Comment »

December 23, 2009 by uniquecollection

HELLO COLLECTORS,

I just write the new topic of Unique collections,”ARTIFACT”, in 2005 the first time someone from Canada asking me the sheard of Chinese Ming ceramic, he told me that he had made the study of Ming Ceramic design of decoration especially Blue and White early Ming, when I asked him for what, to know the accurate style,art and symbol of MIng traditional , that the answers. Several days after that ,my friwnd told me he want to by one dollars per sheard. I don.t understand about that type of collections, but I starting to write the book of early Ming Ceramic , and I understand that very rare and very difficult to found the guinine items in good condition ,alway many news repro/copy , that time from emperor Hsuante, Ceng Hua until Cheng Te the ceramic production only for imperial used ,  the collectors can read in this block about Red and Blue Yuan- Ming ceramic. In the years 1985, DR Mc Kinnon had meet me , and I show him some of my Early Ming Sheard , he told this collections were name The artifact, items could told us the fact of History , beside Ceramic another kind of artifact like metal, wooden,etc. He asked me to keep all artifact, and he send me the ceramic artifact he found at Kota Cima Medan and old Bantam sites.

I will show you my artifact of veryrare collections, one by one, starting with ceramic, ” veryrare Red and  Blue-  white yuan artifact” because very difficult and very expensive items in good condition, I hope collectors will compare with their collections, and then choice with of the artifact you never seen and very best art to keep in our IMUCS-Iwan masterpiece Unique collections-Cyber museum”  your choice will showed in your name like Aung-Aung Sarawak rare coins, and other collector who joined the Collectors choice will choice the best one items, and every years we will choose the best ten and put permanently in IMUCS cyber museum  with the collector names, and we will give an unique collection prize.

Dear Collectors,  artifact of very rare collections, were one type of unique collections biside  phillatelic, numicmatic,ceramic, Books ,Document,hotography. zmedal, Label etc . Please continually look at our unique collection blog .wordpress.com by Dr iwan S. and you will found verbal and visual information to compare with your collections, and add information about the history related to that collections.

One day, I hope this blog will be the best blog of Unique collections and anykind informations about rare and unusal items related to you homeland history especilally Asia area , if someone have a new information please contact us, and asking in the comment about the rare information you need, and we will shere between the collectors of over the world to seek the answer of your questions, all free.

At least Merry christmas and Happy new year,I hope the new seasons will gave you happiness, healt and also the new best unique collections.

Sincerely yours

Dr Iwan S.

PS. now look at Artifact of very rare Red Yuan ceramic, full will close up illustration from our artifact collections, please comment and choose the best one, who know you will win our exciting prize.

 

4)Ming Dinasty

 

Read more click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+ming+dynasty+CERAMIC&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=r0VDeLgXddYg_M:&imgrefurl=http://www.alaintruong.com/albums/ming_chenghua_ceramic___1447_1487_/photos/75604929-blue___white_porcelain_bowl__ming_dynasty__chenghua_mark_and_of_.html&docid=8ePP5a_RirsabM&imgurl=http://p2.storage.canalblog.com/26/72/119589/75604929.jpg&w=318&h=450&ei=F6hwULWhIsuIrAfG3oCICg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=547&vpy=2&dur=1591&hovh=267&hovw=189&tx=100&ty=127&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=111&tbnw=78&start=0&ndsp=27&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:0,i:110

Related Ceramic click

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/10/page/5/

 

 

 

The blue and white porcelain ‘palace bowl’, Ming dynasty, Chenghua mark and period, 1465-1487, is one of only nine examples of this type and design, seven of which are in museums. Its impeccable provenance includes the distinguished collection of Lord Cunliffe. The interior and exterior are delicately painted with stems of scrolling day lilies. From the time of its manufacture, the porcelain produced at Jingdezhen during this period has been judged as perhaps the finest ever made. The products tend to be small, presumably to the exacting taste of the Chenghua emperor. Although his reign was not especially long (22 years), the quantity of shards at Jingdezhen in this period – representing destroyed pieces that had been rejected as unworthy – is apparently much greater than for any other comparable period.

 

 

Look more click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=UZUnL5Uqmk543M:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/page/107/%3Fnewwindow%3Dtrue&docid=U7bRRpSeOawuwM&itg=1&imgurl=http://driwancybermuseum.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/qingladnscape1.jpg%253Fw%253D500&w=300&h=224&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=569&vpy=261&dur=6630&hovh=179&hovw=240&tx=143&ty=150&sig=117954604287720468075&page=2&tbnh=161&tbnw=209&start=21&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:21,i:162

 

 

 

Related collections click

 

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=wWzvfDpMXVFIDM:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/page/107/%3Fnewwindow%3Dtrue&docid=U7bRRpSeOawuwM&itg=1&imgurl=http://driwancybermuseum.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/qinghorse.jpg%253Fw%253D500&w=300&h=224&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=122&vpy=128&dur=1997&hovh=179&hovw=240&tx=161&ty=122&sig=117954604287720468075&page=3&tbnh=155&tbnw=207&start=36&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:36,i:208

 

 

Still want to look another collections please click

 

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=UORXHGZLflUe5M:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/page/107/%3Fnewwindow%3Dtrue&docid=U7bRRpSeOawuwM&itg=1&imgurl=http://driwancybermuseum.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/maouse.jpg%253Fw%253D500&w=300&h=224&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=123&vpy=55&dur=125&hovh=179&hovw=240&tx=164&ty=88&sig=117954604287720468075&page=5&tbnh=149&tbnw=209&start=67&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:67,i:309

 

 

And also click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=DXwinVHXUB4vKM:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/page/107/%3Fnewwindow%3Dtrue&docid=U7bRRpSeOawuwM&itg=1&imgurl=http://driwancybermuseum.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/mingcrocodiledynosaurus1.jpg%253Fw%253D500&w=300&h=224&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=344&vpy=2&dur=250&hovh=179&hovw=240&tx=161&ty=119&sig=117954604287720468075&page=5&tbnh=149&tbnw=209&start=67&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:67,i:312

 

 

And click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=XMj_zavzTVdEoM:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/page/107/%3Fref%3Dspelling&docid=_v_EdT3TemN8OM&itg=1&imgurl=http://driwancybermuseum.files.wordpress.com/2010/10/pa0201231.jpg%253Fw%253D300%2526h%253D225&w=300&h=224&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=517&vpy=54&dur=890&hovh=179&hovw=240&tx=126&ty=139&sig=117954604287720468075&page=6&tbnh=157&tbnw=227&start=83&ndsp=16&ved=1t:429,r:13,s:83,i:383

 

 

 And more click

 

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=anamese+vietnam+ceramic+collections+by+Driwan&start=284&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=kYSNGXXGQcApmM:&imgrefurl=http://uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/29/&docid=m9c_mrPt4eb3RM&imgurl=http://uniquecollection.files.wordpress.com/2010/03/p3170047.jpg%253Fw%253D225%2526h%253D300&w=224&h=300&ei=kEJxUJrsAcHWrQfu7oDYBQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=374&vpy=201&dur=124&hovh=240&hovw=179&tx=85&ty=192&sig=117954604287720468075&page=19&tbnh=168&tbnw=122&ndsp=20&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:284,i:53

 

 And still want more click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=German+meissen+ceramic+collections+by+Driwan&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=9F8Vl_9_eJdnIM:&imgrefurl=http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/category/rare-chinese-ceramic/&docid=dgaL5Fe9IvOJrM&imgurl=http://driwancybermuseum.files.wordpress.com/2010/11/pc040162.jpg%253Fw%253D300%2526h%253D225&w=300&h=224&ei=NUNxUJyWE4PtrQfJt4GwBw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=1012&vpy=261&dur=2231&hovh=179&hovw=240&tx=89&ty=113&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=152&tbnw=202&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:11,s:0,i:106

 

 

 

 

 

 

From Artifact creation

 

Look click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+ming+dynasty+CERAMIC&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=tZT-y2XOly-4vM:&imgrefurl=http://www.etsy.com/listing/106135543/pottery-shard-earrings-in-blue-and-white&docid=S4tQ6ihCHOcuxM&imgurl=http://img0.etsystatic.com/007/0/6693859/il_fullxfull.363031084_94og.jpg&w=1500&h=1171&ei=F6hwULWhIsuIrAfG3oCICg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=303&vpy=242&dur=9157&hovh=198&hovw=254&tx=87&ty=147&sig=117954604287720468075&page=2&tbnh=171&tbnw=217&start=27&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:27,i:161

 

 

These unique earrings are inspired by ming dynasty pottery shards found on an archaeological dig. They are completely one-of-a-kind and would make a great gift for your girl friend or mother – or anyone interested in wearable history or archaeology!

An added bonus of these earrings is that they are lightweight and could easily go with a wide range of outfits and styles. This is because the earrings are casual yet feature ornately drawn designs in a deep blue that goes with many colors.

The earrings are eco-friendly since they are made from re-used porcelain and affixed to silver earring hooks. The edges of the earrings are lined in silver and are each about 1.5 inches long including the porcelain and the silver hook.

Add these earrings to your cart for a thoughtful yet cheaply priced gift!

The collectors can asked dr iwan from His Collections,pleae contact via comment what kind of design you need

 

 

Best Writing Pen Unique Company Gifts Chinese Ceramic Gel ink Pens

 

http://www.dhgate.com/best-writing-pen-unique-company-gifts-chinese/p-ff808081317fc37d0131832735bd7e1d.html

Read more click

 

http://www.dhgate.com/best-writing-pen-unique-company-gifts-chinese/p-ff808081317fc37d0131832735bd7e1d.html

 

5)Qing Dinasty

Look click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+qing+dynasty+CERAMIC&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=8pYg4taIwQfE-M:&imgrefurl=http://www.ebay.com/itm/Antique-19thC-Chinese-Blue-White-Porcelain-Ink-Well-/120641946584&docid=ydznwUilAndlzM&imgurl=http://ancientgifts.biz/images2/50,000-69,999/59700/59746b.jpg&w=288&h=235&ei=K6pwUMy_L4aNrge1-4H4BA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=493&vpy=196&dur=10654&hovh=188&hovw=230&tx=86&ty=84&sig=117954604287720468075&page=2&tbnh=163&tbnw=200&start=24&ndsp=19&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:24,i:177

 

 

 

Antique 19thC Chinese Blue + White Porcelain Ink Well

B,Thailand

1)Sukotai Period

 

Sukhothai – Si satchanalia / Sawhankalok l…

£100

Si Satchinalia lidded box from the early Kingdom of Sukhothai which would have formed part of modern day Thailand. This is an interestingly decorat

 

 

Look click

 

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=EARLY+BLUE+AND+WHITE+ayutthaya+Period+CERAMIC&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=hr49ggu7FHKl9M:&imgrefurl=http://ahis335.blogspot.com/2009_10_01_archive.html&docid=O55qXpGk6MsprM&imgurl=http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_yk9ZP5m7bPo/StytbHugk_I/AAAAAAAAARc/TRvNdiz6APA/s320/ThaiFreerIronBox.jpg&w=320&h=246&ei=7KtwUOCPFYrKrAeS2IDACQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=807&vpy=245&dur=3931&hovh=196&hovw=256&tx=93&ty=140&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=152&tbnw=169&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:10,s:0,i:104

2)Ayutthya Period

 

 

C,Early Anamese  Ceramic(Vietnam)

 

 early anamese tran dynasty W.Blue ceramic

 

 

Look click

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Happy+new+year+show+from+Vietnam+war+site,+early+anamese+tran+dynasty+W.Blue+ceramic&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=S0WvYj9hc7Op9M:&imgrefurl=http://uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/51/&docid=ebd_VlkT9sioOM&imgurl=http://uniquecollection.files.wordpress.com/2010/01/p6203014.jpg&w=2048&h=1536&ei=_zpxUIOvCcforQe3iIH4CA&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=86&vpy=136&dur=686&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=141&ty=118&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=112&tbnw=155&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:70

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D.Euro

1)Delf blue-white ceramic

 

Read more click

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/12/31/the-tiles-collections-exhibition/

 http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/12/31/the-tiles-collections-exhibition/

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2)Meissen Blue-White ceramic

 

Showcase :

The Meissen Porcelein Collections Exhibition

Frame One :

The Meissen Porcelein Found In Indonesia Exhibition

 

Read more click

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/12/18/the-meissen-porcelein-collections-found-in-indonesia-exhibition/

 http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2010/12/18/the-meissen-porcelein-collections-found-in-indonesia-exhibition/

The End @ Copyright 2012

Sorry this sample  were not edited and some cannot show the illustrations, the amizing colplete Cd-Rom exist, to get it you must subscriebed  to be premium member via comment

Dr Iwan E-book In Cd Rom :The Music History Collections Intro”

THE COMPLETE cD-ROM WITH FULL ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST

BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Music History collections

Intro

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-Book In CD-rom edition

Special for Senior collectors

Copyright @ 2012

Introduction

Koleksi Sejarah Plat gramophone(piring hitam) Di Indonesia Sebelum Perang Dunia kedua

(The Indonesian’s Phonograph Record   Historic collections) 

Frame One : Introduction

1. I have starting build the collections of  Gramophone plate since study in hish school at Padang city West Sumatra in 1960.

2. Until this day in 2011 I cannot found the complete informations about the Indonesian’s  gramophone plate History, that is why I have made reasech about this topic in order to give the young generations about the development of music gramophone technology in the world since found by Mr Thomas Alfa Edison and when first arrived in Indonesia during The Dutch East colionial Era.

3. I will show my collections with information from that very rare and amizing historic collections, very lucky I had found vintage book of gramophone and also many info fram google explorations,especially from wikipedia ,for that info thanks very much.

4. This exhibtion will divide into two parts, first before World War I and second Between WWI and WWII. all during Indonesia under Dutch east Indie Colonial time.

5.The earliest Gramophone’s Plate in 19Th Century produced by Addison inc with very thick plate almost 4 times then now circa 1 cm,then became half centimer and latest 0,2 cm more thin,please look the comperative picture below:

First the mechanic gramophone look the promotion picture of His Mater Voice company below:

and later electric gramophone, still used gramophone needle look the needle promotion label below :

6.In Indonesia during Colonial time , the gramophone’s plate sold by the chinese marchant ,many at Pasar Baru Market Batavia (Jakarta) please look the trader mark below :

7.I hope all the  collectors all over the world ,especially Indonesian Collectors plaes honor my copyright with donnot copy or tag this exhibitons without my permisssion,thanks.

Jakarta January 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy @ copyright 2011

 

The  Music Record History Collection E-Book In CD –Rom  is a project of Dr Iwan Cubermuseum .Wordpress.Com Web Blog  for Audio Visual Conservation.

 The goal of the Jukebox is to present to the widest audience possible early commercial sound recordings, offering a broad range of historical and cultural documents as a contribution to education and lifelong learning.

These selections are presented as part of the record of the past. They are historical documents which reflect the attitudes, perspectives, and beliefs of different times. Dr Iwan E-book In CD-ROM  does not endorse the views expressed in these recordings, which may contain content offensive to users

This Project dedicated to My son Albert suwandy Djohan Oetama because one of his hobbies were music record beside  the art of photography, I hope this informations will need for him to conservated my old music record collections in the future.

I hope one day when I am still alive this collections can chow in Indonesian television or may be there are the sponsorship for marketing promotion of the music record incoperations in Indonesia,

The old music record can be used for the listener in a special Old Music Café at Jakarta in the future

Dr Iwan Collections

A. Before World War One

I.Before 1920

I.Early 20th century

Edison Diamond Disc Phonograph  record

 

1Betsy Lane Shapherd

Song Calm As The Night By Carl Bohm ,Edison record 5075

Singer Soprano solo Betsy Lane Shepherd

 

Read more about Carl Bohm

 

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Song+Calm+As+The+Night+By+Carl+Bohm&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=6_owo5zsrzLphM:&imgrefurl=http://www.allmusic.com/album/karl-b%25C3%25B6hm-conducts-mozart-and-strauss-box-set-mw0001841583&docid=wH5dr6PALhkRCM&imgurl=http://cps-static.rovicorp.com/3/JPG_250/MI0001/108/MI0001108979.jpg%253Fpartner%253Dallrovi.com&w=249&h=250&ei=TFZvUK-3EsnRrQeCnYGAAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=176&vpy=241&dur=4071&hovh=200&hovw=199&tx=103&ty=159&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=111&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:21,s:0,i:135

Carl Bohm

James Russell Lowell, probably the most philosophical of American poets, not even excepting Emerson and Whitman, says in Rousseau and the Sentimentalists: “Talent is that which is in a man’s power; genius is that in whose power a man is.” Genius is peculiar and the limitations it imposes upon the composer are distinct and easily defined. Richard Wagner was as great a genius as the world has ever known, but it would doubtless have been impossible for him to have written a piece in the type in which the subject of our sketch, Carl Bohm (sometimes spelled Karl Bohm), has written. The music of Wagner has its place and the music of Bohm likewise has its scope and influence. A glance at the catalog of any publishing house will show the remarkable fecundity of this man. Many of his melodies arc so near the folk-song in type that they have necessarily become extremely popular. Other of his works, such as the ever-demanded Calm as the Night, shows a finish and musicianship together with originality which indicate that his position will be permanent. The great popularity .of his innumerable piano pieces may in a sense be the result of his long training under that admirable pedagog Losechhorn, who introduced Bohm to those idioms of the keyboard he knew so well.

 

 Bohm’s music supplies a kind of material which is invaluable in teaching pupils who demand melodies. Unfortunately there is a class of teachers which does not appreciate the necessity for tunes which may be easily assimilated by those students whose musical tastes are not manifest, or those whose talent flickers in the glare of the strong light from the immortal masters. Bohm was born in Berlin in 1844, and has remained there most of his life. His most successful piano pieces in the past have been The Silver Stars, La Vi-vandiere and La Zingara, The Fountain, Murmuring Spring, Frolics of the Butterflies, Pollacca Brilliante, Salon Mazurka. Of us 259, No. 2; Throwing Kisses. In presenting Carl Bohm’s latest piece in this issue we believe that we are rendering the student and teacher readers of THE ETUDE a real service.

 

“Mignon” Nocturne is a drawing-room piece of the very best type, showing the experienced hand of the master throughout. It must be played in a graceful, elegant manner, with strict attention to rhythmic values and accents and due observance of all the various nuances. The manner of expression is like that of a refined song.

 

Karl Böhm interview

By Alan Blyth

To mark 30 years since his death, we revisit a classic interview from 1972 – with listening suggestions

 

Conductor Karl Böhm, remembered 30 years on (photo: Tully Potter Collection)

This week marked the 30th anniversary of the death of Karl Böhm. We looked through the Gramophone archive and found this interview with the legendary Austrian conductor from 1972 when the music critic Alan Blyth sought out Böhm in Salzburg. The result was a stunning insight into one of classical music’s finest minds as Böhm looked back on his career, reminiscing on his friendship with Richard Strauss, his studies under Bruno Walter and performing Wozzeck in the presence of the composer.

WHEN I was in Salzburg for the festival during the summer, I took the opportunity of searching out Karl Böhm, more cherished in his own land than perhaps he is in ours. He was kind enough to give me some of his time in spite of the fact that, at the age of almost 78, he was conducting no less than 12 opera performances at Salzburg, plus concerts there and more opera at Munich.

The very morning we met he was due to rehearse Theo Adam who was sharing the role of Wozzeck with Walter Berry after Geraint Evans had to withdraw following an accident filming in Wales. The performance of the Berg opera was that night and it turned out to be a thrilling one, Böhm’s activity in the pit belying his somewhat frail appearance away from it.

He has for some years stayed during the festival at a charming little cottage behind one of the less well-known hotels, where for the most part he enjoys absolute peace. Unfortunately this year some building work was taking place nearby and, as we sat in the garden, Böhm did not hesitate to inveigh against how long it all seemed to be taking. The evidence is certainly there on the tape of our conversation, but luckily it did not blot out what Böhm said to me in his good English (which he constantly declared was inadequate), spoken—as is his German—with an attractive Viennese accent. In fact his home town is not Vienna but Graz, where he first studied at the Conservatory. It was at Graz too that he got his first job—as a repetiteur and assistant conductor. “Karl Muck by chance heard me direct Lohengrin there, and he invited me to study all Wagner’s scores with him. He was the first and greatest influence on me. Then in 1920, I conducted a new production of Fidelio—the first time I had done the work—and it was a success. I had the chance of becoming the musical director there the following year, but just at the same time I received a telegram from Bruno Walter inviting me to conduct Freischütz and Butterfly in Munich. He said that there was an opening for a fourth conductor there and advised me to take that post, rather than the one in Graz, as it would give me a better chance to learn the repertory. I accepted, and stayed six years in Munich. For the first year I worked with Walter. Then in 1922 Knappertsbusch became musical director of the Munich company. From both I learned all I needed to know. Walter really taught me my Mozart. You see my father had been a Wagnerian, out and out, so until I got to know Walter, I had not regarded Mozart as highly as I should have done. My first Mozart opera at Munich was Entführung at the Festival in 1921—with a marvellous cast: Maria Ivögun, Tauber and Paul Bender. I’d love to have that cast today for my new recording of the work. Two years later I did my first Tristan at the theatre.

“In 1927 I went to Darmstadt. Ebert was administrator during my time there – and Rudolf Bing was his assistant. That’s a bit of operatic history for you. About this time I conducted my first Wozzeck in the presence of the composer, who wrote a dedication in my score. You can’t imagine how difficult the work then was for everyone. I recall that my first rehearsals were just with the wind and percussion, the strings coming in only later. In all, we had 40 orchestral rehearsals for the production. Even today the work is still rhythmically very difficult to manage. Each musician must know what his colleagues are playing because it is impossible to give everyone a lead.

“Then in 1931 I went to Hamburg where I was to be musical director for four years, followed by nine years in Dresden. I met Strauss for the first time when I was in Hamburg, where we did a new production of Elektra. After that we were close friends for the rest of his life. Of course he was a musical genius as a composer, but he was also a very good conductor— and taught me a great deal. I remember once after he had rehearsed the first scene of Elektra, he said to the orchestra,’Play it very softly, it’s too loud composed’. He always told me that one must conduct only with one hand; the other should be in one’s pocket. But I recall one occasion when he was doing Die Frau ohne Schatten at Dresden, he followed his own advice for most of the evening until he got to the final quartet. There, in the fortissimo C major he brought out his other hand and got really excited. After the performance he asked me, ‘Böhmel’—he always called me that—’how was it?’. I said that it was fine except that you used your left hand. Three days later I was sitting in my box when he conducted the same work again. When he reached that passage, he used only his right hand—and with the other, waved to me”.

Having had so many excellent ensembles where he conducted before and after the war, did he miss that aspect of performances today? “Well, we can still achieve the same thing—but only at festivals. Here, for Così this time, I have had four weeks rehearsal with my wonderful cast. In the normal opera-house routine today, I know it’s impossible. A singer flies in the morning before a performance. He doesn’t want to rehearse—he wants to rest for the following night”.

Böhm very much likes recording live performances, but he says that it does depend on circumstances. For Tristan, one of his favourite sets, he told me that they did one act at a time with an audience present. “If Windgassen had had to do all three acts at once, he would naturally have had to reserve himself a little in Act I; for Nilsson, of course, it makes no difference. She could sing the whole work every day without tiring herself. In the studio, you can of course correct everything, but you sometimes lose the line of a performance, or at least it’s very hard to retain it”.

He was greatly looking forward to recording Entführung, in which Arleen Auger will be Constanze, Peter Schreier, Belmonte, and Kurt Moll, Osmin. He would also like to make Idomeneo. Next summer he will conduct a new production of the opera at the Salzburg Festival. “In the past I’ve used the Baumgartner edition but next summer I will go back to the original. Of course, it’s impossible to say exactly what that is. In Munich he cut this, in Vienna he cut that. There are difficult decisions to make”.

In Così at Salzburg this summer Böhm cut two arias—”Tradito, schernito” and “E amore un ladroncello”-that are included in his recording of the work for EMI. Why was that? “On stage, they make the work too long. I spoke many times with Strauss about this, and with his and my experience of numerous performances, I’m sure these cuts are right, and made with devotion to Mozart”.

Next summer Böhm will—at last—conduct a British orchestra again, not in this country but also at Salzburg when the LSO appears there for the first time. “I would love to conduct at Covent Garden again. I have happy memories of being there in 1947 with the Vienna State Opera. I remember the excellent acoustics”.

When considering orchestras and their characteristics, he feels that he is spoilt by his close connection (over forty years) with the Vienna Philharmonic and the Berlin Philharmonic. “For records, I must use these orchestras because I know them so well, I have to have a close contact with the players before I start, and that’s difficult with an orchestra I don’t know”.

For Wagner, Böhm thought that he had learnt most from Karl Muck. “He had the tradition from Cosima who presumably knew Richard’s own ideas. Muck told me where the orchestra should be more prominent, how to handle the Bayreuth acoustics, and so on. My own view of Wagner is to avoid sentimentality and bombast as far as possible. When I first did the Ring at Bayreuth, with Wieland in his last production, the critics said my Rheingold and Walküre were so transparent. I replied that in the old days I conducted Wagner before I knew Mozart and Bach; now I conduct his works, that is Wagner’s, purified by the other composers. That’s my opinion”.

Where Mozart himself is concerned, he believes that his understanding comes merely through love. “And I hope that is transferred from me to the orchestra and from them to the audience. Strauss used to say that in every piece there are one or two bars that tell you the right tempo. My example for this is the quintet in the second act of Zauberflöte. You see there alla breve and Allegro, so you’re tempted to begin too quickly, because when the Three Ladies get to the phrase ‘Man zischelt viel sich in die Ohren’ they won’t be able to fit it in, so the speed of that phrase must govern that for the whole piece. Strauss also said that Mozart was the inventor of unending melody—and took for his example Cherubino’s ‘Voi che sapete’. The melody begins with the first bar and ends with last”.

For conducting Strauss, Böhm went back to that dictum of the composer himself. “Not too loud”. He added; “I conducted the premieres of Schweigsame Frau and Daphne. Strauss was always present during rehearsals and he repeatedly said, ‘too loud, Böhmel’. In the former opera, he once said he couldn’t hear the words, so he took the score back to his hotel and reduced the clarinets and bassoons from four to two, with red ink”. Then the thought ran through Böhm’s mind that the work had never been recorded, and he made a mental note to put right that neglect.

Although known as a specialist in the German repertory, Böhm loves conducting Italian opera. Two years ago he directed a new production of Macbeth in Vienna, and last year Otello at the Met of which we have the love duet on the Bing Farewell disc (DGG 2530 260, 10/72). “I did all the repertory pieces in the old days and I also remember a wonderful Otello with Max Lorenz—he’s here in Salzburg, you know, this summer. I think I’ve done about 160 operas in my life”.

With that, Böhm had to leave to rehearse Wozzeck, one of the 160 that will surely long remain in the memory of those who have heard him conduct it.

 

Karl Bohm other record

 

Though none of these are among Karl Böhm‘s greatest performances of orchestral works by Richard Strauss, they are still superlative performances that easily out-distance most later recordings, despite their antique sound. Recorded in 1952 and 1954, the sound is quite fine for its time, with enough detail and plenty of presence. The performances themselves are all magnificent. Conducting the RIAS-Symphonie-Orchester, Böhm leads a bold and dashing Don Juan with a death scene of astonishing impact, a massive and mighty Eine Alpensinfonie with an Epilogue of tremendous beauty, and a Suite of Waltzes from Act III of Der Rosenkavalier of wonderful suppleness and sensuality. Böhm‘s 1957 recordings of Don Juan and Eine Alpensinfonie with the Staatskapelle Dresden are more fully realized and certainly better sounding than these, but this disc should interest any true believer in either Böhm or Strauss.

 

 

 

Hear the song

click

http://wn.com/Calm_is_the_Night

 

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Song+Calm+As+The+Night+By+Carl+Bohm&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=ZJbvxxwdqbU_-M:&imgrefurl=http://www.musicnotes.com/sheetmusic/mtd.asp%3Fppn%3DMN0040802&docid=65mMVz_K-6aioM&imgurl=http://www.musicnotes.com/images/productimages/mtd/MN0040802.gif&w=300&h=400&ei=TFZvUK-3EsnRrQeCnYGAAg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=324&vpy=102&dur=1918&hovh=259&hovw=194&tx=87&ty=154&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=108&tbnw=81&start=0&ndsp=29&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:76

 

Calm As the Night digital sheet music. Contains printable sheet music plus an interactive, downloadable digital sheet music file.

   

Title:

Calm As the Night

Composed by:

Carl Bohm

   

Instruments:

Alto Saxophone, range: F#4-C6

 

Piano

   

Scorings:

Solo & Accompaniment

 

Score

   

Original Published Key:

G Major

   

 

Singer Soprano solo Betsy Lane Shepher

http://images.google.com/imgres?q=Singer+Soprano+solo+Betsy+Lane+Shepherd&hl=en&biw=1360&bih=559&tbm=isch&tbnid=MxhMcWd8Lqc3sM:&imgrefurl=http://randyspeck.blogspot.com/2012_07_01_archive.html&docid=CvrCC8YszEPDnM&itg=1&imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-DomGwu0i7z8/UBN7iVc2bXI/AAAAAAAAB94/5cblOAdOJ8A/s1600/betsylaneshepherd.png&w=329&h=279&ei=IVxvUPuMCcLrrQfE7YCIBg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=78&vpy=126&dur=5102&hovh=207&hovw=244&tx=153&ty=129&sig=117954604287720468075&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=124&start=0&ndsp=31&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:70

http://www.ebay.com/itm/1920-New-Edison-Phonograph-Soul-Soprano-Betsy-Lane-Shepherd-2-page-Ad-/300609904411?pt=LH_DefaultDomain_0&hash=item45fdbf1f1b

1920 New Edison Phonograph with a Soul Soprano Betsy Lane Shepherd 2

page Ad

1b.Bariton singer Thomas Chalmers

1b.Thomas Chalmers

Recording by Edison record no 480

Singer Bariton Italian Thomas Chalmers

Thomas Chalmers (Baritone) (New York City 1884 – Greenwich, Connecticut 1966) 

Thomas Chalmers was born on October 20, 1884 in New York City, the son of Thomas Hardie and Sophia Amanda (De Bann) Chalmers.
 
In 1909,
he went to Florence to study singing with Vincenzo Lombardi and made his operatic debut in May 1911 in Fossombrone as Marcello in La bohème. His first appearance in the United States was as Jack Rance in The Girl of the Golden West with Henry Wilson Savage’s English Grand Opera Company.
 
Chalmers toured the United States with the company from 1911 to 12. He then sang as the leading baritone with the Boston National Opera Company and the Century Opera Company before making his Metropolitan Opera debut on November 17, 1917 as Valentin in Faust. He went on to appear regularly at the Met until 1922 and sang in the world premiere of Shanewis, the US premiere of Mârouf, and the first Met performances of La forza del destino and Crispino e la Comare. His recordings were all made for Edison and covered a wide range of repertoire from folk songs to opera; he recorded both on cylinder and the Edison Disc Record formats.
 
Following a throat operation, Chalmers withdrew from opera and became a stage and film actor.
 
His many stage roles included several Broadway premieres such as Landolfo in Pirandello’s The Living Mask (Henry IV), 1924; Doctor Schindler in Schnitzler’s The Call of Life (Der Ruf des Lebens), 1925; Captain Adam Brant in O’Neill’s Mourning Becomes Electra, 1931; Ben Loman in Miller’s Death of a Salesman, 1949; and Richard Bravo in Maxwell Anderson’s The Bad Seed, 1954.
 
One of Chalmers’s earliest film roles was The Minister in the 1923 silent film Puritan Passions, based on Percy MacKaye’s play The Scarecrow, which was in turn based on Feathertop, by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
 
His last film role was The Judge in Martin Ritt’s The Outrage, released in 1964.
 
Chalmers also produced and directed several short comedy films written by Robert Benchley, including The Sex Life of the Polyp and The Treasurer’s Report, both released in 1928.[5] His voice can be heard as the narrator in two documentary films by Pare Lorentz,
 
The Plow That Broke the Plains (1936) and The River (1938), both with scores by Virgil Thomson.
 
In the 1950s and 60s,
Chalmers appeared on television as an actor in several drama anthology series including Westinghouse Studio One, CBS Television Workshop, Kraft Television Theatre, The DuPont Show of the Month and Play of the Week.
 
He also appeared in single episodes of The Further Adventures of Ellery Queen, The Defenders, Mister Peepers, and several other weekly series.
 
Chalmers’ wife, Vilma Fiorelli, was originally from Florence. They were married in London on June 24, 1913. One of the couple’s daughters, Vilma Flora Chalmers, married the banker Alfred Hayes in 1937.
 
Thomas Hardie Chalmers died on June 11, 1966
 
at the Laurelton Nursing Home in Greenwich, Connecticut. He was survived by his wife and his daughter, Vilma Hayes. 
 

Dio Possente Faust (cit Gounod)

Charles Gounod Composer

 

Other Dio Possente Faust recording

Read more about Dio Possente Faust

·         Recording Title

Dio possente

·         Other Title(s)

    • Even the bravest heart (Parallel (translated) title)
    • Faust. Avant de quitter ces lieux (Uniform title)
    • Faust (Work title)

·         Composer

Charles Gounod

·         Baritone vocal

Antonio Scotti

·         Genre(s)

Opera

·         Category

Vocal

·         Description

Baritone vocal solo, with orchestra

·         Language

Italian

·         Label Name/Number

Victor 6284

·         Matrix Number/Take Number

C-8280/1

·         Recording Date

1909-10-05

·         Place of Recording

Camden, New Jersey

·         Size

12″

·         Duration

03:32

other record

Madama Butterfly: Ve loi dissi…Addio fiorito asil with Guido Ciccolini Edison 83038  5245-C
Madama butterfly: Amore o grillo with Guido Ciccolini 83038 5245-C
Tannhauser: O tu bell’astro Edison 9982
Pescatori di perle: Del tempio al limitar with Guido Ciccolini 82203 5332-A
Pagliacci: Si puo? Edison 357
 
Lucia di Lammermoor: Chi mi frena with Enrico Baroni, Giovanni Zenatello, Margaret Matzenauer, Arthur Middleton and Marie Rappold 82266-L 5224-A
Carmen: Votre toast Edison BA 82060 2997 

Read more about

Charles Gounod Composer

Charles-François Gounod (French pronunciation: [ʃaʁl fʁɑ̃swa ɡuno]; 17 June 1818 – 17 October[1][2] or 18 October[3][4] 1893) was a French composer, known for his Ave Maria (based on a work by Bach) as well as his operas Faust and Roméo et Juliette

Biography

Charles Gounod in 1859, the year of the premiere of Faust

Gounod was born in Paris, the son of a pianist mother and an artist father. His mother was his first piano teacher. Under her tutelage, Gounod first showed his musical talents. He entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he studied under Fromental Halévy and Pierre Zimmermann (he later married Zimmermann’s daughter). In 1839, he won the Prix de Rome for his cantata Fernand. He was following his father; François-Louis Gounod (d. 1823) had won the second Prix de Rome in painting in 1783.[4] During his stay of four years in Italy, Gounod studied the music of Palestrina and other sacred works of the sixteenth century; these he never ceased to cherish. Around 1846-47 he gave serious consideration to joining the priesthood, but he changed his mind before actually taking holy orders, and went back to composition.[5] During that period, he was attached to the Church of Foreign Missions in Paris.

In 1854,

Gounod completed a Messe Solennelle, also known as the Saint Cecilia Mass. This work was first performed in its entirety in the church of St Eustache in Paris on Saint Cecilia’s Day, 22 November 1855; from this rendition dates Gounod’s fame as a noteworthy composer.

Gounod late in his career.

During 1855

Gounod wrote two symphonies. His Symphony No. 1 in D major was the inspiration for the Symphony in C, composed later that year by Georges Bizet, who was then Gounod’s 17-year-old student. In the CD era a few recordings of these pieces have emerged: by Michel Plasson conducting the Orchestre national du Capitole de Toulouse, and by Sir Neville Marriner with the Academy of St Martin in the Fields. Fanny Mendelssohn, sister of Felix Mendelssohn, introduced the keyboard music of Johann Sebastian Bach to Gounod, who came to revere Bach. For him, The Well-Tempered Clavier was “the law to pianoforte study…the unquestioned textbook of musical composition”. It inspired Gounod to devise an improvisation of a melody over the C major Prelude (BWV 846) from the collection’s first book. To this melody, in 1859 (after the deaths of both Mendelssohn siblings), Gounod fitted the words of the Ave Maria, resulting in a setting that became world-famous.[6]

Gounod wrote his first opera, Sapho, in 1851,

at the urging of a friend of his, the singer Pauline Viardot; it was a commercial failure. He had no great theatrical success until Faust (1859), derived from Goethe.

This remains the composition for which he is best known; and although it took some time to achieve popularity, it became one of the most frequently staged operas of all time, with no fewer than 2,000 performances of the work having taken place by 1975 at the Paris Opéra alone, not counting other theatres.[7] The romantic and melodious Roméo et Juliette (based on the Shakespeare play Romeo and Juliet), premiered in 1867, is revived now and then but has never come close to matching Faust’s popular following. Mireille, first performed in 1864, has been admired by connoisseurs rather than by the general public. The other Gounod operas have fallen into oblivion.

Caricature from Punch, 1882

From 1870 to 1874

Gounod lived in England. In 17 Morden Road, Blackheath. A blue plaque has been put up on the house to show where he lived.[8]

He became the first conductor of what is now the Royal Choral Society. Much of his music from this time is vocal. He became entangled with the amateur English singer Georgina Weldon,[9]

a relationship (platonic, it seems) which ended in great acrimony and embittered litigation.[10] Gounod had lodged with Weldon and her husband in London’s Tavistock House.

Later in his life,

Gounod returned to his early religious impulses, writing much sacred music. His Pontifical Anthem (Marche Pontificale, 1869)

eventually (1949)

became the official national anthem of Vatican City. He expressed a desire to compose his Messe à la mémoire de Jeanne d’Arc (1887) while kneeling on the stone on which Joan of Arc knelt at the coronation of Charles VII of France.[4]

A devout Catholic, he had on his piano a music-rack in which was carved an image of the face of Jesus.

He was made a Grand Officer of the Légion d’honneur

in July 1888.[4] In 1893,

shortly after he had put the finishing touches to a requiem written for his grandson, he died of a stroke in Saint-Cloud, France.

One of Gounod’s short pieces for piano, “Funeral March of a Marionette”, received a new and unexpected lease of life

from 1955

when it was first used as the theme for the television series Alfred Hitchcock Presents.

The March was one of the eight records that Alfred Hitchcock selected to take to his desert island when he appeared on the BBC radio program Desert Island Disks in 1959.[11] T

he March had earlier been used to produce equally suspenseful moments in F. W. Murnau‘s American silent film, Sunrise: A Song of Two Humans (1927) and Harold Lloyd’s first sound film, Welcome Danger (1929).[12]

Gounod’s secular piano-accompanied songs were numerous and much praised by Ravel, but are seldom heard in recitals today.

2.Final Trio(Consuelo Escobar de Castro

,Albert Lindquist and Virgilio Lazzari)

Albert Lindquest

3.Collins and Harlan

 

There was a time when, in American households, the expression “sung by Collins & Harlan” was instantly recognized, like an advertising jingle of the future such as “like a rock.” In the case of the popular vocal duo of the early 19th century, the comparison with a truck commercial serves a more literal purpose than simply pointing out how fleeting popular taste is or how quickly both stars and headlights can dim. Baritone Arthur Collins and tenor Byron Harlan were actually such large men that they were sometimes introduced as “the Half Ton Duo.” Collins was such a heavy piece of human machinery that when he accidentally stepped on a trap door backstage in 1921, the contraption gave way and the singer didn’t stop falling until he hit the basement. It took him two years to recover, but either member of the duo could be said to have earned a lengthy hiatus, not to take the accident lightly.

Collins is said to be the vocalist who made more recordings than any other artist of this period, some 200 sides for the Edison label alone. Partner Harlan sprinted just a bit behind on the discographical racetrack, cutting 130 slabs as a soloist, not to mention the duo’s prolific output of more than 100 Edison releases. With so much material pressed by these artists between 1902 and the late ’20s, it is not surprising that copies are still being found as well as bought and sold, although sellers sometimes feel a necessity to report on the relative presence of mold. In terms of content, some listeners may find some of the duo’s actual songs even more repulsive than any residue found on the record itself. Too often, the presence of a wide range of subject matter, from hating one’s wife (“My Wife Has Gone to the Country! Hurrah! Hurrah!”) to loving (“Alexander’s Ragtime Band”), is overlooked because of scandalous titles such as “Nigger Loves His Possum.” Both performers came up in the minstrel era, effectively inventing the concept of pop music once someone figured out how to make and sell recordings. Standing on the edge of some kind of controversial subject, be it minstrel themes or gangsta rap, seems to be part of the territory. Collins & Harlan can be said to be common currency in only one type of household in the 21st century, that being one that produces or distributes historic archival recordings. The duo is well-represented on such reissues, good news for any interested listeners with allergies to mold.

II.20th Century

1a.Peter Dawson

Peter Dawson (bass-baritone)

Peter Dawson
Background information
Birth name Peter Smith Dawson
Also known as J.P. McCall, Will Strong, Will Danby, Hector Grant, Arthur Walpole, Robert Woodville, Evelyn Byrd, Peter Allison, Denton Toms, Charles Weber, Arnold Flint, Gilbert Mundy, Geoffrey Baxter, Alison Miller
Born 31 January 1882(1882-01-31) Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
Died 27 September 1961(1961-09-27) (aged 79)
Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
Genres Opera, oratorio, song
Occupations bass-baritone singer, songwriter
Years active 1899–1950s

Peter Smith Dawson (31 January 1882 – 27 September 1961) was an Australian bass-baritone and songwriter.[1] Dawson gained worldwide renown through song recitals and many best-selling recordings of operatic arias, oratorio solos and rousing ballads during a career spanning almost 60 years.

 

B, Edison Record  Auctions

5 Edison Diamond Disc Phonograph Records

 

Sold Date: 07/24/2007

Channel: Online Auction

Source: eBay

Category: Tools

Thank you for stopping. Today up for auction we have a five piece set of Edison original Diamond Disc Phonograph Records. These discs are wonderfully made, and seem to be in great condition with little to no scratching. Each one features a song on each side.

 

 Disc one features No. 80431-R (5449)

 Saved by Grace by Geo Stebbins and the Metropolitan Quartet, and No. 80431-L (5487) Blest Be the Tie That Binds, Geo Stebbins and the Metropolitan Quartet.

 

The second record features (4843)

 Home Sweet Home, Payne Bishop, Betsy Lane Shephard, and

(5075)

Calm as the Night, by Carl Bohm, performed by Betsy Lane Shephard.

(same with dr Iwan collections above)

 

The third disc contains No. 80315-R (4588)

 Annie Laurie by Lady John Scott, performed by Christine Miller, No. 80315-L (4477) Then You’ll Remember Me, The Bohemian Girl (Balfe), performed by James Harrod.

The fourth disc features No. 50584-R(6878)

 Breeze (Blow my baby back to me), Macdonald-Goodwin-Hanley, performed by the Premier Quartet, and 50584-L (6831) Ragging the Chopsticks by Frankl-Gottler performed by Arther Fields.

The fifth record features No. 50169-R (3035)

 America by the New York Military Band, and 50169-L (3069) (a) Hail Columbia (b) The Star Spangled Banner also performed by the New York Military Band.

All of these discs measure approx. 10” wide and 1/4” thick

Other collections of Auction

Item 330588085156 is no longer available.
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Dr Iwan Record label collections

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2011/01/21/the-earliest-album-record-production-historic-collections-exhibition/

Dr Iwan collections’s

 

The Earliest Chinese

Play Record Collections

The Vintage  China Music record found in Indonesia

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/category/chineses-overseas-collections-exhibition/

Read More

http://uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/5/

Driwan Masterpiece vintage International Music Record CollectionsI.ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACT OF MOTION PICTURE

.ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACT OF MOTION PICTURE

II. ELTON JOHN WHITE LABEL RECORD



III.DIANA ROSS WHITE LABEL RECORD

IV.THE GUITARIST MAESTRO LES PAUL RECORD

V. THE MICHAEL JACKSON WHITE LABEL RECORD : BAD

VI THE HOMOKORD RECORD LABEL

VII. THE MIDDLE OF THE ROAD WHITE LABEL RECORD

VIII. THE VINTAGE CHINESE OPERA MUSIC RECORD (COVER)

ix.THE WINSTON CHURCHILL AND MARTIN LUTHER KING JR SOUND RECORD


X.SANTANA WHITE LABEL RECORD

XI LED ZEPELLIN II WHITE LABEL RECORD

XI. PRINCE AKIHITO(NOW EMPEROR) AND PRINCE MICHIKO(NOE MEPRESS) WEDDING MUSIC COLUMBIA RECORD

XII.MISS RIBOET ODEON DARDANELLA ,JASIDI SONG, BEKA RECORD

XIII. BARRY MANILOW WHITE LABEL RECORD

ps. I hope the collectors who have this masterpiece collections to show us his collections with info and suggestion via comment,THIS INFO FOR RESEACRH HOW MUCH THIS RARE RECORD STILL EXIST NOW, THANKS VERYMUCH FOR YOUR INFO.

FOR MORE INFO,PLEASE LOOK AT MY CYBERMUSEUM BLOG,PLEASE CLICK
hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

The sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-Rom Edition”The Best Pictures Collections”

THIS The Sample Od dr Iwan CD-ROM, the complete Cd Exist

But Only For Premium Membe

Please subscribed via Comment

PLease Look the amizing Art Photography collections

Koleksi Art Photography Dari Museum Dunia Maya Dr Iwan

Driwancybermusueum

Untuk melihat koleksi yang lengkap  Silahkan klik

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/10/04/the-sample-of-dr-iwan-e-book-in-cd-rom-editionthe-beast-pictures-collections/

 

Sun set on Israel-Gaza border, by Yannis Behrakis)

 

The sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-Rom Edition:The Best Pictures Collections”

THIS IS THE SAMPLE oF dR iWAN cd-rom,THE COMPLETE EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

pLEASES SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Best picture Collections

Part  one

 Outermost Coffin of Tutankhamun, 1926, by Harry BurtonOutermost Coffin of Tutankhamun, 1926, by Harry Burton

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

The Picture Of Tutankamun In 1926

By Harry Burton

Abu Simbel, Egypt, 1851-2, by Félix Teynard

Abu Simbel, Egypt, 1851-2, by Félix Teynard

The Alexander The great Mosaic  Pictures

The Sample Of Dr Iwan e-Book In CD-rom Edition”The Music History Collections”

THE COMPLETE cD-ROM WITH FULL ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST

BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

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The Music History collections

Part

Early 20th Century

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-Book In CD-rom edition

Special for Senior collectors

Copyright @ 2012

Introduction

Koleksi Sejarah Plat gramophone(piring hitam) Di Indonesia Sebelum Perang Dunia kedua

(The Indonesian’s Phonograph Record   Historic collections) 

Frame One : Introduction

1. I have starting build the collections of  Gramophone plate since study in hish school at Padang city West Sumatra in 1960.

2. Until this day in 2011 I cannot found the complete informations about the Indonesian’s  gramophone plate History, that is why I have made reasech about this topic in order to give the young generations about the development of music gramophone technology in the world since found by Mr Thomas Alfa Edison and when first arrived in Indonesia during The Dutch East colionial Era.

3. I will show my collections with information from that very rare and amizing historic collections, very lucky I had found vintage book of gramophone and also many info fram google explorations,especially from wikipedia ,for that info thanks very much.

4. This exhibtion will divide into two parts, first before World War I and second Between WWI and WWII. all during Indonesia under Dutch east Indie Colonial time.

5.The earliest Gramophone’s Plate in 19Th Century produced by Addison inc with very thick plate almost 4 times then now circa 1 cm,then became half centimer and latest 0,2 cm more thin,please look the comperative picture below:

First the mechanic gramophone look the promotion picture of His Mater Voice company below:

and later electric gramophone, still used gramophone needle look the needle promotion label below :

6.In Indonesia during Colonial time , the gramophone’s plate sold by the chinese marchant ,many at Pasar Baru Market Batavia (Jakarta) please look the trader mark below :

7.I hope all the  collectors all over the world ,especially Indonesian Collectors plaes honor my copyright with donnot copy or tag this exhibitons without my permisssion,thanks.

Jakarta January 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy @ copyright 2011

 

The  Music Record History Collection E-Book In CD –Rom  is a project of Dr Iwan Cubermuseum .Wordpress.Com Web Blog  for Audio Visual Conservation.

 The goal of the Jukebox is to present to the widest audience possible early commercial sound recordings, offering a broad range of historical and cultural documents as a contribution to education and lifelong learning.

These selections are presented as part of the record of the past. They are historical documents which reflect the attitudes, perspectives, and beliefs of different times. Dr Iwan E-book In CD-ROM  does not endorse the views expressed in these recordings, which may contain content offensive to users

This Project dedicated to My son Albert suwandy Djohan Oetama because one of his hobbies were music record beside  the art of photography, I hope this informations will need for him to conservated my old music record collections in the future.

I hope one day when I am still alive this collections can chow in Indonesian television or may be there are the sponsorship for marketing promotion of the music record incoperations in Indonesia,

The old music record can be used for the listener in a special Old Music Café at Jakarta in the future

Driwan Masterpiece vintage International Music Record CollectionsI.ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACT OF MOTION PICTURE

.ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACT OF MOTION PICTURE

II. ELTON JOHN WHITE LABEL RECORD



III.DIANA ROSS WHITE LABEL RECORD

IV.THE GUITARIST MAESTRO LES PAUL RECORD

V. THE MICHAEL JACKSON WHITE LABEL RECORD : BAD

VI THE HOMOKORD RECORD LABEL

VII. THE MIDDLE OF THE ROAD WHITE LABEL RECORD

VIII. THE VINTAGE CHINESE OPERA MUSIC RECORD (COVER)

ix.THE WINSTON CHURCHILL AND MARTIN LUTHER KING JR SOUND RECORD


X.SANTANA WHITE LABEL RECORD

XI LED ZEPELLIN II WHITE LABEL RECORD

XI. PRINCE AKIHITO(NOW EMPEROR) AND PRINCE MICHIKO(NOE MEPRESS) WEDDING MUSIC COLUMBIA RECORD

XII.MISS RIBOET ODEON DARDANELLA ,JASIDI SONG, BEKA RECORD

XIII. BARRY MANILOW WHITE LABEL RECORD

ps. I hope the collectors who have this masterpiece collections to show us his collections with info and suggestion via comment,THIS INFO FOR RESEACRH HOW MUCH THIS RARE RECORD STILL EXIST NOW, THANKS VERYMUCH FOR YOUR INFO.

FOR MORE INFO,PLEASE LOOK AT MY CYBERMUSEUM BLOG,PLEASE CLICK
hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Chronologic Music record History Collections

1900

Jan

1

  • Xavier Cugat born (Girona, Spain) Catalan-American latin and popular bandleader, violinist, cartoonist. Died 1990

3rd

  • Maurice Jaubert born (Nice) French composer, conductor. Died 1940

Untuk Meliihat Koleksi yang lengkap silahkan klik

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/10/04/the-sample-od-dr-iwan-e-book-in-cd-rom-editionthe-music-history-collections/

 

  • JAUBERT, Maurice
  • Composer. Nationality: French. Born: Nice, 3 January 1900. Education: Attended Lycée Masséna and Nice Conservatory; studied law at the Sorbonne, Paris; studied music with Albert Groz. Military Service: 1920–22; 1939—recalled into the army, and killed in action.
  •  Family: Married
·        

  • Maurice Jaubert born (Nice) French composer, conductor.

 

  • Died 1940
  • JAUBERT, Maurice
  • Composer. Nationality: French. Born: Nice, 3 January 1900. Education: Attended Lycée Masséna and Nice Conservatory; studied law at the Sorbonne, Paris;
  • studied music with Albert Groz.
  •  
  •  Military Service: 1920–22;
  •  
  •  1939—recalled into the army, and killed in action.
  •  Family: Married
·        


 

  • the singer Marthe Bréga. Career: Practiced law briefly, then music director for Pleyela Records, 1925, and music director for Pathé-Natan Studios, 1930–35; also composed music for orchestra and for stage works. Died: In Azerailles, 19 June 1940

Joueur de Guitare, Paris, 1900

6th

  • Pierre-Octave Ferroud born (Lyon) French composer, critic. Died 1936

10

  • Leos Janácek’s Cossack Dance & Serbian Kolo-round dance premiered in Brno

11

  • Wilbur de Paris born (Crawfordsville, IA) American jazz bandleader, trombonist. Brother of Sidney de Paris (1905-67). Died 1973

12

  • Jan Blockx’s opera Thyl Uilenspiegel premiered in Brussels

13

  • Yasuji Kiyose born (Usa, Japan) Japanese composer, teacher. Died 1981

14

  • Gustav Mahler’s songs Das irdische Leben & Wo die schönen Trompeten blasen premiered in Vienna
  • Giacomo Puccini’s opera Tosca premiered in Rome, lib. G. Giacosa and L. Illica

16

  • Henry Kimball Hadley makes his conducting debut in New York

19

  • Albert Brunies born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz cornettist (Halfway House Orchestra). Brother of Merritt (1895-1973) and George (1902-74) Brunies. Died 1978

20

  • Tomás Bretón’s opera Raquel premiered in Madrid

22

  • Franz Salmhofer born (Vienna) Austrian composer, conductor, clarinetist, poet, director of the of Vienna State Opera 1945-54. Died 1975
  • David E. Hughes (68) dies
  • Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari’s opera Cenerentola premiered in Venice
  • Alexander von Zemlinsky’s opera Es war einmal premiered in Vienna

26

  • Clayton McMichen born (Allatoona, GA) American country fiddler (Hometown Boys, Skillet Lickers, Georgia Wildcats). Died 1970

27

  • Ernest Chausson’s String Quartet in C minor op.35 premiered in Paris (completed by Vincent d’Indy)
  • Maurice Ravel’s Deux épigrammes de Clément Marot premiered in Paris

30

  • Isaak Dunayevsky born (Lokhvitsa, Russia) Russian film and operetta composer, conductor. Died 1955

releases

  • Vess Osman – The Old Folks At Home (Berliner)

 

Feb

2

  • Emmett Miller born (Macon, GA) American minstrel and country singer, vaudevillian, songwriter. Died 1962
  • Gustave Charpentier’s opera Louise premiered in Paris, lib. Charpentier

3

  • Ottokar Novacek (33) dies from heart failure
  • Joseph Holbrooke’s The Raven op.25 premiered in London
  • James T. Tanner, Alfred Murray, Adrian Ross, Percy Greenbank, Ivan Caryll, Lionel Monckton, & Paul Rubens’ musical The Messenger Boy opened in London (429 performances)

7

  • Aleksandr Glazunov’s ballet The Seasons premiered in St. Petersburg

9

  • Walter Page born (Gallatin, MS) American jazz bandleader, bassist (Bennie Moten, Blue Devils, Count Basie). Died 1957

12

  • Pink Anderson born (Laurens, SC) American blues singer, guitarist. Died 1974
  • Lift Every Voice and Sing by James Weldon Johnson & J Rosamond Johnson first publicly performed in Jacksonville, FL

13

  • Joseph ‘Wingy’ Manone born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz bandleader, trumpeter, singer (Arcadian Serenaders, Harmony Kings, Benny Goodman, Cellar Boys, Wingy Manone Orchestra). Died 1982
  • Hamish MacCunn’s opera The Masque of War and Peace premiered in London

15

  • Gustav Mahler’s song Selbstgefühl premiered in Vienna

17

  • Eugen d’Albert’s opera Kain premiered in Berlin

19

  • Charles Lecocq’s opera La belle au bois dormant premiered in Paris

22

  • Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari’s opera Cenerentola premiered in Venice, lib. M. Pezzè-Pascolato

23

  • Riccardo Drigo’s ballet Les Millions d’Arlequin premiered in St Petersburg

unk

  • Karl Michael Ziehrer’s march Auf In’s XX.Jahrhundert! / Into the Twentieth Century! op.501 premiered in Vienna

Original sheet music publication of Lift Every Voice and Sing by JR & JW Johnson

Mar

2

  • Kurt Weill born (Berlin) German composer, songwriter. Husband of Lotte Lenya (1898-1982). Died 1950
  • Edward Elgar’s songs After (P.B. Marston) & A Song of Flight (C. Rossetti) premiered in London

6

  • Carl Bechstein (73) dies

8

  • Joe Robichaux born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz pianist, bandleader (Oscar Celestin, Lee Collins, New Orleans Rhythm Boys). Died 1965

10

  • Peter DeRose born (New York, NY) American popular songwriter. Died 1953
  • Karl Doppler (74) dies
  • Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann (94) dies
  • Claude Debussy’s Tarantelle styrienne premiered in Paris

11

  • Charlie Hicks aka Charley Lincoln born (Lithonia, GA) American blues singer, guitarist. Brother of Barbecue Bob Hicks (1902-31). Died 1963

12

  • Jean Sibelius’ Malinconia op.20 premiered in Helsinki

15

  • Colin McPhee born (Montreal) Canadian composer, musicologist, expert in Balinese music. Died 1964
  • Jules Massenet’s oratorio La terre promise premiered in Paris

16

  • Jean Sibelius’s Sandels for male chorus and orchestra premiered in Helsinki

17

  • Alfred Newman born (New Haven, CT) American film composer, conductor, arranger. Died 1970

19

  • Charles-Louis Hanon (80) dies
  • Harry Lauder makes his London debut at Gatti’s Music Hall

22

  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s Hiawatha’s Departure for soprano, tenor, baritone, 4 voices and orchestra premiered in London, lib. H.W. Longfellow

26

  • Isadore Freed born (Brest, Belarus) American composer, teacher, broadcaster, synagogue organist and choirmaster. Died 1960

Programme for Gatti’s Music Hall, Charing Cross, London

Apr

2

  • Anis Fuleihan born (Kyrenia, Cyprus) Cypriot-American composer, conductor, pianist. Died 1970

4

  • Antonin Dvorák makes his last appearance as conductor in Prague
  • Amy Beach’s Piano Concerto in c# minor op.45 premiered in Boston

11

  • Camille Erlanger’s opera Le Juif polonais premiered in Paris

14

  • Salvatore Baccaloni born (Rome) Italian bass singer. Died 1969

17

  • Willy Burkhard born (Evilard-sur-Bienne, Switzerland) Swiss composer, teacher. Died 1955

23

  • Henry Barraud born (Bordeaux) French composer, radio and television station director. Died 1997

30

  • Edward Elgar’s song Pipes of Pan (A. Ross) premiered in London

Camille Erlanger 1863-1919

May

6

  • Manuel de Falla’s Vals-capricho premiered in Madrid

17

  • Nicolai Berezowsky born (St Petersburg) Russo-American pianist, composer. Died 1953
  • Maria Proksch (c.64) dies

21

  • Louis Vierne appointed organist at Notre Dame, Paris, a position he holds until his death in 1937

24

  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s suite Scenes from an Everyday Romance for orchestra premiered in London

28

  • Tommy Ladnier born (Florence, LA) American jazz trumpeter (King Oliver, Fletcher Henderson, Noble Sissle, Sidney Bechet). Died 1939
  • George Grove (79) dies

29

  • Jack Palmer born (Nashville, TN) American composer, pianist. Died 1976
  • Dvorák’s Festival Song op.113 premiered in Prague

31

  • Camille Saint-Saëns’ Le feu céleste op.115 premiered in Paris

releases

  • Steve Porter – A Bird In A Gilded Cage (Columbia)

Jun

15

  • Otto Luening born (Milwaukee, WN) American composer, electronic music pioneer, conductor, teacher. Died 1996
  • Paul Mares born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz trumpeter, bandleader (New Orleans Rhythm Kings). Died 1949

17

  • Hermann Reutter born (Stuttgart) German composer, pianist, teacher. Died 1985

20

  • Jean Sibelius’ Isänmaalle (To My Country), tone poem Tiera & Preludio premiered in Helsinki

24

  • Gene Austin born (Gainesville, TX) American popular singer, songwriter. Died 1972
  • Ottorino Respighi’s Symphonic Variations premiered in Bologna

25

  • Charles Villiers Stanford’s The Last Post op.75 premiered in London

Charles Villiers Stanford 1852-1924

Jul

2

  • Jean Sibelius’s Finlandia for orchestra premiered in Helsinki

4

  • Jean Sibelius’s Porilaisten marssi [March of the Björneborgers] for orchestra premiered in Stockholm

8

  • George Antheil born (Trenton, NJ) American composer, pianist, author, inventor. Died 1959

10

  • Mitchell Parish aka Michael Hyman Pashelinsky born (Vilnius, Lithuania) American popular lyricist. Died 1993

13

  • George Lewis born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz clarinetist, bandleader (Black Eagle Band, Eureka Brass Band, Chris Kelly, Kid Ory, Bunk Johnson). Died 1968

18

  • Wilton Crawley born (Smithfield, VA) American jazz clarinetist, bandleader (Washboard Rhythm Kings). Died 1948
  • Jean Sibelius’ Symphony No. 1 premiered in Berlin

21

  • Scott Joplin’s Swipesy Cakewalk copyrighted
  • Arthur Sullivan’s Absent-Minded Beggar March for brass band premiered in London

29

  • Don Redman born (Piedmont, WV) American jazz composer, arranger, clarinetist, bandleader (Fletcher Henderson, McKinney’s Cotton Pickers, Don Redman Orchestra). Died 1964

First page of the score of Jean Sibelius’s Finlandia

Aug

2

  • Helen Morgan born (Danville, IL) American popular singer, actress. Died 1941
  • Edward German’s incidental music for A. Hope & E. Rose’s play English Nell premiered in London

6

  • Willie Lee Brown born (Clarkesdale, MS) American blues singer, guitarist. Died 1952

8

  • Lucius Venable ‘Lucky’ Millinder born (Anniston, AL) American jazz and R&B bandleader, singer (Mills Blue Rhythm Band, Bill Doggett, Lucky Millinder Orchestra). Some sources give 1910 as birth year. Died 1966
  • Victor Young born (Chicago) American popular composer, conductor, arranger, violinist. Died 1956

11

  • Alexander Mosolov born (Kiev) Russian composer. Died 1973

19

  • Jean-Baptiste Accolay (67) dies

21

  • Edward German’s Nell Gwynn Overture premiered in London

23

  • Ernst Krenek born (Vienna) Austro-American composer, teacher. Died 1991
  • Malvina Reynolds born (San Francisco, CA) American folk and blues singer, songwriter, activist. Died 1978

27

  • Gabriel Fauré’s opera Prométhée premiered in Béziers, lib. J. Lorrain and A.-F. Hérold

31

  • Todd Rhodes born (Hopkinsville, KY) American jazz and R&B bandleader, arranger, pianist (Benny Carter, Mckinney’s Cotton Pickers). Died 1965

Sep

7

  • Joan Cross born (London) English soprano singer, opera producer. Died 1993

11

  • Hubert Parry’s Thanksgiving Te Deum for chorus and orchestra premiered in Hereford

12

  • Alger ‘Texas’ Alexander born (Jewett, TX) American blues singer. Died 1954

13

  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s The Soul’s Expression for choir and orchestra premiered in London, lib. E.B. Browning

20

  • Uuno Klami born (Virolahti, Finland) Finnish composer. Died 1961

28

  • Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov’s opera Asya premiered in Moscow

Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov 1859-1935

Oct

1

  • Claude Terrasse’s opera La petite femme de Loth premiered in Paris

3

  • Edward Elgar’s oratorio The Dream of Gerontius op.38 for choir and orchestra premiered in Birmingham, lib. J.H. Newman

4

  • Władysław Żeleński’s opera Janek premiered in Lvov

9

  • Elmer Snowden born (Baltimore, MD) American jazz banjo player, guitarist, bandleader (Washingtonians). Died 1973
  • Heinrich von Herzogenberg (57) dies

10

  • Mississippi Joe Callicott born (Nesbit, MS) American blues singer, guitarist, songwriter. Died 1969

15

  • Zdenek Fibich (49) dies
  • Paul Lincke’s operetta Fräulein Loreley premiered in Berlin

18

  • Sarah Makem born (Keady, Ireland) Irish folk singer. Mother of Tommy Makem (1932-2007). Died 1983

20

  • Jean Sibelius’s Snöfrid for speaker, chorus and orchestra premiered in Helsinki

24

  • Joe Watkins born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz drummer (George Lewis). Died 1969

27

  • Karl Millöcker (58) dies

Paul Lincke 1866-1946

Nov

3

  • Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov’s opera Skazka o Tsare Saltane, o sïne yego slavnom i moguchem bogatïre knyaze Gvidone Saltanoviche i o prekrasnoy Tsarevne Lebedi [The Tale of Tsar Saltan, of his Son the Renowned and Mighty Bogatïr Prince Guidon Saltanovich, and of the Beautiful Swan Princess] premiered in Moscow, lib. V.N. Bel′sky

9

  • Zdenek Fibich’s opera Pád Arkuna premiered in Prague

8

  • André Messager’s ballet Une aventure de la guimard premiered in Paris

10

  • Ruggero Leoncavallo’s opera Zazà premiered in Milan, lib. Leoncavallo

14

  • Aaron Copland born (Brooklyn, NY) American composer, pianist, conductor. Died 1990
  • Adolf Pollitzer (68) dies

16

  • Hubert Parry’s incidental music for Aeschylus’s play Agamemnon premiered in Cambridge

22

  • Arthur Sullivan (58) dies of a heart attack

25

  • Arthur Schwartz born (New York, NY) American popular songwriter, film producer. Died 1984

27

  • Edward Elgar’s Sérénade lyrique for orchestra premiered in London

30

  • Carl Nielsen’s A Cantata for the Lorens Frølich Festival premiered in Copenhagen

unk

  • Aleksandr Scriabin’s Symphony no.1 premiered in St Petersburg

Dec

6

  • Aleksandr Scriabin’s Piano Sonata no.3 op.23 premiered in Paris

8

  • Jules Massenet’s incidental music for Racine’s play Phèdre premiered in Paris

11

  • Max Reger’s Sonata for Violin and Piano no.3 op.41 premiered in Munich

17

  • Lucijan Marija Škerjanc born (Graz) Slovenian composer, conductor, multi-instrumentalist, teacher. Died 1973

20

  • Alan Bush born (London) English composer, pianist. Died 1995

26

  • Enrico Caruso makes his first appearance at La Scala, Milan, in Giacomo Puccini’s opera La Boheme

Alexander Scriabin 1872-1915

date unknown

  • Emry Arthur born (Wayne County, KY) American country singer, songwriter, guitarist. Died 1966
  • The Rabbit’s Foot Company minstrel and variety troupe established by Pat Chappelle
  • Cyril Scott’s Symphony No.1 premiered in Darmstadt

songs published

A Bird in a Gilded Cage (Arthur J. Lamb, Harry Von Tilzer); Lift Ev’ry Voice And Sing (James Weldon Johnson, J. Rosamond Johnson


 

  • the singer Marthe Bréga. Career: Practiced law briefly, then music director for Pleyela Records, 1925, and music director for Pathé-Natan Studios, 1930–35; also composed music for orchestra and for stage works. Died: In Azerailles, 19 June 1940
  • please be patient theother sample still upload everyday please come back next time
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  • Please subscribed via Comment
  • the end @ copyright 2012

The Sample Of dr Iwan E-book In CD-rom”The Thailand History Collections” Ayutthaya Period

THIS THE SAMPLE OF CD-ROM, THE COMPLETE CD WITH FULL ILLUSTRATIONS EXIST

BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Thailand History collections

 Ayutthaya Period

King Naresuan Ayutthaya

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors and Who have work related with Thailand

Copyright @ 2012 

 

This E-Book dedicated to My son Anton jimmy suwandy because he work at Toyota Marketing (TAM) in Indonesia and the center of Asean TAM  at Thailand.

Preface

I have visit Thiland Three times, first in 1993 with my wifeas tourist , second in 19976with the Tim from my work for comperative study at The Thailand national Police Hospital with Mr Suryanatha(in memoriam) and dr Binsar Simorangkir Obstetry & gynaecology, and the Last in 2008 during my adventured to South East asia Thailand,Cambodge,Ho Chi Minh City,Hanoi and South china Nanning in other to get the the historic collections.

I have written avout Vietnamese History collections, and now I write about The Thailand history collections , Especially After I Found some artifact of celadon  and blue and white ceramic In Indonesia related to the Thailand ancient ceramic si sichanalai . ,  

 I met the difficulty in identification the source of that celadon artifact because near same in colour and design

 especially the incised decoration of the imperial celadon from China during sung dynasty, Yuan dynasty and early ming dynasty.

The Qing dynasty and Korean celadon more common and easty to identification due to the typical colour nad desaign  will not included  in this study.

The same colour and decorations of the early china celadon  with The Royal high quality Thailand celadon   during Sincanalai, sukhotai and sawankhalok era and from Vietnam during anamis era  made me difficult to identification 

After study from literature especially the report of Marine Archeologist from the shipwreck ceramic which found in Asean and the sample from celadon ceramic auction in the world, I have succeeded to open the mistery.

The late Ayutthaya ceramic easy to identification due to the multicolour and special design from bancharong, In Indonesia many found at Aceh province they call Aceh Flower Ceramic(kembang aceH0 look the picture below

Bencharong pottery, late Ayutthaya period (1350-1767) (ceramic)Bencharong pottery, late Ayutthaya period (1350-1767) (ceramic)

Credit: Bencharong pottery, late Ayutthaya period (1350-1767) (ceramic), Chinese School / Private Collection / Photo © Luca Tettoni / The Bridgeman Art Library

In 1989 I found  In West sumatra Indonesia the ayotthaya bullet coins at the gold shop whic used by the native minangkabau as the “Kacing” look the picture below

 During this study I found some information about the Thai Land History, and  I write the history based on this short history ,divide dinto several part.

Now You can read this private E-Book in CD-rom Edition part

The Thailand During Ayuthada History collections

This study still many lack and not complete that is why more info and correction ,also suggestion still need.

Jakarta October 2012

 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 INTRODUCTION

 

Thailand’s Shorth History

 

Prehistoric Time

There has been humans in the South-East Asia region for tens of thousands years. Early, they got their food from hunting and fishing and later on they also became farmers and started to grow rice more than 5000 years ago. Also, one of the first bronze age cultures in the world, was found here.

The Dvaravati and Mon period

Theravada Buddhist missionaries came from India to the region in the 2nd century and the Mon and Dvaravati period was a loose collection of Indian city states. It was flourishing until about the 9th century but lasted in a few areas until the 11th or 12th century.

The Khmer Period

From about the 8th century the Khmer’s’ started to expand their territory around the capital of Angkor into Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and South China and finally they dominated the region. Lopburi became the Khmer’s head quarter in present Thailand. The influence of Khmer and language, culture, architecture and art was also effecting the whole region at this time. In the 13th century the Khmer domination was weakened from various reasons, such as; bad economy, mutual conflicts and malaria, plague and other diseases.

 

 

The Sukhothai Period

The Thais became the largest population in the area after the decline of the Khmer empire. Even if Thai states, such as Lanna, existed in the North, Sukhothai is often considered as the first Thai kingdom. The Sukhothai kingdom was founded in 1238 and Intradit became the first king. Forty years later, Ramkhamhaeng became the third king in this era, and he is often considered as one of the most important figures in the Thai history. The Theravada Buddhism became the state religion and Ramkhamheang was the inventor of the Thai written language. The Sukhothai culture was still flourishing and expanded it’s territory. It lasted until 1378.

The Ayutthaya Period

A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by U Thong or king Ramathibodi as his name was after he ascended the throne. Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai became a vassal state of Ayutthaya in 1378. Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory. Also Angkor was attacked and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand. But in 1568/69 Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese. The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years, Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time. The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai. The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity but when Narai died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed. After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766, and after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 

 

The Thonburi Period

The Ayutthaya General Taksin fled southwards, with some of the remaining troops and soon they got many new followers. He became the king in 1768 and Thonburi (in present Krung Thep or Bangkok at the waterside of the Chao Praya river) became the new capital city in the Kingdom of Siam. Taksin and his troops attacked the Burmese troops northwards and successfully chased them away from the country. Thonburi grew to became a strong but peaceful state for 15 years, but Taksin himself probably started to have megalomania tendencies. When he proclaimed that he was a reincarnation of the Lord Buddha, his previous supporters had enough. Taksin was killed in 1782 and his former military advisor, the army general Chakri became the new King of Siam.

The Chakri Dynasty (Rattanakosin)

The kings of the Chakri dynasty in Thailand:

King Buddha Yodfa Chulalok (Rama I) 1782-1809

Also known as Chao Phraya Chakri. He continued to defend the country against the Burmese troops and he also moved the capital city across the Chao Praya river. The name of the town became:

Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit

The world’s longest place name! It is popular called Krung Thep or The City of Angels. For most foreigners the town is known as Bangkok.

 

 

King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II) 1809-1824

Also known as prince Issarasundhorn or Phuttaloetla Nabhalai and the son of Rama I. He expanded Thailand’s territory and strengthened it’s position in the area. Also the Englishmen, the Frenchmen and the Dutchmen strengthened their position in the South-East Asia during his regency and they colonized many of the countries around Thailand. Rama II became father of 73 children during his lifetime! (38 boys and 35 girls)

King Nangklao (Rama III) 1824-1851

Also known as Jessadabodindra. The oldest son of king Rama II. He increased the trade between Siam and China, defended Thailand successfully against Vietnamese troops and conquered parts of Cambodia and almost all Laos. Rama III also built and restored some of the most important temples in Thailand.

King Mongkut (Rama IV) 1851-1868

Also known as Vajirayana. The son of Rama II. Many Thais and historians consider him to be on of the most significant kings of the Chakri dynasty. He prevented England and France from colonizing Siam, with lowered import and export duties. King Mongkut spoke English almost fluently. Thailand was one of few countries in the region that was not colonized by an European state. This is still a fact which makes Thai people proud. King Mongkut got infected by malaria and died in October 1868.

 

 

 

 

 

Read more info about Thailand

 

Thailand – The Land of Smiles


–  Thai name: Prathet Thai (
ประเทศไทย)
–  Area: 514,000 km2
–  Population: About 65,000,000
–  Location: South-East Asia
–  Capital city: Krung Thep (Bangkok)
–  Provinces: 76
–  Clim
ate: Tropical
–  Currency: Baht (divided into 100 satang)
–  Calling code: +66
–  National Anthem: Phleng Chat

 

Flag of Thailand:

 

Thailand’s History


Prehistoric Time
There has been humans in the South-East Asia region for tens of thousands years. Early, they got their food from hunting and fishing and later on they also became farmers and started to grow rice more than 5000 years ago. Also, one of the first bronze age cultures in the world, was found here.

The Dvaravati and Mon period
Theravada Buddhist missionaries came from India to the region in the 2nd century and the Mon and Dvaravati period was a loose collection of Indian city states. It was flourishing until about the 9th century but lasted in a few areas until the 11th or 12th century.

 


The Khmer Period
From about the 8th century the Khmer’s’ started to expand their territory around the capital of Angkor into Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and South China and finally they dominated the region. Lopburi became the Khmer’s head quarter in present Thailand. The influence of Khmer and language, culture, architecture and art was also effecting the whole region at this time. In the 13th century the Khmer domination was weakened from various reasons, such as; bad economy, mutual conflicts and malaria, plague and other diseases.

The Sukhothai Period
The Thais became the largest population in the area after the decline of the Khmer empire. Even if Thai states, such as Lanna, existed in the North, Sukhothai is often considered as the first Thai kingdom. The Sukhothai kingdom was founded in 1238 and Intradit became the first king. Forty years later, Ramkhamhaeng became the third king in this era, and he is often considered as one of the most important figures in the Thai history. The Theravada Buddhism became the state religion and Ramkhamheang was the inventor of the Thai written language. The Sukhothai culture was still flourishing and expanded it’s territory. It lasted until 1378.

The Ayutthaya Period
A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by U Thong or king Ramathibodi as his name was after he ascended the throne. Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai became a vassal state of Ayutthaya in 1378. Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory. Also Angkor was attacked and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand. But in 1568/69 Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese. The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years, Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time. The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai. The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity but when Narai died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed. After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766, and after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 


The Thonburi Period
The Ayutthaya General Taksin fled southwards, with some of the remaining troops and soon they got many new followers. He became the king in 1768 and Thonburi (in present Krung Thep or Bangkok at the waterside of the Chao Praya river) became the new capital city in the Kingdom of Siam. Taksin and his troops attacked the Burmese troops northwards and successfully chased them away from the country. Thonburi grew to became a strong but peaceful state for 15 years, but Taksin himself probably started to have megalomania tendencies. When he proclaimed that he was a reincarnation of the Lord Buddha, his previous supporters had enough. Taksin was killed in 1782 and his former military advisor, the army general Chakri became the new King of Siam.

The Chakri Dynasty (Rattanakosin)
The kings of the Chakri dynasty in Thailand:

King Buddha Yodfa Chulalok (Rama I) 1782-1809
Also known as Chao Phraya Chakri. He continued to defend the country against the Burmese troops and he also moved the capital city across the Chao Praya river. The name of the town became:

Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit

The world’s longest place name! It is popular called Krung Thep or The City of Angels. For most foreigners the town is known as Bangkok.

King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II) 1809-1824
Also known as prince Issarasundhorn or Phuttaloetla Nabhalai and the son of Rama I. He expanded Thailand’s territory and strengthened it’s position in the area. Also the Englishmen, the Frenchmen and the Dutchmen strengthened their position in the South-East Asia during his regency and they colonized many of the countries around Thailand. Rama II became father of 73 children during his lifetime! (38 boys and 35 girls)

King Nangklao (Rama III) 1824-1851
Also known as Jessadabodindra. The oldest son of king Rama II. He increased the trade between Siam and China, defended Thailand successfully against Vietnamese troops and conquered parts of Cambodia and almost all Laos. Rama III also built and restored some of the most important temples in Thailand.

King Mongkut (Rama IV) 1851-1868
Also known as Vajirayana. The son of Rama II. Many Thais and historians consider him to be on of the most significant kings of the Chakri dynasty. He prevented England and France from colonizing Siam, with lowered import and export duties. King Mongkut spoke English almost fluently. Thailand was one of few countries in the region that was not colonized by an European state. This is still a fact which makes Thai people proud. King Mongkut got infected by malaria and died in October 1868.
King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) 1868-1910
King Chulalongkorn was the oldest son of Rama IV. He is also considered as one of the most significant rulers in Thailand/Siam. He made several journeys in the world, first to Asiatic countries like Singapore, Indonesia and India and then to Europe, where he visited Sweden and Russia for example. King Chulalongkorn abolished slavery in Siam and started the work with the extensive railway system you find in Thailand today. In many Thai businesses, shops and restaurants you will find the portrait of King Chulalongkorn as respect for this regent and his highly appreciated deeds.

King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) 1910-1925
Rama VI was the son of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Sripatcharinthara. He partly got his education at University of Oxford in England. He continued his father’s work, to modernize Siam. Under the First World War, Thailand supported England and the Allied Powers. Unfortunately, Siam experienced an economic crisis under the 1920’s and some people was not satisfied with the progress of Siam. A number of young officers planned a Coup d’état against the King. The coup failed and the young soldiers were arrested. King Rama VI introduced the obligation of public education and he also founded the famous Chulalongkorn University, named after his father. He was also a highly recognized author and translator.

King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) 1925-1935
Known as Ratchakal Ti Jed (seventh regent) among the Thai people. He partly got his education at Woolwich Military Academy and Eton College in England. He was inspired by the democratic system with parliament in England, but constitutional monarchy was not introduced before in 1932 after a non-bloody coup. The People’s Party or Khana Ratsadorn (with the famous Thai politician Pridi Phanomyong in a leading role) took a temporary control of one of the Royal Palaces in Bangkok. The first elections were held in November 1933. But this was also the start of a sixty year period, when the military, more or less, controlled Thailand. King Prajadhipok abdicate at March 2, 1935. He moved permanently to England and lived there until he passed away in 1941.

King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) 1935-1946
He was born in Heidelberg, Germany in 1925. When his predecessor abdicated, Ananda Mahidol succeed his uncle. But as he was a young student, three “temporary” regents was chosen. Ten years later, King Ananda Mahidol moved permanently to Thailand, and instantly he won the Thai people’s respect. But on July 9, 1946, he was found dead in his bed with a deadly shot wound. His brother; Bhumibol Adulyadej succeed him.

King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) 1946-
He was born in Massachusetts, USA, on the December 5, 1927 and was known as Phra Worawongse Ther Phra Ong Chao Bhumibol Adulyadej. He studied science on the University of Lausanne in Switzerland and when his brother passed away, Bhumibol Adulyadej succeed him. He chosen to return to Switzerland first to finish his studies, focusing on politics and law, because of his changed future.

 

In 1949, Siam officially changed it’s name to Thailand and in Paris, the young King met Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara (later HM Queen Sirikit), daughter of Thailand’s ambassador in France.

They got married on the April 28, 1950, only a week before his coronation on the May 5, 1950. King Bhumibol Adulyadej is loved by the Thai people; poor or rich, young or old doesn’t matter. All Thais has a true high respect for their king. He has in a clam and objective way talked to the military and the people when disturbances have occurred in the country. He is a supporter of democracy and two separate examples can illustrate this; the disturbances in Bangkok 1973 and 1992.

In 1973 a large number of people gathered in the Thammasat University and protested against a weakened democracy in Thailand. The military was mobilized to stop this revolt, but King Bhumibol Adulyadej prevented the confrontation.

In May 1992 the military used live ammunition against demonstrators and many were killed (This occurrence was later known as “Black May”). The King then summoned the prime minister General Suchinda Kraprayoon, and the leader of the demonstrators; Chamlong Srimuang for a meeting, broadcast live on TV. These men crawled on their knees up to the king, who told them his opinion.

Shortly later, Suchinda resigned as Prime Minister and a democratic election was held. After this, no military coup has occurred in Thailand until 2006, when the prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra was removed from office in a Coup d’état.

King Bhumibol Adulyadej is also the initiator of a numerous of projects that has improved the living conditions for many of the Thais, as the farmers etc. He is also a skilled jazz musician, photographer and translator.

Remember, if you are visiting Thailand, that any criticism against the monarchy will probably be considered as an serious insult by the Thai people. This is easy to understand if you consider King Bhumibol Adulyadejs contributions to Thailand and it’s people.

The Climate in Thailand


The climate is tropical, warm and often humid. The temperature is normally about 30 Degrees Celsius in the daytime and about 25°C in the nighttime. However in the Northern parts of the country, the temperature can go down to 10°C (!) or in exceptional cases 0°C in the nighttime, during the chilly season.

In Southern Thailand, temperatures below 20 degrees are rare, even at night time. Instead, night temperatures between 25-30 degrees are common in the South. Therefore it’s nice to have a room with air conditioning or a proper functioning fan so the sleep is not disturbed by the heat

 


The Climate in Different Regions

Thailand’s weather is influenced by the monsoon period that creates different seasons in the northern, central and the southern parts of the country. The climate is subtropical and normal temperature is between 26-34 degrees Celsius during day time.

Northern Thailand

The climate in northern Thailand is generally a little cooler than in other regions. Light clothing is recommended year-round during daytime. Between December and March, temperatures are high in the daytime, but it can be much colder at night, so we recommend you to be prepared with some warm cloths when the temperature drops. Very little rain falls during this time.

During the rain season, which occurs between May and September, there can be heavy rainfalls, even if the temperature remains rather high.

We recommended you to buy an umbrella, if you don’t own one already, during this period. The humidity is high throughout the year except in the most mountainous regions.

The best time to visit northern Thailand is between December and May, when it is not raining that much


Central Thailand

Central Thailand covers a massive land area and the climate can be very different. Light clothing is recommended here as well, especially as the humidity is still pretty high throughout the year. Between December and March, the weather is often very hot during the day, but in the evening the temperature drops. Very little rain normally falls during March and April, while in May you could see an increase, which is the start of the rainy season. This monsoon normally starts in June and remains until October, with many rather heavy rainfalls, as a result, but anyhow relatively high temperatures.

The best time to visit Central Thailand is generally between December and May, but remember that May can be little rainy.


Southern Thailand – the West Coast

The climate in southern Thailand is affected by the monsoon, but it is still relatively hot and humid throughout the year. Light clothing is recommended all year and an umbrella is almost a must during the “wet months”.

 

During the rain season, which normally occurs between May and October, it may be ok to visit the west coast, because the rain can be relatively short-lived, with a lot of sunshine in between the showers. But September and October tend to exhibit greater rainfall and less sunny periods.

The best and most popular period to visit the West Coast is between November to April, when there normally are only a few days with rain.

 


Southern Thailand – The East Coast

The rainy season starts in September and decline in mid-November, or in early December. Rain showers during the monsoon may be from very short-lived up to days.

The best time to visit Thailand’s east coast is between December to August, when the weather usually is rather fine, with a lot of sunshine and not that much rain.

Thai Food Culture

The food in Thailand means a lot fore the people. The everyday social gatherings almost always include some type of food.

Usually it´s not so much food on every plate but instead you have many different meals to choose from. To eat six-seven meals a day is not unusual.

According to modern nutrition the Thai way to eat is the best fore your body. Normally Thai people eat with fork and spoon, but if you eat a dish with noodles you use chop sticks. Like Thailand’s language and culture, the Thai cooking is divided in to four main regions in the country: The northern part, the northeast (Isan and Isaan) the central parts and the south.

 A complete meal often includes the five different tastes: Sweet, Sour, salt, bitter and the famous, spicy (phet). Access to different types of food and influences from the neighboring country’s, has given the food in the respective regions its special mark:


North Thailand

The food culture in northern Thailand has bin influenced by Burmese and south chinese food traditions. The climate of the region has made the access of vegetables and herbs is satisfying. Moderate use of spices and the generous use of lime and garlic, has become one of the distinguishing features of northern art of cooking.

Examples of food from the north:

-  Khao Soi – Egg Noodles with curry
–  Nam Phrik Ong – Boiled pork with chili and toma

Northeast Thailand

Isan’s agriculture area is competing with the south of have the most spicy food in the country.

The famous chile and lime favored papaya salad often counts like Isan’s national dish. Worth mention is that in this region people eat things that can look strange fore people who come from the western world.

 A few examples are fried insects and dry frogs, this kind of food you eat like a snack. But food like snake and field rat functions as a main dish in some parts of the region. Anyhow, there is a lot of food that you can it even if you are a fastidious farang. Of course has the poverty played a big part in the food tradition in this region.

Examples of food from the northeast:

-  Khao Niaow – Sticky rice that you eat with your hands and dip in different sauces and food.
–  Som Tam – Very spicy papaya salad
–  Gai Naeng – Grilled chicken often marinade in fish sauce, lemon grass, garlic and pepper.

 

Central Thailand

The central parts of the country (included Bangkok) have strong Chinese and Indian influences in there food. Rice is often the base in Thai cooking (often describe as “kin khao” which means “eat rice”) and the central part of the country has made it self famous by producing the best rice in the country. The typical white jasmine rice is eaten as much as its exported abroad. One of the most typical dishes, Tom Yum Kung, has its origin in this parts of the country.
Examples of food from the central part:

-  Red Curry, Green Curry and Panang Curry
–  Tom Yum Kung – Thailand’s national dish. Its a soup with fresh shrimps, lemon grass etc.

 


Southern Thailand

The southern´s nearness to the ocean, as well as the nearness to Malaysia, has made fish, seafood and curries typical dish here. The generous use of chili do to food often serves very spicy. One of the most famous thai dishes is chicken satay or Gai Satay, has its origin in the southern parts of the country.

-  Masaman Curry – A creamy soup with coconut milk, potato and chicken or other kind of meat.
–  Yellow Curry – Different kind of dishes with yellow curry.

Common Menu

Even is every region and province has it’s typical style, is there a couple of dishes and food who is the same in all of the country. Beef, pork and chicken is often served in small pieces. Rice can be served in different forms: boiled, fried, sticky and in soup, and the soup is often the base in a Thai breakfast.

Together with the rice, noodles is the most common food in Thailand. As the rice, noodles is often served fried.

Many of the Thai dishes is flavored with curry. Red, green, yellow and panang is the most common curries in Thailand.

 A variation of filled omelet is often served as a main course, while a simplified version only made with egg and some times onion is served on the side. In Thailand they eat a lot of fruit.

If it something that the Thai people don’t have a lack of is vitamins and antioxidants. Small stands is often selling fresh fruit with sugar, salt and a chili mix. To the food you often drink water. Either on bottle or boiled (and then cold of) water in a jug. Even beer, soda or soda water is common drinks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Ayutthaya Period History Collections

Ayutthaya Kingdom

 

1351

The Ayutthaya Period

A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by

 

 U Thong or king Ramathibodi

as his name was after he ascended the throne.

 

 

Kingdom of Ayutthaya
อาณาจักรอยุธยา


 

1350–1767

   

Ensign

Seal

 

Map of Southeast Asia in the 1400’s:
Blue Violet: Ayutthaya Kingdom
Dark Green:
Lan Xang
Purple:
Lanna
Orange:
Sukhothai Kingdom
Red:
Khmer Empire
Yellow:
Champa
Blue:
Dai Viet

Capital

Ayutthaya

Language(s)

Thai

Religion

Theravada Buddhism, Hinduism, Roman Catholicism, Islam

Government

Monarchy

King

- 1350–69

Ramathibodi I

- 1590–1605

Naresuan

- 1656–88

Narai

- 1758–67

Boromaracha V

Legislature

Chatu Sadombh

Historical era

Middle Ages & Renaissance

- King Ramathibodi I ascends the throne in Ayutthaya

1350

- Personal union with Sukhothai kingdom

1468

- Vassal of Burma

1564, 1569

- Independence from Burma

1584

- End of Sukhothai Dynasty

1629

Fall of Ayutthaya

1767

 

 

This article contains Thai text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Thai script.

 

History of Thailand

 

Prehistory

Early history

Initial states[show]

Legendary
Suvarnabhumi
Central Thailand
Dvaravati
Lavo
Supannabhum
Northern Thailand
Singhanavati
Ngoenyang
Hariphunchai
Southern Thailand
Pan Pan
Raktamaritika
Langkasuka
Srivijaya
Tambralinga
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Sultanate of Pattani
Kedah Sultanate

History

Sukhothai Kingdom
Ayutthaya Kingdom
Thonburi Kingdom
Rattanakosin Kingdom
Military period
Democratic period

Regional history[show]

Isan
Lanna
Phitsanulok
Bangkok

Related topics[show]

Peopling of Thailand
Constitutional history
Military history
Economic history

 

 

Ayutthaya (Thai: อาณาจักรอยุธยา, RTGS: Anachak Ayutthaya, also Ayudhya, [ʔaːnaːtɕ͡àk ʔajúttʰajaː]) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Vietnamese (Annamese), Indians, Japanese and Persians, and later the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the walls of the capital, also called Ayutthaya.

 In the sixteenth century, it was described by foreign traders as one of the biggest and wealthiest cities in the East. The court of King Narai (1656–88) had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris.

By 1550,

the kingdom’s vassals included some city-states in the Malay Peninsula, Sukhothai, and parts of Cambodia.[1]

In foreign accounts, Ayutthaya was called Siam, but many sources say the people of Ayutthaya called themselves Tai, and their kingdom Krung Tai, ‘Tai Kingdom’.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

 [hide

[edit] Historical overview

[edit] Origins

 

 

The immense 19 meter high seated gold covered Buddha in Wat Phanan Choeng, the latter from 1324, pre-dates the founding of the city

 

Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai

became a vassal state of Ayutthaya

in 1378.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ayutthaya at its greatest extent in 1605, during the reign of Naresuan

According to the most widely accepted version of its origin, the Siamese state based at Ayutthaya in the valley of the Chao Phraya River rose from the earlier, nearby kingdoms of Lavo (at that time still under the Khmer control) and Suphannaphoom (Suvarnabhumi).

One source says that, in the mid-fourteenth century, due to the threat of an epidemic, King U Thong moved his court south into the rich floodplain of the Chao Phraya on an island surrounded by rivers, which was the former seaport city of Ayothaya, or Ayothaya Si Raam Thep Nakhon, the Angelic City of Sri Rama. The new city was known as Ayothaya, or Krung Thep Dvaravadi Si Ayothaya. Later it became widely known as Ayutthaya, the Invincible City.[2]

 

Other sources say that King Uthong was a rich merchant of Chinese origin from Phetchaburi, a coastal city in the south, who moved to seek fortune in Ayothaya city. The name of the city indicates the influence of Hinduism in the region. It is believed that this city is associated with the Thai national epic Ramakien, which is a southeastern version of Hindu epic Ramayana.

[edit] Conquests and expansion

By the end of the century,

Ayutthaya was regarded as the strongest power in mainland Southeast Asia. Ayutthaya began its hegemony by conquering northern kingdoms and city-states like Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet and Phitsanuloke.

Before the end of the fifteenth century, Ayutthaya launched attacks on Angkor, the classical great power of the region. Angkor’s influence eventually faded from the Chao Phraya River Plain while Ayutthaya became a new great power.

However, the kingdom of Ayutthaya was not a unified state but rather a patchwork of self-governing principalities and tributary provinces owing allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya under The Circle of Power, or the mandala system, as some scholars suggested .[3] These principalities might be ruled by members of the royal family of Ayutthaya, or by local rulers who had their own independent armies, having a duty to assist the capital when war or invasion occurred. However, it was evident that from time to time local revolts, led by local princes or kings, took place. Ayutthaya had to suppress them.

Due to the lack of succession law and a strong concept of meritocracy, whenever the succession was in dispute, princely governors or powerful dignitaries claiming their merit gathered their forces and moved on the capital to press their claims, culminating in several bloody coups.[4]

 

 

1686 French Map of Siam

From the fifteenth century, Ayutthaya showed an interest in the Malay Peninsula, where the great trading port of Malacca contested its claims to sovereignty. Ayutthaya launched several abortive conquests on Malacca. Due to the military support of Ming China, Malacca was diplomatically and economically fortified.

 In the early fifteenth century

 the Ming Admiral Zheng He had established one of his bases of operation in the port city, so the Chinese could not afford to lose such a strategic position to the Siamese.

 Under this protection, Malacca flourished into one of Ayutthaya’s great foes, until its conquest in 1511 by the Portuguese.[5]

Starting in the middle of 16th century,

 the kingdom came under repeated attacks by the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma.

  • Naresuan was born in Phitsanulok City on 25 April 1555 and was the son of a future King of Ayutthaya, King Sanpet 1 [ 1569 ]. At the time Phisanulok was the capital city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
  • When Naresuan was 7 the Burmese who then controlled Ayutthaya having conquered it in war, took Naresuan as a captive to Pegu Burma [ Myanmar ], to ensure his father, then a prince, would be compliant to the Burmese. King Bayinnaung, the Burmese King, raised him with the status of a prince and he was trained in the Burmese palace in the martial arts, literature and war strategies. Nine years later at the age of 16 he was swapped as a prisoner with his sister.
  • The Burmese began the hostilities with an invasion in 1548 but failed. The second Burmese invasion led by King Bayinnaung forced King Maha Chakkraphat to surrender

 in 1564.

The royal family was taken to Pegu, with the king’s eldest son Mahinthrathirat installed as the vassal king.[6][7]

In 1568,

Mahinthrathirat revolted when his father managed to return back from Pegu as a monk.

 The ensuing third invasion captured Ayutthaya

in 1569,

 and Bayinnaung made Maha Thammarachathirat vassal king.[7]

King Naresuan The Great of Ayutthaya

King Naresuan Ayutthaya
King Naresuan Portrait.
  • In 1571 his father as King of Ayutthaya appointed him as Governor of Phitsanulok.
  • In 1584 The Kingdom of Ayutthaya rejected its vassal status to the Burmese and soon was invaded again by the Burmese. Naresuan fought the Burmese and captured Lan Na then another vassel Kingdom of the Burmese.
  • In 1590 Naresuan replaced his father who then died. In 1591 the Burmese invaded yet again only to cancel their invasion upon the dual of their Prince Minchit Sra who was killed by King Naresuan is a personal dual on elephants at the battle of Nong Sarai [ now Suphanburi ].
  • In 1593 King Naresuan invaded the Khmer Kingdom in what is now Cambodia.
  • Naresuan was also significant in assisting the Shan [ Tai  ] gain independence for the Shan State in Burma. He was a friend of the Shan Prince, Prince Hsenwi, when both were prisoners in Pegu. The Shan say his ashes are buried in a stupa at Mongton, Myanmar.


King Naresuan enters an abandoned Pegu

in 1600,

mural painting by Phraya Anusatchitrakon, Wat Suwandararam, Ayutthaya.

After Bayinnaung’s death in 1581,

 

Maha Thammarachathirat proclaimed Ayutthaya’s independence

 in 1584.

 

 

Maha Thammarachathirat

 

 

1584-1591

 

The Siamese fought off repeated Burmese invasions (1584–1593),

 

 

 

capped by

 

an elephant duel between

 

 King Naresuan

And

 

 Burmese heir-apparent Mingyi Swa

 in 1593

 

in which Naresuan famously slew Mingyi Swa (observed 18 January as Royal Thai Armed Forces day).

The Siamese went on an offensive,

 

capturing the entire Tenasserim coast up to Martaban in 1595

 

 

look the map

 

and

 

Lan Na(Khmer temple) in 1602.

 Naresuan even invaded mainland Burma up to

Toungoo in 1600 but was driven back.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Toungoo Map

Read more  Toungou Kingdom

First Toungoo Empire (1510–1599)

 

Bayinnaung’s Empire in 1580

Starting in the 1480s, Ava faced constant internal rebellions and external attacks from the Shan States, and began to disintegrate. In 1510, Toungoo, located in the remote southeastern corner of the Ava kingdom, also declared independence.[17] When the Confederation of Shan States conquered Ava in 1527, many Burmans fled southeast to Toungoo, the only kingdom remaining under Burman rule, and one surrounded by larger hostile kingdoms.

Toungoo, led by its ambitious king Tabinshwehti and his deputy Gen. Bayinnaung, would go on to reunify the petty kingdoms that had existed since the fall of the Pagan Empire, and found the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. First, the upstart kingdom defeated a more powerful Hanthawaddy in the Toungoo–Hanthawaddy War (1535–1541).

Tabinshwehti moved the capital to newly captured Pegu in 1539. Toungoo expanded its authority up to Pagan in 1544 but failed to conquer Arakan in 1546–1547 and Siam in 1548. Tabinshwehti’s successor Bayinnaung continued the policy of expansion, conquering Ava in 1555, nearer Shan states (1557), Lan Na (1558), Manipur (1560), Farther/Trans-Salween Shan states (1562–1563), Siam (1564, 1569), and Lan Xang (1574), and bringing much of western and central mainland Southeast Asia under his rule.

Bayinnaung put in place a lasting administrative system that reduced the power of hereditary Shan chiefs, and brought Shan customs in line with low-land norms.[18] But he could not replicate an effective administrative system everywhere in his far flung empire. His empire was a loose collection of former sovereign kingdoms, whose kings were loyal to him as the Cakkavatti (စကြဝတေးမင်း, [sɛʔtɕà wədé mɪ́ɴ]; Universal Ruler), not the kingdom of Toungoo.

The overextended empire unraveled soon after Bayinnaung’s death in 1581. Siam declared independence in 1584 and went to war with Burma until 1605.

 By 1593,

the kingdom had lost its possessions in Siam, Lang Xang and Manipur.

 By 1597,

 all internal regions, including the city of Toungoo, the erstwhile home of the dynasty, had revolted.

 In 1599,

the Arakanese forces aided by Portuguese mercenaries, and in alliance with the rebellious Toungoo forces, sacked Pegu. The country fell into chaos, with each region claiming a king. Portuguese mercenary Filipe de Brito e Nicote promptly rebelled against his Arakanese masters, and established Goa-backed Portuguese rule at Thanlyin in 1603.

Restored Toungoo Kingdom (Nyaungyan Restoration) (1599–1752)

 

 

Restored Toungoo or Nyaungyan Dynasty c. 1650

While the interregnum that followed the fall of Pagan Empire lasted over 250 years (1287–1555), that following the fall of First Toungoo was relatively short-lived.

 One of Bayinnaung’s sons, Nyaungyan, immediately began the reunification effort, successfully restoring central authority over Upper Burma and nearer Shan states by 1606.

 His successor Anaukpetlun defeated the Portuguese at Thanlyin in 1613; recovered the upper Tenasserim coast to Tavoy and Lan Na from the Siamese by 1614; and the trans-Salween Shan states (Kengtung and Sipsongpanna) in 1622–1626.

 

His brother Thalun rebuilt the war torn country. He ordered the first ever census in Burmese history in 1635, which showed that the kingdom about two million people.

By 1650,

the three able kings–Nyaungyan, Anaukpetlun and Thalun–had successfully rebuilt a smaller but far more manageable kingdom.

More importantly, the new dynasty proceeded to create a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into the 19th century.

The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. It also reined in the continuous growth of monastic wealth and autonomy, giving a greater tax base. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years.[19]

 Except for a few occasional rebellions and an external war—Burma defeated Siam’s attempt to take Lan Na and Martaban in 1662–64—the kingdom was largely at peace for the rest of the 17th century.

The kingdom entered a gradual decline, and the authority of the “palace kings” deteriorated rapidly in the 1720s. From 1724 onwards, the Manipuris began raiding the Upper Chindwin valley.

In 1727,

southern Lan Na (Chiang Mai) successfully revolted, leaving just northern Lan Na (Chiang Saen) under an increasingly nominal Burmese rule. The Manipuri raids intensified in the 1730s, reaching increasingly deeper parts of central Burma. In 1740, the Mon in Lower Burma began a rebellion, and founded the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom, and by 1745 controlled much of Lower Burma. The Siamese also moved their authority up the Tenasserim coast by 1752. Hanthawaddy invaded Upper Burma in November 1751, and captured Ava on 23 March 1752, ending the 266-year-old Toungoo dynasty

 

After Naresuan’s death in 1605,

northern Tenasserim and Lan Na

fell back to Burmese control in 1614.[8]

The kingdom’s attempt to take over Lan Na and northern Tenasserim in 1662–1664 failed.[9]

Foreign trade brought Ayutthaya not only luxury items but also new arms and weapons. In the mid-seventeenth century, during King Narai’s reign, Ayutthaya became very prosperous.[10]

The Ayutthaya Kingdom Collections

Ayutthaya Kingdom Ceramic

 

Rangkwien

The ceramics trade was a significant factor in Ayutthaya’s economy. 

Analysis of shipwrecks of vessels that were engaged in the ceramics trade has proved one of the richest sources of information on this aspect of Ayutthaya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The Southeast Asia Ceramics Museum is developing a digital museum component for its collections, and has shared the images of ceramics with this project

         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         

 

 

 

Si-Satchanalai celadon of Turiang

 

 

Turiang:

a 14th century Chinese shipwreck,

 

This article was first published in “Southeast Asia – China Interactions” which was published by the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 2002.

Articles selected by Dr. Geoff Wade with foreword by Wang Gunawu.

 

upsetting Southeast Asian ceramic history

By Sten Sjostrand

Edited: Dr. Geoff Wade

Photographs, sketches, maps and images: Sten Sjostrand

 

Introduction

 

The Turiang is one of several 14-16th century wrecks discovered in the South China Sea by Sten Sjostrand.

 

All carried ceramics and offer new insights into this glorious period of maritime trade in Southeast Asia, and in particular into the history of Thai ceramics.

 

The Turiang was a Chinese ship with a multinational cargo of Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics, apparently heading for Borneo and/or Sulawesi.

 

The wreck is tentatively dated to AD 1305-1370. This is one of the earliest shipwrecks yet discovered with Thai export ceramics.

 

The find prompts a reassessment of the relative importance of the two major production centres at Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai. It also proves that almost-identical black underglaze ware was available simultaneously from Sukhothai and Vietnam.

 

 

Turiang’s ceramic significance

 

 

 

The Turiang cargo suggests that:

 

Decorated underglaze ware from Thailand and Vietnam was popular before Chinese blue-and-white

 

 

 

 

 

 

Celadon Chinese celadon guan

 

 

 

 

1.1328 is the latest estimate for the date of first export, to the Middle East, by Liu Xinyuan of the Ceramics Archaeological Research Institute at Jingdezhen in China. Liu Xinyuan, op.cit., 1999.

 

2.Jeremy Green and Rosemary Harper, 1987, op.cit., fig 15.

 

3.Common features of the Turiang and Longquan plates include a bracket-type mouthrim, accented with incised lines which follow their shape on the flattened part of the mouthrim; an inward-slanting footrim, covered with glaze; and wide striations on the interior walls.

 

Dating

 

The Turiang‘s multinational cargo both challenges the chronology of Thai ceramics and presents its own dating puzzle.

 

 One intriguing issue is the absence of blue-and-white porcelain from either China or Vietnam, and the large load of Chinese celadon.

 

Could this wreck be so old that it pre-dates the export of Chinese blue-and-white, now estimated to have started in 1328?(1)

 

Individual dish pictures on the Longquan page of the Nov’01 exhibition.

Longquan celadon’s made in China were fired on tubular supports, identical to those later used at Si-Satchanalai 7. Beta Analytical test report: Beta-130708, June 1999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE “TURIANG ” SHIPWRECK (CE 1370)

Early Signs of China’s Ming Dynasty in Malaysian Waters

 

Among the oldest shipwreck findings in the South China Sea, it was discovered by a Swedish marine archaeologist, Sten Sjostrand on May 1998 about 100 nautcal miles from the nearest land. This ship was found to be from the Ming Dynasty era (CE 1368 – CE 1644). Numerous Sukhotai vases, Sisatchanalai green glazed wares and underglazed fish and flower plates of Thai and Vietnamese origin were found.

These ceramics offered new clues about the maritime trade in Southeast Asia, and in particular into the history of Thai ceramics. The Turiang was a Chinese ship apparently heading for Borneo and/or Sulawesi.

 

Why were there so manyThai & Vietnamese ceramics on board a Chinese Ship?

 

 

Thanks to Sten Sjostrand who discovered the Turiang, we got to know that Thai ceramics was BIG business in South-east Asia.

 

The Turiang (named after the kiln-sites in Thailand from which most of the stoneware was produced) was actually a Chinese ship but had Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics on board. It was probably sailing from Ayutthaya, then capital of Thailand to Borneo and/or Sulawesi. With over half the cargo making up Thai ceramics, historians began to reassess the importance of the two major production centres of Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai in Thailand.

The Turiang also tells us that the dominance of Chinese ceramics in export markets during the Song (CE 960 – CE 1276) and early Yuan (CE 1271 – CE 1368) dynasties later faced serious competition from Vietnamese and Thai ceramics (notably from the 14th century onwards during the Ming Dynasty).

 

 Some believe it was due to Chinese potters fleeing the Mongol invasion in northern China for safer pastures in Thailand and Vietnam, implying a transfer of technical know-how of ceramic making from Chinese migrants to their would-be competitors. Some ship builders are also thought to have left China in CE 1371.

It has also been suggested that the decline in Chinese ceramics may be due to the ‘Ming ban’.

The ‘Ming ban’ was a ban imposed by the Emperor Hongwu on all maritime activities primarily to curb piracy activities.

 

Apparently this move was counter-productive and caused untold misery to the coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.

 

This ban not only made it painful for business, it also made it tough for foreigners to visit China.

 

At that time, the only way for foreigners to visit Ming China was via the tribute system.

 

 

 

 

 

Close Shot of a Celadon plate from The Turiang

 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif.

 

 

 

This wreck was discovered at a depth of 46 meters, 40 nautical miles offshore from Kuantan, Malaysia.

 Four years of excavations were completed in September 1998. The recovered cargo from the Royal Nanhai includes 20,973 pieces of pottery. The largest portion is celedon in various shapes from the Si-Satchanalai, or “Sawankhalok” kilns.

The most unusual thing about this site is that it does not contain any remains of a ship’s structure.

Seven pieces of blue and white pottery from China and Vietnam were also discovered and the style of their painted designs, suggests a date for the wreck of mid 15th century. This date is supported by a carbon – 14 date corresponding to AD 1400 +/- 70 years.

Celadon is a term for ceramics denoting both a type glaze, and a ware of a specific color, also called celadon. Celadon glaze refers to a family of transparent, crackle glazes, produced in a wide variety of colors, generally used on porcelain or white stoneware clay bodies. However, the most famous celadons range in color from a very pale green crackle to deep intense greens, often meant to mimic the green shades of jade.

 By the end of the 14th century, Ayutthaya was regarded as the strongest power in Indochina, but it lacked the manpower to daminate the region.

 Eventually Ayutthaya subdued the territory that had belonged to Sukhothai, and the year after Ramathibodi died, his kingdom was recognized by the emperor of Ming Dynasty as Sukhothai’s rightful successor.

The kingdom of Ayutthaya was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. King Ramathibodi I (Uthong) founded Ayutthaya as the capital of his kingdom in 1350 and absorbed Sukhothai, 640 km to the north, in 1376. Over the next four centuries the kingdom expanded to become nation of Siam, whose borders were roughly those modern Thailand, except for the north, the Kingdom of Lannathai.

During much of the fifteenth century Ayutthaya’s energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula, where the great trading port of Malacca contested its claims to sovereignty. Ayutthaya was successful with the military support of Ming China and Japan, who wanted to share the wealth of trade at Malacca

 

 

 

 

Ayutthaya Kingdom Coin

 

COIN AYUTTHAYA KINGDOM MONEY 1569-1629 AD. ANCIENT THAILAND TIN VERY RARE FINE

 

1 Fuang Rama I Ayyuthaya Kingdom Coin

 

 

 

 

 

15th CENTURY AYUDHAYA KINGDOM THAILAND 1/4 BAHT BULLET MONEY ELEPHANT SHELL 4 G.

 

 

 

 

Thailand Bullet Money Ayutaya Period set of 3 Conch Mark rare

 

 

 

 

 

Thailand Siam Old Ancient Ayutthaya Kingdom Tin Coin Money, Antique Baht Satang

Here are 3 ancient tin coins,

 from the Ayutthaya Kingdom, circa 16th to 17th century.

Excavated in Thailand. It is design like a flower. Guaranteed Genuine.

.

 

 

 

Genuine Lanna Thai Siam Thailand Silver Tok Money Coin 4 Baht Bride Divorce Wife

 

 

Cowrie shell money and terracotta coins from the Ayutthaya period (shell & terracotta)

 

Bullet coins from Ayutthaya period, Thailand

 

Ayutthaya Kingdom Gold  Collections

 

In the eighteenth century,

Ayutthaya gradually lost control over its provinces. Provincial governors exerted their power independently, and rebellions against the capital began.

In the mid-eighteenth century, Ayutthaya again became ensnared in wars with the Burmese. The first invasion by the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma failed. The second invasion succeeded in sacking the Ayutthaya city and ending the kingdom

in April 1767.

[edit] Kingship of Ayutthaya Kingdom

See also: Monarchy of Thailand

 

 

Ruins of the old city, Ayutthaya, after the Burmese invasion.

The kings of Ayutthaya were absolute monarchs with semi-religious status. Their authority derived from the ideologies of Hinduism and Buddhism as well as from natural leadership.

 The king of Sukhothai was the moral inspiration of the Inscription Number 1 found in Sukhothai, which stated that King Ramkhamhaeng would hear the petition of any subject who rang the bell at the palace gate. The king was thus considered as a father by his people.

At Ayutthaya, however, the paternal aspects of kingship disappeared. The king was considered chakkraphat, the Sanskrit-Pali term for the Chakravartin who through his adherence to the law made all the world revolve around him.[11] According to Hindu tradition, the king is the Avatar of God Vishnu, the Destroyer of Demons, who was born to be the defender of the people. The Buddhist belief in the king is as the Righteous ruler or Dhammaraja, aiming at the well-being of the people, who strictly follows the teaching of the Buddha.

The kings’ official names were reflections of those religions: Hinduism and Buddhism. They were considered as the incarnation of various Hindu gods: Indra, Shiva or Vishnu (Rama). The coronation ceremony was directed by Brahmins as the Hindu god Shiva was “lord of the universe”. However, according to the codes, the king had the ultimate duty as protector of the people and the annihilator of evil.

On the other hand, according to Buddhism‘s influence in place of Hinduism, the king was also believed to be a Bodhisattva or Buddha-like. He followed and respected the Dhamma of the Buddha. One of the most important duties of the king was to build a temple or a Buddha statue as a symbol of prosperity and peace.[11]

For locals, another aspect of the kingship was also the analogy of “The Lord of the Land”, (Phra Chao Phaendin), or He who Rules the Earth. According to the court etiquette, a special language, Rachasap (Sanskrit: Rājāśabda, Royal Language), was used to communicate with or about royalty.[12] In Ayutthaya, the king was said to grant control over land to his subjects, from nobles to commoners, according to the Sakna or Sakdina system[13] codified by King Trailokanat (1448–88). The Sakdina system was similar to, but not the same as feudalism, under which the monarch does not own the land.[14] While there is no concrete evidence that this land management system constituted a formal Palace economy, the French Abbé de Choisy, who came to Ayutthaya in 1685, wrote, “the king has absolute power. He is truly the god of the Siamese: no-one dares to utter his name.” Another 17th-century writer, the Dutchman Jan van Vliet, remarked that the King of Siam was “honoured and worshipped by his subjects second to god.” Laws and orders were issued by the king. For sometimes the king himself was also the highest judge who judged and punished important criminals such as traitors or rebels.[15]

In addition to the Sakdina system, another of the numerous institutional innovations of King Trailokanat was to adopt the position of uparaja, translated as “viceroy” or “prince”, usually held by the king’s senior son or full brother, in an attempt to regularize the succession to the throne—a particularly difficult feat for a polygamous dynasty. In practice, there was inherent conflict between king and uparaja and frequent disputed successions.[16] However, it is evident that the power of the Throne of Ayutthaya had its limit. The hegemony of the Ayutthaya king was always based on his charisma in terms of his age and supporters. Without supporters, bloody coups took place from time to time. The most powerful figures of the capital were always generals, or the Minister of Military Department, Kalahom. During the last century of Ayutthaya, the bloody fighting among princes and generals, aiming at the throne, plagued the court.

[edit] Social and political development

Main article: Mandala (Southeast Asian history)

 

 

Painting of Ayutthaya, ordered by the Dutch East India Company, Amsterdam

 

 

 

The reforms of King Trailok

(r.1448–1488)

placed the king of Ayutthaya at the centre of a highly stratified social and political hierarchy that extended throughout the realm. Despite a lack of evidence, it is believed that in the Ayutthaya Kingdom, the basic unit of social organization was the village community composed of extended family households. Title to land resided with the headman, who held it in the name of the community, although peasant proprietors enjoyed the use of land as long as they cultivated it.[17] The lords gradually became courtiers (อำมาตย์) and tributary rulers of minor cities. The king ultimately came to be recognized as the earthly incarnation of Shiva or Vishnu, and became the sacred object of politico-religious cult practices officiated over by royal court Brahmans, part of the Buddhist court retinue. In the Buddhist context, the devaraja (divine king) was a bodhisattva (an enlightened being who, out of compassion, forgoes nirvana in order to aid others). The belief in divine kingship prevailed into the eighteenth century, although by that time its religious implications had limited impact.

With ample reserves of land available for cultivation, the realm depended on the acquisition and control of adequate manpower for farm labor and defense. The dramatic rise of Ayutthaya had entailed constant warfare and, as none of the parties in the region possessed a technological advantage, the outcome of battles was usually determined by the size of the armies. After each victorious campaign, Ayutthaya carried away a number of conquered people to its own territory, where they were assimilated and added to the labor force.[17]Ramathibodi II (r.1491–1529) established the Siamese Corvée system, under which every freeman had to be registered as a servant (phrai) with the local lords, Chao Nai (เจ้านาย). When war broke out, male phrai were subject to impressment. Above the phrai was a nai, who was responsible for military service, corvée labor on public works, and on the land of the official to whom he was assigned. Phrai Suay (ไพร่ส่วย) met labor obligations by paying a tax. If he found the forced labor under his nai repugnant, he could sell himself as a slave (ทาส) to a more attractive nai or lord, who then paid a fee in compensation for the loss of corvée labor. As much as one-third of the manpower supply into the nineteenth century was composed of phrai.[17]

Wealth, status, and political influence were interrelated. The king allotted rice fields to court officials, provincial governors, military commanders, in payment for their services to the crown, according to the sakdi na system. The size of each official’s allotment was determined by the number of commoners or phrai he could command to work it. The amount of manpower a particular headman, or official, could command determined his status relative to others in the hierarchy and his wealth. At the apex of the hierarchy, the king, who was symbolically the realm’s largest landholder, theoretically commanded the services of the largest number of phrai, called phrai luang (royal servants), who paid taxes, served in the royal army, and worked on the crown lands.[17]

However, the recruitment of the armed forces depended on nai, or mun nai, literally meaning ‘lord’, officials who commanded their own phrai som, or subjects. These officials had to submit to the king’s command when war broke out. Officials thus became the key figures to the kingdom’s politics. At least two officials staged coups, taking the throne themselves while bloody struggles between the king and his officials, followed by purges of court officials, were always seen.[17]

King Trailok, in the early sixteenth century, established definite allotments of land and phrai for the royal officials at each rung in the hierarchy, thus determining the country’s social structure until the introduction of salaries for government officials in the nineteenth century.[17]

Outside this system to some extent were the Buddhist monkhood, or sangha, which all classes of Siamese men could join, and the Chinese. Buddhist monasteries (wats) became the centres of Siamese education and culture, while during this period the Chinese first began to settle in Siam, and soon began to establish control over the country’s economic life: another long-standing social problem.[17]

The Chinese were not obliged to register for corvée duty, so they were free to move about the kingdom at will and engage in commerce. By the sixteenth century, the Chinese controlled Ayutthaya’s internal trade and had found important places in the civil and military service. Most of these men took Thai wives because few women left China to accompany the men.[17]

Ramathibodi I was responsible for the compilation of the Dharmashastra, a legal code based on Hindu sources and traditional Thai custom. The Dharmashastra remained a tool of Thai law until late in the 19th century. A bureaucracy based on a hierarchy of ranked and titled officials was introduced, and society was organised in a related manner. Yet the Hindu caste system was not adopted.[18]

The sixteenth century witnessed the rise of Burma which, under an aggressive dynasty, had overrun Chiang Mai and Laos and made war on the Thai. In 1569 Burmese forces joined by Thai rebels, mostly royal family members of Siam, captured the city of Ayutthaya and carried off the whole royal family to Burma. Dhammaraja (1569–90), a Thai governor who had aided the Burmese, was installed as vassal king at Ayutthaya. Thai independence was restored by his son, King Naresuan (1590–1605), who turned on the Burmese and by 1600 had driven them from the country.[19]

Determined to prevent another treason like his father’s, Naresuan set about unifying the country’s administration directly under the royal court at Ayutthaya. He ended the practice of nominating royal princes to govern Ayutthaya’s provinces, assigning instead court officials who were expected to execute policies handed down by the king. Thereafter royal princes were confined to the capital. Their power struggles continued, but at court under the king’s watchful eye.[20]

In order to ensure his control over the new class of governors, Naresuan decreed that all freemen subject to phrai service had become phrai luang, bound directly to the king, who distributed the use of their services to his officials. This measure gave the king a theoretical monopoly on all manpower, and the idea developed that since the king owned the services of all the people, he also possessed all the land. Ministerial offices and governorships—-and the sakdina that went with them—-were usually inherited positions dominated by a few families often connected to the king by marriage. Indeed, marriage was frequently used by Thai kings to cement alliances between themselves and powerful families, a custom prevailing through the nineteenth century. As a result of this policy, the king’s wives usually numbered in the dozens.[20]

Even with Naresuan’s reforms, the effectiveness of the royal government over the next 150 years was unstable. Royal power outside the crown lands-—although in theory absolute—was in practice limited by the looseness of the civil administration. The influence of central government and the king was not extensive beyond the capital. When war with the Burmese broke out in late eighteenth century, provinces easily abandoned the capital. As the enforcing troops were not easily rallied to defend the capital, the City of Ayutthaya could not stand against the Burmese aggressors.[20]

[edit] Religion

 

 

Buddha head overgrown by fig tree in Wat Mahatat, Ayutthaya historical park

Ayutthaya’s main religion was Theravada Buddhism. Many areas of the kingdom also practiced Mahayana Buddhism, Islam[21] and, influenced by French Missionaries who arrived through China in the 17th century, some small areas converted to Catholicism.[22]

[edit] Economic development

The Thais never lacked a rich food supply. Peasants planted rice for their own consumption and to pay taxes. Whatever remained was used to support religious institutions. From the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, however, a remarkable transformation took place in Thai rice cultivation. In the highlands, where rainfall had to be supplemented by a system of irrigation that controlled the water level in flooded paddies, the Thais sowed the glutinous rice that is still the staple in the geographical regions of the North and Northeast. But in the floodplain of the Chao Phraya, farmers turned to a different variety of rice—-the so-called floating rice, a slender, non-glutinous grain introduced from Bengal—-that would grow fast enough to keep pace with the rise of the water level in the lowland fields.[23]

The new strain grew easily and abundantly, producing a surplus that could be sold cheaply abroad. Ayutthaya, situated at the southern extremity of the floodplain, thus became the hub of economic activity. Under royal patronage, corvée labor dug canals on which rice was brought from the fields to the king’s ships for export to China. In the process, the Chao Phraya Delta—-mud flats between the sea and firm land hitherto considered unsuitable for habitation—-was reclaimed and placed under cultivation. Traditionally the king had a duty to perform a religious ceremony blessing the rice plantation.[23]

Although rice was abundant in Ayutthaya, rice export was banned from time to time when famine occurred because of natural calamity or war. Rice was usually bartered for luxury goods and armaments from westerners, but rice cultivation was mainly for the domestic market and rice export was evidently unreliable. Trade with Europeans was lively in the seventeenth century. In fact European merchants traded their goods, mainly modern arms such as rifles and cannons, with local products from the inland jungle such as sapan(Bridge) woods, deerskin and rice. Tomé Pires, a Portuguese voyager, mentioned in the sixteenth century that Ayutthaya, or Odia, was rich in good merchandise. Most of the foreign merchants coming to Ayutthaya were European and Chinese, and were taxed by the authorities. The kingdom had an abundance of rice, salt, dried fish, arrack and vegetables.[24]

Trade with foreigners, mainly the Dutch, reached its peak in the seventeenth century. Ayutthaya became a main destination for merchants from China and Japan. It was apparent that foreigners began taking part in the kingdom’s politics. Ayutthayan kings employed foreign mercenaries who sometimes entered the wars with the kingdom’s enemies. However, after the purge of the French in late seventeenth century, the major traders with Ayutthaya were the Chinese. The Dutch from the Dutch East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC), were still active. Ayutthaya’s economy declined rapidly in the eighteenth century, until the Burmese invasion caused the total collapse of Ayutthaya’s economy in 1788.[25]

Contacts with the West

 

 

Memorial plate in Lopburi showing king Narai with French ambassadors

In 1511,

 immediately after having conquered Malacca, the Portuguese sent a diplomatic mission headed by Duarte Fernandes to the court of King Ramathibodi II of Ayutthaya.

Having established amicable relations between the kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Siam, they returned with a Siamese envoy with gifts and letters to the King of Portugal.[26]

Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory.

1550

  Angkor was attacked by Ayuthya Kindom  and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand

 

They were probably the first Europeans to visit the country. Five years after that initial contact, Ayutthaya and Portugal concluded a treaty granting the Portuguese permission to trade in the kingdom. A similar treaty

in 1592

 gave the Dutch a privileged position in the rice trade.

Foreigners were cordially welcomed at the court of Narai (1657–1688), a ruler with a cosmopolitan outlook who was nonetheless wary of outside influence. Important commercial ties were forged with Japan. Dutch and English trading companies were allowed to establish factories, and Thai diplomatic missions were sent to Paris and The Hague. By maintaining all these ties, the Thai court skillfully played off the Dutch against the English and the French, avoiding the excessive influence of a single power.[27]

 

 1568/69

Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese.

The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years,

 Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time.

 

In 1664,

however, the Dutch used force to exact a treaty granting them extraterritorial rights as well as freer access to trade. At the urging of his foreign minister, the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon, Narai turned to France for assistance. French engineers constructed fortifications for the Thais and built a new palace at Lopburi for Narai. In addition, French missionaries engaged in education and medicine and brought the first printing press into the country. Louis XIV’s personal interest was aroused by reports from missionaries suggesting that Narai might be converted to Christianity.[28]

 

 

 

Siamese embassy to Louis XIV in 1686, by Nicolas Larmessin.

The French presence encouraged by Phaulkon, however, stirred the resentment and suspicions of the Thai nobles and Buddhist clergy. When word spread that Narai was dying, a general, Phetracha, killed the designated heir, a Christian, and had Phaulkon put to death along with a number of missionaries.

The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai.

The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity

1688

When  King Narai  Of Ayyutaya died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed.

 

The arrival of English warships provoked a massacre of more Europeans. Phetracha (reigned 1688–93) seized the throne and expelled the remaining foreigners. Some studies said that Ayutthaya began a period of alienation from western traders, while welcoming more Chinese merchants. But other recent studies argue that, due to wars and conflicts in Europe in the mid-eighteenth century, European merchants reduced their activities in the East. However, it was apparent that the Dutch East Indies Company or VOC was still doing business in Ayutthaya despite political difficulties.[28]

[edit] The final phase

Main articles: Burmese–Siamese War (1759–1760) and Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767)

 

 

Three pagodas of Wat Phra Si Sanphet which house the remains of King Borommatrailokanat, King Borommarachathirat III and King Ramathibodi II

After a bloody period of dynastic struggle, Ayutthaya entered into what has been called the golden age, a relatively peaceful episode in the second quarter of the eighteenth century when art, literature, and learning flourished. There were foreign wars. Ayutthaya fought with the Nguyễn Lords (Vietnamese rulers of South Vietnam) for control of Cambodia starting around 1715. But a greater threat came from Burma, where the new Alaungpaya dynasty had subdued the Shan states.[29]

The last fifty years of the kingdom witnessed a bloody struggle among the princes. The throne was their prime target. Purges of court officials and able generals followed. The last monarch, Ekathat, originally known as Prince Anurakmontree, forced the king, who was his younger brother, to step down and took the throne himself.[30]

According to a French source, Ayutthaya in the eighteenth century comprised these principal cities: Martaban, Ligor or Nakhon Sri Thammarat, Tenasserim, Jungceylon or Phuket Island, Singora or Songkhla. Her tributaries were Patani, Pahang, Perak, Kedah and Malacca.[31]

In 1765,

a combined 40,000-strong force of Burmese armies invaded the territories of Ayutthaya from the north and west.[32] Major outlying towns quickly capitulated. The only notable example of successful resistance to these forces was found at the village of Bang Rajan.

read more info

Friday, June 8, 2012

Cinematic History: Bang Rajan (2004)

 
Bang Rajan recounts a legendary event from Siamese history that exemplifies the hackneyed cinematic altruism of heroism-under-fire. In 1765 Burma invaded Siam (now Thailand) and sacked its then-capital of Ayutthaya. The Burmese army advanced on two fronts, but one column of 100,000 soldiers got held up at the small rural village Bang Rajan. The Burmese general’s assumption that his troops would easily overwhelm the town was a mistaken one. With their livelihood, homes, and very way of life threatened, every man woman and child picked up an axe, cleaver, crossbow, or musket and held off the invading Burmese army for five months.

Directed and co-written by Thai film veteran Thanit Jitnukul, the film tries almost too hard to achieve the status of a Hollywood-style action blockbuster. There is more than a hint of Braveheart-like self-sacrificing heroics, and a few of the buffed tribesmen would not be out of place in a Die Hard movie. Jitnukul makes no attempt to hide the obvious sources of his inspiration, even though it is hardly necessary. In between the impressive battle sequences, it is the collective force of many compelling characters, all engaged in believable relationships with one another, which serves as the dramatic engine driving the incredible tale to the inevitable final battle.

Unlike many historical recreations, this blood-soaked tale has a wonderfully primitive feel to it. No one wears elegant costumes, strolls through stately rooms, or spouts ponderous dialogue. Every effort has been made to convey the harsh reality of the villagers’ lives, rather than glamorize their situation to make it more palatable for the movies. The actors spend every moment covered in dirt, sweat, and gore. This is easily one of the bloodiest, most graphically violent movies ever made, but battle before the gadgetry of modern warfare wasn’t pretty, with close at-hand combat exacting a huge toll on life and limb.

While the faint-hearted might be put off by all the blood, if not the thunderous musical score, there is a great deal of beauty and nobility amidst all the sound and fury.. This commanding 18th-century war epic won 11 Suraswadee Awards (Thai Oscars) in 2000, but it did not receive a stateside release date until 2004. It’s not readily available on cable, but you can find it on stations that specialize in foreign language films.
- by Jonathan Lewis

 
Posted by

After a 14 months’ siege, the city of Ayutthaya capitulated and was burned in April 1767.[33]

Ayutthaya’s art treasures, the libraries containing its literature, and the archives housing its historic records were almost totally destroyed,[33] and the Burmese brought the Ayutthaya Kingdom to ruin.[33]

The Burmese rule lasted a mere few months. The Burmese, who had also been fighting a simultaneous war with the Chinese since 1765, were forced to withdraw in early 1768 when the Chinese forces threatened their own capital.[34]

With most Burmese forces having withdrawn, the country was reduced to chaos. All that remained of the old capital were some ruins of the royal palace. Provinces proclaimed independence under generals, rogue monks, and members of the royal family.

One general, Phraya Taksin, former governor of Taak, began the reunification effort.[35][36] He gathered forces and began striking back at the Burmese. He finally established a capital at Thonburi, across the Chao Phraya from the present capital, Bangkok. Taak-Sin ascended the throne, becoming known as King Taak-Sin or Taksin.[35][36]

The ruins of the historic city of Ayutthaya and “associated historic towns” in the Ayutthaya historical park have been listed by the UNESCO as World Heritage Site.[37] The city of Ayutthaya was refounded near the old city, and is now capital of the Ayutthaya province.[38]

!766

After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766,

1767

after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 

[edit] Kings of Ayutthaya

[edit] 1st Uthong Dynasty (1350–1370)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Chao Uthong
(Somdet Phra Ramathibodi I)

1314

1350

1369 (20 years)

 • First King of Ayutthaya

Somdet Phra Ramesuan (First Reign)

1339

1369

1370 (less than one year — abdicated)

1395

 • Son of Uthong

[edit] 1st Suphannaphum Dynasty (1370–1388)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat I
(Khun Luang Pha Ngua)

?

1370

1388 (18 years)

 • Usurper
 • Former Lord of Suphanburi

Somdet Phra Chao Thong Lan
(Chao Thong Chan)

?

1388 (7 days — usurped)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat I

[edit] 2nd Uthong Dynasty (1388–1409)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Ramesuan (Second Reign)

1339

1388

1395 (7 years)

 • Former King reclaiming the throne
 • Son of Uthong

Somdet Phra Rama Ratchathirat

1356

1395

1409 (14 years — usurped)

?

 • Son of Ramesuan

[edit] 2nd Suphannaphum Dynasty (1409–1569)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Intha Racha
(Phra Chao Nakhon Int)

1359

1409

1424 (15 years)

 • Grandson of Borommarachathirat I
 • Former Lord of Suphanburi, offered crown

Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat II
(Chao Sam Phraya)

?

1424

1448 (24 years)

 • Son of Intha Racha

Somdet Phra Boromma Trailokanat

1431

1448

1488 (40 years)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat II

Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat III

?

1488

1491 (3 years)

 • Son of Trailokanat

Somdet Phra Ramathibodi II
(Phra Chettathiraj)

1473

1491

1529 (38 years)

 • Younger brother of Borommarachathirat III
 • Son of Trailokanat

Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat IV
(Somdet Phra Borommaracha Nor Buddhankoon)
(Phra Athitawongse)

?

1529

1533 (4 years)

 • Son of Ramathibodi II

Phra Ratsadathirat

1529

1533 (4 months)
(usurped)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat IV
 • Child King, reign under regency

Somdet Phra Chairacha
(Somdet Phra Chairacha Thirat)

?

1533

1546 (13 years)

 • Uncle of Ratsadathirat
 • Son of Ramathibodi II
 • Usurper

Phra Yodfa
(Phra Keowfa)

1535

1546

1548 (2 years)

 • Son of Chairacha

Khun Worawongsathirat
(Khun Chinnarat)
(Bun Si)

?

1548 (42 days)
(Removed)

 • Usurper monarch, not accepted by some historians

Somdet Phra Maha Chakkraphat
(Phra Chao Chang Pueak)

1509

1548

1564 (16 years)

 • Son of Ramathibodi II
 • Younger brother of Borommarachathirat IV and Chairacha
 • Seized the throne from usurper
 • Became a monk at Pegu (1564–1568)

Vassal of Burma (1564–1568)

Somdet Phra Mahinthrathirat

1539

1564

1569 (4 years as vassal king,
1 year as king)

 • Son of Maha Chakkrapat and Queen Suriyothai

Vassal of Burma (1569–1584)

[edit] Sukhothai Dynasty (1569–1629)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Maha Thammarachathirat
(Somdet Phra Sanphet I)

1517

1569

29 July 1590 (21 years)

 • Former Lord of Sukhothai
 • Installed as vassal of Bayinnaung of Burma, declared independence in 1584

Somdet Phra Naresuan the Great
(Somdet Phra Sanphet II)

25 April 1555

29 July 1590

7 April 1605 (15 years)

 • Son of Maha Thammarachathirat

Somdet Phra Ekathotsarot
(Somdet Phra Sanphet III)

1557

25 April 1605

1620 (15 years)

 • Son of Maha Thammarachathirat

Somdet Phra Si Saowaphak
(Somdet Phra Sanphet IV)

?

1620 (less than a year)

 • Son of Ekathotsarot

Somdet Phra Songtham
(Somdet Phra Borommaracha I)

?

1620

12 December 1628 (8 years)

 • Minor relative, natural son of Ekathotsarot; invited to take the throne after leaving the Sangha

Somdet Phra Chetthathirat
(Somdet Phra Borommaracha II)

circa 1613

1628

1629 (1 year)
(assassinated)

 • Son of Songtham

Phra Athittayawong

1618

1629 (36 days — usurped)

 • Younger brother of Chetthathirat
 • Son of Songtham

[edit] Prasat Thong Dynasty (1630–1688)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Chao Prasat Thong
(Somdet Phra Sanphet V)

1599

1629

1656 (27 years)

 • Usurper, formerly the Kalahom
 • Rumored to be a son of Ekathotsarot

Somdet Chao Fa Chai
(Somdet Phra Sanphet VI)

?

1656 (9 months)
(usurped)

 • Son of Prasat Thong

Somdet Phra Si Suthammaracha
(Somdet Phra Sanphet VII)

?

1656 (2 months 17 days — usurped)

26 August 1656
(executed)

 • Usurper, Uncle of Chao Fa Chai
 • Younger brother of Prasat Thong

Somdet Phra Narai the Great
(Somdet Phra Ramathibodi III)

1629

26 August 1656

11 July 1688 (32 years)

 • Usurper, nephew of Si Suthammaracha
 • Son of Prasat Thong
 • Half-brother of Chao Fa Chai

[edit] Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty (1688–1767)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Phetracha

1632

1688

1703 (15 years)

 • Usurper, cousin of Narai
 • Former commander of the Royal Elephant Corps

Somdet Phra Suriyenthrathibodi
(Somdet Phra Sanphet VIII)
(Phra Chao Suea)

?

1703

1708 (5 years)

 • Son of Narai

Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Thai Sa
(Somdet Phra Sanphet IX)

?

1708

1732 (24 years)

 • Son of Suriyenthrathibodi

Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Boromakot

?

1732

1758 (26 years)

 • Brother of Thai Sa, Former Front Palace
 • Son of Suriyenthrathibodi

Somdet Phra Chao Uthumphon
(Somdet Phra Ramathibodi IV)
(Khun Luang Hawat)

?

1758 (2 months — usurped)

1796

 • Son of Boromakot

Somdet Phra Chao Ekkathat
(Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Phra Thinang Suriyat Amarin)

?

1758

7 April 1767 (9 years — removed)

17 April 1767

 • Brother of Uthumphon
 • Usurper, Former Front Palace
 • Son of Boromakot

End of Ayutthaya

[edit] List of notable foreigners in seventeenth century Ayutthaya

[edit] Image Gallery

Detached Buddha head encased in fig tree roots

Seated Buddha , Ayutthaya

Seated Buddha, Ayutthaya

 

 

1768

 

The Ayutthaya General Taksin fled southwards, with some of the remaining troops and soon they got many new followers.

 He became the king in 1768 and

 

Thonburi (in present Krung Thep or Bangkok at the waterside of the Chao Praya river) became the new capital city in the Kingdom of Siam.

 

 

 

Taksin and his troops attacked the Burmese troops northwards and successfully chased them away from the country.

Thonburi grew to became a strong but peaceful state for 15 years, but Taksin himself probably started to have megalomania tendencies.

When he proclaimed that he was a reincarnation of the Lord Buddha, his previous supporters had enough.

1782

Taksin was killed in 1782 and his former military advisor, the army general Chakri became the new King of Siam

 

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Hooker, Virginia Matheson (2003). A Short History of Malaysia: Linking East and West. St Leonards, New South Wales, AU: Allen & Unwin. pp. 72. ISBN 1-86448-955-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=6F7xthSLFNEC&pg=PA72&lpg=PA72&dq=Ayutthaya++malay&source=bl&ots=IWjog_W6PG&sig=NKxfDLm13dLnJ6Si72q-F744g5A&hl=en&ei=u7lQSsrsDou4M-2T8e0D&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  2. ^ “The Tai Kingdom of Ayutthaya”. The Nation: Thailand’s World. 2009. http://www.thailandsworld.com/index.cfm?p=213. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  3. ^ Higham 1989, p. 355
  4. ^ “The Aytthaya Era, 1350–1767″. U. S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/thailand/7.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  5. ^ Jin, Shaoqing (2005). Office of the People’s Goverernment of Fujian Province. ed. Zheng He’s voyages down the western seas. Fujian, China: China Intercontinental Press. p. 58. http://books.google.com/books?id=QmpkR6l5MaMC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=zheng+he+mansur+shah&source=bl&ots=IqDNCCxZKu&sig=HEX0vPAjTRnSNZGXuIOt_8gCkzY&hl=en&ei=LsF1SrL5Fo78MeGx-bAM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=zheng%20he%20mansur%20shah&f=false. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  6. ^ Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. Phayre (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. p. 111. 
  7. ^ a b GE Harvey (1925). History of Burma. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.. pp. 167–170. 
  8. ^ Phayre, pp. 127–130
  9. ^ Phayre, p. 139
  10. ^ Wyatt 2003, pp. 90–121
  11. ^ a b “Introduction”. South East Asia site. Northern Illinois University. http://www.seasite.niu.edu:85/Thai/literature/ramakian/introduction.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-03. 
  12. ^ “The National Language”. Mahidol University. November 1, 2002. http://www.mahidol.ac.th/thailand/language.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  13. ^ “Thailand”. Brief Description of the Country and its National/State Government Structure. UN ESCAP. February 12, 2002. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/66ce5Cc8i. Retrieved April 2, 2012. “The traditional government system and social structure in Siam during this period was known as the Sakdina system. All land was owned by the ruler who granted land to members of the royal family and the nobility according to their ranks in the traditional bureaucratic hierarchy.” 
  14. ^ Giles Ji Ungpakorn (April 2, 2012). “Class and politics in Thailand”. Thailand’s Crisis and the Fight for Democracy. Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/66cdtpsbh. Retrieved April 2, 2012. “This was a system of direct control over humans, rather than the use of land ownership to control labour….” 
  15. ^ Bavadam, Lyla (March 14, 2006). “Magnificint Ruins”. Frontline 26 (6). http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl2606/stories/20090327260606600.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  16. ^ “HM Second King Pinklao”. Soravij. http://www.soravij.com/mahauparaja.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h “Ayutthaya”. Mahidol University. November 1, 2002. http://www.mahidol.ac.th/thailand/ayutthaya.html. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  18. ^ “Background Note: Thailand”. U.S. Department of State. July 2009. Archived from the original on 4 November 2009. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2814.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  19. ^ Ross, Ph.D., Kelly L. (2008). “The Periphery of China – Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, and Mongolia”. Freisian School. http://www.friesian.com/perigoku.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  20. ^ a b c Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin (1995). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. 5. Sharon La Boda. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 56. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/18844964044|18844964044]]. http://books.google.com/books?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=Naresuan++freemen&source=bl&ots=REatqifhlS&sig=rBQpvLxkkyykDwU3qjfHTbHOHgw&hl=en&ei=flIgS_fHB4OysgPR8ImACg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Naresuan%20%20freemen&f=false. Retrieved 2009-12-10. 
  21. ^ Sheik Ahmad, Omar Farouk. “Muslims in the Kingdom of Ayyuthaya”. UKM. http://journalarticle.ukm.my/514/1/1.pdf. Retrieved 2012-5-24. 
  22. ^ Indobhasa, Sao (2009). “Buddhism in Ayutthaya (1350–1767)”. Ceylon Journey. http://www.cjourney.info/english/cjarticles/112006/buddhisminayuttaya.php. Retrieved 2009-12-22. 
  23. ^ a b “The Economy and Economic Changes”. The Ayutthaya Administration. Department of Provincial Administration. http://www.dopa.go.th/English/history/econ2.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  24. ^ Tome Pires. The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires. London, The Hakluyt Society,1944, p.107
  25. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky (March 2009). “The Dutch in Ayutthaya”. History of Ayutthaya. http://ayutthaya-history.com/Settlements_Dutch.html. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  26. ^ Donald Frederick Lach, Edwin J. Van Kley, “Asia in the making of Europe”, pp. 520–521, University of Chicago Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-226-46731-3
  27. ^ “The Beginning of Relations with Buropean Nations and Japan (sic)”. Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2006. http://www.mfa.go.th/web/117.php. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  28. ^ a b Smithies, Michael (2002). Three military accounts of the 1688 “Revolution” in Siam. Bangkok: Orchid Press. pp. 12, 100, 183. ISBN 974-524-005-2
  29. ^ “Ayutthaya”. Thailand by Train. 2010. http://www.thailandbytrain.com/Ayutthaya.html. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  30. ^ Ruangsilp 2007, p. 203
  31. ^ Dictionaire geographique universel. Amsterdam & Utrecht: Chez Francois Halma, 1750. p.880.
  32. ^ Harvey, p. 250
  33. ^ a b c Ruangsilp 2007, p. 218
  34. ^ Harvey, p. 253
  35. ^ a b Syamananda 1990, p. 94
  36. ^ a b Wood 1924, pp. 254–264
  37. ^ “World Heritagae Site Ayutthaya”. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. http://www.worldheritagesite.org/sites/ayutthaya.html. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  38. ^ “พระราชกฤษฎีกาเปลี่ยนชื่ออำเภอกรุงเก่า พ.ศ. ๒๕๐๐” (in Thai). Royal Gazette 74 (25 ก): 546. March 5, 1957. http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2500/A/025/546.PDF

[edit] References

[edit] Further reading

  • Smithies, Michael. A Siamese Embassy Lost in Africa 1686: The Odyssey of Ok-Khun Chamman. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1999.

[edit] Dissertations retrieved from ProQuest-Dissertations and Theses on Aug.16,2006

Subject: Art History

Listopad, John A. “The art and architecture of the reign of Somdet Phra Narai.” Diss. U of Michigan, 1995.

Subject: Buddhist literature

Chrystall, Beatrice. “Connections without limit: The refiguring of the Buddha in the Jinamahanidana.” Diss. Harvard U, 2004.

Subject: History

Smith, George V. “The Dutch East India Company in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, 1604–1694.” Diss. Northern Illinois U, 1974.

Subject: Buddhist literature

Chrystall, Beatrice. “Connections without limit: The refiguring of the Buddha in the Jinamahanidana.” Diss. Harvard U, 2004.

Subject:Urban planning

Peerapun, Wannasilpa. “The economic impact of historic sites on the economy of Ayutthaya, Thailand.” Diss. U of Akron, 1991.

[edit] Phongsawadan Krung Si Ayutthaya

There are 18 versions of Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya (Phongsawadan Krung Si Ayutthaya) known to scholars.Wyatt, David K. (1999). Chronicle of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya. Tokyo: The Center for East Asian Cultural Studies for UNESCO, The Toyo Bunko. pp. Introduction, 14. ISBN 978-4-89656-613-0

  •  
    • Fifteenth-Century Fragment – covering roughly AD 1438–44
    • Van Vliet Chronicle (1640) – Translated and compiled by the Dutch merchant. The original Thai manuscripts disappeared.
    • The Luang Prasoet Version (1680) – Ayutthaha History (in Thai)
    • CS 1136 Version (1774)
    • The Nok Kaeo Version (1782)
    • CS 1145 Version (1783)
    • Sanggitiyavamsa – Pali chronicle compiled by Phra Phonnarat, generally discussing Buddhism History of Thailand.
    • CS 1157 Version of Phan Chanthanumat (1795)
    • Thonburi Chronicle (1795)
    • Somdet Phra Phonnarat Version (1795) – Thought to be identical to Bradley Version below.
    • Culayuddhakaravamsa Vol.2 – Pali chronicle.
    • Phra Chakraphatdiphong (Chat) Version (1808)
    • Brith Museum Version (1807)
    • Wat Ban Thalu Version (1812)
    • Culayuddhakaravamsa Sermon (1820) – Pali chronicle.
    • Bradley or Two-Volume Version (1864) – formerly called Krom Phra Paramanuchit Chinorot Version. Vol.1 Vol.2 Vol.3 or Vol.1 Vol.2
    • Pramanuchit’s Abridged Version (1850)
    • Royal Autograph Version (1855)

Some of these are available in Cushman, Richard D. (2000). The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya: A Synoptic Translation, edited by David K. Wyatt. Bangkok: The Siam Society.

[edit] Burmese account

These are Burmese historical accounts of Ayutthaya.

  • Kham Hai Kan Chao Krung Kao (Lit. Testimony of inhabitants of Old Capital (i.e. Ayutthaya)) [1]
  • Kham Hai Kan Khun Luang Ha Wat (Lit. Testimony of the “King who Seeks a Temple” (nickname of King Uthumphon))
  • Palm Leaf Manuscripts No.11997 of the Universities Central Library Collection or Yodaya Yazawin – Available in English in Tun Aung Chain tr. (2005) Chronicle of Ayutthaya, Yangon: Myanmar Historical Commission

[edit] Western account

  • Second Voyage du Pere Tachard et des Jesuites envoyes par le Roi au Royaume de Siam. Paris: Horthemels, 1689.

 

1350

A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by

 

 U Thong or king Ramathibodi

as his name was after he ascended the throne.

Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai became a vassal state of Ayutthaya in 1378.

Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory. Also Angkor was attacked and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand.

Uthong

 

 

was the first Ayutthaya king of the kingdom Ayutthaya

 

 

reigning between 1351 to 1369.

He was also called Ramathibodi I. He was known as Prince U Thong.

He promoted Theravada Buddhism the state religion. He was married to a daughter of the ruler of Suphanburi; and he may also have married a princess connected to the ruling line of Lopburi.

This combination of relationships-to two powerful principalities and to a growing commercial community-represents a least in symbolic form the fundamental strength upon which U-Thong was to base and develop his political ambitions.
by Chris

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why were there so manyThai & Vietnamese ceramics on board a Chinese Ship?

 

 

Thanks to Sten Sjostrand who discovered the Turiang, we got to know that Thai ceramics was BIG business in South-east Asia.

 

The Turiang (named after the kiln-sites in Thailand from which most of the stoneware was produced) was actually a Chinese ship but had Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics on board. It was probably sailing from Ayutthaya, then capital of Thailand to Borneo and/or Sulawesi. With over half the cargo making up Thai ceramics, historians began to reassess the importance of the two major production centres of Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai in Thailand.

The Turiang also tells us that the dominance of Chinese ceramics in export markets during the Song (CE 960 – CE 1276) and early Yuan (CE 1271 – CE 1368) dynasties later faced serious competition from Vietnamese and Thai ceramics (notably from the 14th century onwards during the Ming Dynasty).

 

 Some believe it was due to Chinese potters fleeing the Mongol invasion in northern China for safer pastures in Thailand and Vietnam, implying a transfer of technical know-how of ceramic making from Chinese migrants to their would-be competitors. Some ship builders are also thought to have left China in CE 1371.

It has also been suggested that the decline in Chinese ceramics may be due to the ‘Ming ban’.

The ‘Ming ban’ was a ban imposed by the Emperor Hongwu on all maritime activities primarily to curb piracy activities.

 

Apparently this move was counter-productive and caused untold misery to the coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.

 

This ban not only made it painful for business, it also made it tough for foreigners to visit China.

 

At that time, the only way for foreigners to visit Ming China was via the tribute system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Close Shot of a Celadon plate from The Turiang

 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif.

 

 

Read more about si sichanalai

 

Si Satchanalai National Park :

 

Located 100 kilometers from the town of Sukhothai is one of the most picturesque locations in the entire Sukhothai province known as Si Satchanalai National Park. Spread over an area of around 300 acres, Si Satchanalai National Park is present in Amphoe Si Satchanalai and Amphoe Thung Saliam of Sukhothai province. The Government of Thailand declared this area as a national park on 8 May, 1981. .

 

Sri Satchanalai Historical Park  :

 

Located on the banks of Yom River in Sukhothai province is one of the valuable representation of ancient human life called as the Satchanalai Historical Park. Declared by UNESCO as a world heritage site, Satchanalai Historical Park houses some of the ancient remnants and relics depicting human life, their culture and traditions during Sukhothai and Ayutthaya periods.

Situated 50 kilometer north of Sukhothai city, Satchanalai Historical Park is spread over an area of almost 800 acres and it is located on the outskirts of Si Satchanalai city. Major attractions include ruins of various temples and kilns. Some important temples present inside the park are Wat Chang Lom,  

 

 

 

 

Read more at the next Cd-ROM

The Thailand History collections

Part Thonburi Perios

 

 

 

Refrences

1, King Ramathibodi (King U-Thong)

by Chris,Yo, Jun, Ayaka, Kouichi G11

THE EDN @ COPYRIGHT 2012

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-book In Cd-rom “The Mistery Of Celadon Ceramic”

THE COMPLETE CD WITH FULL ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Mistery Of Celadon ceramic

The study Report Of

Celadon artifact found In Indonesia

 

 

By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

Introductions

I have found some artifact of celadon ceramic In Indonesia, and I met the difficulty in identification the source of that celadon artifact because near same in colour and design

 

 

 especially the incised decoration of the imperial celadon from China during sung dynasty, Yuan dynasty and early ming dynasty.

 

 

 

The Qing dynasty

and

 

Korean celadon more common and easty to identification due to the typical colour nad desaign  will not included  in this study.

The same colour and decorations of the early china celadon  with The Royal high quality Thailand celadon   during Sincanalai, sukhotai and sawankhalok era and from Vietnam during anamis era  made me difficult to identification 

 

type=text
 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif

After study from literature especially the report of Marine Archeologist from the shipwreck ceramin which found in Asean and the sample from celadon ceramic auction in the world, I have succeeded to open the mistery.

 And this are the report of the study special for senior collector s and historian to heklp them in identification their collections and artifact which found in their researching area.

This study still many lack and not complete that is why more info and correction ,also suggestion still need.

Jakarta October 2012

 Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sample Of Celadon ceramic

 China

Northern sung Lung Quan Kiln Celadon

 

 

Southern sung Celadon

 

 

Southern sung Celadon

 

 
 

Malacca Song Dynasty 10th – 13th century Celadon Bowl & Dish Plate

 

Malacca Song Dynasty 10th – 13th century Celadon dish plate, discovered at reclaimation developments projects adjacent seafront Straits of Malacca in early 1970s. Celadon production had a long history at Longquan and related sites, but it was not until the Five Dynasties (907 – 960) and Northern Song (960 – 1127) period that production of scale truly began. In the Northen Song period the Dayao kiln site alone produced wares at twenty – three separate kilns. This being said the era of greatest ceramic production.

The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 – 1279 CE; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy. The Song Dynasty is divided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song. During the Northern Song 960 – 1127 and the Southern Song 1127 – 1279 refers to the period after the Song lost control pf northern China to the Jin Dynasty.

Southeast Asia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The communities in the region evolved to form complex cultures with varying degrees of influence from India and China. The ancient kingdoms can be grouped into two distinct categories. The first is agrarian kingdoms. Agrarian kingdoms had agriculture as the main economic activity. Most agrarian states were located in mainland Southeast Asia. The second type is maritime states. Maritime states were dependent on sea trade. Srivijaya and Malacca were maritime states.

Srivijaya had established suzerainty over large areas of Sumatra, western Java and much of the Malay Peninsula. Dominating the Malacca and Sunda straits, Srivijaya controlled both the spice route traffic and local trade, charging a toll on passing ships. Serving as an entrepot for Chinese, Malay, and Indian markets, the port of Palembang, accessible from the cost by way of a river, accumulated great wealth. Envoys traveled to and from China frequently.

 
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Six dynasty celadon

 

 

 

Yuan dynasty celadon

THE BIGGER YUAN CELADON DOUBLE FISH PLATE”

FOUND AT WEST SUMATRA

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West Java small cup

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ming Dynasty celadon

 

 

Korean Celadon

 

 

 

 

 

Thailand

Si-Satchanalai celadon

 

type=text
 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif

Sawankhalok celadon

Vietnam

Anamis celadon

 

 

LITERATURE STUDY

Si-Satchanalai celadon

 

Turiang:

a 14th century Chinese shipwreck,

 

This article was first published in “Southeast Asia – China Interactions” which was published by the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 2002.

Articles selected by Dr. Geoff Wade with foreword by Wang Gunawu.

 

upsetting Southeast Asian ceramic history

By Sten Sjostrand

Edited: Dr. Geoff Wade

Photographs, sketches, maps and images: Sten Sjostrand

 

Introduction

 

The Turiang is one of several 14-16th century wrecks discovered in the South China Sea by Sten Sjostrand.

 

All carried ceramics and offer new insights into this glorious period of maritime trade in Southeast Asia, and in particular into the history of Thai ceramics.

 

The Turiang was a Chinese ship with a multinational cargo of Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics, apparently heading for Borneo and/or Sulawesi.

 

The wreck is tentatively dated to AD 1305-1370. This is one of the earliest shipwrecks yet discovered with Thai export ceramics.

 

The find prompts a reassessment of the relative importance of the two major production centres at Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai. It also proves that almost-identical black underglaze ware was available simultaneously from Sukhothai and Vietnam.

 

 

Turiang’s ceramic significance

 

 

 

The Turiang cargo suggests that:

 

Decorated underglaze ware from Thailand and Vietnam was popular before Chinese blue-and-white

 

 

 

 

 

 

Celadon Chinese celadon guan

 

 

 

 

1.1328 is the latest estimate for the date of first export, to the Middle East, by Liu Xinyuan of the Ceramics Archaeological Research Institute at Jingdezhen in China. Liu Xinyuan, op.cit., 1999.

 

2.Jeremy Green and Rosemary Harper, 1987, op.cit., fig 15.

 

3.Common features of the Turiang and Longquan plates include a bracket-type mouthrim, accented with incised lines which follow their shape on the flattened part of the mouthrim; an inward-slanting footrim, covered with glaze; and wide striations on the interior walls.

 

Dating

 

The Turiang‘s multinational cargo both challenges the chronology of Thai ceramics and presents its own dating puzzle.

 

 One intriguing issue is the absence of blue-and-white porcelain from either China or Vietnam, and the large load of Chinese celadon.

 

Could this wreck be so old that it pre-dates the export of Chinese blue-and-white, now estimated to have started in 1328?(1)

 

Individual dish pictures on the Longquan page of the Nov’01 exhibition.

Longquan celadon’s made in China were fired on tubular supports, identical to those later used at Si-Satchanalai 7. Beta Analytical test report: Beta-130708, June 1999

 

THE “TURIANG ” SHIPWRECK (CE 1370)

Early Signs of China’s Ming Dynasty in Malaysian Waters

 

Among the oldest shipwreck findings in the South China Sea, it was discovered by a Swedish marine archaeologist, Sten Sjostrand on May 1998 about 100 nautcal miles from the nearest land. This ship was found to be from the Ming Dynasty era (CE 1368 – CE 1644). Numerous Sukhotai vases, Sisatchanalai green glazed wares and underglazed fish and flower plates of Thai and Vietnamese origin were found.

These ceramics offered new clues about the maritime trade in Southeast Asia, and in particular into the history of Thai ceramics. The Turiang was a Chinese ship apparently heading for Borneo and/or Sulawesi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why were there so manyThai & Vietnamese ceramics on board a Chinese Ship?

 

 

Thanks to Sten Sjostrand who discovered the Turiang, we got to know that Thai ceramics was BIG business in South-east Asia.

 

The Turiang (named after the kiln-sites in Thailand from which most of the stoneware was produced) was actually a Chinese ship but had Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics on board. It was probably sailing from Ayutthaya, then capital of Thailand to Borneo and/or Sulawesi. With over half the cargo making up Thai ceramics, historians began to reassess the importance of the two major production centres of Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai in Thailand.

Ayutthaya City Founded by King Ramathibodi I (King U-Thong)
12-AUG-2010  

Ayutthaya City Founded by King Ramathibodi I (King U-Thong)

Uthong was the first Ayutthaya king of the kingdom Ayutthaya reigning between 1351 to 1369. He was also called Ramathibodi I. He was known as Prince U Thong. He promoted Theravada Buddhism the state religion. He was married to a daughter of the ruler of Suphanburi; and he may also have married a princess connected to the ruling line of Lopburi. This combination of relationships-to two powerful principalities and to a growing commercial community-represents a least in symbolic form the fundamental strength upon which U-Thong was to base and develop his political ambitions.
by Chris

But in 1568/69

Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese. The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years, Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time.

The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai. The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity but when Narai died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed. After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766, and after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 

The Turiang also tells us that the dominance of Chinese ceramics in export markets during the Song (CE 960 – CE 1276) and early Yuan (CE 1271 – CE 1368) dynasties later faced serious competition from Vietnamese and Thai ceramics (notably from the 14th century onwards during the Ming Dynasty).

 Some believe it was due to Chinese potters fleeing the Mongol invasion in northern China for safer pastures in Thailand and Vietnam, implying a transfer of technical know-how of ceramic making from Chinese migrants to their would-be competitors. Some ship builders are also thought to have left China in CE 1371.

It has also been suggested that the decline in Chinese ceramics may be due to the ‘Ming ban’.

The ‘Ming ban’ was a ban imposed by the Emperor Hongwu on all maritime activities primarily to curb piracy activities.

 

Apparently this move was counter-productive and caused untold misery to the coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.  

This ban not only made it painful for business, it also made it tough for foreigners to visit China.

At that time, the only way for foreigners to visit Ming China was via the tribute system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Close Shot of a Celadon plate from The Turiang

 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif.

 

 

Thailand’s History

 

Prehistoric Time

There has been humans in the South-East Asia region for tens of thousands years. Early, they got their food from hunting and fishing and later on they also became farmers and started to grow rice more than 5000 years ago. Also, one of the first bronze age cultures in the world, was found here.

 

The Dvaravati and Mon period

Theravada Buddhist missionaries came from India to the region in the 2nd century and the Mon and Dvaravati period was a loose collection of Indian city states. It was flourishing until about the 9th century but lasted in a few areas until the 11th or 12th century.

 

The Khmer Period

From about the 8th century the Khmer’s’ started to expand their territory around the capital of Angkor into Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and South China and finally they dominated the region. Lopburi became the Khmer’s head quarter in present Thailand. The influence of Khmer and language, culture, architecture and art was also effecting the whole region at this time. In the 13th century the Khmer domination was weakened from various reasons, such as; bad economy, mutual conflicts and malaria, plague and other diseases.

 

The Sukhothai Period

The Thais became the largest population in the area after the decline of the Khmer empire. Even if Thai states, such as Lanna, existed in the North, Sukhothai is often considered as the first Thai kingdom. The Sukhothai kingdom was founded in 1238 and Intradit became the first king. Forty years later, Ramkhamhaeng became the third king in this era, and he is often considered as one of the most important figures in the Thai history. The Theravada Buddhism became the state religion and Ramkhamheang was the inventor of the Thai written language. The Sukhothai culture was still flourishing and expanded it’s territory. It lasted until 1378.

 

The Ayutthaya Period

A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by U Thong or king Ramathibodi as his name was after he ascended the throne. Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai became a vassal state of Ayutthaya in 1378. Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory. Also Angkor was attacked and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand. But in 1568/69 Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese. The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years, Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time. The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai. The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity but when Narai died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed. After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766, and after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 

The Thonburi Period

The Ayutthaya General Taksin fled southwards, with some of the remaining troops and soon they got many new followers. He became the king in 1768 and Thonburi (in present Krung Thep or Bangkok at the waterside of the Chao Praya river) became the new capital city in the Kingdom of Siam. Taksin and his troops attacked the Burmese troops northwards and successfully chased them away from the country. Thonburi grew to became a strong but peaceful state for 15 years, but Taksin himself probably started to have megalomania tendencies. When he proclaimed that he was a reincarnation of the Lord Buddha, his previous supporters had enough. Taksin was killed in 1782 and his former military advisor, the army general Chakri became the new King of Siam.

 

The Chakri Dynasty (Rattanakosin)

The kings of the Chakri dynasty in Thailand:

 

King Buddha Yodfa Chulalok (Rama I) 1782-1809

Also known as Chao Phraya Chakri. He continued to defend the country against the Burmese troops and he also moved the capital city across the Chao Praya river. The name of the town became:

Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit

The world’s longest place name! It is popular called Krung Thep or The City of Angels. For most foreigners the town is known as Bangkok.

 

King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II) 1809-1824

Also known as prince Issarasundhorn or Phuttaloetla Nabhalai and the son of Rama I. He expanded Thailand’s territory and strengthened it’s position in the area. Also the Englishmen, the Frenchmen and the Dutchmen strengthened their position in the South-East Asia during his regency and they colonized many of the countries around Thailand. Rama II became father of 73 children during his lifetime! (38 boys and 35 girls)

 

King Nangklao (Rama III) 1824-1851

Also known as Jessadabodindra. The oldest son of king Rama II. He increased the trade between Siam and China, defended Thailand successfully against Vietnamese troops and conquered parts of Cambodia and almost all Laos. Rama III also built and restored some of the most important temples in Thailand.

 

King Mongkut (Rama IV) 1851-1868

Also known as Vajirayana. The son of Rama II. Many Thais and historians consider him to be on of the most significant kings of the Chakri dynasty. He prevented England and France from colonizing Siam, with lowered import and export duties. King Mongkut spoke English almost fluently. Thailand was one of few countries in the region that was not colonized by an European state. This is still a fact which makes Thai people proud. King Mongkut got infected by malaria and died in October 1868.

 

Other relevant wrecks

 

To set the context, this is a brief description of the other wrecks investigated by Sten Sjostrand which were carrying Thai ceramics.

 

 The advantage of the point-in-time snapshots presented by shipwrecks in analysing historical development can be seen, with tentative dates, in the following photograph:

 

 

 

 

 

Nanyang –

 c. AD 1380

 

The Nanyang is in Malaysian territorial water, 10 nautical miles from the island of Tioman, which was a popular stop for fresh water on the Southeast Asian routes.

 

The remains of the wreck sit upright on the seabed in 54 metres of water.

 

Excavation is intended, some time in the future. So far the site has been only partially surveyed.

 

The construction details noted so far, which include transverse bulkheads and wooden dowels, suggest a ship of the South China Sea type.

 

The remains indicate that the vessel measured about 18×5 metres.

The Nanyang carried an estimated 10-15,000 pieces of Si-Satchanalai celadon, and does not appear to have had any other ceramics on board. This may have been one of the earliest shipments including celadon plates. These are unusual for the spur marks on their face. Spur marks are also seen on the earlier underglaze decorated plates, but on celadon the disfiguring is more marked, and the practice of stacking with disc-shaped supports was thought to have been discontinued soon after celadon production started. By the time the Royal Nanhai sailed in the mid 15th century, spur marks on celadon are rare. Most of the large dishes among the 420 pieces recovered from the Nanyang display spur marks; only five of the thousands from the Royal Nanhai do. Instead, many pieces from the Royal Nanhai have circular scars on the base from tubular stacking supports; fewer Nanyang plates have these, and when they exist they are of larger diameter than the later examples – a size reflecting the earlier practice of stacking in piles.

The foot-ring of the celadon plates on the Nanyang is tapered inwards and is shorter than on later ware; it resembles the foot-ring of the earlier underglaze black decorated plates found on the Turiang. Most of the Nanyang plates have an undecorated exterior and plain rim, and provide a stylistic bridge between the earlier Turiang and the later Longquan.

The Nanyang also carried very large storage jars, maybe as large as the jars of approximately 260

litres on the Turiang and Longquan - much bigger than those on the later Royal Nanhai.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Longquan – c. AD 1390

 

The Longquan may be one of the largest trading ships of the period yet found. Like the Nanyang, the site has been only pre-surveyed, but suggests a vessel over 30 metres long and 8 metres wide.

 

The ship appears to have been built of tropical hardwood with a typical South China Sea design, and to be largely intact, so may eventually provide invaluable details on shipbuilding.

 

 Located 23 nautical miles from shore (15 from the nearest Malaysian island) and in 63 metres of water, this wreck would be time-consuming and costly to excavate.

 

The Longquan appears to have been fully loaded, and the cargo of ceramics is estimated at 100,000 pieces.

 

Samples collected from the surface include white-glazed porcellaneous bowls from southern China and celadon from the kilns of Longquan;

 

 Chinese ware represents perhaps 40% of the ceramics visible. Another 40% is Si-Satchanalai celadon of an early character, the majority distinguished by a rare bluish glaze unknown on the Si-Satchanalai celadon from other wrecks.

 

The decoration of these pieces is more similar to those of the Nanyang than to the more elaborate decoration of the Royal Nanhai celadon.

 

There are various dish shapes and jars; no jarlets have yet been seen. The remainder of the visible ceramics are Sukhothai ware, including underglaze black decorated plates, with fish and flower designs but not the cakra (solar whorl) motif which seems to have appeared around the mid 15th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The later Xuande wreck has bowls decorated with cakra, but no fish or flowers. No Vietnamese pieces have been found so far on the Longquan.

1/.Sten Sjostrand, 1996, The Royal Nanhai Shipwreck and its Ceramic Cargo, including preliminary report on the excavations to date, written for the Malacca Museum Corporation, unpublished. Sten Sjostrand, 1998, The Ceramic Cargo of the Royal Nanhai. Unpublished. Royal Nanhai discovered 1995; excavation completed 1998.

2.Royal Nanhai wood sample dating by Beta Analytical Inc. Radiocarbon report no. 125179. Conventional carbon age 560+/-50 years BP. Calibrated with the latest available data set and adjusted for additional year-rings of wood sample, seasoning/construction and the likely age of the ship when lost, the date of shipwreck was estimated as AD 1320-1460 at 95% probability.

3.Similar in the use of figures in landscape in scenes separated by cloud outline borders. See Larry Gotuaco, Rita C Tan and Allison I Diem, 1997, op.cit. p 126.

 

The Longquan is tentatively dated on the basis of the Chinese and Si-Satchanalai celadon to AD 1390. Sappanwood from the ship’s cargo will be recovered as soon as possible for radiocarbon dating.

No Chinese blue-and-white ceramics have yet been found on the Turiang, Nanyang and Longquan, which follow each other in time sequence. The earliest occurrence of Chinese blue-and-white will be interesting. These wares are believed to have been extremely scarce on Southeast Asian trade routes during the early Ming dynasty.

 

Royal Nanhai –

 c. AD 1450

 

The Royal Nanhai was a South China Sea vessel carrying more than 21,000 pieces of mature

Si-Satchanalai celadon,

 

which have provided new insights into mid 15th century techniques and developments.

 

The cargo and position suggest that the ship was heading from Ayudhya to Java or Sumatra. The only wreck to have been fully excavated(1), the Royal Nanhai was found 40 nautical miles east of Kuantan in Peninsular Malaysia, in 46 metres of water.

 

The vessel was about 28x7metres, and built of tropical hardwood of the Hopea species, which grows throughout Southeast Asia.

 

Transverse bulkheads were 1.35metres apart throughout the length of the vessel, and the bulkheads and limited remains of the hull planking were edge-joined with wooden dowels. The single layer of hull planking was 8cm thick. (Schematic plan of the site.)

 

Radiocarbon dating(2) of the timber gave a wide date range of AD 1320-1460. Four pieces of Chinese blue-and-white ware found in a hidden compartment next to the keel were similar(3) to others which have been dated to the Jingtai/Tienshun years of the Interregnum period, 1450-1564, and the style of the Thai ceramics also points to a date in the mid 15th century. (Two Vietnamese blue-and-white covered boxes in the same compartment could be dated only broadly as 15-16th century.)

 

4.Sten Sjostrand, 1997, op.cit.

 

5.The Xuande cannon were of Portuguese design, but probably cast in Asia. Portuguese designs and influence may have preceded the arrival of the Portuguese

 

The Royal Nanhai is therefore about the same age as the Pandanan wreck, found in the Philippines in 1993. Both carried Chinese blue-and-white ware of the Interregnum period, but in both cases it was a small percentage of the cargo; 75% of the Pandanan cargo was from central Vietnam. There were four 14th century Chinese ceramics on the Pandanan wreck, two of them blue-and-white, which are assumed to have been part of an early antique trade. From the first exports in 1328 to the mid 15th century, Chinese blue-and-white ware seems to have been a rare commodity. Analysis of thousands of the Si-Satchanalai celadon dishes distinguished one group which had survived in relatively good condition, with a straight foot-ring, and little re-oxidised colouring in the base. These are likely to have come from a particular kiln which had perfected its technique.

 

Besides Si-Satchanalai celadon and black-glazed storage jars, and various Chinese blackish brown glazed jars, a variety of utilitarian earthenware, probably used by the crew, was recovered. No Sukhothai ware was found on the Royal Nanhai, although there was some in the Pandanan cargo.

Non-ceramic finds included bar-shaped iron ingots and conical lead ingots, and large concretions of iron, which appears to have been shipped in a loose granular form, spaced along the centre line of the ship. The iron shipment must have weighed at least 20 tonnes. Traces and imprints of woven bamboo on the iron ore indicate that it was packed in bags. The Turiang appears to have carried similar granular iron, but no ingots of any kind. Conical lead ingots were found on the Nanyang and Longquan sites.

The hidden compartment contained exquisite items: a carved ivory sword handle (with traces of the vanished blade originally visible on the seabed), a cylindrical lacquer box and cover incised with floral designs, and an elephant-shaped bronze seal with a moon-hare impression.

 

 

 

 

Xuande –

c. AD 1500-1520

 

The Xuande site, which is 30 nautical miles north of the Malaysian island of Tioman, in 53 metres of water, offers no evidence of a ship’s structure.

 

The outline of the finds produced an acoustic image of a vessel approximately 28×8 metres in size, but site investigation produced no evidence of timber. Scattered ceramics on the surface of the seabed outlined the shape of a wreck, as did side-scan sonar, but the finds extended only a few inches into the muddy sea floor. Despite extensive scanning with a sub-bottom profiler and a magnetometer, plus probing three meters into the sea bed with water jets, no wood fragments at all could be found.(4)

 

The ceramics recovered include Chinese blue-and-white porcelain and monochrome white-glazed ceramics, and Si-Satchanalai and Sukhothai underglaze black decorated ware.

Seven of the Chinese pieces display the reign mark of the emperor Xuande (1426-1435), but two cannon imply that the wreck post-dated the arrival of the Portuguese in Asia(5), and date the wreck to the early sixteenth century. The ceramics may have been commemorative, as Xuande-reign pottery was highly regarded, rather than early counterfeits. The Sukhothai samples, with the ‘solar whorl’ motif believed to be from the later years of the Sukhothai kilns, confirm this later date

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shipwreck treasure In Malaysia

Sunken Treasure Uncovered

 

 

Mention the country Malaysia, people will probably tell you about the gastronomic delights of Penang, the Portuguese / Dutch ruins of Malacca and the orang-utans of Sarawak. Visitors here may rant about the captivating corals of Pulau Redang and white pristine beaches of Tioman. Talk exploration, there’s the National Park of Pahang

and the enchanting Mount Kinabalu. Famed for its lime-stone hills, Ipoh is also known for its beautiful women folk, which also happens to be the birth place of former Bond-girl, Michelle Yeoh.

 

By the way, the world famous shoe designer, Jimmy Choo is also Malaysian, did you know that?

Yeah, all the stuff associated with this charming place called Malaysia is nice and each topic richly deserves a separate lens. But today, I’d like to talk about Malaysian treasures.

 

No, not of the legal tender kind but in the form of artefacts salvaged from the bottom of the South China Sea and the Malacca Straits.

 

They are now on display at the National Museum of Malaysia and will be there for the remaining of 2011. I took some shots and thought of sharing them with you.

It’s been said that shipwrecks are like time capsules. The things they leave behind tell you a bit about the past; yup, we’re talking history here. Having said that, I’m sure you’d agree that unless you have a PhD in archaeology specializing in ancient Asian civilization, looking at shipwreck remains may not tell you very much.

 

Good thing though the museum provided some information on the ships and the exhibits so your’s truly didn’t look like a complete ignoramus.

 

That plus other people’s views on the subject (and my, ahem.. basic knowledge of Malayan history) sort of heightened my appreciation for shipwrecks (that didn’t sound quite right, did it?

 

What I really meant was my deepest sympathies for those who perished, but I appreciate the evidence they left behind).

 

Table of Contents

  1. 1.    WHAT LIES BENEATH THE MALAYSIAN SEAS?
  2. 2.    Malaya History in Brief
  3. 3.    A Ring-handled Storage Urn
  4. 4.    THE “TANJUNG SIMPANG MENGAYAU” SHIPWRECK (CE 960 – CE 1126)
  5. 5.    Who were the Songs ?
  6. 6.    EMPEROR TAIZU (CE 960 – CE 976) OF THE SONG DYNASTY

More

1.WHAT LIES BENEATH THE MALAYSIAN SEAS?

2.Malaya History in Brief

3.A Ring-handled Storage Urn

4.THE “TANJUNG SIMPANG MENGAYAU” SHIPWRECK (CE 960 – CE 1126)

5.Who were the Songs ?

6.EMPEROR TAIZU (CE 960 – CE 976) OF THE SONG DYNASTY

7.THE “TURIANG ” SHIPWRECK (CE 1370)

8.Why were there so manyThai & Vietnamese ceramics on board a Chinese Ship?

9.Close Shot of a Celadon plate from The Turiang

10.Video on Shipwreck Expeditions in Malaysia

11.Books on Pottery

12.Books on Ceramics

13.THE “NANYANG” SHIPWRECK (CE 1380)

14.Close Shot of a Storage Jar from the Nanyang

15.THE “LONGQUAN” SHIPWRECK (CE 1400)

16.Celadon Jars from the Longquan

17.Books on Treasure Hunters

18.Books on Shipwrecks

19.THE “ROYAL NANHAI” SHIPWRECK (CE 1460)

20.Lacquer Box from the Royal Nanhai

21.Video on The Royal Nanhai Expedition

22.THE “XUANDE” SHIPWRECK (CE 1540)

23.Bronze Bangles from The Xuande

24.Blue & White Arabic-style Ewer from The Xuande

25.A little bit about the Emperor Xuande of The Ming Dynasty

26.Some Information on Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho)

27.Books on Malaysia

28.Books on Chinese Civilization

29.Books on South-east Asia

30.THE “SINGTAI” SHIPWRECK (CE 1550)

31.Covered box from the Singtai Shipwreck

32.THE “NASSAU” SHIPWRECK (CE 1606)

33.A bottle from The Nassau

34.The Admiral who led the Dutch fleet in the “Battle of Cape Rachado”

35.THE PORTUGUESE ADMIRAL WHO LED THE INVASION OF MALACCA (CE 1511)

36.AMONG THE BEST BEACHES AND DIVE SITES IN THE WORLD

37.Best Diving Spots and Beaches in Malaysia

38.THE “WANLI” SHIPWRECK (CE 1630)

39.Joss Stick Holder salvaged from the Wanli Shipwreck

40.Video on Wanli Expedition

41.The Emperor Wanli (CE 1563 – CE 1620)

42.THE “RISDAM ” SHIPWRECK (CE 1727)

43.A Model of “The Risdam”

44.THE “DIANA” SHIPWRECK (CE 1817)

45.BIG BIG MONEY FROM SHIPWRECK SALVAGE WORKS !!!

46.How to Scuba Dive

47.Scuba Diving

48.Various figurines found from the Diana Shipwreck

49.A Model of “The Diana”

50.The Qing Dynasty (CE 1644 – CE 1911)

51.THE “DESARU” SHIPWRECK (CE 1830)

52.Blue and white dish from the Desaru Shipwreck

53.Video on Desaru Expedition

54.THE “RANEE” SHIPWRECK (CE 1923)

55.MALAYSIAN PEOPLE TODAY

56.New Guestbook Comments

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WHAT LIES BENEATH THE MALAYSIAN SEAS?

Unravelling the Secrets of The Past

 

 

Malaya History in Brief

 

 

I’ll tell you a little bit about Malayan history. Not that all these shipwrecks are tied to Malayan history. But I was hoping to give you a glimpse of the events that took place here when these shipwrecks occured off our shores.

 

But I’ll keep it short so as not to bore you.. Also please note that the town Malacca is often quoted because a lot of stuff happened here. It’s like the icing of the Malayan cake, get it? So please don’t confuse Malacca with Malaya. One is a town, the other is an entire country.

Imagine a primordial civilization where the early Chinese, Arab and European merchant ships converge in this tropical port-town called Malacca and carrying on board spices, precious stones, silk, porcelain, food stuff and even luxuries such as kingfisher feather, elephant tusks, rhinoceros horns and pearls from the region.

 

Hundreds of Chinese “junks” dot the Malacca Straits and dozens of sail ships ferry traders and missionaries to our shores.

 

Looming in the distance, a darker picture emerges; a fleet of Portuguese warships laden with canons prepare for an all-out invasion of Malacca (CE 1511).

 

They capture Malacca after a fierce battle with the Malacca Sultanate, which later goes on to establish the Johor Sultanate. The Dutch, equally tempted to control this lucrative trade route subsequently overthrows the Portuguese with the help of the Johor Sultanate (CE 1641).

 

But the Dutch then surrenders Malacca to the British (CE 1824) who then rules the British colonies of Singapore, Penang and Malacca (CE 1826 – CE 1946).

 

And finally, the Second World War; the British relinquishes power to the Japanese without a fight but reclaims it three years later. That’s Malayan history condensed. After gaining independence from the British in 1957 it became Malaysia..

Those were the days when this peninsula was known as “Tanah Melayu” which is translated to English as “Malay Land” or simply “Malaya”.

 

From the writings of the Greek mathematician and geographer, Claudius Ptolemy (CE 90 – CE 168), we know that the early Europeans traversed our waters sometime in the first century.

 

The Chinese are also believed to have sailed our seas during the Han Dynasty (BCE 206 – CE 220) and had trade ties with the Roman Empire. That’s a long way back.

 

And the fact that Malacca Straits was part of the most happening trade route in the early days (known as the “Silk Road”), can you imagine the amount of maritime traffic here?

 

And considering the perils of sea travel; storms, pirates, treacherous reefs, people dozing off at the wheels, many poor souls must have succumbed to the dangers.

 

Over two thousand years of maritime trade, the ocean floor of the South China Sea would have become a graveyard of numerous shipwrecks.

 

The actual number of shipwrecks here is anyone’s guess. A Malaysian Minister recently announced there’s been 75 reported shipwrecks in our waters alone, and many more were not reported.

 

 Hmm… think about all the wreckage still lying there just waiting to be discovered? By the way, some of the shipwrecks discovered was as recent as in 2003, so I won’t be surprised if another discovery is made pretty soon.

Before I digress further into outer-space, let me get back to the topic at hand which is to show you the items salvaged from the Malaysian seas.

 

 I’ve arranged the photos in the chronological order of the shipwreck events with accompanying notes of the wreckage and recovered items.

 

To get a perspective of the TIMES during which these mishaps took place, I have included snippets of other information I thought was relevant.

 

 

 

 

A Ring-handled Storage Urn

An Antique Featured in The Exhibition

 

THE “TANJUNG SIMPANG MENGAYAU” SHIPWRECK (CE 960 – CE 1126)

The oldest shipwreck discovered from Malaysian waters

 

 

The wrecksite was found by a local fisherman in 2003. It was located 700 meters from the shores of Tanjung Simpang Mengayau, Kudat, Sabah. under 12 meters of water.

 

The artefacts included bronze gongs and ceramic wares believed to originate from the Song Dynasty of China (CE 960 – CE 1276).

 

This ship may have been sunk by strong north-east monsoon waves and then broken up almost instantly as the pounding waves smashed it against the coral rocks . Little remains of the timber that made up the ship.

 A sample was sent for analysis and the results indicated that it came from a tree species only found in temperate climate, which suggests that the ship was built in China

There was also extensive looting, so that may explain the limited items on display (couldn’t see any bronze gongs!).

 

 

Who were the Songs ?

 

 

This ewer has been fired with an olive green glaze and is appears to come from the Northern Song Dynasty of China.

Now a little background on the Songs. Who were they? Sources say they were the most advanced society of their time. That was around CE 1000. Credit goes to them for advancing international trade even with people from as far as the Arabian peninsula and east Africa.

 

They were also leading in the technological fields of agriculture, iron-workings and printing.

 

Not only that, they initiated an orderly system of government administration. May not be a big deal today, but people actually had to pass public examinations to get jobs as government officials.

But sadly, I read that the practice of binding feet of women flourished during the Song Dynasty (although it started with its predecessors, the T’angs).
I’m not getting into the details of binding little girls feet…it’s simply too ugly to describe.

EMPEROR TAIZU (CE 960 – CE 976) OF THE SONG DYNASTY

 

This emperor was responsible for unifying China, establishing a central government with an effective system of administration, promoting technological innovation and foreign diplomatic relations.

 

 

 

Indonesian Shipwreck treasure

 

A mind-bogglingly huge treasure trove found on a 1000-year-old shipwreck by Indonesian fishermen is going on sale in Jakarta Wednesday.

 

It’s the biggest treasure ever found in Asia, and comparable to the most valuable shipwreck ever found period, the Atocha, an early 17th century Spanish vessel found off the Florida coast.

On sale will be 271,000 individual pieces, including precious gems, Iranian glassware and Imperial Chinese porcelain all dating back to the first millennium A.D. The estimated value of the auction is a staggering 80 million dollars.

The pieces include the largest known vase from the Liao Dynasty (907-1125)

 

 

 

 

 

INDONESIA TREASURE SALE IN SINGAPORE CENTURY 10 Indonesia Treasures Worth 720 Billion Found In North Cirebon.

Treasure recovered from a ship that sank in the waters of Indonesia 1,000 years ago, eventually to be sold. This happened eight years after the goods from the 10th century AD were found.

 

Approximately 250 thousand objects, including ceramics, crystals, gems and gold were discovered by divers in Cirebon, West Java. Now, some of these treasures will be sold in Singapore. Two years earlier, these treasures auctioned in Indonesia failed in 2010 because there are no takers.

 

Treasure is estimated to be worth around Rp 720 billion. The existence of the treasure was originally revealed by the fishermen who found the wreckage of a ship as far as 187 feet below sea level.

According to Luc Heymans, director of Cosmix Underwater Research Ltd.., A company based in Dubai who raised these treasures from the sea, a remnant is the greatest treasure ever found in Southeast Asia in terms of quantity and quality.

 

Treasure worth Rp 720 billion was taken from shipwrecks in the waters of the Java Sea, north of Cirebon, by Paradigm PT Putra Sejahtera (PPS) in collaboration with the Cosmix Underwater Research Ltd (Cosmix).

 

Treasure hunters from Belgium, Luc Heymens, which is involved in the project says it needs to dive 22 thousand times to transport the treasure from the ocean floor within the period February 2004 until October 2005.

Belgian treasure-hunter Luc Heymans said the haul was one of the biggest found in Asia and was comparable to the most valuable shipwreck ever found anywhere, that of the Atocha, a Spanish vessel which sank off Florida in 1622

Items that are on sale include rubies, pearls, gold jewelry, rock crystal from the Fatimid, Iranian glassware and porcelain from China’s imperial heritage beautifully around the year 976 AD

Details of the auction treasures include the largest vase from the Liao Dynasty (907-1125), ceramic Yue Mise of the Five Dynasties era (907-960) with a special green color to the Emperor. There are also 11 000 pearls, 4,000 rubies, 400 sapphires and more than 2,200 red agate.

And

 

 famous Yue Mise wares from the Five Dynasties (907-960), with the green colouring exclusive to the emperor.

 

Around 11,000 pearls, 4,000 rubies, 400 dark red sapphires and more than 2,200 garnets were also pulled from the depths by [Belgian treasure-hunter Luc] Heymans and his team of international divers.

 

It took 22,000 dives to bring it all to shore. There was a great deal of trade between Arabia, India, Java and Sumatra back then, but even so, whoever was on that ship must have been a big shot. Heymans speculates that all the Imperial porcelain suggests there was an ambassador on board. There was so much of it that when he first dove to the site, all he could see was a mountain of porcelain, no wood from the ship structure at all.

Recovering the treasure turned out to be the least of Heymans’ difficulties. He had arranged permits for the excavation and retrieval of the shipwreck, but the Indonesian police still arrested two of the divers. They stayed in jail for a month while Heymans worked out the problem. Meanwhile, other treasure-hunters tried to poach the find, the Indonesian navy got all up in his grill and the government spent a couple of years drafting new legislation to deal with the discovery.

Finally he cut a deal: the Indonesian government declared some of the treasure national heritage and therefore not salable, and it gets 50% of the sale proceeds from the rest of the treasure. So Heymans and his backers will have to settle for a mere $40 million at minimum.

Source  under Medieval, Treasures.

Red more

“At the time there was a lot of trade going on between Arabia and India and coming down to Java and Sumatra,” said Heymans, who led the salvage effort and subsequent battles with Indonesian officialdom to bring the treasure to light.

“But  we think there must have been an ambassador on board because so many pieces are imperial Chinese porcelain.”

Descending for the first time onto the wreck site north of Cirebon, West Java, in 2004, the veteran diver said he couldn’t believe what appeared out of the gloom on the sea floor.

“The site was 40 metres (130 feet) by 40 metres and it was just a mountain of porcelain. You couldn’t see any wood,” he said.

And  not just any porcelain. The pieces include the largest known vase from the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) and famous Yue Mise wares from the Five Dynasties (907-960), with the green colouring exclusive to the emperor.

Around 11,000 pearls, 4,000 rubies, 400 dark red sapphires and more than 2,200 garnets were also pulled from the depths by Heymans and his team of international divers.

It took 22,000 dives to bring it all up but Heymans said the salvage work, from February 2004 to October 2005, was the easy part. “All the major problems began after we got the stuff on shore,” he said.

The police arrested two of the divers even though Heymans’ company, Cosmix Underwater Research Ltd., and his local partner, Paradigma Putra Sejathera PT, had painstakingly arranged survey and excavation licences.

The divers spent a month behind bars before the mix-up was resolved.

There were also run-ins with the Indonesian navy, efforts by rivals to move in on the wreck, a year of litigation and two years of waiting while Indonesia drafted new regulations to govern such work.

Some of Heymans’ backers who covered him to the tune of 10 million dollars began to worry that their investment would be lost at the bottom of the Java Strait, he said.

“I feel some relief now because so many people told me I would never be able to get the permits and get the stuff out of the country,” he said. He adds, however, that it was one of the most difficult ordeals of his career.

By coincidence, officials last week said another treasure hunter who is well-known to Indonesia, Michael Hatcher, is under investigation for allegedly plundering valuable Chinese porcelain from a new wreck.

Marine and Fisheries Ministry official Adji Sularso said the probe came after authorities seized 2,360 items dating from the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) which Hatcher was allegedly trying to smuggle out of the country.

The porcelain was loaded in two ships that were intercepted in waters off West Java in September, he added.

No charges have been laid but police said Friday that Hatcher was a fugitive and alerted border officials to block him from attempting to flee the country. His current whereabouts are unknown.

Hatcher, who was reportedly born in Britain but grew up as an orphan in Australia, is believed to have made 17 million dollars from auctioning gold ingots and 160,000 pieces of porcelain salvaged from wreck found in the Riau islands in the mid-1980s.

Under the terms of Heymans’ arrangement with the Indonesian government, which declared some of his treasure to be of national heritage, the state will take 50 percent of the proceeds of Wednesday’s auction.

The remainder will be shared among the salvagers.

The auction will be conducted by the Indonesian government, bidders will have to front up a deposit of 16 million dollars to take part and the artefacts will be sold as a single lot. The deadline for registration is Monday.

“We hope to get more than 80 million dollars — it all depends on how the auction runs,” Marine and Fisheries Ministry official Ansori Zawawi said.

Bidders are expected from China, Singapore, Japan and Taiwan, he added.

 

CONCLUTION

 

1. The Turiang also tells us that the dominance of Chinese ceramics in export markets during the Song (CE 960 – CE 1276) and early Yuan (CE 1271 – CE 1368) dynasties later faced serious competition from Vietnamese and Thai ceramics (notably from the 14th century onwards during the Ming Dynasty).

 

2. Some believe it was due to Chinese potters fleeing the Mongol invasion in northern China for safer pastures in Thailand and Vietnam, implying a transfer of technical know-how of ceramic making from Chinese migrants to their would-be competitors. Some ship builders are also thought to have left China in CE 1371.

3. It has also been suggested that the decline in Chinese ceramics may be due to the ‘Ming ban’.

The ‘Ming ban’ was a ban imposed by the Emperor Hongwu on all maritime activities primarily to curb piracy activities.

 

Apparently this move was counter-productive and caused untold misery to the coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.

 

This ban not only made it painful for business, it also made it tough for foreigners to visit China.

 

4.At that time, the only way for foreigners to visit Ming China was via the tribute system.

 

5,Imperial Five dynasty Celadon

 

 

 

THE END @ COPYRIGHT @ 2012