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The  Past Remembrance
Valley aunt (Old Man)

by Du Xinxin
 January 22, 2012

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It was reported that forced migration, immigration is bundled with both hands, so going to the toilet convenient to be called “relieve themselves. Grandfather Li Zhaofu

 

A
The mother to Kotofusa go, I escaped to the backyard, slipped into the rehearsal hall of the dance team.
The great room, rectangular, floor ground, hop on the pound ring. Both sides are posted on the wall of the large mirror, mirror indomitable spirit. The other two walls, window stood wooden bars. Sisters dance team wearing black or white clothes and one hand on the bar, feet to write into a shape. Along with the piano, squat, got up, squat, and then got up. Stretching at the waist, rotating fauna. Very cold day, but each sister’s hair wet. Dance team guidance valley aunt hands behind, standing in the middle. Every now and then, she shouted, “gold Yan’er, your actions are not in place, over again.” “Yunqiu, how is it you, legs down, heavy.” Gu aunt did not talk much, probably her most love that is “again”, so the sisters behind called her ‘heavy’ old lady.
Valley aunt looked white, particularly long legs. She can leg lifted high, very low waist, turned around, and a Young arm, without some difficulty doing special ‘range of children’. She jumped up and, like a doe. In fact, she is not at all old, more like a ‘wife’. Every weekend, the soldiers can not wear the uniform, she always dressed in black, and surrounded a particularly long black scarf. Black scarf to her face Chende whiter, the eye is particularly bright, yellowish hair, wisps curled floating scarves total. Her walk particularly fast nor greet people meet in the yard, I saw a black scarf floated.
At this time, the valley aunt said, “Jiang Tingting, turn your small child is not enough …” Oh, Jiang Tingting sister had a bad today. Seven tonight I accompany you to practice. “
However, it happened, but why put the film in the yard that night. In that time, a movie is a big happy event. Several days ago, a movie news spread this news like a block containing the sugar in your mouth, but than sugar by eating sweet several days, has been sweet to curtain. Once, I heard the night watching movies, happy grabbed a girl said, “I told Hello, I’m playing with you,” she snorted loudly, I push, supercilious children doubled: who and who does not play with? “That girl is among us Tiaopi Jin children dance the best, so she has the right to declare a” I do not like Hello “or” I do not take you to play “I often she announced of the column. The message of a movie so too I am happy, actually first unrequited love. I must go to the movies, so I’ll Jiang Tingting sister night practice, I forgot.
 
Two
In May 1966, the school suddenly not in class. Some of the teachers and the students were affixed criticism of the posters, first dean, and then align the counselor of the Young Pioneers of the brigade. Our class teacher stickers, write what it? Copied slogan. Later Let paste posters of teachers have also posted posters. Still later, principals are put up posters. Did not put up a poster, I only know that his poor health, the old Red Army was the army in the 1920s, and criticize him what? Can not remember. The posters have been affixed, seems to have been to be attached, but the school announced holiday.
Not to holiday on the holiday, I am very pleased, and I believe that most of a similar age, children are very happy. In fact, says a pleased inaccurate, it should be said excited, short days and very different, this is not the same as the day people are excited about.
After the holiday, the mother will not let me casually out. In fact, I have no traffic pocket money, in addition to stay at home, it is impossible to go anywhere. Every night, some people come back to work on the outside. Laundry vegetables, I can hear some outside things: the Red Guards, raid, cut long identified, cutting the high-heeled children shoes, shave the yin and yang of the head. Been hit, I heard that he / she is counter-revolutionary, covered in blood. People were killed, like a female middle school affiliated to the Red Guards, the man on the Tiananmen Square. Upstairs near jumped out of a person, the mats cover the face of the deceased, next to a pool of blood. The tweeter broadcast majestic song, everyone rallying cry, the heart is full of pride. Red brilliance of the sun-drenched, for a young boy, all eyes are neither absurd nor cruel, that is some teenager’s temperament – passion, honest, rebellious, and I do not know who the stupid. Perhaps one can say that in antagonistic form of flatter power and passion worship the “God”. Although the country has more than five thousand years of civilization, although this is a nation that has long enjoyed a reputation for having “tame”, but in some ways seems always in youth unrest period.
The mother began to worry. One night, she went to a meeting, I sleep. Sleep at night, I heard my mother say: old valley, you look like the anti-rightist campaign, when the advice is to call to the organization and I was just like her dad says, you do not want to say he did not listen to my words , the fight became the right-wing. “” I feel a bit like we still do not speak good, but the anti-rightist political commissar of the head of this even political commissar of the head of the overthrown. nor practice, all very confusing . “Valley aunt speak. “Then you say, people like us how to do it? Do not participate in it, people will say in response to the call for ‘You want to actively participate in the Cultural Revolution’. Participate in it, was born in poor, give the revolutionary mass organizations bring trouble “” I still want to participate, we participate in the XX Combat Team, where old comrades, not to engage in vandalism we look at the first to write applications. If people do not want us even. “I’ve been in the mother recruit art troupe members heard the word “origin” to hear again, not surprised, but it is the first time I heard the mother,, and valley aunt are born bad.
Seem Since then, Jiang Tingting sister Dali is not me. Previously, she saw me laugh, I sing, and also told me to go play her dormitory. But now she saw me, face taut, without saying a word. I know that she participated in the rebels had not practice.
Three
One day, in the yard, I bumped into a little boy. He probably 6-7 years old, soft scrub, yellow hair attached to the head, like a doll. I asked him, “What is your name?” He said, “I had called Yue Park, now called Valley Park.” “Valley Park? Who is your mother?” My mother is a valley. “” Oh, you valley aunt child and how I’ve never seen How about you? “” I used to live in granny Later, my mother said, and I followed her. “
Valley aunt’s husband Yue Shushu dance team. Annually regiment going to stop the show for some, this time meeting. Meeting during the whole yard, especially quiet, lowering his voice to speak. As if each time he would, to some dingy. Once the adults meet in a small auditorium, I mixed into it. The stage, it was said, ‘XXX and XXX sleeping around, the specific facts of the case are as follows … “audience named stand up. Tingzhuotingzhao Yue Shushu stand up after the Valley aunt came to my house. She cried for a long time, her mother urged her for a long time. Later, I heard that the Valley aunt divorced.
“You see that my father’s name.” It was a big-character poster has been blown mess. I thought, Valley Park, known only to his father’s name, did not know ‘rogue’ words, Yue Shushu few days ago, has been pulling out.
A lot of things happen in the middle of the night. The middle of the night, the great leader issued the latest instructions, drums and gongs to go out and celebrate. In the middle of the night, with a loud shout: “kick out the XXX!” Down XXX! “Will be escorted from the dorm Yishanbuzheng out. They were tied behind their backs with both hands, according to the head away. Initially, these things occur in the middle of the night and I feel terror, but there is an excitement, the cruel excitement counterrevolutionary or bad elements of course the overthrow and kick out, but also to set foot on one foot. There is a middle of the night, Yue Shushu is such a kick out of. Then a midnight Valley aunt is so pulled out. Yue Shushu playing rogue, pulled out. But Valley aunt Why is pulling out? I do not understand.
The unit leadership change as ‘revolutionary struggle’ in-depth. Leadership not called the head of the not called political commissar, and called the Revolutionary Committee, deputy director of people whispering “they Babel”. They say they represent the proletarian headquarters. They are convinced, we are also convinced. Jiang Tingting sister team to participate in the battle is to belong to the the proletarian revolution Command.
Now is the headquarters of the proletariat, although she ignored me, I told her there is no any ill-feeling. However, when you see her, indescribable awkward. She loves to laugh, laugh very nice. Now she rarely laugh face hard-help. Her Yanshao upturned, charming and seductive eyes is upright and awe-inspiring. She slender spindly legs, her waist thicker, big ass.
One morning, I saw to Jiang Tingting marched Valley aunt walking on the road. Valley aunt head down, her head held high, his mouth saying something. I can not hear, but the expression seen Jiang Tingting very angry and very powerful. “Jiang Tingting, turn your small child is not enough … seven tonight I accompany you to practice.” Like a long time ago.
That snow. Because the snow, I remember it was the second day of the Valley aunt struggle. Because that day Snow Valley aunt dragged out, black scarf dragging in the snow on a very, very long. On that snowy night, Valley aunt that black scarf himself strangled. Outbuildings, caretaker Jiang Tingting sleep is Shen.
Years later, I met a man called Yue Yuen, He was very tall, very white beard heavy. His previous name Valley Park.
——-
Description: This is an old article, but it is written above are based on the saw and heard when I was a teenager, focused on characters for convenience to adjust the details, most people faded real name. To commemorate the valley aunt committed suicide due to unbearable humiliation, to keep her real name.
Published in the past Remembrance | Leave a Comment
Grandfather Li Zhaofu
Posted on July 26, 2011 by Du Xinxin
A.
I originally surnamed Li, the ancestral home of Longxi. The Lee family had several migratory, Xianzhi Guangdong Jiaying, after the to immigrants Thursday Duoba County Hubei and Hunan, Sichuan. It was reported that forced migration, immigration is bundled with both hands, so going to the toilet convenient to be called “relieve themselves.

 

 

据我父亲说,旧宅的前门向南开在太安候胡同的东口,后门已是北邻武安候胡同。其门槛很高,黄包车出入需抬起当作门槛的方木。当时大门口挂了“蜀东李寓”的铜牌,还坐着一对石狮子。文革中狮头被砸,80年代中期狮身也消失了。

旧宅分为东西两院。东院建有南北两栋小楼,分别居住着曾祖父母。两楼之间架有长廊,廊上镶着暗花玻璃。院内还有花园,假山和鱼 池。那个鱼池很深,邻家小孩曾不小心跌下进去,后来那孩子的祖母还到池旁烧香祷告。南楼屋檐上的雕塑主要是鹤和鸟。在北京建设高楼之前,我乘无轨电车经过那里,还能望见那些砖泥雕塑。

我祖父母与他们的孩子都住在西院。那里又分成前后两院,前面有回廊环绕的青砖大院,花坛和客厅。后院北房前立着很粗的柱子,柱子上挂着泥塑描金的对联。虽然我父亲不记得写的什么,但他知道那都是曾祖父过整生日时收的寿礼,送礼的人一般是都督,其中有李烈钧和黄郛等。后院的客厅墙上挂着孙中山以及民国议会开会的照片。我父亲说当时只有最尊贵或亲近的客人才会请到这里来。

我大伯李显京年轻时思想左倾,曾参与学生运动,并经常演戏。当时的导演是戏剧家余上沅,大伯与后来知名的演员白杨,蓝马一起演过戏。父亲小时候也参加演出,角色是车夫家的小儿子,白杨曾饰演那个角色的姐姐。

大概在1933或1934年的中秋,李显京因从事学生运动被捕。他被捕时,有一位陈姓女同志来家告知其床下有两网篮共产党的宣传物。我祖母赶快找佣人将它们转移出去,然后又亲自把大伯保出来。保出来的当晚,祖母给大伯化妆,将他打扮成一个老人,然后与他手挽手走出家门,乘火车去天津。当时祖父已在上海,他在报纸上看到大伯被捕的消息,就决定让大伯和大姑去上海。祖父说:“我不反对你们革命,也不反对共产党,但你们要先念书。”

父亲每次来北京都会去看西四的旧宅。2004年,我们再次探访旧居,院门槛还是很高,但院内已是面目全非。门房和长走廊都被辟为住房,小厨房覆盖了整个院子并把走道切割得弯弯曲曲。虽然老住户还清楚地记得带暗花玻璃的走廊,合欢,紫藤树,月亮门,鱼池假山都已无踪迹。我们获准进入东院北楼一层,室内还能看到天花板上的雕花,但也因隔间而被分割。最初住户以为我们是来索要老房子,当我们告知房子早在1935年卖掉,他们齐声说:“卖了好,否则也会被拆迁,已经拆到前面的胡同了。”

虽然那处房子早已非李氏所有,但看到损败至此,仍心有戚戚。离开时,我数了数院门口的电表,一共有16个名字,估计院内至少住着三五十人。

二、

为什么李家要卖掉祖产?主要原因是祖父李肇甫不愿为官,为了维持家计而迁至上海做执业律师。

李肇甫生于1887年。据载其父“风九督教严,肇甫奉命维谨,自幼以孝闻。初入私塾,渐长喜读经史,不屑规规于科举业。时西学东渐,国内译述日 多,肇甫搜求研习,尤浸淫于法学书籍,以为改革政治始基,非倡明无以建新邦也。”(同注一)1905年,李肇甫考取官费生进入日本东京的明治大学法科。同年8月20日,同盟会成立,到会百余人。据黄复生回忆:“孙先生归自欧美,组织同盟会于东京,开大会于赤坂区灵南坂。吾川人与会者熊君锦帆克武,黄君文琴宠章,李君伯申肇甫(时名于通))。”

孙中山于7月30日在赤坂区桧町三番地内田良平宅举行会议,黄兴起草同盟会章程,并当场发展会员。由此推算李肇甫可能于那时就加入同盟会,而同盟会成立时是作为会员参与,而廖仲恺和胡汉民则于同年9月1日加入。

我祖母江伯鸾(字为佩)是安徽徽州人氏,她的父亲与我曾祖父同在山东作官,其官阶高于曾祖,据说曾祖是看上李肇甫的人才而将女儿许配。我祖母并未去日本,祖父回国成亲时,直到入洞房,祖母才看出祖父戴着一条假辫子,由此猜出他是革命党。祖母形容祖父是一个非常白净的光头书生。据说祖父回去成亲时还对曾祖父说: “我把头发还给你。”他的意思是“我把身子还给父母,我去革命了”。很多年之后,他对我父亲说:“我们当时也是革命的,头别在腰带上去干,革命总要死人的。比如去山东济宁府,给黄花岗运军火等。共产党来,对我如何,我也不知道。既然我那时候要革命不怕死,现在也没什么可怕的。”

祖父加入同盟会之后曾担任执行部书记,后来又担任了四川同盟会支部的负责人。据同盟会资料,李肇甫曾任职于同盟本部的书记科。自1907年1月中旬至辛亥革命爆发后,同盟会本部重要职员有外务科的廖仲恺,评议议长汪精卫,议员包括秋瑾等27人。其中与我祖父相熟的有廖仲恺,曾任过本部议员的熊克武,但懋辛和康宝忠。但家与我家是世交,我家与他留在大陆的两个女儿但功涵和但功涛一直有联系,而康宝忠就是康心孚,他二弟康心之的长子康国干娶我大姑妈李显华为妻。

田桐、胡汉民、但焘曾与李肇甫为书记科同事,他们都年长于我祖父,而后来的道路也各不相同。湖北人但焘长于我祖父7年,参加革命时以及其后的经历与我祖父类似。革命后他出任过唐绍仪的国务院秘书,1914年袁世凯推行帝制,他当即辞去一切职务,蛰居上海。其后他也曾参政,但多担任秘书监察等职,后来潜心文史得以善终。同为湖北人的田桐因反对孙中山联俄容共政策与之决裂,因此并未担任过官职,主要是办报和著述,而胡汉民辛亥之后官职最高,在上述几位都退出政界之后,还活跃至1936年去世。

至于为何加入同盟会,李肇甫并未留下只言片语,但同时代的康心如(1890-1969)曾在回忆中提到:“1902年,心孚兄(1884–1917)到西安应乡试回来,谈起戊戌变法维新的经过,谈得眉飞色舞,对康梁无限的敬仰佩服。我弟兄三人取别号,孚兄号素徒,康长素之徒也。我号希任,希从梁任公也。之弟号望复,仰望谭复生也。”(注二)康家当时居于四川彭山,上海出版的报纸要一个多月后才能读到。地处偏僻的年轻人受变法影响是如此之大,更不必说生活在北京的祖父了。

1907年,李肇甫与四川籍同盟会员雷铁崖、邓絮、董修武等在日本东京创办了革命刊物《鹃声》杂志,后被日本当局查封。在日期间,他购买运送军火支持黄花岗起义。李肇甫于1910年从日本回国。据我父亲说,武昌首义之后,祖父曾与另一位革命党人同去济宁直隶州府。他以手枪威逼济宁州府向革命党投降,还逼着知县知州挂白旗。

1912年1月,南京临时政府成立,孙中山任命李肇甫为临时大总统府秘书处总务组长,另一说法是他曾任总统府秘书(同注一)。据吴玉章回忆:“1911年12月2日,江浙方面的革命军队攻克了南京,于是各省代表决定以南京为临时政府所在地。在南京临时政府的筹备过程中,各派势力之间又因为争夺权势,闹得不可开 交。直到孙中山先生于12月末回到上海,才打开了僵局。接着,孙中山先生被推为临时大总统,中华民国临时政府于1912年元旦正式宣告成立。但是,根据临时政府组织大纲的规定,临时政府只设立五个部,粥少僧多,怎能容纳这么多要作官的人呢?这时,有一个叫李肇甫的同盟会员,在总统府秘书处工作,他出身于官僚家庭,懂得旧式官府的那一套组织,于是由他提出一个扩大政府组织的办法来,把差不多所有的人都安置下来了,因此大家都很满意。这个临时政府,既有立宪党 人,也有官僚军阀,但革命党人还是占着主要的地位。”(注三)后来吴玉章接替李肇甫辞去的总务组长一职。据我堂哥回忆,李肇甫与吴玉章关系相当密切。吴到李家来,可以直入我祖母的卧室,并揭开帐帘,高呼“李江伯鸾”。据我查到的资料,不管政治态度,当时的各党派都赞赏我祖父为政清廉为人高洁。当然也有例外,某个与我祖父关系密切的人后来发达了,在回忆录中提及我祖父就颇为不敬了,一阔脸就变,看来是常态。后来我听堂哥说,那人曾在日本嫖妓,并因此找我祖父要钱。

另有野史说,同盟会密谋刺杀宗社党头目、清禁卫军第一协统军咨使良弼时,原打算派我祖父去,但会上有人说李肇甫还没有后代。这时彭家珍站出来说:“我妻子已经怀孕了。”1912年1月26日,彭向良弼投掷炸弹,当场牺牲,良弼被炸成重伤后。临死前曾哀叹:“杀我者好英雄也,真知我也!” “我死,清廷也随之亡也。”

1912年1月28日,国民政府参议院成立,李肇甫由“蜀军政府选任为参议员。照参议院规定:设全院委员,以全院参议员充之,置全院委员长一人,其职位仅次于议长副议长,选肇甫任之。……同年四月,随参议院北迁。”(同注一)

在1912年的政治舞台上,李肇甫是“春秋鼎盛,已誉重一时。”(同注一)他参与了国民党改组。“国民党之改组也,实系遁初(宋教仁)一人主持,而胡瑛、张耀曾、李肇甫、魏辰组及某某君等为之奔走密谋,皆与有大力。”(注四)

1912年2月,为继续制订约法,参院召开了第二次临时约法起草会议。据《参议院议事录》记录,参议院决定将临时约法案先交审议会审议,李肇甫为审议会主席。审议结果,决定将原案内的总统制,增改为责任内阁制。(注九)临时约法的讨论涉及国民政府定都何处,因袁世凯不肯南来,谷钟秀和李肇甫提出定都北京,并在表决时获得多数票赞成,而孙中山和黄兴反对此举。据说孙中山和黄兴得知此事极为生气,当晚就把李肇甫叫去大骂一顿(同注三)。反对定都南京的还有章太炎,宋教仁等,黄兴甚至要带兵去抓同盟会的议员。此事标志着同盟会内部的分裂。

1912年8月16日张振武被杀害。这位武昌首义元勋未因创建共和而战死疆场,却死于革命成功后的政治阴谋。张案遂成为民国史上的奇案。张振武案发后的第三天,参议院开会,讨论相当热烈。议员大多认为副总统以非罪要求杀人,大总统以命令擅改法律,均是违背约法。参院认为此案关系国本,要求维护法律尊严。于是参议员联名质询政府,要求大总统袁世凯与副总统黎元洪予以答复,有些参议员甚至提出弹劾副总统黎元洪,国务总理陆征祥和陆军总长段祺瑞。在参议院的压力下,袁世凯为了保全自己,要黎元洪承担责任。黎不得不从湖北发来长电,命陆军总长段祺瑞到参议院答复。

8月23日上午段祺瑞登台答辩,声言按黎副总统来电,选择可以宣布的内容,只答复质询案所提的七方面问题。实际上他是以张振武为军人为由,不能捕送审判厅,犯罪的事实均在其任军务部时所为,无一事不关系军务,所以军法从事。他欲以军法为借口,绕过国法,其答复显然不能让参议员们满意,导致参议员追问迭至。

参议员李肇莆的追问迭至:“本席只就简单事实质问。请问杀张振武之先,曾开军法会议否?”

段祺瑞:“方才曾经报告,集合高等军官讨论数次。”

李肇甫:“是否开军法会议?”

段祺瑞:“军法会议亦系由高等军官研究罪状。”

李肇甫:“请问开会议之时,究系何日?”

段祺瑞:“本月13日曾经开会讨论,14日亦开会讨沦。且总统亦曾经在座。”

李肇甫:“请问开军法会议,大总统应否在座?”

段祺瑞:“系在大总统府开议,府中房屋皆系毗连,故大总统亦在座。”

李肇甫:“杀张振武之证据,除此湖北两电报之外,尚有何项证据否?”

段祺瑞:“所谓证据,不过即系他所犯之罪状,除此电报之外尚有公文。”

最后段祺瑞说:“总之,现在政府以国家为前提,自不能不以临时之办法。不然,于国家大有危险。至此危险之时,将若何维持耶?手续虽有错误,祺瑞身当其咎,亦未为不可。”

从以上一问一答中可以看出,李肇甫总想将张振武案纳入法律视野来探究,包括军法会议与高等军官会议的区别,大总统作为行政长官是否有权参与审判,杀张振武的确切法律证据等,都是直关法律问题。最后问得段祺瑞露出了破绽,承认“手续错误”。只得一再声明不依法杀张是以国家为前提,不得不如此,否则就有稍纵即 逝之虞。段还表明态度,情愿自己认错,参议院如果能原谅政府就无须再三质问,不能原谅即行弹劾。(注五)

这是一场民主与专制的较量,而孙文在张振武一案中进退失据。“张案发生在8月16日,孙文按原计划于18日北上会见袁世凯。当时很多人劝他取消行程,他不但不接受,还说:“无论如何不失信于袁总统,且他人皆谓袁不可靠,我则以为可靠,必欲一试吾眼光。”到了北京后,袁氏稍加解释,他便轻信了,而且力促颇有 疑虑的黄兴立即赴京。……这些材料表明,孙文当时根本未意识到这是支持还是破坏民主、法治制度的严肃斗争。这是制度问题,只有把各方人士的政治活动都纳入民主与法治的 轨道,让制度管着这些人的手脚,民主共和制度才有可能巩固,而孙文却把它看作某个人‘可疑’或‘可信’的问题。因为认识停留在如此低下的水平 上,他根本没有发表过谴责此案的任何声明,在这么重大的斗争中丧失了民主主义政治家应有的斗志。……没有在张振武案中受到应有教训的袁世凯及其追随着,半年后悍然刺杀宋教仁;孙文又一次处置不当,民主共和制终于被推到名存实亡的境地。”(注六)

1913年,李肇甫回到四川后当选为省第三区众议院议员。他“先后在临时参议院及众议院中,凡有主张,均卓然自见,倾动朝野。又以隶籍国民党,遂为袁世凯所深忌讳。”(同注一)同年,爆发二次革命,他与熊克武一起讨伐袁世凯称帝。讨袁时,熊克武的蜀军已改为革命第五师,李肇甫任师党代表,当时刘伯承是其中的一个团长,因此他与刘伯承也早就相识。二次革命失败后,熊克武则被迫解散军队,逃往日本,“(袁)世凯拘捕国民党籍议员,肇甫亦与其列;时凤九正官通县,与世凯有旧,往避得免。”(同注一)

辛亥革命后,四川成立了蜀军政府,夏之时是副督军。我祖父与夏之时相熟,1934年董竹君在上海与夏之时离婚,由我祖父担任她的离婚律师。这件事在董竹君的 《我的一个世纪》有较详细的记述。那本书后来被拍成电视连续剧,其中有祖父的镜头,我一看真是面目全非。父亲年幼时也与夏之时的家人相当熟悉,称他们的大 女儿夏国璋为八姐。当时流行贺绿汀的《秋水伊人》,夏之时的侄女夏国彬等特别喜欢听我父亲唱这首歌。

1914年,第一次世界大战时,中国议会中分主战主和两派。马君武议员主和,而祖父是主战派。他们开始辩论,马君武辩不过我祖父,他就一边辩论,一边拿手 仗打祖父。祖父边退边辩,马还追着打,后来议院的警察过来干涉。祖父说:“这是我们议员之间的辩论,你们不能干涉。”据说那时候,为了防止议员在辩论时动 武,议院的墨盒砚台都钉在桌上。祖父回家后,祖母打水给他洗脚,看到他的腿都是青紫色,一问才知是被马君武打的。

据我父亲回忆,祖父回家后很少讲话。他的自制力很强,年轻时抽烟喝酒,但30多岁时,突然全都戒了。我祖母喜欢打麻将,她曾和张勋打过牌。祖母还谈起过当时官员交际常去打茶围,其中有妓女出场。当妓女靠近时,祖父就用报纸挡脸道:“我吃醉了。”我父亲是家中幼子,祖父有时抱他坐在摇椅上,边摇边唱日本歌。家中原有记帐的折子,可以拉得很长,他还用折子舞龙给父亲看。父亲长大后,有时写些歪诗,半文半白,而且还是情诗,祖父也会读。祖父的生活简单整洁,非常讲个人卫生。每天清晨,他都在地上铺一张报纸,拿着梳子,头朝地,开始梳头,把所有的头皮屑都梳下来。梳好了,拿去倒入纸篓。收拾干净后,他才吃早饭。早饭一般是牛奶蛋花汤,吃过饭后就坐下来读报,多年如此。祖父还有个外号叫“抠门大爷”,他虽穿得很整洁,但一顶呢帽子戴几十年。后来在上海坐黄包车,呢帽被抢走,他才买了新帽子。有一次孩子们跟祖父外出,碰到站街妓女,祖父用四川话说:“你不就是要钱嘛?”掏出五块钱就匆匆忙忙离去,孩子们都在背后笑。

1915年4月,张培爵密谋讨伐袁世凯,并严厉拒绝袁世凯的利诱,被杀于天津。当局不许人收尸。张培爵即是老同盟会员,曾与祖父同组“乙辛学社”,后来他与学社成员发动了辛亥革命中的重庆起义。祖父和张的私人交往已不可查,但据父辈回忆,当时祖父在北京, 听说此事后即向曾祖借了五百大洋去为张培爵收尸。袁世凯因此而悬赏一千大洋抓捕李肇甫,但他逃脱了。这是二次革命之后,李肇甫再次逃脱袁的抓捕。

讨袁之后,据史料载,祖父曾担任了国民党交际干事,具体信息如下:“袁世凯死后,国会恢复,孙中山同意恢复“国民党”的这个党名,以后改组始终沿用这个名称,就是因为其影响深远。当时选出的干部更是一时之选,总务部主任干 事魏辰组、殷汝骊,干事任鸿隽。交际部主任干事李肇甫,干事覃振、顾维钧。政事部主任干事谷钟秀、汤漪。选举科主任干事杨永泰,干事张东荪、沈钧儒、徐傅霖、罗文干、张耀曾、伍光建、仇鳌等。文事部主任干事杨光湛。政务研究委员会主任干事张耀曾、刘彦,干事冯自由、石志泉、吴铁城、张东荪。这些人学有专长,熟悉欧美和日本的政治、学术,不仅当时是佼佼者,而且在后来几十年复杂多变的中国政局中也都发挥了重要影响。”(同注四)

自1912年任临时参议员和1913当选众议院议员之后,李肇甫于1916年和1922年恢复国会时仍任议员。“五年(指1916年)国会复会,肇甫声采哗哗得如故。”(同注一)1920年,李肇甫任参议会作议长。1922年“曹锟贿国会选举案发生,肇甫联合同志,反对无效,愤走上海……,遂留执律师。”(同注一)据我所知,祖父退出政坛之后,因曾祖父还在世,李家仍居北京。除了居家的排场,还要不时接济姑祖母李小鸾一家。祖父虽为律师,其事务所也颇为有名,但他因普通话和上海话不够好而影响了个人业务。1922—1935年,李家主要靠变卖房产维持家计,1925曾祖父去世之后,祖父又将住家的一部分出租。
自1905年投身革命至1922年,李肇甫已从一个热血青年变为四个孩子的父亲。作为一个革命党人,他曾是反对清朝的密谋者,革命中和革命后的行政法律官员。他还参与了组织公开的政党,而那个政党后来在全国选举中获胜。杜元载主编的《 革命人物志》第十集中曾这样评价李肇甫:“自民国十六年国民政府奠都南京,军政当局多肇甫旧友,乘时宦达,易如反掌。顾每约出任公职,辄以体弱不胜繁剧辞。” 为何拒他不为官?斯人早已逝去,其心态无人可知,我猜也许他看到了政治的黑暗和民主的倒退。

1922年之后,我所知道祖父的主要社会活动是参加孙中山移灵。1925年孙中山去世后,曾停灵北京西山,于1929年移灵南京。移灵时,李肇甫为持绋人之一。我父亲对此还有印象。他说祖父戴着大礼帽,穿燕尾服,孙的棺材是用青天白日满地红包着,有两条很长的黑缎子。据说当时有六十四个人簇拥棺材,包括抬棺和持绋者。持绋人中还有吴玉章,谢无量,赵铁桥等,这三人与李肇甫关系都比较接近。我父亲还记得家中悬挂张善子的画和谢无量的打油诗。

据我祖母回忆,孙中山去世之后,汪精卫和蒋介石曾请祖父去北海公园仿膳吃饭,要祖父出来做官,但他以“丁夫忧”(丧父)婉拒。虽然退出政坛,李肇甫依然被当作“有勋劳于国家资格的”。1925年,段祺瑞摄政,决定召开善后会议。段就此事于元月一日分别致电孙中山,黎元洪,同日又电上海分致唐绍仪,章炳麟,岑春煊,另电李肇甫(伯申)。这件事说明当时祖父虽在上海执业,仍家居北京。父亲的回忆也证实了这一点,他三岁时在北京得肺炎,当时何香凝正好来串门,看到父亲高烧,当即抱他去德国人开的医院,父亲还记得医生的名字叫科里。从那以后,何香凝就成为我父亲的干娘。在上海时,李肇甫与何香凝,宋庆龄,黄炎培等 关系比较密切。1932年,他与黄炎培,张耀曾等人组织了新中国建设学会,出版《复兴》月刊。

1935年,曾祖母去世,祖父遂将北京房产全部出卖,举家迁往上海。这段时间,李肇甫除了做律师,他还去香港与赵铁桥一起搞实业。赵铁桥时任香港招商局长,正当祖父和他准备买一条船时,蒋介石暗杀了赵铁桥。

三、

李肇甫与张耀曾,沈钧儒合办的律师事务所的地点是在上海英租界的白克路大通里。据父亲回忆,虽然祖父是律师,但他又不像一般律师,他不接昧良心的官司。有一次,一个流氓要打个官司,许愿说事成之后,给你一栋花园洋房,但祖父没接。当时李家在上海是租房子,祖母对祖父拒绝那个案子颇有怨言。再比如离婚官司, 我祖父总先劝和。1936年底的一天,我祖父回家,全家当时已经坐定等候他吃晚饭。他走进来,边放公文包,边对祖母说:“今天有案子了。”我祖母问:“跟哪个打呀?”他答:“跟蒋委员长。”那个官司就是中国历史上的七君子案。

七君子被捕后,被押至苏州。据张耀曾日记回忆,1937年4月5日,张耀曾“午前至事务所,候伯申不至。午后始得通电,请其代余赴苏访衡山,谈辩护事。伯申快 诺。朋友患难相扶,可感也。写一信,托致衡山(沈钧儒)。”当日李肇甫等几人就前往苏州探视沈钧儒。沈钧儒在4月9日至沈谦的信中说,“五日伯申偕张、俞、唐三位律师同来,并携有镕西先生函,附有意见,均甚切要。当日有几种决定……我的辩护律师除镕西、伯申外,已商定委任刘崇佑、秦联奎二律师,皆本来极熟之友”。当时沈钧儒有四位辩护律师,虽然张耀曾排名最前,但在实际辩护中发挥主要作用的却是李肇甫、秦联奎(注七)。

张元济也在日记中提到七七事变前后,他与李肇甫,沈钧儒,李公朴等人常有聚餐,并讨论国事,比如1937年9月3日的聚会为“李肇甫做东,共十三人。”

八·一三之后,日本占领了上海的中国地界,祖父于1937年底离开上海回到四川。1938年夏,祖母带着孩子们辗转香港也去了大后方。1939年,李肇甫 被选为四川省临时议会议长,1940年改任四川省政府秘书长。他的改任还有一段故事。 抗战时,国民党退守四川。最初四川的地方势力很大,国民党中央势微,因此蒋介石亲任四川省主席。后来蒋的势力逐渐增大,遂辞去省主席。但国民党中央对四川的地方势力依然不放心,蒋介石就委派当时的行政院长张群兼任省主席。因四川军阀多,张群说:“如果要我做省主席,一定要李伯申当秘书长,否则摆不平。”

蒋介石给李肇甫打了三封电报,最后一封很不客气。电报中说你是党国元老,同盟会员,有什么意见你可以提,现在是全民共同抗战,你不出来不合适。于是李肇甫答应出山,但却有言在先:“只要抗战结束,我就辞职。”

当时“四川省既为抗战根据地,所负兵额粮食重于各省,”李肇甫除大力协调当时的中央政府与省政府之间关系,还于1940年2月与绅粮代表严昌龄等人联名致 电当时的最高部门,对四川和省府当年预算高达1亿元以上提出抗议。要求”中枢体民疾苦,核实紧缩预算,将一切不急之务明令罢免,俾创痛已深之川人得已稍苏 喘息。(注八)在此期间,祖父亦有若干兼职。时人大多兼职兼薪,但他不但拒绝兼职公司,而且义务兼任四川省航空建设委员会主席等职。

祖父担任省秘书长期间,张群遇到棘手的事就让他出面处理。1944年10月底,成都闹学潮。成都市长余中英派警察局长方超亲率警察前往镇压,并打伤学生三十多名,抓捕四十多人。11月11日,成都爆发了学生万人抗议政府暴行的大游行。张群不敢与学生见面,遂派祖父前往。据说他的车子经过时,学生说:“李老太爷的车子来了,不要挡他。”当时四川开议会,有左,中,右,某些国民党右派经常挑衅欺压民盟,作为议长的李肇甫经常要求保护左派,喝止右派。李公朴和闻一多的追悼会也是李肇甫代表张群去参加。据说徐中齐密令特务混入会场 收集黑名单,并在追悼会上打伤张澜,因此受到社会各方面的压力。李就此事质问徐中齐,徐则以“中央指示”来搪塞并要求祖父设法“搁平”。李肇甫在任上,曾保释康岱沙出狱,并应杨叔明和罗宇涵请求,亲自打电话给有关部门保释罗广斌。康岱沙出狱后就前往延安。中共建政之后,她任职外交部,并派驻柬埔寨和罗马尼亚。1980年,北京十一学校的张姓体育老师辗转找到我父亲原来的工作单位,其时我父亲恰好来北京被落实政策。张老师说:“你父亲是我们家的大恩人,曾救过我父亲。”但我父亲自己的问题还未解决,也无心过问细节。

我父亲说,全家都把祖父看作圣人。据我92岁的姑父回 忆:“我老丈人最清白。穿布鞋,蓝布大褂。一个普通办事员来找他办事,他都要亲自送下坡,再九十度鞠躬。我和你姑姑结婚用了他半天的汽车,第二天他就坐黄包车上班。有一次他发现听差写私信使用公家信签,就让他还回去。”对于祖父用车,父亲也有类似回忆。父亲是祖母最疼爱的小儿子,他在灌县空军幼年学校读书 时,祖母坐祖父的车去看他,并把父亲带回家住几天。父亲回家后的次日早晨,就听到祖父问司机:“她到灌县去看我儿子,花了多少汽油。那么我三个礼拜不坐汽车。”当时称为一滴汽油,一滴血。当时的四川人也相当敬重道德文章皆佳的李肇甫,至今八九十岁的人提起他还很敬佩。

抗战结束,张群回南京。我祖父应时任四川省主席邓锡侯的要求,又在省府工作了三个月,于1947年离任。次年1月,国民党政府召开国民大会,李肇甫被选为立法委员。据我父亲回忆,那次并非全是选举,而是被圈选。祖父应立法委员一职而前往南京,当时居黄泥巷。同年8月,由蒋介石提名,李肇甫成为监察院大法官。

据父亲回忆,当时国民党政府设有司法院,考试院,监察院。监察院内设有大法官委员会,大概有十二名大法官。大法官的地位很高,和美国有些类似,比如总统就 职宣誓要由大法官监督,大法官权力有解释宪法的权力,但不直接审案,相对超脱于党派之争。大法官职位高,工资也比较高。当时李家的长子长媳长女都因病去 世,留下一对遗孤,次子幼子还在上学,次女已经出嫁,家中的生活来源全部依赖祖父,因此他接受了大法官的职务。在南京时,陈立夫曾请祖父吃饭,用意是了解他是否会竞选立法院院长,其实祖父连立法委员都不原意做。有一回,祖父对我父亲说:“我现在要上庙了。”我父亲问:“去干什么?”他回答:“去当大法官。”

1948年,我父亲已从空军幼年学校毕业。因抗战胜利,空幼学员不再送往美国学习,我父亲就离开了航校。当时他想去投考民航,遂托祖父给戴安 国(戴季陶之子)写信。祖父问他:“为什么要去民航?”他答:“为了挣钱。”当时民航赚美金。父亲还对祖父说:“阿爸你没钱,咱们北京的房子已经没有 了。”祖父听了非常生气。父亲说,他从来没见过祖父发那么大的火。祖父拍着桌子,骂父亲混帐,说:“你就知道钱,不想多念点儿书。还有几个月,你一定要去 考大学。”李肇甫对子女管教很严,不许他们跳舞,但祖母溺爱孩子,每次出去跳舞都是祖母把衣服偷偷拿出去,让孩子们换上。

国民政府于1949年2月迁往广州,李肇甫从南京回四川。他想叶落归根,但归根谈何容易,他当时连回家的船票都买不起,最后还是由卢作孚想办法,坐“夔门号”返川。自1938年回到四川,李家一直无钱买房子,曾先后借住租住过康心之(位于重庆领事巷),胡子昂,向传义(位于成都吉祥街),张群和唐式遵的房子,生活来源主要靠李肇甫做法官的工资,辞去法官之后,他祖父担任了康心之主办的 《国民公报》社长和唐式遵开办的南林学院院长,辅成法学院教授。四川即将易手之前,蒋介石又来到四川,任命李肇甫为国民党非常委员会的非常委员,但李肇甫拒绝为其工作。蒋介石又要他去台湾,他为了拒绝甚至避入南林学院。他还拒绝国民党要他做的反共广播发言。后来CC派曾派人监视李肇甫,据传还要暗杀他。

四川易手时,祖父依然借住唐式遵的家。有一天家里来了两个人,其中的一位我父亲称为吕五伯伯。吕五伯的哥哥是吕超,曾为国民党参军长,相当于蒋介石最大的 副官,而吕五伯的女儿是共产党的地下党员。来人对李肇甫说刘伯承想与他见面。祖父回答:“刘伯承是共产党,我是国民党,虽然我不是蒋介石那派,但毕竟是国民党。共产 党一来就见我,对你的声誉不好。”来人又劝了一阵子,但祖父还是拒绝。后来刘伯承带信请李肇甫去革大学习。李肇甫说:“我不去革大,我也不从政。抗日时, 我从政。抗日胜利之后,我就不从政,我还是当大学教授或律师,或办报。”姻亲康心之迁往北京时对祖父说:“我有稀饭,也有你一碗。”但李肇甫仍决定留在四 川,尽管他曾说过:“哪个革命党一开始不是很好,后来慢慢就有变化。再看十年二十年,几十年看看它会不会变成像国民党那样的。”

共产党在四川掌握政权之后,胡子昂做了重庆副市长,曹荻秋是书记。当时还没有政协或人大,某次会议邀请李肇甫作为当地乡绅出席。会议完了,祖父回家对我父 亲说:“今天我说错了一句话,我说联俄,容共,扶助工农。”孙中山的政策原本就是联俄、容共、扶助工农,后被改为联俄联共扶助工农。次日报纸刊出祖父的发 言,也被改为“联共”。除此之外,祖父就在家里,很少参加政治活动。胡子昂和我们家是亲戚,我祖父当秘书长时,曾邀请他去做建设厅长。但胡做了官后,脸就有些变了,后来在祖父被捕一事上,有人猜想过他起的作用,而另一些四川老人,如但懋心,邓锡侯,刘文辉等对我祖父情分尚存。因唐式遵与共产党作战身亡,祖父 借住的房子要被没收,于是李家不得不迁至俞际堂家。俞际堂,但懋心,邓锡候,刘文辉等人见李家没房子住,曾愿凑钱帮助买房子。一天我父亲回家,看到两个解放军站在门口。名义上是没收唐式遵的财产,但也抄了我的家。他们抄走两本通讯录,旧账本,还有一张要任命李肇甫为 “非常委员”的信。此时当局已不再能容忍李肇甫的不合作。

1951年3月12日半夜,重庆全市戒严。十三日清晨,我祖父李肇甫被带走。次日父亲从报纸看到祖父的照片,他穿着长袍,手里夹行李卷,那张照片在镇压反 革命展览中也展出过。当时的政策是在国民党时期做过区长的都是反革命,何况祖父做过立法委员。

据过来人回 忆,三·一三那天重庆全城气氛非常恐怖,很多人被捕。据过来人回忆,“三一三”大逮捕那天重庆全城气氛非常恐怖,很多人被捕。著名学者吴宓时在重庆北碚的西南师范学院任教,当天日记中有如下记载:“阴,甚寒。近三日重庆城郊大捕反革命特务分子,据报载共捕二千余人。闻合川、隆昌等邑亦各捕千余人,捕去皆予枪毙。今日此间校内外亦戒严,警察断桥路,至废早餐。……下午寝息。林来,见绾系逮捕之人,累累过市云云。后闻李伯申,黄墨涵,黄仁中等,此次皆被捕。成诗一首。”吴宓的诗写的是:“捕系累囚缇骑纷,大都盈万邑千人。但从顺逆别生死,焉识贤愚等秕尘。情性反常魔胜道,冤仇重报果成因。网开三面先儒梦,除恶务尽是今仁。除恶务尽一作诛除异党。”(注十)

因当时关押的人太多,监狱已满,一些人就被关押在名为真缘堂的天主教堂。后来天气越来越热,被关押的人就住在席棚里。当时我的二表叔陈延龄因涉嫌倒卖鸦片也被关在那里。他获释后说, 在真缘堂时,被关押的人都是蹲着吃饭,而且不许说话。吃饭时,他看到我祖父,就悄悄地蹲着挪到祖父身旁。我祖父轻声问他为何被捕。得知原因后,祖父说:“你的案子没事,他们会放你。如果你出去就去找刘伯承。”待我二表叔出来,刘伯承已经去了南京。

自3月被关押,父亲曾设法见我祖父,但都被拒绝。祖母去找过熊克武,但熊当时在北京。据黄花岗烈士喻培伦的侄子喻锺珏回忆,喻家和李家是世交。我祖父被关押时,因我祖母担心已工作的姑姑和我父亲被祖父牵连,就差当时还是中学生的喻锺珏为我祖父送换洗衣服。我祖父见到喻锺珏,用手摸着他的头说:“没想到华为(喻培伦弟弟培棣的字)的孩子都这么大了。”

七月的一天,我家来了一个专案员。他让我父亲介绍祖父的情况,并要父亲和祖父划清界限。父亲说:“我没什么可划清界限。我了解我父亲。父亲参加了同盟会和二次革命。后来汪蒋都让他出来做官,他不出来。他做律师,还给七君子辩护。抗战时,为了民族利益才勉强出来维持,还营救过共产党人。”此人还问起“非常委员”一事,我父亲也如实说了。又过几天,那位专案员又来了,他跟我父亲 说:“你爸爸病了,痔疮,流血很厉害。”并让父亲送药去。 父亲送药去,但还没见到祖父。

1951年7月20日,父亲正在演出,母亲还在台上独唱。我二姑姑找到后台,告诉我父亲祖父去世了,让家人去收尸。

次日父亲去真缘堂,进去一看四周都是席棚。他来到一个办公室,办事人问了姓名,然后出示法医证明,上面写着心肌梗死,并让父亲签字。父亲问尸体在哪里, 他说在一个小屋里。父亲来到那个小屋,看到祖父躺在那里,眼睛未闭。父亲用手将他的眼睛慢慢地闭上,雇了滑杆儿,抬回家去。

“据同狱逃出者云:肇甫被捕入狱时,已病感不支,每日食量甚少,而共党反责以扫地等苦役,肇甫遂绝食。或有秘劝其进食者,则曰:吾固求死而不得也。逝世之晨,禁锢狱中者均起,点名独不见肇甫;共党方斥骂,视之则早已气绝。“(同注一)

祖父的遗体被带回家后,祖母见了即嚎啕大哭。她边哭边诉:“他清白了一生,就这么没有了。”父亲说,如果让他睁着眼睛回去,祖母看了会更难过。二姑父出 去买了棺材。祖父去世的第三天,家人在江北找了一处公墓下葬,墓碑上只写李伯申之墓。五十年代,父亲和堂兄去奠祭过,后来整个公墓都夷为平地。

祖父死后,我二姑去北京,找到沈钧儒。沈听说我祖父去世,顿足大哭:“为什么不到北京来!到北京就一点事都没有啦。”其实祖父去世前,家里连去北京的车票 都凑不出。1953年6月初,重庆中级人民法院来人通知说我祖父不是反革命,当时还问我父亲,你家有什么财产,比如土地可以全部发还。父亲答:“我家没有 财产。现在可以还我父亲清白了。他一生清白,没有动产,也无不动产。但最要紧的事,我母亲很想不通,你们应该向我母亲解释清楚。”

Grandmother early in Beijing West Fourth Jiuzai


In 1958, my grandmother came to Beijing.

 

My father told me: “I was in early March 1958 was officially declared to be right-wing, also know to go to the Great Northern Wilderness I dare not tell your grandmother,

 

 only to say I’m going to join the thousands of soldiers building the Great Northern Wilderness, when back do not know yet. thought of your grandmother after her from the War of Resistance Against Japan have never been in Beijing Beijing, I miss you, and do not know to go when can I see you, ask your grandmother you brought from Sichuan old lady after,

 

I try one week day is April 20, 1958,

 

we concentrated by train to the front door, 4:00 units of the jeep to the night before, I did not sleep all night, the mother is also the night did not the sleeping mother day going to send, I say you do not send I look at you, look at your mother, boarded the bus that day happens there are five days away from your birthday, when your mother go to North Korea to perform off her back ten days your mother to come back, I have to go …

 

 “it was my grandmother last to Beijing, and I only memory is of her photo on the face of serious skinny old lady. Grandmother lives, has bid farewell to my uncle, my aunt, and then bid farewell to their husbands.

 

 She died in the Cultural Revolution. Before I go to the country in 1984, the father of her ashes brought Beijing, we will sprinkle in Beihai of the lake water.

Undo edits

祖母早年在北京西四旧宅

1958年,祖母来北京。父亲告诉我:“我是在1958年3月份初被正式宣布为右派的,也知道要去北大荒。我不敢告诉你奶奶,只说我要去参加十万军人建设北大荒,何时回来还不 知道。你奶奶想到北京来,她从抗战之后就没来过北京了。我很想你,不知道这一去什么时候才能再见你,就要求你奶奶把你从四川带来。老太太来了之后,我强颜 欢笑一个星期。那天是1958年4月20日,我们这些人集中到前门坐火车,凌晨4点单位的吉普车来了。前一晚,我一夜没睡,娘也一夜没睡。娘那天要去送, 我说你别送了。我看看你,再看看娘,就上了车。那天正好离你生日还有五天,当时你妈去朝鲜演出,离她回来还有十天。你妈回来时,我已经走了……。” 那是我祖母最后一次来北京,而我对她唯一记忆就是照片上那个面目严肃的瘦小老太太。祖母一生中,曾送走了我大伯大姑,后又送走了自己的丈夫。她在文革中死去。1984年我去国前,父亲把她的骨灰带来北京,我们将她撒在北海的湖水中。

我曾祖因官致富,而祖父则是一个传统意义上的“败家子”。他是一个民主宪政的实践者,也是一个理想主义者—–为理想而革命,作官和拒不作官。他的一生充满了理想,所以也注定要幻灭。

2005年初,我在印度阿旃陀石窟(200BC–450AD)内观赏壁画。因当地气候潮湿,那些壁画残缺破损。2007年夏,我又去希腊克里特岛观赏克诺索斯时代 (公元前2700-1450)的壁画,那些壁画原来也是残破的,但出土之后却被荷籍英人皮特·琼(1887-1967)修补重构。我记录的家世犹如阿旃陀石窟壁画那样,凡是记忆之外全部留白,后人读它,可自去想象。

注一:《 革命人物志》第十集,杜元载主编,中国国民党党史史料委员会出版,1972年2月(原载于《四川文献》40期,1964年12月1日,台北)

注二:康心如:《我与报》,1968年手稿

注三:吴玉章:《武昌起义前后到二次革命》,《辛亥革命回忆录》卷一,P120

注四:傅国涌:《从革命党到普通政党》

注五:余衔玉,高冬梅:《张振武案中的真真假假》

注六:袁伟时:《从孙中山在辛亥革命后的迷误看中国民主之路》

注七:陈夏红:《百年法律人剪影》——“沈钧儒私人记录的七君子事件

注八:孙挺信:《中日大决战》第四章——艰难岁月

注九:张国福:关于《中华民国临时约法》的起草日期和主稿人问题—北京大学学报

注十:吴宓著、吴学昭整理注释《吴宓日记续编》第一册,三联书店2006年3月第一版87页)
写于2010年3月28日,改于2011年9月

旧信

旧信

叶络关上信箱,边走边翻邮件。广告,账单,账单,广告…,一个信封掉下来,随风飘去。她追过去,捡起来一看是个手写的信封。随着世界的变化,长辈逐渐离世,她已很久很久没收到这样的信了。

信的开头称叶络为“贤侄女”,起头就是: “家兄子熙于2011年3月10日3时息劳主怀,回归天家。兹定于2011年3月15日在圣心殡仪馆举行追思仪式……….。” 落款是子寒。这自上而下,自右至左的繁体字书写得并不顺畅,字体颇似她读到的第一封美国来信,而那封信就是子熙叔写的。

那是八十年代初,叶络陪母亲去北京饭店与子熙叔见面,因此得知母亲的初恋并不是父亲。当时母亲穿了一件蓝制服,衣服新得发亮,折痕还在,看上去有些土气。在饭店门口经过盘查,她们来到当时只有外国人或高级华人才能进出的大厅。一个男人走了过来,他穿着所有美籍华人应该穿的西服。当他看到母亲,眼睛里流露出惊喜。母亲也认出了对方,迎了上去。他们几乎同时喊出了对方的名字。那个男人伸出双手,似乎想拥抱,但母亲却伸出了右手。他很快缩回一只手,并调整了左手的姿态。他们握手的时间比一般的握手长了一些,母亲似乎也觉察到了。她松开手,转头看了叶络一眼,道:“子熙,这是我的女儿。”子熙叔过来拥抱叶络。在那个拥抱里,叶络感觉自己不但替代了母亲,也顺带掩饰了初见的尬尴。

叶络眼中的子熙叔高大温厚,与矮小活泼的父亲正成鲜明对比,但她不喜欢他那洋中带土的大背头。她注意到他看母亲时,眼睛里流露出一派温情。母亲的脸有些红,神态挺不自然,某个瞬间流露出叶络极不熟悉的表情。自从父亲因右派指标无罪发配远方,直至在更大的风暴中父母离婚,这几十年里,母亲在工作之外,完全不与异性来往,而她在纯女性成员的家中又是永远的严厉和紧张。此刻面对子熙叔的瞬间娇羞让叶络瞥见了母亲曾经的温柔。

从母亲的口中,叶络略知子熙叔的过去。抗战时,他们兄弟三人由寡母带着,自东北逃到四川。后来他考取了空军预备学校,与叶络的父亲同学。毕业后,他们本该进入空军官校去美国培训,但因抗战胜利而取消。子熙叔再投海军。1949年他与母亲匆匆告别,登船北上青岛,当时他并不知道即将驶向并落脚那座小岛。到台湾后,他抱着团聚的希望,直至30岁还未交女朋友。后来他到美国接收军舰,遇上了土生土长的华人女子。她大方开朗又主动,追着他到台湾,于是他们结了婚。后来子熙叔的太太不惯海岛生活,全家迁至美国以餐馆为生。

从父亲的口中,叶络得知那年预备学校安排女校来联谊,叶络的母亲就在女学生当中。 她们在夜色中来到青城山脚,次日清晨男生才看到山坡上齐刷刷地站了一排蓝旗袍和五彩毛衣。在女生的注视下,男生出操时胸膛挺得比平时更高,口号喊得更整齐,动作也更加有力。当晚篝火很红,男生女生一起歌舞颂诗。母亲独唱,其中的一句歌词是“燕子你到底说的什么话?”于是她得了个“燕子”的绰号。燕子要飞走时,男生们送的祝福卡是一张漂亮的大纸,上面抄了当时的流行歌词:“More days coming , it will be happy。” 女校回赠答谢卡,男生们努力地叠印出签名人的样貌。有人提议写信交友,可是谁该写给谁?当时叶络的父亲已有女友,立场超然。他说:“这样吧,我把她们的名字写好,做成阄儿,大家抓,我不参加。”子熙叔抓到了母亲的名字。子熙叔给母亲写信,一封,两封…..,直到叶络的父亲为子熙叔当枪手,那只燕子才有了回音。

母亲和子熙叔的相恋自通信始,其后不通音问三十年。北京会面之后,信缘再续。因为有外国邮票可存,收到子熙叔的信总是高兴的,但回信却常让叶络头疼。出于对“海外关系”的恐惧,母亲既天真又固执地认为叶络还在上学,让她抄信署名寄往海外不会惹出大麻烦,子熙叔的回信也都是写给“叶络”的。可是母亲看不上叶络的字。从抄第一个字起,她就不断地批评:“你的字真难看!”母亲写得一手漂亮的柳体,叶络自知不如。但也受不了一字一纠正,她回嘴道:“看不上我的字,你自己写呀。”于是两人就吵了起来。有时抄到一半,母亲说:“谁看得懂你的字啊?”她又要叶络重抄。似乎每次抄信都会吵一架,叶络恨抄信。

叶络关上邮箱,拿着信件走进家。她找到子寒叔的电话,打过去。子寒叔还未从悲痛中恢复过来,哽咽着说:“大哥在老人院里去世。”原来一年多前,子熙叔的儿子已将父母迁入老人院,他们房子也归了儿子。叶络想,难怪去年寄的圣诞卡没有回音。虽然子寒叔并未说更多,但叶络却猜到他对侄子的不满。

大概20年前,叶络住在纽约的皇后区时,子熙叔的儿子乔来曼哈顿培训。子熙叔来看儿子,叶络去看子熙叔。乔的公司为他租的公寓在林肯中心附近,叶络记得那里有门房,一室一厅的月租金是2千多,那时叶络的每月工资也就是那么多吧。子熙叔叔的妻子是第二代华人,她即秉承华人对孩子的无私付出,另一方面又接受了美国对孩子的有限责任。具体而言就是,在孩子成长时,她不要求学业优秀,因此他们最小的女儿没念大学,孩子自立后不必照顾父母。于是他们和孩子的关系就有两套价值观,孩子不照顾帮助父母,但父母却为孩子带孙子。子熙叔夫妇带大了自己的三个孩子,也带到了孩子们的6个孩子。

叶络正盘算着如何把子熙叔去世的消息告诉母亲,电话铃就响了。那是母亲打来的,听叶络说完,那边静了好一阵。“你替我寄个卡片去吧。” 母亲说。叶络听了既惊愕又失望甚至还有些愤怒。虽然近十年,他们只有圣诞卡往来,但毕竟那么多年的信,而且母亲也保留了所有的信!想到子熙叔去世的那一刻很可能会想到母亲,而母亲那颗活着的心却早已枯干,她就非常伤心。

叶络走进储藏室,翻找着母亲保留的旧信。那些旧信有些卷成卷儿,有些平摊着,但已经根据来处分类,所以她很快就找出子熙叔的那些信。她把它们摊在地板上,发现其中的一些写在半透明的薄纸上,一些写在印有公司标记的厚纸上,还有一些居然写在中餐馆的垫纸上。她很快地把它们按年份归成几堆,就坐在地上读了起来。

最初的两三年,母亲都在信头上标出收到和回复的日子。从这里,叶络读出了她通信的顾虑,读到子熙叔收不到信的焦虑。在一封信里,子熙叔恳求母亲不要中断来信: “你何苦这样自苦,苦我,放开一点。我们相距这么远,见面只能以次计算。我已活得不敢怨天尤人了,因为天是哑巴…..。”因为抄信,叶络知道母亲的信既无风月也无风云,而子熙叔写给“叶络”的信却是平辈的口气。真能躲过那些眼睛?那些至今仍在的眼睛?这就是母亲,常常做些自欺却不欺人的事情。

这段时间的信让叶络模糊地记得一件事。那天母亲没读完信就瘫了下去,叶络手忙脚乱把她拖到床上,又跑去卫生所。医生看诊后说她的精神太紧张,需要休息。医生走后,母亲挣扎着起来换衣服,叶络才知道她小便失禁。一封子熙叔的来信落在地上,信中说某日某日写了信,却没收到回信,母亲对那些消失的信肯定有过非常恐怖的联想吧。

从旧信里,叶络知道外公和子熙叔的母亲都反对他们的交往。这一方不满意难童家房无一间地无一垄,那一方子讨厌女方是“娇小姐”。从信中闪烁的词语,叶络断定他们曾经接过吻。她从未问过母亲细节,也有点恼恨自己从未向子熙叔求证过。但想到母亲的拘谨古板,叶络明白吻的含义。少年时的叶络非常叛逆,常常气得母亲口不择言。为了让她学会女孩儿的矜持,母亲曾教导她约会时要让男生等待。叶络对此一直嗤之以鼻。然而现在的叶络却宁愿母亲还是那个会对男人撒娇的小女人,叶络的小妈妈。那个小女人会给父亲写信抱怨他负心。那个小妈妈会在午休时闭眼佯装熟睡,偷眼看着年幼的女儿将枕巾蒙在头上,边舞边唱:“妹妹出门去了,挎着一只篮,戴着一朵花 …….。“

这一堆信是1984年–1986年。当时叶络已离家赴美,子熙叔的信都是先寄给她,再由她转给国内的母亲。在那段时间里,子熙叔写给母亲的信还是称呼“叶络”。这些信读来有点滑稽,也有点混乱。在这一封信里,他对“叶络”说“请不要自责,你的一颦一笑都是我眷恋了。”在另一封信中,他又对叶络说:“妈妈变得十分急躁与害怕。这与她年轻时判若两人。过去的她不耐性但不急躁,过去的她循规蹈矩但不害怕。实在令人心痛。我曾当面劝过她,天塌下来有高个儿的挡着…”。可是这个家就是没有一个高个子的人,即便有,也未必挡得住。

叶络从美国返回中国不久,女儿就出生了。当时她无暇顾及母亲,更不会替母亲抄信。此时读到旧信,她才知道那里面除了惯常的担忧期盼,还有咖啡杯或乳胶手套的报价,护照复印件 ………。大概有十几年吧,子熙叔一直非常努力创造与母亲再见的机会,他曾经陪同过可能的投资者,也组织过旅行团…。其中的一两次眼看就要成行,又因主事者变卦而取消,子熙叔的情绪也随之起落。

叶络大致点数了一下,子熙叔平均每两周写给母亲一封信,就这样写过了八十年代。那些信里有结毛线衣,买面霜,她对他的饮食健康指导,他对她的心情劝解。看信中那些零零碎碎,反反复复的杂事,好像时间过的很慢,但叶络却觉得那个时代好像飞到了尾端。那年叶络的女儿两岁,当年出的大事,信中自然不会提到,但子熙叔却只在年头年尾来过信。年头的来信多带个人情感,年尾的则只谈做生意的可能。叶络猜测一定又是母亲因恐惧而不许子熙叔写信。也许就在那段时间里,母亲下定决心要再次干预叶络的生活。她也在母亲的要求下,再次飞越大洋,从此落脚彼岸。

看到旧信中治疗脑溢血的偏方,叶络突然想起子熙叔因病入院,由弟弟们代笔,她果然找到了那几封信。阅读旧信也让叶络想起小时候偷看父母的通信,可惜那些信已在1966年的夏天化为灰烬。在它们化为灰烬之后,母亲也被迫害得自杀未遂。

叶络叹了一口气,子熙叔已经不在了啊。她慢慢地抚平信的折痕,再按照年份钉好,放入纸袋。她一边整理,一边想子熙叔的太太不会读中文,而他的孩子们甚至不会说中文。他们根本不会知道自己的父亲曾靠读信写信消解岁月的孤寂,更不知道有人保留了他们父亲的旧信。理着理着,她突然看到了一封折叠得很不一样的信,熟悉的毛笔字透过了薄纸。打开一看,就看到了母亲娟秀的字体。

“你的来信给了我无限温馨,如同我们相聚的几小时,像在梦里。我们的重逢是我一生中最快乐的时刻,我愿那时刻永远停留。你仍然是我四十多年前的恋人直到生命终结。” “四十多年了,我们成了两个世界的人,当经历受了离别的悲痛后,上天是不会给我们公平待遇的。………。你和她夫妻几十年,将孩子抚育成人,你重病,她照顾你,为你操心分担家务,恩重如山,而我什么也没为你做过。” “我虽然独身至今, 但是在国情和法律的约束下,我不是自由人。” “这照片是我们唯一的合影,记得四十年前,我们最后一面时,你曾邀我照相,这次就算补偿……。每年两次信就已够了,来信写的淡漠些。为了我,你更要健康的生活,快乐地度过晚年,我也同样地安慰自己。”

这封信写于1987年,虽然叶络不知道它怎会被保留下来,但由此看出母亲早有中断通信之心。虽然后来他们还是通了过几年的信,但恐惧,心债,清规戒律,最终让母亲选择了放弃。也许叶络应该尊重母亲的选择,毕竟那颗心再难承受任何风雨。

望着装满旧信标有不同年份的纸袋,叶络知道不会再有人读它们了,而她极可能是最后一个保存它们的人。

蜻蜓姑娘—纪念周皓

2000年5月我去俄国,有个叫周皓的姑娘正为我在俄国的朋友打工。离开那里不足一月,她就遭遇车祸身亡。我常叹,这么年轻活泼的生命,说没就没了,连点痕迹都没留下。没想到昨晚在网上溜狗,才知她父亲周茂森于2003年出版了一本散文集<<青春祭歌>>纪念爱女。书中形容周皓“曾经是那么阳光的一个女孩,曾经是一个用阳光编织童话的女孩,曾经是用阳光温暖着亲人和朋友的女孩。”

白发人送黑发人,最是伤心,看到这本书,多少感到欣慰。书中收入我的一篇文章,虽然副题是纪念她的,但提到她的内容并不多。后来我在旅人手记上写到她,她的父母显然没读过,唉,没读到也好  。

—————————————————  

莫斯科的五月,太阳很亮。在圣彼得堡时,我们的导游是俄国人。到了莫斯科,住在朋友开的旅馆,导游是中国人,大家都叫她小周。这姑娘二十六岁,容长的脸儿,弯眉弯眼,细胳膊细腿,穿着蓝色吊带背心,阳光在她圆润的肩头涂上一片金色。 相识不久,就感到她既负责又体贴,相处很舒服的人。

  在莫斯科河上,因河船出了问题,延误了下一个节目。为了通知等候着的司机,小周一跳下船就向前奔跑。看她张开细细的胳膊,就想起母亲以前唱苏联歌<<蜻蜓姑娘>>。她轻盈如蜻蜓,在美妙的五月里飞翔。

  在特列季亚科夫画廊,小周站在油画《三套车》前解说着:“彼洛夫一直想画这样一幅画,但找不到合适的模特。一日在街上,他看到一个小男孩。这孩子正合他的想像。于是说服孩子的母亲,将孩子带回家。<<三套车>>完成后,很快就被人买走了。后来那小男孩的母亲找到画家,要求看看那幅画。她告诉画家,孩子已经不在人世了。彼洛夫带她去买家看画,她一看就哭了起来,说是和儿子长得一模一样。画家十分感动,就画了幅孩子的肖像送给她。”

  在普希金博物馆,我们看到谢里曼从特洛伊考古地挖掘出的宝贝,这些宝贝在二战时被苏联从德国抢走,据说苏联要用德国从彼得堡夏宫抢走的琥珀物交换,但琥珀哪里有什么文化价值,而特洛伊年代可以追溯至公元前36世纪,特洛伊战争发生于公元前13世纪。谢里曼妻子索菲娅佩戴特洛伊金饰的照片流传全球,这大约是戴首饰的女人最知名的照片。当年谢里曼发现宝藏之后,正是这女人用披肩包裹起来,瞒着众人,拖回考古营地。博物馆书店售卖英文和俄文版的特洛伊画册。那书既大又重,价格很贵。我犹豫再三才买下。小周看到了,毫不犹豫地买了一本,我笑道,“你以后可以给游客讲发现特洛伊了。” 后来我看这本画册,前言中写道,谢里曼曾在俄国居住多年,并娶过俄国人为妻,他的儿子在二战保卫彼得堡时去世,仿佛要以此来证明俄国持有特洛伊金饰的合法性  

  我们的车停了下来,小周跳下去,一个小伙子随她上车。这孩子棕色皮肤,高鼻黑眼,半边脸布满了青色的连鬓胡。他们俩挤在前座上,说说笑笑,很是亲热。

  待那男孩下车,我问:“小周,他是你男朋友吧。”“是。”“他是俄罗斯人吗?”“不是,他是摩洛哥人,叫阿明。”“啊,是这样呀。他怎么会来俄国?”“俄国有很多摩洛哥学生,有些还有奖学金。他是学机械的,我们都在莫斯科大学读书。”

  我离开莫斯科的前一天,小周来道别,说是当晚将陪其它旅客去圣彼得堡。可到了晚上,却听说她因病未去。这真令我意外,早上见她还活蹦乱跳呢,心里有了些猜测。

  我去看望小周。她躺在床上,像一只折翼的蜻蜓。我猜得不错,是女孩子的“病”。我坐在她的床边,看着她失血的脸,昏黄的灯光落在她的肩头还是一圈金色。“你打算嫁给阿明吗?”我问。她不很肯定地摇摇头:“阿明要我嫁给他。他说,你对回教徒有偏见。回教的男人很会保护自己的女人,比如我爸爸,无论如何都不会让我妈妈受委屈。阿姨,我想去美国,你看有希望吗?”我说:“你的英文怎么样?大学里念的什么专业?到俄国前做过什么?”“我家在包头。大学专业是俄语。毕业后,不好找工作,就想办法到莫斯科来勤工俭学。这家饭店算是外企,工资高一些。可我不知道毕业后干什么,俄罗斯很难生存。”“为什么不回国?”“我妹妹考上人大,她比我聪明。毕业后想去美国。我想打工赚点钱,帮助她。阿姨,你能帮我去美国吗?”我答应回美国后与她保持联系,看看有什么机会。

  回美之后,时间疯长犹如荒草,一下子就快蔓过六月。其间我发过邮件给小周,未见回音。我再发,再发,终于等来了回信。我能看出邮件是用中文写的,却无法读。当时我并未在意,因为俄罗斯来的中文邮件经常不能读。数日后,我打电话给莫斯科的朋友,“喂,你有小周的电话吗?她发的邮件我不能读。”

  “你说什么?小周已经出车祸死了。”

  “啊?!”

  “那天正赶上一个朋友的生日聚会。小周要去看阿明,说他考试不顺,心情不好。大家都劝她别去,当时已近午夜。她非要去。奇怪的是,她那天吃得特别多。临走前还在饭店里转了几圈,上上下下看了个够。她当夜未归,次日未归,第三天还不见踪影。我们都急了,到处打听。我们找到阿明,阿明说已经三天没有她的消息了。我们就报警。又过了两天,得知她的遗体在一家医院里。警方说,死者坐的出租车撞上一辆卡车,她当场飞了出去。”

  无言,无言。

  “我们去看她,正下着大雨。当时打雷,打得外边停着的汽车都嗡嗡作响。医院只容许小周的表姐和我太太进去。阿明站在雨地里。我看雨下得太大,拉他站到门口。刚拉过来,就见一个滚地雷带着火球炸开了,那正是阿明刚刚站过的地方。后来我去机场接小周的母亲,正走到出车祸的地方,车胎就爆了。她死的冤呀。”

  “她是几号出的事?”

  “六月二十六日。”

  我找到那封邮件,日期是六月三十日。

  “什么,你在六月三十日收到过她的邮件?”

  “是。”

  “绝对不可能。她失踪后,我们一直在找她,曾试图打开她的邮箱,寻找线索。可没人知道,包括她的表姐,最终我们也不知道她在哪里,直到警察局找到我们,说是有个中国女孩被车撞了,还在医院里…。”

记于2009年元月

我的第一本护照

2007年4月的<<纽约客>>刊登了奥尔罕.帕慕克的一篇散文“我的第一本护照”

这篇文章不长,两页对开,还复印了护照中的一页。相片里的男孩大概7-8岁,头发贴住前额,显然刚被梳理过。据作者说,可能是为了照相特别梳理过的,他甚至说是那年第一次梳头。虽然帕慕克的祖父在铁路上赚过大钱,父亲是最早进入欧洲工作的土耳其人之一,但童年的帕慕克经常乱发如草。如果护照的持有者是一位女性,那头发该不会梳得这么不自然吧?

持这本护照三十年之后,帕慕克突然发现自己眼睛的颜色被写错了。于是他发出如下感慨:“护照不是一个证明我们是谁的文件,而是他人认为我们是谁的文件。”中国人绝大多数是黑眼睛,大约不会被误写,但多年前,大陆很多持护照者都有一个共同的标签— ‘公家的人’ 。

二十多年前,因“私” 出国的很少,即使有,也要尽量纳入公家的范围。最初我收到普通学生的“F” 签证,但根据当时的规定,接受我的大学必须将签证改为“ J”,也就是交换学生,归类为“自费公派” ,我才能拿到护照。于是我就有了一本“公派”护照。

因为是“公派”,我完全不知道如何办理护照,甚至不记得填过什么表格。其实当时个人信息都在档案里,只需组织或人事部门填写,个人签字之类的也可以免了,况且护照持有者的签字并不如公章管用。当然,照片还是要的,我很可能因此去了“大北照相馆”   。因为得之太易,七年后之后我再申请第二本护照时,才知道“私事”真难办!我在每个关口奔走和等待,对着每一个有关的人陪笑脸,揣摩他们的意思。从焦虑到麻木,再从麻木到焦虑,也不免想起当“公家人”的好处。

帕慕克第一次出国时还是个孩子。当第一本护照严实地藏在我的口袋里,整架飞机却没有一个孩子。在一个全是成年人的座舱里,我们默默地互相观察着。有人打破了沉默,于是我区分出首次出国的和非首次出国的。非首次出国的人穿着牛仔裤,而我穿的裤子松松垮垮,右边开口系扣。那时我从没想过女人也能穿那种中间拉链的   。穿牛仔裤的人用英文缩写来称呼自己的学校,很专业很老道,令我敬畏。

帕慕克从伊斯坦布尔飞往日内瓦,飞行的时间不会很长。即使长途飞行,孩子也是最快乐的。他们不担心飞机失事,不在意空间狭小,也不必手忙脚乱地系安全带–那自有父母帮助。当孩子好奇地收放小桌板或调整座椅时,成年人也在做同样的事。我看着别人如何做这些事情,模仿着。一边觉得自己很土,一边又情不自禁地摸了摸那本护照,确信它还在。

如果帕慕克当时也经历跨越几个时区的飞行,他会不会通宵地欢笑、跑和跳?事实上,当我第一次跨越时区时,因晨昏的景观类似,又无参照的坐标,黑夜和白天的衔接是模糊的,犹如从旷野的岩石缝隙中辨别地质的变迁——两个地层之间的接触线是如此细微,靠得又是这样近,时间上却差了好几万年。此时空间和时间合为一体。

在那架全是成年人的座舱里,当兴奋的热度随飞行高度上升而冷却时,一个蓝衣女子面色灰白地快步走向后舱。那女子回座后,一两个“非首次”出国的人走过去关照,座舱因此又热闹了一阵。当塑料窗罩假造出夜晚时,周围沉寂下来。

一年之后,我有了一个新室友。她正是飞机上的那个蓝衣女子。我得知她丈夫也曾在本校念书,但她得到护照的条件是其夫必须先回国。她说,“他们故意让我们夫妻分居四年。”这也就意味着在那四年中,他们的女儿不能父母双全地生活。当时那孩子不满六岁,当时打到中国的电话费很贵。

当童年的帕默克第一次飞临日内瓦时,他感到这座城市,连同云彩,都延伸至
无限,因此而印象深刻。我降落纽约时是一个黑夜。当时所见无法仅以“震撼”来形容,那是一种淹没,因为感到灭顶而一切都变得模糊。当然,这个国家与土耳其、瑞士或中国一样,都是“建立的海平面上”(帕默克语) 。

这种灭顶的感觉从走下飞机一直持续到第二天。在我模糊的印象中,JFK机场出奇的大,也出奇的昏暗,我头晕目眩地拖着沉重的箱子。箱子里放了很多书,后来证实那些书基本没用。我掏出护照和IAP66表,带着些百姓见官的恐惧递上柜台。移民局官员看了我一眼,再扫了一下护照上的相片。他似乎更关心IAP66表,看得十分仔细。我生怕听不懂他的问话,磕磕巴巴地回答着。我听着“啪啪”几声,他示意我可以走了。我原以为还有很多关卡,对于这出乎意料地“快”毫无准备。我慌慌张张地取回护照,胡乱地放在什么地方,听到前面有人在催–那是领事馆来接机的人。我拖着一只箱子跑了一段,再回头来取另一只…。

在生平最长的一次飞行之后,我想当然地以为目的地在即。因此感觉从机场到领事馆的车程出奇地漫长。那时已是深夜,纽约这座不夜城也罩上黑色的面罩,不苟言笑地望着我们。在领事馆里,我们排队登记姓名和护照号,就寝时已是凌晨三时。那是一间很大的屋子,我和另外的六七个人共同度过异国的第一夜。

次日上午九时,我们被召集起来。召集人告戒我们如何在纽约市安全地行走。当我们走上42街时,一手紧捂着装护照的口袋,另一只手不由地抓住同行者的衣角。至今我仍很感激那一夜的照顾。七年之后,我再次来到美国。当我在布鲁克林贫民区度过第一夜时,很自然地想起做“公家人”的好处。

八十年代初和中期,大陆来美的留学生绝大多数都是“公费生”,自费生只占极少数。我听说“公”“私”两种护照的颜色是不同。其实,从入学开始,我就没用过护照。当需要身份证明时,我们就用学生证。除了个人资料,学生证是不分等级的。印象中,当时的自费生不大和公费生来往,他们多数没有奖学金,打工学习十分辛苦。有些人因此而有些自卑,似乎公费才是名正言顺。但拿公派护照的想从访问学者转为博士生是很难的。毕业之后,因为“J ” 和“F ”签证的不同,“公家人”必须回国服务,几乎不可能在私有制的社会里留下来。做公家人得到的好处是要用自由来换的。当然啦,有些人很留恋事事由公家安排的时代。一般来说,我们努力摆脱某种东西的冲动往往比我们想自由地做的事情更加明显。一旦给我们一定的自由去做一个决定,当这个决定很可能是影响一生的选择,我们反而会试图逃离这种自由,幻想着别人或者干脆让“命运”来替我们选择不喜欢做决定,呵呵   。

帕默克说,到了日内瓦,他才知道自己要在别人吃过饭的桌子上吃饭,用他人
用过的碗碟,睡他人睡蹋的床,并接受了使用的东西并不属于他自己的事实。这种感受大概是因为他出身于没落贵族之家,我可从来没有这样的感受。到美国之前,我住的地方,使用的很多东西从来就没有属于过自己,也不属于其他的任何个人,它们只属于公家。后来,帕默克无法适应日内瓦的环境,不久就被父母送回土耳其。从此他再未出过国,也再未使用过那个护照。

在美国两年的时间里,我几乎没有机会使用我的护照。两年之后,我失去了它。失去的时候,它还是有效的,因为回国之后必须上交护照。它似乎从来就不代表我的身份,只不过暂借而已,这一切进行得那么顺理成章,以至我从未想到把它复制留底。因此我完全记不起这本护照的样子,更不可能像帕慕克那样把它保留半个世纪,成为一个文物。

 欣欣写于2007年5月

童言童谣

现代女人的审美是越瘦越好。唐朝时以肥为美,大概一是帝王的审美趣味影响了大众,也可能是那时垃圾食物不多,夏天流大汗,没有车坐,因此胖人不多,物以稀为贵吧。但历朝历代,婴儿胖都是讨喜的事,我那个丫头生下来之后很肥,我们都叫她“XX胖子”。因为肥,朋友们来了都会逗她,于是她就会那个想吃她腿肉的伯伯说:“您吃吧。但是不要吃多了。” “为什么?” “吃多了,您就噎着了。” 从小就这么舍己为人,长大后很可能是菩萨的干活 。

我读研时的老师保罗是个圣人。我一般不跟圣人交朋友,但保罗只在男女之情上“圣” 。哎,我说你莫要想歪了,我的意思可不是“情圣”。他会干一些好玩的事情,诸如用双腿夹住方向盘,让车子在冰上打转等等。

保罗第一次看到俺丫头时,她只有四个月。他抱着她,捏着她的大脚趾,开始唱:

“This little piggy went to market.

This little piggy stayed at home.

This little piggy had roasted beef,

This little piggy had none.

And this little piggy cried all the way home “Wee! Wee! Wee!”

唱毕,五指也就捏完了。

我当然不记得四个月大时,我父母给我唱过什么育儿歌谣,长大后也没听他们说起过,估计是没有啦。听我妈说,当时我睡在他们的脚头,但精神超好,总不睡觉,哭闹得厉害。他们不堪其扰,就把我立着抱起来,抱了一会儿,我的头就开始耷拉下来,大家哈哈大笑,于是我又精神十足,目光炯炯,如此这般,直到我累得抬不起头来,沉沉睡去。

今天早晨,我妈跟我说“一路平安。” 我突然想起小时候孩子之间常说的话:“一路平安,半路死亡。” 我们说的时候,绝对没有丝毫的恶意,只是顺口罢了。那时小孩玩跳皮筋儿,盯人,捉迷藏,老鹰捉小鸡(当然那是幼儿园的东东) 等。童谣多和游戏有关,有一种翻手的游戏,两只手背靠着十指扣起,再转过来,于是形成一个巢,大拇指在巢中动,玩的人念念有词:“老头儿,老头儿你上哪儿?我到天津买眼镜,买了眼镜给谁戴?给我戴。”念到最后三个字时,手再一翻变成眼镜状,戴在眼睛上。跳皮筋时,我们唱:“小皮球儿,香蕉梨,马兰开花二十一,二五六,二五七…”。还有一种游戏是两人用手搭成门,其余的人从门下钻过,唱的是:“一网不捞鱼,二网不捞鱼,三网就捞小尾巴尾巴…鱼” 。念到一定时候,这门就突然“垮了”,那个正在钻的孩子就被套牢,他/她就得退下来当“门”了。这里的尾巴在北京读成‘乙巴’ ,最后这‘小乙巴乙巴’ 要拖长音,重覆念。这对从门下钻过的人就形成了一种威胁:“我随时可以把你套牢。”现在对贪官大概也是玩这游戏吧,所谓法网恢恢,疏而不漏哦 。

还有一些童谣与游戏无关。比如“卖蒜咧,青皮萝卜紫皮蒜。什么高,扁豆高,高几丈,高三丈,三丈几,三丈三。” 至今我没有考证出扁豆怎么个“高”法,是爬上了架子高吗?或许那是市井卖菜的吆喝,后来以讹传讹。夏天的雨后,老墙根旁常爬出一些蜗牛。我们就念“水牛儿(牛读起来像妞,至于为何叫水牛儿,我不知道),水牛儿,先出犄角,后出头。”念着念着,蜗牛就挺起白白的半透明的身子,头上顶着触角,挺神气地,慢慢地在灰砖墙上游走,贴出的一条银线隐隐发光。还有一些比较恶毒的,比如看到蛤蟆,我们就故意去踩,边踩边念:“气鼓气鼓,气到八月十五,八月十五杀猪,气得蛤蟆直哭。” 被踩的蛤蟆,肚子真的会慢慢变大,这就是“气”的意思。其实这毫无道理,也毫无逻辑,杀猪怎么会气着蛤蟆?气了又怎么样呢?人家蛤蟆没招谁没惹谁,就因为长相不讨喜,就该受这虐待?

孩子终究是孩子,免不了恶作剧。那时候我们常篡改一些歌词。比如李劫夫写的<<我们走在大路上>> 。头两句是“我们走在大路上,意气风发,斗志昂扬。” 我们翻唱成:“我们走在大路上,卖冰棍的瞎嚷嚷。” 那个<<捡到一分钱>>,原词是:“我在马路边捡到一分钱,把它交到警察叔叔手里边。叔叔拿着钱,对我把头点,我高兴的说了声,叔叔再见。” 我们翻唱成:“我在马路边捡到一分钱,把它交到卖冰棍的手里边。卖冰棍老头给我两根冰棍,我高兴的说了声,老头找钱”。另有一首是歌颂下放女干部的,原歌词是:“小斑鸠叫咕咕,我家来了个好姑姑,白天下地去劳动,晚上回家喂鸡又喂猪,有空教我学文化,还帮妈妈洗衣服。你要问她苦不苦,她说不苦不苦,很幸福。要问她是哪一个,她是下放的好干部。” 我们翻唱成:“白天下地偷萝卜,晚上回家宰鸡又宰猪。要问她是哪一个,她是台湾的女特务。”其实小时候看电影,王小棠还是谁演过台湾的女特务,穿的时髦,戴着墨镜。当时觉得她挺好看的。寻思着怎么女特务都这么好看,可没敢问。这下放女干部的其他部分歌词就是把positive变成negative就好了,孩子是有创造力,但也还是有限 。

来美国之后,听我女儿也唱过类似的歌曲。比如知名圣诞颂歌“Joy to the world ”, 原词为:“Joy to the world, the Lord is come! Let earth receive her King; Let every heart prepare Him room, And Heaven and nature sing, And Heaven and nature sing…..”

http://www.cyberhymnal.org/htm/j/o/joyworld.htm

孩子们翻唱成:

“Joy to the world, the teacher’s dead

We barbecued the head

Don’t worry about the body

We flushed it down the potty

And round and round it goes

And round and round it goes

And rou-ound and rou-ou-ound and round it goes

Joy to the world, the school burned down

And all the teachers died

The principal is dead

We shot him in the head

The janitor is gone

We flushed him down the john

And heeeeaven, the school burned down.

Joy to the world, the school burned down

And all the teachers died

Where is the principal?

He’s on the flag pole,

Swinging by his underwear,

Swinging by his underwear,

Swi-ing-ing by-y-y his un-der-wear.

据说这翻唱已经越过大洋,还有澳大利亚的版本。总之是求自由啦,自由就是天堂。上帝听到了应该不会不高兴,反正大家都是罪人嘛,他老人家总是讲宽恕。

看到这里,你一定会说,你怎么尽记这些无聊的或比较恶毒的东西。是呀,这就是为什么好东西,比如格言思想5的,我总是记不住。但客观上说,小时候记性最好,但那时我们唱的歌不是颂扬人格神,就是意气风发斗志昂扬的。很少有唱颂自然或爱情软绵绵的的歌,就是那个旋律很美的<<听妈妈讲那过去的故事>>,也是说阶级仇恨的。西方有巫婆,但巫婆还是没有阶级敌人坏。

因为那时红歌太多,不红的少,又是物以稀为贵,至今我对<<小毛驴>>记得很清楚:“小毛驴,耳朵长,送粪直上南山岗,钉上四个铁蹄子,走起路来呱搭呱搭地响,一会儿赶上了大红马,身上热汗往下淌。你为丰收立了功哦,奖你一个大铃铛。” 我背着我女儿小跑时,就唱这首歌,她成年之后还记得。

各位看官再补充吧儿时的歌谣吧 ,我可等着呢。

写于2008年7月

胡同窜子的回忆

1.  胡同西口、灯市东口、东罗圈儿 

1960年代,因母亲出差外地,我不得不经常留守寄宿学校。这样的日子一长,我的老保姆就看不下去了。她设法安排我去她那里住,于是我开始了寄居生活。

老保姆帮佣的家庭居于史家胡同。那条胡同的西口有米市大街和灯市口交接,东口是禄米仓。据考证那些街名都始自明清,但早已与灯火米粮无关。北京多槐树。春来槐花开,香了一胡同。夏天树上挂下虫丝和虫子被我们称为“吊死鬼儿”,来往多避着。我印象中的史家胡同却没什么大树,少见聊天儿乘凉的人,公厕多设于居民院或叉口内,不会老远就嗅出其所在。寒冬时,胡同内少见结冰的下水道以及冻结冰面上的饭菜残渣。那是一条清洁又清静的胡同,也是因为清静,我小时候从西口走到东口总觉得路很长。

虽然灯市口大街位于闹市,但沿街多为机关学校。路北的同福夹道内有女十二中(前身为贝满女中,文革后改为166中学)和空政文工团等单位,路南把角曾有一家小糖果店,我童年时常见一些风姿绰约的青年男女去小店吃冰激凌。

那时的米市大街有人民艺术剧院的剧照橱窗,却无商店,现在想起来真是不可思议。向东单去,路西有个红色楼房的红星电影院。那家影院最初只放映新闻记录片,场子不大,观众也不多。距离东单更近的大华影院位于路东,在当时它已是摩登影院。进门大厅里挂了很多知名演员的艺术照,赵丹,白杨,王丹凤……。虽然都是黑白照,但成像角度却非同于一般百姓,相中人风度容貌俱佳,令人印象深刻。

从米市大街进史家胡同西口,走不远即是史家胡同小学,校门为朱红色,门里是不大的前院和影壁(但愿我没记错)。除了放学时进出的学童,这里很安静。走过史小不远就是人民艺术剧院大院,内有四层楼和操场。我虽年幼,却也知道那里住着一些大演员,每次经过时都希望碰上某个名人,但最终谁也没碰上。

除了史小和人艺,史家胡同里还有若干大户。它们都是大门紧闭,厚墙高筑,偶遇大门开也看不出什么名堂。我后来才知道乔冠华,华国锋,付作义都在这条胡同里居住过。早年胡同里还有一处驻军,也是四层楼,院前是铁栏杆。当时胡同中一溜灰墙的凹处多是小门小户,因此楼房颇显眼。

史家胡同内还套了小胡同,我寄居的那家就在其中的一条里,胡同名为东罗圈儿。“圈”儿内有处小空场,其西还有西罗圈儿与之相对。我住的那院是一门两户,进门一溜儿北房。文革前的一个寒假,那家的大哥从东北回来。他当时在哈军工念书,穿海军军服。他带着我们上街办年货,买我们平时想要,大人又不给买的东西,比如冰糖葫芦。那东西与冰棍儿类似,便宜又好吃,但小孩子还是没钱买。平时跟大人上街机会不多,即便有,他们也总以“不卫生”为由拒绝我卑微的要求。

那年好大雪,大哥哥在院里筑雪墙,我们两家孩子打雪仗。雪仗后来成为混战,每个人的耳朵眼儿里都塞进了雪块儿。晚上他脱了军装,带着我们串胡同放鞭炮。北京人称住在胡同里的,特别是生长在胡同里的孩子为“胡同窜子”,串胡同放鞭炮应是“胡同窜子”的典型作为吧?当时胡同之间常有小路相通,比如从东罗圈儿可以串到干面胡同。待天擦黑后,我们蹲在墙根背风处,附近或有叉道或能藏身。看到孤身黑影,我们就点燃一只小炮,待那人走近了再扔出去。随即快快逃跑,身后传来鞭炮响,还听到那人在骂。缺德吗?是有点儿。为了不被抓住,我们还运用当时电影里的“打一枪换一个地方”的战术。那会儿北京没有夜生活,鲜少人因加班晚归,因此行人并不多,若说惊吓了很多人倒也未必,但惊吓的地区涵盖几条胡同却是有的。当然,诸如此类的坏事都是我们和大哥哥之间的秘密。

 2.胡同东口,禄米仓

越往东走,史家胡同越平民化。“平民化”是与时俱进的词儿,但它能比较准确地表达我对那里的感受。

出胡同东口不远就是一家副食店,人称“二店”。人们从那里出来,或拎着一棵白菜或夹着一捆葱,或托着一油纸肉末或端着几块豆腐。“他大妈,买肉了?”“他二大爷,副食店来了豆腐了。”那时商店供应的豆腐是放在屉里,一个小商店最多能分到两三屉,卖完拉倒。有时菜下了锅,突然发现缺油少盐,差孩子去买也是常有的。买盐没什么意思,打酱油还有点意思。当时酱油分两种,一般酱油一角五分一斤,特级酱油两角六分一斤,讲究的人家用前一种炒菜,后一种伴菜,因此不能搞错。酱油多数是一斤半装瓶,打酱油最好用空瓶换,没空瓶还要单算瓶子钱。

当时粮食,副食,肉类都是按月定量供应,需凭购物本或票证购买。副食类包括食油、白糖、芝麻酱、粉丝、鸡蛋等,不买过期作废。购物时,人们的塑料网兜或菜蓝子里放着瓶瓶罐罐,带上副食本。到了“二店”,街坊邻居排队聊天,轮到自己时就对售货员笑着或陪着笑。

买鸡蛋时,售货员先把鸡蛋一个个放在三合板箱子上,箱上有孔洞,孔洞大小正好不让鸡蛋滑进去,再打开箱内的电灯照一照,通亮的就是“好蛋” 。那时不兴假货,没有“坏蛋”的时候居多,但卖家还是要给买家照一照,图个放心。

最有趣的是打芝麻酱。各家麻酱瓶大小不一,售货员先把它放在秤上称,根据定量,再把秤砣拨到某个位置,然后才拿起盛麻酱的大勺。那把勺子永远都有芝麻酱。很黏稠的麻酱从大勺里流下,形成一条浅咖啡色的线缓缓流入麻酱瓶中,秤杆慢慢升起。为了控制麻酱的流量,售货员需要不断地转动勺子,并随时准备截断麻酱流。这是一绝活儿,弄不好麻酱会掉在秤盘上,或者给过了量。当时我总盯着那只神奇的大勺,盯着盯着,就听她用京片子说:“瞧,三两多,没短您的。”佩服之余,也有些丧气。若她没这么“油儿练”,兴许我还能多得点儿麻酱,反正到了我的瓶子里,她就拿不回去了。待打完芝麻酱,我会用指头噌干净粘在瓶口的酱,边走边吃。

胡同东口的禄米仓大街只有24路公共汽车。这趟车从东直门到东单,但在禄米仓之后变成环线。尽管“环”的路不长,但还是让乘客糊涂。北京的冬天很冷,当时的公车无暖气,司机座旁鼓起的发动机都用棉被包裹保护。我小时候最喜欢呆在车头,双手放在发动机的棉花包上。待到靠近北京火车站,因路窄弯度大双手被颠得酥麻暖和。

冬天的“二店”会挂上很厚的棉帘子,小孩不用劲还掀不开。门帘的边缘被蹭黑了一大片。当时王府井百货大楼也挂如此的门帘,也如此之脏,但门帘之后却是亮堂暖和,而禄米仓的副食店内总是冰冷黑暗,但我却并不觉着冷。若随老保姆去,我很可能会得到一块巧克力糖。老保姆那时还不到五十岁,但看在我眼里,她已经很老了。听家里人说,她的丈夫被抓了壮丁,一去无回,唯一的孩子又夭折。她先是在四川老家帮佣,后随我父母来京。我上幼儿园后,她就给别人家帮佣。她还结过一次婚,嫁的是北京土生土长的炊事员。我记忆中她婚礼的片段是闹新房的人逼他们吃葡萄。婚后不久,那个男人就开始打她,后来他们离了婚。

Old nanny, cousin and I


The old nurse sub very small, probably less than one meter and a half.

 

She can not read, a very honest person, things did not seem very agile, I also remember my mother often complain about. Probably in my four – five years old when another nanny to go back to Sichuan, said to go back to save any money for her. Probably think of yourself alone in a old nanny actually gave the man $ 100, with predictable results. This thing has been the topic of my mother reprove her. Chatter normalized chatter, but then she lend and, of course, is borrowed also.
Our childhood snacks cents calculation, one-third of the money to a bunch of children Shan Lihong, one-third or one-fifth of the popsicle. Once my cousin get 6 yuan lucky money, he formally opened in the bank households. Later, even with interest of six $ 1.20 a minute, he takes in a lottery-like. At that time, the chocolate candy is a senior candy pieces wrapped in silver paper to sell, how to have a dollar. Sometimes old nurse took me to buy chocolate, sometimes she pre-bought, I slipped in the alley, that chocolate resting in her pocket due to body temperature a bit softened. Young age do not know life is hard, but my mind was to understand that she loves me very much, this sugar is someone not eat. Impatient harden my mother’s personality, coupled with the external pressure, rarely a good mood. By nature happy and relaxed, my father when I was three years old, he is divided into right-wing to the northeast Laogai old nanny is only spoiled my elders. She later with several children, but if I was her only child forever, since I also remember his head buried in her arms, the smell of her cooking taste in clothes, warm.
1969, many authorities in Beijing went cadre school, and we are no exception, her maid of the house, went to Henan, the house was recovered by the unit. Street she arranged a West room, only put the size of a double bed, a dinner table and a stove. She no culture and no work no relatives and no source of income, by my mother sent her the lives of ten dollars each month from the northeast, and perhaps a little other aid to, so, after three years. I have grown up, to know the weight of ten dollars, and then think about the child to eat chocolate, they would understand her how to save, how good I also think she cheated of how much money!
3, 56 historians alley VII
Probably in 1960, my cousin from Sichuan to Beijing to visit her grandfather Kang heart of the old man (1893 – 1967 December 21 days), and then I go to live. Kang, who lives in the historian alley fifty VII far away from my sojourn at entering a black narrow gate, and then through the old doorway, you see a courtyard. Nosocomial bluestone paving, the Liuhua red. Beijingers like pomegranate ceiling fish tank pomegranate tree, Mr. fat dog fat girl, “one said. Kang home than Beijingers, pomegranate tree is likely to landlord species.

老保姆,表哥和我

老保姆个子非常矮小,大概不到一米半。她不识字,人极老实,做事似乎也不很利索,我还记得母亲时常抱怨。大概在我四–五岁时,另一个保姆要回四川,说要为她带钱回去存。大概是想到自己孤身一身,老保姆竟给了那人二百元,结果可想而知。这件事一直是我母亲数落她的话题。数落归数落,但后来她又借钱给人,当然又都是有借无还。

我们小时候买零食都是按分钱计算的,三分钱一堆儿的山里红,三分或五分的冰棍儿。一次我表哥得到6元压岁钱,他正式在银行开了户。后来连本带利是六元二角一分,他高兴得跟中了乐透似的。当时巧克力糖属于高级糖果,一块块包着银纸卖,怎么也要一块钱。有时老保姆带我去买巧克力,有时她预先买好了,在胡同里偷偷塞给我,那巧克力搁在她的口袋里,因体温都有点变软了。年幼时不知道生活艰难,但心里却明白.她很疼爱我,这糖是别人吃不到的。我母亲个性急躁刚硬,加上外界压力,鲜少好心情。我父亲生性快乐轻松,可在我三岁时他就被划成右派去东北劳改,老保姆是唯一溺爱我的长辈。虽然后来她也带过几个孩子,但好像我是她永远的唯一的孩子,至今我还记得把头埋在她的怀里,闻着她衣服上煮饭的味道,暖暖的。

1969年,北京很多机关都去了干校,我们也不例外,她帮佣的那家去了河南,房子被单位收回。街道给她安排了一间西房,大小只能放一张双人床,一个吃饭桌和一个火炉。她没文化没工作没亲人也没有生活来源,靠我母亲每个月从东北寄给她十元钱生活,或许还有一点其它接济,就这样过了三年。那时我已长大,知道十元钱的份量,再想想小时候吃的那些巧克力,才明白她多么节省,对我有多么好,也想到她被骗走的是多么大的一笔钱!

3. 史家胡同五十七号

大概是1960年,我的大表姐从四川来京看望她的祖父康心之老先生(1893—-1967年12月21日),并接我去同住。康家住的史家胡同五十七号距离我寄居处不远,进入一道黑窄门,再穿过破旧的门道,就见一四合院。院内青石铺地,榴花火红。北京人喜欢种石榴,有“天棚鱼缸石榴树,先生肥狗胖丫头”一说。康家不是北京人,石榴树很可能是房东种的。

Kang heart of the old man with grandchildren historians alley No. 57 Yuan

 

Say, in Sichuan, home health is a large house.

 

To what extent is it? Kang heart of the second daughter, Ms. Kang Daisha might be (I called the Daisha Aunt) “my pathfinder Zhou Enlai couple,” memories are summarized as follows: “My family is the Sichuan influential national bourgeoisie representatives. great uncle Kang heart Fu (1884 to 1917) the old United League Leaguers, and KMT elder Yu You-jen, a fellow confidant, former professor at Beijing University, and Li Dazhao also better to my uncle Kang heart case Sichuan Meifeng Bank chairman and General Manager my father Kang heart operating factories, mines, real estate, finance, also do the “National Gazette” I tetra Kang heart is far Baofeng, general manager of my home and the Kuomintang party and government dignitaries and Regional Warlords, democracy who had dealings. “
If it is said The influence Kangjiahui, not a few words can finish, I have only to do with the the Daisha aunt memories supplement. Self from the Reform Movement the Kang brothers Times Person of the Year of the society in history, and to a certain extent. Heart, such as Kang recalls: 1913-1916, Taiyan division by Yuan Shikai house arrest Beijing Qianliang alley I each will go from Shanghai to Beijing to ask for their manuscripts “Triumph Books. Teacher wishing his life writings compiled for the series of books published, I generously decided to commitment to publish the responsibility, fitness more than any Shanghai since set the right text community printed books issued to industry, therefore dare any of this. Fanhu after, imitation Tang autumn gold (real) published the storm building Series format, arranged in proofs, validated portable Beijing, division very much appreciate his audience, call female Li the same look, hurried one, as that is to the desk, the cover has also Sheng makeup. division angry color is late by hanging dead always puzzled what the reason. division as the “dead woman birthplace” … the book is about more than a year party complete. points as a twenty-four. “(Note 1)
During the war, health heart, such as the word “provisional capital” KMT government designated as the Speaker of the Senate of Chongqing, then allegedly circulated that he invented. Kang heart of the long-son-in-law, Zhang Ping group served as the KMT’s Consul General in New York, the second daughter Kang Daisha participated in the leadership of the Communist revolution in 1938. After doing secret work for the Communist Party in Chongqing. During which she twice received the spies threatening letter, after being kidnapped into prison. His life, my grandfather Li Zhaofu (Bo Shen) she was released on bail (Note 2). In 1946, she married Chen Shuliang, officiate, Ye Jianying. Chen Shuliang later served as the Chinese Ambassador Ambassador of Cambodia and Romania.
Kang heart of the old gentleman Forthright, Zhangyishucai, good communication, called “Mengchang,. My cousin recalled that teach Kang grandfather of the younger generation is: “If you borrow money, do not think also, pay back the money was an accident. Otherwise, you villain, simply did not hesitate.” During the war, the Communist Party of China is very difficulties, Kang had given to donors. According to Mr. Zhang Zige the former Kai-shek English Secretary memories, Kangjiahui gave Yan’an shipments of seven trucks of medicine and cloth (Note 3). In addition Kangjiahui financial assistance to northern Shaanxi school gift to Mao Zedong cigarettes. Kang Heart to located in Chongqing consular Lane residence in the 10th was a long-term temporary accommodation Yu Yu-jen and Shao Lizi, Zhou Enlai often discussion of the place and the democrat party. (Note 4). 2006 >> << Communist Party of publishing also mentioned Zhou Enlai three friends in Sichuan, they Zuofu, Hu Ziang and Kang heart, such as.

康心之老先生与孙辈在史家胡同57号院

说起来,康家在四川是大户人家。大到什么程度呢?不妨将康心之的二女儿康岱沙女士(我称作岱沙姑妈)在《我的引路人周恩来夫妇》中的回忆摘录如下:“我家是四川有影响的民族资产阶级的代表。我的大伯父康心孚(1884~1917)是老同盟会盟员,和国民党元老于右任是同乡至交,曾任北京大学教授,和李大钊也很要好。我的二伯父康心如是四川美丰银行董事长兼总经理。我的父亲康心之经营厂矿、地产、金融,还办了《国民公报》。我的四叔康心远是宝丰公司总经理。我家和国民党许多党政要人及地方实力派、民主人士多有往来。”

若说康家当时的影响力,也不是三言两语能说完,我只对岱沙姑妈的回忆做些补充。自戊戌变法起,康氏兄弟就与时代风云人物有交往,并在一定程度上参与了历史。康心如在其遗稿《章氏丛书》中回忆道:“一九一三年至一九一六年间,章太炎师被袁世凯软禁北京钱粮胡同。余每从上海至京必去请益。师欲将平生著作编为丛书印行,余慨然承诺印行之责,适余任沪自设右文社以印书发行为业,故敢任此。返沪后,仿邓秋枚(实)印行之风雨楼丛书格式,排成样张,携京审定,师极为欣赏。晋谒时,呼女叕同看,匆匆一视即至案头,盖已盛妆将出也。师有不悦之色。是晚自缢死,始终不解是何原因。师作《亡女事略》……全书约一年余方完成。分订为二十四册。”(注一)

抗战期间,康心如被国民党政府指定为重庆参议会的议长,据说后来流传的“陪都”一词就是他发明的。康心之的长女婿张平群曾任国民党驻纽约总领事,次女康岱沙于1938年参加了共产党领导的革命。后在重庆为共产党做秘密工作。其间她两次接到特务的恐吓信,后被绑架送入监狱。我祖父李肇甫(伯申)以身家性命将她保释出狱(注二)。她在1946年与陈叔亮成婚,主婚人是叶剑英。后来陈叔亮出任中共驻柬埔寨和罗马尼亚大使。

康心之老先生个性豪爽,仗义疏财,好交际,人称“孟尝君”。据我大表姐回忆,康爷爷对后辈的教导是:“你若借人钱,就不要想到还,还钱是个意外。否则你就做小人,干脆不借。”抗战期间,中国共产党经济十分困难,康家曾给予捐助。据曾任宋美龄英文秘书的张紫葛先生回忆,康家曾给陕北延安运送过七辆卡车的医药和布匹(注三)。除此之外,康家还资助陕北办学,也给毛泽东赠送过香烟。康心之位于重庆领事巷十号的住所曾是于右任和邵力子的长期临时居所,也是周恩来经常和民主人士聚会座谈的地方。(注四)。2006年出版的<<中共党史>>还提到周恩来在四川有三位朋友,他们是卢作孚、胡子昂和康心如。

2009 Chongqing of the consular Lane –

 

Kangjiahui before 1949 part of the apartment


Chongqing is mountainous the guests many consular Lane, dinner servants from the mountains rattles have been rolled to the foot of the mountain. Later guests too much, Kang heart next to the main building, built a two-story, Shao Lizi one for many years and they dwelt there. Shao also for my other cousin named “Association” means the CPPCC. The Kahn Brothers also befriend Zhang Ji twin and running a newspaper together. Zhang died before live in Wang Kangjiahui Hills. Of Chongqing, Wang mountains, addition to Kangjiahui villa Chiang Kai-shek’s villa, not far from each other. Kang heart as the youngest son, Kang Guoxiong encounter in the mountain walking Chiang Kai-shek, the by Chiang favorite. Later, he and Jiang walking together and play to Chiang villa.
1950, Kang Heart the consular Lane on the 10th and coal mines to the government, the family moved to Beijing. Kangxin elected in 1956 a member of the CPPCC National Committee, “Heart to collar fixed rate sufficient life, rejection of the CPPCC National Committee presented two hundred yuan a month wan word, saving the country bit by bit.” (Note 5) in the Cultural Revolution, made up interest rates, but become a guilt, because that is the “exploitation” income.
In historian alley. Kang Heart rental hokubo center for the living room, on both sides, respectively, for the living room and den, study Kang Grandpa bedroom. The first arrived in the day, I take a nap woke up, heard the room came the sound of crisp pawn. Bamboo Mongolia leading to the living room of a piece of cloth, but did not cover strictly from under the curtain, I saw a pair of black shoes feet. Pawn sound, occasionally also hear some phrases, such as “put”, “red”. But I do not understand, Now think about chess language. This is my first impression of Kang heart of the old gentleman.
The next day, Kang grandfather in peace restaurant banquet theme congratulations cousin on the University. It was my first time to eat Western food, white tablecloths, a long table, I along with cousin aunt uncle, aunt and uncle of a call. Kang the grandfather sat chief, not tall, but very dignified. I do not remember what was eating, just remember vase carved glass brick and Diego into a flower-like napkins, initially I thought those napkins could eat. After dinner, a son and daughter of the aunt Daisha the small Ni sister small electric brother to play, and they began to play cards, should I attended, and taught me to play poker. Later, my mother knew the matter of playing cards, she said to me: “In the future let me know you play cards, I’ll cut off your hand.” From now on until adulthood, I never touched the card, so my Game class The Intelligent completely been developed.
Kang grandfather stern, multi-Go spend less time, come home to play chess is two or three regulars. Most of the time, the house is very quiet, even if the family reunion evening of the year, he would hardly speak with the children, hard to imagine when guests at the door Mengchang elegance. Later I learned that a total of six people was labeled a rightist in 1957, Kang’s three generations of people. Second daughter Kang heart of three children and three women, in addition to the eldest daughter Kang Chang went to the United States, known as the “red Ambassador Kang Daisha, and still young Kang Guoqi, have not escaped. They include: to my uncle Kang country dry, brother-in-law of Kang country dry of financial experts Gan Bacon, the third son of Kang Guojuan. Kang Xin-yuan eldest son Kang Guojie, Sunzi Kang Kang heart, such as BroadVision are classified as rightist health heart, such as I were classified as ultra-right.

2009年的重庆领事巷–康家1949年前的部分寓所

重庆多山,领事巷客人众多,开饭时佣人要从山上摇铃一直摇到山下。后来客人太多了,康心之又在主楼旁修建了一栋两层小楼,邵力子一家长年就住在那里。邵还为我另一表姐取名为“协”,意为“人民政协”。康氏兄弟也曾与张季孪交好,并一同办报。张去世之前,就住在康家的汪山别墅。重庆南岸的汪山上,除了康家别墅,还有蒋介石的别墅,彼此相距不远。康心如的幼子康国雄在山路上碰到散步的蒋介石,受到蒋的喜爱。后来他曾和蒋一起散步,并到蒋的别墅玩耍。

1950年,康心之将领事巷十号和煤矿等捐给政府,举家迁往北京。1956年康心之当选全国政协委员,“心之以领定息足以生活,对全国政协每月致送二百元婉词拒收,为国家点滴节约。”(注五)文革中,拿定息却成为一条罪状,因为那是“剥削”所得。

在史家胡同。康心之租住的北房居中为客厅,两旁分别为起居室和书房,书房后是康爷爷的卧室。初到的那天,我午睡醒来,听到客房里传来清脆的棋子声。通往客厅的竹帘蒙了一块布,但未遮严,从布帘下,我看到了穿黑布鞋的脚。棋子声中,间或还听到一些短语,比如“提”,“冲”等。但我听不懂,现在想来大概是棋语。这是我对康心之老先生的第一印象。

次日,康爷爷在和平餐厅宴客,主题是祝贺表姐上大学。那是我第一次吃西餐,白白的桌布,一长桌的人,我随着表姐姑妈姑父,叔叔婶婶的一通称呼。康爷爷坐首席,个子不高,但很威严。我根本不记得当时吃了什么,只记得刻花玻砖的花瓶和迭成花状的餐巾,最初我还以为那些餐巾也能吃。吃过饭后,岱沙姑妈的一对儿女小霓姐小电哥来玩,他们开始打牌,也要我参加,并教我玩扑克。后来我妈妈知道了打牌的事,她跟我说:“以后再让我知道你打牌,我就砍断你的手。”从此后直到成年,我再也没摸过牌,因此我的博弈类智能完全没有得到开发。

康爷爷不苟言笑,多以下围棋消磨时间,而来家下棋的也就是两三常客。多数时候,这个家非常清静,即使阖家团聚的大年夜,他也几乎不与孩子们说话,真难想像当年宾客盈门的孟尝君风采。后来我才知道在一九五七年,康氏三辈人中共有六人被打成右派。康心之的三儿三女,除了去美国的长女康彰,被称为“红色大使”的二女儿康岱沙以及尚年幼的康国启,都未能逃过一劫。他们包括:我大姑父康国干,康国干的妹夫金融学家甘培根,三子康国隽。康心远的长子康国杰,康心如的孙子康宏道都被划为右派,而康心如本人则被划为极右。

康爷爷靠定息度日时依然是侠义心肠。甘培根的姐姐育有六个儿子(其中两个是双胞胎),在1959至1962的大饥荒时,他们正吃“长”饭。当时不仅粮食定量不够,即使有钱也买不到东西。时任全国政协委员的康心之利用“特权”,过个把月都会请那家人去四川饭店、欧美同学会或政协礼堂吃上一餐。席间,康爷爷自己并不怎么吃,多是看着孩子们吃,若无这样的接济,这几个孩子日后很可能营养不良。

初到北京时,康心之元配吴毓兰夫人还在。她是大家闺秀,善画。在领事巷时,康家自用的碗碟和汤勺都是定制的,上面画的兰花就出自吴婆婆之手。当时她年事已高,主持家政的是另一位不到五十岁的女人,我们称为阿婆。她皮肤白皙,嘴唇很红,眉毛似描画过,穿着讲究。大概当时周围都是穿列宁制服的素面女人,我头一次见到她就感到有些奇怪。那时阿婆还在学习文化,有时问我表哥生字。她爱笑,喜欢讲话,说话很直爽,烧得一手好菜,颇能和我们打成一片。但自上学后,我又被灌输了一通思想,再见面时,心里就给她贴了一个资产阶级的标签。后来听家里长辈提到她是康爷爷的小老婆,有段时间甚至把她和被妖魔化的“地主小老婆”相提并论。

文革初期,康家被抄了五次。当时康爷爷已七十三岁,他被拉到居委会批斗,并罚去扫街。但阿婆并没有遭受批斗,后来我才知道她本姓唐,原是穷人家的姑娘,所以她的成分很难界定。阿婆比康爷爷年轻很多,又是苦出身,为人爽朗敢做敢为。康爷爷被罚去扫街时,她常出面代之。抄家、批斗,扫街对一辈子要强又好脸面的老人打击很大,不久他就偏瘫了。偏瘫之后,红卫兵仍然骚扰不断,最后康爷爷只得搬到康力姑妈家。力姑妈的丈夫甘培根在右派劳改期间患了急性化脓性髋关节炎,因得不到及时治疗致残了(注六)。这一家一个残一个瘫,难!

1968年1月,大表姐从陕西来京。当时她穿着棉大衣,还故意戴了口罩和头巾,她想给祖父一个惊喜。待敲开五十七号的大门,却被告知祖父已于去年年底去世了。康爷爷去世不久。阿婆就被赶到漏雨的厨房住,在那里住了好几年。当时各家都是自身难保,我母亲在1967—1968年被群众专政,我们和史家胡同断了联系。很多年之后,我才知道在我老保姆最困难的时候,那个被我认为是“地主婆”的阿婆曾送家具,衣物和钱给她。每次都是差我表哥去:“她是贫农,我不能亲自去,免得街道上看到了,连累她。”

后来我的老保姆搬入敬老院,阿婆也搬出了史家胡同。她们去世时,大表姐、表哥和我都在北美。两三年前,表哥回京时特意去了史家胡同。他说:“五十七号还在,但已经完全认不出来了。大门朝向变了,房顶上长了很高的草。那只是一个门牌号码了,你也不必去看了。”

注一:章太炎长女章叕 于1915年9月7日晚自缢身亡。康心如原稿将其名写为“叕”,应为即四个X。

注二:康岱沙《我的引路人周恩来夫妇》

注三:“康心之兄弟逸事”见张紫葛著《X个人和三个畜牲》

注四:大型电视文献纪录片《周恩来》第一集《风云途程》

注五:康心如文稿《哭心之弟》

注六:见拙文《是说再见的时候了》

原载《二闲堂》

宁古塔三年

宁古塔三年

杜欣欣

1.

一九六九年三四月间,我母亲从河北农村回到北京。当时她脸上留着冻疮的瘢痕,眼睛里只有忧伤和焦虑。在被解除群众专政的同时,她收到了去干校的命令。这个命令是执行毛泽东发布于1966年5月7日的指示,“五七指示”对当时还在复课闹革命的初中生而言是被组织去郊区割麦种树,而对母亲则是带上全家去黑龙江牡丹江宁安县劳动改造。

我们开始清理东西,当时除了生活必须品,家中还有几件家具。这些从四川老家带来的家具包括一个大衣柜,一个半截橱,一只床头柜。床头柜里原本装的都是我的图书,但那些书早在文革初期就被清理掉了。我们所去的地方显然不需要这些家具,而床和书桌本来就属于公家。卖掉或送走了家具,再处理不适宜的衣服。因想到所去之处地域偏僻,母亲还去买了一些饼干手纸肥皂。我家人力单薄,母亲又不愿意请单位的人帮忙,姨夫就从远地赶来,帮忙打行李。单位发了几只粗陋的木箱,所有物品一并装入。钉上箱子,母亲就去注销我的北京户口。

当时我母亲和社会联系非常少,根本不了解北京户口的重要,况且去干校的人都认为一去无返。然而谁也没想到后来干校解散,母亲又回北京原单位,而我却因户口注销无法回去。母亲为此事颇为自责,但是她有选择吗?

Go cadre school with classmates farewell photo


On June 19,

 we embark on the go to the the cadre school’s special train. In order to avoid public transport, departure dusk.

 

The train facing away from the setting sun and, after passing through the the last gray building of the Beijing city, we see the desolation of the earth. Such a case, the adults given feelings, I no wearing sin exile of Sadness, that distant place down a bit curious to look forward to.

 

More north line, the more dilute the signs of human habitation. Gradually replace villages in the forests and mountains, the trucks transporting timber up. I will be curious to watch whenever trains passing train characters. When I saw the passengers is quite rustic, surroundings and is so desolate, and my heart sink, and realized that this trip is not fun.

 

Walking day and night, June 21

to Dunning County Tokyo towns. First came, I saw, surrounded by mountains. Later learned that it is located in the upper reaches of Mudanjiang a basin, west the Bohai ancient ruins, to the southwest by car a few hours up to Jingpohu.

 

The Tokyo town only a side street, the street a few shops. Han and Korean town of mixed population, including both black households from hunger begging stranded former bandits. 1960s in a strict household registration management, I have never had the experience of “fled” population, and therefore feel that they live in a different world.

 

However, at the time I did not know Ning’an County the ancient called Ningguta famous exile since the Qing Dynasty, history always seems to repeat itself.
2.
A cadre school early aviation school, when we have been vacated, but three two-story building, or unable to cope with a large number of personnel to sudden. Our children or singles are arranged to live in a dormitory, my mother and I will not be counted as a family, live in different quarters.

 

At that time, the majority of families are two of a room, but Uncle Wang Zhigang assigned to a single room for four generations. Uncle Wang Yong has always been with his wife wearing cadre school, so it is often jokingly referred to as “XXX dependents. It is said that he and the film actor Wang Xingang uncles and brothers, and also the August First Film Studio.

 

My impression that his family is very special – the children are still in the childcare stage, his grandmother is a ripe old age, the elderly stay in bed most of the time.

 

Dai Yong Su aunt long body Yuli, round face and big eyes, the hair is a little unsolicited volumes child, often frowning.

 

Whispers from the adults, I know she is Dai Wangshu’s daughter, but I do not know Dai Wangshu who. Ask adults, only said that the old poet. Like yellow since long been the extent of the “old” to disappear, I naturally could not have known Lane in the Rain “.

 

Although the era I grew up not to be petty, the growth of northern the cloves Quewu Rainy, but the poet’s daughter still I am curious. Hong O’s early Hsu Chih-mo re-introduction, Dai Wangshu, Shao Xunmei gradually known, I read the clove-like grudges girl but also see Dai Wangshu photos, learned that the aunt’s long-wearing attendant father.

 

Cadre school of Lau is the father of my elementary school classmates. In the O’s to participate in the Red Army, and served as vice minister of the logistics department of a unit of. Cadre school, in addition to his another several nine cadres, but I heard his qualifications oldest. I did not know where they went wrong, and maybe did not make mistakes, only because of the reliable political assigned for principals.

 

The father of another primary school students Ding Bobo was originally Engineering Department of the Air Force Order Minister, he was born in the New Fourth Army, culture, otherwise they would not be responsible for the purchase of aircraft. Said Ding Bobo error is more serious, although he was well past the year of destiny, the body is not good, but like as we are engaged in heavy manual labor.

 

A cadre schools, both men and women, regardless of soldiers and civilians are equal the 57 soldiers, due to the so-called serious political problem but only when the candidate trainees.

 

They are supervising labor, sometimes dispatched to shop and go to the heaviest job. In addition to the cadres of the various departments of the Air Force, cadre medics and engineers.

 

Many trainees spouse was originally a local cadres, I remember vegetables double shift from the central ministries, they are very capable and have planted all kinds of vegetables, which I have never seen the lettuce.

 

Cadre school life is basically independent of the local things outside. First arrived in our exchanges with town residents is limited to the fire. Local wooded, buildings, mostly wooden, not only easy to fire and burn rapidly. I remember one winter night, and Tuting was shouting “we go and put out the fire!”

 

 We picked up the bucket and ran to the town. They fetch water, or passed buckets or splashing or mess. Next to the fire, the adults told the boy to cry some old lady Zuo Yi kowtow to us.

 

The initial fire was fierce burning evenly, suddenly a fireball ripped through the countless fire butterfly flying out, bright pressing, they turned black within seconds of the wreckage, with the smoke away. I

 

 stand at a distance 1-20 meters from the scene of the fire, the fire is not only scorching, also dizzying, pressing back. Of course, it was also not refundable, I remember bits Medical adhere to fire and injury and praised, but then I heard his performance this necessary.

 

Many school-age children, the the cadre school established a “Weidong, a nine-year school. Regardless of the quantity and quality of the cadre school students as primary and secondary school teachers are more than met.

 

The course work-based agro-based lesson the Cultural Revolution, and the two subjects are unique. Work-based lessons to teach little physical chemistry, agro-based is the “new thing”, stresses cultivation fertilizers and soil, is no ordinary junior high school curriculum before the Cultural Revolution dajie. Even so, our class time is still very limited.

 

Busy, students must participate in labor. Besides, we also organize to a nearby rural villagers implement Triples (ie, ate, lived with labor).

 

The village is fresh ethnic Han mixed live, few of us girls live in the home of a Han five guarantees for the elderly. I only remember that the special dark house, sleeping in the pit, while sleeping in the pit on her coffin.

 

Due to cold weather, the locals bath limited multi relatively unpleasant their body and the house, but the family was quite clean fresh.

 

They slept the ground floor, around the bedroom, heating rely on middle Zaofang to light a fire. Twelve cauldron sitting on their stove, bright polished, black pot and other cookware on the stove placed too clean and neat. Fresh in the memory of the clan than the Han more hard-working, especially women.

 

The local also produces rice, known as the ring Rice, that probably is the most northern rice producing area of ​​mainland China. Crystal particles after rice mature the full taste better than Xiaozhan meters.

 

Later cadre school also began planting rice, its guidance is sound fresh water brigade old family farmers. The job of the most bitter kinds of rice planting. The Northeast late spring, planting paddy fields knot thin ice.

Barefoot Shimoda first stepped on the ice, and then break the ice into the room, legs ice red, sometimes ice will leave scratches on his legs, and then can not windy! Increase as many people jumped into the amount of labor, large areas of the ice in popularity and stir to melt dissipated.
3.
To cadre school the soon is hoe Wo quarter. Early in the morning, after breakfast on the fields. The people the name of the first red flag, and then all of them carrying a two-edged long hoe, a team of Life on a String,

 

Quotations song to sing. To the edge of a field, and everyone a wandering child row, hoe in hand grip body to lean forward, start hoeing.

 

Twelve hours from the head, the sun is not high. The morning breeze blowing, the sugar pea child green, Miao Ye Yuan weeds long grass seedlings points very clear. Hoe hoe, waist fallen out, his hands gradually lose control.

 

 I was only ten years old, soft waist and legs, four or five-year-old uncle, aunt must be more tough than me. Hoe Yeah hoe, hoe hoe! Immediate beans Gansu seems to have been in a long, long turned to the foot of the mountain. The grass had not grass seedlings and unlike seedlings, all green and into a ball. Original black land, looked more black face, an inattentive children hoeing out a sugar pea.

 

Propagandists stand out when the big field read quotations, the so-called raise our spirits, the concept is the determination, sacrifice and surmount every difficulty to win victory, “fearing neither hardship nor death. In addition to the The Quotations people also read self Duan, such as Hu XX aunt fifty-seven day, made up “but each fifty-seven this up with another piece of poetry.

 

That is an imitation “but each Chongyang, this Double Ninth, but stronger than any other, can not read praise or objectionable, emotion is certain.
When the rest of the field kitchens and brought to the boiling water.

 

Due to illness also sent to the edge of a farm over the water, the light of that job no human supervision. Water pick to the edge of a farm, working people to take you when the baby came up to scoop water to drink, and is the most classic “Today the cafeteria to eat what?”

 

Canteen when we are most concerned. After a lapse of 40 years, although select different personal memory, but miss the canteen is consistent.

 

 

The first arrived cadre school, almost Dayton meal are sorghum, rice buns, rotten cabbage potatoes Alone. Heavy labor, often hungry, I go eating biscuits.

 

My home improvement biscuits wooden box on the aisles, the mice also go to eat soon biscuits and mice are eaten, my mother basically did not have.

 

I remember the cadre school meals improvement began in the winter of 1971, then milled rice flour, soy has long been self-sufficient and also raised Beijing, but the self-sufficiency does not constitute a reason for better food, the real reason is

 

the Lin Biao

and the crash, the Air Force along with the weather changes, the cadre school management also began to loosen,

 

 “food is more conducive to the transformation of the concept is not original holders du jour. The trainees kinds of good food, keep the good swine and sheep, ducks and other movement will not go, do not eat? With good things, but also some people will burn. Fortunately, many were eaten good cadre school, and some good food. The two combined, food flourishing.

 

My impression that the Reaper is not the hoe Wo hard, this is probably for two reasons: 1. Combine harvester to harvest large plots, artificial just sporadic corner. Hoe Wo need a long time to maintain a posture, and to be glued to the ground, very boring, and Reaper but some changes.

 

Grinding sickle Shimoji, standing on the edge of a farm, opened the lunge, single-handedly Louguo a wheat try to paste Siegen cut, but if cut too little out of the way. The wheat harvest there hit Yao sub (ie cut a wheat labeled rope bundles wheat), bundles of wheat, stacking, shipped wheat.

 

An effort to live in the summer harvest is shipped wheat warehousing carry a sack, a classmate of the boys at the time, about 200 pounds or so.
Is probably the 1971 summer,

 

 a surname in alternate trainees into the harvester cleaning roller, it was lunch time. Awn hand lunch returned, rang warning boot less than did not hear. Suddenly, machine hand does not feel right, he immediately shut down, but less than legs get involved! When people less than the bloody hold a cabin down to the ground. He said: “my hand!” –

 

 He was impossible to tell limbs of. It is said that at that moment, he instinctively grasped the drum compartment irons, not young and healthy, it is likely the entire people to get involved a.

 

Many years later, I watch American movies “Paradise years, Alderman (Nestor Almendros) shoot-to-head and the sun are scorching flame camel burning mature ears of wheat, reminds me of the human debris mixed with golden kernels .

 

Less than to be sent to the town hospital, I vaguely remember the cadre school’s doctors also participated in the rescue, a lot of people he blood donation. After the rescue, he survived.

 

Probably about 75 years, I see in the hospital less than. He sat in a wheelchair, his legs Qi Gener gone, the people are very thin, ruddy face has not seen. Just a few years, he would from spirited children lean guy into the vicissitudes of middle-aged.

 

Later, I heard less than positive running complain and want to get compensation. Five or six years after the dissolution of the cadre school, I often hear the news of the death of the original cadre school students.

 

Autumn harvest soybeans originally not large need for manual, but a year in advance snowfall yard urgently needed threshing machine cut bean trees heap presence warehousing, so he added a night shift.

 

The first part of the night, a number of our partner bean trees fork into a small pile, again and again to the threshing front. Shouted chant Qi force, Thresher’s low-lying trees heap beans is promoting quite labor-saving is also more fun. The bean stack push before the thresher,

 

Mucha crossed a bunch of people standing on the front of the machine fell into the machine mouth. “This job feeding small effort can not do it, so all turns into battle. Now think of it a bit scared, if sleepy or not a firm, or go What should I do? Late at night, we are sleepy and tired, to rest on drilling beans stack squint a nap. Re-start when the captain beans stack tracing.
4.
In early 1971,

I count the junior high school graduation, was assigned to the cadre school pharmaceutical factory, and later the pharmaceutical factory dissolution, was assigned to the repair workshop. Repair workshop belonging to the the cadre school’s three brigade.

 

The brigade is the original for the Air Force Research Institute, participants overwhelmingly male. Graduated from Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics and the Harbin Military Engineering Institute intellectuals claiming stinking ninth category (then) first all the decentralization Nenjiang Nenjiang the cadre schools dissolution and then merged with.

 

 My teacher surnamed Xu, the middle one, less then. He taught me welding so filing moderate voice, intonation slightly incongruous with the surrounding environment.

His face was very white, white and blue veins visible temple. In the cadre school a labor dark brown, he really is a pale-faced scholar.

His white little half from innate, mostly due to long-term detention actions reportedly detained his doors and windows paste newspaper.

 

Earlier, I was big enough to feel the pressure of the alternates, does not know a few steps beyond the others completely lost the freedom of movement. I never did figure out the “revolutionary situation” of the Third Brigade, only vaguely felt there seems independent kingdom.

 

Likewise issued uniforms, but a member of the Third Brigade of the dress is very ragged, as if deliberately catharsis with what.

 

To our participation in it, where the revolutionary atmosphere has been digested, and my master gave me talked about Newton’s Three Laws. Heilongjiang cold climate, locals are cat winter, while the the cadre school’s cat winter is spent in the political learning. In machinery repair, we are learning in the gay male dormitory political.

 

 Pass covered with full of people, several of our young workers to the lowest level of education. I listen to the old nine “have to read the file and speak also hear they blurted out” lute fence still holds partly concealed, or equal to the radius of curvature little bit, friction coefficient of zero everywhere “to make fun of people. I immediately scared to Heaven, and more eager to study.

 

The cadre school most interesting groups art troupe members. To reach half a year later, another group cadre school in Guiyang, the part of the school to tune to go there.

 

At that time, many people do not want to go, a the drama actor compiled named “Sunday drama, the plot is to convince people to Guiyang. Play four roles of father and mother, brother and sister.

 

 I played the sister play brother is an empty political Repertory Theatre actor Xuzhe Lin. Play father marks the empty political Opera Liu, he previously played “Sister Jiang” Fu Zhigao speech mother is Joe spring she Opera actor.

 

Although my mother has always disapprove me to participate in the show, but when she is still in the post-dictatorship period, weakness regulatory me, even strong, she did not dare to oppose the revolutionary propaganda.

 

Winter slack time, the cadre school organized a publicity team, the program with songs, dances, and folk art. I served as the first half solo, track Nie Er “Graduation Song”, and the other three girls to dance with. I sing fee pneumatic, but not how to dance, completely make up the numbers.

 

 

The empty political art troupe of soloists Xu Philippine as the second half of the solo. She sang folk songs, sing Hebei Clapper.

 

The finale counterpart word performers is dancer Xin Moumou Repertory Theatre actor Luan certain. Sim XX prizes in a youth festival in Eastern Europe in the 1950s.

 

I remember that the last sentence of the counterpart word is “follow Chairman Mao never move forward.” Sim XX angle from the stage right after, all the way to a small turn, turn up front, stood firmly, then shouted “move forward.” performances always won a lot of applause, bearing in mind that these people have is Beijing’s first-class actors.

 

In the spring of 1971,

 Weidong school rehearsal “Shajiabang, assign me to play Qingsao A corner Joe played B angle.

 

She later obtain Broadcasting Institute and chaired the the CCTV economic part, the cadre school kids trainees celebrity there horse did not have. Shajiabang other actors was younger than me, in connection with the play, I feel a bit like a play house.

去干校前与同学告别合影

六月十九日,我们踏上去干校的专列。为了避让公共交通,出发时已是黄昏。列车背向落日而行,驶过北京城内最后的灰色建筑之后,便见苍凉大地。如此情形,成年人定有感触,而我因无戴罪流放的悲情,对那个遥远的地方倒有几分好奇的期盼。

越向北行,人烟越稀。森林和高山逐渐取代了村镇,运送木材的货车也多了起来。每遇列车交会,我都会好奇地观看列车里的人物。当我看到乘客相当土气,周遭又是如此荒凉,心里沉了一下,这才意识到此行并不好玩。

行走一天一夜之后,我们于六月二十一日到达宁安县东京城镇。初到时,只见四面皆山。后来才知道它是位于牡丹江上游的一块盆地,向西有渤海古国遗址,往西南乘车数小时可达镜泊湖。当时的东京城镇只有一条小街,街上几无商店。镇中汉族和朝鲜族混居,其中既有逃荒讨饭滞留的“黑户”,也有昔日的土匪。在户籍管理严格的60年代,我从未见识过“流窜”人口,因此觉得他们生活在不同的世界里。然而,当时的我并不知道,宁安县古名为宁古塔,自清代就是著名的流放地,历史似乎总是重演。

2.

干校早年是一所航校,我们到时已经腾空,但三座两层楼房还是无法应付突然而至的大批人员。我们小孩或单身都被安排住集体宿舍,我和母亲不被算作一个家庭,所以分住于不同的宿舍。当时多数家庭都是两家共一室,但王志刚叔叔因四代同堂而分到单间。王叔叔随妻子戴咏素来干校,因此常被开玩笑称为“某某某的家属”。据说他与电影演员王心刚是叔伯兄弟,也在八一电影制片厂工作。我印象中他的家庭非常特别—孩子还在托儿阶段,他的祖母已是耄耋之年,老人多数时间都呆在床上。

戴咏素阿姨长身玉立,圆脸大眼睛,头发有点自来卷儿,常常皱着眉头。从大人的窃窃私语中,我知道她是戴望舒之女,但我并不知道戴望舒是谁。询问大人,只说是个旧诗人。犹如黄自等早就“旧”到消失的程度,我自然更不可能知道“雨巷”。尽管我成长的时代不容小资,生长的北方有丁香却无雨巷,但诗人的女儿依然令我感到好奇。一九八O年代初,在徐志摩被重新介绍之后,戴望舒,邵洵美等也逐渐为大众所知,我读到 “丁香般结怨的姑娘”,又看到戴望舒的照片,才知道戴阿姨的长相随父亲。

干校的刘校长是我小学同学的父亲。他一九二O年代参加红军,曾担任后勤部某部的副部长。干校里,除了他还另有几位九级干部,但听说他的资格最老。我一直不知道他犯了什么错误,也许根本没犯错误,只是因为政治可靠就被派作校长吧。另一位小学同学的父亲丁伯伯原是空军工程部订货部部长,他出身新四军,有文化,否则不会负责购买飞机。据说丁伯伯的错误比较严重,虽然他当时已过天命之年,身体也不好,但与我们一样从事重体力劳动。

一到干校,无论男女老少,也不论军民都是平等的五七战士,但因所谓的严重政治问题的人却只能当候补学员。他们被监督劳动,有时会被派去干最重的活儿。除了空军各部门的干部,干校里还有军医和工程师。很多学员的配偶原是地方干部,我记得蔬菜二班都来自中央各部,她们很能干,种了各类青菜,其中有我从未见过的生菜。

干校的生活基本上独立于当地事物之外。初到时,我们与小镇居民的交流仅限于救火。当地林木茂盛,建筑多为木质,不但容易起火,而且燃烧迅猛。我记得某个冬夜,突听有人在喊“大家快去救火啊!”我们拿起水桶向镇上跑去。众人打水,或传递水桶,或泼水,或乱成一团。大火旁,大人叫孩子哭,一些老婆婆向我们作揖磕头。最初火势虽猛却燃烧均匀,突然一个火球炸开了,无数火蝶飞出,光亮逼人,数秒之内又化作黑色残骸,随浓烟而去。我站在距离火场1-20米处,烈火非但灼人,还令人眩晕,逼人后退。当然也有人不退,我记得有位军医因坚持火场而致伤而受表扬,但后来听说他的表现本无必要。

因学龄孩子很多,干校成立了一个九年制的“卫东”学校。无论数量和质量上,干校学员担任中小学老师都富富有余。课程有工基农基课,而这两门课都是文革独有的。工基课教一点物理化学,而农基则完全是“新生事物”,主要讲栽培肥料和土壤等,与文革前的普通初中课程毫不搭界。即便如此,我们上课时间还是很有限。农忙时,在校生都要参加劳动。除此之外,我们还被组织去附近农村与村民实行三同(即同吃同住同劳动)。那个村子是鲜族和汉族混住,我们几个女生住在一个汉族五保户老人的家里。我只记得那屋内特暗,我们睡在土坑上,同时睡在土坑上的还有她的棺材。因气候严寒,当地人洗浴有限,他们的身上和屋内多比较难闻,但鲜族却相当干净。他们睡地铺, 左右是卧室,靠中间的灶房烧火取暖。他们的灶上坐着一两口大锅,黑色的锅擦得晶亮,灶上的其他炊具也摆放得干净整齐。记忆中的鲜族人比汉族更吃苦耐劳,特别是妇女。当地还出产水稻,人称响水稻,那大概是中国大陆最北的水稻产地。稻子成熟后颗粒晶莹饱满,口感好过小站米。后来干校也开始种水稻,其指导就是响水大队的鲜族老农民。种水稻最苦的活儿是插秧。东北春迟,插秧时水田里还结着薄冰。赤脚下田先踩到冰,继而破冰而入,双腿冰得通红,有时冰凌还会在腿上留下划痕,这时可别起风!随着多人跳入和劳动量的加大,大片的冰凌在人气和搅动中融化消散。

3.

到干校不久就是锄禾季。清晨起来,吃过早饭就下地。最前面的人打着一面红旗,随后个个扛着一柄长锄,一队人边走边唱,唱的多是语录歌。到了地头,大伙一溜儿排开,锄头握在手,身子向前倾,开始锄地。

起头儿的一两个小时,太阳还不高。晨风吹拂,豆苗儿葱绿,苗叶圆野草长,草苗分得很清。锄着锄着,腰就开始闹别扭了,双手也逐渐不听使唤。那时我才十来岁,腰腿柔软,四五十岁的叔叔阿姨一定比我更难熬。锄呀锄呀,锄呀锄呀,眼前的豆陇似乎一直在长,竟然长到了山脚下。此时草已不是草,苗又不像苗,全都绿成一团。原来的黑土地,看着脸更黑了,一不留神就锄掉了一棵豆苗儿。

大田里时有宣传员站出来念语录, 所谓鼓舞斗志吧,念得最多的是“下定决心,不怕牺牲,排除万难,去争取胜利”,“一不怕苦,二不怕死”。除了语录人们还念自编的段子,比如胡XX阿姨在五七那天编了“岁岁五七,今又五七”的诗词。那是模仿“岁岁重阳,今又重阳”,但比其他作品还强一些,读不出是赞美还是反感, 感慨却是一定的了。

田间休息时,伙房送来了开水。我因生病也给地头送过水,那活儿轻省也没人监督。水挑到地头,劳动人民都拿你当宝贝,围上来瓢水喝,然后就是最经典的问题“今天食堂吃什么?”食堂是当时大家最关心的地方。时隔40年,虽然个人记忆选择不同,但对食堂的思念却是一致的。

初到干校,几乎顿顿饭都是高粱米饭窝窝头,烂白菜土豆当家。劳动重,常常感到饥饿,我就去偷吃饼干。我家装饼干的木箱放在走道里,老鼠也进去吃,不久饼干就被我和老鼠都吃光了,而我妈妈基本没吃。我记得干校的伙食改善始于1971年冬,那时精米白面黄豆早已自给自足并还上调北京,但自给自足并不构成改善伙食的理由,真正的原因是林彪坠机,空军随之变天,干校管理也开始松动了,原来持有的“伙食差更利于改造”的观念也不被大谈特谈了。学员种的好菜,养的好猪羊,鸭子等又运不走,不吃做什么?有了好东西,还要有人会烧。所幸干校有好些人吃过好的,另有一些人会做好吃的。两相结合,伙食就蒸蒸日上了。

我印象中的割麦没有锄禾辛苦,这大概出于两个原因:1.联合收割机负责收割大地块,人工只管零星边角。2.锄禾需要长久地保持一种姿态,并要紧盯地面,很乏味,而割麦却有些变化。磨镰下地后,站在地头,弓箭步拉开,一手搂过一把麦,尽力贴地齐根割,但若割得高一点也不碍事。麦收还有打爻子(即割下一把小麦打成捆麦的绳子),捆麦,堆垛,运麦。夏收的一个力气活是运麦入仓,当时同班的男生一人扛一个麻包,大概200斤左右。

大概是1971夏,一个于姓候补学员进入收割机清理滚筒,当时正是午休时间。康拜因手午饭归来,拉铃警示开机,小于没听到。霎那间,机手感觉不对,虽然他立刻关机,但小于的双腿已经被卷进去了!当人们把血肉模糊的小于抱出机仓,放倒在地。 他说:“我的手!” —当时他已分不清四肢了。据说在那一瞬间,他本能地抓住了滚筒仓内的铁杆,若非年轻力壮,很可能整个人都被卷进去了。很多年后,我看美国电 影“天堂岁月”,阿尔德曼(Nestor Almendros)拍摄出成熟的麦穗如火焰般地燃烧,麦芒和太阳都很灼人,我想起混入金色麦粒中的人体碎片。

小于被送到镇医院,我模糊地记得干校的医生也参加了抢救,很多人为他捐血。经过抢救,他活了下来。大概是75年左右,我在医院看到小于。他坐在轮椅里,双腿齐根儿没了,人很瘦,脸上的红润已不见。短短几年,他就从意气风发的精干小伙儿进入了沧桑的中年。后来我听说小于正奔走告状,想获得补偿。干校解散之后的五六年间,我也常常听到原干校学员去世的消息。

秋天收割大豆原本也不大需要人工,但某年提前降雪,机器割下的豆棵堆在场院里急需脱粒入库,于是就加了夜班。前半夜,我们数人合伙把豆棵叉成小堆,再推到脱粒器前。喊着号子,大家齐用力,脱粒机的地势比较低,豆棵堆一旦被推动就颇为省力也比较好玩儿。豆垛推到脱粒机前,再由站在机器前的人用木叉叉起一堆,摔进机嘴里。“喂入”这活儿力气小了干不了,因此都是轮流上阵。现在想起来有点儿后怕,若困了或没站稳,跌进去怎办?后半夜大家都又困又累,一休息就钻进豆垛里眯一觉。再开工时,队长就到豆垛里寻人。

4.

1971年初,我算初中毕业,被分配到干校的制药厂,后来制药厂解散,又被分配到机修厂。机修厂属于干校的三大队。这个大队原为空军第一研究所,学员绝大多数是男性。这些毕业自北航和哈军工的知识分子(当时自称臭老九)先被全体下放到嫩江,嫩江干校解散后又合并过来。我的师傅姓许,中等个,少话。他教我烧焊使锉时,语调温和声音轻微,与周围的环境很不协调。他的脸非常白,白得可见太阳穴上的青筋。在干校一片劳动的棕黑中,他真正是个白面书生。他的白少半来自天生,多半是因长期关押所至,据说关押他的地方门窗都糊了报纸。此前我觉得候补学员的压力就够大了,并不知道几步路之外还有人完全失去行动自由。我从来没弄明白过三大队的“革命形势”,只隐约感到那里好像独立王国。虽然同样地发军服,但三大队的成员穿得非常褴褛,好像故意在宣泄着什么。到我们参加进去时,那里的革命气氛已消解了一些,我师傅曾给我讲过牛顿三定律。黑龙江气候严寒,当地人都猫冬,而干校的猫冬是在政治学习中度过的。在机修厂时,我们都是在男同志宿舍政治学习。通铺上坐满了人,我们几个青工受教育程度最低。我听“老九”们念文件和发言,也听到他们脱口说出“犹抱琵笆半遮面”,或以“曲率半径点点相等,摩擦系数处处为零”来取笑人。我当即惊为天人,更渴望读书了 。

干校最引人注意的群体是文工团员。我们到达半年后,因在贵阳另组干校,本校中的部分人要调去那里。当时很多人不想去,一个话剧演员就编了名为“有那么一个星期天”的话剧,剧情是说服人去贵阳。剧中有四个角色,爸爸妈妈,兄妹俩个。我演妹妹,演哥哥的是空政话剧团演员徐哲林。演爸爸是空政歌剧团的刘痕,他原在“江姐”中饰演甫志高,演妈妈是乔和春,她也是歌剧团的演员。虽然我母亲一贯不赞成我参加演出,但那时她还处于后专政时期,无力监管我,即便有力,她也不敢反对革命宣传。

冬天农闲时,干校组织了宣传队,节目有歌舞和曲艺。我担任上半场独唱,曲目是聂耳的“毕业歌”,另与三个女孩子一起跳舞。我唱歌不费气力,但舞得不怎样,完全是凑数。空政文工团的独唱演员徐菲担任下半场的独唱。她唱民歌,也唱河北梆子。压轴节目对口词的表演者是舞蹈演员辛某某和话剧团演员栾某某。辛XX曾于50年代在东欧的某个青年联欢节上获奖。我记得对口词的最后一句是“跟着毛主席永远向前进”,此时辛XX从舞台右后角,一路小翻,翻到最前头,稳稳地站住,再喊出“向前进。”他们的表演总赢得很多掌声,须知这些人都曾是北京一流的演员。

1971年春,卫东学校排演“沙家浜”,分配我演阿庆嫂的A角,乔演B角。她后来考取广播学院并主持央视过的经济栏目,干校的小孩学员中出的名人还有马未都。当时“沙家浜”的其他演员都比我年轻,与之对戏,我感觉有点像过家家。

演“沙家浜”时,我母亲已从烧火工调任音乐老师。她教五线谱,她的课成为一些人此生唯一的音乐教育,因此被念叨过很多年。参加演出不但可以逃避劳动,还能吃到好东西,遇见趣事。我看过乌拉草长长地飘动于镜泊湖边, 养貂场里鬼头鬼脑的貂。人参种植园中红红的人参果让我想起动画片“人参娃娃”,闷罐卡车驶过结冰的湖面犹如俄罗斯小说中的场景。演出中,我也有了若干个第一次,喝烈酒,吃狗肉,抓虱子… 。

锄禾,麦收,秋收,冬季“拉练”………,我们迎来了1970年。在拉练中,我们以为珍宝岛事件是世界上最大的事件,全然不知人类已经登月!1971年晚秋,干校的绝大多数人都知道了林彪事件,当他们进行更封闭的学习时,我依然混沌地当着猪倌。那年年底,我终于也知道了那个惊天的消息,从此即便愚钝如我也直觉到被愚弄,对某些“神圣”的东西不再深怀敬畏。

在纷扬不止的风雪中,我走到立立家,她的父亲丁伯伯头一次被批准去探亲治病。玉英,立立,人人(他是4.12生人)和我喝着酒迎来了1972 年。当时我们并不知道,仅仅半年,干校就解散了。我和玉英最后落脚南京,而立立和人人都去当兵。1979年,我收到了人人的来信和戎装照,当时他正在越南参加“自卫”反击战。

40年过去了!我们上一代的干校学员或已作古或风烛残年。几年前,我去看望一位干校的老人,得知他记日记。我提出看看他的日记,他说真的无甚可读,若非今天干了什么活,就是开了什么会。我发现同代人的回忆几无细节,却充满了花朵般的情感,那种感情何以依然?

干校的岁月之于我是一段没有选择的生活,尽管其艰苦无法与知青或农民的生活相比。回想那段生活,即便是演出高潮,也只有那几出戏和那几首歌。对于一个人来说,童年和少年的歌即便不是至关重要,也是记忆中最牢固的一部分。不幸的是,我的童年和少年时代只有那几首歌。

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《东方红》大歌舞—一个孩子的记忆

《东方红》大歌舞—一个孩子的记忆

1964年暑假,我患肺炎住院,出院不久即收到立刻返校的通知。因寄宿学校只有假期在家,母亲并不愿意让我返校,但听说是政治任务,她也就不能说什么了。

我和其他孩子被带到景山公园的一间大殿内,屋内因高大而黑暗。几缕阳光自窗外射入,浮尘飘动其中,三四位老师站在光束中。老师中的一位曾与我母亲同事,后转至少年宫工作,因此我猜她们都是少年宫的老师。每位老师的面前都排着一队孩子,轮到我时,老师让我靠着她的前胸站直,再用手比了比我的个头,转头问道:“这么高就可以了吧?”然后她就将我拨到一边儿。作为一个十岁的孩子,我知道是在选拔,却不清楚选拔去做什么。获选之后,我才知道我们将要参演大型音乐舞蹈史诗《东方红》中的童声合唱《我们是共产主义的接班人》,在获知之际以及此后,我们又不断地被告知此事的重要和参与的光荣。

我不记得当时考过歌舞,但我曾参加中央电视台的歌舞表演,我猜那也许是初选。 在后来的排演中,我接触的小学生都来自几所干部子弟小学,北京市实验一小,实验二小,史家胡同小学和府学胡同小学等。

大歌舞的排练都在人民大会堂中的大礼堂进行。排练之初,周恩来连续数天到场观看,老师也一再提醒我们“周总理就在台下”,故有“周总理是东方红大歌舞的总导演”的说法。大歌舞的一个场面是在二胡曲《江河水》凄惨的音乐下鬻儿卖女的生离死别。周恩来看了之后说:“你们没见过旧社会卖孩子,那是要插草标的。”于是那被卖到女孩头上就竖起一根相当粗的植物。

这个大歌舞的参与者高达三千,其中的一些为当时中国大陆的知名演员:中国歌舞剧院的郭兰英和王昆分别演唱《南泥湾》和《农友歌》,煤矿歌舞团的邓玉华唱《五彩云霞》,总政歌舞团的张越男唱《松花江上》,东方歌舞团的胡松华唱《赞歌》。女声独唱里只有张越男采取西洋唱法,由此可见当时多么注重民族化。当时的少数民族演员因长相和服装独特尤其引人注目,她们是维族舞蹈演员阿依杜拉,傣族舞蹈演员刀美兰,蒙族舞蹈演员莫多歌玛,朝鲜族舞蹈演员崔美善和藏族歌唱演员才旦卓玛。

简单地说,大歌舞的主题是“只有中国共产党毛泽东才能救中国,必须跟他们走”。为了诠释这一主题,歌舞场面包括1949年前后。我记得1949年那场戏被命名为《中国人民站起来了》,起始于混声合唱《歌唱祖国》,其后为舞蹈《钢花飞溅》(名字不很确切),《丰收歌》,混声合唱《我们一定要解放台湾》,混声合唱《敬爱的毛主席,我们心中的红太阳》,童声合唱《我们是共产主义的接班人》,最后以大合唱《全世界无产者联合起来》结束。 “红太阳”的演唱者包括舞台上以及站在舞台两边的合唱团员(据说他们都是大学的合唱团成员)。演出服装为白衣,蓝裙或裤,气氛庄严虔诚。此歌起始于高昂的男声:“敬爱的毛主席,我们心中红太阳。”随后为温和的女声“无论我们站在什么岗位上,身上都闪耀着你的光芒。无论我们走到什么地方,总是觉得近在你的身旁。”此时曲调相当抒情,继而是铿锵有力的混声:“跟着你,我们踏碎了多少惊涛骇浪,跟着你…”。这是一首真正的合唱,并未载歌载歌,但却把大歌舞推向了另一个崇神的高潮(开场的葵花舞是第一个高潮),这时的提法除了大救星,还有“四个伟大”中的两个–导师和领袖。这首歌与后来文革中流行的《敬爱的毛主席》并非同一首,那首歌流传得很广,但词曲过于直白,而这一首若去除政治化的歌词,还颇可一听。

童声合唱《我们是共产主义的接班人》开始时,少先队鼓号手先从舞台两边跑至舞台后部。这几个鼓号手都比较高,我猜可能是初中学生。在鼓乐声中,两位少先队男性旗手与四个女性护旗手分别自舞台两侧走出,合唱队跟随其后。这四位护旗手都是从众多的女孩子中挑出来,每一个都是身材高挑容貌美丽,一见难忘!大概是1980年代,我曾在地铁上遇到其中的一位。她依然是黑发浓眉,皮肤白皙,嘴角的小黑痣最引人注目。当时我真想问她:“演《东方红》时,你是不是右边那个护旗的。”文革后期,经人介绍,我母亲收了一个名叫车健的学生。第一次来上课,我即认出她是《东方红》中的一个护旗手,一问果然不错。当时车健刚从东北插队回京,就业无着,从我母学习声乐后,她加入了一个军队歌舞团。

当旗手和护旗手在舞台两侧站定,童声合唱队也呈箭头型自舞台中央向后逐渐展开。第一排第一人要引领全队至舞台中央,而那舞台对一个小孩是太大了,因此我为自己只需跟队而高兴。指挥秋里叔叔来自中央乐团,我印象很深的是当唱到“爱祖国,爱人民”时,他会用手势示意摇摆,我们的头也随之左右摆动,这是整首歌中唯一的肢体动作。

童声合唱完毕,我们还要在《全世界无产者联合起来》再次上场。那场戏的参演者都着亚非拉服装,高个男演员满脸涂黑,化妆成黑人。唱到最后一段时,我们小演员就棒着纸花跑上台,把花献给“亚非拉” 朋友。我记得那首歌的歌词是:“山连着山,海连着海,全世界无产者联合起来!”当时合唱队唱得排山倒海之气,如我这类观众也听得激情无限。

某次彩排之后,周恩来上台接见演员。当时天气已凉,他穿着一件灰色制服站在我身后与大演员握手谈话。我很好奇,就转身去摸周恩来的衣服。他的衣服不是毛料的,摸上去比较轻滑。我刚摸完,周恩来就转过身。当时我非常害怕,立刻转过身去,假装什么都没有发生。突然听到周说:“小朋友,你站到我这边来。”我向旁边移动了一下,但依然不敢回头,只感到他的手放在我的肩膀上,然后闪光灯闪了好几次。大概是十一前后,毛泽东也来观看演出。演出完毕,他走上舞台与演员合影,但他并未像周那样与演员谈话,逗留的时间也比周恩来短得多。

排练和演出期间,我们于下午3-4点就乘车到达人大会堂,之后,即被带至特定区域。我从不清楚所处的区域,更不知道厅名,但还记得一些摆设,比如某个厅里摆着一座玲珑剔透的小型天安门,外边罩着玻璃。我问老师那是什么做的,老师说那是矿石盐岩。我们候场的厅内靠墙的一圈是红木座椅。坐到指定座位之后,我们就开始换演出服装。正式演出时已是秋冬,女生的演出服是白衬衫粉红色背带裙,白鞋袜。换好衣服之后,每人要将换下来的毛棉服整齐地叠放于红木座椅之下。当时后台纪律森严,不但要求保持整洁肃静,连去厕所都要求排队。最开心的是演出之后的夜餐,每桌有两盘富强粉馒头,这是我第一次吃到这么白的馒头。当时车子调度似乎有问题,某次演出结束后,我们在大会堂门厅里等到深夜,很多人就在大理石地板上睡着了。对于小孩子来说,熬夜是兴奋的。因为演出,我们耽误很多课,我的算术老师因此很生气。她是一个短发,黑脸厚唇的青年教师,颇有初生牛犊不怕虎之气,发起火来桌子拍得山响,发火之后,她就给我们布置了更多的算术作业。

那天是1964年10月16日,所有参演者都去了人民大会堂。此前我们已经知道毛泽东等要来。在大会堂外排队时,我后面的一个女孩儿要和我换位置,我想都没想就让她站到我前面。进去大会堂后,我们小学生分为两排。前排席地而坐,后排坐在小凳子上,我的座位之后是一排带白套的座椅。我记得那是下午,毛泽东第一个走进场,刘少奇和周恩来紧随其后。继这三位之后的进入者也并非鱼贯而入,彼此间隔了一点距离,有时两位走在一起,但江青是独自进场的。她的脸非常白,身材非常苗条,戴黑框眼镜,围纱巾。因无人在室内围纱巾,令人感到奇怪而且印象深刻,又因为她的头发非常短,最初我甚至不清楚此人的性别。

毛泽东入座后,他的座椅之后站着郭兰英,王昆以及在《东方红》里独舞的少数民族演员。毛泽东曾与他们交谈。坐在毛泽东和朱德之前的小学生与我同学,名叫高晓,而前面提到的车健则坐在江青的前面。毛的右边坐着朱德,然后是董必武,邓小平等。毛的左边是刘少奇,刘少奇左边为周恩来,彭真,江青等。我后面的椅子上坐着一个军人,文革中他曾频频露面,后来作为“杨余傅”之一被打倒,因此我知道他是杨成武。杨成武和蔼地问我在哪里念书,叫什么名字,问完了,还说了一句套话“好好学习,天天向上”。当所有的领导人坐定之后,大照相机绕场一周,开始合影。合影后,周恩来离开座位,走到场地中央,他宣布中国第一颗原子弹爆炸成功。当时我完全不知道那是什么,问周围的孩子,他们也不知道,不知是谁传过来:“那就是一颗炸弹”,于是我们跟着为一颗炸弹爆炸而欢呼。

参加那次合影的人视交费多少而获得了一两张合影。其中的一张为使用照相纸的正版,但正版只包括参与者的那一部分,而另一张印在画报纸上的才是全体合影。这两张照片都被卷起放入长方型的硬纸筒里。纸筒为暗红色,筒面上有黄底红字“国营北大照像馆转机合影—北京 打磨厂285号,电话75.0081”。我母亲还用钢笔写了“欣欣参加国庆十五周年东方红,1964年10月15日”(日期有误)。2009年,我回国在旧信旧照中找到它,看到刘少奇,彭真和杨成武的像上被用钢笔打了叉,很可能是我文革中所为。在那张照片里,我所在的那排人都摄得比较模糊,原因是当时技术必须在那里切换镜头,而次日报纸刊出的照片就截至与我调换位子的那个孩子。

大歌舞的演出至少持续至1964年年底,其后就开始拍电影。据说毛泽东认为当时的中国不够强大,电影删除了混声合唱《我们一定要解放台湾》,《敬爱的毛主席,我们心中的红太阳》,童声合唱《我们是共产主义的接班人》,大合唱《全世界无产者联合起来》。如此一改,所有的小演员都被打发去作前排观众。作为观众演员,一旦拍摄开始,我们既不能回头也不能走动,又因为看了太多次,我们几乎学会了里面所有的歌曲,也会背很多台词,诸如 “天是黑沉沉的天,地是黑沉沉的地,苦难深重的中国人民啊…. ”“戴镣长街行,告别众乡亲,砍头不要紧,只要主义真… ”。那时毕竟年纪小,在封闭的反复灌输下,即不知道刚经历过大饥荒时代,也不可能证伪。有时实在太无聊了,我们就拨弄桌上的无线电设备,估计其中的不少被拨弄坏了。终场时我们要全体起立向后面的观众摇纸花,那就是后来人们看到的电影大型音乐舞蹈史诗《东方红》。

我对“红色回忆”兴趣不大,记下这段史实以免散失。

杜欣欣
写于2010年初,改于2010年8月10日

刊于《万象》2010年11月

Joe in the cadre school in early 1972


“Shajiabang speech, my mother from the fires, the work was transferred to a music teacher. She taught read music, her classes became this life only music education, talking about the many years.

 

Participate in the performance will not only be able to circumvent the labor can eat good things, meet interesting. I’ve seen ula grass long fluttering at the edge of Jingpo Lake, furtive mink farm mink.

 

Ginseng plantation red ginseng fruit reminds me of the the animated the “ginseng doll” boxcar passing truck frozen lake scene is like a Russian novel. Performance, I also have a number of first drink spirits, eating dog caught lice …
Hoe Wo, wheat harvest, harvest, winter “zipper” ……… we usher in 1970. In field training, we thought Zhenbaodao event is the biggest event in the world, completely unaware of the human has moon!

 

The late autumn of 1971,

cadre school of the vast majority of people know that the Lin Biao incident, when they closed learning, I still chaotic in front of the swineherd. The end of that year, I finally know that shaking a message, from even dull as I intuited fool some of the “sacred” things no longer hold deep reverence.

 

Fen Yang is more than the snow I went to established Tateie, and her father Ding Bobo first time approved to visit relatives cure. Yuying, Li Li, everyone (4.12 stranger) and I drank usher in 1972.

 

At that time, we did not know, only half a year, cadre disbanded. And Yuying I finally settled on Nanjing standing legislation and everyone to go to war.

 

In 1979,

I received a letter military uniform according Everyone, when he was in Vietnam to participate in “self-defense” Strikes Back.

 

40 years later!

Our previous generation of the cadre school students or have passed away or frail. A few years ago, I went to see a cadre school of the elderly, that he keep a diary. I propose to look at his diary, he really even readable, but today did what live is to open what will.

 

 I have found memories of the same generation is almost no details, but full of flowers like emotion, the kind of feelings why still?

 

Cadre school years in a period not choose life, despite its hard not be compared to the life of the educated youth or farmers. I recall that period of life, the and even performances climax, only a few out of play, and that a few songs.

For a people, the songs of childhood and adolescence, if not vital, but also the most solid part of memory. Unfortunately, it is only that a few songs of my childhood and youth.
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“The East is Red” big song and dance – a child’s memory
Posted on July 1, 2011 by Du Xinxin


“The East is Red” big song and dance – a child’s memory


The summer of 1964,

 

I was suffering from pneumonia in hospitalized, discharged soon receive immediate notification back to school. The boarding school is only the holidays at home, the mother and do not want to let me return to school, but I heard a political task, she would be unable to say anything.

 

Me and the other children were taken to a large hall in Jingshan Park, the house is tall, dark. Self out of the window, streaks of sunlight is incident the dust wafted including four teachers standing on the beam.

 

Teacher in a former colleague and my mother, and later transferred to Children’s Palace work, so I guess they are the Children’s Palace, the teacher. Each teacher front row, a team of children, when it was my turn, the teacher asked me to stand up straight and relying on her chest, and then hand than than my head, turned around and asked: “Such a job can be ? “

 

Then she will be my income into the side of the child. As a ten-year old child, I know in the selection, but it is not clear selection of what to do. Elected, I know we will be participating in a large-scale music and dance epic “The East is Red” Children’s Chorus “We are the successors of communism”, informed the occasion and thereafter, we continue to inform the importance of the matter and participation in the glory.

 

I do not remember the test through song and dance, but I had participated in the CCTV cabaret, I guess it might be primaries.

 

 Rehearsal later, I contacted the primary school students from several cadres school for the children, the Beijing experiment a small, experimental two small, historians alley primary and House Science Hutong primary school.

 

The large dance rehearsal in the auditorium of the Great Hall of the People. Beginning of the rehearsal, Zhou Enlai arrive for several days to watch, the teacher repeatedly remind us, “Premier Zhou Enlai in the audience, and therefore,” Premier Zhou was the general director of the Dongfanghong dance “argument. A big song and dance scenes erhu song “River” miserable music vend children selling woman hovered between life and death.

Zhou Enlai looked and said: “You have not seen the old social selling children, to plug the grass the subject.” So that was sold to the girls head ruffled a relatively coarse plant.

 

The big dance participants up to 3000, some Chinese mainland was well-known actor: the cabaret theater Guo Lanying and Wang Kun the singing “Nanniwan and farmers Song, the coalmine Song and Dance Ensemble of the Deng Yuhua sing colorful clouds,

 

Political Department to perform the Foremost male singing on the Songhua River, the Oriental Song and Dance Ensemble of the Songhua sing “the hymn. Zhang Yue Male Female Solo take Western singing, we can see how to focus on nationalization.

 

Particularly noteworthy minority actors unique looks and clothing, they Uygur dancer Aida Abdullah, Dai dancer knife Meilan, Mongolian dancers MO Song Ma Korean dancer Cui Meishan and Tibetan singers before Once Dolma.

 

Simply put, the big song and dance theme is “Only the Communist Party of China Mao Zedong can save China, must go with them. In order to interpret this theme, the dance scene, including before and after 1949.

 

I remember 1949

 that theater is named for the Chinese people to stand up “, starting in the mixed chorus” Ode to the Motherland “, and subsequently for dance” steel flower splash “(name not very exact),” harvest song “, mixed chorus “we must liberate Taiwan”, mixed chorus “beloved Chairman Mao, the red sun of our hearts,” Treble Choirs “We are the successors of communism”

 

Finally Cantata “world proletariat to unite to end. “Red Sun” concert stage as well as the chorus stood on either side of the stage (it is said that they are university choir members).

 

The costumes of white, blue skirt or trousers, and the atmosphere is solemn and devout. This song starting at the high male voice: “Dear Chairman Mao, the red sun of our hearts.”

 

Followed by gentle female voice “Whether we stand on what positions, who are shining your light no matter where we go, always close at your side. “At this time tunes quite lyrical, then sonorous mixed voices:” follow you, we Tasui to how much of a storm, follow you … “.

 

This is a real chorus, not singing and song, but the big song and dance to Another Worshiping God climax (the opening of sunflower dance is a climax), then the formulation in addition to the great savior

There are four great “in two – mentors and leaders. Later, during the Cultural Revolution, popular and beloved Chairman Mao “this song is not the same song, that song spread very widely, but the lyrics are too straightforward, and this can be a first if the removal of politicized lyrics,

 

Haipo the .Treble Choirs “We are the successors of communism” beginning the Young Pioneers drum trombonist running start on either side of the stage to the back of the stage.

 

The few drum trumpeter higher, I guess is a junior high school student. The sound of the drums, the two the Young Pioneers male standard-bearer standard-bearer with four female nursing out from both sides of the stage, the chorus followed.

Four retaining standard-bearer is singled out from the many girl is tall beauty, a memorable! Probably in the 1980s,

 

one of which I have encountered on the subway. She is still black bushy eyebrows, fair-skinned, the mouth of a small mole on the most compelling. At that time, I really want to ask her: “play” East is Red “, you are not the right of Flag.

 

Later in the Cultural Revolution, was introduced, my mother received a student named car Kin. First came to class, I recognized that she was the standard-bearer of a guard in the “East is Red”, a question is really good. Just northeast MACROSUPPLY queue jumping back to Beijing with no employment, learning vocal music from my mother, she joined an army song and dance ensemble.
When the standard-bearer and guard the standard-bearer stood still on both sides of the stage, Treble chorus was unfolding back arrow type from the center of the stage.

 

The first row of the first person to lead the team to the center of the stage, that stage of a child is too big for himself, so I only need to be happy with the team. From the Central Philharmonic conductor Qiuli uncle, I was impressed when they get to “love the motherland and the people”, he gestures to swing our heads also will swing around, which is the only body in the whole song action.

 

Children’s Chorus is completed, we need to unite in the “world proletariat” to play again.

 

That scene appeared in Asia, Africa and Latin America are significantly clothing, tall actor blackened face, make-up into the Negro.

 

When they get to the last paragraph, our young performers stick with paper flowers run came to power, the flowers dedicated to Asia, Africa and Latin America, “

 

a friend. I remember the lyrics of the song: “Mountain linked to mountain, sea and linked to the sea, the world proletariat unite!” When the chorus sings overwhelming air of, as I kind of audience heard boundless passion.

 

After a rehearsal, Zhou Enlai took office met actor. At that time the weather has been cold, he wore a gray uniform standing behind me with the great actor handshake conversation. I’m curious, turned to touch the clothes of Zhou Enlai. His clothes were not wool, feels light and slippery. I just touch finish, Zhou Enlai, she turned around. I was very afraid, and immediately turned away, pretending nothing happened.

 

Suddenly to hear Zhou said: “The kids, you stand to my side.” Like I moved to the side, but still afraid to turn around, only to feel his hand on my shoulder, and then flash several times.

 

Probably eleven, Mao Zedong also to watch the show. The show finished, he took to the stage with actor photo, but he did not like a week, as talk with the actor, the stay time is much shorter than Zhou Enlai.

 

During rehearsals and performances, at 3-4 pm on car reaches the Great Hall of the People after, shall be brought to a specific area. I do not know the area in which not know the hall name, but I still remember some of the furnishings, such as a hall stands a small, exquisitely carved Tiananmen Square, outside covered with glass. I asked my teacher, that is what to do, the teacher said that is an ore of rock salt.

 

The circle is a mahogany the Chamber wall of our climate field seats. Sit in designated seats, we began to change costumes. The formal performance autumn and winter, girls costumes white shirt pink strap dress, white shoes and socks. Change your clothes after each person you want to replace him hair padded neatly stacked below in mahogany seat.

 

Background discipline was strict, not only required to maintain clean and quiet, even to go to the toilet require queuing.

 

Happy picnic after the show, each table has two strong flour bread, this is the first time I eat white bread. Car was scheduling seems to have a problem, after the end of a performance, we have to wait until late at night in the City Hall foyer, a lot of people sleeping on the marble floor. For young children, staying up late is excited. Performances delay a lot of class, my arithmetic teacher so angry. She is a short hair, bad cop thick lips of young teachers, quite not too much afraid of the tiger of the air, hair on fire to the table looks Mountain rang, and angry, she gave us arranged more arithmetic operations.

 

 

 

It was October 16, 1964,

all participating who went to the Great Hall of the People. Previously, we already know that Mao Zedong to come. Change position to line up outside City Hall, a girl behind me and I, I never thought that she had to stand in front of me.

 

Inside City Hall, our pupils are divided into two rows. Front row sat on the floor, back row, sitting on a small stool, my seat after a row of seats with white sleeve. I remember that afternoon, Mao Zedong first entered the field, followed by Liu Shaoqi and Zhou Enlai.

 

Following these three entrants is not filed in, spaced a little distance, sometimes two to go together, but Jiang Qing approach alone. Her face is very white, she is very slim, wearing black-rimmed glasses, Wai scarf. Surrounded scarf because no one in the room, it is surprised but impressed, but also because her hair is very short, initially I even do not know the gender of the person.

 

Guo Lanying, Wang Kun solo in “The East is Red” minority actors standing after Mao Zedong holing his seat. Mao Zedong had to talk to them. Sit in the primary school with my classmates before Mao Zedong and Zhu De, named Gao, mentioned earlier the car the Kin is sitting in front of Jiang Qing.

 

 The hair of the right of sitting Zhu De, then wu, Deng Xiaoping. The left of Mao and Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Peng Zhen, Jiang Qing, Liu Shaoqi on the left etc.. For a soldier sitting on a chair behind me, the Cultural Revolution, he had appearances was overthrown, and later as “Yang Yufu” one, so I know he is Yang Chengwu. Yang Chengwu kindly ask me where to study, What’s your name, asked over and said something cliches “study hard and make progress every day”. When all the leaders sat, large camera circling a week, to start a group photo. After the group photo, Zhou Enlai to leave the seat, went to the center of the field, he announced that China’s first atomic bomb was successfully detonated. Then I totally do not know what that is, ask the kids around, they do not know, I do not know who is passed over: “That’s a bomb, so we follow and cheer for a bomb explosion.

 

The people who participated in that photo depending on pay and twelve group photo. Which one to use genuine photographic paper, but genuine includes only that part of the participants, and other printed in the magazine paper is the photo of all participants.

 

These two pictures are rolled up into a rectangular cardboard tubes. Paper tube for the dark red tube surface the photo red on yellow “State the Peking Zhaoxiangguan turnaround – Beijing polishing factory 285, telephone 75.0081.

 

My mother also wrote with a pen “Showtime participate in the National Day 15th anniversary Oriental red, October 15, 1964 (the date is incorrect).

In 2009, in the old letter old photos, I came back to find it, to see with a pen on Liu Shaoqi, Peng Zhen and Yang Chengwu like playing fork, is likely to be me during the Cultural Revolution for. In the picture, the row where I captured rather ambiguous, because when the technology must be there to switch the lens, and the next day the newspaper published the photo the boy up and I swapped seats.
Big song and dance performances continue until at least the end of 1964, after the beginning of a movie. Said that Mao Zedong believed then China is not strong enough,

 

the movie deleted Mixed Chorus “We must liberate Taiwan”, “beloved Chairman Mao, the red sun of our hearts” Children’s Chorus “We are the successors of communism” chorus “full World proletarians together. ” Such a change, all the actors are messengers for the front row audience.

 

 Actors as the audience, once the shooting began, we can not go back and can not move because of watching too many, we almost learned all the songs will be back many lines, such as “the sky is dark days and a black depths , the suffering of the Chinese people, ah …. “the wear point changjie line, say goodbye to all the folks beheading does not matter, as long as the doctrine true ….”

 

Then, after all, young, closed inculcate, that do not know just experienced the era of the Great Famine, can not falsifiable. Sometimes too boring, fiddle with the radio equipment of the table, we estimated that the many fiddle bad. Wrapped up, we have to all stand to shake the audience at the back paper flowers, then people see movies that is large-scale music and dance epic “The East is Red”.
“Red memories, I have little interest in a note of this period of historical facts in order to avoid lost.

 

Du Xinxin


Written in early 2010, rescheduled for August 10, 2010
Published in Vientiane in November 2010

 

The first two or three rows of pupils from the fourth row of seats on the left: Li Fuchun, Deng Xiaoping, Dong, Zhu De and Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Zhou Enlai, Peng Zhen, Jiang Qing, Bo Yibo

第一,二三排小学生,第四排座椅上的左起:李富春,邓小平,董必武,朱德,毛泽东,刘少奇,周恩来,彭真,江青,薄一波

第五排左四起为:马玉涛,张越男(?),才旦卓玛,郭兰英,王昆,阿依杜拉,刘长瑜(?),崔美善,莫多哥玛,刀美兰

Fifth left everywhere: Ma Yutao, Zhang Yue M (?) Only once Dolma, Guo Lanying, Wang Kun, Aida Abdullah, Liu Changyu (?), Cui Meishan, Moduogema, knife Meilan

 

第三排右起第三人开始为:杨成武,周扬,聂

The third row from the right of the third person: Yang Chengwu, Zhou Yang, Nie, second row from the right human author
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Dream around haunting Nanjing
Posted on July 8, 2006 by Du Xinxin
• Du Xinxin •
Hyacinth wrote “cherished Nanjing”, and she a.
The winter of 1972, the six of us together by train to Nanjing. That is the evening of the year. Why did you choose in the evening of the year, I do not remember.


In 1969,

the mother went to the cadre school. Go cadre school before the unit requires the family to move their household accompanying. My mother is very literal-minded, usually not large dealings with people simply do not know the rigors of the hukou system, she relocated. Cadre school with his parents to the children, 18-year-old youth, also a two-year-old a child.

 

 The cadre school set up a primary school and junior high school, we go to school there, but the labor time than learning time. Less than two years, and the kids my age, even if the junior high school graduation, was assigned to the cadre school plant.

 

In the summer of 1972,

 the cadre school disbanded parents back to their original units because of the working relationship, and we have the cadre school workers, there is no cadre school, Beijing was not any of the accounts, you have nowhere to go.

 

Mother hopes to get the sympathy of the unit and the household registration at Beijing, hoping to spare. And she went to them, “I only mother and daughter, can not deal with as a special case?”

 

The answer is no. Six months, we’ve been to I do not know how much Yamen begged. However, even if it went to ask, I can not stay in Beijing.

 

Later, with the same fate of children in some of the parents to return to power, we placed the subsidiary factory in Nanjing.

 

Train at night. Noon, my mother and I lay in bed, I saw her eyes closed, tears streaming down a little bit. I have for many years seen her tears. I hold it, let the tears stream down more nothing Baotoutongku.

 At that time, this separation than the mountains and the countryside or a lot better.

 

The young man, after all, young. A ride, a companion slapstick, worry-home light. Passing Tianjin, a male student to go buy the buns, came back seating to be accounted for.

 

Time people are really honest, do not know to play disturb. I was the lightest, I sat down on the coffee table, and spent the night.
Morning to Nanjing, the odd cold.

 

The factory sent a large truck to pick us up. All the way through the Xinjiekou, too Zhongshan Gate into Yudao. My adult life have never been to the South, I feel very fresh – so cold actually shop big open, totally unlike Beijing indoor fires doorway clutching a dirty cotton curtain.

 

In fact, these stores are not just big open shop, rather, even the door panels are removed, Zhitong Tong to see the store. One and one store, arranged in the streets, which sell glance. Winter streets,

 

Platanus leaves fall out quite Depression, but the colored goods store, especially decorative mirror shop people feel very lively.
We were assigned to a different shop.

 

Assigned and related to the background of their respective parents. Because this plant is a subordinate military factory, so the logistics department in particular, most of the children of factory tube portion assigned to the workshop in a white coat, and the other two were assigned to machine repair workshop.

 

In machine repair shop, I have two instructors, one from Shanghai, Shaanxi to dependents. That Shanghai woman I was 4-5 years older, looked white, oval face, eyes sort of a small, slim, well-known beauty of the whole plant.

 

Nanjing, especially chasing Shanghai’s fashionable (I do not know whether it is now or so). This girl to lead the new trend of the whole plant clothing.

Clothes then color patterns are very limited, but the people of Shanghai always on the collar or the trouser legs conjure tricks, looks is not the same and the people of Nanjing. I heard that she had in the military arts when dance students, after the exit due to the spin-sickness.

 

The factory two shifts, a group of eight hours, tedious work. Spent the day in the upper and lower parts, process measurement.

 

Leave the factory several years, shaking machine handle on the fixture, with the caliper measurement repeatability action will appear in my dreams.

 

More interesting is that after heavy rains, some crayfish do not know where from crossing the road, we have to catch. The workshop behind kind of a broad bean, often steal two mature after Xiaye Ban cook supper.

 

Also planted in the area, where many gardenia flowers, plucked hanging mosquito nets, the fragrance of an account.

 

Nanjing’s really cold winter seem to find a slightly warmer place. Sleep at night, how do not want to got into the cold bed poles do not want to get up the morning, the towel was frozen.

 

Nanjing Xia Tianqi hot, hot no place to hide and no place to hide, the night three two cold shower, can print out the silhouette of sweat on the mats. July-August, most look forward to is a typhoon.

 

A typhoon, will be able to cool a few days. A typhoon, the city’s power outage, what do not. I’m wearing a headset, suddenly from transistor radios to hear, “This is the Voice of America..” –

 

 Voice indulge in the South, but also to enunciate. Moscow Radio …… “- voice stiff, strange sounds (Note 1). “According to the Central News Agency reported …” tone prettily soft. There are some very strange “how much of the corn, wheat, how much money ……” I hid in a mosquito net, listening to the night, and they knew this Divine addition another world.

 

The time for the “plot”, “free market” to limit very strict. The northern food market in addition to cabbage, potato is the radish, cabbage is often rotten devastated.

 

The thickness of the grain the quantitative not say, pork, cooking oil, sesame paste, also have a quantitative, even if the quantitative, but also often have to row the Dae Jang team, pork white and more red and less. I first came to Gwanghwamun, see where the free market is really surprised. I long in the north, never seen in the winter vegetables.

 

Basket filled with green vegetables on the free market in Nanjing, pick, and leaping pink shrimp, emissions flashing silver fish and red and more white and less pork the people also common Xinlimei. ” radish whittled lovely flowers.

 

Shanghai people often disdain Nanjing human Nanjing radish “, but I saw so much good, can not help but learn a Nanjing, then obediently throat in the boom.”

 

The free market impressed me the most is the “Wang egg. I do not know, “Wang written right pronunciation should be good. The so-called “Wang egg” which has hatched chick “egg”. Know the contents of the eggs, I feel a little sick.

 

 Can also stand up to be curious, to buy a. Knocking on eggshells, there is a thin layer of feathers, or black or yellow, peel chicken feathers is a basic shape of the chicks. It should be acknowledged that it is really delicious.

 

In addition to the free market, the streets of Nanjing, there are many snack bar, preserved meat shop. December belly bunch of thin the Banya nude in public, grow fat and a bunch of smiling at me. I was very greedy, but lazy.

 

Fortunately, I have a very good girlfriend, just to have the two necessary conditions for good cooking: “greedy and not lazy. She often cook for me to eat, hungry greedy solution many years.

 

Ah, Menghun pull around Nanjing, the most pull around December belly thin Banya, that cruel, “Wang egg”.

 

In a boring day, most looking forward to Sunday. On this day, we can be good food, but also go hand in hand to the Mausoleum, Ming Xiaoling Mausoleum, Confucius Temple, Xuanwu Lake and meihuashanensis,.

 

 Remain in the memory of the Nanjing beauty left the Mausoleum of the cedar.

 

Those great cedar, quite groaning grounded sense. The green foliage expand, vertical to the ground, such as fan inside can hide behind the people. Northern pine large in the canopy, the wind came, the crown that is moving, shaking badly, and cedar even if the swing, but also slightly restrained manner. I even think the North and the South, Greenfield, sounds not much different.

 

My factory in Nanjing, relatively high wages. The first year of the apprenticeship monthly 18 yuan, 20 yuan, 22 yuan in the third year. The Acts, a worker was 35.5, and the two workers was 41.9.

 

When money is worth a hair more money can be a meal in the cafeteria. Because of high wages, where young workers are mostly some history. A large allocation of children are the children of the Nanjing Military Region, demobilization or coming from school.

 

Some demobilized soldiers from the higher authorities of the home and more in the Jervois Wuxi Shanghai area. Another dial children Shanghai technical school graduates, there are several children of farmers Nanjing suburbs, but they are the children of the commune and brigade cadres.

 

Not affiliated with any wave of children, young workers, the multi and factory some leaders have a special relationship, into the factory, escape to the mountains and the countryside.

 

 

 

Factory many young workers, they have their own circles, find the object more in that range. Provides apprentice is not allowed to fall in love, but it was just talking about it.

 

Rural young workers in preparation for marriage. In order to get married, to the young workers in rural areas every meal to eat five cents of diesel vegetables to save enough money to buy the votes allocated large wardrobe, double bed.

 

The cafeteria at the time, the most expensive dish is 2 cents Shaorou.
Tedious work in a workshop, who is interested in who mostly can not escape the sharp eyes of the people.

 

Generally, a female interesting man, often taking the time to go the “station Chuangzi”. The so-called the station Chuangzi, is to the woman operating the machine next to chatting, but also to help move things or something.

 

 A tall electrician, often came to my master’s Shanghai. The people who spent time in the factory all know this saying, “tight turner, slow fitter, slovenly electricians.” Said the electrician is the cadre children, the father, who is chairman of the CPPCC Shandong Province.

 

Since slovenly electrician, he will have more time to station master Chuangzi. In a small factory, find the object also speak perfect match.

 

The beautiful multi marry a high threshold, always been the case.
Gradually, some cadres of the Nanjing Military Region, the children began to us girls from Beijing to launch an attack.

 

One of our longer face red teeth white, black hair and eyebrows, black eyelashes, a pair of confused eyes. She particularly rosy lips, huge lower lip. Do not know in the past, and now know that it is very sexy lips. Then chased her about a strengthening classes.

 

Addition to stand her Chuangzi, often to residences, asking for her, one of them in particular perseverance. Girls first pay any attention to him, he was dallying. Later, she “hated” the young man said.

 

The beginning of men and women, male the female slightly invade behavior, woman love to say “hate”.

 

Such dialogue is not only when popular culture or even Kingdoms 1980s movie.

 

But say “hate”, the cheeky shy of the color of the woman. The woman’s duplicity is evident. My friend said “hate” cheeky detestation of color. The young man so in love with her, and simply can not tell a shy or disgust, continue to chase.

 

The woman was tired, his bombers to go out. When he went downstairs, Doutou is the foot-washing water pot – Well, dead heart, you na! Later, this woman soon married, she is among us to marry first. This year I returned to Beijing to see her, in addition to a little wrinkle, good looks still Jiao, do not see when the grandmother. I asked her how so soon marry, she replied, “I did not marry, how to do, endlessly.”

 

Legitimate birth families of cadres young people are vigorously love sports, when the legitimate from the rural young workers live frugally preparation for marriage, there is a quiet group, rather embarrassing, does not introduce attention alive.

 

They are from Shanghai the male technical school students. Them years to over 20, and some probably have been 25 years old. Many of them have been doing transferred back to Shanghai dream, some of whom even every month once ran to Shanghai.

 

They look down on the people of Nanjing, that the very soil, but they can not return to Shanghai, Although many people have been approaching marriage age, but all alone.

 

The Nanjing people tell me, they do not look straight line of pants, they returned to Shanghai are sleeping in the ground floor, most only a pair of pants press it under the pillow every night, and the next day wear out.

 

 

These Shanghai out of a tall, thin young man, it is very beautiful. The reason I say that he is beautiful, because the girls are not beautiful. Watery eyes, long eyelashes, angular face, straight Greek nose, his body can do a ballet dancer.

 

 His hands were delicate, slender and white, although he is a mechanic, I have never seen in his fingernails black. He also wore stovepipe pants, but a little unlike in Shanghai hooligan. Shanghai people, he rarely return to Shanghai, seems to have no friends. I heard people say bad that he was born and his mother was the mistress of the capitalists.

 

I do not know since when this young man in Shanghai close to me, but I noticed nothing. At that time, my mother would like to move to Nanjing and not, I have determined to be transferred back to Beijing.

 

The government has just issued a “a children returned to their parents’ policy, but Beijing’s account must be” a one into, so I became a telegraph pole family.

 

The so-called wire rod family is to swap information go to paste it into the street utility poles. Rest days I rock on the street, no one wants to tune from Beijing to Nanjing.

 

How old is this a great man than I, but very shy. He and I, the south and the north, background completely different, limited common topics Besides, I also quite a good impression of the people of Shanghai. His station my Chuangzi, I would often make fun of him, “you people of Shanghai pants line can cut radish, hair confused shine light, flies up are slipping.”

 

 “You Shanghai woman, a young man run out of the water slide. Marry a few years, all changed the morning, hanging a nightgown, Ji pulled slippers, ran down the street quarrel for a two cents feathers vegetables …

 

“He was very white, and one I make fun Required blush. Despite this, however, he will come to me. See my hard work and sometimes, he murmured, “I can help you remove Come to the workpiece,”

 

I was in a good era, the heart said, “You look fragile, but also to help me? “I am on the Beijing dialect top of him,” Come on, stay to your side. Zan myself into. “

 

Should be recognized that this man looks very attractive, but at that time, I am realistic, since the need to go home with her mother, why should anyone entangled, and mobilization of thing makes me very upset.

 

 Although I find the swap object, but the people of the Personnel Section or stuck I hold. Then I finally understand the trouble, this personnel cadres want women uniform set of officers. I for this set of uniforms and a large head, and later my mother managed to get a set. That guy received uniforms, gall ax to grind.

 

However, after the exercise of the fields and factories, I have not a fuel-efficient lights. I let the guy not only did not succeed, I do obediently procedures.

 

Get the transfer procedures, I began to pack. He was no other person in the dorm room. He said, “I heard you were going to help you a spoke, he held out his slender white hands to help me bundle box.

 

 I said, “almost all the things right, or to sit down and talk it.”
I get some water melon seeds entertain him. I do not like Ke Guazi often knock unclean, but like to watch others knock.

 

The crisp sounds so I feel that something is being separated. That tedious harsh era, seeds and cigarettes, you can narrow the distance, relaxed atmosphere, said a little gossip.

 

 Man of Ke Guazi or smoke are also less able to see a person’s personality and upbringing. He’s very good-looking hand, picks up a small melon seeds sent to the mouth, mouth open small, slightly moved a few skillfully melon seeds and shells separate, lightweight to spit the shell, clean, but not Any traces of liquid.

 

I opened my mouth, “Little X, your family is doing what? I see you rarely go back to Shanghai.”

 

He blushed, “I was born poor. Mama married capitalists. Abba already dead. Previous years, mama is not in “my silent.

 

To defuse the situation, I started to change the subject, “Your hands look good, you see my veteran blue veins exposed.”

 

He looked, “You spent time in the countryside, not a comprehensive and balanced.” Seems 鼓足了勇气 he stretched hand, gently touched my hand. The I Jiangzainali think of make fun of him in the past, do not know their own mind how so hard.

 

Every moment, he said, “you okay?” Mama I listened very surprised. I always thought that to young workers in addition to Beijing, other people do not know my family, maybe my master’s Shanghai revealed to him?


“She was okay, because she was a person, I must return to Beijing.” Since childhood, my mama is also a person, she taught me to play the piano …. “

 

And his words are I guess some of his personal life. Maybe he wanted to become a pianist, but … I do not know why, but I suddenly felt like a deer, did not belong to the jungle, with someone else, he broke in, being careful to stay a long time, but still a loss.

 

I want to say something, but eventually did not say anything.
He is gone, the tall, thin back. I go left Nanjing.
(Note 1) many years later, I met a Chinese in Moscow, he accompanied us went to of the Tu Latuo Weng former residence. I heard him speak, voice tone is very familiar.

 

 Thin chatted informed, he is that the Chinese announcer for Radio Moscow, Soviet Communist Communist China “Nine Commentaries” response is that he broadcasted.
□ sent from the United States

 

source


Published in the 2006 China Express kd061005.
Published in the past Remembrance

荣臻,第二排右起第二人为作者

梦绕魂牵是南京

                ·杜欣欣·

风信子写了一篇《魂牵梦绕是南京》,我来和她一篇。

1972年冬,我们6个人,一起坐火车去南京。那正是大年夜。为什么选在大年夜,我已经不记得了。

1969年,母亲去五七干校。去干校之前,单位要求全家迁户口随同。我母亲很迂,平素又不大与人往来,根本不知户口制度之严酷,她就迁了。当时随父母去干校的孩子中,有18岁左右的青年,也有两三岁的小孩儿。干校成立了小学和初中,我们就在那里上学,不过劳动的时间多于学习时间。不到两年,和我同龄的孩子就算初中毕业,被分配到干校的工厂。1972年夏天,干校解散,父母因为工作关系回到原单位,而我们已是干校的职工,干校不存在了,北京又没了户口,则无处可去。

在北京,母亲希望得到单位和户籍处的同情,希望能高抬贵手。她就去求他们,“我家只有母女二人,能不能按特例处理?”得到的回答都是否定的。半年中,我们不知去过多少衙门,求过多少人。然而,即使这样去求,我还是无法留在北京。

后来,与我同样命运的孩子中一些人的父母重新掌权,我们就被安排到南京的下属工厂。火车是晚上的。中午我和母亲躺在一张床上,我看到她闭着眼睛,眼泪一点点地流下来。我已多年没见她流泪。我憋着,不让眼泪流下来,更没有什么抱头痛哭。当时,这样的分离比起上山下乡还是好了很多。

年轻人毕竟是年轻。一坐上车,同伴一打闹,离家的愁就淡了。路过天津时,一个男同学下去买包子,回来之后座位被人占了。那时候的人真老实,也不知道去打去吵。当时我体重最轻,我就坐到茶几上,过了一夜。

清晨到南京,奇冷。工厂派大卡车来接我们。一路走过新街口,过中山门,进御道街。我成年之后从未到过南方,感觉非常新鲜——这么冷居然还店门大敞,全然不像北京,室内生火,门口捂着一块脏兮兮的棉布帘子。其实,这些商店不光是店门大敞,确切地说,连门板都卸下了,直通通地看到店内。一家又一家的商店,排列在街道上,里面卖什么一目了然。冬天的街道,法国梧桐的树叶已经掉光,颇为萧条,但是商店里的各色货物,特别是装饰了镜子的店让人觉得挺热闹。

我们被分配到不同的车间。分配的方式和各自父母的背景有关。因为这个工厂是军队的下属工厂,所以后勤部特别是厂管部的子女大多分到穿白大褂的车间,我和另外两个被分到机修车间。

在机修车间,我有两个师傅,一个是上海人,一个是陕西来的随军家属。那上海女子年长我4-5岁,长得很白,瓜子脸,眼睛不大不小,身材苗条,是全厂知名的美女。

当时的南京人特别追上海的时髦(不知现在是否还是如此)。这个上海女孩儿引领了全厂服装的新潮流。尽管那时候的衣服颜色式样都十分有限,但是上海人总能在领子或裤腿上变出花样,看起来就是和南京人不一样。听说她曾在军艺当过舞蹈学员,后因旋晕症退出。

工厂是两班倒,一班八小时,工作乏味。日子在上下工件、加工测量中度过。离开工厂好多年,摇机床手把,上卡具,用卡尺测量等重复性的动作还会出现在我的梦中。比较有趣的是大雨之后,一些小龙虾不知从何而来,横过马路,我们都去捉。车间后面种了一片蚕豆,成熟时,下夜班后常去偷两把,煮了当夜宵。厂区里还种了许多栀子花,花开时,采下来挂进蚊帐,一帐幽香。

南京的冬天真冷,似乎找不到一个稍微温暖的地方。晚上睡觉时,怎么也不想钻进冰冷的被窝,早上又极不想起床,毛巾都结了冰。南京的夏天奇热,热得没地躲没处藏,一夜三两次冷水澡,席子上的汗水还能印出人影。7-8月,最盼望是刮台风。台风一来,就能凉快几天。一次台风,全市停电,什么都做不了。我戴着耳机,突然从半导体收音机中听到,“这里是美国之音……。”--语音偏于南方,但也字正腔圆。“莫斯科广播电台……”--语音生硬,听来怪怪的(注1)。“据中央社报道……”语调娇滴滴,软绵绵的。还有一些非常奇怪信息“玉米多少钱,小麦多少钱……”我躲在蚊帐里,听了一夜,才知道这神州之外还有另外一个世界。

那时候的中国,对于“自留地”,“自由市场”限制得很严。北方的菜市除了大白菜,土豆就是萝卜,大白菜还经常烂兮兮的。粗细粮定量不说,猪肉、食油、麻酱等也都有定量,即使定量,还经常得排大长队,猪肉是白多红少。我初次来到光华门,看到那里的自由市场,真是大吃一惊。我长在北方,在冬天从未见过青菜。在南京的自由市场上,挑筐里装满碧绿的青菜,跳着粉红色的小虾,排放着闪着银光的鱼和红多白少的猪肉,人们还将北京常见的“心里美”萝卜削成好看的花。上海人经常不屑地称南京人为“南京大萝卜”,但我看了这么多好吃的,也不禁学一句南京话“乖乖,咙里咚。“

自由市场给我印象最深的是“旺鸡蛋”。我不知道,这“旺”写得对不对,读音应该不错。所谓“旺鸡蛋”就是里面已经孵出小鸡的“蛋”。我知道蛋中内容之后,觉得有些恶心。可又经不住好奇,买了一个。敲开蛋壳,里面有一层细细的鸡毛,或黑或黄,剥开鸡毛就是一个基本成形的小鸡。应该承认那确实是美味。除了自由市场,南京的街面上还有许多小吃店,腊味店。瘦瘦的板鸭裸体示众,心宽体胖的腊肚一串又一串地冲着我微笑。当时我很馋,却很懒。幸亏我有一个非常要好的女友,正好具备了擅长烹调两个必要条件:“馋而不懒”。她经常烧菜给我吃,解了我多少年的饥馋。啊,梦魂牵绕的南京,最是牵绕腊肚,瘦板鸭,还有那残酷的“旺鸡蛋”。

在枯燥的日子里,最盼望的就是星期日。这一天,我们可以做好吃的,还能结伴去中山陵、明孝陵、夫子庙、玄武湖和梅花山。如今留在记忆中的南京美景只剩中山陵的杉树。那些杉树很大,颇有连天接地之感。绿色的枝叶展开如扇面,垂向地面,里头能藏住个把人。北方的松树大在树冠,风一来,树冠即动,摇晃得厉害,而杉树即使摆动,也是微微地,矜持地。我甚至觉得北方和南方的松涛,听起来都不大一样。

在当时的南京,我所在工厂的工资比较高。学徒工第一年为每月18元,第二年为20元,第三年为22元。出徒后,一级工为35.5,二级工为41.9。那时候的钱很值钱,一毛多钱就能在食堂吃一餐饭。因为工资高,这里的青工大多有些来历。一大拨儿是南京军区的子弟,复员的或直接从学校进来的。另一些复员兵来自上级主管部门,家多在苏杭无锡上海一带。另一拨儿是上海技校的毕业生,还有几个是南京郊区的农家子弟,但是他们都是公社和大队干部的子女。不属任何一拨儿的青工,多和本厂的某些领导人有特别的关系,进入工厂,逃避了上山下乡。

工厂里青工很多,又都有各自的活动圈子,找对象也多在那个范围里进行。当时虽然规定徒工不许谈恋爱,但是那不过说说而已。在农村来的青工中,更有人已在筹备婚事。为了结婚,农村来的青工每顿只吃5分钱的油渣青菜,省下钱来买按票分配的大衣柜,双人床等。当时的食堂,最贵的菜是2毛钱的红烧肉。

因为工作乏味,在一个车间里,谁对谁有意思大都逃不过人民群众雪亮的眼睛。

一般来说,对某女有意思的男子,经常抽空去“站床子”。所谓站床子,就是到女子操作的机床旁聊天儿,也帮忙搬个东西什么的。一个高大的电工,常常来找我的上海师傅。在工厂呆过的人都知道这样的俗语,“紧车工,慢钳工,吊儿郎当是电工。”据说这个电工是干部子弟,父亲曾是山东省政协主席。既然吊儿郎当是电工,他也就有比较多的时间来站我师傅的床子。在这样一个小小的工厂里,找对象也讲门当户对。美女多嫁高门槛,历来如此。

逐渐地,一些南京军区的干部子弟开始向我们来自北京的女生发起进攻。我们其中的一位,长得面红齿白,头发眉毛乌黑,黑睫毛之后,一对迷茫的眼睛。她的嘴唇特别红润,下唇丰厚。过去不知道,现在知道那是很性感的嘴唇。当时追她的人大概有一个加强班。除了站她的床子,还常有人到宿舍来找她,其中的一位特别地锲而不舍。这女孩子先是不搭理他,他还是来磨磨蹭蹭。后来她就对那男的说“讨厌”。男女之初,男向女略有进犯行为时,女的都爱说“讨厌”。此种对话不但是那时流行的风气,甚至被演义到80年代的电影里。不过说“讨厌”时,女的面露娇羞之色。女人的口是心非可见一斑。我的这个朋友说“讨厌”时,面露嫌恶之色。可那男的太爱她了,根本分不出娇羞还是嫌恶,继续穷追不舍。那女子烦了,将他轰出门去。待他走到楼下,兜头就是一盆洗脚水--哼,死了心吧,您呐!后来这女子很快就嫁了,她是我们中间嫁得最早的。今年我回北京见到她,除了些许皱纹,容貌依然娇好,完全看不出已经当了祖母。我问她怎么那么快就嫁了,她答,“不嫁,怎么办,没完没了呀。”

正当出生干部家庭的年轻人正在轰轰烈烈地进行着恋爱运动的时候,正当来自农村的青工省吃俭用筹备婚事的时候,还有一个静悄悄的团体,颇为尴尬,不引入注意地活着。他们都是来自上海的男技校生。他们大多年过20,有些大概已经过了25岁。他们中的许多人一直都做着调回上海的梦,其中的一些人甚至每月都往上海跑一次。他们看不起南京人,认为很土,但是他们又回不了上海,所以尽管许多人已经逼近婚娶年龄,却孓然一身。南京人告诉我,别看他们裤线笔直,他们回到上海都是睡地铺的,大多数只有一条裤子,每晚将它压在枕头下,第二天再穿出来。

这些上海人中有个高瘦的小伙子,长得非常美丽。我之所以说他美丽,因为他有女孩子都没有的美丽。水汪汪的大眼睛,睫毛很长,棱角分明的脸庞,希腊式笔直的鼻子,他的身材可以去做一个芭蕾舞演员。他的双手细腻修长而白皙,虽然他是机工,我从未在他指甲缝里看到黑色。他也穿瘦腿裤,却一点儿不像上海的阿飞。在上海人中,他很少回上海,似乎也没有什么朋友。我听人说,他出身不好,母亲是资本家的小老婆。

不知从何时起,这个上海小伙子开始接近我,我却毫无觉察。那时候,我母亲想迁来南京而不得,我已下决心要调回北京。政府刚好颁发了“一家可以有一个子女回到父母身边”的政策,可是北京的户口必须是“一出一进”,于是我就成了电线杆族。所谓电线杆族,就是将要求对调的信息贴到沿街的电线杆上去。休息日我都在街上晃荡,看看有没有人愿意从北京调来南京。

这个上海男子比我大好几岁,却非常怕羞。我和他,一南一北,成长背景完全不同,共同话题有限,况且我对上海人的好感也相当有限。他来站我的床子,我就常取笑他,“你们上海人的裤线可以削萝卜,头发弄得油光光,苍蝇上去都打滑。”“你们上海女人,年轻时溜光水滑。嫁人之后,没几年,全变了。早上起来,挂一条睡裙,跻拉着拖鞋,跑到街上,为一分两分钱的鸡毛菜吵架……”他长得很白,一听我取笑必脸红。但是尽管如此,他还会来找我。有时看我干重活,他就喃喃地说,“我帮你把这个工件取下来吧。”我当时正处于好强的时代,心说了,“你那弱不禁风的样子,还要来帮我?”我就用北京土话顶他,“得了吧,您一边呆着去。咱自个儿能成。”

应该承认,这个男子的长相非常吸引人,但那时候,我很现实,既然必须回家陪伴母亲,何必和任何人纠缠,而且调动的事让我十分心烦。虽然我找到了对调的对象,可是人事科的人还是卡住我不放。后来我终于闹明白,这人事干部想要一套军官的女式军装。我为这套军装而头大,后来我母亲设法搞到一套。那家伙收了军装,居然还另有企图。不过经过田野和工厂的锻炼,我已不是一个省油的灯。我让那家伙非但没有得逞,还乖乖地给我办了手续。

拿到调动手续之后,我就开始收拾行李。他来了,当时宿舍里没有其它人。他说,“我听说你要走了,来帮你一把。”说着,就伸出他那双细长白皙的手要帮我捆箱子。我说,“差不多都弄好了,还是坐下说说话吧。”

我弄了些开水瓜子招待他。我不喜欢磕瓜子,经常磕不干净,但是却喜欢看别人磕。清脆的声音让我感到什么东西正在分离。在那乏味而严酷的时代,瓜子和香烟一样,可以拉近人的距离,放松气氛,说点儿闲话。看人磕瓜子或抽烟也多少能看出一个人的个性和教养。他的手非常好看,拈起一个细小的瓜子,送到口里,口不大张开,微微动几下,就娴熟地将瓜子仁和壳分开,再轻巧地吐出壳子,干干净净,不见任何液体的痕迹。

我开口道,“小X,你家里是做什么的?我看你很少回上海。”他脸红了,“我出身不好。姆妈嫁的是资本家。阿爸早就死了。前几年,姆妈也不在了。”我默然。为了缓和气氛,我开始转移话题,“你的手很好看,你看我这老手,青筋裸露。”他看了看,“你在农村呆过,不作数。”似乎鼓足了勇气,他伸出手,轻轻地摸了一下我的手。我僵在那里,想起了以往对他的取笑,不知道自己的心怎么会那么硬。

隔了好一会儿,他说,“你姆妈还好吧?”我听了非常吃惊。我一直以为除了北京来的青工,其它人并不清楚我的家庭,也许我的上海师傅向他透露过?

“她还好,因为她是一个人,我必须回北京。”“从小,我姆妈也是一个人,她教我弹钢琴……。”他的话也让我猜出了他的一些身世。也许他曾想或能够成为一个钢琴手,但是…。不知为什么,我突然觉得他像一头小鹿,本来不属于这片丛林,阴错阳差,他闯了进来,小心翼翼地呆了很久,却依然不知所措。我想说点什么,但最终还是什么都没说。

他走了,高高瘦瘦的背影。我走了,离开了南京。

(注1)好多年之后,我在莫斯科遇到一个华人,他陪我们去了图拉托翁故居。我听他说话,语音腔调非常熟悉。细细聊后获知,他就是那个莫斯科广播电台的华语播音员,苏共对中共《九评》的回应就是他播送的。

□ 寄自美国

刊登在 2006 华夏快递 kd061005

 

The Malaysian Peranakan Cina(Chineseoversese) History collections (The sample of E-book In Cd-rom

The Malaysian Peranakan (Chinese overseas)  

History collections

 

 

Edited By

Dr IwanSsuwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In Cd-rom Edition

Special For Senior Historian and collectors

Copyright 2 2012

 

This  Malaysian Peranakan Cina(Chinese overseas) history Collections dedidated to my friend at PenangMr Loebis and his wife Khoo Salma

Intrpduction

Byfb Liu long

 

Twenty years in the press, I learned a lesson; can not believe everything the newspapers said. Of newspapers must be replaced annually publishing permit the industry in order to survive, had to hold a limited freedom of speech to business, in order to ensure that will be able to continue to publish, you have to please the government, “necessary” truth “kill” off.


However, the press have more of the “black hands”, not the government, but the consortium. Our Chinese-controlled consortium, the Chinese businessmen in Malaysia, especially Sarawak, the means of doing business is well-known interest, often in order to achieve the purpose of making money, you can do anything, as long as the money can be hand like other liturgical sense of shame is not important.


Sometimes, they in the process of making money “accidental” did some shady things, afraid that the reporters ferreted out, it is difficult to gain a foothold in the high society, so will try to cover the truth, including bribery, intimidation, various hard and soft means a homogeneous, can keep a skinned like.


I was born a pigheadedness, many of my friends are not considered appropriate when a reporter often not buy it offended a lot of head and face “social cancer”. Over the years, my “rival” I was trying to pry away, including lethal playing in front of my boss, threats and inducements. Successful until earlier this year, this is something, and the other will be detailed.


When a reporter in Sarawak, salaries thin shameful. So, most reporters rely on part-time in order to survive, and I am no exception. The first month of work school attract advertising earn some the “dry cents” subsistence, first client told me playing a trick the Taijiquan most powerful massage hands, let me no ability to Parry.


I still remember the businessman was the name most frequently reported among LIN Qi-oriented, he is chairman of the See Hua Daily News, was also famous Riverside Spring, East, I’m just going to “cheat eat”, the first thought the object Nature must go to him.

 

First offices to Lim, the hearts of wrought, the face of the Lim said his intentions, his first words to ask me there is no pumping owned.

 

I think, if I told him 15 per cent pay any more, he may not want to advertise. So I decided to say a “white lie” denied “dry cents. Businessman after all fritters very him a no money to be made, immediately “comfort”; since there is no commission, then why should the money be handing the newspaper it right? Later you say it making money!

 

Wow, amazing! After many years, I have earned less than Lin’s money. Until there is a period of time, when the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Lin Xiong, yet often trouble in the scandal on the occasion, through a third party, to “imply” Lim intends Tao Jiaoqing with me and told me to find him a common friend Guo Meng Qiao Take advertising.

 

I go, followed by years of me a lot of sweetness, until Lin’s wife feel distressed, to advertisers. Mrs. Lin often sits Company, speaks very powerful.

 

The original Lin Xiong committed Guaren of the disease, usually in addition to the things of the cup also fond of “wine” that thing behind Guo Meng Qiao is executive hips children to father left a tiny Printing Museum, usually no business, I do not know how The climbed Lin Xiong, fraternizing up dinner during the day, night nightclub bubble Taiwanese singer, a left Merry pumping Qiu history.

 

Lin’s wife Maoruo toad, Lim told a friend, that is by the nurse did Huang Duanzhen taken care of the year in a car accident in the field, in order to repay have married back, not feelings, does not count. Now money has also been the position to see the beautiful Taiwan girl of course Heartbeat 100.

 

Friends of the Pong Lin Xiong around more and more, because he is willing to pay, and really a lot of scandal. In fact, he has already grown up in Hong Kong has long been a mistress, there are children the big wife was hiding in the drums for many years, until the year Lin Xiong almost heart attack, in order to take care of things shake out.

Aunt just found also an attempt at suicide, but was lucky not die, the Lin Xiong mistress in Hong Kong is said to evening scene quite bleak depression behind, and later, some children into a mental hospital.
The constantly, Lin Xiong Taosexinwen his See Hua Daily News do not think Gordon would go through. Once Lin Xiong with a Taiwan woman to the capital Jiudiankaifang, Merry merry suddenly unconscious almost immediately in the wind.

 

Thanks to the rich experience of Jiao woman, holding Lin Xiong and hold again silver needles near his anus hard lance before lest Flows, and since then comes to an end. See Hua Daily News also reported actor hailed as Bruce Lee “.

 

See Hua Daily News and later published an interview with the wife of a Lin family, contains much innuendo Lin Xiong Merry act, he saw this on flies into a rage, coupled with the near Friends of the instigation, huff sell Shi Hua shares, resigned from the posts of chairman of the board, not journalists.

 

Lin Xiong many Merry brilliant track in the most talked about than he withdraw its role of a measure, saying that once he told his wife, said to be on Kapit town “on business” went a few days has not been back to the home, Wong thought her husband so hard workmanship so rare, not tired. Decided to go to see her husband Kapit. Home with a pot of chicken soup, the day is not lit table speedboat to Kapit store, called the charge of a question under the original husband simply never been!

 

Huang returned to the the Sibu headquarters, baffled. Later or carrot and stick under Ahmad was a clean breast of the original day Lin Xiong sit company Jie boats go out to the official Bureau pier on disembark, the coachman again he set out by car back to the city, straight on the capital hotel fourth floor, sat elevator the next level, Merry merry. Lin Xiong is very hard, but it is hard at work!

 

Lin Xiong is very cunning.

 Once he called Guo Meng Qiao middle-aged woman with an operation in Taiwan accent, said Simma insurance salesperson, because I know many people “want to be able to take her to walk. I brought more or less entertaining existing. I have been unknowingly, thought it was just another good thing to do for a friend. Unexpectedly, the things over the years, and one day met the aunt of the Lin family, unthinking scolded by her meal, that I helped her husband pimp!

 

The original man “insurance salesperson is married to Malaysian women, divorce Lin Xiong catch the original husband, an excuse to sell insurance, in fact, is to Sibu with Lin Xiong tryst.

 

Later Lin Xiong collection in Johor Bahru, once my 30th anniversary photo shoot behalf Fuhua Bank branches in Johor Bahru to see her checkbook manager offices, bank staff called her Mrs. Lin.

by: fb Liu long

The circumstances surrounding

 

 The early ’70s, I just go into journalism, a senior Zhongmao Lin once ridiculed reporters to “cheat eat. He said to do in this industry is like Ku Haha, run “cheat food to eat for meals throughout the day, gave away the joy.


He said that when people use to reporters on the occasion, they will always do everything possible to please the reporters, all possible ways to let reporters happy, when the journalists there feeling happy as an immortal.

Or was the money and rank did a bad thing by reporters to grasp the handle, scared incredible, keep reporters talk about the number of “carved reporters like Tiger fierceness!
However, when reporters evil, but encountered a more evil and more fierce opponents, he not only can be in front of your boss with evil overwhelming to a not good is likely to bring a few thugs to beat, then, do reporters only like dogs so pitiful.
The title of this book, in fact, is the reporter’s code. Subsequent written above, is twenty-two years I press career horizons, I do not want to favoritism friend, not deliberately vilify the enemy, is simply to do a little duty of journalists, those newspapers did not dare report the facts written down and explain to the witness of history.

Author Biography “fairy • Tiger • dog”

Dear friends, online for the first time the banned original fairy tiger dog, this is the the virgin maiden voyage, in order to respect the the deceased original author, Mr. Liu Shijiu will not modify or add to the original book presented to you. The article will a daily outflow a way, until the completion of the entire book. Story of greed of human nature to chase fame and money position without reservation, came to light, the collusion of the socialite local celebrity in the Barisan Nasional cronies presented one by one in front of you for. Thank you!
—————————

 

 

Author Biography “fairy • Tiger • dog”
The banned “fairy the Tiger • • dog” came to light Sibu celebrity scandal secrets behind the pen Sibu celebrity (of course, are rich) are the surface scenery, a philanthropist outlook, private life is nothing but immoral. Which half-truths are not outsiders can get hold of, but no smoke without fire, there may be some facts constituent. Author because the book within the article was leaked copy spread, the results in order to avoid non-self-exile overseas.

 

The author is Senior Reporter Liu long, everyone called him that his English name abbreviation SK. Oscar Lau as the exchanges with friends. SK Lau Liu for a long time, is the eldest son of the Sibu educators predecessors Xian any. Early downstream Dan Zhang recognized set of Chiang Kai-shek school education, the father is the principal. Taught secondary school in the Catholic High School. He was educated in the British education, also headed for Taiwan, in English are great.

 

After leaving school, he worked in the same year Sibu Post Office on the second floor of the Telecommunications Ministry. That period, people with foreign ties, need to send a telegram to calculate the cost, the number of letters in English. This is the work of one of the “Office of the Telecommunications Ministry. Telecommunications Ministry “when he began Contributor to published in English in Brunei Borneo Chronicle (Borneo Bulletin). Each received royalties, he would be very good grace to buy some food back to the company to entertain everyone.

 

English “Sarawak Tribune” (Sarawak Tribune) and after he served as a reporter and Sibu advertising to attract members. That period, his income is the most abundant, no one can hold a candle to local reporters. The most beautiful period of time, he can every month to Singapore “eat wind trip. Needless to say at that time, and even now, not how many wage earners can so easily each month at their own expense to go unaffected few days.
SK Lau deeds. That year, he order a book and abroad. Eve of the exodus, the middle of the night more than nine to meet about a very good friend to leave the next day. It was in September 1996, also the last real face-to-face with the friend, and then not met, until he passed away in Beijing in 2004.
Leave Sibu day early in the morning to take the first class speedboat about early morning 5:45, Kuching, Sibu Go. Stay in Kuching for few days before flying to Singapore. Come and go between Singapore and Kuala Lumpur, and flew to the United States. Also lived in the home of a friend in the northwestern United States, two months after they flew to Taiwan, the original plan to live in his more familiar environment. However, later change your mind and want to switch to Beijing this settled down.

 

During this period, he often flew back to Kuala Lumpur, do a visa or do something. In Beijing, his superior standard of English, is his livelihood. He began working for translation agencies.

 

In this cosmopolitan city, the translation is a big business, many Chinese and foreigners to do business, not English, English dire need personnel responsible for a letter, get contracts.

 

The Chinese government is also actively its law is written in English, his company has also been awarded a contract for legal translation. Rely on English in China, the Chinese world, actually eat paste, said to difficult people into the letter, but why is that. In fact, it is not surprising, English is an international language, international business, of course, is English the most popular.

 

2004 drifting quietly passed away in Beijing rental house in Beijing, the 56-year-old Liu for a long time, until ten days after being friends found. Liu long-standing friend Wah sadness to Xiqiao Shi told reporters about this. Liu for a long time and he met in Singapore, they became good friends due to common photography hobby. Two every twenty-three days must pass a phone, Liu long almost every week to Wah studio guest.

 

January 16, 2004, by a telephone, 649 (Liu long nickname) was changed to the New Year in Hong Kong plan to stay in Beijing, the Chinese New Year. Not think that was actually the last time we talk. January 18, Wah leave to Jiangxi, Liu long home phone, mobile phone call before departure no one answered. Returned to Beijing from the 18th until the 27th, Wah numerous phone call Liu long unanswered until later phone noise came last shutdown.

 

Year 7 Liu for a long time, several friends came Jiuxianqiao his rented house, and found that the anti-theft door is not closed, you can see through the crack, the room lights on.

 

The neighborhood, the neighborhood say have not seen since the Spring Festival after the old man, and a few friends immediately alarm. In the eighth day the first month, police officers, and Liu long friends find homeowners to enter his room. Wah said: “I see 649 lying on the bed of the bedroom from the living room, was covered by blankets, slippers on the bed, as if wearing a sweater, his face is all black, and seems to have rot.

 

According to Malaysian friends say has been with Liu a long time to keep contact, their contact interrupt January 16, Mr. Hua and Liu long last call on the 16th. Inferred that, Liu long the remains were found, he had died more than 10 days. Wah Liu for a long long time ago his wife died, his son also died young, and has lived alone after he came to Beijing. Liu long friends along quite well, and have not heard before the accident he had something on your mind.

 

He does not smoke, does not drink, although the sometimes trouble toothache, leg pain, but never heard of a fatal disease. Whether it is murder, vendetta, or are there other reasons? Finally, the Beijing

 

Public Security also can not find a result. The book Liu for a long time without disease death left behind, more immortal • Tiger • dog “and add more mystery!
Liu long passed away in Beijing, and the family will shift its spiritual Sibu.
…….. To be continued
by: fb Liu long
Published in the fairy tiger • • dog

From KFC is devoured event, the means to suppress the Chinese businessmen to see UMNO cronies!
KFC’s history I know, businessman Mr. Lv Zhengyi 1970s it introduced the Malaysian market.
First KENTUCKY FRIED CHICKEN fast food restaurant, Kuala Lumpur, Tunku Abdul Rahman Street, opened a local shop.

 

Still there. I remember when Kentucky Fried Chicken, SELF SERVICE. You go to KFC, the WAITER write single. And then is not referred to as the KFC.
Mr. Lv Zhengyi year master is the the fried original product futures trading. When the business environment is also unlike such restrictions. When Mr. Lv Zhengyi 100% control of Kentucky Fried chicken stock. The early 1980s, the legendary fried palm oil futures offend Mahathir, like palm oil futures trading, control the price of crude palm oil in the world because the old horse.

 

Lv Zhengyi has spotted an opportunity to bargain buying to take advantage of high-level, flexible use of the approach to the futures price locked, plus many more shrewd players in the futures market in London; nag want to control the CPO futures market, contrary defeat loss to lose the treasury more than 20 billion deficit! However Lv

 

Zhengyi has earned tens of millions of dollars of profit. This caused the old horse very furious and feel disgrace, so anger Lv Zhengyi.
Legend year old horse came to power, the culture of indigenous youth gangs, some fancy KFC piece of fat.

 

Some people take advantage of the weakness of Mr. Lu fried palm oil futures offend Mahathir, an attempt to force him to KFC equity to sell to the Malaysian. Lv Zhengyi born proud and most hate to be unreasonably oppression;

 

 Finally, he chose to withdraw from the Malaysian business community prefer KFC equity Klang businessman Lin Yujing all sold! Mr. Lv Zhengyi later flee the United States in the early 1990s Kesiyixiang, died of illness in the United States.

 

The Lin Yujing Later when the the Malaysian Chinese General Chamber of Commerce. Originally thought that the title of president of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce and the Long Snow Chinese Town Hall, and the UMNO cronies have scruples, at least not dare move his idea.

 

Who knows UMNO cronies play underhand!
1980s, UMNO cronies know Malaysian like to eat Kentucky Fried Chicken, KFC business is developing very rapidly, and there were branches, has become the first brand of the fast-food chain in Malaysia. UMNO cronies use of religion to Lin Yujing trouble for! They attacked the Kentucky Fried Chicken is not HALAL.

 

They accused Kentucky Fried Chicken slaughter chickens process does not comply with the the HALAL regulations to Malaysian boycott KFC!

 

When this thing really Lin Yujing very troubled. Plus year old horse strong implementation of the new economic policy, constantly forced Lin old must be Malaysian shares.

 

To apply for HALAL permit old forest can not be applied, reluctantly forced to give up a portion of the shares in exchange for UMNO cronies cancel called on the Malaysian boycott KFC move.

 

 The forest old had no idea, so that a part of the shares, as if asking for trouble. Old forest also has a controlling stake in KFC, but gradually fall into the hands of the Malaysian administrative system.

 

The late 1980s, Long Xuehua Tang Lin Yujing control of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce is not calm. When suffering from the impact of the new economic policy, Chinese businessmen the government administrative initiatives complaining, among Chinese businessmen also appears split.

 

The Lin Yujing by Yan Qingwen headed the Chinese businessmen opposition competition.

 

 

The Lin Yujing let out the equity interest in the things of the Kentucky Fried Chicken, also caused some Chinese businessmen dissatisfied that he, as the supreme leader of the Chamber of Commerce, even take the lead to compromise, it is not right to UMNO cronies.

 

Lin Yujing disputes later because the Chinese group, plus he’s listed companies “rich” serious injuries to the financial turmoil of 1997, heavily in debt, desperation KFC equity completely get rid of to Malay businesses Idris,. Since then remove the “Chicken King” title.

 

So Kentucky Fried Chicken officially changed hands, the name was changed to KFC, still in use.
by Danfeng Zhang
Chinese businessmen in Malaysia story

 

Retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back: Chinese democracy go?
FEB 5
Of the voice of justice

Good evening everyone, we met again. Speaking yesterday, when the British colonial government in 1946 proposed “Malaya alliance” concept was Wengjia of strong opposition from the leadership of UMNO.
British proposed the Malayan alliance, an agreement developed in post-war Britain, the Malayan states (excluding Singapore) placed under the direct rule of the British.

The British Government’s decision, once the political situation to recover and temporary military rule in the past, Malaya alliance will be established, aimed at creating a more efficient government organizations and promote the unity of the Malayan People of different races in Malaya. Malay community view, however, failed to take into account states Sudan, status, and that is not conducive to the ethnic Malay are rallied together to oppose.

 

 The famous leader Datuk Ong Tee under the leadership of the United Malays National Organization (UMNO UMNO), set up to oppose the Malayan alliance results concessions.

 

On the other hand, the Chinese conditions for long-term in Malaya residence, will therefore obtain legal status and political rights, but not act enthusiastic.

This is because a long time they were not the United Kingdom for the people of Malaya and is regarded as outsiders, they still can not determine their own identity, and therefore does not attach importance to this issue. In the end, from 1945 to 1948, the Chinese political thought about? We can see from the history of the aspects of development.

 

First of all, there are a considerable number of Chinese still consider themselves part of the Chinese people, and those who are interested in politics are still very concerned about the political struggle exist prior to the Sino-Japanese War.

 

The so-called pre-war, that is the beginning of the twentieth century, overseas Chinese into royalists and pro-revolutionaries of the Sun Yat-sen, Sun Yat-sen after the success of the revolution, the overseas Chinese are turning to support the KMT.

 

KMT-CPC differences Overseas distribution
Since 1927, took over the the KMT power of Chiang Kai-shek at gunpoint Communist Party of China, vowing to wipe out the Chinese Communists. So the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang fought overseas Chinese will be part of the split into two factions, one faction supporting Chiang Kai-shek, under the leadership of the Kuomintang, the other faction led by Mao Zedong’s Communist China tend, of course, there is apolitical and neutral.

 

After Japan surrendered in 1945, the two factions of the opposition KMT and CPC is particularly evident not only in the public opinion in both the societies also tend to tit-for-tat.

 

In other words, belonging to the Chinese has focused in China’s political, and even more in Malaya political changes, this group of Chinese, many leading intellectuals or the backbone of their activities has also been importance of the Chinese, has a certain impact.

 

 Of course, there can be no doubt, both tilting left or Chinese dumping right, are unanimous in cheering on August 10, 1945, Japan accepted the Potsdam Declaration, unconditional surrender, the most obvious celebration reflected in the October 10, 1945 (double National Day of ten), the National Government.
Different political ideas and different sectors of Chinese Associations in Singapore, it is estimated that 450 units to participate in the celebration, with a huge parade of about 80,000. Some Chinese social sleeves and opinion to seize this opportunity to call for the great unity of the Chinese. Newspaper people Hu Yuzhi recommended the establishment of the Overseas Chinese Democratic League, Aw Boon Haw response and that the unity of overseas Chinese will help resolve the KMT-CPC disputes, at the same time, on behalf of the Southeast Asian Chinese Tan Kah Kee (Nanyang Chinese Collection Relief Association Chairman), also supported to participate in the Chinese Political Consultative Conference

However, compared to the situation after the show, not co-operate with each other. Tan Kah Kee difficult to believe that the KMT-CPC cooperation, the attitude tends to support the Communists in 1940. Addition to calling the different surnames ancestral hall and township group solidarity, Tan Kah Kee, unified Chinese education as a starting point for unity and not to participate in Singapore in February 1946 the inaugural meeting of the Overseas Chinese Association. The promoters of the Singapore Overseas Chinese Association “Aw Boon Haw, Lee Kong Chian Chen Sye, Lien Ying Chow and Lim Boon Keng.
At the same time, 94 Chinese Mission Congress held in Kuala Lumpur, hope Aw Boon Haw and Tan Kah Kee, proposed a specific plan of unity. However, in the case of China, the KMT-CPC cooperation can never be reached, to speak out on behalf of the overseas Chinese and the Chinese Political Consultative Conference and endorsed the slogan “democratization of the country, the nationalization of the army two, but the motion only on paper, could not be implemented.
A half months later (mid-March 1946), the Chinese civil war broke out in northeast China, after it has been hit in 1949, the KMT retreated to Taiwan, Mao Zedong declared the founding of the People’s Republic of China on October 1 of the same year.
Tan Kah Kee as early as November 1945, pointed out that China’s civil war is inevitable, because the Chinese Communist Party and the Kuomintang can not compromise, the only way to decide the outcome on the battlefield. He believes that, with the the KMT government seeking and is extremely difficult.
Surface unity short-lived
The Malaya Chinese community, the majority favored a peaceful settlement to the struggle. General remarks of the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce president Lien Ying Chow Chinese newspaper also many have this tendency. Nanyang Siang Pau said, can win the support of the majority of the people through a political settlement, contrary to prepare the war will eventually be deserted by the people.
However, when the inevitable outbreak of the Chinese Civil War in 1946, the Chinese in Malaya divided into two struggles Group. The unity faction about the early postwar period is just a flash in the pan, and did not have any effect, during the period from 1946 to 1948, the Chinese associations support the KMT more.
For example: Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall, in an emergency meeting of the Board of Directors, resolved on behalf of 92 Chinese associations energized Chiang Kai-shek, expressed support for the National Government urged the Soviet Union to retreat northeast. Over 100 rooms Societies also make the same RESOLVED in Penang, Malacca, Pahang, Negri Sembilan and Perak Chinese community then depart response. Soviet troops gradually withdraw from the northeast on April 6, 1946, leaving a vacuum between the KMT and the CCP fierce competition for the spaces. The escalation of the war under the Malayan Chinese Associations called for a truce requirements, including tilting left groups.
Led to the Chinese Associations fierce dispute the Tan Kah Kee on September 7, 1946, the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia Collection Relief on behalf of the Chairman of the Federation, shoot electric U.S. President Harry Truman, reference the Speaker of the House of Representatives, General Marshall and Dr. Stuart (they used to help mediate the country struggle) of KMT government attack, refers to its incompetence and dictatorial, demanding that the U.S. withdraw its troops from China, stop military aid to the National Government.
This way, triggered a great debate of the Chinese community. “China Daily, Nanyang Siang Pau and Sin Chew Daily” published an editorial accused Tan Kah Kee “abuse of the name of”, and suggested that the end of Namchow always “, because this will always aid wounded soldiers in the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and refugee, is now obsolete. Anti-KMT Chinese newspaper, on the other hand, the support of Tan Kah Kee, the Singapore democracy Weekly.
Not only so, the Chinese community is divided into two opposing camps, on the one hand, a businessman based Chinese group advocated a crusade against the stance of Tan Kah Kee. Kedah, Johor, Perak Chinese Chamber of Commerce the Gimli Perak and Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall and about eighty-three of Chinese group call President Truman and Chiang Kai-shek, is strongly opposed to the views of Tan Kah Kee. Followed by the Malacca, the Bentong, Muar, Negeri Sembilan and Johor Chinese group to intervene to support the Chiang Kai-shek.
On the other hand is based on workers and civic community based groups, strongly supported the remarks of Tan Kah Kee. In the clubhouse, in addition to the Singapore Hokkien Huay Kuan support of Tan Kah Kee Hall and the business group are anti-Kah Kee. Chen also admitted the existence of the fact. At the time, most of the large-scale Chinese associations, such as the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, Selangor and Perak Chinese Assembly Hall, Hall of Guangdong, Fujian Hall and Hakka Association are opposed to the Tan Kah Kee. In fact, this is also because the majority of the organizations concerned by the elements of the KMT controlled.
Since then, the active Chinese rival political ideology, the escalating struggle speech to fire and ice, and even bloodshed. October 10, 1946 in Sitiawan celebrate the Double Ten Day, on the outbreak of the two factions public fight with weapons incident, and later spread to Pangkor Island. Soon, the situation turning of Tan Kah Kee, December 24, 1946, Peking University, a female student Shen Chong said two U.S. soldiers abuse, leading the Nanyang Chinese sentiment boiling throughout Malaysia women’s groups in mid-January 1947 Kuala Lumpur meeting, resolved to protest to the President of the United States.
Soon after, serious riots against Taiwan governor Chen Yi’s high-handed policy (he is in Japan after Taiwan was returned to China, he incurs appointed as governor of Taiwan Province). That is, the the Taiwan natives most grieving the “incident”. Since the 1940s, Chen Yi former governor of Fujian Province, Tan Kah Kee visit that is the worst Province, is directed against Chen Yi, Ma Chinese Associations response, including Fujian Hall, Southampton Hall.
Plus the National Government of the student newspaper and intellectual elements repression caused Singapore Namchow Daily “(Tan Kah Kee operated) fierce criticism. Tan Kah Kee also the 174 societies Congress to deny the possibility of the KMT-CPC cooperation. Then there are more groups rallied together to respond to, especially leftist groups.
Left and right factions struggle to upgrade
July 4, 1947, the KMT announced an across-the CCP combat, once again set off a the Malayan Chinese around the Debate. In the the Malayan KMT full support of Chiang Kai-shek’s National Story decree, they also all over the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce initiative to support the National Government. Leftist groups, including the China Democratic League Malaya Ward stepped up to support the Tan Kah Kee, to counterattack.
October 27, 1947, the Chinese Nationalist government announced that the China Democratic League, as an illegal organization, resulting in Malaya leftist groups protest violent attacks on the government of Chiang Kai-shek. Namchow Daily editorial plays an important role. Malaya pro-KMT activists welcomed the announcement of the National Government.
March 29, 1948, in Chiang Kai-shek retreated to sacrifice the long Nanjing, but re-elected President, further stimulate the KMT activists conducted its activities, they fight for many Chinese associations support to the call of the Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall, welcomed the election of Chiang Kai-shek . Except in Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, Penang, Malacca, Johor, Johor Bahru and other cities in the Chinese community, were also celebrating.
This further angered leftist groups, May 4, 1948, the Singapore Chinese fight for peace and Democratic League, China Democratic League clubs, the Chinese trade unions and the New Democratic Youth, the crew club convened Chinese Mission Conference, 119 societies were in excess of 500 delegates and seats, accusing those in power at the time betrayed Sun Yat-sen’s Three Principles of the People, and declared that the presidential election is illegal. Factions struggle between compromise and no unruly, attracted the attention of the British Government, does not allow factions too obvious political activities commenced in Malaya.
The attitude of the British colonial government first bias Kuomintang, therefore resulting in the deterioration of relations with the leftist groups that ward of the China Democratic League of Malaya also banned in May 1949 until the Chinese Communist Party officially acquired on October 1, 1949 The following year, the British regime to be recognized, thus steering the KMT adverse situation.
So to speak, until 1948 seconds, Malaya pro-KMT elements still prevail in the political struggle, some of the major organizations such as the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, the Chinese Town Hall and the Hall of the majority of more loyal to the KMT government, most Chinese newspaper also This tendency, but in 1949, the support of the National Government in Malaya less and less, and even some Nationalists turned to support the Communists.
Looking at the above, the Chinese in Malaya, especially the upper class and the working class, has noticeably different political tendencies, their most concerned about China’s political evolution, local politics have also been concerned about, or toward China councils more, this is because the rich Chinese political awareness, and more as the object of their attention to China.
Group of Democratic Party of professionals

After the end of World War II, the Malayan Chinese local political dynamics basically uncertain. British authorities re-ruled Malaya, that after the dissolution of the anti-Japanese armed forces, and to prevent future trouble with the British government to maintain tight control of trade unions, the ties between the two sides was nervous. In June 1948, Ma launched an armed rebellion, Malaya therefore declare an emergency. The emergency decree entered into force on July 15, until July 23, Malaysian, and its subsidiary bodies was declared an illegal organization.
On the other hand, the early post-war period, the Malayan People, regardless of the power of the amount, can form a political group, a political struggle. The strengthening of the elements in the wake of Malay nationalism and UMNO forces is one of development. Leftist ideology professionals or semi-professionals, composed of non-Communist left-wing political parties, these people are the majority of non-Malays, including lawyers, doctors and teachers, and highly educated intellectuals. Obvious among them the majority of the English-educated, including the Chinese, Indian and Eurasian mixed nationals.
This party named the Malayan Democratic Alliance (MALAYAN DEMOCRATIC UNION) referred to as the MUD Party Chairman Phillip He Yalin (PHILIP HOALIM), is the most active and representative figures the Eurasia mixed nationality the lawyer John Yibe (JOHN EBER). He has been detained during the Japanese occupation, postwar active, openly critical of the British policy, there is a questioning attitude that the British authorities on the political parties, but still allow civil servants to participate.
British school teachers participated in by many people, the Malayan Democratic Alliance then advocated the implementation of a unified education system. At the primary stage, the use of mother tongue education, and to the secondary level, all use English as the medium of instruction, but Malay Wending as a compulsory subject, this proposal is to make education in Malaya toward Westernization.
The Malayan Democratic Alliance’s platform in December 1945 include:
(A) the establishment of an autonomous Malayan government to participate in the Commonwealth.
(B) all elected legislators.
(C) Where the 21-year-old Malayan citizens, regardless of race, gender, religion or wealth, can vote.
(D) personal speech, publication and assembly completely free.
(E) the basic, secondary and technical education innovation.
(F) the implementation of social security schemes, including medicine free.
(G) to improve the lives of the people.
(Viii) the Malayan People of the Equal Employment Opportunity eliminate any color restrictions.
The establishment of the Democratic League of Malaya from the British Labour Party, in particular, is drawn from the Labour leftists political inspiration. British Labour Party was in power in the United Kingdom, so that the British colonial government in Malaya is a sense of things difficult. Democratic Party imitate the policy of the British Labour Party, to demand equal rights and to allow trade unions to actively participate in politics. It seems that sees itself as the future of Malaya (Labour Party). Although obvious Malayan Democratic Alliance of party organizations, but not a leftist attitude became the target of communist penetration of the “united front”.
Democratic League failure factors

Malayan Democratic League to prove it is not a racist political party, invite political groups meeting in the headquarters in Singapore on December 7, in order to make a joint recommendation of Malaya Constitution, there are 11 units attended.
They set up a Joint Action Council FALMAC (ALL-MALAYA COUNCIL OF JOINT ACTION / AMCJA). Three radical Malay nationalist groups initially joined the organization shortly after they quit, another group Front to oppose UMNO supported by the Federation of Malaya Agreement.
The so-called Federation of Malaya Agreement, in 1946 the British Malayan alliance draft UMNO vigorously oppose UMNO and states Sudan on suppliers results agree replaced by the Federation of Malaya Agreement. As a result, the Joint Action Council FALMAC became non-Malaysian political groups.
The failure of the Democratic League of Malaya, is caused by several factors:
(A) The United Kingdom does not recognize that it is the only political party on behalf of the people of Malaya (including Singapore), do not agree with Singapore, including the Federation of Malaya Agreement, but adhere to talk with the UMNO and states Sudan providers to Toward the end, agreed to set up a working committee to listen to the views of the community of non-Malaysian Joint Action Council FALMAC protest was ignored, is the boycott to provide advice in favor of their own drafting a constitution recommends immediate to Malaya (including Singapore) independent status.
Citizenship should be automatically sent to the women who were born in Malaya, or his father have been citizens of Malaya. In 10 years, 8 years and 18 years of age can become naturalized citizens living in Malaya, but this is not the British attention and accept.
(B) against the Federation of Malaya Agreement, the Council is the same, but different ideology Group conflicting result of the split. For example, the Income Tax Act, Malaya democratic Democrats support, but expressed strong opposition from the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce.
(C) 1948, Ma sudden rebellion, the the Malayan Democratic Alliance Western leftists can not adapt, disgusted by the violence. As a result, the Joint Action Council FALMAC not play a role, plus the the earlier radical Malay nationalists exit and UMNO do not agree, it can no longer claim on behalf of the political party of the people of all ethnic groups in the entire island a. (By the way, this situation is very similar to the current MCA MCA constantly claims on behalf of the Malaysian Chinese, but the Malaysian Chinese were generally do not agree.)
June 25, 1948, the Malayan Democratic Alliance Party, on grounds based on civil rights deprivation and chaotic political situation “, announced that it no longer has any effect. The failure of the joint action FALMAC Council, as the core of the Democratic Alliance Party of Malaya marks the Chinese political differences.
Although once Malacca Chinese Chamber of Commerce president Tun Tan Cheng Lock, and state of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce to join the efforts of the Council, and have called for strike day on October 20, 1947, to protest against the Federation of Malaya Agreement proposed. However, it eventually can not be successful in obtaining representative of the status of the Malayan Chinese community, and quickly disappeared in the political arena. But shortly afterwards, Tun Tan Cheng Lock turned to another force surface development, led to the composition of the MCA. From rewriting the the Malayan Chinese political situation.
For MCA was established after the development of the last outbreak of a series of party struggles; reduced to UMNO watchdog, yes-men from a full political ideals, political forces large ethnic Chinese political party, to this day. These are to be followed by lecture “Ma Hua Chunqiu” in detail.
“Retrospective the Malayan Chinese sages struggle”. Write rapidly this point, it has been aired. Thank you for your warm support. We would again! Good night!
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

 

“Retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back: postwar Malayan Chinese community torn apart
FEB 3
Of the voice of justice

Good evening, everyone! Tonight, we continue to support the lecture “retrospective the Malayan Chinese sages of the past history of struggle.

 

Tonight’s third round, the focus will be on the Chinese Kuomintang and the Communist Party of China’s civil war, the huge impact overseas Chinese social ideology. Last night, we said, Singapore and Malaysia, the Chinese community in the early 20th century, begun the creation of business organizations and trade associations.
 States established during this period of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, the Qing court the favor of the tendency Manchu ideology does not hurt, but the colonial government, has been allowed to set up such organizations to accommodate various gangs represent, and how much help to promote understanding and unity.
The oldest is the Penang Chinese Chamber of Commerce (1903), followed by Selangor Chinese Chamber of Commerce was established in 1904 as the the Kuantan Chinese Chamber of Commerce (1903), the Singapore Chinese Chamber of Commerce was established in 1906, after state counties have Chamber of Commerce of the organization.
And other geopolitical and tribal organizations, is the most important organization of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, then crossed the dialect barriers. Geopolitical organization, such as Canton Center promotes the dialect of Guangdong Hanjiang Gong will Chiu Chow Association initiative Chaozhou dialect the Hakka Association Hakka dialect, Fujian Association of course, is mainly in Fujian dialect. Kinship nature of the organization, such as Lin Ancestral Hall, Chen Clan Academy, Xinke the Cai folks will, Yan’s Association, by the nature of the clan’s language as a standard.
The establishment of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce, to break the barriers of dialect, unified Chinese Chinese; gang factions for unity of the Chinese community has played a big role. Of course, after 1911, the Chinese community is basically to keep gangs everywhere, but Revolution movement undoubtedly has blown the unity of the wind. This is to an important first step, otherwise they would not have today’s results.
The most important is the The revolutionary thoughts brought new ideas, and the impact of the old society and old traditions. “Altruism,” gave himself for the group, the concept of “equal freedom” continue to spread. Girls’ schools be encouraged to set up, a woman is allowed to join social activities, and also to participate in the Sun Yat-sen revolution. Egalitarianism: equality of the sexes and regardless of age, and patriotism: altruism and gave himself for the group, change the strength of the main ideas of the overseas Chinese community.
The Nanyang Chinese community set off a wave of thought reform
After the success of the revolutionary Sun Yat-sen, put United League merged with the other four groups, established on August 13, 1912, the Chinese Nationalist Party. Later this party is permitted to set up branch in Malaya. British authorities believe that the KMT is not against the British colonial government, the opposition Kuomintang operate openly in Singapore and Malaysia. December 18, 1912, Singapore set up a the Sin Chew contact branch of the Chinese Kuomintang. In 1923, 8 of this branch staff, seven for British overseas Chinese students, including an early attack Dr. Lin Wenqing Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary activities.
KMT in Malaya to continue the legitimate activities of its registered until 1925 been disqualified on the grounds that the required information is not provided under the Societies Act. Nevertheless, the KMT’s activities did not stop, but continued to exist in secret.

The other hand, in the success of the Revolution, Yuan Shikai seize the northern military power, but also master the demise of the Qing government power are not yet fully, Sun Yat-sen for the overall situation, as long as a republican, to abdicate, so that Yuan Shikai usurp power in 1913, assuming the presidency.supination want the restoration of the monarchy, and ordered the dissolution of the Chinese Nationalist Party in the following year.
The support of the Japanese and foreign forces, Yuan Shikai gradually tend to do the emperor’s dream, of course, he is in the loss of sovereignty in exchange for the support of the Japan. Originally wanted to prepare the Chinese Emperor accession to the throne in 1916, did not expect over the military and political rebellion, anger under air, The Curse of the people careerist, and finally died on June 6, 1916 a.
Occasion of this period, China has been plunged into warlordism situation, Sun Yat-sen seeing the fruits of the revolution about to naught, erection and crusade, was established in 1924 in Guangzhou, the southern government to strengthen the ties of overseas Chinese to seek support for the end of China’s separatist situation.
The following year, Dr. Sun Yat-sen died, unfortunately, unified China’s great cause of failure to complete. This period, China, in fragmented state foreign forces therefore take advantage of the.

In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek made ​​KMT control over ever since and established in 1921, the Chinese Communist Party launched a prolonged struggle. Having said that, May 4, 1919, when the outbreak of a far-reaching impact on the cultural movement to change the thinking of the Chinese. That is the history of the famous “May Fourth Movement

Fourth Movement occurred after World War I, is the most vulnerable and the most perilous moment in China, setting off new ideas movement ruthlessly exposed and criticized the feudal system and the old Confucianism expand, so as to arouse the political consciousness of the people. In order to achieve this objective, the vernacular is to promote new literary movement came into being. Similarly, the Chinese community in Malaya also began to change. MCA new literary thinking, is to accept the influence of China’s May Fourth cultural movement, anti-imperialist and anti-feudal spirit, the new areas in Malaysia, including Sabah and Sarawak Chinese vernacular literature developed.
In early October 1919, Singapore’s new national daily newspaper founded and its supplement “the new national magazine, and some version bit like” Commentary bar “,” news “, there has been a certain amount, the vernacular articles with new ideas and new spirit, which the beginning of MCA’s new literary history

There is no dispute that the May Fourth Movement, the inspiration of the Malayan Chinese thought has a big role, Ma Xinhua Wen newspapers and magazines vigorous promotion of the sport of drama, from the thinking of the Chinese community, a revolutionarychanges

Especially the intellectuals thought Agitation accelerated to mention their political zeal and more concerned with the problems of the Chinese community and personal interests, culture and education flourished since. Tan Kah Kee in 1923, under the instigation of the new wave of literary movement founded Nanyang Siang Pau, the brothers Aw Boon Haw Hu Wen leopard “Sin Chew Daily” was founded in 1929, the Modern Daily News was first published in 1936, was first published in The Star Penang Daily in 1939, under the urging of the New Culture Movement product.
Anti-Japanese movement has become the mainstream of the Chinese community
In political terms, the the 1919 Ma Xinhua person society to expand the anti-Japanese movement. The aftermath of the May Fourth Movement, the anti-Japanese, and soon the impact to the the horse new ethnic society, struck a chord. Workers the students rallied unrest, smashed Japanese products, ransacked the Japanese factory, order and chaos. Followed by the Penang Island riots, Kuala Lumpur, also small-scale demonstrations.
Seen in this light, addition to instill tendency to rescue from the Qing court, the the Malayan Chinese political thought with action against aggression, especially the rampage of Japanese militarism indignation, and then transferred to the anti-the era of imperialism.
This time, the British colonial forces are also involved in China’s one (Hong Kong is a British colony), the point of the Malayan Chinese political awakening and spearhead foreign invaders uneasy, so to take action against. But till to the KMT in 1926,27 North valve after the victory, the British government to change its attitude; take acquiesced in the position of the reform of Chinese thought of the two new horse

However, when due to the Chinese by the Chinese Communist Party, the leftist ideology appears, which can be confirmed from the British colonial government seized the anti-British and anti-imperialist file.
In 1927, Chiang Kai-shek’s clear the party and the Chinese Communist Party’s split, also spread to Ma Xinhua human society. Leftist groups and the Kuomintang struggle from time to time. But in the big picture, the anti-Japanese is still the mainstream the Japanese militarists gradual occupation of the territory of China, and the attempt to dominate the whole of Asia.
1928 “3 by 5 the Jinan Massacre”, “September 18 Incident” in 1931 and the following year the “Incident” until 1937 “July Marco Polo Bridge Incident”, in in so that China and Asia in under the shadow of Japanese militarism, the infamous “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere” is cooked up by the Japanese imperialist hegemony tumor.
As a result, the anti-Japanese movement has become the mainstream thought of the Malayan Chinese, sparking an unprecedented mass movement, the anti-Japanese movement in 1937 led by the ethnic Chinese business magnates Tan Kah Kee (Tan Kah Kee Nanyang Siang Pau founder), in the lower people enthusiastic reaction, particularly among the lower labor, money and efforts, whatever the cost to complete the historic task.
The culture and the education sector is also vocal opposition, the fundraising Yijuan. Connection from a large-scale boycott of Japanese goods. More importantly, this movement break through the the gang concept of the MCA social tradition, all against the common enemy, organizations throughout Malaysia Collection Relief Association, co-policy conduct. Propaganda tool of resistance the ─ ─ literature, there have been a magnificent situation. Preached salvation, boost morale, discipline traitor boycott of Japanese goods, fundraising Relief wounded refugees, organizations laborers to go to China to service, has become a popular theme in many of the works.

From Maxin Fu Tan Kah Kee history, you can see the change of his political thought, and before the Second World War, the Chinese thought one tendency. Course Tan Kah Kee does not mean that all Chinese thought, because native Overseas Chinese and his ideas for some distance, even south to the Chinese is not always the case and he has the same idea.
Wealthy businessman Tan Kah Kee running a newspaper Schooling
Overseas Chinese to expand the period of anti-Japanese movement to interpret the Maxin Fu Tan Kah Kee life history can explain almost was a part of the Chinese political thought evolved. Professor Wang Gengwu overseas Chinese were divided into three groups:
A Group, they are mainly concerned about Chinese politics and foreign policy;
B Group, they are mainly concerned about community politics;
Group C, they have access to non-Chinese power pyramid, regardless of whether indigenous, colonial sovereign state or nationalists in power.
Tan Kah Kee is part of the A Group, but with Group B’s shadow. In 1890 (17 years), he came to Singapore in the south, his father Chen Jibo open base in Singapore and the Founding. In 1910, he owned the assets of 450,000 yuan. In 1909, he met Sun Yat-sen in 1910 cut off the braids to join the Chinese Alliance to sever relations with the Qing court, for his political start. Revolution broke out, the Tan Kah Kee responsible for fundraising relief compatriots in Fujian Province, and to maintain law and order. Jimei Primary School in his hometown to set up in 1913; Xiamen University, founded in 1912.
March 5, 1928, the Japanese militarists to send troops occupied Jinan, massacre diplomats Cai time and people, as the history of “3 by 5 Jinan Massacre. The news spread to Singapore, Chan engaging established Shandong horrible disaster chips Relief Commission, to remit 130 million, and called on the Chinese against the Japanese aggression, expand the boycott of Japanese goods. He founded the “Nanyang Siang Pau” widely publicized.
1931 “Mukden Incident, the Japanese imperialists invaded and occupied the three provinces in Northeast China, Tan Kah Kee nationals Assembly held in Singapore, energized the League of Nations (predecessor of the United Nations) and the President of the United States urges the to fulfill treaty, safeguarding world peace, or the upcoming war. Due to the world economic downturn attendant. The United States into the Great Depression, the impact of the world economy at the same time shrouded in the shadow of recession. Tan Kah Kee’s economy suffered severe losses and combat, and finally closing in 1934, Tan Kah Kee Corporation.
In 1937, the outbreak of the Seven Marco Polo Bridge Incident “, Japan, China initiated a comprehensive Anti-Japanese War. October 10, 1938, Tan Kah Kee the Nanyang Chinese Collection Relief motherland refugee Association (referred to as Namchow always), he served as President, then was elected the Malaya district Huaqiao Collection Relief Communications Director.

According to historical records, the fundraising total number annually to reach 100 million more than 6000 million, many donations falling into the Kuomintang some senior officials of the bag at that time, but then Kuomintang very corrupt.
Tan Kah Kee persist in the War of Resistance against the compromise, the then the Kuomintang vice president Wang Jingwei’s advocate Negotiations refute and oppose. Bluntly describe Wang Ching-wei Qin Hui traitorous glory.
After the failure of the primary and Wang Jingwei, and fled to Vietnam to escape Chiang Kai-shek to kill. Then accepted the amnesty offer meeting as Japan to assist in the Northeast, Johnson Emperor Pu Yi, established the puppet state of Manchukuo, “the prime minister.
Tan Kah Kee turned to support the Communist Party of China
In 1940, Tan Kah Kee led Namchow always reward group back to China to reward anti-Japanese Army. After he disappointed with the Kuomintang government was inclined to support the Chinese Communist Party.
The the 1942 locust military aggression the Nanyang, horse new fall, Tan Kah Kee refuge Java, in August 1945, the surrender of Japanese militarism, October 6 Tan Kah Kee Java back to Singapore.
In 1946, he used the name of Namchow the president, sent a telegram to U.S. President Harry Truman to stop interfering in China’s internal affairs, no longer aid to Chiang, in order to make the Civil War terminate.
This year, he was in Singapore, and also do Namchow Daily expand criticized the KMT government. May 5, 1949, he returned from Singapore sightseeing. Later settled in China, and his death in 1961. Tan Kah Kee the Nanyang Chinese community leaders in the Anti-Japanese War, but he admits that fundraising number is not very good, though not disappointing. He says capitalists and overseas Chinese students do not take pledges recognize a special donation refused recognition often months tax, it month by month scores only this number (over 200 million).
He believes that the capitalists and medium businesses, and would be willing to month to month income, donated two tenths, three, the full horse Yijuan can increase many times. As for the over 200 million per month, more than half depends goods to donate, and recreation clubs collection. British North Borneo (now Sabah), although the 80,000 people of Chinese labor sector accounted for the majority of all ports after the War of Resistance Against Japan Relief Commission resembles the establishment of chips, but recognition often monthly donation only Kuching, Sibu, tens of thousands of dollars .
The history of Tan Kah Kee, in the period since the war, to be used as refers to Hua Renzhong example in China, Hong Kong Chinese University lecturer Dr. Zheng Chiyan paper said: “Yes, some overseas Chinese Tan Kah Kee in 1950s large part of the property to move back to China, but this is the pre-independence Malaya thing compared to the Chinese Communists in 1949, establishment of the regime is earlier. ‘
Undeniably, to the anti-Japanese era after the Revolution of 1911, overseas Chinese society rarely involved in such political activities, in addition to a handful of leaders such as Lim Boon Keng et al, opting out of the vast majority of, because they are loyal to the British colonial government. . However, the Dr. Zheng Chiyan said, since the war, Baba (Baba) play an important role in the politics of the new horse.
The British colonial government have to worry about the Chinese anti-Japanese movement first, afraid the situation will be a loss of control, endangering its dominance and economic interests. The most significant has been plagued by the KMT and the struggle of the leftist groups, Up to seventy-seven war began, the internal struggle before easing, while the spearhead consistent outward. Some people describe this excellent situation for the Malayan Chinese for the first time to show solidarity.
The rise of the Communist Party of Malaya
Than after 1939, Britain declared war Germany Hitler, and Hitler and the Japanese militarists working hand in glove, causing the British to change on the attitude of the Chinese. Combined with the action against aggression. Ma Chinese also aid the British several times held fundraising campaign, to reward British troops and rescue anywhere in the world suffering British. Therefore, the British Government was deeply moved, allowing the Chinese public anti-Japanese boycott of Japanese goods, and when the southward invasion of Japan in 1941, the British to seek the Chinese political parties to stand on the same front.


In 1941, the Overseas Chinese Mobilization Committee was established in the Tan Kah Kee, under the auspices of the Mobilization Committee in favor of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and to get the blessings of the colonial government Toms Governor. This in many ways to participate in the work of the Anti-Japanese Army until February 15, 1942, the fall of Singapore so far.
Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party in 1940, was established in Chongqing a cooperation agreement contributed to the total co-operation with the British anti-Japanese Malaya horse. But in war, horses against colonial rule, and has publicly activities rebellion in 1948, exit the scope of the law, and therefore become illegal groups in the British colonial government issued an emergency decree. From the Revolution, the War of Resistance Against Japan until Japan’s surrender, the Malayan Chinese political thought from the low tide toward a climax, and then divided KMT camp and leftist struggle is an example.
However, the new political thought in the post-war overshadowed the previous trend, that is, non-racial sense of patriotism and the rise of nationalism, have asked the country’s independence marked the post-war years, the political thought again changes. It seems from the historical changes of the pre-war Malaya Chinese divided politically, even the Chinese community, due to dialect differences gangs everywhere, until today.
As for the ideological backwardness and superstition side, not because of the May Fourth Movement, the total elimination. Instead, between the people still exist, even feudal ideas have become very popular in danger due to various disguised instigation, Chinese political awareness is undoubtedly a resistance. Overall, however, the post-war Malayan Chinese, from the tendency of Chinese Political allegiance to Malaya. This kind of political thought, marks the transformation of Chinese thought, is noteworthy turning point and a new starting point.
The evolution of the post-war three thoughts
Japan surrendered in August 1945, the official end of the Second World War. Hitler and Mussolini Western failure in the former, after the collapse of the Japanese militarists in the entire world to the new situation.

 

In 1941, the Overseas Chinese Mobilization Committee was established in the Tan Kah Kee, under the auspices of the Mobilization Committee in favor of the Kuomintang and the Communist Party, and to get the blessings of the colonial government Toms Governor. This in many ways to participate in the work of the Anti-Japanese Army until February 15, 1942, the fall of Singapore so far.
Kuomintang and the Chinese Communist Party in 1940, was established in Chongqing a cooperation agreement contributed to the total co-operation with the British anti-Japanese Malaya horse. But in war, horses against colonial rule, and has publicly activities rebellion in 1948, exit the scope of the law, and therefore become illegal groups in the British colonial government issued an emergency decree. From the Revolution, the War of Resistance Against Japan until Japan’s surrender, the Malayan Chinese political thought from the low tide toward a climax, and then divided KMT camp and leftist struggle is an example.
However, the new political thought in the post-war overshadowed the previous trend, that is, non-racial sense of patriotism and the rise of nationalism, have asked the country’s independence marked the post-war years, the political thought again changes. It seems from the historical changes of the pre-war Malaya Chinese divided politically, even the Chinese community, due to dialect differences gangs everywhere, until today.
As for the ideological backwardness and superstition side, not because of the May Fourth Movement, the total elimination. Instead, between the people still exist, even feudal ideas have become very popular in danger due to various disguised instigation, Chinese political awareness is undoubtedly a resistance. Overall, however, the post-war Malayan Chinese, from the tendency of Chinese Political allegiance to Malaya. This kind of political thought, marks the transformation of Chinese thought, is noteworthy turning point and a new starting point.
The evolution of the post-war three thoughts
Japan surrendered in August 1945, the official end of the Second World War. Hitler and Mussolini Western failure in the former, after the collapse of the Japanese militarists in the entire world to the new situation.

 One side is the expansion of U.S. military power, quickly leapt to the chief and the status of the Western Group, the leaders of the capitalist world. The other side in the group headed by the Soviet Union, and the establishment of the communist system in Eastern Europe, but also so that some parts of Asia became communist countries, such as China, North Vietnam and North Korea (DPRK).
However, in these two caught between the people of other countries, nationalist thought strongly show it. This trend is reflected in the fight for national independence and autonomy, people have asked to get rid of the colonial rule. Some countries soon after the war that was independent, such as Indonesia, India, and some countries until the fifties or sixty, the desire for independence in the seventies.
After World War II, due to the surging nationalist thought, the Chinese living in Southeast Asia, in a very delicate position, in theory, they need to or vested in the district of residence or inclination to make a choice between China. However, due to the political awareness of the differences and some Chinese adopt a reserved attitude, causing the community leaders or the Chinese leaders, the political aspects of the role played by the different.
As mentioned above, the history analysis, and some scholars believe that the postwar Chinese political attitude generally can be divided into three groups.
A Group is principally concerned about Chinese politics and foreign policy;
Group B mainly concerned about community politics;
Group C has entered the power of non-Chinese political pyramid, regardless of whether the indigenous, colonial sovereign state or nationalists in power.
However, Professor Wang Gengwu Since 1945, the Group A frenzy has subsided, many people transformed into the B Group, the formation of the unity and solidarity of the Chinese community. C Group, the fleeting nature of Chinese number increased, and efforts to agree to the residence. However, this case is not obvious in Malaya and, later, Malaysia, in other words, this scientific analysis is room for discretion.
Because since the war, the Chinese in Malaya never encountered the situation of solidarity and unity, but continue to exist in the political differentiation, and even fight against each other. Professor Wang Gengwu In another paper Malaya Chinese political, divided into three political body of the Chinese in Malaya:
A Group to keep in touch with China’s political, often with the fate of China’s identity;
Group B including the most astute and pragmatic Chinese, to keep a low profile or indirect political ties; C Group is a small portion wavering, because they are difficult to determine their own identity, but generally tend somehow The degree of allegiance to Malaya. This argument, a clearer picture than the previous way of saying, but did not involve the ideological divide their discrepancy. The Malayan Chinese suffered in the post-war political impact, basically can be divided into the following three categories:
(A) the tendency, but belong to the KMT activists or rightist thinking.
(B) the tendency to China, but leftist ideology.
(C) Peranakan, the English-educated, ideological orientation West, especially according to the United Kingdom for their loyalty, they were known as “Baba”.
The new horse Chinese in divided
Undeniably, the painful lessons of the Second World War, has awakened the people of Southeast Asia, widespread political awareness and attention, the wave of nationalism avalanche. Malayan political development, however, is relatively slow, so do not need to go through a bloody struggle that forced the British concession Of course, this is also the British foresight ─ ─ political concessions in exchange for economic vested interests.
Needless to say, the Malaysian nationalist thought was relatively strong, and thus to form a political force, in 1946 against the British proposed the Malayan Union (MALAYAN UNION), prompted the UK must develop alternative political structures-the Federation of Malaya, in order to ensure that the the Malaysian political status.
The Federation of Malaya Agreement came into effect on February 1, 1948, marks the start of the Malaysian assume an active role in the political. Chinese in Malaya, the early postwar period, yet cultivating awareness of Malaya tendency in China, whether leftist or rightist interested in each other’s struggles, especially in concerned about how to fight for independence in order to become the master of the emerging countries one. Do not care about politics, still holding the attitude of just economic benefits, also worried about local leftist movement spread and involvement, rather aloof.
Native Chinese Babas, British deep feelings continue to be obsessed with asylum by the British colonial rule, and even too westernized Baba, as England their motherland, for the independence movement is undecided, rather than attach importance . Basically, the Chinese is in a divided state. Take the 1946 British proposed the Malayan alliance: it is an agreement developed in post-war Britain, the Malaya states (excluding Singapore) placed under the direct rule of the British.
The British Government’s decision, once the political situation to recover and temporary military rule in the past, Malaya alliance will be established, aimed at creating a more efficient government organizations and promote the unity of the Malayan People of different races in Malaya. Malay community view, however, failed to take into account states Sudan, status, and that is not conducive to the ethnic Malay are rallied together to oppose. The famous leader Datuk Ong Tee under the leadership of the United Malays National Organization (UMNO UMNO), set up to oppose the Malayan alliance results concessions.
On the other hand, non-Malaysian conditions for long-term in Malaya residence, will therefore obtain legal status and political rights, but not act enthusiastic. They are still probably the sentimental to the Japanese colonial era, for a long time they were not accepted for the people of Malaya and is regarded as outsiders, they still can not determine their own identity, and therefore does not attach importance to this issue.
The retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back “stop here, tomorrow night the same time, we continue to Speaker final back; tomorrow we Goodbye.
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

Retrospective Malayan-Chinese sages struggle back to the second: the turbulent era of revolutionary thoughts
FEB 2
Of the voice of justice

Good evening, everyone!I am pleased once again to meet with you.
Speaking yesterday, the late nineteenth century, Malaya, the ethnic Chinese community inspired by the Qing Dynasty Emperor Guangxu, have funded up schools. The first formal school, when the push was established in 1904 (Guangxu thirty years), Penang Chinese School, followed by Selangor respect holes schools, the Perak State the Yucai School of set, this wind one open, everywhere throughout Malaysia Schooling running schools, education atmosphere to flourish.
Chinese schools, and funded by the British colonial government did not, in the case of self-reliance, the dissemination of Chinese education. Until 1920, the British colonial government implemented a decree requiring the registration and control of schools and teachers, and China school implementation of the system of allowances Although this limited the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, while the Malay States, including However, the Chinese, or the continuous development of Chinese schools.
According to the Basu Dr. statistical, in 1938, a single Chinese-educated in the Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States, more than 90,000, and 27,000 more than British students. In other words, the number of people reading Chinese schools far more than the number of English schools. The same situation is also reflected in the rise of the Chinese Press.

But the real scale Malaya a Chinese newspaper, founded in Malacca on August 5, 1815 Depiction monthly statistics Biography “is sponsored by the church, the rich religious overtones, before and after the issue by the six and a half;and revealing, opened in Singapore in 1880, was “smart reported.
It is a more diversified forms of Chinese newspaper, founder Xueyou Li, a Singapore native Chinese. He received an English education, but the passion for Chinese culture. Singapore reported that people Miss Chen Menghe the English designed book in Singapore’s early Chinese newspaper, 1880-1912 “, used to analyze the motives of the founder of” smart “, she thinks smart reported” not for profit, but to promote Chinese culture, improvement of Chinese social atmosphere, and has a patriotic consciousness.
Smart newspaper content including news, editorials, communications and advertising. News news of the slope to other towns news and international news, before and after the issue by 51 years the first writer Ye Jiyun is polishers from South China to preside over the writing important, up to 41 years

Schools and newspapers club where the dissemination of intellectual and cultural, for the inculcation of political thought, but also to an important tool. Therefore, it seems from the early nature of Chinese schools and Chinese newspaper, the Qing court to be propagated is a maintenance monarchy feudal thinking, For Confucianism attention, spare no effort to muster allegiance and follow conservative Chinese Manchu political trends.
Chinese associations to replace the Secret Societies
Must be brought by a Chinese community’s role in promoting the national consciousness and protection of Member. Is generally believed that the Chinese community organization is accompanied by Chinese southward, although it is very early, but large forces of the early secret societies, many of the tribe that it has become <protectors> Chinese society, the importance of the association relatively lower.
Until the British colonial government in 1890 to deal with the private party organizations, public associations registered mushroomed into the sky, to replace the role of the Secret Societies. Of course, this does not mean that societies than private party originated late, but its function only in the longer term regulation out

Malacca Cheng Hoon Teng is the most ancient Chinese combination of organizations, Penang Kwong Fuk Palace, built in 1800. Most of the early Chinese societies.
The mixed early temples and geopolitical there as one of the signs. 1801, Penang the Jiaying Hall’s predecessor <Renhe company> set up the construction of the temple, Penang wide Ting Hall, formerly known as <Guangdong company, established in 1801. Malacca the should and Hall of established early <Meizhou public record company> 1825 reform known as the <and> subsequent beginning and then changed to <and library.
Earlier period established associations, inseparable from the multi-party organizations and the private will. Fellow groups from hometown family system and all customs, will be one party. The so-called secret societies, the organization set up by the villagers from the same country, responsible for looking after the welfare and lives of all Xiangdang. Will be the party of the party members who have an absolute obligation to unconditionally help groups. Those in power think, can be used as a tool of domination; farmers and laborers that the combination colleagues no matter how good organization, revolutionaries also think it is important.
Malaya Penang Fujian, and seamounts Party uncle Association, this will party organizations; wide Ting Hall, Ningyang the Hall and Yising Party, also can not be separated from contact. Terms of the terms of the County Hall, the founder of Singapore the Ningyang Hall’s, in Hung Yising Party Ancestral Hall Zhong’an tablets. Undoubtedly groups of fellow feudal character. The Sun Yat-sen in the Chinese ability to organize League, the reason is that we can mobilize the Secret Societies, Hall career is conducive to maintaining the order of the feudal society.
In addition to the geopolitical Association of consanguinity ancestral halls, also a karmic groups on behalf of the industry, commerce and trade union organizations, such as the construction of the line,, Hing and goldsmith line, Luban line. Chinese community scholars believe that the British colonial government encouraged with a representative of the commercial nature of organizations, including Associations and ancestral hall, a prestigious, can be one of several roles, and become party leader.
When the British Secret Societies, organizations have been far too cumbersome, and to penetrate some early Hall (formerly the company) is to change course, and will support Hall, the ancestral hall and business group to replace the party (Secret Societies) status. Ye, the Chinese group in the early twentieth century to be shipped a large number of born, this is also one of the causes. The British renowned the moderates Chinese leaders, in particular the emphasis on the English-educated community leaders, to lead societies, directly attributable to British rule, but also to assist the Government in the implementation of the policy.
Chinese community groups flourishing
Take Penang, Jiaqing five years (1800) to establish the Kwong Fuk Palace (Guangdong and Fujian cooperation), Guangxu 12 years (1886) in the adjacent suspend the municipal government the signs of Pingzhang Hall combine the functions of the business and the community, to play the most. From the perspective of the development of the three aspects of education, the press and the Chinese group, Malayan Chinese community is the maintenance of the feudal system revealed. Respect hole schools and the hole church schools, that is designed to promote Confucianism represented by Confucius, the Chinese newspaper publicized feudal culture and its efficacy; Chinese group to pay respects to the tablets, in addition to reduce the power of the secret societies, is to consolidate the feudal system.
Although the development and spread of political consciousness, not entirely consistent with the British political thought, but did not endanger the dominance and economic interests of the United Kingdom, the British colonial government will let Chinese political thought itself. However, the British think is valid through the control of the law, for the control of the political consciousness of the Chinese, not to mention the time, the Chinese had no concept of driving away the British, just focus in economic development and to make a living, not very concerned about the Chinese political the political situation changes. However, the upper of the Chinese community activists the one that gets the official title for the glory of the Manchu Huangting encomienda

Get a the Qing court encomienda rank the overseas Chinese, Zhang Fang Lin, Singapore for 1869, when the official title of the proceeds for the Road officials to compliment his generous offer to donate to the defense fund of Fujian Province.
Before, the overseas Chinese are not the Qing court’s infinite royal thanks Manchu government to take a hostile attitude towards a performance overseas subjects. The Manchu authorities has always been the overseas Chinese as criminals or desertion of Chinese culture. That they secretly fled the country to overseas to make a living, a progenitor of treason behavior. But by the end of the 19th century, the Qing government, the Overseas Chinese policy, significant changes occurred. In 1893, the Qing government promulgated a general order of the Overseas Chinese to undo traditional restrictions and punishment and offer advice to protect those who return the Chinese motherland.
Through donations and grant office is another a Longluo tactics to make nationals loyal to the Manchu empire. This is because the Qing court in the latter part of the economic crisis, had to resort to overseas Chinese economic power. Evolved later granted official move into the Qing Dynasty as a means to ensure that overseas Chinese allegiance later used as a political weapon to counter the influence of the royalists and the Revolutionary Party in Singapore, Malaya, ethnic Chinese community.
Two political ideological struggle
From the historical development in the 20th century, before the new horse Overseas Chinese political trend is not significant, generally low-key. After they got rid of the plight of the destitute people under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, to join the high seas, emigrated to Malaya, in order to earn a living, rather than engaging in political activities. Just in the case of passive, they rely on the political consciousness of the leaders and chiefs, but never officially collectively demonstrate political attitudes.

Basically, from the the Kapitan establishment to the formation of the Peranakan community, to the private party’s boom to attract new customers to become party members, to buy the official seal of the British colonial government, to buy last Qing court official seal, and afterwill commence in the upper classes of society the struggle between two political thought. First thought, allegiance to the Qing court assist corrupt Manchu government is committed to consolidate the country, ban against Manchu activists; second thought, is to follow Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary ideas, money and efforts to support the overthrow of the Manchu regime .
This struggle has been extended to the 20th century, and set off a surging movement to stimulate the political consciousness of the whole Chinese society, and to some extent, have joined the political struggle. First reformists Kang Youwei come to fight the Chinese, followed by Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary movement, followed by the anti-Japanese struggle, followed by the impact of the country struggle into the fifties and the rise of nationalism, the Chinese political thought have a huge and epoch-making changes

China under the rule of the Qing Dynasty, an era of national betrayal and humiliation in the Opium War (1839-1842 First Opium War, the Second Opium War in 1856 to 1860) before and after the reformist ideas already in Chinarise.
Especially to the Sino-Japanese War phase (1894-1895), the Qing Dynasty the repeated foreign hegemonism concessions, prompting a group of intellectuals of the reformist doctrine, which representatives of Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao, the introduction of the reform movement, but was to kleptocrats counterattack. Tan Sitong led by the “four gentlemen” Empress Dowager Cixi ordered the arrest of the beheading.
The failure of the coup d’etat, forcing Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao fled out. Their thoughts royalist, in close contact with the Emperor Guangxu, hated by the Empress Dowager Cixi, led by those in power.

They condemned the Empress Dowager Cixi reactionary rule of the past 30 years, not only is the enemy of the people of China, and the Qing 10th generation of sinners “, and” For doctors of the disease in China, only the removal of this evil government, raise him up a goodthe government (Guangxu emperor restoration) down all properly carry on.
Kang Youwei and Liang Qichao royalists representative, does not advocate the overthrow of the monarchy, to overseas aired thinking, also urged the Chinese Emperor Guangxu against the Empress Dowager Cixi of the diehards.
Kang Youwei fled have visited attractions in Malaya, Ipoh, Perak hole, leaving his masterpieces. Soon after, the revolutionaries led by Sun Yat-sen came to horse new to their revolution to overthrow the Manchu regime, a separate National Government.
Two opposing ideas in the Chinese community in Malaya caused a certain degree of impact, but towards the Chinese are concerned about China’s political future, but it is not much of a difference. Royalist activists has “day Southern New) (1898-1905), was founded in Singapore with the Nanyang Allgemeine Zeitung) (1905-1946), they are also Penang founder of Penang, Hong Kong Daily News” (1895-1936 ).
Kang Youwei also publicize the school, on the other hand, to encourage the Chinese to the formation of the Confucius Temple and Societies. Holes church is successively set up around the horse Stars. It was pointed out that, today all over Southeast Asia, especially Malaya, many Chinese schools, by Kang Youwei then lay the foundation

At the upper Chinese society is divided into two different views, one Straits Chinese Babas pro-British thinking, not table concerned about the political situation of China. Such as founded by Baba Xueyou Li, “smart”, namely Kang Youwei pour cold water.
The second is the relationship with China, especially the upper elements of the Qing court encomienda rank, they would rather support the royalist movement, does not support the Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary movement. Thus, royalists early in Nanyang social accounted advantage.
Such as the the British Chinese leader Lim Boon Keng strongly discredit the Sun Yat-sen’s revolution, said he was “the devil”.
Sun Yat-sen combined overseas Secret Societies forces
Nevertheless, Sun Yat-sen was not discouraged, he organized his revolutionary groups in extremely hard under adverse conditions. Secret Societies, the organization became his combination of one of the objects. Sun Yat-sen also triad members, his contact with Triad ward in China, Honolulu and elsewhere overseas.
Later, in 1894, Sun Yat-sen established by “Revive China Society”, is based on the traditional way of secret societies and the line, the member of the same blood oath is also borne by secret signals and speech. Sun Yat-sen, the revolutionary movement, have been used with the assistance of the Secret Societies. In Honolulu in 1903, decided to join the Zhi Gong Tang, and was elected to “Hung stick”, in the freemason organization, said Marshal Hung stick.

Sun Yat-sen’s Revive China Society “, always in China, club casual setting around, denouncing the Manchu corrupt and incompetent, and the revitalization of China. By 1905, evolved into the United League, issued a declaration that: “expel the Manchus and restore China to the creation of the Republic, the average land ownership. United League set up in Singapore in 1906, and then have to set up branch in Kuala Lumpur, Penang, Negri Sembilan, Malacca and melon Labi Lao, but the plan does not succeed in Ipoh, suffered because of the fierce opposition of the royalist activists.
Royalists and political struggle of the Revolutionary Party, a rival show to get a glimpse of the founder of the newspaper can also be downloaded from the United League. United League “Figure” (1904-1905) of the Southern Daily the “ZTE Daily” (1907-1910), established in Singapore, Kwong Wah Yit Poh (1909 ─ present) also set up in Penang. From historical data, is still the most important newspapers in Penang Kwong Wah Yit Poh, is founded by Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s “United League support.

The addition through newspapers, revolutionaries engaged in activities through lectures and some societies, the most famous is the Penang read books newspaper “(registered under the Societies Act in November 1908).
Gradually come from behind despite royalist new political activities in Malaysia, in the early upper hand, and the upper support of the criminals, but the United League With the power of the secret societies, and middle-class support, launched a tit-for-tat sharp struggle; . Until the Empress Dowager Cixi and Emperor Guangxu died in the same month in 1908, the royalists had lost a “relying on the name of the Son of Heaven,” the appeal, and the Qing government increasingly corrupt, seeing the hopeless situation, some activists also turned the direction of the upper, support for Sun Yat-sen had.
According to historical data show that the Chinese masses did not fully involved the activities of the royalists and the United League, because they do not fully understand these political struggles. Moreover, the majority of the people of the two factions in the middle and upper social deal, especially the identity of Dr. Sun Yat-sen is more special, he is much of the British colonial government surveillance, can not be freedom of movement, so by other groups and newspapers to promote its ideals.
1911 Revolution for the overseas Chinese community agitation
In 1911, the success of the Chinese Revolution, the overthrow of the Manchu monarchy and the establishment of the government of the Republic of China, this historic change to the political awareness of the overseas Chinese community, huge shock. Exactly how much political forces United League? In Southeast Asia in 1908, according to a Revolutionary Party leader Deng Mu Han 3000 United League members, most from Malaya, Singapore. When new horse in the vicinity of a total population of approximately 600,000 people of Chinese descent.
The Japanese history observers estimated that, from 1909 to 1910, some 2,500 members in the new Long Penang. If this is correct, only then Ma Xinhua over the age of 15, 0.3 to 0.5% of the population of its members. Became provisional president Sun Yat-sen in Nanjing on December 29, 1911, however, a number of centrist and royalist elements in favor of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, the situation for one turn. Especially after the Wuchang Uprising (leading to the demise of the Qing), 5000 cut off the braids in Penang, Ipoh, there are 2,000 people to return to China to participate in the Sun Yat-sen’s revolution.
In donations, Penang 6000-8000 yuan 4000-5000 yuan in Ipoh, Kuala Lumpur, also responds to 4000-5000 yuan and other towns, ranging from 30,000 yuan to 41,000 yuan in total. The people participating in the United League is also increased to 4.4 per cent to 5.9 per cent share of the then 15-year-old population of the Chinese. Overall, the Malaysian Chinese political thought has changed and a more positive differences remain, but the upper classes of society, some people refused to support two obvious examples of Sun Yat-sen, Loke Yew, Kuala Lumpur miners and Yao Dongsheng is.

They do not intervene in the revolution there are some factors, such as do not want to become involved in any confrontation with the existing regime activities, at the same time they are under the protection of the British, able to become wealthy, they are therefore relatively good relations with the United Kingdom to Chinaallegiance to a lack of enthusiasm. However, there are wealthy businessmen to change their ideological stance, as the Thunderbolt miner Hu Zichun. He royalists figure, later praised Dr. Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary vanguard of China. Hu Zaichun is the the Perak Chinese teach backbone of Hu Wan Tudor’s grandfather.
Precisely because of the setbacks suffered by the Sun Yat-sen is ideal to run around, is turned to the people of the middle and lower classes, in order to win their support. Especially the educated middle class, read after Sun Yat-sen’s advocacy speech and newspaper article from the Chinese community thought the rapid changes in the ill-feeling from the Manchu tyranny produce resistance to foreign aggression, they even itself become publicity house.
Far as I know, in this period, Perak 2000 Chinese laborers to return to China, and those still in the mine to the miners, together donated $ 1 million. This shows that the Sun Yat-sen’s political propaganda has reached the the Malayan Chinese middle and lower social. In addition to workers, the low-level figures, including the private will of party members, hawkers, rickshaw drivers, and even prostitutes and beggars contributions to the revolutionary movement.

Although modern scholars mentioned in the Revolution, that the impact on the entire Chinese community in Malaya and Singapore is not great, nor is it thoroughly; but they do not negate the effect of the early 20th century, the Chinese occlusion, conservative and stubborn ideologya great impact.
Professor Wang Gengwu pointed out in his essay “1900-1911 Straits Settlements Chinese royalist elements Revolutionary Party elements”: “between 1900 and 1911, the most important is not economic and social changes, but the Chinese of the Straits Settlements, the tendency China’s ideological change of attitude. ‘
Nationalism Thought surging
The early twentieth century, according to Dr. Yen Ching Huangzhong describe the horse in this period, the new Chinese intervention revolutionary activities in China is unprecedented, revolutionary activities mainly to save China, but does have a profound impact on the overseas Chinese. This influence can be divided into three categories: The Rise of the overseas Chinese nationalism; growth of overseas Chinese solidarity and the emergence of new ideas.
First, the nationalist ideology preaches, occasioned to the thousands of Overseas Chinese Youth, returned to China to participate in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty, and even their lives, and many contributions in support of the revolution of Sun Yat-sen. Ma Xinhua maintaining relationships with China from 1911 Kai nationalist thought, the main source of guidance. In the same time, this trend took against the idea of foreign forces, has been to develop.
Second, before the revolution of Sun Yat-sen expand overseas Chinese is not united, gang struggle. Unity to hinder the spread of revolutionary ideas, gang wars affect the economic growth of the Chinese community, and to stop the cooperation of different dialects Group.

 

When Sun Yat-sen in 1906, in Kuala Lumpur, presided over the inaugural ceremony of the United League clubs warned: local Chinese are not united, will eventually lead to the collapse of the whole Chinese society.
He League, expand the various publicity campaigns. Such as reading books newspaper, evening, theater performances, so that a different strength of the Group, Sun Yat-sen’s revolutionary work together, they learn to understand each other, cooperate with each other to solve common problems. Uninterrupted contact the spirit of unity and national consciousness of the Chinese is to be strengthened and developed.
Thunderbolt Pakistan established cluster community in 1909, is to instill ideological and organizational unity. Another major development is the spread of Chinese in schools to gradually break the dialect teaching. Course royalists in this regard also has its own contribution to it so that the Chinese have a common media language.
We also note that the states set up during this period of the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce (originally Chinese Business Bureau). While these organizations are in favor of the Qing court, have a tendency to imperial ideology, but no harm has been allowed to set up such organizations to accommodate various gangs represent the colonial government in promoting understanding and unity how much help.
Tonight retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back “to stop here. Tomorrow night, the same time, we will meet. I wish you good night.
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

 

Retrospective Malayan-Chinese sages struggle back: Baba’s birth and the rise of Secret Societies
FEB 1
Of the voice of justice

Since UMNO implementation of the new economic policy, since the 1970s, and become a one-party dominant political parties in the Barisan Nasional, Malaysia’s Chinese community often become minority UMNO extremists insulted the any oppressing object. 80 the ‘Mahathir Di Zhangzheng era, this phenomenon is especially serious, until today, we still hear from time to time and see some extreme UMNO molecular published “Chinese sojourn’,” go back to China ‘; even Malay scholars recognized insult to the ethnic Chinese. That our ancestors then south, a man is when the turtles public, the woman as a prostitute so.
Even from the Chinese community protest to denounce, but in the refuge of those in power in UMNO and MCA afraid to speak under, politicians and scholars published insult Chinese speech are not subject to deal with. Over time, many of the younger generation of Malaysian, Chinese indeed sojourners from China after the independence of Malaysia came here to live. Real but also as a master of the land, is a Malaysian. Even Mahathir also followed the booing, the use of the words “Tanah Melayu” to prove where the original is a Malaysian place.
More appalling is that actually there Qiu Jia Jin class have forgotten progenitor of the believers to go along with Mahathir denied Chinese ancestors to explore the historical merits of this piece of land. In view of this, six months ago, I decided to collect the Malaysian Chinese historical materials, determined to restore the wasteland tragic history of the Malaysian Chinese fathers brought forth on this piece of land. Whereby a strong counterattack to give those ignoramuses Umno politicians and shameless scholars. There are four arguments need to be explained to begin with.

 

The first: the Chinese as early as 1,200 years ago, it has come to this land, Chinese ancestors came to the history of the Malay Peninsula, more distant than the Malaysian. This can be found by archaeologists in Kelantan, Terengganu and Johor Tang Dynasty terra cotta Antiquities evidenced (Unfortunately, these archaeological finds identification results are those in power deliberately covered up)
Second: Malay nationalism is not the original owners of this land. The Malaysian In fact all the descendants of immigrants to the Malay Peninsula in Indonesia’s Aceh area. Only about 600 years old.

Third: the true masters of this land, the aboriginal Orang Asli. Since they are the ones from the written records have been living in the real masters of this land. Like Nauru family in New Zealand, Red Indians in the United States.
Fourth: are pursued from the Malay Peninsula from Srivijaya, terracotta, Spike repair, trays and trays, Qu Dukun Peninsula ancient historical records and archaeological finds prove ancient Indian culture, prove that Indians migrated to the Malay Peninsula The time is earlier than the Malaysian.
Therefore, our Malaysian-Chinese citizens can definitely tell the world of the very dignity, we are the indigenous people of this land, this land’s indigenous. Like all other nations, have equal status. Those who say that we Chinese foreign sojourners, in fact, equivalent to speak their own!

Therefore, our Malaysian-Chinese citizens can definitely tell the world of the very dignity, we are the indigenous people of this land, this land’s indigenous. Like all other nations, have equal status. Those who say that we Chinese foreign sojourners, in fact, equivalent to speak their own!
Before you begin, please allow me to ask you friends very simple, in particular, is a friend of the younger generation, the interesting question:
You probably know that many streets named after a Chinese name in Kuala Lumpur, Loke Yew Road (Jalan Loke, You), Chen Hsiu-lien Road (Jalan Chan of Shau Lin), the Ye Guansheng Road (Jalan Yap Kuan Seng) and so on, of course, the whole horse many towns and cities the streets, there are ethnic Chinese sages name. Do you know the background of these sages? Have you heard of their deeds? To know in order to explore and develop the land, they contributed what forces? I believe that everyone’s answer is vague.
Now, let me as we elaborate scratch, Malaysian Chinese bitter fight to the tragic history of centuries. Give a clear historical outline; restore the Truth Malaysian ethnic Chinese sages hard struggle. These historical truth, to guarantee 100% true, and certainly is not read, can not find the point of view in a junior high school history textbooks. BN government over the years in efforts to obliterate ethnic Chinese sages to develop this piece of land credit!
Chinese earliest Babas society

 

Chinese diaspora in Southeast Asia, including Malaysia, early. Yao Dan, for example, the historian, in his book “The Malayan Overseas Chinese History Outline” a book that the last years in the Tang Dynasty to until the Five Dynasties and Chinese Refugees of Sumatra Island, Diaspora Malay Peninsula, and there are many . They used to call themselves “Chinese”, is evidence of an oral tradition.
However, Malayan Overseas Chinese History “Dr. Wei Teba prime of that, after the establishment of the fourteenth century Malacca Chinese migrants comparison scale, Portuguese occupation of Malacca in 1511, the Chinese talent there for permanent residence ideas. However, as of the 17th century, the Chinese population in Malacca but three or four hundred. (Note: the Dutch in 1641, defeated the Portuguese occupation of Malacca.)
Extended to eighteen century, thousands of people of the total number of Chinese living in Malaya. They are mostly businessmen and miners. Moved in early colonization stage, they are also with Malay women the Siamese the motor (BATAK) and Barry (BALI) women intermarriage. , The first time the birth of the second generation of Chinese who have a written record of the history of the Malay Peninsula.
These early stay in Malacca Chinese, and finally form a society “Baba” (BABA), the latter type of social order also Penang and Singapore established. Malay, their name is “Peranakan”. And since the set of the Straits Chinese Association.

Straits Chinese Association, has been transformed by a group of Chinese Babas. Straits Chinese Association “─ book written by John Gan Farmer (JOHOR CLAMMER), the following analysis of the social Babas.
He believes that Baba is no contact with the Chinese community, and habits has soil biochemical. Although still save the old tradition, to a certain extent, but the language of of Fujian Maleinized and decoration of change, so that they become a special community. In fact, the Chinese have more scale immigration, is occupied by the United Kingdom in 1786, Penang. To 1824, the British merger of Penang, Malacca and Singapore Straits Settlements (Straits Settlement), a surge in the number of Chinese immigrants in these three areas.
In 1874, the United Kingdom and the Perak Sudan signed the Pangkor Treaty, opened the prelude to the British colonial forces to intervene Peninsula. In 1884, the Federated Malay States was founded, the Malay States established in 1909. To the beginning of the twentieth century, the entire Malay Peninsula fall into British hands, the Chinese immigrants will further increase. According to statistics, in 1911, the population of the Malay Peninsula and the Straits Settlements, the Chinese total of 874,200 people.
Due to the the Chinese large number of shifted, the Strait of overseas Chinese students (or Peranakan Baba) plays the role of impact. Generally, Baba thought Westernized interview with Britain as a sovereign state, and thus become the British happy government departments employ clerks. Leaves, Baba’s political awareness and behavior in the beginning of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, mostly loyal to the British Empire and the Straits Settlements government, rather than China.
Malayan Overseas Chinese Kapitan system
1900, the Manchu government Boxer event, lead to the Eight-Power Allied Forces attack China was a Straits overseas Chinese students, Contributor “Straits Chinese Magazine” (THE STRAITS CHINESE MAGAZINE), called for the Straits Chinese a detachment to the Chinese and British troops alongside combat, jointly deal with Boxer

In November 1901, the 100 Straits overseas Chinese the Singapore Volunteers Infantry Team, and the performance of the loyalty of the British Government. However, in the nineteenth and twentieth century alternating between the activities of the three forces of the Qing court, royalists and the Revolutionary Party of Malaya and Singapore, has led to ideological agitation of certain Strait overseas Chinese leaders. They desire to undertake political reforms, one of the world powers. Which such Boon Keng. Wu Lien-teh, Tsang Kam Man with Ruan Tianshou, decided to return to China service.
The other hand, from the Chinese of Chinese settlers in Malaya, attributable to the two contain the political system of the system, one is by openly admitted that “Kapitan system, and the second is to allow the presence of gang organization. The so-called “Kapitan”, the English Captain. Is the Chinese collectively referred to as the “chief” or “Fan.” By the Committee aboriginal elders, who is highly respected in the local Chinese population or have considerable influence. Yap Ah Loy, such as Kuala Lumpur, its history, the hero, is a glimpse of the Kapitan.
In Malaya, one appointed by the Portuguese colonial government Kapitan Zhengqi Ji, also known as Zheng Fangyang. Kapitan, the Dutch colonial era, compared with Li Jun Chang (formerly known as Lee by). Chinese community scholars believe the Zheng Qiji is the most ancient temples in Malaya Cheng Hoon Teng create people. Some scholars believe that Zhengqi Ji in 1632 were born in Zhangzhou, in 1677, appointed him as Kapitan Dutch colonial government.

No matter what kind of more accurate to say that, we can be sure, before the British colonial forces invade the Malay Peninsula, the the Chinese Kapitan system has been in Malaya. The researchers believe that in the Chinese community, the Chinese in Malaya to build their own social, natural to bring the existing social and political structures. The colonial Administration also allows the Chinese to do so. Chinese to build their own schools, and the welfare of the Chinese community and social services system ensure, through their own initiative.
The early Chinese Manchu government also adopted the the encomienda Nanyang <the Chinese Kapitan> system to maintain law and order in the Nanyang local. From the historical events of the early Chinese Kapitan a paternalistic rule has some connection with the Qing Dynasty. Chinese community in Malaya, they maintain the feudal status, basically, the political thinking is the tendency of China’s imperial system, the most prominent example is the first Chinese in Penang Kapitan Huan Koo ceremony, about 1790 Wright appointed from the Wright occupation of Penang, but three or four years, when the Chinese, but two hundred.

Koo by British forces, the liquor tax contractor, leapt to the rich, his second son, Guan Ping, came from being sent to China, and early in the the Lin Zexu shogunate service, after transferred to Taiwan. After the Sino-Japanese War, China was defeated and forced to Taiwan was ceded to Japan, Guan Ping yet been called aristocracy.
As for Koo ceremony Huan’s grandson Gu Hongming (Ku ceremony Huan’s third sub-Koo Longchi’s son), by the British aristocracy Brown (FORBES SCOTT BROWN) received as a foster child, after going abroad for the University of Edinburgh, UK, was awarded a Master of Arts, proficient in French, German and modern Greek. Due to the impact of the Qing dynasty imperial, began Liu Bianzi abandoned tailor wear Chinese clothes. 1873, Gu Hongming back to China, comprehensive examinations Scholars as Hubei and Hunan Governor Zhang Zhidong aides. The his writings handsome world expressed by the roar of sound ethics much emphasis on Europeans, and translated into several Western Man

But he’s stubborn ideology, so he still advocating the preservation of the Qing dynasty, braids, foot-binding, concubinage, opium and other vices, actually clamoring for braids <Chinese nation flag and emblem>. More as people despised, in 10 years after the founding of the Republic, he is still carrying the trend, only Hudson Emperor Xuantong <faithful> appreciative, has bestowed his death <Tang public> (Pu Yi abdicated after Japanese used as a puppet of the establishment of the puppet Manchuria Kingdom).
Rise of the Secret Societies contention forces
If British first by Chinese leaders to control Chinese society, and that the British colonial government for profit status, then, to the British is the use of the private will party leader to serve as the Kapitan, to manage the Chinese community, monitor them and instill the thinking of the British Empire.
The private party incoming Malaya, but also with the Chinese immigrants the same period. According to Dr. Basu: Malayan Chinese private party, generally speaking, out of heaven and earth will be divided clock, also known as freemason or triad, have survived for centuries in China, originally belonged to religious or charitable self-help groups, in the Qing, anti Fuming political awareness. >
The Triad approximately established in 1674, the Qing Dynasty entry about thirty years. Playing the banner of anti Fuming concurrent willing: kept secret, drink blood drinking, became sworn brothers>. The file shows thirteen years in Penang after Opening in 1799, the secret societies in Penang public events, and had to muster riots.
According to Liu Yachang, Penang seamounts will leaders confession, in 1825, they have been equipped with 300 boats and Collecting 15,000 Siam, 1000 Chinese and 8000 Malaysian in Penang uprising, with intent to overthrow the British colonial government. If under that proves early private party, also has a political ideology against the British colonial rule, but the lack of strength, requires the use of the Siamese support. However, the uprising eventually lost.
The historical data also pointed out that, in fact, the Chinese do not really support Siam invasion, some just to support Kyrgyzstan to hit Sudan launched dignity and status struggle, to ensure that the Kedah tranquility. Kedah early years, some Chinese leaders on the allegiance of the Malay royal, has become almost legendary story. Lee’s brother (Lee Items Number of Copies and Lee For positive) and A Kapitan Dai Chun Tao (aka Dai Chunhua), Kedah deeds of loyal service to the local community, long-term legacy in the memories of the local people.

In 1821, Siam occupy Kedah, forcing a large number of Malaysian collective fled to Penang and Butterworth. But Kedah the Sudan local people, including cooperation with the Chinese, seeking to uphold the social order and the rights of the people of all ethnic groups should have. Until 1909, after the signing of the Anglo-Siam Treaty of Kelantan, Terengganu, guitar playing and the suzerainty of Perlis under British. Dr. Basu, the 1825 Malaya the four private party organizations: Yi Xing, and into, seamounts and Watson.
Their initial organizational structure: the seamounts and Yising, scattered colonies throughout Member obey the command of the leader will and constraints. They call leader for Big Brother. These secret societies divided into four, eight or twelve cadres, and then divided into many tribes of each cadre and each tribe has a leader management. From Tangshan (China) south of immigrants, called the new passenger>, and they come to any place, these secret societies would send people to invite them to membership, will be persecuted if they refused.
Thus, the early Chinese knot help legislature emphasis on brotherhood in surface and nominally blessed to share, when in trouble with, but in fact it is the leader in nurturing forces, to fight for the greater interests of the British colonial government. In political terms, they do not have a strong tendency, although advertised anti Fuming, but in the interests of competition for under Secret Societies has been reduced to turf battles organization.
Nevertheless, the British still no way to control them, so that Dr. Basu described the party organizations in the private will Government> <government, just like Ma Xinhua <underground rulers>. Raffles Private Secretary Vinci Abdullah in his autobiography, described Secret Societies circumstances force the Chinese to join the party, forcing them into submission, and otherwise severely beaten, and even killed.
It seems the situation at the time, the Southern Chinese have nothing, they have no choice but to be forced to participate in these secret societies. Contains the history, secret societies was actually split into two factions, one of Yee Hing, a seamount. The two factions attract persons of different provinces, and riots the pull-law (now the Pacific) as the most serious conflicts instance.
Secret Societies manufacturing riots
Perak riots also said the pull legal riots. Pull law known to produce tin, initially under seamount partisan exploitation, chief Chung Keng Quee site is in the the Geely package mine (now the Taiping prison places). In Kamunting, Taiping, under Yising partisan excavations by the princes of Suya Chang. While bipartisan Tametoshi contention, Chairman of Hometown different, Yising case of Four Counties in Guangdong, namely Guangdong to help; the seamount case Minnan five counties, namely Fujian to help.
Another saying Yising mainly Cantonese people, seamounts mainly Hakka people. The first riots occurred in 1862, followed by the second and third riots happen again in 1872 and 1874. Secret Societies muster riots, has intermittent riots around, such as Singapore, Penang, Malacca and even Sarawak, for example, the 1851 riots in Singapore, due to the Secret Societies dissatisfaction with some Chinese reform Bong Catholic, resulting in 500 people were killed. Penang also occurred in 1867 in fighting between the triple (Yising) Governor male (Grand Uncle) actually commence on the 10th fight with weapons, so that the city came to a standstill.
However, the most important is the third pull-law riot, and finally open the British colonial government to interfere in the prelude to the federal inland. The famous Pangkor Treaty is signed in 1874, and the British the political participation Division system so one by one advancing the Malay Peninsula inland. Secret Societies of political awareness with the leader of the development, they had objected to the policy of the United Kingdom, also resist any constraints on their interests, and established their own little kingdom.

But the the sly British rulers, resourceful in this regard. When unable to repression, they take the Long Luo means, for example Yising Party and white flag will (WHITE FLAG, composed by Malaysian and Indian) leaders Ya Yan was appointed as Kapitan, while the the seamount party triad leader Chung Keng Quee Kapitan also served. They both hostile place, but after the events of the pull-law, and cooperation for the Chinese interests in the Perak State Assembly argue.
A must Danya expensive (Chung Keng Quee) and Ya Yan, as a representative of the Chinese community, since served Kapitan are willing to put the public interest above personal interests. Both of these old enemy showed an admirable characteristics. Since the two parties disputes peace, they have become close friends. Far as I know, Ya Yan later became the godfathers of Zheng Yagui fourth son, this child is the famous Zheng Taiping.
Although the Secret Societies exist in violation of the law and even bad record, and to 1877 by the government to control its activities, but the Secret Societies not be extinct. In the second half of the 19th century, still under the impact of the political trends, performance its adventitious trends. However, in the open under the influence of the Chinese society, the private party has been gradually declining, replaced by the legitimate Chinese league organizations. Comprehensive and the concept of, the Secret Societies political trend is not Western-oriented, and their cooperation with the United Kingdom in addition to the protection of existing rights, the leaders would like to derive greater benefits.
In general, they have inherited the old tradition and religion. For example, Penang Haizhu island of Grand Uncle Zhang Li, is considered is earliest to Penang Chinese worship become an important part of the Chinese thinking, a very strong sense of feudal, but also due to the Chinese community self-contained body, for the street the name is also a very different meaning in English.

 


Thus, you can imagine, they are in the British colony land to build their own society. However, they have a lack of political awareness of anti Fuming, realism has replaced their quest for the ideal. Carry, coupled with the popularity of gambling and opium, Chinese thinking Jibei numbness, while obviously not dedicated to politics, unless it is related to personal interests, was up against. Conflicts of interest and contention, and the exploitation of workers have the Secret Societies deterioration in later social development has become a stumbling block.

However, these secret societies is not entirely political consciousness, especially as leaders, more or less there is concern on China. Chung Keng Quee is one example of his fortune after occasionally return home, relief flooding in China and war relief donations. He donated to Vietnam during the war in the the Li Hongzhang prefect under the command of the law (the Qing court support Vietnam, in order to prevent the French threat to China’s security). Manchu government for answers for his donations, special seal – given the official title of the head of the two products. This show early Chinese leaders have majority support to some extent the Qing court.
In 1877, the British government appointed white unicorn (WALTER ALEXANDER PICKERiNG) Guarding Division for China and China, direct intervention in Chinese affairs start for the Englishman. Guarding Division of China and China is also the Registrar of Societies. Dangerous Societies Act to take effect in 1882, announced that the the seamount company as an illegal organization. Societies Act 1889 through 1890, the Straits Settlements government invoking the new Societies Act, closed all Chinese Secret Societies party organizations, and a portion will be private gang members deported to public events, all societies must re-register.
Meanwhile, in the UK the establishment of China and China Guarding Division of the same year (1877 Guangxu 3 years), the Qing court also Singapore to establish consulates first consul for Huya Ji. In 1890, the Qing court followed consulate in Penang, the first consul the Cheong Fatt (Zhang Zhenxun). The establishment of the consulate means that the Qing court finds that the local Chinese people, and therefore protected from the conflict in this regard with the British system of China and China Guarding Division.
As British Chinese living in Malaya must accept the rule of the British rule, and no other forces in the colonies purposes extraterritoriality. Insist on keeping the Qing government to have a political impact on the Chinese in the United Kingdom, just allow trade ties, so that the relationship between the two can not be reconciled, and evolved into a political confrontation. However, in view of the tendency of the Chinese, the Qing court arouse the Chinese care achieved a certain effect. One instance, a Singapore businessman Chen Admiralty alone donated 4,000 yuan to the Qing court as a famine relief fund.
Obviously, the Qing court last British compromise, only served as Consul General appointed locals, rather than by Qing court Dispatching, which further stimulate the the Malaya local Chinese Manchu allegiance. Although it is a place to live under British rule. This through the consulate’s activities, so that the Qing government prevailed, especially in the political consciousness of indoctrination, although local Chinese obedient to the laws of the United Kingdom. , Can be seen from the development of Chinese education and Chinese Press evident

Did the Court of political thought under the influence of the Chinese culture and education are divisions enthusiastic about it, although in 1729, the Qing Dynasty Yongzheng, Penang has a of Wufu College and 1888 (Guangxu fourteen years, Lunar) and to set up abetween South Wayi learn, but belongs to the private school in nature, the size of the school has not yet formed.
The first formal school, when the push was established in 1904 (Guangxu thirty years), Penang Chinese School, followed by Selangor respect holes schools, the Perak State the Yucai School of set, this wind one open, everywhere throughout Malaysia Schooling running schools, education atmosphere to flourish. Chinese education then Malaya on this piece of land to sprout and thrive. Since then, the torch of the Malayan Chinese education is never extinguished.
Tonight’s “retrospective Malayan Chinese sages struggle back to the first stop here. Tomorrow the same time, we will again. Thank you for your support, good night.
by: Mask Man
Published in the true history of Malaysia to trace the history of struggle of the Malayan-Chinese sages

 

The Road Back Directorate Lim Guan Eng: the ashes of the Phoenix”
JAN 26
Of the voice of justice

Good evening, everyone! From New Year’s Day to three days, three days and about Lim Kit Siang political and sea drifting recorded after the legend. Today, the “Cool heads tell us something about Lim Kit Siang’s son, Lim Guan Eng.
I know that Lim has a lot of fans, especially the younger generation of voters, especially beloved Lim. Voters like Lim Guan Eng, for really. Because he is expensive for the Chief Minister, but he is approachable, no head of airs. He Jieruchou deliberately created conflicts between all ethnic groups, social inequality, authority, never choose to be silent, but for the sound.
Although he suffered jail, but he regrets not shrink because of the brutal suppression. Lim Guan Eng today ruling Penang achievement, hard struggle for many years he and his father, hardships to the results. Talked Lim Kit Siang, followed by about Lim Guan Eng, I personally think that makes sense.
Lim Kit Siang and Lim Guan Eng, in the tradition of the family, the ideal of political struggle goals and implement the Action Party’s philosophy, every aspect has closely related to the pulse. The eldest son in the family, Lim Guan Eng, the father is already close to retirement, he must defend the crown, to take care of younger brothers and sisters, for the Lin family is flourishing. This, Lim Guan Eng is doing quite well. He and his wife Zhou Yuqing, who already had four children.
Action Party, the party, Lim Kit Siang has long been removed in 1995, the highest office of the Secretary-General of the party, passing on the baton Guo Jinfu, and then passed to Lim Guan Eng, the completion of the work of generational change. Lim Guan Eng has inherited the father’s tough style of work in the line of the struggle of the implementation of the Action Party, Lim Kit Siang can rest assured.
In the general trend of the development of the country’s political, Lim Guan Eng also live up to expectations, to help his father realize their dreams, in 308 national elections in 2008, the third generation of the Action Party led by young emerging army played in Penang, Penang regime overthrew the Barisan Nasional entrenched for 40 years. Following Boni, Lim Chong Eu and Koh Tsu Koon, Lim Guan Eng as Penang fourth Chinese Chief Minister.
Lim Guan Eng in Batu eye congressional districts selected, also the constituency of of Ah Yat cloth Davis State elected state legislators. Action Party, he led the army, has captured 19 state seats in Penang, teamed up with the Justice Party won nine state seats in the ruling Penang. 308 general election, Gerakan and MCA in Penang, annihilated, to lose even one seat none left. Penang MCA and Gerakan in the history of unprecedented.
Ruling of Penang, round heads of dream
Democratic Action Party won the biggest victory since the founding Action Party in the national election of 47 congressional seats, to select 28 seats (59.57% win ratio). Action Party in the State Legislative Assembly election nine states, 101 state seats, to select 73 seats (72.28% win ratio)! Action Party was able and Justice Party, the ruling Penang, and the coalition government in Selangor and Perak and Justice Party and the Muslim party organizations.
Perak NLD Party one year after Xu Yuefeng and two other Justice Party state legislators were bribed by the Barisan Nasional defection quit; resulting in the collapse of the Perak Pakatan Rakyat state government. Xu Yuefeng three acts and the dirty tricks of the Barisan Nasional, the Malaysian democracy add a large stain. The Perak Man regimes Barisan using dirty means hook or by crook, that is beside the point. We get down to business.
About Lim Guan Eng, built here to tell you about his background. Lim Guan Eng was born on December 8, 1961, birth place of Batu Pahat in Johor Palestinian jurisdiction. Native of Fujian Forestry Baoshan. Father was current Yibao Dong District Congressman. Mother Herbert Leung governance. Lim early primary and secondary education in Batu Pahat and Malacca.
Postgraduate then to Australia’s Monash University (Monash University), obtained a degree in economic accounting, and is a qualified accountant. Father nurtured under the long-term political philosophy, in 1982, when he was 21 years old, choose to join the Party of Democratic Action. And come back from Australia in 1983, he did not immediately join the political; but senior executives at the bank.
Father Lim Kit Siang launched the “Tanjung battle” in 1986, an expedition to Penang, Tanjung congressional districts challenge on behalf of the Dong Jiao Zong joined Gerakan, played the Tanjung parliamentary seats Koh Tsu Koon. Lim Kit Siang vacated Malacca urban congressional districts by Lim Guan Eng on behalf of the parent they defend their territory.
He live up to expectations, and MCA candidate to defeat Barisan 10,007 thousand majority in elected Malacca urban congressmen. That year, Lim Guan Eng was 25 years old. Lim Guan Eng inherited personalized father Jieruchou, he was the subject of many inequalities mince, and quickly became a thorn in the flesh of the National Front.
In 1987, the Ministry of Education sent are not fluent in the Chinese language teachers to serve small Chinese Higher Vocational, causing the Dong Jiao Zong stern protest. MCA then just spent Leung Chan, the party struggles, the Action Party hard-edged cutting-edge, unprecedented walked with Dong Jiao Zong jointly protest rally in Kuala Lumpur Tin Hau Temple. And announced that the Ministry of Education does not withdraw its proposal, the Dong Jiao Zong will commence strike action called on the affected Chinese small.
Dong Jiao Zong’s Action Party and the MCA the first time to come together move angered the UMNO, under the then leader of the UMNO Youth Nagy led, also in Kuala Lumpur Kg Baru Malay National People’s Congress rally held; threatened to Chinese blood cleaning Malay sword!
Twice imprisonment, hardships
The situation has evolved into a racial confrontation. Mahathir also just walked the UMNO AB team party struggles, UMNO is in need of some external event to unite the centripetal force of the Malaysian therefore acquiesced in its deliberately had simply fried education topics into racial issues, in order to transfer the UMNO because the party struggles The split between the line of sight. The boot Malaysian will be transferred to the Chinese who hate.
When the hatred between the Malaysian and Chinese UMNO people could continue to stir up trouble, seeing is about to run out of control, it is highly possible repeat of the tragedy of five hundred and thirteen, Mahathir commenced the vigorous the “thatched action” to spend The Internal Security Act, mass arrests of ethnic Chinese politicians and community leaders.
Lim Guan Eng and Lim Kit Siang and his son, there’s Action Party party must, together with Dong Jiao Zong Shen Mu Yu, Lin Fong-liter, Kejia Johnson, etc., are in jail. Off into the Pacific the Kamunting detained camp. Lim and his son’s Action Party leaders last two unconditional release. In total, they are shut up to 18 months.
In April 1989, to obtain the release of Lim Guan Eng, was elected Action Party Socialist Youth regiment officially open at the same time he fell in love with the English Star reporters in Malacca, Zhou Yuqing message. Were married in December of the same year.
1990, Lim Kit Siang launched the Tanjung two Battle “leading showdown the Penang bus when Kota defeated Lim Chong Eu, while successful veto the Penang Barisan 2/3 of the state legislature advantage; Lim also has 10,000 4 more than a majority vote of the successful re-election Malacca urban congressmen.
In 1994, Lim Guan Eng Kangshang Malacca Chief Minister Ibrahim light than Chek. Lim Guan Eng said publicly that he now has evidence of corruption Ibrahim.
He accused Ibrahim has a The unsolicited property up to $ 7 million 42 million; and has 10 to report to the Anti-Corruption Bureau. However, the Mahathir government under the control of the Anti-Corruption Bureau has not conducting an investigation, Lim very dissatisfied. Then, Lim Guan Eng, the mother of an underage girl received assistance accused Koshu heads involving adultery, sexual relations with the 15-year-old minor Malay girl.
Has never been a racist Lim Guan Eng, does not come for help Malay refused assistance. He decided behalf of a minor the Malay girls succeed, accused Ibrahim involve adultery. In accordance with the provisions of the Criminal Code in Malaysia, if any man have sexual relations with the under 16-year-old girl, regardless of whether the other party is voluntary, is illegal.
However, Lim Guan Eng absolutely did not think his sense of justice for minors succeed in Malay girl scandal involving sexual allegations Ibrahim, in return make himself into endless disaster. Although cases of sexual scandal successfully dealt a blow to the prestige of Ibrahim, under in Guanguanxianghu situation, Ibrahim not only official position is solid, not subject to any law to deal with. But is instead minors Malay girls succeed Lim from lawsuits.
First, Lim Guan Eng, the face of the Attorney General’s Office and the Sedition Act of 1948 filed a complaint against him, that he published false statements with intent to slander the reputation of the Chief Minister of Malacca. Lim allegedly printing and distributing leaflets additionally charged by the Attorney General’s Office to breach of the printing presses and Publications Act 1984.
Generous attempts succeed, Fanzao the betrayed
Beginning, Lim Guan Eng that all the charges against him, the charges are not established. Ibrahim with underage girls sex scandal, he has witnesses. The underage the Malays girl and her family are willing to stand up and testify against Ibrahim adultery. Later, however, the development of the situation, Lim Guan Eng’s big unexpected. The underage the Malays girl and her family is suddenly changed his tune in the court rejects the allegations of Ibrahim!
Later said that minors Malay girls and family only so changed to deny the allegations before they privately with Abdullah Hinda into a settlement agreement, made no small sum in compensation; condition that must be retracted in court.
Get a large sum of money in compensation under the underaged Malay girl’s family money eyes, unscrupulous, decided to comply with the secret agreement, retracted in court, overthrow all previous allegations. As a result, the trap that Lim in unrighteousness. Situation under the big reversal, Lim Guan Eng has no escape route. Although Karpal for his defense, but only fully Malaysian political arena, the truth can not be overcome evil.
Plus Mahathir has black hands stretching the judiciary, all disobedient judges are dealing with, even the President of the Supreme Court
敦沙列阿巴斯 Mahathir managed to get the Supreme Head of State dismissed. Replace 沙列阿巴斯 Abdul Hami, basically take orders from that Hadi instructions handling the case. The Attorney General’s Office more government. The law has become a tool of the people of the people in Fushan Liang.
After four years of judicial struggle, Lim Guan Eng, the original in 1997 and sentenced to contradict the Sedition Act and the Printing Act guilty, must pay a fine of 10,005 yuan. But prosecutor dissatisfied with the judgment that the criminal law too light, the request for reconsideration. So in the August 25, 1998, the court sentenced to increase the penalty must be 18 months’ imprisonment. Lim know justice and hopeless, had to face the injustice of the trial and judgment of imprisonment.
That is, until today, so know the inside story indignant, claiming that “the criminal’s right, the justice of the people in jail” reasons. On August 25, 1999 due to good performance in prison, Lim Guan Eng, “the Agni Mo quenching craze and glory of jail. Lim Guan Eng, although suffering from the jail, but he is not completely harvest.
The sexual scandals lawsuit for him to add a lot of political capital and chips. Particularly important, his crucifixion greatly eliminate of maleic social barriers of the Democratic Action Party. Malaysian, especially the young Malaysian, the stereotype of the Democratic Action Party has been greatly improved.
The 1999 national elections, Lim Guan Eng has just released from prison, in accordance with the Election Act provisions, within five years, he can not participate in the election. Action Party Central Committee had originally planned to arrange Lim Guan Eng’s wife, Zhou Yuqing Maldives army “played the Malacca urban congressional districts.
However, due to the Malacca State Joint Commission Wu Liang Mountain against, last changed by the CPC Central Committee and Secretary-General Guo Jinfu battle the Malacca urban congressional seats; Zhou Yuqing change to the the durian old temperature zone running for state seats. Results Zhou Yuqing successfully win and repeatedly re-election success, coupled with the 2008 general election, Zhou Yuqing has three consecutive elected the durian old Wen District state legislators.
UMNO hegemony, MCA Fallen
In 2004, because the National Front regime alternation of generations, Mahathir passing on the baton Abdullah Badawi; the relatively mild moderation Abdullah image; new personnel and new style, all the people are willing to give the the Abdullah regime a chance to. The results of the 2004 national elections, the National Front made the most brilliant record, the MCA state legislators reached unprecedented. We have high hopes for Abdullah’s regime.
That year, the Action Party Secretary General Guo Jinfu Malacca city to defend their territory failed, lost to the MCA nobody Nai Chi; Lim Kit Siang is returned to Perak, in elected Yi Baodong Congressman; back to Congress to serve as the leader of the opposition. Because under the age of five may not campaign period, Lim Guan Eng can only continue when the Action Party campaign workers. Guo Jinfu announced his resignation from the post of Secretary-General of the CPC Central Committee after the general election defeat. Lim took over the leadership of the stick so far served as the Secretary-General of the Action Party since 2005.
Lim Guan Eng was identified Lim Kit Siang’s hand-picked successor, he must be politically more prominent and conspicuous achievements, was enough to confirm the legitimacy of the party leader and strengthen that he served as. The so-called outstanding achievements, including foreign To make Action Party supporters see him bring the party breath; internally to allow party members to see a new hope for the future. Of course, Lim Guan Eng, good governance, the performance did not disappoint.
Abdullah-led National Front, on the other hand, especially UMNO, since the most brilliant results achieved in 2004, assumed an arrogant and despotic, the face of the mighty. They were all suffering from a big disease. Young Turks, led by Abdullah’s son-in-law, Kelly UMNO Acting main Xi Naji, head of UMNO Youth Hishammuddin Muding more defiant.
Malay ballot papers have been completely reflux, the People’s Justice Party, never less than infestation; the Chinese voters spurned Action Party to rejoin Ma Huahuai hold; therefore their disdain for the opposition; Even so arrogant as to openly express, UMNO is no longer Requires ballot Chinese!

Xinhua News Agency, the BN government to honor election promises to approve the increase Jianhua small, and a diploma in recognition of UEC, UMNO’s a picture of the grim countenance have surfaced! They use the usual tactics of the past few decades, all the aspirations of the Chinese community to the direction of racism with totally forgotten had promised general election, when China social commitment. Many “go back to China ‘,” Chinese sojourn’, “deliberately challenge the privileges of indigenous theory have baked.
In the the UMNO Party Central Committee’s Congress, the head of UMNO Youth Hishammuddin Muding openly for the Chinese community extreme provocation remarks, Malay sword aloft and threatened to “fight to the death to defend the prerogative of the Malaysian”, “not hesitate to shed the last drop blood “and so on. If that is the patron saint of the Malaysian.
The question is, who started the Malaysian privileged threat theory? Chinese do? Not. Indians it? It is not. Deliberately provoke the Malaysian privileges threat theory is that UMNO own. They’re playin ‘annual “stop thief” rotten drama! 6000000 Chinese community people see in the eyes, hate in their hearts; drip in my heart!
Then obtained an unprecedented victory, the national state legislators as many as 108 MCA political forces should be powerful than it has ever been is; heyday lineup, logically speaking, should be very position and influence to help the Chinese community to fight for fair treatment should! Unfortunately, when UMNO Young Turks unreasonably provocative suppress. We see a submissive, only flatter the masters of UMNO’s yes-man!
“Sojourn ‘All of the above,” go back to China’, “Jujian ‘MCA only did not dare to represent the Chinese to be fair, even against the masters stoop knee Nuyan humble hunchback! Chinese community to the the MCA most powerful support force, no one would have thought, get in return turned out to be the case. The vast majority of Chinese voters, really dead MCA heart!
In Penang Gerakan situation is also and MCA or less the same. Penang UMNO seats, with more than half of the state speech particularly loud whirring drink openly against the heads of Koh Tsu Koon Koh Tsu Koon, the policy must look at UMNO’s face. Simply put, the Koh Tsu Koon is just a puppet heads of!
Anti-wind from Jiaobingbibai
The discontent of the Chinese community gradually increased, UMNO enemies continue to choose the Chinese community. MCA with the Home did not dare on behalf of the Chinese community to open sound rebuttal. This discontent accumulated to 308 general election, and finally broke out to the flash floods, like!
For the political situation at the time, Lim Kit Siang, Lim Guan Eng senses know Action Party pursuing years of political ideals, and national elections in 2008, saw a glimmer of hope. Sure enough, the hardships for many years, suffered painful tempered Lim Guan Eng, a new start, and made himself staggering record!

Lim Kit Siang again selected Perak Yibao Dong District congressman; Lim Guan Eng is not only successfully elected as Penang’s Batu eye congressmen, and also won the the Ah Yat cloth Davis State seats! Action Party won a total of 19 state seats in Penang, with 9 seats in the People’s Justice Party, and finally succeeded in overthrowing Barisan jiangshan, made Penang ruling rights!
March 11, 2008, Lim Guan Eng to Penang capital of Pertua Dune Abdul Rahman Abbas was sworn in as the fourth Chief Minister of Penang; opened a new page in Penang political arena. From political prisoner to act as the Chief Minister of Penang, Lim Guan Eng, with a time of 8 years. He said with a joking tone in the face of media access he is “Cool heads.
308 general election in Malaysia in 2008, changed the fate of many people. Lim Guan Eng is probably one of the most benefit. Suddenly jumped from the ordinary citizen as the Chief Minister of Penang, his father, Lim Kit Siang launch Tanjung Battle (third general election storm Penang) unfinished dream, actually practice by the first election in Penang, Lim Guan Eng. Action Party (rocket) candidates are elected with the past can only serve as cannon fodder, very exciting.
Action Party, the reason why the Justice Party and the Islamic Party victory, successfully vetoed a 2/3 majority of seats in the National Front advantage, to a large extent on the BN regret! If not for the landslide victory in the 2004 election for the leader of the National Front have a misconception that the National Front from oppressing any bully non-indigenous, wanton suppress dissenting voices more Zhang Dan corruption and abuse of power, and even to suppress Islam outside religion, the National Front should not be such a failure.
And the reason why the MCA and the Home suffered a crushing defeat, the Chinese voters spurned can definitely say is to blame. They have to live up to the expectations of the Chinese community. Will support the strength of the Chinese community to the MCA and the Home, they are making use of the Chinese support the interests of greater political power for their own personal set of the basic demands of the expense of the Chinese community. They never led, is to show the results to vent their anger in the Chinese community.
From 308 to today, has been almost four years, and the Penang Lim governance, achieved impressive results. Before, some people always feel that Lim Guan Eng rely on parent Yum just another political arena, the second generation. However, four years looking down, Lim Guan Eng does have a, maybe he will, is to create the future of one of the political arena, key players in Malaysia.
Penang is Malaysia’s only Chinese directorate states the case, the Chief Minister has always been popular Chinese newspapers and media care, Penang drip always be enlarged. Back Action Party took over state government for the first time, more Sexing set a. Although some UMNO tricks hilarious returned 100 ringgit a year such as old age allowance, said that gambling tax, unclean, Muslims can not collar; There, UMNO encouraged the Everbright Madman everywhere disrupt, car Biao Party defy State Government. . . .
However, because of the Umno provocation, but created a Lim Heads of state of the most common on the headlines, cabinet ministers scenery. We even suspect’s Action Party was undercover in UMNO, otherwise, play themselves look stupid trick, really hurt to Lim Guan Eng?
Lim Guan Eng, a high-profile drive less plastic, no plastic bag day from Monday, except in the media several times called on to do a lot of the forum before implementation, briefings, and even the outer slope of the people know.
Barisan hypocrites, NLD sincerely
Mouth govern alone will not put forward a complete package, together with the heads of direct face-to-face communication with the public, can also be corrected by the response of the people in addition to the promotion policy, inadequacies, and then the formal implementation. This is a good way, the probability of success of the policy will certainly be higher, Unfortunately, few Barisan officials know how, or are willing to do so.
Penang Monday plastic bag-free day was very successful, and a few months later was expanded to three days after Selangor emulate. Shameless what MCA jump out, said the government has long advocated less plastic, Lim Guan Eng should not embrace the power. Before only stay in the lip. Later, the Central Committee officially announced Saturday without a plastic bag, is announced., The other as if did not do anything. Repeatedly proved that the MCA will only take credit for not doing things.
Last year, Lim Guan Eng nominate five senior the Qing ditch husband closure PJK glimpse of all flattered brilliant smile. Although the Barisan Nasional some noise, said the move derogatory seal the title value, but generally the people think, people afraid of dirty, smelly ditch clearance over the years, indeed Penang contribution, sealed a PJK not.
Glimpse of the Qing ditch husband own experiences, the the clear ditch the dangerous and hard, the officials added in the next sentence, the hope people Bieluan taking out the trash, increase Qing ditch husband’s work burden. If this is just a show, then, this is a complete political show recognition of the clear ditch husband at the same time educate the people, the very success of this political show.
Penang densely populated, the Malaysian states with the highest population density in the case, in the era of the National Front took power, once known as junk state, the dirty name spread far and wide, garbage is obviously a big problem, together with Penang tourism is an important industry Lim heads to improve our environment, as the policy focus seems to be the right choice. Compared to the number of farmer-friendly policy of the National Front only saying no, Penang Pakatan Rakyat government in this regard mentioned do indeed win the National Front a few blocks.
In fact, the central government of the National Front is plagiarism Penang and Selangor, farmer-friendly policy of the government, including the payment of 100 yuan to primary school students, paid 500 yuan to a monthly income of less than 3,000 yuan family. Made clear that plagiarism, but, after all, will benefit the people, the NLD also welcome.
Nonetheless, the National Front of the MCA and the Home accustomed to decades of putting on a show to claim credit bad habits. The declared 500 yuan, not only requires all beneficiaries must be at the venue to listen to MCA local leaders released a self-promotional nonsense, and often one speaking for half an hour, they speak their own cool; but also some of the people in the hot sun dry station half a day . Such a move, in fact, will only be counter-productive, adding more of the heart of the people’s resentment. It seems that until today, the MCA and the Home, or do not understand what the people want.
Such as the National Front distributed 500 yuan relief fund to benefit its people are deadpan; contrary, Lim Guan Eng is only distributed to a mere 100 yuan relief fund, turned out there are women moved clinging to the feet of Lim Guan Eng, feel grateful. Why is that? The answer is simple: people want to feel, is whether those in power really.
To distribute assistance to the National Front, behind the obvious is a hidden agenda, one would like to cheat the people’s votes, not because really for the people. (See MCA representatives like singing the praises of the face for themselves and MCA came to power before handing out money to know), Lim Guan Eng, the hearts of the people, unlike Barisan keeps the people Thanksgiving; the NLD issued by Rakeback Thanksgiving People’s contribution to the national society. The difference between the two is too large. , BN UMNO, MCA, Gerakan never understand.
In 2012, the people generally believe will be the 13th national election year. People are generally optimistic about the NLD can keep Penang regime. Even believe the NLD have the opportunity to move towards Putrajaya.
2012 spring, Lim Guan Eng expressed his views for the coming national elections:
He said: “2012 has been speculated for the election year, within the party, my expectations muzzle foreign, not inward;, the goal of these congressional opposition leaders towards Putrajaya, the country’s political situation. ‘
Lim Guan Eng said: White Putrajaya, regime change, the NLD must East the Ma Shaba and Sarawak existing two congressional seats to 18 seats only govern the hope of Putrajaya. He was convinced that the NLD can do a better job than the National Front.
Lim Guan Eng said: the NLD govern Putrajaya, Resident Association sent the three ruling gift “, that:
1) by repealing all profitable toll charges (5 Avenue North and South Avenue, Central Road, the horse new second channel, Lin Expressway, the North Sea Habitat and Penang Bridge), due to the management company has recovered; does not yet take back to the Avenue of the investment, is not allowed to raise tolls or extend the toll period;
2) no longer continue the subsidy independent power plants, on the contrary, the Government’s current annual allowance of RM20 billion, used to give to people, including feedback Renewable Energy Fund annually RM1 billion to assist in the development of solar and renewable energy;
3) reduce the price of all system products. Such as sugar, rice, oil. In the past, when these necessities are controlled by private businesses, or only slightly, but the government is a take over on the skyrocketing. Only the control system products prices, in order to alleviate the burden of the people’s living.
Comes to 308, it was said that the NLD did not experience in governance, Lim said: “I do not have to corruption and abuse of power experience! ‘
He said: “I am confident that we are better than the National Front. Penang in 2010 for the first time in the history of the highest amount of investment, the ruling after fiscal year more than the debt also successfully reduced by 95%, our financial management to obtain total division of the Auditor praised our honest praise of Transparency International ( This is the first in Malaysia to Transparency International praised the states).
Although the experience of our policy of only four years, more than 51 years of the National Front, the better. Hope that the next general election, the fall when we can continue to make achievements, let the people see, touch, feel. I also constantly self-vigilance: <DaJiangShan difficult to keep country more difficult>. Success, all as the team’s esprit de corps.
The right place at the right time is important, and is advancing Putrajaya key. If people do not and, more failures than successes. The face of the election year, as long as we are united, we can govern more states, or even advance to Putrajaya. NLD Party Central desire will not be realized? Wait and see.
Behind bars heads of Lim Guan Eng, “talked about here, is over. Thank you all join. Good night! You! Goodbye.
by: Chen Tong
The real history behind bars heads of Lim Guan Eng, Malaysia

《林吉祥外一章:铁汉也有柔情》

作者

“Lim Kit Siang outside chapter: Hud also have tenderness”
JAN 26
Of the voice of justice

Good evening, everyone! Zhang by Chen entrusted with the older, “Lin Jixiang Zheng Hai drifting recorded outside chapter supplement.
Chen with predecessors feel, “the Lin Ji Xiangzheng sea drifting recorded” is not about Lim Kit Siang family is a pity. Chen with the older generation that, after three consecutive days of theme lecture, you should add a bit about the home life of Lim Kit Siang considered perfect. Chen called with the older generation, Zhang could I refuse, I am pleased to take over the task. Seen Chen lecture “Lin Ji Xiangzheng sea drifting recorded for three consecutive days with their predecessors, I believe we have a specific experience of the political career of Mr. Lin Jixiang impression.
However, for his private family life, I believe that the understanding of the people are still limited. Thus, Zhang’s task is to uncover his private life style for everyone. Here’s a pretty interesting contrast: Lim Kit Siang and Dr Chua, who is more loyal to his wife? I believe the hearts of everyone long answer! Simply by looking at the the betrayal five pornographic VCDs Chua know talking about the loyalty of his wife, children teach by example and precept, Chua lose Lim Kit Siang few blocks!
Lim Kit Siang and Mrs. Herbert Leung governance, knowing each other relative to expectations, accompanied by more than 50 years of catching. 50 years, Lim Kit Siang for political ideal to run around the country, at least 10 million of the contact with the masses? Due to his unique political charm and handsome looks, he has countless female fans, is a very natural thing. However, never heard that Lim Kit Siang carrying his wife, sudden, any scandal. Of course, the kind of absurd behavior of betrayal like Batu Pahat Katerina Hotel 1304 Room, more is definitely not occur in Lim Kit Siang body.
Behind every successful man has a woman, the most appropriate sentence to describe Lim Kit Siang, and Mrs. Herbert Leung governance. Herbert Leung governance is an ordinary housewife, housework at home over the years to take care of the children. However, if the depth of understanding, you will find this extraordinary woman, and that was not extraordinary. Lim Kit Siang have received Chinese language education in the early years in high school also went to night school to continue learning Chinese, where he met Herbert Leung governance. Started when two people just nodding acquaintance meet until after graduation, began to fall in love, and, soon, they decided to be together forever.
Lim Kit Siang married a 18-year-old Herbert Leung governance as a wife. Lim Kit Siang is only 19 years old gave birth to their first child, this child is Lim Guan Eng. Singapore with his wife and children to the age of 20, then gave birth to two daughters. Herbert Leung governance of memory, Lim Kit Siang When a reporter in Singapore, although very busy during the day and night will mostly stay at home to help care for the children, the days passed, until after Lim Kit Siang decide when Tiffany was political secretary, before his family moved to Kuala Lumpur.
Herbert Leung governance husband would have never thought of politics, when she knew her husband decided to give up this high-paying and stable radio news editor, she was very surprised. The monthly salary of ordinary wage earners in the 1960s, only a mere 100 yuan, Lim Kit Siang in Singapore Radio senior positions, and a monthly income of up to thousands. However, Herbert Leung rule does not raise any objections, thinking that even if the opposition also can not change her husband’s decision to give full support. Since then, Lim Kit Siang began busy with politics than the busier days in Singapore, often did not come home for several days. But based on absolute trust of her husband, Ms. Lin unconditionally support the husband has done.
Herbert Leung governance recalled: “When Tiffany that Petaling never rented the detached house party headquarters, our family came and dwelt in one of the rooms. Then auspicious often drive out, to go out early in the morning to late in the evening to go home, I often worried about his spirit. ‘
Herbert Leung governance in the eyes, only her husband’s hobby is reading, as long as her husband at home, she would cook, husband to a faraway place, she will pack up for him, husband to eat are not required to wear. Lim Kit Siang flat wearing neat shirt, are Mrs. intentions are hot. A person’s life is very simple, Lim Kit Siang full care of things at home and let his wife, Herbert Leung governance also do my best so that her husband will have no worries outside political ideals and hard work.
Lim Kit Siang habit of collecting newspaper clippings, and has also received numerous newspaper clippings, in fact, these clippings all a picture of Herbert Leung governance Cut carefully. When he read the newspaper, will want to leave journalism, then set aside. Ms. Lin spare time will come up with a homemade paste, to clippings paste on white paper. In order to facilitate future husband read her will with the palm of the newspaper the weight of Veg wear clothes, until today, her children and grandchildren remember her black newspaper ink-stained hands. Lim Kit Siang never cursed child.
Lim Kit Siang was detained for five hundred thirteen events every visit him, watched her husband to barefoot to come out from the prison cell that thin figure, Herbert Leung governance see in the eyes, pain in my heart. Herbert Leung governance memories of the events of five hundred thirteen: “Kuala Lumpur, martial law, the phone I told him to not come back, the results came back a result, the plane was arrested. ‘
Governance Herbert Leung said: “At the time the child is still very young, my husband and her parents are in Johor, we can not go out, only at home, and other news. Has been to see him, I’ll be right with chicken soup to see him, him and I said all right, will take good care of myself, I was more at ease. ‘
She said: “Later, he was taken to Muar, I took my children to move back to Batu Pahat with necessities, food and books of the week to visit him. Nobody notice us when he was released, he take a taxi home, we are very happy, the family finally reunited. ‘

18 years later, in 1987, Lim Kit Siang and Lim Guan Eng, father and son in thatched action, detained again, because the children have grown up, Herbert Leung governance daughter around, they are not to be too sad. Herbert Leung governance, said she was particularly grateful to Perak’s two party veterans Luo Ruizhen and Dr. Jiang Zhuocheng, let them spend the night at home with her two daughters week northward the Kamunting detain camp to visit her husband and son.
Lim Kit Siang from politics in 1965, and so far 47 contains Herbert Leung governance has been behind the scenes support. Outside criticism and verbal abuse of her husband, Ms. Lin initially feel very sad, but as time goes numb. LIANG Yu-chih political giants at home is a good husband, never with the political home, do not scold the child. Until now, Herbert Leung governance still night waited by the phone and wait for her husband to telephone calls home to talk to two.
Governance Herbert Leung said: “I am proud of the husband, and also hope that people at home can be safe and healthy. ‘
Eldest daughter Ms Lam: He is very forgiving kind
Daughter of Lim Kit Siang, Lim Guan Eng’s Sister Ms Lam said, she either mental or emotional father as an example, never give up and humble, to be a model of big brother bit.
Ms Lam said: “Dad is very simple, just to meet family needs, the money is not important to him. He loves to read, I believe that knowledge is power, he keeps telling us the importance of education. When you go shopping, he would take us to the bookstore. ‘
The father in the eyes of Huimin perseverance, despite all the suppressed, the media’s malicious slander and even detained, or will adhere to struggle.
Ms Lam said: “He always told us that things will always remain the same, and would later become better. He often refers to as authoritarian, selfish and proud people. The only truly recognize his talent to know that these accusations are not true, he is a friendly, humble and affable people, and the newspapers describe completely different. ‘
“He was tolerant, even though experienced so many hardships, and detained under the Internal Security Act that he and his brother, brother sentenced to contravene the Act sedition and printing jail, he did not hold a grudge on Mahathir, because he believes that these are just political part of; Malaysian political ecology environment, so he did not complain of any person to grasp the real power of the country’s political. ‘
Ms Lam said the father, Lim Kit Siang is a kindly father-in-law will help take care of her brother’s children, when in Penang.
His children very way, hold him quietly in the arms of the baby will. He rarely with political home, rarely share the worries of work, I have actually hope he can tell us so we shared his behalf. “Ms Lam said.
Father in politics face many adversities, however, which makes the Lin family up and down relationship more intimate, child’s mind around the body of the parents, they will immediately think of the feelings of the mother, if the father was hurt.
“My father and brother detained days thatched action is the most difficult time. Mother and sister a week from Malacca to Kuala Lumpur to meet with me, I drove to the the Kamunting detention of camp to visit his brother and father, a full year and a half, whether physical or mental, are tortured. “She said.
“Brother Malacca Chief Minister who have sex with underage girls event in 1998, into Kajang prison every week to visit him, looked at him in the prison weight loss down to health problems, I know that my father therefore felt extremely distressing. “Ms Lam said.
In any case, see 2008 308 political tsunami father played Action Party led by the most brilliant record, brother Lim Guan Eng, Penang ruling party winning more, after following Boni, Lim Chong Eu, Koh Tsu Koon, the fourth Bit-Chinese Chief Minister; Ms Lam feel very pleased that the years of hard work and perseverance of his father and brothers, are not in vain.
Second daughter Lin Huiying eyes of Lim Kit Siang
Lin Huiying said: “As a little daughter, I love to his father like a baby and talk to their minds, very serious in the eyes of outsiders Lim Kit Siang, in my mind, but it is fatherly. Hours I love him like a baby, either fall or brothers and sisters fight, I will be crying out to his father. ‘
However, his reaction is different from the mother, the fall, when my mother called me to run around, but he called me to see if there are no cracks in the floor. Educate our way always with a difference.
“My father to have a Fengyubugai habits, is a daily telephone calls home, unless special circumstances are encountered, otherwise will never forget a phone call a day. He is also one pair of the basic necessities of life is not required, go to where you can sleep, and even training to be able to sleep in minutes skill! ‘
Lin Huiying said: “he was to stick to their beliefs, to speak to think twice honest and never give up, he insisted. Is very honored to be able to become his children. ‘
The eyes of the youngest son of Lin Guanjun Lim Kit Siang
His father’s public image is always described as a dictator, chauvinist, “big mouth” and even greedy for power. , “Lin Guanjun said:” In fact, he is a very quiet person, will think twice before speak. He is a man of integrity, and insist on the right thing. He insisted he would mercilessly do, never give up, for me, that is a sign. ‘
The eyes of the eldest son Lim Guan Eng Lim Kit Siang
Penang Directorate Lim describes his father: “Lim Kit Siang is widely believed to have the courage, corruption and integrity. ‘
He said: “Shakespeare wrote: some are born great; great achievements of some people; Some people had to great. Lim Kit Siang of these three conditions, even surpass these conditions. Because he can inspire others to become great. ‘
Anwar eyes of Lim Kit Siang
Parliamentary Opposition Leader Anwar said: “Most people think Lim Kit Siang is very hard-line leader, in fact, he is a good listener, not like I always prefer to express their views, he is a very sensible person. ‘
Anwar said: “I think everyone, especially the Malay community and religious people, and if we see his real side, will find that he is very visionary, his love of freedom and fairness, and to transcend the barriers of race. ‘
To Karpal eyes of the Lim Kit Siang
Karpal old comrade-in-arms, so Lim Kit Siang Lim Kit Siang fought side by side for more than 40 years: “He will be a very good lawyer. However, he chose to dedicate their lives to politics. ‘
Karpal said: “Many people think that good fortune is very serious, in fact, he also has a humorous side. He was always considerate and thoughtful, in my impression, I have never seen him angry or lost his temper, except in Congress to launch an attack. ‘
Karpal said: “He never deter us from any statement or remarks, he would not have to ask what we’re doing. He always makes us free to play, not to exert pressure, this point so I admire him. ‘
Karpal, Lim Kit Siang loyal to the family, even as his last family in mind completely. Be regarded as a rare species. He said: “It is difficult to find another like him, I hope he has another 70-year-old, Action Party needed him! ‘
Zeng Min Xing eyes of Lim Kit Siang
Zeng Min Xing and Karpal and Lim Kit Siang is an old ally of sharing weal and woe. He said: “The success of the Action Party in Lai Jixiang behind. He performs a very strict discipline the manufacturing problems who are isolated and expulsion, and that he was Barisan Nasional’s hostile tag as a dictator, in fact, he is not. ‘
He said: “Today auspicious auspicious with the young man is no different. Into the 70-year-old, he still did not stop, but also to East Malaysia to set up a branch. What makes him so full of energy? That is because he believes that the Action Party can change the political situation of the country, so that the country can become a truly Malaysian priority countries. ‘
Epilogue: Lim Kit Siang Memorabilia
Chen “Lin Ji Xiangzheng sea drifting recorded in the same predecessors once described Lim Kit Siang is” inherently political animal. In fact, describe this really appropriate.
Lim Kit Siang great interest in politics in high school. April 1955, 14 years old, he and a group of students from Batu Pahat, Johor Palestinian jurisdiction foot car ride to Malacca play, on the road about 60 kilometers. Backhaul being held that day happened to the Bandung Conference, 29 Asian and African countries for the first time in the case of no colonial countries participated, was held in Bandung, Indonesia, large-scale international conference to discuss the vital interests of the Afro-Asian Peoples. At that time, only 14-year-old Lim Kit Siang very concerned about the results of this international conference is very concerned about the subsequent evolution of the international and domestic political.
Lim Kit Siang and serve a young age did not grow up to be when he remembers 18 years old, the results would be released free time in waiting five scores, one night with a group of like-minded students sitting in the school’s irrigation ditches chat. Talking about political and national affairs, he jokingly suggested companions to the world and each set up a political party, 10 years after the gather comparative results. Although this is just a joke, Lim Kit Siang also well aware of the founding is not an easy task, which is enough to display his teens passionate politics.
Lim Kit Siang in school days and did not participate in any political and social movement, until the completion of secondary school into the community before they came into contact with the political, then changed his life. He first when the provisional teach, when after the Singapore Straits Times reporter, and to join trade unions.
Singapore Radio soon after working for some time, and then to the Ministry of Culture as a media officer, had joined the newspaper Trade Unions, in 1962, he was appointed as Singapore’s National Journalists’ Association (Singapore National Union Of Journalist, SNUJ) Secretary General . Although Singapore was part of Malaysia, Lim Kit Siang has heart Malaysia keen interest in the political situation in West Malaysia, but did not participate in political activities in Singapore.
9 individuals from the 1964 general election, the People’s Action Party candidates, elected Bangsar District Congressman Tiffany that (Democratic Action Party Secretary-General), Lim Kit Siang know Tiffany that because of participation in union.
August 9, 1965, Singapore from Malaysia, the People’s Action Party leaders have returned to Singapore, Tiffany that to honor their commitment to voters, decided to stay in Malaysia and opening Lim Kit Siang as his political secretary. The then Lim Kit Siang also the work of the Ministry of Culture, has been promoted to the Singapore TV station as editors, not only the future of the job, or the “iron rice bowl”.
Tiffany that to know Lim Kit Siang plan, thus requiring him to consider only reply, did not expect to Lim Kit Siang was a promise to serve as its political secretary to give up career in Singapore.
October 1965, the pedicle where it and other colleagues such as Zeng Min Xing and other people began to proceed with the establishment of the Party of Democratic Action, and the registration of, until March 18, 1966 was successful, follow the pedicle where that’s Lim Kit Siang also natural join Action Party and began to actively work in the organization, to all parts of the country to recruit people with lofty ideals to join the party.
May 10, 1969 general election, the Union suffered an unprecedented setback, the Democratic Action Party won 13 seats, Lim Kit Siang, members of Congress, elected Malacca urban began for him so far up to a 47-year political career.
Lin Jixiang Zheng sea drifting Memorabilia:
1966, he was appointed the first secretary-general of the Democratic Action Party Tiffany that political secretary
By the Commission in 1967, joined the Central Executive Committee
As organizational secretary, in 1968 and served as editor of the English-language version of the rocket newspaper
The Selangor the Schaden state seats-election in 1968, on behalf of the Action Party played for the first time, defeated the candidate of the MCA.
May 10, 1969, Malacca urban members of Congress elected in national elections
To Sabah in 1969 for independent candidates being the Chief Minister of Sabah Mosda deported transit in Singapore to return to Malaysia were arrested, detained for up to invoke the Internal Security Act in the case without trial 16 months.
Camp has been detained in October 1970, was elected Secretary-General of the Malaysian Democratic Action Party
Leader of the Opposition in the House of Commons in 1972, he
1974 selected Malacca urban members of Congress
In 1977 Lim Kit Siang become official lawyer (Lincoln’s Inn)
1978 selected Petaling Jaya congressman
Back to Malacca congressional districts in 1982 personally pack rebels Chen Dequan, selected of Malacca urban members of Congress
Moved to Penang in 1986, declared to carry the “Tanjung battle” and beat Koh Tsu Koon’s Action Party won 10 Penang seats
In October 1987, son Lim Guan Eng and party in the thatched action to be together detained, and was released in April 1989
1990 with 46 spirit of the party to launch the second round of the Tanjung II Battle offensive in Pakistan when Kota state constituency defeating Lim Chong Eu, smashing unbeaten myth Lim Chong Eu’s Action Party won 14 state seats
The 1995 launch Tanjung Battle country seats in Tanjung Qinxia Zhang Zhiwei, a candidate of the National Front, but lost in Tanjung Bungah state constituency Koh Tsu Koon
1999 in Penang Hill country seats lost to Xie Quantel Botanic Garden State seats lost to Ding Funan; resigned as secretary-general level, he served as party chairman
Selected, Perak Yibao Dong District Congressman in 2004, and then served as the leader of the opposition of Congress. Remove the party chairman post in the same year
The political tsunami of March 8, 2008, once again selected the Perak Yibao Dong District congressman.
“Lin Jixiang Zheng sea drifting recorded” outside the chapter, “Lim Kit Siang Young Dragons” has been fully completed. Thank you for your support. Once again, we wish you all a Happy New Year. Good night.
by: Danfeng zhang
The true history of Malaysia, Lin Ji Xiangzheng sea drifting recorded
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Buku Elektronik Dr Iwan “Keindahan dan Nilai Investasi Koleksi Keramik Antik Langka”

Keindahan dan nilai investasi

Koleksi Keramik Antik Langka

 

Oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Buku Elektronik Daam CD-Rom

Edisi Pribadi Terbatas

Khusus Untuk Kolektor

Hak Cipta Dr Iwan @ 2012

Kata Pengantar

Saya mulai mengumpulkan keramik antik dari tahun 1976 ketika bertugas di  Kesehatan Polres Solok Sumatera Barat.

 

Setiap hari Minggu saya pergi ke ayah dan ibu di rumah hukum di Padang Panjang untuk beristirahat dari kesibukaan pekerjaan saya yang sangat nelelahkan ,baik dari dinas maupun praktek dokter umum pribadi  mulai jam lima pagi sampai dua belas malam hari. Hari senin,selasa,rabu ,jumaat dan sabtu. Setiap hari  lemis berkunjung ke  Komdis(saat ini Polresta Sawahlunto) dan Polres Sijunjung , dan setiap hari juma.at ke Polres Batusangkar dan Brimob Padangpandjang. Melihat ayah dan ibu isteri saya.

Kemudian saya kembali ke Polres Solok untuk dinas dan praktek pribadi, sore harinya ke Padang  mengunjungi orang tua, dan hari minggu ke Padang Pandjang


Setelah pergi ke gereja
 Padang Pandjang ,saya kunjungi Kora Bukittinggi  yang indah dengan udara yang sejuk  dan dikota inilah saya menemukan  keramik antik ,

 

 Saya  nasih  ingat beberapa pedagang Minangkabau asli seperti Aladin dan Adiknya, Pak Datuk (almarhum) dan putranya Man ​​Datuk (sekarang dia  masihberdagang antik di Bali) , Edy Makmur  dan lain-lainnya


Saya belajar untuk
mengidentifikasi koleksi keramik antik yang asli   dari mereka, dan setelah itu saya mencari  buku lelang  koleksi   keramik antik yang banyak informasi  tentang keramik langka. Serta harganya.


Saya berburu koleksi keramik
 langka  , dimulai dengan  mengumpulkan  artefak pecahan keramik  untuk  digunakan sebagai  bahan dasar  penelitian  bentuk dan disain lukisan  keramik langka  produksi awal  dari Cina, Jepang, Thailan dan anamis juga euro.

 

Pada tahun 2007

saya perna mengikuti sertakan koleksi saya dalam lelangan perusahaan Bobobudur di Jkarta bertepat di hotel didepan patung Pak tani Jakarta, dan sempat berkenalan dan memperoleh banyak petunjuk dari kosultan Borobudur Pak james tentang keramik antic yang langka, kualitas dan nilai investasi(jual) , untuk itu saya ucapkn terima kasih Pak james.

 

Pada Tahun 2008,

Saya telah meng-upload Beberapa koleksi saya di blog web saya
Hhtp :/ / http://www.Driwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Pada Tahun 2012

 saya menyusun yang  Edisi terbatas E-book Buku Elektronik Dalam CD-Rom yang diterbitkan secara pribadi khusus untuk kolektor Senior sebagai panduan untuk mengatur koleksi mereka dan membantu mereka dari pedagang  keramik  repro palsu yang nakal.


Setelah
 berpengalaman hampir 40 tahun , saya memutuskan untuk mengumpulkan koleksi keramik terbaik dan membuat CD-rom   Koleksi  Keramik  Khusua Kerajaan Kaisar Tiongkok Yang Ditemukan di Indonesia ,yang  contohnya sudah di-upload di  Web blog  saya, dan sekarang ini sampel dari  buku  elektroik  dalam CD-Rom yang terbaru

Keindahan Koleksi keramik Antik Awal

 

Saya harap  Informasi ini  akan dapat membantu para   kolektor untuk memilih koleksi  mereka  yang lebih berharga di masa depan


Ini hanya  conto dari CD - rom, CD lengkap ada tetapi hanya untuk anggota premium,

 

Apabila  Anda ingin mendapatkan CD  yang sangat informatif lengkap dengan ilustrasinya tersebut  ,silahkan mendaftar  melalui komentar dari blog web

Jakarta Oktober 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

 

PENGANTAR


Porselen Biru dan Putih  Orientalis :

Petunjuk  Perubahan  Bemtuk danDisain Keramik antik

sumber oleh priceminer (11/11/09).

Terjemahan  secara elektronik

“Dari membangun yang kuat, cocok untuk ekspor dan bahan yang baik, dengan tubuh (badan dasar keramik) yang putih jelas sering ketinggalan tanpa glasir pada dasar datar. Glasir yang tebal dan agak ceria, dan biru adalah dari nada ungu cerah. “
– RL Hobson, penulis dan Cina Spesialis Keramik, British Museum, 1915.
 

Sebuah Wadah  air  untuk kuas tulisan (pit) dengan percikan biru bawah glasir, Dinasti Tang (618-907).
Teknik melukis warna di bawah glasir pertama kali dikembangkan pada masa Dinasti Tang (618-907), ketika seladon menikmati popularitas besar. (Song juga menyelidiki beberapa aspek dari porselen bawah glasir).

Meskipun  pada awalnya  gaya dekoratif baru dibawah glasir  dianggap vulgar , tak berpendidkan  dan tidak layak lukisan,  ternyata berkembang dan semakin matang.

 Periode yang paling penting adalah Dinasti Mongol Yuan, karena kelangkaannya.

Mengingat kesulitan dengan proses pembuatannya saat pembakaran , beberapa potongan indah berhasil diproduksi namun hanya beberapa potong saja yang muncul ke pasar.

Dalam istilah sederhana, untuk menanganiporselen unfired (yang belum dibakar) dibiarkan menjadi kering cukup, kemudian dicat di bawah glasir dengan biru kobalt  (atau merah tembaga atau besi hitam). Item yang menyisihkan sehingga cat dapat mengering, dan kemudian dicelupkan ke dalam atau disikat dengan glasir sebelum “ditembak di kiln(tungku pembakaran keramik).

Metode dasar telah disempurnakan dari waktu ke waktu, seperti berusaha untuk memperbaiki banyak kekurangan saat  produksi awal  tembikar yang  masih manja.

Ironisnya, orang-orang  memanfaatkan “tanda cacat” yang dikenal sebagai “Hiped  and Pile”  tonjolan dan lubang  sebagai tanda karakteristik untuk satu atau periode lain, adalah bantuan yang paling dalam mengenal keaslian  porselen Kerajaan Tiongkok.

 

Perkembangan disain lukisan dibawah glasir biru untuk menghiasi porselen putih dimulai secara teratur dan dengan keahlian di Jingdezhen pada periode Yuan, dan disempurnakan selama Dinasti Ming. Sampai Ming, pigmen yang disebut biru kobalt-diimpor secara eksklusif dari Persia (sekarang Iran , di mana warna biru berasal dari dfaerah islam yang dikenal sebagai daerah Nabi Muhammad) tapi untungnya kobalt lokal ditemukan di bagian awal dari era Ming.

 

 

Sebuah Keramik Vas Dinasti Ming langit  dengan disain naga langit dunia dan  bunga dari pemerintahan Yung-lo (1403-1424).

Dalam era yang penting, porselin biru dan putih menjalani beberapa variasi dalam pembuatan. Inovasi yang paling penting berkaitan dengan modulasi dalam pigmen biru, yang bisa berkisar dari, keabu-abuan , biru ke biru-hitam ke biru cerah.

Variasi lainnya adalah glasir  individu, berbagai bentuk, gaya dekorasi, dan kaligrafi tanda pemerintahan Imperial.


Penanggalan porselen Cina awal biru dan putih membuat beberapa kemajuan saat  penelitian para ilmuwan
Oxford menemukan bahwa kobalt Persia tidak memiliki mangan, namun kobalt Cina mengandung proporsi yang tinggi dari oksida mangan.

Akibatnya, barang biru dan putih mengandung jejak mangan tidak dapat lebih awal dari Ming. Karena tidak ada sepotong pecahan  biru dan putih dapat benar-benar dikaitkan dengan pemerintahan Hongwu, kaisar pertama Ming (1368-1398), sebagian besar digolongkan sebagai “awal abad ke-15.”

catatan dr Iwan

“Tanpa kandungan Mangan  dengan kilauan yang mulus redup temerupakan tanda khaas dari glaisir keramik dinasti Yuan, inilah yang membedakannya dari dinasti Ming dan Qing,

 Tehnik ini ternyata ditiru oleh perusahan keramik Thailand Ayutthya yang konon dikembangkan oleh perajin keramik tiongkok suku han yang melarikan diri kesana akibat kebijakan dinasti mongol yang mengharuskan mereka bekerja untuk kerajaan mongol 30 % dari waktunya kurang lebih empat  bulan dalam satu tahun  dan merekan dinyatakan sebagai warga kelas tiga stelah suku mongol dan kelas dua suku Turki dan Persia serta timur tengah yang merupakan jajahan mongol saat tersebut.

 Kejadian yang sama juga terjadi dengan pelarian ke Vietnam era kerajaan tran disatry dari anamese  walaupun hal ini masih dibantah oleh pihak Vietnam, kedatipun demikian bagi para pakar dengan mudah dapat dibedakan dengan cirri-ciri khas anamese dengan warna coklat merah pada dasar keramik, begitu juga dengan keramik awal Ayutthya ada tanda khas juga”

 

Di bawah penguasa Ming Yongle (1403-1424)

 Produksi porselen biru dan putih berkembang, dan di bawah patronase Imperial (kerajaan) nya, berbagai macam motif bunga, buah dan anggur archaistic dan gaya terjadi, termasuk dekorasi Islam sesekali.

Periode ini adalah kaya artistik , mempertahankan pengabdian kepada emblem (lambing) bunga dan signifikansi mereka yang telah menang dari usia dini di Cina.

 Secara khusus, teratai, krisan dan peony yang paling populer, digunakan dengan batas tertutup oleh dedaunan atau geometris atau hiasan rim(pingiran).

Kemudian reproduksi barang Yongle sulit dibedakan dari aslinya, kecuali di bawah pengawasan ahli. Tanda Pemerintahan jarang ditemukan pada potongan Imperial sampai era Xuande-.
 
Karakteristik Yongle termasuk baik, bentuk kokoh dan tubuh melengkung, dengan dekorasi yang menarik dan terkendali. Jika itu adalah sepotong dua sisi, dekorasi biasanya serupa di kedua sisi. Warnanya ungu biru intens dengan berbagai bintik-bintik gelap kecil, dan glasir yang sangat lembut dan halus, tetapi dengan “kulit jeruk” efek bintik-bintik cokelat kecil yang disebabkan oleh kotoran besi.

 

 

Periode klasik dalam pengembangan porselen Oriental biru dan putih dianggap pemerintahan Xuande (1426-1435),

 

ketika ditandai oleh pendirian pabrik keramik dengan  sejumlah inovasi terjadi.

Berbagai bentuk diperluas untuk mencakup tidak hanya tetapi piring mangkuk, gelas anggur, Ewers(teko ) , termos, vas, kotak lidded (dengan tutuP) dan stoples, dan peralatan untuk upacara persembahan Buddha-semua kaya  hiasan dengan pigmen biru-hitam khas yang berhubungan dengan barang-barang Ming awal.

Glasir (lapisan yang menutup bahan dasar dan lukisan)  memiliki tekstur refleksi, cahaya sedikit tebal dan kotoran lebih sedikit.

Dengan perubahan ke kobalt asli llcal , mengubah biru untuk warna yang lebih tenang dibandingkan pada awal abad ini.

Berbagai  bentuk dan bentuk  yang menarik berasal dari era Xuande, yang ditandai dengan glasir putih kebiruan (biasanya lebih seragam dari pada porselen masa lalu).

Flek yang kecil  masih terjadi namun kurang terlihat, dan dekorasi gulir bunga lebih konvensional dalam gaya dari pada awal abad. Representasi simbol Tao (karakter mitos), Delapan Benda Berharga, Tiga Teman (pinus, prunus, bambu), phoenix dan jamur suci, di antara mata pelajaran lain, yang lazim. Naga selalu penuh semangat dicat, menyebarkan ekornya dan cakar yang sangat dramatis terhadap tanah putih polos.

 

Catatan dr Iwan

“Para era Xuande keramik Tiongkok tidak diperdagangkan ke luar negero, hanya merupakan hadiah bagi rja-raja shabat kaisar Xuande saja sehingga keramik ini jadi sangat langka, sangat jarang ditemukan di Indonesia, keadaan ini menurut para peneliti dikenal sebagai “Ceramic Bam”(larangan ekspor) dan “Ming Gap”(tak adanya Keramik ming”)

Saya hanya menemukan dua artifak xuande yaitu pecahan piring Mangkuk besar dengan disain biru putih naga kerajaan jari lima dengan sisik yang sangatindah ditemukan di daerah Aie r molek rengat riau, dan Piring besar disain burung phoenix  lambing ratu Tiongkok”

 

Setelah Xuande

ada peralihan 20 tahun sebagai tiga berturut kaisar tampaknya memiliki  sifat tidak tertarik pada keramik-tidak lebih dari beberapa potong bantalan tanda pemerintahan dari abad pertengahan.

 

Hal ini Itu diatasi oleh Chenghua (1465-1487),

 yang direvitalisasi biru dan putih. Secara teknis, potongan Chenghua lebih unggul, meskipun dekorasi mantan agak menahan karena rasa Kaisar yang mengikuti perintah-perintah dari gundik Wan, dan kasim.


 
Sebuah
Mangkuk Dinasti Ming bawah glasir biru dari periode Chenghua.


Dekorasi Chenghua memiliki vitalitas, namun memiliki kecanggihan yang lebih besar dan kebancian.

Desain menjadi lebih naturalistik sebagai bunga menjadi karangan bunga berputar-putar dengan sulur berdaun, dan desain ini kadang-kadang dicat di bagian dalam buah.

Ada arah artistik baru sebagai adegan anak-anak atau tokoh komik muncul, sangat kontras dengan sisa dekorasi, potongan-potongan menanggung tanpa tanda.

Bentuk berulang merupakan karakteristik dari potongan Chenghua, meskipun mangkuk menyala rapuh disebut “istana mangkuk” juga merupakan karakteristik produk. Pemerintahan tanda (nienhao) dalam dua baris vertikal ditulis dalam lingkaran atau persegi panjang.

Penguasa Hongzhi (1488-1505)

Meneruskan produksi  barang-barang dari pemerintahan sebelumnya, dengan tema klasik yang sama namun penggambaran yang kurang hidup.

 Biru keabu-abuan dan sangat bervariasi, dengan enam karakter ditulis di bawah dasar dalam dua cara, karakter kecil dan tidak merata spasi, atau ditulis besar dan dalam bentuk biasa.

Beberapa mangkuk ditandai dihiasi dengan permainan anak-anak muncul dalam periode ini.

Periode klasik porselin Oriental biru dan putih diakhiri dengan penguasa Zhengde (1506-1521),

ketika contoh berkisar dari luar biasa untuk biasa-biasa saja.

Kemudian muncul beberapa potongan   dengan inovasi yang mencerminkan disain  Islam, seperti tulisan Arab atau Persia dan kutipan dari Quran digunakan.

Pada saat itu, kasim Muslim dan sejumlah komunitas Muslim di Cina memegang kekuasaan di istana, dan diperkirakan pengaruh mereka tercermin dalam dekorasi baru.

Hal ini terlihat pada potongan kecil seperti peralatan menulis, lilin, vas dan layar. Potongan tersebut selalu memiliki tanda dinasti ditulis dalam enam karakter.


 

Sebuah periode Jiajing Dinasti Ming persegi hidangan.


Dalam
Pemerintahan Jiajing

 1.522 - 1.566

porselen biru dan putih ditandai dengan biru kaya brilian, dan dekorasi simbol Tao seperti Delapan Dewa atau shou mendominasi. Dalam potongan sehari-hari kita melihat permainan anak-anak, naga, phoenix, dan motif floral digambarkan.

 

Karena kondisi ekonomi, Jingdezhen terpaksa mengurangi produksinya pada masa pemerintahan Longqmg (1567-1572).

Lan Pu menggambarkannya demikian:

“liat adalah perekat dan kaya. Tubuh sebagian tebal, sebagian tipis. Teknik pembuatan yang sangat baik …. glasir yang berkilau, tebal seperti lapisan lemak. “


Barang biru dan putih diproduksi dalam pemerintahan Wanli

 (1573-1620)

 Ditandai oleh suatu badan halus, glasir brilian dan mendalam ungu-biru dekorasi ¬-meskipun potongan tersebut jarang terjadi. Bentuk menjadi sedikit berbeda dari bentuk sebelumnya, dan kembali ke bentuk archaistic sinyal penurunan kreativitas.

Ada tema berulang dari naga, Delapan Benda Berharga, dll, tapi juga gambaran yang lebih penting dari angka-angka dalam kehidupan sehari-hari.

Potongan halus seperti cangkir batang dan pembakar dupa dikaitkan dengan Wanli terlihat bantalan(merek stempel)  tanda-tanda Xuande atau Chenghua.

Popularitas porselen Oriental biru dan putih ini didukung oleh industri ekspor yang sedang berkembang, yang secara luas diangkut barang-barang tersebut.

Produk yang terutama Cina, namun perintah besar dari negara-negara asing umumnya dibentuk untuk selera asing dan desain dari negara-negara di Eropa, Timur Dekat dan Jepang.

Penulsan Tanda  stempel merek  dari pemerintahan Cina tidak menjadi kebiasaan  untuk menandai keramik sampai masa pemerintahan Xuande (1426-1435).

Keenam karakter tepatnya ditulis, ditempatkan baik di bawah dasar dalam dua garis vertikal atau dekat tepi luar dalam garis horizontal tunggal. Atas dua karakter nama kedua kaisar (kiri) dan karakter untuk “besar” (kanan).

Karakter tengah nama dinasti, dan dua yang lebih rendah karakter “dibuat pada masa pemerintahan …” dan nama pertama kaisar.

Hal ini tidak akurat sampai saat porselen Cina menggunakan tanda pemerintahan.

Sementara tidak diragukan lagi beberapa sengaja dimaksudkan untuk menipu ‘biasanya itu adalah kasus sederhana upeti-beberapa tembikar yang mengagumi sebuah zaman keemasan sebelumnya diketahui telah kembali mereka tanda sebagai bentuk tanda tersebut sebagai bentuk penghargaan

Baca lebih lanjut dengan klik

http://www.artforum.com.sg/artists_by_country/ceramics/china.html 

Koleksi Keramik tiongkok Yang terbaik dan bernilai Investasi tinggi

Lihat  dengan klik

http://www.jiangtea.com/2012/06/19/chinese-ceramics/

 

IMAGE

CAPTION

SELLING PRICE
Han Dynasty
Incense Burner (green glaze)
Pottery
22 cm h
cer002

S$1,500
     
Han Dynasty
Vase (green glaze)
Pottery
41 cm h
cer003
S$5,000
     
Han Dynasty
Vase (green glaze)
Pottery
45.5 cm h
cer004
S$3,000
     

Sui Dynasty
Water Bottle (green glaze)
Pottery
32 cm h
cer006
S$2,000
     

Yuan Dynasty
Jar (blue & white underglaze)
Porcelain
9 cm h
cer007
S$900
     

Ming Dynasty
Jar (blue & white underglaze)
Porcelain
7.5 cm h
cer008
S$900
     

Ming Dynasty
Bowl (blue and white underglaze)
Porcelain
6.5 cm h
cer009
S$500
     

Ming Dynasty
Blue and White Covered Jar
Porcelain
7 cm h
cer010
S$600
Yuan Dynasty
Kendi (early Dehua white glaze)
Porcelain
10.7 cm h
cer012
S$2,500
     
Yuan Dynasty
Covered Box (early Dehua white glaze)
Porcelain
15 cm d
cer013
S$1,000
     

Yuan Dynasty
Bowl (early Dehua white glaze)
Porcelain
5 cm h
cer014
S$1,000
   

 

 

Mangkuk Teh

 

 

 

Top of Form

Barang  keramik  Tiongkok  menunjukkan perkembangan yang terus menerus sejak pra-dinasti periode, dan merupakan salah satu bentuk yang paling signifikan dari seni Tiongkok.

 

Tiongkok   kaya dengan bahan baku yang dibutuhkan untuk membuat keramik. Jenis pertama dari keramik dibuat selama era Palaeolithic. Cina Keramik berkisar dari bahan bangunan seperti batu bata dan ubin, ke tangan-dibangun kapal tembikar dipecat di api unggun atau kiln, dengan barang-barang porselen Tiongkok  canggih dibuat untuk istana kekaisaran. Porcelain juga kadang-kadang disebut “china” dalam bahasa Inggris.

Hal ini dapat dibagi menjadi: porselen Imperial “Guan yao – Imperial kiln / ware”, porselin Biasa “Min yao – masyarakat ware”

Imperial kiln / gudang – Guan yao

Dengan ini kami berarti “porselen khusus dibuat untuk Kaisar Tiongkok dan rumah tangga Kekaisaran”.

 

Jika kita lupa hal-hal yang benar-benar tua dan fokus pada batuan bertubuh putih kita di porselen panggilan barat khusus “Imperial” pertama kiln didirikan di Jingdezhen selama dinasti Yuan (1279-1368).

Sejak saat itu, selama dinasti Ming dan Qing, “Imperial porselin” diperintahkan dari dan dibuat oleh kiln Imperial terpisah – terletak di Zhushan (Pearl Hill) di kota Jingdezhen, Provinsi Jiangxi, di mana sampai saat ini masih industri porselen berkembang adalah berfungsi penuh.

 Gudang  Rakyat

 Min yao

Sebagian besar porselen Tiongkok yang kita lihat sekarang adalah “Min yao – = masyarakat yao min = ware”, sebagian besar mangkuk dan segala macam potongan terhubung ke cara hidup.

 

Ini jenis porselen belum berubah banyak selama bertahun-tahun dan karena itu mungkin sulit untuk saat ini benar.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jenis barang porselen Tiongkok

 

 

 

Tang Sancai (tiga warna)

barang perlengkapan kuburan

Sancai berarti tiga-warna. Namun, warna glasir yang digunakan untuk menghias barang-barang dari dinasti Tang tidak terbatas pada tiga nomor. Di Barat, Tang Sancai barang kadang-kadang disebut sebagai telur-bayam dan-oleh dealer untuk penggunaan hijau, kuning dan putih. Meskipun yang terakhir dari dua warna mungkin lebih tepat digambarkan sebagai amber dan off-white / cream.

Barang Sancai adalah barang utara dibuat menggunakan kaolin sekunder putih dan penggemar-menembak dan tanah liat api. Pada situs kiln terletak di Tongchuan, Neiqui kabupaten di Hebei dan Gongxian di Henan, tanah liat yang digunakan untuk barang-barang penguburan serupa dengan yang digunakan oleh tembikar Tang .

 

 

Barang-barang penguburan ditembakkan pada suhu lebih rendah dari whitewares kontemporer(keramik putih masa kini) .  barang perlengkapan penguburan , seperti terkenal representasi unta dan kuda, yang dilemparkan di bagian dalam cetakan dengan bagian luted bersama-sama menggunakan tergelincir tanah liat.

 

Dalam beberapa kasus, tingkat individualitas yang disampaikan kepada patung-patung dirakit dengan lukisan ukiran tangan

 

 

 

Keramik Mangkuk the dari Jian


Jian blackwares
(barang hitam) , barang teh terutama terdiri dari, dibuat pada kiln yang berlokasi di Jianyang propinsi Fujian.

 

Mereka mencapai puncak popularitas mereka selama dinasti Song. Barang-barang yang dibuat menggunakan lokal menang, kaya zat besi dan tanah liat dipecat dalam suasana oksidasi pada temperatur di wilayah 1300 ° C.

 

Glasir itu dibuat menggunakan tanah liat yang sama dengan yang digunakan untuk membentuk tubuh, kecuali fluxed dengan kayu-abu. Pada suhu tinggi cair glaze terpisah untuk menghasilkan pola yang disebut bulu kelinci itu.

 

Ketika Jian barang yang ditetapkan miring untuk menembak, menetes lari ke samping, menciptakan bukti cairan glasir pooling.

Pada saat itu, teh dibuat dengan mengaduk daun bubuk yang telah ditekan menjadi kue kering bersama dengan air panas, (agak mirip dengan matcha dalam upacara teh Jepang).

 

Air ditambahkan ke bubuk ini menghasilkan buih putih yang akan menonjol baik terhadap mangkuk gelap.

 

Tastes dalam persiapan berubah selama dinasti Ming, Kaisar Hongwu sendiri lebih suka daun untuk kue bubuk, dan akan menerima hanya daun teh sebagai upeti dari teh-daerah penghasil.

 

Daun teh, berbeda dengan teh bubuk, disiapkan oleh seduhan daun utuh dalam air mendidih – sebuah proses yang menyebabkan penemuan dari teko dan popularitas selanjutnya barang Yixing atas mangkuk teh gelap.

Barang teh Jian dari dinasti Song juga sangat dihargai dan disalin di Jepang, di mana mereka dikenal sebagai barang tenmoku.

 

 

Ding ware

Keramik Ding ini telah diproduksi di Ding Xian (modern Chu-yang), Provinsi Hebei, sedikit selatan-barat Beijing. Sudah di produksi ketika kaisar Lagu berkuasa pada 940,

 Keramik Ding adalah porselen terbaik diproduksi di China utara pada saat itu, dan adalah yang pertama untuk memasuki istana kekaisaran untuk penggunaan resmi.

 

Pasta adalah putih, umumnya ditutupi dengan glasir hampir transparan yang menetes dan dikumpulkan dalam “air mata,” (meskipun beberapa ware Ding yang mengkilap yang monokrom hitam atau coklat, putih adalah jenis jauh lebih umum).

 

Secara keseluruhan, estetika Ding lebih mengandalkan pada bentuk elegan dibanding dekorasi mewah, desain yang bersahaja, baik menorehkan atau dicap ke dalam tanah liat sebelum kaca.

 

Karena cara piring ditumpuk dalam kiln, yang beringsut tetap tanpa glasir, dan harus berbingkai dalam logam seperti emas atau perak bila digunakan sebagai peralatan makan.

 

Beberapa ratus tahun kemudian, seorang penulis Song Selatan era berkomentar bahwa itu adalah cacat ini yang menyebabkan kehancurannya sebagai ware.

Sejak  kekaisaran  LAGU tidak disukai lagi , sehingga  kehilangan akses ke kiln utara ketika mereka melarikan diri ke selatan, telah berpendapat bahwa Qingbai barang ini telah dilihat sebagai pengganti Ding.

 

Ru ware
Seperti Ding ware, diproduksi di Cina Utara untuk digunakan kekaisaran.

Kiln Ru berada di dekat ibukota Song Utara di Kaifeng. Dalam cara yang sama dengan celadons Longquan, potongan Ru memiliki sejumlah kecil besi dalam glasir mereka yang mengoksidasi dan berubah kehijauan ketika dipecat dalam suasana mengurangi.

 

Barang Ru berkisar dalam warna-dari hampir putih ke yang mendalam robin telur dan sering ditutupi dengan coklat kemerahan crackles.

 

The crackles, atau “krasing,” (karakele atau retak seribu) disebabkan ketika glasir mendingin dan kontrak lebih cepat dari tubuh, sehingga harus meregangkan dan akhirnya untuk membagi,

 

Komentar  Sejarawan seni  James Watt bahwa dinasti Song adalah periode pertama yang dilihat keramik retak seribu  sebagai prestasi yang bukan cacat.

 

Selain itu, dengan berjalannya waktu, tubuh mendapat lebih tipis dan lebih tipis, sementara glasir mendapat lebih tebal, sampai pada akhir dari Song Selatan ‘hijau-glaze’ lebih tebal daripada tubuh, sehingga sangat ‘berdaging’ daripada ‘tulang, ‘menggunakan analogi tradisional.

 

Terlalu, glasir cenderung menetes dan kolam renang sedikit, meninggalkannya tipis di bagian atas, di mana  mengintip melalui tanah liat

 

Jun ware

Keramik Jun adalah Porselen  gaya ketiga yang  digunakan di wilayah  Song Utara.

Ditandai dengan tubuh lebih tebal dari Ding atau Ru gudang, Jun ditutupi dengan glasir pirus dan ungu, begitu tebal dan kental melihat bahwa hampir tampaknya mencair off substansial cokelat keemasan tubuh.

 

Tidak hanya Pot Junlebih tebal , bentuk mereka jauh lebih kuat daripada potongan Jun halus, namun kedua jenis yang dihargai di istana Kaisar Huizong.  produksi  Jun dipusatkan di Jun-tai di Yuzhou kota, Provinsi Henan.

 

 

Guan ware

Guan ware, secara harfiah berarti  Keramik resmi” (ofisial), maka Ru tertentu, Jun, dan bahkan bisa dianggap Ding Guan dalam arti luas yang diproduksi untuk wilayah kekuasaan  kerajaan .

 

Sebenarnya, bagaimanapun, istilah hanya berlaku dengan yang dihasilkan oleh seorang pejabat, kiln imperially dijalankan, yang tidak dimulai sampai Song Selatan melarikan diri dari  serangan maju dinasti Jin  dan menetap di Lin’an.

 

Keramik  selama periode ini memiliki  dinding  sangat tipis dan glasir begitu tebal bahwa yang terakhir digantikan mantan dalam keluasan.

 

Seperti tanah liat di kaki bukit di sekitar Lin’an, adalah warna kecoklatan, dan glasir sehingga viskus,keramik ” Guan”  menjadi terkenal karena “mulut coklat” yang menunjukkan tepi atas atau  di mana glasir yang tipis dan tubuh menunjukkan melalui.

Keramik Guan telah banyak dikagumi selama bertahun-tahun, dan sangat tunduk untuk menyalin.

 

Memang Gao Lain menghabiskan bagian terbesar dari komentarnya tentang menggambarkan Guan dan mitranya Ge ware, seolah-olah itu adalah jenis, yang paling merepotkan paling mudah diidentifikasi dari tembikar.

 

Ge ware

 

 Ge, secara harfiah berarti keramik  ‘besar-adik’, karena legenda mengatakan bahwa dari dua bersaudara yang bekerja di Longquan, salah satu membuat keramik seladon gaya yang khas, tapi tua membuat ge ware, diproduksi di kiln pribadinya.

 

Komentator Ming, Gao Lian mengklaim bahwa kiln ge mengambil tanah liat nya dari situs yang sama seperti Guan ware, yang adalah apa yang menyumbang kesulitan dalam membedakan satu dari yang lain.

 

 

Secara keseluruhan, Ge masih agak sulit dipahami, tetapi pada dasarnya terdiri dari dua jenis-satu dengan ‘glaze hangat beras kuning dan dua set crackles, satu set lebih menonjol warna gelap diselingi dengan set yang lebih baik dari garis kemerahan (disebut dagu-Ssu t’ ieh-hsien atau ‘benang emas dan benang besi’, yang hanya bisa samar-samar terdeteksi pada mangkuk ini:..

 

Keramik  Ge lainnya seperti Guan ware, dengan glaze keabu-abuan dan satu set crackles Setelah diperkirakan hanya telah diproduksi bersama Longquan celadon, per pendiri legendaris, Ge kini diyakini juga telah diproduksi di Jingdezhen.


Sementara mirip dengan Guan ware, Ge biasanya memiliki glasir biru keabu-abuan yang sepenuhnya buram dengan selesai hampir matte.

 

Pola kresek yang berlebihan, sering berdiri di hitam tebal. Meski masih diselimuti misteri, spesialis banyak yang percaya bahwa Ge gudang tidak berkembang sampai Song Selatan sangat terlambat atau bahkan Yuan.

 

Dalam kasus apapun, antusiasme untuk itu bertahan sepanjang Ming, Wen Zhenheng lebih suka untuk semua jenis lain dari porselen, khususnya untuk mesin cuci sikat dan tetes air.

 

 Perbedaan antara imitasi Ming kemudian Song / Yuan Ge meliputi: Ming versi pengganti tubuh porselen putih, mereka cenderung diproduksi dalam berbagai bentuk baru, misalnya mereka untuk studio sarjana, glasir cenderung lebih tipis dan lebih berkilau, dan slip diterapkan ke tepi dan dasar untuk mensimulasikan “mulut coklat dan kaki besi” dari Keramik Guan

 Catatan dr Iwan

Jepang meniru keramik ge dengan nama Kuratsu

 

Qingbai wares

Barang Qingbai dibuat di Jingdezhen dan di banyak kiln selatan lainnya dari zaman Dinasti Song Utara sampai mereka dikalahkan dalam abad ke-14 oleh bawah glasir-dihiasi barang biru dan putih.

 

Qingbai dalam bahasa Cina harfiah berarti “jelas biru-putih”. Glasir qingbai adalah glasir porselen, disebut demikian karena itu dibuat menggunakan batu tembikar.

 

Glasir qingbai jelas, tetapi mengandung zat besi dalam jumlah kecil. Ketika diaplikasikan di atas tubuh porselen putih glasir menghasilkan warna biru kehijauan yang memberikan glaze namanya. Beberapa telah menorehkan atau dibentuk dekorasi.

Mangkuk Qingbai  Dinasti Song   diilustrasikan itu , kemungkinan dibuat di desa Jingdezhen dari Hutian, yang juga merupakan situs dari kiln Imperial didirikan pada 1004.

 

Mangkuk telah didekorasi dengan torehan yang  mungkin mewakili awan atau refleksi awan di dalam air.

 

Tubuh putih, tembus dan memiliki tekstur yang sangat halus-gula, menunjukkan bahwa itu dibuat dengan menggunakan batu tembikar hancur dan disempurnakan bukan batu tembikar dan kaolin.

 

 Glasir dan tubuh dari mangkuk akan dipecat bersama-sama, di saggar, mungkin dalam pembakaran kayu di  kiln- naga besar atau kiln mendaki , kiln khas selatan pada periode.

(kiln tungku pembakaran keramik-driwan)

 

Blue and white wares

 

Mengikuti tradisi dari porselen qingbai sebelumnya, barang biru dan putih mengkilap menggunakan glasir porselen transparan.

 

 Dekorasi biru dicat ke tubuh porselen sebelum diberikan glasir kaca, sangat halus  mengunakan tanah  kobalt  oksida  [dicampur dengan air.)

 Setelah dekorasi telah diterapkan potongan-potongan yang mengkilap dan dipecat.

Hal ini diyakini bahwa bawah glasir biru dan porselen putih pertama kali dibuat pada Dinasti Tang. Hanya tiga potong lengkap

 

Tang biru dan porselen putih yang diketahui ada, namun pecahan dating ke abad ke-8 atau 9 telah digali di Yangzhou di provinsi Jiangsu. Ia telah mengemukakan bahwa pecahan berasal dari sebuah tempat pembakaran di provinsi Henan.

 

Pada tahun 1957, penggalian di lokasi sebuah pagoda di provinsi Zhejiang menemukan mangkuk Song Utara dihiasi dengan bawah glasir biru dan fragmen lanjut telah sejak ditemukan di situs yang sama.

Pada tahun 1970, sebuah fragmen kecil dari mangkuk biru dan putih, lagi tanggal ke abad ke-11, juga digali di provinsi Zhejiang.

Mulai awal abad ke-14, porselin biru dan putih dengan cepat menjadi produk utama dari Jingdezhen, mencapai ketinggian keunggulan teknis selama tahun-tahun terakhir masa pemerintahan Kaisar Kangxi [38] dan berlanjut di masa sekarang menjadi sebuah produk yang penting kota.

Ilustrasi Teh caddy (botol penyimpan)  menunjukkan banyak karakteristik dari porselen biru dan putih yang diproduksi selama periode Kangxi.

 

 

Badan Keramik yang  tembus  cahaya menunjukkan melalui glasir jelas adalah keputihan besar dan dekorasi kobalt, diterapkan di banyak lapisan, memiliki warna biru baik.

 

Dekorasi,

seorang bijaksana dalam lanskap(pemandangan)  danau dan pegunungan dengan batuan blazed khas periode.

 

Keramik  akan diproduksi  dalam saggar dalam suasana mengurangi suhun dalam tungku pembakaran  mengunakan kayu berbentuk telur, pada suhu mendekati 1350 ° C.

 

 

Blanc de Chine

Blanc de Chine adalah jenis porselen putih dibuat di Dehua di provinsi Fujian.

Telah dihasilkan dari Dinasti Ming (1368-1644) sampai sekarang. Jumlah besar tiba di Eropa sebagai Porcelain Ekspor Cina di awal abad 18 dan itu disalin di Meissen dan di tempat lain.
Daerah sepanjang pantai Fujian secara tradisional salah satu pusat utama ekspor keramik. Lebih dari seratus delapan puluh situs kiln telah diidentifikasi memperluas dalam rentang sejarah dari periode Song untuk hadir.
Tubuh porselin sangat tidak plastik tapi bentuk k
eramik  telah terbuat dari itu. daftar jenis berikut produk: angka, kotak, vas dan guci, cangkir dan mangkuk, ikan, lampu, cangkir-berdiri, pedupaan, dan pot bunga, hewan, pemegang kuas, anggur dan teko, Budha dan Tao tokoh, tokoh sekuler dan boneka.  

Ada output besar tokoh, tokoh agama terutama, misalnya Guanyin, Maitreya, Lohan dan angka Ta-mo .

Baca selengkapnya klik

http://www.brandongallery.com/listcollection.asp?Type=Collection

A CHIZHOU PILLOW, SONG DYNASTY
A CHIZHOU PILLOW, SONG DYNASTY
Famille Verte Bowl,Kangxi.
Famille Verte Bowl,Kangxi.
Large Kangxi Charger - Documented Museum Exhibit
Large Kangxi Charger – Documented Museum Exhibit
A LONQUAN Celadon Dish, Song Dynasty
A LONQUAN Celadon Dish, Song Dynasty
Ming dynasty  blue & white cover jar, 16th C.
Ming dynasty blue & white cover jar, 16th C.
A YUEYAO Jar, Southern & Northern Dynasty
A YUEYAO Jar, Southern & Northern Dynasty
Wu-Cai bowl, Kangxi.
Wu-Cai bowl, Kangxi.
Green Glazed Jar, Han Dynasty
Green Glazed Jar, Han Dynasty
Bencharong Porcelain Bowl, 18th C. For Royal Thai.
Bencharong Porcelain Bowl, 18th C. For Royal Thai.
San-Cai Bowl,Kangxi.
San-Cai Bowl,Kangxi.
Painted Cizhou Wine Jar, Yuan Dynasty
Painted Cizhou Wine Jar, Yuan Dynasty
Polychrome Big Charger,Ming Wanli.
Polychrome Big Charger,Ming Wanli.
Blue & White Plate,Jiaqing Era,1796-1820
Blue & White Plate,Jiaqing Era,1796-1820
Museum Quality Pottery Jar, Han Dynasty
Museum Quality Pottery Jar, Han Dynasty
BINH THUAN SHIP WRECK, MING DYNASTY
BINH THUAN SHIP WRECK, MING DYNASTY
A San-cai small bowl,Tang Dynasty
A San-cai small bowl,Tang Dynasty
Magnificent White Glazed Tripod Plate, Tang Dynast
Magnificent White Glazed Tripod Plate, Tang Dynast
Green Glazed Pottery Ink Stone, Tang Dynasty
Green Glazed Pottery Ink Stone, Tang Dynasty
A Rare Green Glazed Pig, Tang Dynasty.
A Rare Green Glazed Pig, Tang Dynasty.
Museum Quality Pottery Jar, Western Zhou.
Museum Quality Pottery Jar, Western Zhou.
Blue & White tea-caddy,Ming Dynasty.
Blue & White tea-caddy,Ming Dynasty.
YUEYAO Cup & Dish set,Southern & Northern Dynasty
YUEYAO Cup & Dish set,Southern & Northern Dynasty
Qing-Bai high foot cup, Yuan dynasty 1280-1368.
Qing-Bai high foot cup, Yuan dynasty 1280-1368.
Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty
Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty
Green Glazed Figure, Kangxi period
Green Glazed Figure, Kangxi period
Carved Blue & White Bowl, Yuan Dynasty
Carved Blue & White Bowl, Yuan Dynasty
Painted Cizhou Bowl, Song Dynasty
Painted Cizhou Bowl, Song Dynasty
Carved Yingqing Dish, Song Dynasty
Carved Yingqing Dish, Song Dynasty
Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty
Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty
Carved Yingqing pot, Southern Song Dynasty
Carved Yingqing pot, Southern Song Dynasty
White Glazed Octagonal Cup, Yuan Dynasty
White Glazed Octagonal Cup, Yuan Dynasty
Celadon small cup, Jin Dynasty
Celadon small cup, Jin Dynasty
Carved Celadon Bowl, Ming Dynasty
Carved Celadon Bowl, Ming Dynasty
Carved Celadon Washer, Yuan Dynasty
Carved Celadon Washer, Yuan Dynasty
Carved Celadon Bowl, Yuan Dynasty
Carved Celadon Bowl, Yuan Dynasty
Swatow Blue & White Charger, Ming Dynasty
Swatow Blue & White Charger, Ming Dynasty
White Glazed Small Bowl, Ming Dynasty
White Glazed Small Bowl, Ming Dynasty
Neolithic painted pottery jar, YangShao culture.
Neolithic painted pottery jar, YangShao culture.
Blue & White Jar, 16th C. Ming Dynasty
Blue & White Jar, 16th C. Ming Dynasty
Very Rare Armorial Plate with Xuantong Mark, 1910.
Very Rare Armorial Plate with Xuantong Mark, 1910.
Dayazhai Yellow-Ground Bowl, Tongzhi to Guangxu.
Dayazhai Yellow-Ground Bowl, Tongzhi to Guangxu.
Yellow Ground Bottle Vase,Ming Dynasty,Jiajing Era
Yellow Ground Bottle Vase,Ming Dynasty,Jiajing Era
Doucai Dish, Yongzheng period. Qing Dynasty.
Doucai Dish, Yongzheng period. Qing Dynasty.
Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty
Blue & White Bowl, Ming Dynasty

 

Keramik jepang

Klik

http://mcmullensjapanese.com/?cat=134

Oribe Bowl

 

Circa 1890

Measures:  6 1/2″ d x 3 1/2″ h

Price:          $SOLD

Posted by bobbie under Pottery | Comment now » |
 

02
August  Posted in: Pottery

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Horse Eye Plate

 

Horse Eye Plate

Circa 1800

8 1/2″ diameter

Price: $395.00

Posted by bobbie under Pottery | Comment now » |
 

31
May  Posted in: Pottery

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Stoneware Plate

 

Stoneware plate with mums and dragonfly design.

Circa 17th century

Dimensions: 9 1/2″  diameter

Price: $350.00

Posted by bobbie under Pottery | Comment now » |
 

11
April  Posted in: Pottery

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Shino plate

 
Shino plate 

Circa: 1910
Dimensions: Measures 8 ½”diameter
Additional Images:
shino-plate-close-up_1 


Catalog No.PPC 87
Price $295.00
+ shipping and handling
mcmullen@mcmullens.com

shino-plate_2
Posted by bobbie under Pottery | Comment now » |