The Rare Unique Letters Collections(Koleksi surat Unik Yang Langka) 1802

KOLEKSI SURAT UNIK YANG LANGKA

 

The Rare Unique Letter

History Collections

Koleksi Surat Unik Yang Langka

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In Cd-ROM Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top of Form

foreword


At the time of preparing the electronic book collection of the past history of Indonesia when colonized by the Dutch East Indies, Japanese Occupation when the second world war and the Revolution and War of Independence of the Republic of Indonesia

 

I found some unique collections of historical  and interesting letters also writing about Around The  World With Unique Collection (Cover and letter, postcard and other philatelic collections and numismatic collections and related artwork).

 

Unique collection of historical letter, I gather in an electronic book on CD-ROM which is very exciting to be known by collectors as well as very special, beautiful and charming to be exhibited in an international exhibition.

 

As an example I will show some of the above collection in my web blog
Hhtp :/ / http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

The entire collection will be presented in an electronic book on CD-ROM, published privately by a limited number of only 100 books.

 

I strongly hope that this e-book will be able to provide information that is very interesting and adds to the knowledge of the reader.

 

I understand the electronic book is flawed, mainly because most of the grammar translated with electronic machines, and I’m not an expert Grammar just an old retired physician intending to share their experiences in developing a ko9leksi the historic.

 

Therefore, comments, corrections and suggestions from readers so I expected.


 Thousands thanks to the various parties that I can not mention one by one name for their assistance so that electronic books can be realized.

 

 

Jakarta, September 2012

 


Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

 

 

 

 

Kata Pengantar

Pada saat menyusun buku elektronik koleksi Sejarah Indonesia tempo dulu saat dijajah Hindia Belanda, Pendudukan Jepang saat perang dunia kedua serta Revolusi dan  Perang Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia

Saya menemukan beberapa koleksi surat historis yang unik dan menarik.Begitu juga saat menulis tentang Kelililing Dunia Dengan Koleksi Unik  (Sampul dan surat,kartupos bergambar dan koleksi filateli lainnya serta koleksi  numismatik dan karya seni  terkait).

Koleksi Surat Unik  Yang Langka ini saya kumpulkan dalam suatu buku elektronik dalam CD-ROM yang sangat  menarik untuk diketahui oleh para kolektor serta sangat istimewa, indah dan menawan  untuk dipamerkan dalam suatu pameran internasional.

Sebagai contoh akan saya tampilkan beberapa koleksi tersebut diatas dalam web blog saya

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Seluruh koleksi akan disajikan dalam sebuah buku elektronik dalam CD-ROM yang diterbitkan secara pribadi dengan jumlah terbatas hanya 100 buku saja.

Besar harapan saya agar buku elektronik ini akan dapat memberikan informasi yang sangat menarik dan menambah wawasan para pembaca.

Saya maklum buku elektronik ini sangat banyak kekurangannya,terutama tata bahasanya karena sebagian besar diterjemahkan dengan mesin elektronik, dan saya bukan ahli Tata Bahasa hanya seorang dokter tua yang sudah pensiun yang ingi berbagi pengalaman dalam menyusun suatu ko9leksi yang historic. Oleh karena itu komentar, koreksi dan saran dari pembaca sangat saya harapkan.

Saya haturkan ribuan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang tidak dapat saya sebutkan satu persatu namanya atas bantuan mereka sehingga buku elektronik ini dapat terwujud.

Jakarta September 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

I.THE PRE 1860 COLLECTIONS

1802

1802: Jonathan D. Lewis to Dr. John Vaughan

 

The Island of Trinidad off the coast of Venezuela

1802
1802: Jonathan D. Lewis Dr John Vaughan
 
Pulau Trinidad di lepas pantai Venezuela

 

Surat ini ditulis oleh Jonathan D. Lewis, kepada adiknya mertua, Dr John Vaughan (1775-1807), yang dikreditkan dengan melakukan vaksinasi pertama di Delaware pada tahun 1802.

 

John Vaughan dididik di Chester, Pennsylvania, dan di tahun 1793 dan 1794, sementara belajar untuk menjadi seorang dokter, menghadiri kuliah di kedokteran di University of Pennsylvania di Philadelphia. Vaughan berlatih kedokteran di Delaware, pertama di Bridge Christiana dan kemudian di Wilmington.

 

 Ia adalah anggota dari organisasi profesi, termasuk Akademi Philadelphia of Medicine, Medical Society of Philadelphia, Amerika Medical Association, dan Kedokteran Delaware dan masyarakat filosofis. Vaughan adalah seorang penulis produktif, pinjaman pena untuk topik penting medis dan ilmiah.

Dia terus nya “Diary Medis No 3″ sebelum dan selama wabah demam kuning serius dari 1802. Vaughan meninggal pada tahun 1807 dari demam tifoid.
Vaughan adalah seorang pengamat tekun kondisi iklim Wilmington, sering mencantumkan suhu harian, arah angin, dan cuaca.

 

 Dia percaya bahwa kondisi ini mempengaruhi terjadinya penyakit pada waktu tertentu dalam setahun. Dengan demikian, pada satu kelompok halaman Vaughan mencatat informasi cuaca untuk bulan tertentu, dan pada kelompok lain ia mencatat apa yang pasiennya menderita selama periode yang sama.

 

Kadang-kadang, Vaughan pecah untuk menyalin pola ini sebuah artikel yang ia baca, sesuatu yang ia dengar, atau surat bahwa ia telah baik tertulis atau diterima tentang masalah medis. Salah satu koresponden nya adalah Dr Benjamin Rush.

 

Seorang pria ilmu pengetahuan dan kedokteran, Vaughan menulis mungkin dalam hiburan untuk mendukung teorinya tentang pengaruh cuaca pada penyakit: “Pak Alrichs, seorang pembuat jam tangan cerdik, memberitahu saya bahwa musim sakit-sakitan selalu ditandai dengan pecahnya menonton springs – bahwa fakta begitu mapan untuk menjadi pepatah & itu secara khusus sehingga musim ini “Pada tanggal 26 Agustus,, 1800 Vaughan. mengatakan: “Bad account dari Baltimore & Norfolk – demam kuning menyebar dengan angka kematian yang besar.”

 

Pada 1802 sebuah epidemi demam kuning yang parah pecah di Wilmington. Vaughan dianggap telah menjadi satu-satunya dokter untuk tetap di kota untuk mengelola mereka yang telah tertular penyakit ditakuti.

 

 Satu tahun kemudian, American Philosophical Society meminta agar ia menulis sebuah pamflet tentang insiden tersebut. Sejarah Singkat dari Demam musim gugur yang berlaku di Borough of Wilmington di Tahun 1802 dihasilkan.

 

Diary naskah Vaughan fitur perayaan penulis langsung dan pribadi penyebaran penyakit. Dalam Vaughan pamflet rinci mengapa dia pikir epidemi demam kuning dimulai, bagaimana dia pikir itu menyebar, dan apa yang dia pikir harus dilakukan untuk memberantas itu.

 

Dalam buku hariannya Vaughan mencatat kunjungan awal dengan Ann Davidson, yang kemudian diidentifikasi sebagai pembawa awal penyakit, dan mencatat kondisi di rumah tetangga itu Davidson:
“Gudang Hadley, sebelah Davi [d] anak telah untuk waktu yang lama penuh air – & wadah umum dari kotoran setiap … sering dikutuk sebagai gangguan oleh korporasi, namun diabaikan. Wm. Cloud mengeluh yang menjadi sangat ofensif kepada mereka. “
Vaughan menulis tentang kegiatan warga Wilmington pada tanggal 13 September: “3/4 dari orang-orang kiri bagian bawah kota ini – di bawah jalan kedua – alarm besar. Dewan Kesehatan teratur dalam efek – beberapa mengundurkan diri – Presiden melarikan diri – tidak umat manusia kembali kepada Barbarisme “.

 

Vaughan mungkin digunakan buku hariannya, melayani sebagai itu sebagai catatan kronologis dan sumber detail yang berharga, untuk membangun narasi pamflet nya.

 

Pada September 23, misalnya, Vaughan menulis surat tentang status penyakit kepada presiden Dewan Kesehatan, Isaac Dixon, ia disalin ke surat ini buku hariannya, dan muncul kemudian dalam surat edaran.

 

Pada akhir pamflet nya, Vaughan mendaftarkan orang yang meninggal akibat epidemi, dalam buku hariannya ia mencatat nama-nama dan alamat dari mereka terserang dan mencatat apakah mereka sembuh atau meninggal.

 

Vaughan pernah benar-benar ditinggalkan maksud asli dari buku hariannya – untuk menunjukkan hubungan sebab-akibat antara kondisi cuaca dan kejadian penyakit – untuk menulis tentang wabah demam kuning di Wilmington. Ada, pada kenyataannya, banyak referensi untuk kondisi cuaca selama epidemi, dan konsep memainkan peran penting dalam sejarah Concise nya.
 
Stampless Surat
 
Page 1
 
Halaman 2
 
Page 3
 
Page 4
 
Halaman 5
 
Halaman 6
 
Page 7
TRANSKRIPSI
Ditujukan kepada John Vaughan, MD, Wilmington, Negara Bagian Delaware
Port of Spain [Trinidad]
13 Juli 1802

 

Pada kedatangan terlambat dari Eropa & c., Saya belajar bahwa pulau ini banyak dibicarakan dan di sebagian besar tempat dianggap akuisisi besar untuk England. Saya tahu bahwa pendapat seperti berlaku di Philadelphia sebelumnya untuk keberangkatan saya.

Oleh karena itu saya akan membuat Trinidad subyek komunikasi yang hadir dari keyakinan bahwa Anda akan senang menerima saran yang mungkin diandalkan. Sebelum saya masuk pada subjek, mengizinkan saya untuk menyatakan bahwa saya telah di semua lembah terkaya dari Port de Mona luar Anna sungai dan 7 hari dalam perahu mengunjungi Margin Trinidad pada Gulph (Paria atau Ballena).

 

Yang terakhir dilakukan pada agak bersifat cabul nyata dari hidup saya seperti dalam banyak kasus, malam datang sebelum aku bisa mendarat, yang dilakukan di atas lutut saya di lumpur di iklim tidak bersahabat.

 

Dalam kata, saya telah di sebagian besar perkebunan dalam budidaya dan telah melihat hampir semua tanah yang terbaik yang liar dan rentan perbaikan.

 

Fungsi geografis, dan luasnya pulau dapat selalu terlihat dengan memiliki referensi peta. Populasi setuju untuk Sensus lalu diambil pada bulan Oktober 1801 adalah sekitar 39.000 jiwa. _______ Dari Warna segala. Lebih dari setengah totalitas putih adalah Perancis dan Inggris lebih banyak daripada orang-orang Spanyol. Ada di sini beberapa M______, Corsicans, Italia, & orang-orang dari hampir semua Bangsa di Eropa dengan Creoles dari semua Kepulauan di Hindia Barat.
 
Batavia (sekarang Jakarta), Jawa

- reputasi buruk untuk kejahatan dan penyakit sampar.

 

Iklim adalah yang paling mewabah dari apapun yang saya pernah masuk Jika Batavia di Jawa telah sampai sekarang disebut Makam Eropa,

 

sebutan akan berlaku di sini dengan kekuatan yang jauh lebih besar. Saya dapat berbicara menghormati dua tempat dengan cara komparatif dari bagian sepele pengalaman.

 

Tentu Batavia tidak pernah begitu sakit-sakitan dari apa yang saya telah mampu belajar, seperti Port of Spain telah selama 2 bulan.

 

Hampir setiap orang Eropa mati yang tiba dengan maksud tinggal permanen sejak 1 April lalu (hari saya mendarat). Jika aku pernah harus memiliki kebahagiaan melihat Anda, saya akan memberikan detail mengenai hal ini yang akan hampir terhuyung kredibilitas.

 

Tanah yang subur di lembah dan sebagian besar dari pulau ini di tanah datar dari mungkin lain di Hindia Barat.

 

Tidak ada perhatian telah dibayarkan kepada pupuk kandang, yang merupakan bukti yang kuat kesuburan, meskipun yang saya lihat tebu dari Ratoons 9 sehalus pernah tumbuh.

Sebagian besar pulau dapat disebut tanah perawan – tidak pernah dibersihkan.

 

The Gulph Paria tentu menawarkan dasar mundur baik selama bulan badai dan tidak tunduk pada badai. Kekerasan angin topan atau _____ angin. Aku tidak bisa, bagaimanapun, setuju dengan jurnal Inggris ________ dalam melampirkan penting indah seperti itu. Ini akan pernah terpaksa sebagai tempat keselamatan kecuali selama bulan Badai dan kemudian hanya oleh kapal di sebuah stasiun windward.

 

Perang kapal ke bawah angin, mengatakan pada stasiun Jamaika, di mana kekuatan besar umumnya, tidak akan pernah berpikir datang di sini & jarak yang begitu besar, dan akan ia ingat bahwa Hindia Barat tidak menderita dengan lebih sering Badai parah dari sekali dalam 7 tahun rata-rata.

 

Kapal dagang mungkin datang ke sini tapi tidak ada sebagian besar. Pedagang akan mengejar perdagangan selama bulan-bulan badai. Mereka tidak akan mengizinkan kapal untuk lay up ____ ini.

 

Kami sekarang akan mempertimbangkan perdagangan interior Trinidad dan saya pikir saya bisa dengan jelas membuktikan bahwa sebagian besar pria komersial di Eropa & Amerika telah memungkinkan dirinya tertipu.

 

Pelayanan Inggris telah terus mewakili nilai Pulau di gelar besar untuk berasal dari kedekatannya dengan utama. Dari keadaan yang sederhana, mereka telah berjanji Bangsa sebuah perdagangan selundupan yang paling berkembang dengan orang Spanyol.

 

Mari kita periksa posisi bagian dari Main yang nya dari _____ ke ____ of the River & ke Passages Boca tanpa ______ lebih nyaman untuk Trinidad daripada setiap pulau lainnya.

 

Pelabuhan ini tidak dan akan menikmati hampir perdagangan eksklusif dengan port tersebut. Tapi dalam apa perdagangan terdiri?

 

 Dalam unggas dan sayuran, & cocao dari O. Saya melihat kapal saat mereka tiba dan berangkat dan akibatnya mengingat fakta dari pengetahuan primitif. Semua yang dijelaskan pantai dalam batas-batas di atas adalah total buruk – orang Spanyol dari ______ telah memperkenalkan uang kurang & telah mengambil _____.

 

Kami memiliki pembelian mereka telah sama sekali cukup. Dalam kata, mereka telah merugikan jauh lebih besar daripada manfaat ke pulau.

 

Pelabuhan-pelabuhan utama di Main dari mana pengaruh kekayaan secara rasional bisa diharapkan, adalah Cumana & Laguina – yang pertama adalah terdekat. Dari pelabuhan bahwa Spanyol bisa pergi ke berbagai pulau dengan fasilitas yang lebih besar daripada yang mereka bisa datang ke sini.

Mereka bisa pergi ke Antigua dan Curacao terutama dengan lebih mudah.

 

Kepulauan lainnya bisa diberi nama. Aku sekarang akan bertanya apakah sistem keuntungan begitu sering diselenggarakan keluar dari ____ adalah tidak benar-benar hancur. Jika Spanyol bisa pergi ke tempat-tempat dengan hanya kenyamanan yang sama bahwa mereka dapat datang ke sini, mereka bisa menemukan ada jenis barang diinginkan? Mereka bisa.

 

Dalam M & C telah disebutkan, mereka setiap saat tertentu menemukan artikel yang sangat mereka inginkan. Belanda, ____ Perancis & Jerman selalu senang orang-orang Spanyol tetapi membuat maksud dari Spanyol atau orang lain untuk menganggap pengetahuan tertentu perdagangan dan dia akan mengejarnya.

 

Apa obyek perdagangan? Selain apa yang telah dikatakan, maka selanjutnya dapat mengamati bahwa kebiasaan Perancis & Spanyol adalah menyenangkan satu sama lain.

 

Sebagian besar orang-orang Spanyol berbicara bahasa Spanyol dan tidak ada jumlah hina yang terakhir berbicara ____.

 

Akhir-akhir ini telah mengatakan bahwa Prancis adalah memiliki perdagangan langsung dari pelabuhan nya di Eropa untuk orang-orang di Main. Jika ini benar, tidak ada pulau dapat menikmati perdagangan penyelundupan sampai batas tertentu.

 

Dalam hal Trinidad bisa menjanjikan dirinya sangat sedikit.
Aku senang dalam menyatakan kepada Anda bahwa saya telah diperlakukan sangat sopan sini dengan karakter
 yang sangat terhormat

 

Saya pada akhirnya  tidak  menentukan  untuk menghormati tempat tinggal saya. Akan tetapi kepada Allah saya bisa memohon agar  memperbaikinya di Amerika.

 

Kekayaan ada kriteriamintus  satu  Jika aku bisa maju di sini, saya akan setuju menjalani apapun dan setiap kesulitan & sakit untuk tujuan melakukan sesuatu untuk saudara-saudaraku.

 

 

Saya belum mendengar _____ tua. Ini adalah keadaan tunggal yang membuat saya dalam gelap.

 

Saya dengan penghargaan , hamba Anda yang patuh  - Jonathan D. Luiz
Ingat saya Bu Vaughan. Aku minta maaf untuk memberitahu Anda bahwa Jim adalah seorang pencuri dikonfirmasi & pembohong.

 

 Semua minus______ saya telah mampu untuk menimbulkan  dan menunjukkan tidak ada perubahan perilaku menghormati f____ ia dijual. Aku tidak tahu apa yang harus dilakukan dengannya. Jika saya menjual dia di sini, aku takut bahwa Anda atau saya – mungkin keduanya – mungkin diperkenalkan kesulitan. Maksudku jika saya menjual dalam waktu.

 

Bila ada kesempatan bagi  saya  untuk menulis , melakukan mengatakan apakah saya bisa dengan properti membuang waktunya disediakan. Membuat peluang Obligasi untuk pengiriman nya di 21 tahun

Original collections

Source Sparehand

1802: Jonathan D. Lewis to Dr. John Vaughan

This letter was written by Jonathan D. Lewis, to his brother-in-law, Dr. John Vaughan (1775-1807), who is credited with performing the first vaccination in Delaware in 1802.

John Vaughan was educated in Chester, Pennsylvania, and in 1793 and 1794, while studying to be a doctor, attended lectures on medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Vaughan practiced medicine in Delaware, first in Christiana Bridge and later in Wilmington. He was a member of several professional organizations, including the Philadelphia Academy of Medicine, the Medical Society of Philadelphia, the American Medical Association, and the Delaware Medical and Philosophical societies. Vaughan was a prolific author, lending his pen to topics of medical and scientific importance. He kept his “Medical Diary No. 3″ before and during the serious yellow fever epidemic of 1802. Vaughan died in 1807 of typhoid fever.

Vaughan was an assiduous observer of Wilmington’s climate conditions, often listing the daily temperature, wind direction, and weather. He believed that these conditions influenced the occurrence of diseases at certain times of the year. Thus, on one group of pages Vaughan recorded weather information for a given month, and on another group he noted what his patients suffered from during the same period.

Occasionally, Vaughan broke this pattern to copy an article that he had read, something he had heard, or a letter that he had either written or received about a medical matter. One of his correspondents was Dr. Benjamin Rush. A man of science and medicine, Vaughan wrote perhaps in amusement to substantiate his theory on the influence of weather on disease: “Mr. Alrichs, an ingenious watch maker, informed me that sickly seasons were always characterized by the breaking of watch springs — that the fact was so well established as to be proverbial & that it was peculiarly so this season.” On August 26, 1800, Vaughan said: “Bad accounts from Baltimore & Norfolk — yellow fever spreading with great mortality.”

In 1802 a severe yellow fever epidemic broke out in Wilmington. Vaughan is reputed to have been the only doctor to have remained in town to administer to those who had contracted the dreaded disease. One year later, the American Philosophical Society requested that he write a pamphlet about the incident. A Concise History of the Autumnal Fever which Prevailed in the Borough of Wilmington in the Year 1802 resulted. Vaughan’s manuscript diary features the author’s immediate and private observances of the spread of the disease. In the pamphlet Vaughan detailed why he thought the yellow fever epidemic started, how he thought it spread, and what he thought had to be done to eradicate it. In his diary Vaughan recorded his early visit with Ann Davidson, whom he later identified as the initial carrier of the disease, and noted the conditions in the house neighboring the Davidson’s:

“Hadley’s cellar, adjoining Davi[d]sons has been for a long time full of water — & the common receptacle of every filth … oft condemned as a nuisance by the corporation, but neglected. Wm. Cloud complained of its being very offensive to them.”

Vaughan wrote of the activities of Wilmington residents on September 13: “3/4 of the people left the lower parts of the town — below second street — great alarm. Board of Health disorganized in effect — some resigned — President fled — are not mankind reverting to Barbarism.”

Vaughan probably used his diary, serving as it did as a chronological record and source of valuable details, to construct the narrative of his pamphlet. On September 23, for example, Vaughan wrote a letter on the status of the disease to the president of the Board of Health, Isaac Dixon; he copied this letter into his diary, and it appeared subsequently in the circular. At the end of his pamphlet, Vaughan listed the people who died from the epidemic; in his diary he recorded the names and addresses of those stricken and noted whether they recovered or died.

Vaughan never totally abandoned the original intent of his diary — to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between weather conditions and the incidence of disease — to write about the outbreak of yellow fever in Wilmington. There are, in fact, numerous references to weather conditions during the epidemic, and the concept plays an important role in his Concise History.

TRANSCRIPTION

Addressed to John Vaughan, M.D., Wilmington, State of Delaware

Port of Spain [Trinidad]
July 13, 1802

By the late arrivals from Europe &c., I learn that this island is much spoken of and is in most places considered a great acquisition to England. I know that such an opinion prevailed in Philadelphia previous to my departure. I shall therefore make Trinidad the subject of the present communication from a conviction that you will be pleased to receive advice that may be relied on. Before I enter on the subject, permit me to state that I have been in all the richest valleys from the Port de Mona beyond the River Anna and was 7 days in a boat visiting the Trinidad Margin on the Gulph (Paria or Ballena). The latter was performed at the evident risque of my life as in many instances, night came on before I could land, which was done above my knees in mud in an unfriendly climate. In a word, I have been on most of the estates in cultivation and have seen nearly all the best lands which are wild and susceptible of improvement.

The geographical function, and extent of the island may be always seen by having reference to a map. The population agreeably to the last Census taken in October 1801 was about 39,000 souls. _______ of every Colour. More than half the totality of whites are French and the English are more numerous than the Spaniards. There are here a number of M______, Corsicans, Italians, & people from nearly all the Nations in Europe with Creoles from all the Islands in the West Indies.

The climate is the most pestilential of any that I was ever in. If Batavia in Java has been heretofore called the Grave of European, the appellation will apply here with much greater force. I can speak respecting the two places in the comparative way from a trifling portion of experience. Certainly Batavia was never so sickly from what I have been able to learn, as Port of Spain has been during the last 2 months. Almost every European is dead that arrived with an intention of permanent residence since the 1st April last (the day I landed). If I should ever have the happiness of seeing you, I will give a detail on this subject that will almost stagger credibility.

The soil is fertile in the valleys and a greater portion of the island is in flat land than perhaps any other in the West Indies. No attention has been paid to manure, which is a strong evidence of fertility, notwithstanding which I have seen cane from the 9th Ratoons as fine as ever grew. Much of the Island may be termed virgin land — not being ever cleared.

The Gulph of Paria certainly offers a base of fine retreat during the hurricane month and is not subject to hurricanes. Violent gales or _____ of wind. I cannot, however, agree with the ____ ____ English journals in attaching such wonderful importance to it. It will be never resorted to as a place of safety except during the Hurricane month and then only by vessels in a windward station.

War ships to leeward, say on the Jamaica Station, where the great force is generally, will never think of coming here & the distance being so great, and be it remembered that the West Indies are not afflicted with a severe Hurricane oftener than once in 7 years on an average. Vessels of commerce may come here but to no great extent. Merchants will pursue commerce during the Hurricane months. They will not allow their vessels to lay up this ____.

We shall now consider the interior commerce of Trinidad and I think I can clearly prove that the great bulk of commercial men in Europe & America have allowed themselves to be deceived. The ministry of Great Britain have continually represented the value of the Island in a great degree to derive from its proximity to the main. From that simple circumstance, they have promised the Nation a most flourishing contraband commerce with the Spaniards. Let us examine the position that part of the Main which his from _____ to ____ of the River & to the Boca Passages is without ______ more convenient to Trinidad than to any other Island. This Port does and will enjoy almost exclusive trade with that port. But in what does the trade consist? In poultry and vegetables, & cocao from the O. I see the vessels as they arrive and depart and consequently given the fact from a primitive knowledge. All that coast described within the limits above is miserably poor — the Spaniards from ______ have introduced less money & have taken _____. We have their purchase been at all considerable. In a word, they have been much greater disservice than benefit to the island.

The main ports on the Main from which an influence of wealth could rationally be expected, are Cumana & Laguina — the former is nearest. From that port the Spaniards can go to various islands with greater facility than they can come here. They can go to Antigua and Curacao particularly with much greater ease. Other Islands could be named. I will now ask whether the system of advantages so frequently held out from ____ is nor totally destroyed. If the Spaniards can go to those places with only the same convenience that they can come here, can they there find the kind of goods wanted? They can. In M & C already mentioned, they are at all times certain of finding the very articles they wish. Dutch, French & German ____ have always pleased the Spaniards but make it the intent of a Spaniard or any other person to presume a particular knowledge of trade and he will pursue it.

What is the object of trade? In addition to what has been said, it may be further observed that French & Spanish habits are congenial to each other. Most of the Spaniards speak spanish and no contemptible number of the latter speak ____.

Lately it has been said that France is to have a direct trade from her ports in Europe to those on the Main. If this be true, no island can enjoy a smuggling trade to any extent. In which case Trinidad can promise herself very little.

I am happy in declaring to you that I have been treated very politely here by many very respectable characters.

I am not finally determined respecting the place of my residence. Would to God I could fix it in America. Wealth there is the only criterion of mint. If I could get forward here, I would agree to undergo any and every kind of hardship & sickness for the purpose of doing something for my brothers. I have not yet heard of old _____. It is the single circumstance that keeps me in the dark.

I am with esteem, your obedient servant, — Jonathan D. Luiz

Remember me Mrs. Vaughan. I am sorry to tell you that Jim is a confirmed thief & liar. All the ______ mint I have been able to inflict has provided no change of conduct respecting the f____ he was sold for. I know not what to do with him. If I sell him here, I am fearful that you or I — perhaps both — may be introduced to trouble. I mean if I sell in time. If an opportunity exists of writing to me, do say whether I can with property dispose of his time provided. Make a Bond opportunity for his delivery at 21 years.

THE END @ COPYRIGHT @ 2012

KOLEKSI SEJARAH PENDUDUKAN DAI NIPPON DI FILIPINA

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THE DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION PHILLIPINE HISTORY COLLECTIONS

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The Dai Nippon  Occupation Phillipine

History Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHAS

Limited E-BOOK in CD_ROM edition

Special for specialist collectors

Copyright@ 2012

Desember, 13th.1941

Filipina:

Operasi terkonsentrasi di sekitar kepulauan Filipina. Aktivitas angkatan laut Intens ditunjukkan oleh Amerika di selat antara Taiwan dan Luzon. Konvoi Jepang membawa pasukan dan peralatan. Setengah lusin kapal selam Amerika mencoba untuk mencegat tanpa keberhasilan.

Masing-masing konvoi proporsi tinggi pendamping. Meskipun deteksi dasar dari Jepang tidak bisa efektif submersible Grenader kehadiran pendamping yang cukup untuk menghindari torpedo yang penting untuk saat ini.

Mendarat dengan selamat di Aparri markas besar Angkatan Darat ke-14, yang memiliki operasi langsung dan markas dari Armada Udara 11. Brigade ke-65 sedang mempersiapkan untuk melanjutkan Tuguegarao diambil tanpa garda depan melawan.
Divisi ke-21 tiba dari China saat mendarat dan dua resimen tank. Sepuluh unit rekayasa bekerja keras untuk memperluas lereng Aparri lapangan terbang.
Kemampuan hanya pergi ke 3. Dengan markas Armada 11 4 skuadron Zero dari Formosa dapat diinstal di Aparri dengan jaminan layanan yang tepat dari perawatan pesawat. Membawa ini skuadron daripada harus menggunakan tank drop yang membatasi manuver mereka dan mengurangi kelelahan percontohan. Tugas mereka adalah untuk menghilangkan lima puluh pejuang Sekutu masih di Manila.

Sebuah operasi pengalihan sedang berlangsung di selatan Luzon dengan mengambil Legaspi dan naik ke utara dari kekuatan kecil yang terdiri dari dua resimen infanteri dan batalyon elit. Jepang berharap bahwa kekuatan muka untuk membagi menjadi dua kekuatan untuk bertahan sekitar Manila.
Sebuah operasi pendaratan yang direncanakan di pulau Mindanao pada 14 Desember dengan dua konvoi. Operasi akan ditutupi oleh skuadron tempur disertai tiga pramuka cruiser Chiyoda dan skuadron ringan dengan tujuh kapal perusak dan kapal penjelajah ringan. (121)

Desember, 14th.1941

Selatan pantai Filipina:
Orang Jepang disita tanpa perlawanan Naga dan terus muka mereka kembali ke Manila. (121)

Desember, 17th.1941
Orang Jepang telah bekerja keras untuk memperluas basis Aparri dan Tugueragao Filipina utara.

Mulai 17 Desember

 Zero dan Sallys pembom dapat mempersingkat perjalanan mereka untuk memulai serangan mereka di Manila.
18/12, membawa skuadron mereka di tempat kerja beristirahat dan ofensif udara di Manila lagi.

Gelombang 1 dari Zero kehilangan perangkat, tapi dua warna P40. Gelombang 2 kehilangan Zero dan membunuh P40 a. Gelombang ke-3 adalah kesalahan dan menghancurkan 2 P40 tanpa kehilangan apapun.

Gelombang berikutnya dari pembom menghancurkan terdiri pangkalan udara di Manila menghancurkan trek, fasilitas dan persediaan bensin

Desember, 20th.1941

Di pagi hari tempat pesawat amfibi konvoi yang mungkin untuk membongkar tentara dievakuasi dari Filipina ke Makassar

Gagal berburu di Filipina:

Skuadron kapal penjelajah cahaya ditempatkan di Filipina sekali lagi mencoba untuk membasmi bintang meluncurkan torpedo menimbulkan ancaman terus pasukan pendaratan. Sekali lagi pertempuran yang berlangsung off dari Iba sampai 1000 meter jauhnya. Meskipun keunggulan yang luar biasa dari Jepang CI mereka yang tidak mampu untuk menempatkan shell tunggal. PT-32 menjatuhkan torpedo pada CL Tama yang baru saja terhindar. Untuk ledakan dari PT kirim, Jepang 3 bukan dari kaliber yang sama, itu benar. Pertempuran berakhir dengan tanpa kehilangan kedua belah pihak.
(Pertempuran dengan PT telah berubah di alam AE dalam arti lebih realistis)
Di daerah yang sama USS Salmon longgar empat torpedo pada kapal perusak tapi Nokaze kurangnya. Para perusak Jepang, namun model terbaru, tidak dapat menemukan kapal selam.
(The AE Submarines sangat sulit mengusir, tapi sebagai imbalannya mereka tidak efektif dengan adanya pengawalan yang sesuai)

(121)

 

Desember, 20th.1941

pagi hari 20/12.

Penggerebekan di Manila dilanjutkan dengan penghancuran dua pesawat tempur Sekutu.
Ucapan Terima Kasih menunjukkan bahwa Sekutu terkonsentrasi di Manila 51 unit meninggalkan sisa pulau.
(121)

Desember, 21th.1941

Penggerebekan di Manila

Pada pagi hari Manila, 3 upaya Warhawk untuk menghadapi Zero muncul di pangkalan. Terjun 29.000 kaki, Amerika mencoba untuk mengejutkan Zero Jepang tetapi menghindar. Salah satunya ditemukan di belakang buta dan P40B. Orang lain menyerah. Kemudian ikuti sepanjang hari serangkaian serangan untuk menghancurkan pangkalan udara berhasil. Namun Filipina buruh
Malaysia serangan Sally Lilly dan terkejut kereta api sarat dengan tentara bepergian di Singapura. 284 korban Brigade India 6 dan resimen artileri 155, sebagian besar terdengar terluka, tersebar di sepanjang mobil terbakar. (121)
Di 22d, Desember 1941

 

Let.Gen.Brett, yang baru saja menerima perintah untuk pergi ke Australia dan mengambil komando pasukan Angkatan Darat AS di sana, tiba dengan Wavell dan percakapan dengan Cina mulai dengan sungguh-sungguh. Petunjuk Brett dari Washington untuk bergabung dengan orang lain dalam mencari cara untuk mengambil keuntungan dari “ekstensi over-saat ini” Jepang – tesis MacArthur – dan untuk meyakinkan Cina bahwa Amerika Serikat tidak meninggalkan Filipina atau mitranya di Asia.

 Setelah diskusi yang cukup, rencana yang menempatkan kontrol di Washington dan menyerukan hanya beroperasi secara terbatas di Asia telah berkembang dengan delegasi dan dikirim ke Washington.

Generalissimo pikir itu tidak memuaskan dan dikirim sendiri. Baik berisi saran konkret pada perintah atau logistik, dua masalah yang akan wabah Sekutu di China selama tiga tahun ke depan. Konferensi berakhir pada 23d, setelah diproduksi, salah satu perencana menulis, “sangat sedikit di jalan hasil nyata.”

18-20 Desember th 1.942

The Singapore Konferensi (18-20 Desember),

 meskipun tidak menghasilkan rencana untuk menghentikan drive Jepang, lebih berbuah, karena dari itu datang usulan konkret pertama untuk

 

perintah Sekutu di Pasifik Barat Daya.

 

 Petunjuk Kolonel Brink ini adalah untuk menyampaikan pandangan MacArthur pada strategi Timur Jauh, yang diringkas Jenderal Marshall baginya sebagai berikut:

Amerika, Australia, dan Belanda udara dan angkatan laut harus bekerja sama untuk menjaga jalur komunikasi terbuka dari Australia ke Filipina.

 Pertahanan berhasil Filipina dianggap penting untuk pemeliharaan struktur Sekutu defensif di Pasifik Barat.

Rencana untuk penguatan Filipina langsung pasti tergantung untuk sukses pada pembentukan lalu lintas udara antara Filipina dan basis selatan. Setiap upaya harus dilakukan untuk membantu pasokan udara dengan pembentukan kembali komunikasi laut terbatas antara Australia dan Filipina.

Pandangan-pandangan ini, Marshall menambahkan “umumnya sepakat dalam oleh Presiden.” Pada saat yang sama ia memberitahu MacArthur dari pertemuan mendatang dan instruksi kepada delegasi Amerika, menambahkan anggapan bahwa ia berhubungan langsung dengan mereka 7 “jika praktis dari sudut pandang kerahasiaan.”

Dengan petunjuk ini dan dengan pernyataan tambahan dari MacArthur dan Hart, dikemas dalam bahasa MacArthurian, bahwa “wilayah Timur Jauh sekarang lokus dominan perang,

“Brink Kolonel disampaikan kepada peserta konferensi Singapura 1.941

 pandangan Amerika tentang pentingnya Filipina dan kebutuhan untuk tetap membuka jalur komunikasi. Tapi lihat Inggris pentingnya Singapura didominasi.

Laporan dari konferensi itu, oleh karena itu, sementara itu meminta balabantuan besar untuk Pasifik Barat Daya dan mengadopsi semua saran MacArthur untuk perlindungan dari jalur udara dan laut antara Malaya dan Filipina, memberi tempat kedua pertahanan Filipina.

Jepang menaklukkan Singapura, konferensi itu berpikir, akan menjadi bencana dari urutan pertama. Tidak hanya akan memastikan hilangnya Hindia Belanda dengan sumber daya yang besar dalam minyak dan karet, tetapi juga akan menempatkan musuh dalam posisi untuk mengisolasi Australia dan Selandia Baru dan untuk memisahkan armada Inggris dan Amerika di Timur Jauh.

Pentingnya Filipina terbatas, dalam laporan Konferensi Singapura, penggunaannya 8 “sebagai dasar maju dan mengapit aksi serangan terhadap jalur komunikasi Jepang.”

Hasil yang paling penting dari pertemuan Singapura adalah proposal yang dibuat oleh Brink untuk perintah terpadu.

Konferensi, katanya kepada Kepala Staf, “mahal mengindikasikan perlunya satu kepala tertinggi atas staf gabungan sekutu” untuk mengkoordinasikan upaya, pasukan Amerika Inggris, Australia, dan Belanda di daerah dan membuat rencana untuk masa depan. The “pendapat tidak resmi” dari konferensi itu, ia menambahkan, menunjukkan bahwa penunjukan familiar Amerika dengan wilayah Pasifik untuk posting ini “tidak hanya akan diterima tetapi diinginkan.”

 Jika seperti janji dibuat dan kantor pusat yang didirikan, Brink menyarankan bahwa itu terletak di Jawa. Tapi dia tidak gagal untuk menunjukkan bahwa mayoritas delegasi percaya basis utama operasi Sekutu di Pasifik Barat Daya harus di Australia, dengan basis di muka Indies.9

Saran Brink ini dengan cepat dijemput di Washington. Dalam Divisi Perang Angkatan Darat Rencana, di mana ia pergi pertama untuk komentar, gagasan perintah terpadu di Timur Jauh digambarkan sebagai “penting mutlak bagi keberhasilan penuntutan upaya perang di teater ini,” dan masalah yang seharusnya didiskusikan dengan Inggris. Aksi di divisi berakhir dengan catatan, “Hal ini sedang dipertimbangkan oleh Kepala Staf Telah dibahas di Gedung Putih..” 10

Desember, 22th.1941

Di pagi hari serangan udara terus di Manila.

Amerika masih menyelaraskan Warkawks 5. 2 dihancurkan terhadap suatu Nol. Kemudian lulus pembom ditumbuk dasar. Lubang pertama dari hari di lereng tidak bisa benar-benar disegel kembali. (121)

Pada saat laporan dari Konferensi Singapura dan Chungking mencapai Departemen Perang, Churchill dan Kepala Stafnya telah tiba di Washington untuk pertama konferensi perang banyak yang menandai aliansi militer yang paling sukses dalam sejarah peperangan.

Pertemuan ini, yang berlangsung dari 22 Desember 1941-14 Januari 1942 dan dikenal dengan nama kode ARCADIA,

 dalam banyak hal yang paling penting dari konferensi yang diselenggarakan selama perang. Ini mendirikan sebuah organisasi untuk melakukan perang koalisi yang selamat semua ketegangan dan tekanan dari kepentingan nasional bertentangan, menegaskan kembali keputusan dasar untuk membuat upaya besar di Eropa pada saat rakyat Amerika belum pulih dari shock Pearl Harbor dan ketika bencana mengancam di Pasifik dan Asia, mendirikan perintah Sekutu pertama perang, dan meletakkan program yang luas untuk masa depan serta rencana untuk segera action.11

Perbedaan antara pandangan Inggris dan Amerika, yang telah jelas jelas pada pertemuan ABC awal tahun 1941, lagi-lagi terlihat pada konferensi ARCADIA. Orang-orang Amerika percaya bahwa kepentingan nasional terbaik mereka akan dilayani dan keamanan Amerika Serikat yang terbaik dijamin oleh kekalahan awal Jerman dan Jepang. Tujuan ini mereka menempatkan di depan semua orang lain dan membuat tolok ukur untuk setiap masalah di hadapan mereka. Inggris, juga meminta kekalahan awal musuh, tetapi mereka berbeda dengan orang Amerika tentang cara untuk melakukannya. Selanjutnya, kepentingan nasional mereka mencakup keamanan dan masa depan dari sebuah kekaisaran yang berjauhan dengan garis panjang komunikasi.

Tugas mereka adalah lebih kompleks dibandingkan dengan Amerika dan jalan mereka untuk kemenangan yang lebih berbelit-belit. Bagi mereka, Timur Tengah, Singapura, Malaya, Australia, India – semua mengadakan pentingnya Amerika tidak bisa memberikan alasan yang murni militer. Inggris mendesak keras agar alokasi sumber daya Sekutu untuk membela posisi ini, tidak hanya di ARCADIA tetapi pada konferensi yang diikuti, sementara Amerika mendorong mindedly tunggal bagi operasi yang akan membawa kekalahan musuh. Tapi tekad untuk setuju dan niat baik pada kedua belah pihak mengatasi semua perbedaan.

Tentang satu hal, tujuan utama dari strategi Sekutu, ada ketidaksepakatan ada. Para pelaku berlangganan pernyataan dasar tujuan perang yang berfungsi sebagai tujuan strategis untuk tahun 1942 dan dasar pembagian sumber daya dari kedua negara. “Banyak hal telah terjadi sejak Februari lalu,” kata konferensi itu, “tetapi meskipun masuknya Jepang ke Perang, pandangan kami tetap bahwa Jerman masih merupakan musuh utama dan kekalahan adalah kunci kemenangan..

Setelah Jerman dikalahkan runtuhnya Italia dan kekalahan Jepang harus mengikuti. “12 Disepakati Oleh karena itu, sebagai” prinsip kardinal “dari Amerika dan strategi Inggris,” bahwa hanya minimum kekuatan yang diperlukan untuk melindungi kepentingan vital dalam teater lain harus dialihkan dari operasi melawan Jerman. “

Dalam hal situasi yang ada, ini “prinsip kardinal” berarti bahwa produksi persenjataan harus ditingkatkan, bahwa posisi penting harus dipertahankan, bahwa jalur komunikasi yang vital harus diadakan, dan bahwa, dengan kombinasi pemboman, blokade propaganda, dan, perlawanan Jerman harus dikurangi sehingga Sekutu bisa mendarat di Benua tahun 1943.

Tapi prinsip kekuatan minimal di Pasifik adalah salah satu yang dapat ditafsirkan dengan berbagai cara dan biasanya adalah, tergantung pada situasi. Selalu ada orang-orang yang dapat membenarkan pasukan tambahan untuk Pasifik atas dasar bahwa mereka diminta untuk menjaga kepentingan vital di sana. Ini adalah posisi Angkatan Laut, dengan kuat berpendapat dan konsisten oleh Laksamana Raja.

Di Timur Jauh dan Pasifik, Amerika dan Inggris Kepala Staf setuju, maka akan diperlukan untuk menjaga keamanan Australia, Selandia Baru, dan India, untuk mendukung Cina, dan untuk mendapatkan “poin dari pandang” dari mana serangan melawan Jepang bisa “akhirnya dikembangkan.”

Ini adalah tujuan jangka panjang, yang “objek langsung” adalah untuk menahan Hawaii, Alaska, Singapura, Barrier Melayu, Filipina, Rangoon, dan rute ke China.

Sebagai pernyataan umum strategi, tujuan yang digariskan oleh AS dan Inggris Kepala Staf memiliki sedikit relevansi dengan darurat di Timur Jauh di mana Jepang maju dengan cepat di depan setiap.

 Apa yang dibutuhkan adalah kesepakatan tentang pembagian sumber daya dari kedua negara untuk daerah itu, dan, khususnya, jumlah yang akan diberikan setiap posisi penting masih di tangan Sekutu namun dipertahankan oleh berbagai kekuatan nasional dan komandan independen.

 

Kedua belah pihak tampaknya enggan untuk masuk ke dalam diskusi rinci tentang hal ini, tetapi mereka sepakat bahwa perencana harus mempelajari pertanyaan tentang disposisi pasukan dalam dan dalam perjalanan ke Pasifik Barat Daya.

Penelitian ini, Kepala ditetapkan, harus didasarkan pada tiga asumsi alternatif, pertama, bahwa Sekutu akan memegang kedua Filipina dan Singapura, kedua, bahwa mereka akan terus Singapura dan Hindia Belanda, tapi kehilangan Filipina, dan ketiga, bahwa mereka akan kehilangan Singapura dan Filipina.

Para perencana pergi untuk bekerja pada masalah segera dan cepat menghasilkan laporan Kepala disetujui pada hari terakhir tahun ini. Menyadari bahwa kekuatan itu di daerah tidak bisa memegang posisi yang ditentukan dan bahwa bala bantuan segera harus diberikan, para perencana dibingkai pernyataan berikut dari tujuan Sekutu:

1. Pegang Barrier Melayu, yaitu Semenanjung Malaysia, Sumatera, Jawa, dan pulau-pulau yang membentang ke arah timur ke barat laut Australia, “sebagai posisi defensif dasar”; “. Sebagai posisi pendukung penting” dan Burma dan Australia
2. Membangun kembali komunikasi dengan Filipina dan mendukung garnisun di sana, sementara menjaga komunikasi ke Burma dan Australia dan di wilayah Timur Jauh.
 

Ditambahkan ke laporan adalah daftar pasukan sudah di teater dan dijadwalkan tiba dengan 1 Februari

1941

December,13th.1941

Philippines:

Operations are concentrated around the Philippine archipelago. Intense naval activity is indicated by the Americans in the straits between Taiwan and Luzon. Japanese convoys carry troops and equipment. Half a dozen American submarine attempting to intercept without success.

Each convoy includes a high proportion of escorts. Although rudimentary detection of Japanese can not effectively submersible Grenader the presence of sufficient escorts to avoid torpedo which is essential for the moment.

Landed safely at Aparri the headquarters of the 14th Army, which has direct operations and the headquarters of the 11th Air Fleet. The 65th Brigade is preparing to move on Tuguegarao taken without a fight vanguard.
The 21st Division arriving from China during landing and two tank regiments. Ten engineering units are working hard to expand the slopes of Aparri airfield.
Ability just go to 3. With the headquarters of the 11th Fleet 4 squadrons of Zeros from Formosa can be installed in Aparri with the assurance of proper service of aircraft maintenance. Bringing these squadrons rather than having to use drop tanks that limit their maneuverability and reduce pilot fatigue. Their task is to eliminate fifty Allied fighters still in Manila.

A diversion operation is underway in southern Luzon with taking Legaspi and rise to the north of a small force consisting of two regiments of infantry and a battalion of elite. Japanese hope that this advance force to split into two forces to defend the vicinity of Manila.
A landing operation is planned on the island of Mindanao on December 14 with two convoys. The operation will be covered by a squadron of three battleships accompanied scout cruiser Chiyoda and a light squadron with seven destroyers and a light cruiser.(121)

December,14th.1941

Southern coast of the Philippines:
The Japanese seized without a fight Naga and continue their advance back to Manila.
(121)

December,17th.1941
The Japanese have worked hard to expand the bases of Aparri and Tugueragao the northern Philippines.

Beginning December 17

 the Zeros and bombers Sallys can shorten their journey to launch their attack on Manila.
18/12, brought their squadrons at work rested and air offensive on Manila again.

The 1st wave of Zeros loses a device, but two shades P40. The 2nd wave loses Zero and kills a P40. The 3rd wave is the fault and destroyed 2 P40 without any loss.

Subsequent waves of bombers devastate composed airbase in Manila destroying tracks, facilities and gasoline inventories

December,20th.1941

In the morning the seaplane spot a convoy being likely to unload troops evacuated from the Philippines to Macassar

Unsuccessful hunting in the Philippines:

The squadron of light cruisers stationed in the Philippines once again trying to eradicate stars launches torpedoes pose a continuing threat to the landing forces. Once again a skirmish takes place off of Iba to 1000 yards away. Despite the overwhelming superiority of Japanese çi those unable to place a single shell. The PT-32 dropped a torpedo on CL Tama who just avoided. For a burst of the Japanese send PT 3, not of the same caliber, it is true. The battle ends with no loss of both sides.
(Fighting with PT have changed in nature to AE in a more realistic sense)
In the same area the USS Salmon loose four torpedoes at the destroyer but the lack Nokaze. The Japanese destroyers, yet a recent model, are unable to locate the submarine.
(The Submarines AE are very difficult to cast, but in return they are ineffective in the presence of suitable escorts)

(121)

 

December,20th.1941

the morning of 20/12.

Raids on Manila continued with the destruction of two Allied fighters.
Acknowledgments indicate that the Allies concentrated in Manila 51 units leaving the rest of the island.
(121)

December,21th.1941

Raids on Manila

On the morning of Manila, 3 Warhawk attempt to confront the Zeros appearing on the base. Plunging 29,000 feet, the Americans tried to surprise the Japanese Zeros but dodge. One of them is found behind a blind and P40B. Others give up. Then follow throughout the day a series of raids to destroy the airbase succeed. But the Filipino laborers
Malaysia raid Sally Lilly and surprised a train loaded with troops traveling on Singapore. 284 victims of the 6th Indian Brigade and the artillery regiment 155, mostly sounded wounded, spread along the cars on fire.(121)
On the 22d,December,1941

 

Let.Gen.Brett, who had just received orders to go to Australia and take command of U.S. Army forces there, arrived with Wavell and the conversations with the Chinese began in earnest. Brett’s instructions from Washington were to join with the others in seeking ways to take advantage of Japan’s “present over-extension” — MacArthur’s thesis — and to reassure the Chinese that the United States was not abandoning the Philippines or its partners in Asia.

 After considerable discussion, a plan that placed control in Washington and called for only limited operations in Asia was evolved by the delegates and sent to Washington.

The Generalissimo thought it unsatisfactory and sent his own. Neither contained any concrete suggestions on command or logistics, two problems that would plague the Allies in China for the next three years. The conference ended on the 23d, having produced, one of the planners wrote, “very little in the way of concrete results.”

December 18-20 th 1942

The Singapore Conference (18-20 December),

 though it produced no plan to halt the Japanese drive, was more fruitful, for from it came the first concrete proposal for

 

an Allied command in the Southwest Pacific.

 

 Colonel Brink’s instructions were to present MacArthur’s views on Far East strategy, which General Marshall summarized for him as follows:

American, Australian, and Dutch air and naval forces should cooperate to keep open line of communications from Australia to Philippines.

 Successful defense of Philippines considered essential to maintenance of Allied defensive structure in the Western Pacific.

Plans for immediate Philippine reinforcement definitely dependent for success upon establishment of air traffic between Philippines and bases south. Every effort should be made to supplement air supply by re-establishment of limited sea communications between Australia and Philippines.

These views, Marshall added “are generally concurred in by the President.” At the same time he informed MacArthur of the forthcoming meetings and of his instructions to the American delegates, adding the suggestion that he correspond directly with them “if practicable from the viewpoint of secrecy.”7

With these instructions and with the additional statement from MacArthur and Hart, couched in MacArthurian language, that “the Far East area is now the dominant locus of the war,

” Colonel Brink presented to the Singapore conferees 1941

 the American view of the importance of the Philippines and the necessity for keeping open the lines of communication. But the British view of the importance of Singapore predominated.

The report of the conferees, therefore, while it called for large reinforcements to the Southwest Pacific and adopted all of MacArthur’s suggestions for the protection of the air and sea lanes between Malaya and the Philippines, gave second place to the defense of the Philippines.

Japanese conquest of Singapore, the conferees thought, would be a disaster of the first order. Not only would it make certain the loss of the Netherlands Indies with is vast resources in oil and rubber, but it would also place the enemy in position to isolate Australia and New Zealand and to separate the British and American fleets in the Far East.

The importance of the Philippines was limited, in the report of the Singapore Conference, to its use “as an advanced and flanking base for offensive action against Japanese lines of communication.”8

The most important result of the Singapore meeting was the proposal made by Brink for a unified command.

The conference, he told the Chief of Staff, “dearly indicated the need for one supreme head over a combined allied staff” to co-ordinate the efforts of the American, British, Australian, and Dutch forces in the area and to make plans for the future. The “unofficial opinions” of the conferees, he added, indicated that the appointment of an American familiar with the Pacific area to this post “would not only be acceptable but desirable.”

 If such an appointment were made and a headquarters established, Brink suggested that it be located in Java. But he did not fail to point out that the majority of the delegates believed the major base of Allied operations in the Southwest Pacific should be in Australia, with an advance base in the Indies.9

Brink’s suggestion was quickly picked up in Washington. In the Army War Plans Division, where it went first for comment, the idea of a unified command in the Far East was described as “an absolute essential for the successful prosecution of the war effort in this theater,” and a matter that ought to be discussed with the British. Action in the division ended with the note, “This matter is being considered by the Chief of Staff. It has been discussed at the White House.”10

Indonesian Version

Desember, 25th.1941

Invasi Luzon memulai hari yang sama. Dalam kedua Malaya dan Filipina, tangguh Jepang, tentara terlatih luar biasa cepat mengatasi maju pertahanan dan menyapu selatan menuju Singapura dan Manila. Hong Kong menyerah pada Hari Natal.

(121).

 

 

Pada tanggal 25 Desember,

 Markas, Amerika Serikat Pasukan di Timur Jauh, didirikan pada Corregidor. Manila ditetapkan sebagai kota terbuka pada hari berikutnya dan sisa-sisa dari pangkalan angkatan laut di Cavite diledakkan untuk mencegah pasokan dari jatuh ke tangan musuh.

 

 

TANK HAMBATAN DAN KAWAT berduri halus untuk menunda muka musuh di Bataan (atas), anggota perusahaan antitank di posisi di Bataan (bawah).

Sebagai canggih Jepang,

kekuatan membela diri menuju Semenanjung Bataan. The medan kasar, panggul dilindungi, dan ruang manuver terbatas pada Bataan terbatas kemampuan musuh untuk mempekerjakan sejumlah besar pasukan. Persiapan untuk pertahanan semenanjung diintensifkan dan stok persediaan meningkat.

 

pada 22 Desember 1941

Jenderal Homma menempatkan sebagian besar Angkatan Darat ke-14 di darat Lingayen Teluk, utara Manila.

 

japamese perwira militer Letnan Jenderal Kyoji Tominaga berjabat tangan dengan perampok dari Kaoru Khusus Serangan Korps sebelum meninggalkan misi terhadap strip arahan USAAF pada Leyte (Oktober 1944)

 

Letnan Jenderal Kyoji Tominaga memberikan anggur demi untuk prajurit dari Kaoru Khusus Serangan Korps sebelum meninggalkan misi terhadap strip arahan USAAF pada Leyte (Oktober 1944)

Sisanya mendarat dua hari kemudian di Lamon Bay, selatan ibukota, untuk membentuk lengan selatan gerakan menjepit raksasa berkumpul di Manila.

 Tapi Homma cepat menemukan ia berurusan dengan musuh ditentukan dan mampu.

MacArthur tidak, karena Homma dan Imperial Markas Umum diharapkan, tetap berkelahi habis-habisan di dataran tengah Luzon.

 Sebaliknya ia diberlakukan rencana lama JERUK dan menarik pasukannya ke Semenanjung Bataan dalam gerakan terampil dan berbahaya retrograde ganda, dibuat dalam dua minggu dalam keadaan yang paling sulit dan tekanan konstan.

Pada saat yang sama ia menyatakan Manila kota terbuka dan ditransfer ke markas Corregidor. Dengan demikian, ketika Homma

Desember, 26th.1941

Pada 26 Desember

penangkapan Jepang Cotabato selatan Manila, Setelah dasar ditempati oleh jenius penerbangan dan pemburu ..

Batalyon 1 dari pasukan RI mengusir 124th di Zamboanga Filipina (121)

Desember, 29th.1941

Filipina:

Pasukan kekaisaran menangkap Batangas, kota terakhir sebelum Manila selatan di mana 51 unit diidentifikasi. Batalyon Sebuah alamat Clark pesawat Lapangan kosong. Lapangan udara besar yang bertempat B17n’est yang dipertahankan oleh unit artileri pesisir menjaga Subic Bay. 48 senjata dan 850 orang ditangkap.
Jelas Rominet MacArthur memutuskan untuk mengunci di Manila dan untuk memperpanjang kursi tanpa perlawanan meninggalkan sisa pulau.
Di Mindanao resimen 103 mencoba untuk mendapatkan kembali Butuan Filipina tapi keras ditolak oleh resimen 1 dari serangan, satuan elit dari para Japanese Army: Filipina kehilangan 460 orang dari 600 yang terlibat dalam operasi (121).

1.942

Januari 1942

Kesalahan dlm tulisan yg diperbaiki:
Dinas intelijen Angkatan Laut mengembalikan urutan pertempuran perang Oklahoma sekutu mereka telah keliru kapal perang yang tenggelam Maryland (121)

 

JEPANG TAHANAN,

ditangkap di Bataan, yang dipimpin ditutup matanya ke markas untuk diinterogasi.

Pada 1 Januari 1942

 Jepang memasuki Manila dan AS, pasukan mundur ke arah Bataan. Perlengkapan militer entah pindah ke Bataan dan Corregidor atau dihancurkan.

Sisa pasukan di Bataan,

termasuk sekitar 15.000 tentara AS, mencapai sekitar 80.000 orang. Masalah pangan, perumahan, dan sanitasi yang sangat meningkat dengan kehadiran lebih dari 20.000 pengungsi sipil. Semua tentara ditempatkan pada setengah-ransum.

 

Manila:

yang tak henti-hentinya pemboman di ibukota Filipina. 2 pesawat hancur setidaknya di lereng. (121)

Januari, 2nd.1942

Pada 2 Januari 1942

 

, Ibukota Filipina Manila diduduki oleh Jepang

Januari, 4th.1942

Filipina:

Sebuah avant-garde dari selatan Luzon pergi terlalu cepat untuk berinvestasi Manila. Ini menembus beberapa jam sebelum kedatangan menjepit utara. Serangan Filipina-Amerika melawan dan menolak selatan Jepang. 4000 Jepang tersingkir di 1500 melawan tentara Sekutu.
Ini topeng bergerak di Manila manuver di semenanjung Bataan bahwa Jepang ingin mengurangi sebelum benar-benar menyerang Manila di mana lebih dari 40 unit sekutu yang tertutup.
Serangan udara tertunda sukses di Manila tapi kuat DCA mengurangi efektivitas mereka. (121)

Januari, 6th.1942

Luzon:

Orang Jepang memimpin operasi berisiko dengan harapan bahwa Amerika menemukan apa yang terjadi terlambat dan hanya bereaksi terhadap waktu.
2 layar pasukan, mungkin terlalu terang, menyembunyikan pasukan sekutu besar terkunci di Manila menjelang brigade ke-65, tiga resimen tank dan resimen artileri di semenanjung Bataan menutup Teluk Manila.
Serangan pertama pembela Bataan menyerah. 14.000 orang itu dibawa tahanan, 340 senjata hancur. Jepang segera berbalik untuk bergabung mengepung Manila.
57.000 sekutu terkunci. Seberang DI 21th dengan resimen lapis baja ke-21, 2 resimen infanteri, resimen empat mortir, 17.000 adalah laki-laki, perisai.
Amerika dengan bantuan besar dari Jepang tidak memulai penyerangan dan hanya bom:. 230 korban, sementara pemboman Jepang tidak efektif (121)

Januari, 9th.1942

Filipina:

berburu sekutu berusaha untuk menantang supremasi Jepang lebih Manila berharap untuk mencegat pembom mereka. Nyaris hilang: 5 Warhawk tempur pada 8 terlibat hancur. Pertempuran berlangsung di ketinggian 31.000 kaki, di mana Warhawks jelas tidak nyaman.
Filipina-Amerika menyadari bahwa mereka memiliki keuntungan numerik ke Manila: 44.000 terhadap
20 000. Mengusir serangan Jepang di pinggiran ibukota sebelum tentara ditarik dari Bataan terjadi. 4400 tentara Hirohito bubar, 800 warga Filipina yang hilang. (121)

Januari, 11th.1942

sebagian besar tentara Amerika di Filipina itu tertahan di Semenanjung Bataan

 

Januari, 20th.1942

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maret 1942

 

WORLD WAR II Bataan KEMATIAN MARET -

“Hal ini tanpa sifat malu-malu sedikit dan sangsi bahwa saya mendekati deskripsi saya fakta-fakta dan peristiwa di Bataan Death Maret. Untuk memberikan gambaran yang akurat dari perbuatan-perbuatan tersebut pasukan Jepang, akan diperlukan bagi saya untuk menggambarkan tindakan yang plum kedalaman yang sangat kejatuhan manusia dan degradasi. Keynote dari seluruh kejahatan ini dapat dicontohkan oleh dua

 

kata-terkatakan horor. Horror telanjang dan telanjang menembus setiap sudut dan sudut kasus ini dari awal sampai akhir, tanpa bantuan atau paliatif. Aku telah mencari, saya telah mencari tekun di antara massa besar bukti untuk menemukan beberapa fitur penebusan, beberapa faktor yang meringankan dalam pelaksanaan orang-orang yang akan mengangkat cerita dari tingkat horor murni dan kebinatangan dan memuliakan uponplane it.at paling tragedi. Saya akui saya telah gagal ‘

Keynote dari seluruh kejahatan ini dapat dicontohkan oleh dua kata yang tak terkatakan-horor. Horror telanjang dan telanjang menembus setiap sudut dan sudut kasus ini dari awal sampai akhir, tanpa bantuan atau paliatif. Aku telah mencari, saya telah mencari tekun di antara massa besar bukti untuk menemukan beberapa fitur penebusan, beberapa faktor yang meringankan dalam pelaksanaan orang-orang yang akan mengangkat cerita dari tingkat

Maret sampai Mati

The Bataan Death March adalah salah satu kejahatan yang paling brutal yang dilakukan oleh Jepang dengan tawanan perang selama Perang Dunia kedua. The Bataan Death march (alias The March of Death Bataan) adalah kejahatan perang yang melibatkan pemindahan paksa terhadap tawanan perang, dengan luas penyalahgunaan dan kematian yang tinggi, oleh pasukan Jepang di Filipina pada tahun 1942. Pawai terjadi setelah Pertempuran tiga bulan Bataan, bagian dari Pertempuran Filipina (1941-42), selama Perang Dunia II. Dalam bahasa Jepang, itu dikenal sebagai BATAN Shi Koshin tidak ada (バターン 死 の 行進, BATAN Shi no Koshin?), Dengan arti yang sama. Ada ribuan orang Filipina dan Amerika tewas dari kebrutalan Jepang selama pawai dan mereka yang selamat menderita kelaparan dan lagi kematian akibat turture.

ukuran

 

 

Kisah Kekejaman oleh Japs pada Narapidana malang dilepaskan oleh AS; Kelaparan disengaja, Penyiksaan, Kematian

courtesy of Bataan Corregidor Memorial Foundation of New Mexico, Inc

WASHINGTON, DC (AP) – Jan. 28, 1944 – Sebuah cerita terpendam dari kekejaman yang dilakukan oleh tentara Jepang pada pahlawan ditangkap dari Bataan dan Corregidor dirilis oleh pemerintah Amerika Serikat saat ini secara rinci memuakkan.

Sebuah laporan bersama oleh Angkatan Darat dan Angkatan Laut pecah akhirnya sensor kaku dikelola oleh komando tinggi pada laporan hampir tidak bisa dipercaya yang keluar dari Pasifik, untuk memberitahu apa yang terjadi pada laki-laki yang keberanian memperlambat gelombang penaklukan Jepang.

Sebuah Kisah Penyiksaan

Disusun dari laporan bebuyutan petugas yang selamat dari kelaparan dan penyiksaan dan melarikan diri, maka katalog tersebut penghujatan dari musuh brutal, dan menulis dalam hal mengejutkan kode prajurit Jepang – untuk subjek 36.000 prajurit gagah kelaparan yang disengaja, untuk menembak dalam dingin darah haus yang mencari air, untuk menonton menggeliat sakit laki-laki dan menolak mereka obat-obatan, untuk cambuk kuda mereka yang membantu rekan-rekan mereka jatuh, mengalahkan pria dengan dua-by-merangkak, untuk memenggal kepala orang-orang yang mencoba melarikan diri, dan mengubur hidup-hidup pria disiksa .

Tiga yang tinggal untuk kembali dan menceritakan penderitaan yang mereka alami adalah Komandan Melvyn H. McCoy, USN, dari Indianapolis, Letnan Kolonel SM Mellnik, Pantai Korps Artileri dari Dunmore, Pa, dan Letnan Kolonel William E. Dyess , Air Corps, dari Albany, Tex Dyess sudah mati-tewas dalam kecelakaan pesawat tempur di Burbank, California, baru-baru sambil mempersiapkan untuk kembali ke tugas di Pasifik. Mellnik adalah dengan Jenderal Douglas MacArthur di Pasifik Barat Daya, McCoy bertugas di Amerika Serikat.

Laporan Verified

“Pernyataan mereka bersumpah tidak memasukkan apapun desas-desus, tetapi fakta yang hanya petugas terkait dari pengalaman pribadi dan pengamatan mereka,” kata laporan resmi.

Laporan telah diverifikasi dari sumber lain.

Tiga perwira menyatakan bahwa beberapa kali sebagai tahanan Amerika banyak perang telah meninggal, sebagian besar karena kelaparan, kerja paksa keras, dan kebrutalan umum, karena Jepang pernah dilaporkan.

Pada satu kamp penjara, Camp O’Donnell, sekitar 2.200 tahanan Amerika tewas pada bulan April dan Mei 1942. Di kamp di Cabanatuan, sekitar 3.000 orang Amerika meninggal sampai dengan akhir Oktober 1942. Mortalitas masih lebih berat terjadi di antara para tahanan perang Filipina di Camp O’Donnell.

The March of Death

Kampanye dihitung kebrutalan dimulai segera setelah tentara Amerika dan Filipina kelelahan di Bataan runtuh di bawah beban besar dari serangan musuh. Apa yang ada di toko untuk mereka adalah untuk memulai dengan “barisan kematian” – dan Dyess melaporkan bahwa, dipukuli dan putus asa karena mereka, mereka tidak akan pernah menyerah jika mereka menebak apa yang ada di depan.

Ribuan tahanan digiring bersama-sama di lapangan udara Mariveles pada siang hari 10 April dalam pendengaran senjata masih menantang Corregidor. Beberapa memiliki makanan, tetapi tidak diizinkan untuk makan. Semua digeledah, barang-barang pribadi mereka disita. Mereka dengan uang Jepang atau token dipenggal kepalanya.

Kemudian, dalam kelompok 500 sampai 1.000 mereka mulai enam-hari yang mengerikan pawai, di sepanjang jalan nasional dari Bataan menuju San Fernando Pampanga di provinsi, “march kematian” begitu mengerikan bahwa hal itu akan membuat lubang hitam suara Calcutta seperti surga berlindung.

Seorang tentara Jepang mengambil kantin Dyess ‘, memberikan air untuk kuda, melemparkan kantin pergi. Dalam matahari panas sekali, para tahanan digiring melalui awan debu. Pria baru tewas tergeletak di sepanjang jalan, tubuh mereka diratakan oleh truk Jepang. Pasien dibom keluar dari rumah sakit lapangan didorong ke dalam kolom berbaris. Pada tengah malam seluruh kelompok itu ditulis di sebuah kandang terlalu sempit untuk memungkinkan salah satu dari mereka untuk berbaring. Mereka telah tidak ada air – seorang perwira Jepang akhirnya mengizinkan mereka untuk minum pada kerbau berkubang kotor.

Sebelum siang hari berikutnya Maret dilanjutkan. Masih ada makanan untuk salah satu dari mereka. – Air pada siang hari dari aliran pinggir jalan kotor. Lain bullpen di malam hari. Ketika pria kelelahan jatuh mengerang, tak seorang pun diizinkan untuk membantu – mereka yang masih berbaris tembakan terdengar di belakang mereka.

Pengobatan Sun

Pada hari ketiga “kami diperkenalkan kepada suatu bentuk penyiksaan yang kemudian dikenal sebagai pengobatan matahari. Kami dibuat untuk duduk di matahari mendidih sepanjang hari tanpa penutup. Kami memiliki sangat sedikit air, dahaga itu intens. Banyak dari kita pergi gila dan beberapa meninggal.

“Tiga Filipina dan tiga tentara Amerika dikubur saat masih hidup.”

Kematian untuk Air

“Sepanjang jalan di provinsi Pampanga terdapat banyak sumur. Setengah-gila dengan rasa haus, enam tentara Filipina membuat lari untuk salah satu sumur. Semua enam orang tewas. Ketika kami melewati Lubao kami berbaris oleh seorang tentara Filipina patah hati dan tergantung di atas pagar kawat berduri.

“Sebelum siang hari pada tanggal 15 April kami berjalan keluar dan 115 dari kita yang dikemas ke dalam mobil sempit-gauge kotak kecil. Pintu ditutup dan dikunci. Gerakan itu tidak mungkin. Banyak dari para tahanan yang menderita diare dan disentri. Panas dan bau yang tak tertahankan.

“Pada Capas Tarlac kami dibawa keluar dan diberi pengobatan matahari selama tiga jam. Kemudian kami berbaris ke Camp O’Donnell.

“Aku membuat itu march sekitar 85 mil dalam waktu enam hari pada satu kit berantakan beras. Amerika lainnya dibuat ‘march kematian’ dalam 12 hari tanpa makanan apa. “

Para tahanan diambil di Corregidor tidak mengalami itu Maret, namun 7.000 orang Amerika dan 5.000 warga Filipina yang dikemas selama seminggu dengan tidak ada makanan pada perkerasan beton 100 meter persegi. Ada satu keran air untuk 12.000 – menunggu rata-rata untuk mengisi kantin adalah 12 jam. Mereka mendapat makanan pertama mereka – kit berantakan beras dan sekaleng sarden – setelah tujuh hari.

6 sampai 10 Jam untuk Air

Di Camp O’Donnell hampir tidak ada fasilitas air. Tahanan berdiri di baris 6 sampai 10 jam untuk minum. Busana pergi berubah sebulan setengah. Makanan utama adalah beras, bervariasi dua kali dalam dua bulan dengan daging cukup untuk memberikan seperempat dari pria sepotong suatu inci persegi. Beberapa kali ada comotes, jenis ubi jalar, tapi banyak yang busuk dan tahanan sendiri harus mengirim penjaga untuk menjaga rekan-rekan mereka dari kelaparan melahap sayuran busuk. Ada setetes sesekali lemak babi kelapa, sedikit tepung, kacang sebuah mangga beberapa. Tapi ada pasar gelap – orang-orang yang punya uang bisa membeli dari orang Jepang kaleng kecil ikan sebesar $ 5.

Ada rumah sakit – sebuah bangunan bobrok dengan tidak ada fasilitas, tidak ada obat. Ratusan berbaring di lantai telanjang tanpa penutup. Para dokter bahkan tidak memiliki air untuk mencuci kotoran manusia dari pasien mereka. Setelah satu minggu, tingkat kematian adalah 20 orang Amerika hari, 150 warga Filipina, setelah dua minggu, 50 dan 500 masing-masing. Orang sakit serta hanya kelaparan dipaksa geng kerja, dan bekerja sampai mereka terjatuh dan mati.

Air Disini

Sekitar bulan Juni 1, Amerika telah dihapus dari Camp O’Donnell ke Cabanatuan, di mana Dyess bergabung Mellnik dan McCoy, yang datang dari Corregidor. Kondisi ada sedikit lebih baik. Ada air minum yang memadai, hal itu mungkin untuk mandi di air berlumpur, tetapi diet tidak membaik. Dan kebrutalan terus – pria dipukuli dengan sekop dan klub golf, “laki-laki secara harfiah bekerja sampai mati.”

Tiga petugas yang mencoba melarikan diri ditangkap, bertelanjang celana mereka, tangan terikat di belakang mereka dan ditarik oleh tali diikat di atas kepala, dan disimpan dalam posisi ini di terik matahari selama dua hari, berkala tentara Jepang mengalahkan mereka dengan dua-oleh -empat, akhirnya salah satu dipenggal dan yang lainnya ditembak. Dengan 26 Oktober, ketika Dyess, McCoy dan Mellnik meninggalkan Cabanatuan, 3.000 dari tahanan Amerika telah meninggal.

Palang Merah Keselamatan

Ketiga pejabat itu diambil dengan 966 tahanan lainnya, ke kamp pidana di Davao, Mindanao, dan dihukum kerja paksa. Makanan sedikit lebih baik di sana, tapi “keselamatan para tahanan perang Amerika,” melaporkan Dyess, adalah persediaan Palang Merah Amerika dan Inggris, baik pakaian dan makanan, yang akhirnya mulai berdatangan bulan terlambat. Pemukulan, pembunuhan, penganiayaan dan penghinaan terus dipelajari. Pada April 1943, ada 1.100 dari 2.000 tahanan di Davao masih mampu bekerja.

Ini adalah kehidupan dari yang McCoy, Dyess dan Mellnik lolos April 4, 1943. Akun tersebut hanya didasarkan pada laporan resmi mereka, namun Angkatan Darat dan Angkatan Laut mengatakan sedikitnya empat orang lainnya diketahui telah melarikan diri dari Filipina – Majors Michiel Dobervitch, Ironton, Minn, Austin C. Shoffner, Shelbyville, Tenn, Jack Hawkins , Roxton, Tex, dan Corp Reid Carlos Chamberlain, El Cajone, California, semua Korps Marinir.

Worldwar II Koleksi dan Artefak

 

Jepang Mass Pemerkosaan dan perbudakan seksual Perempuan dan Girls dari 1932-1945: The “Comfort Women” Sistem

courtesy of: http://www.cmht.com/cases_cwcomfort2.php

“Belum ada kejahatan massa yang lebih besar yang saya tahu … yang telah dilakukan terhadap wanita modern, modern-hari perempuan, pada abad ke-20.”-Pernyataan Brig. Jenderal Vorley M. Rexroad (Purn), 17 Januari 2001.

Pengantar

Dimulai pada tahun 1931 atau 1932 dan berlanjut sepanjang durasi Asia / Pasifik perang, Pemerintah Jepang menerapkan sistem perbudakan seksual di seluruh wilayah yang didudukinya. Selama waktu itu, wanita direkrut secara paksa, pemaksaan, atau penipuan dalam perbudakan seksual bagi militer Jepang. Para wanita Jugun Ianfu disebut sebagai “wanita penghibur” oleh Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang. Meskipun sejarawan sering tidak setuju tentang jumlah “wanita penghibur,” sosok yang paling banyak digunakan diperkirakan 200.000. Mayoritas (sekitar 80%) berasal dari Korea, kemudian koloni Jepang, dan lain sebagian besar berasal dari Jepang diduduki China. Lain diambil dari, antara negara-negara lainnya, Filipina, Burma, dan Indonesia. Selain itu, beberapa wanita yang subyek Belanda dimasukkan dalam Roundup besar. Para wanita diambil terutama dari orang-orang Jepang dianggap ras inferior dan perawan secara aktif dicari.

Nasib “perempuan penghibur” tetap belum terselesaikan walaupun sejarawan telah membuat dokumen publik resmi yang menunjukkan bahwa sistem tersebut memang ada dan dipertahankan oleh, dan untuk, Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang. Seorang sejarawan Jepang kunci, Yoshimi Yoshiaki, menyatakan bahwa bukti-bukti kunci lainnya tetap terkunci di dalam file rahasia Jepang dan harus dibuat publik. Meskipun anggota pemerintah Jepang baru-baru ini mengeluarkan pernyataan mengakui keterlibatan Jepang, belum ada permintaan maaf resmi oleh pemerintah Jepang. Selain itu ada banyak penolakan oleh berbagai kelompok politik yang berpengaruh dan dewan redaksi. Seperti baru-baru Mei 2001, Jepang dihilangkan penyebutan sistem perbudakan seksual dalam buku pelajaran sejarah yang digunakan untuk mengajar mahasiswa Jepang. Pemerintah Jepang secara resmi tetap diam tentang masalah ini dan itu adalah waktu yang mereka mengakui tanggung jawab mereka.

Perempuan Harian Ujian

“Ketika orang berbicara tentang neraka, ini adalah apa yang mereka maksud.”

Pada akhir Perang Dunia II, penggunaan “perempuan penghibur” adalah fenomena yang luas dan teratur seluruh Jepang-Asia Timur dikendalikan. Para wanita yang diselenggarakan di perbudakan seksual diperkosa berulang kali – oleh beberapa account sebesar 30 atau 40 orang setiap hari – hari demi hari. Penyiksaan dan pemukulan yang umum. Para wanita ada dalam kondisi menyedihkan, hidup di bilik kecil, dan sering dengan makanan yang tidak memadai dan perawatan medis. Untuk beberapa, perbudakan yang berlangsung selama delapan tahun.

Mereka yang berusaha untuk melawan, dan beberapa yang tidak, dipukuli, disiksa, atau dimutilasi, kadang-kadang mereka dibunuh. Perlakuan “perempuan penghibur” adalah konsisten dengan pandangan Jepang tentang inferioritas ras dari populasi dari mana perempuan ditarik. Pada beberapa “stasiun kenyamanan,” perempuan diberi nama Jepang dan diminta untuk berbicara bahasa Jepang dan menghibur orang-orang dengan lagu-lagu Jepang. Wanita penghibur Korea yang disebut sebagai chosenppi (“vagina Korea”) atau istilah Jepang untuk menghina Korea.

Pada akhir perang, banyak “wanita penghibur” dibunuh oleh tentara mundur atau hanya ditinggalkan. Misalnya, dalam satu kasus di Mikronesia, tentara Jepang membunuh 70 “wanita penghibur” dalam satu malam sebelum kedatangan pasukan Amerika. Yang lainnya ditinggalkan, kadang-kadang dalam hutan lebat, ketika penculik Jepang mereka melarikan diri. Banyak dari mereka yang meninggal karena kelaparan dan penyakit. Lainnya tidak tahu di mana mereka berada, ratusan mil dari rumah mereka, tidak punya uang, dan tidak berarti untuk kembali.

Korban yang berhasil pulang kembali ke apa yang sering kehidupan isolasi dan penolakan sosial, diperparah oleh perasaan mendalam menanamkan rasa bersalah dan malu. Banyak yang dikucilkan, dipukuli atau bahkan dibunuh. Sebagian besar dari mereka hidup masih sangat miskin dan menderita masalah fisik dan psikologis yang parah. Banyak yang tidak bisa menikah. Sebagai akibat dari kekerasan fisik dan kekerasan seksual, penyakit menular seksual dan kecanduan obat yang timbul dari pengalaman waktu mereka perang, banyak perempuan menderita efek kesehatan yang serius, termasuk kerusakan permanen pada organ reproduksi mereka dan saluran kemih. Banyak wanita juga menemukan diri mereka tidak mampu menanggung anak-anak sebagai akibat dari penganiayaan mereka. Gangguan tidur, mimpi buruk seperti insomnia dan takut, yang umum. Mereka menderita menyedihkan sampai hari ini.

Keterlibatan Militer

The “kenyamanan perempuan” program perbudakan seksual adalah sebuah sistem yang sistematis dan hati-hati direncanakan dan dieksekusi diperintahkan oleh Pemerintah Jepang. Menurut sebuah laporan dari Pelapor Khusus PBB tentang Kekerasan terhadap perempuan, sebab dan akibatnya, Ms Radhika Coomaraswamy:

Stasiun kenyamanan pertama di bawah kendali Jepang langsung adalah mereka di Shanghai pada tahun 1932, dan ada bukti langsung keterlibatan pejabat dalam pendirian mereka. Salah satu komandan kampanye Shanghai, Letnan Jenderal Okamura Yasuji, mengaku dalam memoarnya telah menjadi pendukung asli stasiun kenyamanan bagi militer … sejumlah perempuan Korea dari komunitas Korea di Jepang dikirim ke provinsi oleh Gubernur Nagasaki Prefecture. Fakta bahwa mereka dikirim dari Jepang berimplikasi tidak hanya militer tetapi juga Kementerian Dalam Negeri, yang menguasai gubernur dan polisi yang kemudian memainkan peran penting dalam bekerja sama dengan tentara dalam merekrut perempuan.

Pemerintah Jepang dikirim gadis dan perempuan seperti perlengkapan militer di seluruh wilayah luas di Asia dan Pasifik bahwa pasukan Jepang dikendalikan, dari perbatasan Siberia ke khatulistiwa, termasuk: China (termasuk Guangdong dan Manchuria), Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Amoi, Indocina Perancis, Filipina, Guam, Malaya, Singapura, Inggris Borneo, Hindia Belanda, Burma, Thailand, Timur Nugini, New Britain, Trobriand, Okinawa, dan Sakhalin, serta pulau-pulau Kyushu Jepang, Honshu dan Hokkaido. Pemerintah Jepang dibangun, dioperasikan, dan ratusan terkendali “rumah kenyamanan” di daerah-daerah.

Penipuan dan pemaksaan yang umum dalam perekrutan “perempuan penghibur” – yang sebagian besar diambil dari keluarga miskin – dan banyak yang hanya diculik oleh force.Tomas brute Salinog dari Filipina terbangun satu malam pada tahun 1942 oleh tentara Jepang membobol nya rumah. Setelah para prajurit dipenggal ayahnya, Salinog diseret dari rumahnya oleh tentara dan dibawa ke sebuah garnisun di dekatnya. Ms Salinog, yang berusia tiga belas tahun pada waktu itu, kemudian diperkosa oleh dua tentara dan sadar dipukuli. Dia kemudian dipaksa untuk melayani sebagai “wanita penghibur” di garnisun yang sama.

Gadis-gadis muda menjadi sasaran karena mereka tidak mungkin terinfeksi dengan penyakit kelamin. Gadis-gadis dan perempuan yang diambil adalah semuda sebelas tahun dan kadang-kadang diambil dari sekolah dasar mereka. Para wanita sering dipindahkan ke tempat-tempat terpencil di mana mereka tidak memiliki hubungan linguistik atau budaya sehingga mereka bisa lebih mudah diisolasi dari setiap prospek simpati atau bantuan.

Di Korea, selain perekrutan secara paksa dan penipuan, “wanita penghibur” direkrut dalam konsep kerja resmi, dilembagakan untuk memperkuat upaya perang Jepang. (Itu disebut kunro (“kerja”) atau Yeoja (“perempuan”) Jungshindae (dalam bahasa Jepang, Teishintai), berarti ini adalah ungkapan yang diciptakan oleh Jepang yang menunjukkan mengabdikan dari keseluruhan seseorang “Tubuh Sukarela Melakukan Korps Tenaga Kerja.” yang untuk penyebab Kaisar) Banyak perempuan muda direkrut atau terpikat untuk bekerja di pabrik-pabrik, yang dialihkan oleh Jepang menjadi perbudakan seksual.. Hal yang sama terjadi pada banyak perempuan awalnya dirancang untuk bekerja di pabrik-pabrik.

Hanya tentara Jepang diizinkan untuk sering “stasiun kenyamanan” dan biasanya dikenakan harga tetap. Harga bervariasi oleh pangkat nationality.The perempuan prajurit yang menetapkan jangka waktu yang diperbolehkan untuk kunjungan, harga yang harus dibayar, dan jam di mana prajurit itu berhak untuk mengunjungi stasiun kenyamanan. Setidaknya sebagian dari pendapatan itu diambil oleh militer. Menurut kesaksian seorang survivor dikutip dalam laporan Pelapor Khusus PBB, dari 3 sampai 7 sore setiap hari ia harus melayani sersan, sedangkan malam hari yang disediakan untuk letnan.

Tentara Jepang juga diatur kondisi di “stasiun kenyamanan,” menerbitkan aturan tentang jam kerja, kebersihan, kontrasepsi, dan larangan pada alkohol dan senjata. “Jugun Ianfu” direkam pada daftar pasokan militer Jepang di bawah judul “amunisi” serta di bawah “Fasilitas.” Dokter tentara melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan pada “wanita penghibur,” terutama untuk mencegah penyebaran penyakit kelamin. The “Jugun Ianfu” sistem yang diperlukan penyebaran infrastruktur yang luas dan sumber daya yang berada di pembuangan pemerintah, termasuk tentara dan personil dukungan, senjata, semua bentuk transportasi darat dan laut, dan kru rekayasa dan konstruksi dan material.

 

December,22th.1941

In the morning the air raids continued on Manila.

Americans still align Warkawks 5. 2 are destroyed against a Zero. Then pass the bombers pounded the base. First holes of the day on the slopes could not be completely resealed.(121)

By the time the reports of the Singapore and Chungking Conferences reached the War Department, Churchill and his Chiefs of Staff had arrived in Washington for the first of the many wartime conferences which marked the most successful military alliance in the history of warfare.

This meeting, which lasted from 22 December 1941 to 14 January 1942 and is known by the code name ARCADIA,

 was in many respects the most important of the conferences held during the war. It established an organization for the conduct of coalition warfare that survived all the stresses and strains of conflicting national interests; reaffirmed the basic decision to make the major effort in Europe at a time when the American people had not yet recovered from the shock of Pearl Harbor and when disaster threatened in the Pacific and Asia; established the first Allied command of the war; and laid down a broad program for the future as well as a plan for immediate action.11

The divergence between British and American views, which had been plainly evident at the ABC meetings early in 1941, was again apparent at the ARCADIA conference. The Americans believed that their national interests would best be served and the security of the United States best assured by the early defeat of Germany and Japan. This objective they put ahead of all others and made the measuring rod for every problem put before them. The British, too, sought the early defeat of the enemy, but they differed with the Americans on how to do it. Further, their national interests encompassed the security and future of a far-flung empire with its long lines of communication.

Their task was more complex than that of the Americans and their path to victory more circuitous. For them, the Middle East, Singapore, Malaya, Australia, India — all held an importance the Americans could not grant on purely military grounds. The British pressed hard for the allocation of Allied resources to the defense of these positions, not only at ARCADIA but at the conferences that followed, while the Americans pushed single-mindedly for those operations that would bring about the defeat of the enemy. But determination to agree and good will on both sides overcame all differences.

About one thing, the major objective of Allied strategy, there was no disagreement. The principals subscribed to a basic statement of war aims that served as the strategic objective for the year 1942 and the basis for the division of the resources of the two nations. “Much has happened since February last,” the conferees noted, “but notwithstanding the entry of Japan into the War, our view remains that Germany is still the prime enemy. and her defeat is the key to victory.

Once Germany is defeated the collapse of Italy and the defeat of Japan must follow.”12 It was agreed therefore, as “a cardinal principle” of American and British strategy, “that only the minimum of force necessary for the safeguarding of vital interests in other theater should be diverted from operations against Germany.”

In terms of the existing situation, this “cardinal principle” meant that the production of armaments would have to be stepped up; that essential positions would have to be defended; that the vital lines of communication would have to be held; and that, by a combination of bombing, blockade, and propaganda, German resistance would have to be reduced so that the Allies could land on the Continent in 1943.

But the principle of minimum force in the Pacific was one that could be interpreted variously and usually was, depending on the situation. There were always those who could justify additional forces for the Pacific on the ground that they were required to safeguard vital interests there. This was the Navy’s position, argued forcefully and consistently by Admiral King.

In the Pacific and Far East, the Americans and the British Chiefs of Staff agreed, it would be necessary to maintain the security of Australia, New Zealand, and India; to support China; and to gain “points of vantage” from which an offensive against Japan could “eventually be developed.”

These were long-range objectives; the “immediate object” was to hold Hawaii, Alaska, Singapore, the Malay Barrier, the Philippines, Rangoon, and the route to China.

As a general statement of strategy, the objectives outlined by the U.S. and British Chiefs of Staff had little relevance to the immediate emergency in the Far East where the Japanese were advancing rapidly on every front.

 What was needed was agreement on the apportionment of the resources of both nations to that area, and, specifically, the amount to be assigned each of the vital positions still in Allied hands but defended by a variety of national forces and independent commanders.

 

Both sides were apparently reluctant to enter into detailed discussions of this subject, but they agreed that the planners should study the question of the disposition of the forces in and en route to the Southwest Pacific.

This study, the Chiefs stipulated, should be based on three alternative assumptions; first, that the Allies would hold both the Philippines and Singapore; second, that they would hold Singapore and the Netherlands Indies but lose the Philippines; and third, that they would lose Singapore and the Philippines.

The planners went to work on the problem immediately and quickly produced a report the Chiefs approved on the last day of the year. Recognizing that the forces then in the area could not hold the positions prescribed and that immediate reinforcements would have to be provided, the planners framed the following statement of Allied aims:

  1. 1.       Hold the Malay Barrier, that is the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and the islands stretching eastward to northwest Australia, “as the basic defensive position”; and Burma and Australia “as essential supporting positions.”
  2. 2.       Re-establish communications with the Philippines and support the garrison there, while maintaining communications to Burma and Australia and within the Far East area.

 

Appended to the report were lists of the forces already in the theater and scheduled to arrive by 1 February.

These the planners

recommended be deployed “as now arranged,” if the Philippines and Singapore held, If they did not, the reinforcements should be used to defend the Malay Barrier, Burma, and Australia, with American troops being used on the east side of the barrier (Australia), British and Commonwealth forces on the west (Burma and India).

Should the Philippines alone fall to the Japanese — an admission the Americans were not yet willing to make to the British who firmly believed that Singapore would hold — then U.S. reinforcements would be employed along the barrier and the lines of communication to the east.13

By the time this study was approved, the Chiefs of Staff had already decided to set up a unified American command in the Far East. The dangers and disadvantages of command by co-operation had been made abundantly clear by the disaster at Pearl Harbor, and Marshall felt very strongly that unity of command was perhaps even more important than the allocation of resources or the assignment of troops. On the 25th, after he had Brink’s report on the Singapore Conference, he raised the problem with his American and British colleagues. “The matters being settled here,” he told them, “are mere details which will continuously reoccur unless settled in a broader way. . . . I am convinced that there must be one man in command of the entire theater. . . . If we make a plan for unified command now, it will solve nine-tenths of our troubles.”

 

 Without minimizing the difficulties of establishing such a command over the forces of four nations, Marshall believed that it could be done and was willing “to go the limit” to achieve it. “A man with good judgment and unity of command,” he said, “has a distinct advantage over a man with brilliant judgment who must rely on cooperation.” But the consensus of the meeting was not in Marshall’s favor and the subject was dropped after polite comment.14

The next day Mr. Roosevelt, apparently after discussion with Marshall and King, raised the question of a unified command in the Far East at a White House meeting with Churchill and others.

The Prime Minister, like his military advisers, did not favor the idea and there the matter rested for the moment. But neither the President nor General Marshall abandoned their fight and both privately did their utmost to change Churchill’s mind.15

In this they were successful so far as the principle of unified command was concerned but agreement on the officer who would exercise such a command and the limits of his authority was not so easily reached. Oddly enough, the British wanted an American and the Americans favored a British officer

 

motorcyclists of the snlf on guard duty (hong kong 1941)

December,25th.1941

The invasion of Luzon commenced the same day. In both Malaya and the Philippines, Japan’s tough, superbly trained armies quickly overcame forward defenses and swept south towards Singapore and Manila. Hong Kong surrendered on Christmas Day.

.(121)

 

 

On 25 December,

 Headquarters, United States Army Forces in the Far East, was established on Corregidor. Manila was declared an open city on the following day and the remains of the naval base at Cavite were blown up to prevent its supplies from falling into enemy hands.

 

 

 

TANK OBSTACLES AND BARBED WIRE strung to delay the enemy advance on Bataan (top); members of an antitank company in position on Bataan (bottom).

As the Japanese advanced,

the defending forces withdrew toward the Bataan Peninsula. The rugged terrain, protected flanks, and restricted maneuvering room on Bataan limited the enemy’s ability to employ large numbers of troops. Preparations for the defense of the peninsula were intensified and the stocks of supplies were increased.

 

on 22 December, 1941

General Homma put the bulk of his 14th Army ashore at Lingayen Gulf, north of Manila.

 

japamese army officer Lieutenant General Kyoji Tominaga shaking hands with raiders of the Kaoru Special Attack Corps before leaving to a mission against a USAAF landing strip on Leyte (oct 1944)

 

Lieutenant General Kyoji Tominaga giving sake wine to soldier of the Kaoru Special Attack Corps before leaving to a mission against a USAAF landing strip on Leyte (oct 1944)

The remainder landed two days later at Lamon Bay, south of the capital, to form the southern arm of a giant pincer movement converging on Manila.

 But Homma quickly discovered he was dealing with a determined and able foe.

MacArthur did not, as Homma and Imperial General Headquarters expected, stay to fight it out on the central plain of Luzon.

 Instead he put into effect the long-standing ORANGE plan and withdrew his forces to the Bataan Peninsula in a skillful and dangerous double retrograde movement, made in two weeks under the most difficult circumstances and constant pressure.

At the same time he proclaimed Manila an open city and transferred his headquarters to Corregidor. Thus, when Homma

December,26th.1941

In December 26

the Japanese capture Cotabato south of Manila, Once the base is occupied by the genius of aviation and hunters..

The 1st Battalion of the 124th RI expels troops in Zamboanga Philippines (121)

December,29th.1941

Philippines:

Imperial troops capture Batangas, the last town before the southern Manila where 51 units were identified. A battalion addresses Clark Field empty aircraft. The huge airfield which housed the B17n’est defended by coastal artillery unit keeping Subic Bay. 48 guns and 850 men were captured.
Obviously Rominet MacArthur decided to lock in Manila and to prolong the seat without a fight leaving the rest of the island.
In Mindanao the 103rd regiment tries to regain Philippine Butuan but was violently repelled by the 1st regiment of raid, an elite unit of para Japanese Army: Filipinos lost 460 men out of 600 engaged in the operation.(121)

1942

January 1942

Corrigendum:
The intelligence services of the Navy reinstate the order of battle battleship Oklahoma ally they had mistaken the battleship which sank Maryland(121)

 

 

JAPANESE PRISONERS,

captured on Bataan, being led blindfolded to headquarters for questioning.

On 1 January 1942

 the Japanese entered Manila and the U.S, troops withdrew toward Bataan.  Army supplies were either moved to Bataan and Corregidor or destroyed.

The remaining forces on Bataan,

including some 15,000 U.S. troops, totaled about 80,000 men. The food, housing, and sanitation problems were greatly increased by the presence of over 20,000 civilian refugees. All troops were placed on half-rations.

 

Manila:

the incessant bombings in the capital of the Philippines. 2 planes destroyed at least on the slopes.(121)

January,2nd.1942

On January 2th, 1942

 

, the Philippine capital of Manila was occupied by the japanese

January,4th.1942

Philippines:

An avant-garde from southern Luzon went too fast to invest Manila. It penetrated a few hours before the arrival of the northern pincer. The Filipino-American attack against and reject the Japanese south. 4000 Japanese were knocked out in 1500 against Allied soldiers.
This move mask on Manila maneuver on the peninsula of Bataan that the Japanese want to reduce before really attacking Manila where more than 40 allied units are enclosed.
Pending airstrikes succeed in Manila but strong DCA reduces their effectiveness.(121)

January,6th.1942

Of Luzon:

The Japanese lead a risky operation in the hope that Americans discover what happens too late and only react against time.
2 screens of troops, probably too light, hide the big allied forces locked in Manila ahead of the 65th brigade, three regiments of tanks and an artillery regiment on the Bataan peninsula closing the bay Manila.
The first assault the defenders of Bataan surrendered. 14,000 men were taken prisoners, 340 guns destroyed. Japanese are immediately turned around to join forces besieging Manila.
57,000 allies are locked. Opposite the 21th DI with the 21st armored regiment, 2 regiments of infantry, four regiments of mortars, 17,000 are men, shield.
Americans to the great relief of the Japanese do not launch assault and simply bomb: 230 casualties while the Japanese bombing is ineffective.(121)

January,9th.1942

Philippines:

hunting ally seeks to challenge the supremacy of the Japanese over Manila hoping to intercept their bombers. Barely lost: 5 Warhawk fighter on the 8 involved are destroyed. The fighting takes place at an altitude of 31,000 feet, where the Warhawks obviously are not comfortable.
Filipino-Americans realize they have the numerical advantage to Manila: 44,000 against
20 000. Dislodge the Japanese attack on the outskirts of the capital before the troops recalled from Bataan to occur. 4400 soldiers Hirohito disband, 800 Filipinos are lost.(121)

January,11th.1942

the bulk of the American army in the Philippines was bottled up on the Bataan Peninsula

 

January,20th.1942

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1942

 

WORLD WAR II BATAAN DEATH MARCH -

‘It is with no little diffidence and misgiving that I approach my description of the facts and events in the Bataan Death March. To give an accurate description of the misdeeds of these Japanese troops, it would be necessary for me to describe actions which plum the very depths of human depravity and degradation. The keynote of the whole of this crime can be epitomized by two

 

words- unspeakable horror. Horror stark and naked permeates every corner and angle of this case from beginning to end, devoid of relief or palliation. I have searched, I have searched diligently amongst a vast mass of evidence to discover some redeeming feature, some mitigating factor in the conduct of these men which would elevate the story from the level of pure horror and bestiality and ennoble it.at least uponplane of tragedy. I confess I have failed’

The keynote of the whole of this crime can be epitomized by two words- unspeakable horror. Horror stark and naked permeates every corner and angle of this case from beginning to end, devoid of relief or palliation. I have searched, I have searched diligently amongst a vast mass of evidence to discover some redeeming feature, some mitigating factor in the conduct of these men which would elevate the story from the level of

The March to Death

The Bataan Death March was one of the most brutal atrocities done by the Japanese to the POWs during the second World War. The Bataan Death march (aka The Death March of Bataan) was a war crime involving the forcible transfer of prisoners of war, with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities, by Japanese forces in the Philippines in 1942. The march occurred after the three-month Battle of Bataan, part of the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), during World War II. In Japanese, it is known as Batān Shi no Kōshin (バターン死の行進 ,Batān Shi no Kōshin?), with the same meaning. There were thousands of Filipinos and Americans killed from Japanese brutality during the march and those who survived suffered hunger and again death from turture.

size

 

 

Story of Atrocities by Japs on Hapless Prisoners is released by the U.S.; Deliberate Starvation, Torture, Death

courtesy of Bataan Corregidor Memorial Foundation of New Mexico, Inc

WASHINGTON, D.C. (AP) — JAN. 28, 1944 — A pent-up story of atrocities perpetrated by the Japanese army on the captured heroes of Bataan and Corregidor was released by the United States government today in sickening detail.

A joint report by the Army and Navy broke at last the rigid censorship maintained by the high command on the almost unbelievable reports that came out of the Pacific, to tell what happened to the men whose valor slowed the tide of Japanese conquest.

A Tale of Torture

Compiled from the sworn statements of officers who survived the starvation and torture and escaped, it catalogued the infamy of a brutal enemy, and wrote in shocking terms the code of the Japanese warrior — to subject 36,000 gallant soldiers to deliberate starvation, to shoot in cold blood the thirsty who seek water, to watch sick men writhe and deny them medicine, to horsewhip those who help their fallen comrades, to beat men with two-by-fours, to behead those who try to escape, and to bury tortured men alive.

The three who lived to return and tell of the agony they endured were Commander Melvyn H. McCoy, USN, of Indianapolis, Lt. Col. S. M. Mellnik, Coast Artillery Corps of Dunmore, Pa., and Lt. Col. William E. Dyess, Air Corps, of Albany, Tex. Dyess is dead—killed in a fighter plane crash at Burbank, Calif., recently while preparing to return to duty in the Pacific. Mellnik is with Gen. Douglas MacArthur in the Southwest Pacific, McCoy on duty in the United States.

Statements Verified

“Their sworn statements included no hearsay whatever, but only facts which the officers related from their own personal experience and observations,” said the official report.

The statements have been verified from other sources.

The three officers stated that several times as many American prisoners of war have died, mostly of starvation, forced hard labor, and general brutality, as the Japanese have ever reported.

At one prison camp, Camp O’Donnell, about 2,200 American prisoners died in April and May 1942. In the camp at Cabanatuan, about 3,000 Americans had died up to the end of October 1942. Still heavier mortality occurred among the Filipino prisoners of war at Camp O’Donnell.

The March of Death

The calculated campaign of brutality began as soon as the exhausted American and Filipino soldiers on Bataan collapsed under the overwhelming weight of the enemy assault. What was in store for them was to begin with “the march of death” — and Dyess reported that, beaten and hopeless as they were, they never would have surrendered if they had guessed what lay ahead.

Thousands of prisoners were herded together on the Mariveles airfield at daylight April 10, within earshot of the still defiant guns of Corregidor. Some had food, but were not permitted to eat. All were searched, their personal belongings seized. Those with Japanese money or tokens were beheaded.

Then, in groups of 500 to 1,000 they began the terrible six-day march, along the national road of Bataan toward San Fernando in Pampanga province, the “march of death” so hideous that it would make the black hole of Calcutta sound like a haven of refuge.

A Japanese soldier took Dyess’ canteen, gave the water to a horse, threw the canteen away. In a broiling sun, the prisoners were herded through clouds of dust. Men recently killed lay along the road, their bodies flattened by Japanese trucks. Patients bombed out of a field hospital were pushed into the marching column. At midnight the entire group was penned in an enclosure too narrow to allow any of them to lie down. They had no water — a Japanese officer finally permitted them to drink at a dirty carabao wallow.

Before daylight the next day the March was resumed. Still no food for any of them. — water at noon from a dirty roadside stream. Another bullpen at night. When exhausted men fell out moaning, no one was allowed to help — those who still marched heard shots behind them.

The Sun Treatment

On the third day “we were introduced to a form of torture which came to be known as the sun treatment. We were made to sit in the boiling sun all day without cover. We had very little water; our thirst was intense. Many of us went crazy and several died.

“Three Filipino and three American soldiers were buried while still alive.”

Death for Water

“Along the road in the province of Pampanga there are many wells. Half-crazed with thirst, six Filipino soldiers made a dash for one of the wells. All six were killed. As we passed Lubao we marched by a Filipino soldier gutted and hanging over a barbed-wire fence.

“Before daylight on April 15 we marched out and 115 of us were packed into a small narrow-gauge box car. The doors were closed and locked. Movement was impossible. Many of the prisoners were suffering from diarrhea and dysentery. The heat and stench were unbearable.

“At Capas Tarlac we were taken out and given the sun treatment for three hours. Then we were marched to Camp O’Donnell.

“I made that march of about 85 miles in six days on one mess kit of rice. Other Americans made ‘the march of death’ in 12 days without any food whatever.”

The prisoners taken at Corregidor did not experience that march, but 7,000 Americans and 5,000 Filipinos were packed for a week with no food on a concrete pavement 100 yards square. There was one water spigot for the 12,000 — the average wait to fill a canteen was 12 hours. They got their first food — a mess kit of rice and a can of sardines — after seven days.

6 to 10 Hours for Water

At Camp O’Donnell there were virtually no water facilities. Prisoners stood in line 6 to 10 hours to get a drink. Clothing went unchanged a month and a half. The principal food was rice, varied twice in two months with enough meat to give one-fourth of the men a piece an inch square. A few times there were comotes, a type of sweet potato, but many were rotten and the prisoners themselves had to post a guard to keep their starving comrades from devouring the rotten vegetables. There was an occasional dab of coconut lard, a little flour, a few mango beans. But there was a black market — those who had money could buy from the Japanese a small can of fish for $5.

There was a hospital — a dilapidated building with no facilities, no medicine. Hundreds lay on the bare floor without cover. The doctors did not even have water to wash the human filth from their patients. After one week, the death rate was 20 Americans a day, 150 Filipinos; after two weeks, 50 and 500 respectively. The sick as well as the merely starving were forced into work gangs, and worked until they dropped dead.

Water Here

About June 1, the Americans were removed from Camp O’Donnell to Cabanatuan, where Dyess joined Mellnik and McCoy, who had come in from Corregidor. Conditions there were a little better. There was adequate drinking water, it was possible to bathe in muddy water; but the diet did not improve. And the brutality continued — men were beaten with shovels and golf clubs, “men were literally worked to death.”

Three officers who tried to escape were caught, stripped to their shorts, their hands tied behind them and pulled up by ropes fastened overhead, and kept in this position in the blazing sun for two days; periodically the Japs beat them with a two-by-four; finally one was beheaded and the others shot. By Oct. 26, when Dyess, McCoy and Mellnik left Cabanatuan, 3,000 of the American prisoners had died.

Red Cross Salvation

The three officers were taken with 966 other prisoners, to a penal camp at Davao, Mindanao and put to hard labor. Food was slightly better there, but “the salvation of the American prisoners of war,” Dyess reported, was the American and British Red Cross supplies, both clothing and food, that finally began to arrive months late. The beatings, the murder, the studied mistreatment and humiliation continued. By April 1943, there were 1,100 of the 2,000 prisoners at Davao still able to work.

This was the life from which McCoy, Dyess and Mellnik escaped April 4, 1943. The account is based solely on their official reports, but the Army and Navy said at least four others were known to have escaped from the Philippines — Majors Michiel Dobervitch, Ironton, Minn., Austin C. Shoffner, Shelbyville, Tenn., Jack Hawkins, Roxton, Tex., and Corp. Reid Carlos Chamberlain, El Cajone, Calif., all of the Marine Corps.

Worldwar II Collections and Artifacts

 

Japan’s Mass Rape and Sexual Enslavement of Women and Girls from 1932-1945: The “Comfort Women” System

courtesy of: http://www.cmht.com/cases_cwcomfort2.php

“There has been no greater mass crime that I know of . . . that has been committed against modern women, modern-day women, in the 20th century.”-Statement of Brig. Gen. Vorley M. Rexroad (Ret.), January 17, 2001.

Introduction

Beginning in 1931 or 1932 and continuing throughout the duration of the Asian/Pacific wars, the Japanese Government instituted a system of sexual slavery throughout the territories it occupied. During that time, women were recruited by force, coercion, or deception into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. These women were euphemistically referred to as “comfort women” by the Japanese Imperial Army. Although historians often disagree about the number of “comfort women,” the most widely used figure is estimated at 200,000. The majority (approximately 80%) came from Korea, then a Japanese colony, and another large percentage came from Japanese-occupied China. Others were taken from, among other countries, the Philippines, Burma, and Indonesia. In addition, some women who were Netherlands’ subjects were included in the immense roundup. The women were drawn primarily from those the Japanese considered racially inferior and virgins were actively sought.

The plight of the “comfort women” remains unresolved despite the fact historians have made public many official documents indicating that the system in question did exist and was maintained by, and for, the Japanese Imperial Army. One key Japanese historian, Yoshimi Yoshiaki, maintains that other key evidence remains locked inside Japanese confidential files and should be made public. Although members of the Japanese government have recently issued statements acknowledging Japanese involvement, there have been no formal apologies by the Japanese government. In addition there have been many denials by various influential political groups and editorial boards. As recently as May 2001, Japan omitted any mention of the system of sexual slavery in the history textbooks used to teach Japanese students. The government of Japan officially remains silent on this issue and it is time that they acknowledge their responsibility.

The Women’s Daily Ordeal

“When people talk about a living hell, this is exactly what they mean.”

By the end of World War II, the use of “comfort women” was a widespread and regular phenomenon throughout Japan-controlled East Asia. The women held in sexual slavery were raped repeatedly — by some accounts by 30 or 40 men each day — day after day. Torture and beatings were common. The women existed under miserable conditions, living in tiny cubicles, and often with inadequate food and medical care. For some, the servitude lasted as long as eight years.

Those who attempted to resist, and some who did not, were beaten, tortured, or mutilated; sometimes they were murdered. The treatment of “comfort women” was consistent with Japan’s view of the racial inferiority of the populations from which the women were drawn. At some “comfort stations,” the women were given Japanese names and required to speak Japanese and entertain the men with Japanese songs. Korean comfort women were referred to as chosenppi (“Korean vagina”) or other derogatory Japanese terms for Koreans.

At the end of the war, many “comfort women” were killed by retreating troops or simply abandoned. For example, in one case in Micronesia, the Japanese Army killed 70 “comfort women” in one night just before the arrival of American troops. Others were abandoned, sometimes in dense jungles, when their Japanese captors fled. Many of those died of starvation and disease. Others did not know where they were, were hundreds of miles from their homes, had no money, and no means to return.

Survivors who made it home returned to what were often lives of isolation and societal rejection, compounded by deeply instilled feelings of guilt and shame. Many were ostracized, beaten or even killed. Most of those still living are extremely poor and suffer from severe physical and psychological problems. Many could not marry. As a result of violent physical and sexual abuse, sexually transmitted diseases and drug addictions arising from their war time experiences, many women suffer serious health effects, including permanent damage to their reproductive organs and urinary tracts. Many women also found themselves unable to bear children as a result of their mistreatment. Sleep disorders, like insomnia and fearful nightmares, are common. They suffer grievously to this day.

Military Involvement

The “comfort woman” program of sexual slavery was a systematic and carefully planned system ordered and executed by the Japanese Government. According to a report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms Radhika Coomaraswamy:

The first comfort stations under direct Japanese control were those in Shanghai in 1932, and there is firsthand evidence of official involvement in their establishment. One of the commanders of the Shanghai campaign, Lieutenant General Okamura Yasuji, confessed in his memoirs to have been the original proponent of comfort stations for the military … a number of Korean women from a Korean community in Japan were sent to the province by the Governor of Nagasaki Prefecture. The fact that they were sent from Japan implicates not only the military but also the Home Ministry, which controlled the governors and the police who were later to play a significant role in collaborating with the army in forcibly recruiting women.

The government of Japan shipped girls and women like military supplies throughout the vast area of Asia and the Pacific that Japanese troops controlled, from the Siberian border to the equator, including: China (including Guangdong and Manchuria), Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Amoi, French Indochina, the Philippines, Guam, Malaya, Singapore, British Borneo, the Dutch East Indies, Burma, Thailand, East New Guinea, New Britain, Trobriand, Okinawa, and Sakhalin, as well as the Japanese islands of Kyushu, Honshu and Hokkaido. The Japanese government built, operated, and controlled hundreds of “comfort houses” in these areas.

Deception and coercion were common in the recruitment of “comfort women” – who were mostly taken from poverty-stricken families – and many were simply abducted by brute force.Tomas Salinog of the Philippines was awakened one night in 1942 by Japanese soldiers breaking into her home. After the soldiers decapitated her father, Salinog was dragged from her house by the soldiers and taken to a nearby garrison. Ms. Salinog, who was thirteen years old at the time, was then raped by two soldiers and beaten unconscious. She was thereafter forced to serve as a “comfort woman” in the same garrison.

Young girls were targeted as they were unlikely to be infected with venereal diseases. The girls and women taken were as young as eleven years old and were sometimes taken from their elementary schools. The women were often removed to remote places where they had no linguistic or cultural ties so that they could more easily be isolated from any prospect of sympathy or help.

In Korea, in addition to recruitment by force and deception, “comfort women” were recruited under the official labor draft, instituted to strengthen the Japanese war effort. (It was called kunro (“labor”) or Yeoja (“woman”) Jungshindae (in Japanese, Teishintai), meaning “Voluntarily Committing Body Corps for Labor.” This is a phrase coined by the Japanese that denotes the devoting of one’s entire being to the cause of the Emperor.) Many young women recruited or lured to work in the factories, were diverted by Japan into sexual slavery. The same occurred to many women originally drafted to work in factories.

Only Japanese soldiers were allowed to frequent the “comfort stations” and were normally charged a fixed price. The prices varied by the women’s nationality.The rank of the soldier determined the length of time allowed for a visit, the price paid, and the hours at which the soldier was entitled to visit the comfort station. At least a portion of the revenue was taken by the military. According to the testimony of a survivor quoted in the report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur, from 3 to 7 pm each day she had to serve sergeants, whereas the evenings were reserved for lieutenants.

The Japanese Army also regulated conditions at the “comfort stations,” issuing rules on working hours, hygiene, contraception, and prohibitions on alcohol and weapons. “Comfort women” were recorded on Japanese military supply lists under the heading of “ammunition” as well as under “Amenities.” Army doctors carried out health checks on the “comfort women,” primarily to prevent the spread of venereal disease. The “comfort women” system required the deployment of the vast infrastructure and resources that were at the government’s disposal, including soldiers and support personnel, weapons, all forms of land and sea transportation, and engineering and construction crews and matériel.

Worldwar II Collections and Artifacts

Filipino and American soldiers surrendering to the Japanese

 

The death march

 

The proud Philippine Scouts before the Japanese Invasion

 

Japanese and Filipino Soldiers killed in Action

 

Japanese in premises

 

This is How manila looks like after the Bombing and scorching the city

 

Filipinos are always Marines best friend

 

The proud Filipino Guerrillas

 

Filipinos helping Americans

 

Captured Japanese

 

Surrendering Japanese

 

This is how Philippines suffered by the War

 

Destruction everywhere

 

American Marines entering Zamboanga

 

 

 

Philippines is a paradise to the World and to its people, the second world war brought darkness, death and destruction to the Filipinos. It is the Philippines worst nightmare and something that they do not want to remember. What you see are pictures that holds wonderful memories of Filipino heroism and courage. Filipinos have the undying love for freedom and Peace and they are willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of it. May this Photo article will give help you out in any way.

the complete Articles of World War II:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worldwar II Collections and Artifact

 

 

War came to the Philippines like a lightning strike. Japan came in with a surprise attack on December 8, 1941, They came just ten hours after the bloody surprise attacked in Pearl Harbor. Japanese troop’s advancement hits every top island in the country. Aerial bombardment was successful that Filipino and American soldiers failed to counter. The defending  Filipino and American  troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of the invading enemies, the defending forces about 80,000 troops withdrew to the BataanPeninsula and to the island of Corregidor with no aerial support and proper equipments.    The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces in the BataanPeninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May. Most of the 80,000 POW were forced to undertake the bloody Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 km to the north

were killed and died, it is estimated that as many as 10,000 men died before reaching their destination.

Lt. Henry G. Lee of the Philipine Division wrote the poem, “Fighting On.”

I see no gleam of victory alluring
No chance of splendid booty or of gain.
If I endure–I must go on enduring
And my reward for bearing pain–is pain
Yet, though the thrill, the zest, the hope are gone
Something within me keep me
fighting on.

A soldier-poet expressed the mood of the men when he wrote:

MacArthur‘s promise in every mind.
“The time is secret but I can say
That swift relief ships are on the way
Thousands of men and hundreds of planes–
Back in Manila before the rains!
With decorations and honors, too.”
MacArthur said it, it must be true

 

 

See all 28 photos

 

War came to the Philippines like a lightning strike. Japan came in with a surprise attack on December 8, 1941, They came just ten hours after the bloody surprise attacked in Pearl Harbor. Japanese troop’s advancement hits every top island in the country. Aerial bombardment was successful that Filipino and American soldiers failed to counter. The defending  Filipino and American  troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of the invading enemies, the defending forces about 80,000 troops withdrew to the BataanPeninsula and to the island of Corregidor with no aerial support and proper equipments.    The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces in the BataanPeninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May. Most of the 80,000 POW were forced to undertake the bloody Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 km to the north.  Many men were killed and died, it is estimated that as many as 10,000 men died before reaching their destination.

Lt. Henry G. Lee of the Philipine Division wrote the poem, “Fighting On.”

I see no gleam of victory alluring
No chance of splendid booty or of gain.
If I endure–I must go on enduring
And my reward for bearing pain–is pain
Yet, though the thrill, the zest, the hope are gone
Something within me keep me
fighting on.

A soldier-poet expressed the mood of the men when he wrote:

MacArthur‘s promise in every mind.
“The time is secret but I can say
That swift relief ships are on the way
Thousands of men and hundreds of planes–
Back in Manila before the rains!
With decorations and honors, too.”
MacArthur said it, it must be true.

 

See all 28 photos

 

Americans and Filipinos with no proper equipment to defend the country

The Philippine Scouts Cavalry in a formation for the preparation of Japanese Attacks

The scouts are mobilizing to face Japs invading in Bataan

Japanese are now mobilizing and securing all railways and roads

Dead Filipino soldiers

Filipino Casualties of War

MacArthur makes Manila an Open City to avoid more destruction on Japanese arrival in Manila

The courageous Filipino Scouts ready to defend the motherland

Filipinos are setting up mortars for the advancing Japanese army

Filipino having a drill before the Japanese invasion

Filipino soldiers about to be beheaded by the Japanese

Filipino and American soldiers surrendering to the Japanese

The death march

The proud Philippine Scouts before the Japanese Invasion

Japanese and Filipino Soldiers killed in Action

Japanese in premises

This is How manila looks like after the Bombing and scorching the city

Filipinos are always Marines best friend

The proud Filipino Guerrillas

Filipinos helping Americans

Captured Japanese

Surrendering Japanese

This is how Philippines suffered by the War

Destruction everywhere

American Marines entering Zamboanga

Philippines is a paradise to the World and to its people, the second world war brought darkness, death and destruction to the Filipinos. It is the Philippines worst nightmare and something that they do not want to remember. What you see are pictures that holds wonderful memories of Filipino heroism and courage. Filipinos have the undying love for freedom and Peace and they are willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of it. May this Photo article will give help you out in any way.

the complete Articles of World War II:

Manila under World War II

Pacific and Europe under World War

33

An American soldier stands tense in his foxhole on Bataan peninsula, in the Philippines, waiting to hurl a flaming bottle bomb at an oncoming Japanese tank, in April of 1942. (AP Photo) #

 

34

A big coastal gun is fired from fortified American positions on Corregidor Island, at the entrance to Manila Bay on the Philippines, on May 6, 1942. (AP Photo) #

 

35

Japanese forces use flame-throwers while attacking a fortified emplacement on Corregidor Island, in the Philippines in May of 1942. (NARA) #

 

36

Billows of smoke from burning buildings pour over the wall which encloses Manila’s Intramuros district, sometime in 1942. (AP Photo) #

 

37

American soldiers line up as they surrender their arms to the Japanese at the naval base of Mariveles on Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines in April of 1942. (AP Photo) #

 

 

Japanese soldiers stand guard over American war prisoners just before the start of the “Bataan Death March” in 1942. This photograph was stolen from the Japanese during Japan’s three-year occupation. (AP Photo/U.S. Marine Corps)

 

39

American and Filipino prisoners of war captured by the Japanese are shown at the start of the Death March after the surrender of Bataan on April 9, 1942, near Mariveles in the Philippines. Starting from Mariveles on April 10, some 75,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war were force-marched to Camp O’Donnell, a new prison camp 65 miles away. The prisoners, weakened after a three-month siege, were harassed by Japanese troops for days as they marched, the slow or sick killed with bayonets or swords. (AP Photo) #

 

40

American prisoners of war carry their wounded and sick during the Bataan Death March in April of 1942. This photo was taken from the Japanese during their three year occupation of the Philippines. (AP Photo/U.S. Army) #

 

May 1942:

After defending the island for nearly a month, American and Filipino soldiers surrender to Japanese invasion troops on Corregidor island, Philippines. This photograph was captured from the Japanese during Japan’s three-year occupation. (AP Photo)

The Bataan Death March was a war crime involving the forcible transfer of prisoners of war, with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities, by Japanese forces in the Philippines, in 1942, after the three-month Battle of Bataan, which was part of the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), during World War II. In Japanese, it is known as Bataan Shi no Koshin, with the same meaning.

The Fall of Bataan

On April 9, 1942, approximately 75,000 Filipino and United States soldiers, commanded by Major General Edward “Ned” P. King, Jr., were formally surrendered to a Japanese army of 50,000 men under Lt. General Masaharu Homma. This required Japan to accept emaciated captives who vastly outnumbered them. The Japanese, having expected the fighting to continue longer, had only expected 25,000 prisoners of war and did not have the facilities to properly care for them

 

Logistics planning to move the prisoners of war from Mariveles to Camp O’Donnell, a prison camp in the province of Tarlac, was handed down to transportation officer Major General Yoshitake Kawane ten days prior to the final Japanese assault. The first phase of the operation, which was to bring all of the prisoners to Balanga, consisted of a nineteen mile march that was expected to take one day. Upon reaching Balanga, Kawane was then to take personal command of executing the second phase, which consisted of transporting the men to the prison camp. 200 trucks were to be utilized to take the prisoners 33 miles north to the rail center at San Fernando, where freight trains, which would move them another 30 miles to the village of Capas, awaited them. Upon reaching Capas, the prisoners were then to march an additional 8 miles on foot to Camp O’Donnell. Field hospitals were to be established at Balanga and San Fernando while various aid stations and resting places were to be set up every few miles.


PRISONERS ON MARCH FROM BATAAN TO THE PRISON CAMP, MAY 1942 – NATIONAL ARCHIVES

THE DEATH MARCH

Although General Homma and Kawane had expected only 25,000 prisoners of war, they were greeted by more than 75,000 (11,796 Americans and 66,000 Filipinos) starving and malaria-stricken captives at Bataan. During the battle, only 27,000 of these men were listed as “combat effective”. Even then, three fourths of this number were still affected by malaria. As a result, the Japanese army met great difficulties in transporting these prisoners from the beginning. Equally, distributing food was almost impossible so many were fed nothing. 4,000 sick or wounded captives had to stay behind to be treated by the Japanese at Bataan. A shortage of manpower and supplies on the part of the Japanese, who were now laying siege to Corregidor, raised confusion and irritation amongst the guards as many prisoners escaped. At most, only 4 Japanese soldiers could accompany each group of 300 prisoners. The march to Balanga, which was to take only one day, lasted as long as three days for some soldiers.

After reaching Balanga, it became obvious to General Kawane that his trucks could not carry more than half of the prisoners to the rail center at San Fernando. Since most of the other vehicles the Japanese had brought to the Philippines were either in repair or being used for the Battle of Corregidor, those who could not get a ride were forced to continue marching for more than 30 miles on completely unshaded roads that were sometimes made of asphalt. The thick dust swirling in the air would make it difficult for the prisoners to see and breathe while those who were walking barefoot had their feet burned on the molten asphalt. Men who refused to abandon their belongings were the first to fall. The last nine miles of the march from the town of Lubao to San Fernando were among the hardest the men would ever walk.

Those who were able to reach San Fernando alive were then locked into makeshift prisons where they were finally able to receive some level of proper and adequate medical care, food, and rest. Soon after this, however, the prisoners were jammed into freight trains that took them to Capas. Vomiting was frequent during the ride as some were even crammed or suffocated to death. After the three hour trip, which included very few stops, the prisoners then marched the 8 mile road to Camp O’Donnell.

Through the duration of nine days, a majority of the disease and grief stricken American and Filipino prisoners were forced to march as much as two-thirds of the 90 miles that separated Bataan from Camp O’Donnell. Those few who were lucky enough to travel to San Fernando on trucks still had to endure more than 25 miles of marching. Prisoners were beaten randomly and were often denied the food and water they were promised. Those who fell behind were usually executed or left to die; the sides of the roads became littered with dead bodies and those begging for help. A number of prisoners were further diminished by malaria, heat, dehydration, and dysentery. It should be noted, however, that many of the soldiers who accompanied the prisoners of war were not only Japanese, but Korean. Since they were not trusted by the Japanese to fight on the battlefield, most Koreans in the Japanese army were forbidden to participate in combat roles and delegated to such service duties as guarding prisoners. As one prisoner noted, “The Korean guards were the most abusive… the Koreans were anxious to get blood on their bayonets; and then they thought they were veterans.”

After the Bataan Death March, approximately 54,000 of the 72,000 prisoners reached their destination. The death toll of the march is difficult to assess as thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards. In some instances, prisoners were even released by their Japanese counterparts. Out of fear that the prisoners would be mistreated, Colonel Takeo Imai made the humanitarian decision of releasing more than 1,000 of his prisoners into the jungle. These acts of kindness, however, were especially rare. All told, approximately 600-650 American and 5,000-10,000 Filipino prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O’Donnell.

Camps O’Donnell and Cabanatuan

On June 6, 1942 the Filipino soldiers were granted amnesty by the Japanese military and released while the American prisoners were moved from Camp O’Donnell to Cabanatuan. Many of the survivors were later sent to prison camps in Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in prisoner transports known as “Hell Ships.” The 500 POWs who still resided at the Cabanatuan Prison Camp were freed in January 1945 in The Great Raid.

War Crimes Trial

News of this atrocity sparked outrage in the US, as shown by this propaganda poster. The newspaper clipping shown refers to the Bataan Death March.After the surrender of Japan in 1945, an Allied commission convicted General Homma of war crimes, including the atrocities of the death march out of Bataan, and the atrocities at Camp O’Donnell and Cabanatuan that followed. The general, who had been so absorbed in his efforts to capture Corregidor after the fall of Bataan, remained ignorant of the high death toll until two months after the event. His neglect would cost him his life as General Homma was executed on April 3, 1946 outside Manila.

The war came to the Philippines the same day it came to Hawaii and in the same manner – a surprise air attack. In the case of the Philippines, however, this initial strike was followed by a full-scale invasion of the main island of Luzon three days later. By early January, the American and Filipino defenders were forced to retreat to a slim defensive position on the island’s western Bataan Peninsula

 

American prisoners, some with their hands
behind their backs, get a brief respite
during the march.

The American and Filipino forces fought from an untenable position until formally surrendering to the Japanese on April 9. The Japanese immediately began to march some 76,000 prisoners (12,000 Americans, the remainder Filipinos) northward into captivity along a route of death. When three American officers escaped a year later, the world learned of the unspeakable atrocities suffered along the 60-mile journey that became known as the Bataan Death March.

Japanese butchery, disease, exposure to the blazing sun, lack of food, and lack of water took the lives of approximately 5,200 Americans along the way. Many prisoners were bayoneted, shot, beheaded or just left to die on the side of the road. “A Japanese soldier took my canteen, gave the water to a horse, and threw the canteen away,” reported one escapee. “The stronger were not permitted to help the weaker. We then would hear shots behind us.” The Japanese forced the prisoners to sit for hours in the hot sun without water. “Many of us went crazy and several died.”

The ordeal lasted five days for some and up to twelve days for others. Although the Japanese were unprepared for the large number of prisoners in their care, the root of the brutality lay in the Japanese attitude that a soldier should die before surrender. A warrior’s surrender meant the forfeiture of all rights to treatment as a human being.

After the war, the finger of blame pointed to General Masaharu Homma, commander of the Japanese troops in the Philippines. Tried for war crimes, he was convicted and executed by a firing squad on April 3, 1946.

“This was the First Murder”

Captain William Dyess was a fighter pilot stationed on Luzon when the Japanese invaded. Captured when the American forces on Bataan surrendered, he joined the Death March and was interned by the Japanese. In April 1943, Captain Dyess was one of three prisoners able to escape from their captors. Captain Dyess eventually made his way back to America where his story was published.

We join his story as he encounters his first atrocity of the March:

“The victim, an air force captain, was being searched by a three-star private. Standing by was a Jap commissioned officer, hand on sword hilt. These men were nothing like the toothy, bespectacled runts whose photographs are familiar to most newspaper readers. They were cruel of face, stalwart, and tall.

‘The private a little squirt, was going through the captain’s pockets. All at once he stopped and sucked in his breath with .a hissing sound. He had found some Jap yen.’

‘He held these out, ducking his head and sucking in his breath to attract notice. The big Jap looked at the money. Without a word he grabbed the captain by the shoulder and shoved him down to his knees. He pulled the sword out of the scabbard and raised it high over his head, holding it with both hands. The private skipped to one side.’

‘Before we could grasp what was happening, the black-faced giant had swung his sword. I remember how the sun flashed on it. There was a swish and a kind of chopping thud, like a cleaver going through beef’.

‘The captain’s head seemed to jump off his ‘shoulders. It hit the ground in front of him and went rolling crazily from side to side between the lines of prisoners.’

‘The body fell forward. I have seen wounds, but never such a gush of. blood as this. The heart continued to pump for a few seconds and at each beat there was another great spurt of blood. The white dust around our feet was turned into crimson mud. I saw the hands were opening and closing spasmodically. Then I looked away.’

‘When I looked again the big Jap had put up his sword and was strolling off. The runt who had found the yen was putting them into his pocket. He helped himself to the captain’s possessions.’

This was the first murder. . .”

Oriental Sun Treatment

As the prisoners were herded north they collided with advancing Japanese troops moving to the south, forcing a brief halt to the march:

“Eventually the road became so crowded we were marched into a clearing. Here, for two hours, we had our first taste of the oriental sun treatment, which drains the stamina and weakens the spirit.

The Japs seated us on the scorching ground, exposed to the full glare of the sun. Many of the Americans and Filipinos had no covering to protect their heads. I was beside a small bush but it cast no shade because the sun was almost directly above us. Many of the men around me were ill.

When I thought I could stand the penetrating heat no longer. I was determined to have a sip of the tepid water in my canteen. I had no more than unscrewed the top when the aluminum flask was snatched from my hands. The Jap who had crept up behind me poured the water into a horse’s nose-bag, then threw down the canteen. He walked on among the prisoners, taking away their water and pouring it into the bag. When he had enough he gave it to his horse.”

Drop-outs

The parade of death continues its journey as its members inevitably succumb to the heat, the lack of food and the lack of water:

“The hours dragged by and, as we knew they must. The drop-outs began. It seemed that a great many of the prisoners reached the end of their endurance at about the same time. They went down by twos and threes. Usually, they made an effort to rise. I never can forget their groans and strangled breathing as they tried to get up. Some succeeded. Others lay lifelessly where they had fallen.

 

American prisoners carry their comrades who are unable to walk

I observed that the Jap guards paid no attention to these. I wondered why. The explanation wasn’t long in coming. There was a sharp crackle of pistol and rifle fire behind us.

Skulking along, a hundred yards behind our contingent, came a ‘clean-up squad’ of murdering Jap buzzards. Their helpless victims, sprawled darkly against the white, of the road, were easy targets.

As members of the murder squad stooped over each huddled form, there would be an orange ‘flash in the darkness and a sharp report. The bodies were left where they lay, that other prisoners coming behind us might see them.

Our Japanese guards enjoyed the spectacle in silence for a time. Eventually, one of them who spoke English felt he should add a little spice to the entertainment.

‘Sleepee?’ he asked. ‘You want sleep? Just lie down on road. You get good long sleep!’

On through the night we were followed by orange flashes and thudding sounds.”

Arrival at San Fernando

Finally, after five days without food and limited water, the dwindling column arrives at its destination:

“The sun still was high in the sky when we straggled into San Fernando, a city of 36,000 population, and were put in a barbed wire compound similar to the one at Orani. We were seated in rows for a continuation of the sun treatment. Conditions here were the worst yet.

The prison pen was jammed with sick, dying, and dead American and Filipino soldiers. They were sprawled amid the filth and maggots that covered the ground. Practically all had dysentery. Malaria and dengue fever appeared to be running unchecked. There were symptoms of other tropical diseases I didn’t even recognize.

Jap guards had shoved the worst cases beneath the rotted flooring of some dilapidated building. Many of these prisoners already had died. The others looked as though they couldn’t survive until morning.

There obviously had been no burials for many hours.

After sunset Jap soldiers entered and inspected our rows.

Then the gate was opened again and kitchen corpsmen entered with cans of rice. We held our mess kits and again passed lids to those who had none. Our spirits rose. We watched as the Japs ladled out generous helpings to the men nearest the gate.

Then, without explanation, the cans were dragged away and the gate was closed. It was a repetition of the ghastly farce at Balanga. The fraud was much more cruel this time because our need. was vastly greater. In our bewildered state it took some time for the truth to sink in. When it did we were too discouraged even to swear.”

2

 

by Murray Montgomery

There’s an old saying I’ve heard all my life and it is just as true today as it was years ago. It states simply, “Freedom is not free!”
And should some be foolish enough to think our liberty comes without a heavy price — then I invite you to consider the sacrifices made by Russell A. Grokett, Sr. during World War II.
Grokett was part of what has been called the, “Greatest Generation.” He was raised in Kansas and lived through the Great Depression. When he was in his twenties, he joined the army and served in one of the last cavalry units in Texas. He experienced the horrors of war while involved in the Battle of the Philippines — he was imprisoned and survived the terror of the Bataan Death March.
After the war, Mr. Grokett got married and had a family. He loved to travel throughout the United States; camping and fishing in the country he helped defend.
Russell A. Grokett Sr. died of a heart attack at the age of 69.
His story has been told in the book, The Circle Is Never Broken, by Estelle Grokett. His son, Russell Grokett Jr., maintains a site on the Internet about his dad. Preserving the memory of this veteran is a family affair, as his grandson Michael A. Knox is also involved in the project.
When United States and Filipino troops surrendered to the Japanese on April 9, 1942, Grokett became a prisoner of war — he would spend the next three and a half years living in hell.
There were approximately 76,000 men involved in the surrender of the Philippines. Some 12,000 being United States troops along with 64,000 Filipinos. Nine thousand of them died as a result of the Bataan Death March.
Grokett’s description of the march is a vivid account of something so horrible, it’s hard for civilized people to even imagine. He said the prisoners, military and civilian, were made to go 24 hours without food or water in the searing heat and humidity. If a man dropped out from heat exhaustion, the Japanese guards promptly bayoneted him.
Japanese planes kept an eye on the march. Flying back and forth up and down the line. As they walked, the prisoners passed by corpse after corpse along the road. According to Grokett, “The bodies were stiff and beginning to blacken in the intense heat, already covered with flies as carrion birds tore at the flesh.”
Grokett told of a game played by the Japanese guards. He said they would amuse themselves by pushing prisoners over the cliff – the screams could be heard until they crashed upon the jagged rocks below. Grokett recalled how the Filipinos had the worst of it. “Young girls were pulled out of the ranks and raped repeatedly. Frightened mothers would rub human dung on their daughters’ faces to make them unattractive to the guards,” said Grokett.
Later on, the Japanese made the prisoners trot along at double time up a steep slope. Men were dropping everywhere and were bayoneted on the spot. As they passed along a fresh-water stream, many of the thirsty prisoners made a run for the cooling water. Those who did were shot.
Many of the prisoners contacted malaria from mosquitoes and went insane. Grokett also remembered that there was still a battle on-going at Corregidor. He said, “Big tractors pulling 250 millimeter guns toward the bay…rolled over the bodies of the dead and dying along the road.”
After the ordeal of the death march, Grokett and the others went on to spend time in prisoner-of-war (POW) camps. Later they were forced into boats to begin a voyage aboard what would later become known as, “The Hell Ships.” They were packed like sardines on these vessels for some 33 days. During that time, Dutch submarines attacked the ships — the Dutch didn’t know American prisoners were onboard.
While the ships were being attacked, Grokett remembered that the men begin screaming and pounding against the sides of the ship. “Even an animal can’t be this confined for this long without going mad,” he said.
Of the eleven ships carrying prisoners, only five survived the attack and thousands of POWs died. Before the ships finally arrived at Pusan Harbor in Korea, many of the men went insane. Some committed suicide. There were reports that several men cut their buddy’s wrist to drank the blood for lack of water.
Russell A. Grokett, Sr. and the other survivors were finally liberated on August 15, 1945.
From the very beginning, the United States has been defended by some very remarkable men and women. Throughout the years we have been allowed to enjoy our freedom because of their dedication to duty. Whenever you see an American flag, remember folks like Russell A. Grokett Sr., and all those who have died defending this great country.
And most of all remember: “Freedom is not free!”

Much as been made of Hitler’s European holocaust or the millions killed during Stalin’s purges against his own people, but was this an Asian holocaust? Approximately 15 million Chinese, Indo-Chinese, Burmese, Indonesian, Filipino, Malay, Pacific Islanders and allied prisoners of war were killed or died of neglect. During the European conflict with Nazi Germany, the death rate of Allied soldiers in captivity was 9,348 or about 4% of the total captured or surrendered. The death rate in Japanese captivity was 27%. Once the war had ended, the victorious Allies set up war crimes trials to prosecute those responsible for the atrocities that took place throughout all the Japanese held territories. It was impossible to bring every single individual who committed a crime to justice, but among the 135 Japanese war criminals hanged at Changi prison were the main high ranking officers responsible for the Sook Chingmassacre except one.
The one above all others that should have been the first to feel the hangman place the noose firmly around his neck was Lt-Col Masanobe Tsuji. It was he who had master-minded the notorious death march from Bataan and Corregidor, the slaughter of the patients and medical staff at Singapore’s Alexandra hospital, and the
Sook Ching massacre among other things. He was the most insidious, calculating, coldly brutal and singularly successful mass murderer of all the Japanese war criminals. There were many evil Japanese but he was the worst and the most wanted but he never faced trial. After a period of hiding after the war to avoid prosecution, Tsuji returned to Japan. On 1 January, 1950 the United States officially lifted Tsuji’s criminal status and now, free from possible prosecution, he became a popular author with his account of the Malayan campaign and other stories and even entered politics becoming a member of the Japanese Parliament. Due to his wartime atrocities being made public both in Japan and world wide by a fellow countryman, he prudently decided to quit Parliament and do a six-week tour of South East Asia. He was last seen on 10 June 1961 and from there on he mysteriously disappears from history. One can only hope he suffered a horrible fate.

Whilst the crimes committed against humanity by the Japanese military during the period 1931-45 in the name of the Emperor will forever stain the history of Japan, so must the victorious Allied Governments also take responsibility for a moral crime against humanity. Initially, the war crimes trials were allowed to be conducted with zeal and by dedicated people who believed in justice and or retribution for those who paid the ultimate sacrifice. It was the least their countries could do.

Pearl Harbor
On Sunday, December 7th, 1941 the Japanese launched a surprise attack against the U.S. Forces stationed at Pearl Harbor , Hawaii By planning his attack on a Sunday, the Japanese commander Admiral Nagumo, hoped to catch the entire fleet in port. As luck would have it, the Aircraft Carriers and one of the Battleships were not in port. (The USS Enterprise was returning from Wake Island , where it had just delivered some aircraft. The USS Lexington was ferrying aircraft to Midway, and the USS Saratoga and USS Colorado were undergoing repairs in the United States .)
In spite of the latest intelligence reports about the missing aircraft carriers (his most important targets), Admiral Nagumo decided to continue the attack with his force of six carriers and 423 aircraft. At a range of 230 miles north of Oahu , he launched the first wave of a two-wave attack. Beginning at 0600 hours his first wave consisted of 183 fighters and torpedo bombers which st ruck at the fleet in Pearl Harbor and the airfields in Hickam, Kaneohe and Ewa. The second strike, launched at 0715 hours, consisted of 167 aircraft, which again struck at the same targets.

At 075 3 hours the first wave consisting of 40 Nakajima B5N2 ‘Kate’ torpedo bombers, 51 Aichi D3A1 ‘Val’ dive bombers, 50 high altitude bombers and 43 Zeros struck airfields and Pearl Harbor Within the next hour, the second wave arrived and continued the attack.
When it was over, the U.S. Losses were:

Casualties

US Army: 218 KIA, 364 WIA.
US Navy: 2,008 KIA, 710 WIA.
US MarineCorp: 109 KIA, 69 WIA.
Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA.
TOTAL: 2,403 KIA, 1,178 WIA.

 

Surrender of American troops at Corregidor Philippine Islands, May 1942

 

News of the Bataan Death March sparked outrage in the US, as reflected in this poster.

After the surrender of Japan in 1945, an Allied commission convicted Masaharu Homma of war crimes, including the atrocities of the death march out of Bataan, and the following atrocities at Camp O’Donnell and Cabanatuan. The general, who had been absorbed in his efforts to capture Corregidor after the fall of Bataan, claimed in his defense that he remained ignorant of the high death toll of the death march until two months after the event. He was executed on April 3, 1946 outside Manila. For unknown reasons, the Allies did not attempt to prosecute Masanobu Tsuji for war crimes. Also in Japan, Generals Hideki Tōjō (later Prime Minister), Kenji Doihara, Seishirō Itagaki, Heitarō Kimura, Iwane Matsui and Akira Muto, and Baron Kōki Hirota were found guilty in responsible to the brutal maltreatment of American and Filipino POW‘s, and were executed by hanging at Sugamo Prison in Ikebukuro on December 23, 1948. Several others were sentenced to imprisonment of between 7, 20 and 22 years

the end @ copyright 2012

 

KOLEKSI SEJARAH PERANG DUNIA KEDUA

Kata Pengantar

dalam rangka peringatan 70 tahun perang dunia kedua yang melanda indonesia

dipersembahkan koleksi sejarah perang dunia kedua 1941-1943

ini adalah salah satu sumber informasi dari buku elektronik Dr Iwa

Dr Iwan E-Book In CD Rom

THE PASIFIC WAR HISTORY COLLECTION 1941-1945

MOHON MAAF JIKA TERJEMAHAN DARI SUMBER ASLINYA KURANG TEPAT KARENA MEMPERGUNAKAN ALAT TERJEMAHAN ALAIS MACHINAL TRANSLATE, yANG DALAM e-bOOK AKAN DIRAPIKAN LAGI

SELAMAT MENYAKSIKAN ILUSTRASI DAN MEMBACA SEJARAH YANG BEGITU DAHSYAT,SEMOGA TIDAK AKAN TERJADI LAGI

SALAM  DARI

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

序文

インドネシアを襲った第二次世界大戦の70年を記念して、

第二次世界大戦の歴史1941年から1943年のコレクションを発表

これはsalh本博士岩からの情報の電子源である

博士はイワンのCD ROM内の電子書籍

PASIFIC WARヒストリーコレクション1941年から1945年

電子書籍では、翻訳MACHINALアレーを使用するための精度の低い翻訳ツールの元のソースの翻訳が再び製作される場合SORRY PLEASE

おめでとうございます、イラストの歴史を見て、とても素晴らしい読書、GOODもうそんなことはありません

からのご挨拶

博士はイワンSuwandy、MHA

{513}

 

写真でたどる歴史
FROM
第二次世界大戦
写真記録
すべてのアクションの劇場から
配置された年代順に

VOL。 2

ニューヨーク
WM。 H. WISEとCO、INC。
1944

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著作権1944
WM。 H.ワイズアンドカンパニーインク

米国にて印刷
アメリカン予約ストラットフォードプレス社、ニューヨーク

{} 515

ISIが
  ホームページ
THREE 519の物語
THIRD 521の歴史的概観
771 4年物語
FOURTH 773件の歴史的概観

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謝辞
本書内の写真は、次のソースから取得されます。

公式米海軍写真 – ページ574、575、576、577、578、579、664、665、675、682、683、696、697、698、728、729、730、731、732、733、788、789、 816、817、843、894、920、921、938、939、946、947、950、951、968、969、970、971、972、973、1016

アクメNewspictures、701社、594頁、595、596、597、602、603、606、607、608、609、651、652、660、661、700、702、703、716、738、739、764、 765、773、839、960、996、997

米陸軍信号隊フォトページ650、675、676、677、678、679、735、822、823、826、827、902、903、906、907、966、967

陸軍空軍フォトページ654、655、666、667、736、746、784、785、824、825、842

公式の米海兵隊フォトページ731、732、747、748、749、750、751、753、758、790、791、808、809、948、949

英国のコンバイン写真公司 – ページ742、743、852

公式沿岸警備隊フォトページ752、1017、1018、1019

他のすべてのOdhamsプレス。

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はじめに
いくつかの理由のために、読者は最初よりもさらに満足のいく第二次世界大戦の歴史映像の2番目のボリュームを見つけることができます。このページには、世界との戦いにおける米国の参加、サービスに親戚を持っている人のための重要な要素について説明します。私たちは、軍が、彼らは勝利の増加の流れを変えるようになったすべての劇場でのアクションでアメリカン闘う男を表示するために特別な注意を払っています。良い写真撮影陸軍隊、海軍、海兵隊、沿岸警備隊は、米国からの兵士が決定的な役割を果たしてソロモンの彼らの絵のイベント、ニューギニア、北アフリカやシチリアの包括的な文献目録を作成しました。

純粋に劇的な観点から、3番目と4番目の年が記者のカメラは素晴らしい仕事をやっている天王山の戦い、で満たされた。私たちは、真珠湾の裏切りについて多くのことを読んだことがある。しかし、沈没した画像 “アリゾナ”、 “カリフォルニア”不自由とオアフ島の上の煙のベールの下に “オクラホマ”を逆転は本当に自宅記念碑的な災害の性質をもたらします。

ロシア戦線から、我々は、この問題は重要なナチスの敗北に行くために通りから通りへと各戸ごとに戦われたスターリングラードの血みどろの争いのいくつかの素晴らしい写真を持っている。珊瑚海で、米海軍が最高に記載され、日本を、粉々になった期待してミッドウェー島、少なくとも海軍関与。地中海戦域で、我々はシシリーの征服のチュニジアキャンペーンを通じてカサブランカとアルジェリアの初期着陸から採取した。抵抗されていない記録の両方のアッツ島とキスカ島再占領の奪還とびきりその小さいけど。

これらは、我々は第二次世界大戦の多くbattlefrontsから書き留めてきたが​​、いくつかの行動のステップがあります。ボリューム1にあるように、我々はその期間から短い物語のハイライトを実行することにより、毎年導入しています。これは漠然とした年表と思われる場合は、責任を共同でグローバルの複雑さとボリューム絵画史ではなく、書かれたものを作るために我々の決意が所有する必要があります。

PUBLISHERS

{518} {519}

三年目
1941年11月、米国はすべてが戦争です。英国のための武器と材料の送達を可能にする武器貸与アクションは、3月に調印された。彼は枢軸との戦争に参入し、今ではロシアがされた後、受信者は南へのはるか北にあるとイランを通じて、ムルマンスクで有益な貢献を受け取ります。米海軍は、これらの材料の配達を保証するための入札で大西洋をパトロール。一部のトレーダー系アメリカ人男性は、ドイツのUボートによって撃沈されており、2つの米国の駆逐艦が雷撃されていた。

米国と日本の間の緊張は1940年以来の効果は、今では重要な段階に達している。米国務省は、二人の日本人からの説明を要求している。具体的には、なぜそれがインドシナにおけるフランス軍の質量と、一般的には、どのような中国の今後の方針についてです。日本の特使、来栖三郎は回答の完全なポートフォリオを11月中旬に米国に来た。

200機艦載機が真珠湾と、インストール時にアメリカ艦隊を攻撃したときが、本当の答えは、 “汚名の日”、12月7日に来た。同時に、日本はフィリピン、香港、タイ、米国、マレー人を襲撃した。キャンペーン全体が太平洋廃人真珠湾でアメリカ艦隊の日本をベースにしています。軍事的利益に厳密に評価し、 “奇襲”は完全に成功した。他の人を行方不明と7軍艦はひどく、彼らは今後数ヶ月の間にサービスを切らしていたことが被害を受けた。

日本の初期の進歩が急速であった。 1942年1月2日に、マニラは落ちて、ダグラス·マッカーサー将軍の軍隊はその歴史的な牛歩戦術を開始するためにバターン半島に引退。マラヤの戦いは、シンガポールが降伏した2月15日に受賞しました。スマトラ、ボルネオと3月1日、オランダ領東インド、上に、まだ最後の砦としてのJavaで実行して、離れてセレベス。日本は3月9日モールメイン、2月1日およびそれ以降のラングーン、ジャランのビルマのエントリのポートを、キャプチャ、ビルマを侵略した。

ロシアの前面に太平洋晴れた状況で日本の勝利の暗いシルエットに対して。 11月下旬に1941年に始まり、ロシアの冬に助けられ、ソ連は偉大な回復を持っていた。南部では、ロストフが再び行われていた、そして、北へ、レニングラードとモスクワ安堵の包囲。 1942年3月1日に、ロシアは、彼らが白ロシア人を率いる前にドイツをプッシュして、それらが進行し、労働や設備に多大な犠牲を強いてきた。

ダッチINDIESの秋
月下旬に、日本では、Javaに対して総攻撃を開始した。 3月1日にジャワ海の海の戦い、2月27日の島の運命を封印した。この係では米国とオランダを合わせ艦隊が13巡洋艦と駆逐艦を失ったが、彼らは実質的に完了していますので、Javaでの日本人の上陸を防ぐことができない場合。すべての上に抵抗による3月5日と3月10日にバタビア滝。

征服するオランダ領東インドでは、日本の高いコマンドは3つの槍の穂先への取り組みを指示した。一つは、ドライブの初期段階で、オーストラリアの別の攻撃ニューギニア、ビルマを通って上にプッシュし、3番目はバターンの防衛を破壊しようとして、フィリピンでスローされました。日本はインドとの国境に近づいて駆動ビルマはまだ4月の終わりに実行されています。英国は、インドへの脅威に関して、軍事協力と引き換えに、国家の支配の状況を提供してきました。提案は、インドの指導者によって拒否されました。

ニューギニアでは、日本人はポートモレスビーを進めるために始めたからサラマウア、3月8日に足場を設置しました。オーストラリアに基づく鉄筋コンクリート連合空軍力は、サラマウアと英国で逮捕された上でラバウルで日本の基地を砲撃。オーストラリアへの脅威は、少なくとも一時的には4月下旬にチェックしているようだ。

選出された日本軍によって支えられ3週間の遅延の後、バターンで守備は4月9日に降伏を余儀なくされた。弾薬と食糧供給が不足するた後、彼らは、5月6日に降伏しどこに数千のアメリカ人とフィリピン軍はコレヒドール島に脱出した。

{520}

1月2日に、26カ国は、ワシントンでの国連条約に署名した。この契約は、枢軸国に対して全会一致の目標と行動を求めている。各署名者は、戦争の追求に国の完全なリソースを約束し、全く別個の平和が行われないことがあることに同意するものとします。

月に国連が強度を得ていることを明確な兆候があった。インド洋における日本の支配を阻止するために、イギリス軍はマダガスカルのフランスの植民地の島に上陸した。短いキャンペーン後ヴィシー·フランス軍が鎮圧とマダガスカルはフランス語インドシナの道を行くかもしれないという危険を避けた。

夜には月30から31、英国はドイツに対する最初の空爆を開始しました。攻撃でケルン爆破1000以上の爆撃機がはるかに都市のを平らにし、多くの重大な戦争産業を破壊した。ケルンの攻撃は2年間続いたドイツの地で信じられないほどの空中攻撃の最初のものであったと第二の前に少しのアクションを提供することが期待される

 
 
Undo edits
 
 
 
 
Shashin de tadoru rekishi
FROM
Dainijisekaitaisen
Shashin kiroku
Subete no akushon no gekijō kara
Haichi sa reta nendai jun niVOL. 2Nyūyōku
WM. H. Waizu to CO, inku.
1944{514}Chosakken 1944
WM. H. Waizuandokanpanīinku

Beikoku nite insatsu
Amerikan yoyaku sutorattofōdopuresu-sha, nyūyōku

{} 515

ISI ga
   Hōmupēji
Surī 519 no monogatari
Sādo 521 no rekishi-teki gaikan
771 4-Nen monogatari
FOURTH 773-ken no rekishi-teki gaikan

{516}

Shaji
Honsho-nai no shashin wa,-ji no sōsu kara shutoku sa remasu.

Kōshiki Amerika kaigun shashin – pēji 574, 575, 576, 577, 578, 579, 664, 665, 675, 682, 683, 696, 697, 698, 728, 729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 788, 789, 816, 817, 843, 894, 920, 921, 938, 939, 946, 947, 950, 951, 968, 969, 970, 971, 972, 973, 1016

Akume Newspictures, 701-sha, 594-pēji, 595, 596, 597, 602, 603, 606, 607, 608, 609, 651, 652, 660, 661, 700, 702, 703, 716, 738, 739, 764, 765, 773, 839, 960, 996, 997

Amerika rikugun shingō-tai fotopēji 650, 675, 676, 677, 678, 679, 735, 822, 823, 826, 827, 902, 903, 906, 907, 966, 967

Rikugun kūgun fotopēji 654, 655, 666, 667, 736, 746, 784, 785, 824, 825, 842

Kōshiki no beikaiheitai fotopēji 731, 732, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 753, 758, 790, 791, 808, 809, 948, 949

Igirisu no konbain shashin kōshi – pēji 742, 743, 852

Kōshiki engan keibitai fotopēji 752, 1017, 1018, 1019

Hoka no subete no Odhams puresu.

{517}

Hajimeni
Ikutsu ka no riyū no tame ni, dokusha wa saisho yori mo sarani manzoku no iku dainijisekaitaisen no rekishi eizō no 2-banme no boryūmu o mitsukeru koto ga dekimasu. Kono pēji ni wa, sekai to notatakai ni okeru Beikoku no sanka, sābisu ni shinseki o motte iru hito no tame no jūyōna yōso ni tsuite setsumei shimasu. Watashitachiha,-gun ga, karera wa shōri no zōka no nagare o kaeru yō ni natta subete no gekijō de no akushon de amerikan tatakau otoko o hyōji suru tame ni tokubetsuna chūi o haratte imasu. Yoi shashin satsuei rikugun-tai, kaigun, kaihei-tai, engan keibitai wa, Beikoku kara no heishi ga ketteitekina yakuwari o hatashite Soromon no karera no e no ibento, nyūginia, kitaafurika ya Shichiria no hōkatsu-tekina bunken mokuroku o sakusei shimashita.

Junsui ni gekitekina kanten kara, 3-banme to 4-banme no toshi ga kisha no kamera wa subarashī shigoto o yatte iru ten’nōzan no tatakai, de mitasa reta. Watashitachiha, Shinjuwan no uragiri ni tsuite ōku no koto o yonda koto ga aru. Shikashi, chinbotsu shita gazō” Arizona”, ” Kariforunia” fujiyū to Oafu-jima no ue no kemuri no bēru no shita ni” Okurahoma” o gyakuten wa hontōni jitaku kinenhi-tekina saigai no seishitsu o motarashimasu.

Roshia sensen kara, wareware wa, kono mondai wa jūyōna Nachisu no haiboku ni iku tame ni tōri kara tōri e to kakko-goto ni tatakawa reta sutāringurādo no chimidoro no arasoi no ikutsu ka no subarashī shashin o motte iru. Sango umi de,-mai kaigun ga saikō ni kisai sa re, Nihon o, konagona ni natta kitai shite middou~ē shima, sukunakutomo kaigun kan’yo. Chichūkai sen’iki de, wareware wa shishirī no seifuku no chunijiakyanpēn o tsūjite Kasaburanka to Arujeria no shoki chakuriku kara saishu shita. Teikō sa rete inai kiroku no ryōhō no Attsu-jima to Kisuka-jima sai senryō no dakkan tobikiri sono chīsaikedo.

Korera wa, wareware wa dainijisekaitaisen no ōku battlefronts kara kakitomete kitaga ​​, ikutsu ka no kōdō no suteppu ga arimasu. Boryūmu 1 ni aru yō ni, wareware wa sono kikan kara mijikai monogatari no hairaito o jikkō suru koto ni yori, maitoshi dōnyū shite imasu. Kore wa bakuzento shita nenpyō to omowa reru baai wa, sekinin o kyōdō de gurōbaru no fukuzatsu-sa to boryūmu kaiga-shide wa naku, kaka reta mono o tsukuru tame ni wareware no ketsui ga shoyū suru hitsuyō ga arimasu.

PUBLISHERS

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San-nen-me
1941-Nen 11 tsuki, Beikoku wa subete ga sensōdesu. Igirisu no tame no buki to zairyō no sōtatsu o kanō ni suru bukitaiyo akushon wa, 3 tsuki ni chōin sa reta. Kare wa sūjiku to no sensō ni san’nyū shi, ima dewa Roshia ga sa reta nochi, jushin-sha wa minami e no Haruka kita ni aru to Iran o tsūjite, murumansuku de yūekina kōken o uketorimasu. Amerika kaigun wa, korera no zairyō no haitatsu o hoshō suru tame no nyūsatsu de Taiseiyō o patorōru. Ichibu no torēdā-kei amerikahito dansei wa, Doitsu no U bōto ni yotte gekichin sa rete ori, 2tsu no Beikoku no kuchiku-kan ga raigeki sa rete ita.

Beikoku to Nihon no ma no kinchō wa 1940-nen irai no kōka wa, ima dewa jūyōna dankai ni tasshite iru. Amerika Kokumushō wa, futari no nihonjin kara no setsumei o yōkyū shite iru. Gutaitekini wa, naze sore ga Indoshina ni okeru Furansu-gun no shitsuryō to, ippantekini wa, do no yōna Chūgoku no kongo no hōshin ni tsuitedesu. Nihon no tokushi, kurusu saburō wa kaitō no kanzen’na pōtoforio o 11 tsuki chūjun ni Beikoku ni kita.

200-Ki kansai-ki ga shinjuwan to, insutōru-ji ni Amerika kantai o kōgeki shita toki ga, hontō no kotaeha, ” omei no hi”, 12 tsuki 7-nichi ni kita. Dōjini, Nihon wa Firipin, Honkon, Tai, Beikoku, marē hito o shūgeki shita. Kyanpēn zentai ga Taiheiyō haijin Shinjuwan de Amerika kantai no Nihon o bēsu ni shite imasu. Gunji-teki rieki ni genmitsu ni hyōka shi, ” kishū” wa kanzen ni seikō shita. Hokanohito o yukue fumei to 7 gunkan wa hidoku, karera wa kongo sū-kagetsu no ma ni sābisu o kirashite ita koto ga higai o uketa.

Nihon no shoki no shinpo ga kyūsokudeatta. 1942-Nen 1 tsuki 2-nichi ni, Manira wa ochite, Dagurasu· makkāsā shōgun no guntai wa sono rekishi-tekina gyūho senjutsu o kaishi suru tame ni batān hantō ni intai. Maraya no tatakai wa, shingapōru ga kōfuku shita 2 tsuki 15-nichi ni jushō shimashita. Sumatora, Boruneo to 3 tsuki 1-nichi, orandaryōhigashiindo,-jō ni, mada saigo no toride to shite no javu~a de jikkō shite, hanarete Serebesu. Nihon wa 3 tsuki 9-nichi mōrumein, 2 tsuki 1-nichi oyobi sore ikō no rangūn, jaran no Biruma no entori no pōto o, kyapucha, Biruma o shinryaku shita.

Roshia no zenmen ni taiheiyō hareta jōkyō de Nihon no shōri no kurai shiruetto ni taishite. 11 Tsuki gejun ni 1941-nen ni hajimari, Roshia no fuyu ni tasuke rare, Soren wa idaina kaifuku o motte ita. Nanbude wa, rosutofu ga futatabi okonawa rete ita, soshite, kita e, reningurādo to Mosukuwa Ando no hōi. 1942-Nen 3 tsuki 1-nichi ni, Roshia wa, karera ga Hakuroshia hito o hikiiru mae ni Doitsu o pusshu shite, sorera ga shinkō shi, rōdō ya setsubi ni tadaina gisei o shiite kita.

Datchi INDIES no aki
Tsuki gejun ni, Nihonde wa, javu~a ni taishite sō kōgeki o kaishi shita. 3 Tsuki 1-nichi ni Jawa-kai no umi no tatakai, 2 tsuki 27-nichi no shima no unmei o fūin shita. Kono kakaride wa Beikoku to Oranda o awase kantai ga 13 jun’yōkan to kuchiku-kan o ushinatta ga, karera wa jisshitsu-teki ni kanryō shite imasunode, jawa de no nihonjin no jōriku o fusegu koto ga dekinai baai. Subete no ue ni teikō ni yoru 3 tsuki 5-nichi to 3 tsuki 10-nichi ni batabia taki.

Seifuku suru orandaryōhigashiindode wa, Nihon no takai komando wa 3ttsu no yari no hosaki e no torikumi o shiji shita. Hitotsu wa, doraibu no shoki dankai de, ōsutoraria no betsu no kōgeki nyūginia, Biruma o kayo~tsu te ue ni pusshu shi, 3-banme wa batān no bōei o hakai shiyou to shite, Firipin de surō sa remashita. Nihon wa Indo to no kokkyō ni chikadzuite kudō Biruma wa mada 4 tsuki no owari ni jikkō sa rete imasu. Igirisu wa, Indo e no kyōi ni kanshite, gunji kyōryoku to hikikae ni, kokka no shihai no jōkyō o teikyō shite kimashita. Teian wa, Indo no shidō-sha ni yotte kyohi sa remashita.

Nyūginiade wa, nihonjin wa pōtomoresubī o susumeru tame ni hajimetakara saramaua, 3 tsuki 8-nichi ni ashiba o setchi shimashita. Ōsutoraria ni motodzuku tekkin konkurīto rengō kūgun-ryoku wa, saramaua to Igirisu de taiho sa reta ue de Rabauru de Nihon no kichi o hōgeki. Ōsutoraria e no kyōi wa, sukunakutomo ichijitekini wa 4 tsuki gejun ni chekku shite iru yōda.

Senshutsu sa reta nippongun ni yotte sasae rare 3-shūkan no chien no ato, batān de shubi wa 4 tsuki 9-nichi ni kōfuku o yoginaku sa reta. Dan’yaku to shokuryō kyōkyū ga fusoku suruta nochi, karera wa, 5 tsuki 6-nichi ni kōfuku shi doko ni sū sen no amerikahito to Firipin-gun wa korehidōru shima ni dasshutsu shita.

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1 Tsuki 2-nichi ni, 26-kakoku wa, Washinton de no Kokuren jōyaku ni shomei shita. Kono keiyaku wa, sūjiku kuni ni taishite zenkai itchi no mokuhyō to kōdō o motomete iru. Kaku shomei-sha wa, sensō no tsuikyū ni kuni no kanzen’na risōsu o yakusoku shi, mattaku bekko no heiwa ga okonawa renai koto ga aru koto ni dōi suru mono to shimasu.

Tsuki ni Kokuren ga kyōdo o ete iru koto o meikakuna chōkō ga atta. Indoyō ni okeru Nihon no shihai o soshi suru tame ni, Igirisu-gun wa Madagasukaru no Furansu no shokuminchi no shima ni jōriku shita. Mijikai kyanpēn-go vu~ishī· Furansu-gun ga chin’atsu to Madagasukaru wa furansugo Indoshina no michi o iku kamo shirenai to iu kiken o saketa.

Yoru ni wa tsuki 30 kara 31, Igirisu wa Doitsu ni taisuru saisho no kūbaku o kaishi shimashita. Kōgeki de Kerun bakuha 1000 ijō no bakugeki-ki ga haruka ni toshi no o taira ni shi, ōku no jūdaina sensō sangyō o hakai shita. Kerun no kōgeki wa 2-nenkan tsudzuita Doitsu no ji de shinji rarenai hodo no kūchū kōgeki no saisho no monodeatta to daini no mae ni sukoshi no akushon o teikyō suru koto ga kitai sa reru

 珊瑚海とミッドウェイ
南太平洋の日本の進歩は、最終的に二つの大きなおよび重要海戦によって停止されました。 5月4日に空母や護衛船から成る強力なアメリカの艦隊がオーストラリアに向かって珊瑚海でクルージング日本の大艦隊に連絡を取った。 5月7日まで続いた婚約で、対向艦隊はお互いの銃の範囲内であったことがないという点でユニークだったものは、アメリカの艦載型の平面は一つの大きなキャリアを含む15日本の軍艦を沈没させた。アメリカの損失は1キャリア(レキシントン)、1駆逐艦と1タンカーだった。6月4日に、日本の軍艦や輸送の大艦隊はミッドウェイ島沖に到着し、明らかに真珠湾予備動きだった航空攻撃を開始した。ミッドウェイの土地ベースの航空機は、島への攻撃を停止し、撤退する日本艦隊を余儀なくされた。このような敵の推力を見越して付近に駐留アメリカ艦隊は、太平洋での戦争の全体の流れを変えた日本人、投与破砕海軍の敗北を追求した。戦いは6月7日に終了したときに、アメリカの爆撃機は4キャリア、2巡洋艦と駆逐艦3を沈めていたが、3戦艦や巡洋艦4と同様に、軽い船の数が破損していた。アメリカ艦隊はキャリア “ヨークタウン”と駆逐艦の損失を被った。ミッドウェイは禁止表面血管火災、両側の受けた損害は、空気作用に起因し、その距離の珊瑚海の婚約に類似していた。LIBYAN ACTION
リビアで国連の絵はとても明るくはありませんでした。イギリスは1941年の春にエジプトのイタリアアウトをプッシュした後、ドイツのアフリカ軍団が形成され、その同盟のそばに戦場に送られました。 11月には別の英国の攻勢(1941)は再び12月25日でBengasiを獲得した。この時点でドイツ一般アーウィンロンメルがリビアでAxisの運命を担当したとBengasi、1942年1月29日を再受験することに成功しました。イギリスは初期の数週間に多くの約束を示した別の西向きの推力を開始したとき、キレナイカのシーソーの戦いの新たな局面月に始まった。しかしロンメルは間もなく、英国をoutmaneuvered彼らはすべての逆境を通じて保有していたトブルクを取り、エジプトに彼の方法を大幅に削減。彼は7月1日マトルーフ、エジプトの要塞を取って、彼は唯一の70マイルアレクサンドリア、英国の海軍基地から、エル·アラメインに達するまで進んだ。エル·アラメインでは英国のブレースと戦いに疲れたアフリカの軍団は、アレキサンドリア、スエズ運河を取得することができませんでした。

ロシアに待望の第二ドイツ軍は6月上旬に始まった。ナチス軍がセヴァストポリ、7月2日、ロストフ、7月28日を取って、次に2つの8月中旬に包囲下に来た槍の穂先、スターリングラードに1つずつ交換し、そして油を積んだコーカサス地域における第二を運転した。

ソロモン
アメリカ海兵隊は、8月7日に日本の占領下ソロモン諸島を取る彼らのキャンペーンを開いた。第一暴行は、フロリダ、ツラギ島にあった、その後ガダルカナル。上陸作戦は、アメリカ人は8月9日の夜、サボ島の海戦で4巡洋艦を失った時に艦隊アクションでサポートされていました。数日以内に、海兵隊はガダルカナルで日本の組み込み飛行場(ヘンダーソンフィールド)を取得され、ソロモンと連合電源ラインの保護のための長い闘いが進行中であった。

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ロシアのキャンペーン
8月 – 12月、1941

 
 
Undo edits
 
 
 
 
Sango umi to middō~ei
Minamitaiheiyō no Nihon no shinpo wa, saishūtekini futatsu no ōkina oyobi jūyō kaisen ni yotte teishi sa remashita. 5 Tsuki 4-nichi ni kūbo ya goei-sen kara naru kyōryokuna Amerika no kantai ga ōsutoraria ni mukatte sango umi de kurūjingu Nihon no dai kantai ni renraku o totta. 5 Tsuki 7-nichi made tsudzuita kon’yaku de, taikō kantai wa otagai no jū no han’i-naideatta koto ga nai to iu ten de yunīkudatta mono wa, Amerika no kansai-gata no heimen wa hitotsu no ōkina kyaria o fukumu 15 Nihon no gunkan o chinbotsu sa seta. Amerika no sonshitsu wa 1 kyaria (rekishinton), 1 kuchiku-kan to 1 tankādatta.6 Tsuki 4-nichi ni, Nihon no gunkan ya yusō no dai kantai wa middō~ei-jima oki ni tōchaku shi, akiraka ni shinjuwan yobi ugokidatta kōkū kōgeki o kaishi shita. Middō~ei no tochi bēsu no kōkūki wa, shima e no kōgeki o teishi shi, tettai suru Nihon kantai o yoginaku sa reta. Kono yōna teki no suiryoku o mikoshite fukin ni chūryū Amerika kantai wa, Taiheiyō de no sensō no zentai no nagare o kaeta nihonjin, tōyo hasai kaigun no haiboku o tsuikyū shita. Tatakai wa 6 tsuki 7-nichi ni shūryō shita toki ni, Amerika no bakugeki-ki wa 4 kyaria, 2 jun’yōkan to kuchiku-kan 3 o shizumete itaga, 3 senkan ya jun’yōkan 4 to dōyō ni, karui fune no kazu ga hason shite ita. Amerika kantai wa kyaria” yōkutaun” to kuchiku-kan no sonshitsu o kabutta. Middō~ei wa kinshi hyōmen kekkan kasai, ryōsoku no uketa songai wa, kūki sayō ni kiin shi, sono kyori no sango umi no kon’yaku ni ruiji shite ita.LIBYAN akushon
Ribia de Kokuren no e wa totemo akaruku wa arimasendeshita. Igirisu wa 1941-nen no haru ni Ejiputo no itariaauto o pusshu shita nochi, Doitsu no Afurika gundan ga keisei sa re, sono dōmei no soba ni senjō ni okura remashita. 11 Tsuki ni wa betsu no Igirisu no kōsei (1941) wa futatabi 12 tsuki 25-nichi de Bengasi o kakutoku shita. Kono jiten de Doitsu ippan āu~inronmeru ga Ribia de Axis no unmei o tantō shita to Bengasi, 1942-nen 1 tsuki 29-nichi o sai juken suru koto ni seikō shimashita. Igirisu wa shoki no sū-shūkan ni ōku no yakusoku o shimeshita betsu no nishimuki no suiryoku o kaishi shita toki, kirenaika no shīsō no tatakai no aratana kyokumen tsuki ni hajimatta. Shikashi ronmeru wa mamonaku, Igirisu o outmaneuvered karera wa subete no gyakkyō o tsūjite hoyū shite ita toburuku o tori, Ejiputo ni kare no hōhō o ōhaba ni sakugen. Kare wa 7 tsuki 1-nichi matorūfu, Ejiputo no yōsai o totte, kare wa yuiitsu no 70 mairuarekusandoria, Igirisu no kaigun kichi kara, Eru· aramein ni tassuru made susunda. Eru· arameinde wa Igirisu no burēsu to tatakai ni tsukareta Afurika no gundan wa, Arekisandoria, Suezu unga o shutoku suru koto ga dekimasendeshita.

Roshia ni taibō no daini Doitsu-gun wa 6 tsuki jōjun ni hajimatta. Nachisu-gun ga sevu~asutopori, 7 tsuki 2-nichi, rosutofu, 7 tsuki 28-nichi o totte, tsugini 2tsu no 8 tsuki chūjun ni hōi-ka ni kita yari no hosaki, sutāringurādo ni 1tsu zutsu kōkan shi, soshite abura o tsunda kōkasasu chiiki ni okeru daini o unten shita.

Soromon
Amerikakaiheitai wa, 8 tsuki 7-nichi ni Nihon no senryō-ka Soromon shotō o toru karera no kyanpēn o aita. Dai ichi bōkō wa, Furorida, tsuragi shima ni atta, sonogo Gadarukanaru. Jōriku sakusen wa, amerikahito wa 8 tsuki 9-nichi no yoru, sabo shima no kaisen de 4 jun’yōkan o ushinatta toki ni kantai akushon de sapōto sa rete imashita. Sū-nichi inai ni, umi heitai wa Gadarukanaru de Nihon no kumikomi hikōjō (hendāsonfīrudo) o shutoku sa re, Soromon to Rengō dengen rain no hogo no tame no nagai tatakai ga shinkō-chūdeatta.

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Roshia no kyanpēn
8 Tsuki – 12 tsuki, 1941

 
SEJARAH DALAM GAMBAR
DARI
 PERANG DUNIA KEDUA

Sebuah REKOR FOTOGRAFI
DARI SEMUA teater TINDAKAN
diatur dalam Kronologis

VOL. 2

New York
WM. H. WISE dan CO, INC
1.944

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Copyright 1.944
WM. H. Wise & CO, Inc

Dicetak di Amerika Serikat
Amerika Buku-Stratford Press, Inc, New York

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ISI
  HALAMAN
KISAH TAHUN KETIGA 519
GAMBARAN SEJARAH TAHUN KETIGA 521
KISAH TAHUN KEEMPAT 771
GAMBARAN SEJARAH TAHUN KEEMPAT 773

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UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH
Foto-foto dalam publikasi ini diperoleh dari sumber-sumber berikut:

Resmi US Navy Photographs-Halaman 574, 575, 576, 577, 578, 579, 664, 665, 675, 682, 683, 696, 697, 698, 728, 729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 788, 789, 816, 817, 843, 894, 920, 921, 938, 939, 946, 947, 950, 951, 968, 969, 970, 971, 972, 973, 1016

Acme Newspictures, Inc-Halaman 594, 595, 596, 597, 602, 603, 606, 607, 608, 609, 651, 652, 660, 661, 700, 701, 702, 703, 716, 738, 739, 764 , 765, 773, 839, 960, 996, 997

US Army Signal Corps Foto-Halaman 650, 675, 676, 677, 678, 679, 735, 822, 823, 826, 827, 902, 903, 906, 907, 966, 967

Tentara Angkatan Udara Foto-Halaman 654, 655, 666, 667, 736, 746, 784, 785, 824, 825, 842

Resmi Korps Marinir AS Foto-Halaman 731, 732, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 753, 758, 790, 791, 808, 809, 948, 949

British Combine Foto, Ltd-Halaman 742, 743, 852

Resmi Coast Guard Foto-Halaman 752, 1017, 1018, 1019

Semua Tekan Odhams lainnya.

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PRAKATA
Untuk sejumlah alasan, pembaca dapat menemukan volume kedua dari SEJARAH bergambar PERANG DUNIA KEDUA bahkan lebih memuaskan daripada yang pertama. Halaman ini menggambarkan partisipasi Amerika dalam memerangi dunia, faktor penting bagi mereka yang memiliki kerabat di layanan. Kami telah mengambil perawatan khusus untuk menunjukkan laki-laki pertempuran Amerika beraksi di semua bioskop di mana berbagai kekuatan mereka meningkat mulai mengubah gelombang kemenangan. Korps fotografi baik dari Angkatan Darat, Angkatan Laut, Marinir dan Coast Guard telah menciptakan bibliografi bergambar komprehensif mereka peristiwa di Solomon, New Guinea, Afrika Utara dan Sisilia, tempat di mana tentara dari Amerika Serikat memainkan peran yang menentukan.

Dari sudut pandang murni dramatis, tahun ketiga dan keempat yang penuh dengan pertempuran klimaks, di mana kamera melakukan pekerjaan yang luar biasa reportorial. Kami telah membaca banyak tentang pengkhianatan Pearl Harbor. Tetapi gambar cekung “Arizona”, yang pincang “California” dan terbalik “Oklahoma” di bawah selubung asap atas Oahu benar-benar membawa pulang sifat monumental bencana.

Dari depan Rusia kami memiliki beberapa gambar besar dari pertempuran berdarah Stalingrad mana masalah itu berjuang dari jalan ke jalan dan pintu ke pintu sampai Nazi pergi ke kekalahan kritis. Keterlibatan angkatan laut di Laut Coral dan di Midway Island, di mana Angkatan Laut Amerika hancur harapan Jepang, yang digambarkan superlatively. Dalam teater Mediterania, kita diambil dari pendaratan awal di Casablanca dan Aljazair melalui kampanye Tunisia penaklukan Sisilia. Yang kecil tapi terkutuk merebut kembali dari Attu dan reoccupation unresisted dari Kiska keduanya direkam.

Ini adalah tetapi beberapa tahapan tindakan yang kita telah mencatat dari battlefronts banyak perang dunia kedua. Seperti dalam volume satu, kami telah memperkenalkan setiap tahun dengan cerita berjalan singkat highlights dari periode itu. Jika kronologi ini tampaknya samar, tanggung jawab harus secara bersama-sama dimiliki oleh kompleksitas perang global dan tekad kita untuk membuat volume sejarah bergambar dan bukan satu tertulis.

THE PENERBIT

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TAHUN KETIGA
Pada bulan November 1941, Amerika Serikat adalah semua tapi berperang. Tindakan Lend-sewa, yang mengizinkan pengiriman senjata dan bahan-bahan untuk Inggris, telah ditandatangani pada bulan Maret. Setelah ia memasuki perang melawan Axis, Rusia dibuat penerima dan sekarang menerima kontribusi yang berguna di Murmansk di utara jauh dan melalui Iran di selatan. Angkatan Laut AS sedang berpatroli Atlantik dalam upaya untuk memastikan penyampaian materi ini. Beberapa pedagang-pria Amerika telah tenggelam oleh Jerman U-boat, dan dua kapal perusak AS telah terkena torpedo.

Ketegangan antara Amerika Serikat dan Jepang, berpengaruh sejak tahun 1940, sekarang telah mencapai tahap kritis. Departemen Luar Negeri AS telah menuntut dua penjelasan dari Jepang. Secara khusus, mengapa ia massa pasukan di Perancis Indo-China dan, secara umum, apa kebijakan masa depannya tentang Cina. Utusan khusus Jepang, Saburo Kurusu datang ke Amerika Serikat pada pertengahan November dengan portofolio lengkap balasan.

Tapi jawaban sebenarnya datang pada 7 Desember, “hari penghujatan”, ketika 200 pesawat carrier-borne pesawat menyerang armada Amerika dan instalasi di Pearl Harbor. Bersamaan, Jepang menyerang Filipina, Hong-Kong, Thailand, dan Amerika Melayu. Seluruh kampanye Jepang di Pasifik didasarkan pada melumpuhkan armada AS di Pearl Harbor. Dinilai ketat pada manfaat militer, “serangan menyelinap” sepenuhnya berhasil. Satu kapal perang hilang dan tujuh lainnya rusak parah sehingga mereka berada di luar layanan untuk bulan-bulan mendatang.

Awal kemajuan Jepang adalah cepat. Pada tanggal 2 Januari 1942, Manila jatuh, dan pasukan Jenderal Douglas MacArthur pensiun ke Semenanjung Bataan untuk memulai taktik bersejarah mereka menunda. Pertempuran Malaya dimenangkan pada 15 Februari ketika Singapura menyerah. Pada tanggal 1 Maret Hindia Belanda, dengan Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan Celebes pergi, masih menjalankan dengan Jawa sebagai benteng terakhir. Jepang sudah menginvasi Burma, menangkap Moulmein, 1 Februari dan kemudian Rangoon, pelabuhan masuknya Jalan Burma, 9 Maret.

Terhadap gambar gelap kemenangan Jepang di Pasifik siluet situasi cerah di front Rusia. Dimulai pada akhir November 1941, dan dibantu oleh musim dingin Rusia, pasukan Soviet telah mengadakan pemulihan yang besar. Di selatan, Rostov telah direbut kembali, dan, di utara, pengepungan Leningrad dan Moskow lega. Pada tanggal 1 Maret 1942, Rusia telah mendorong Jerman sebelum mereka menuju Putih Rusia dan menuntut meminta korban dalam tenaga kerja dan peralatan saat mereka maju.

JATUH DARI HINDIA BELANDA
Pada akhir Februari, Jepang melancarkan serangan habis-habisan terhadap Jawa. Nasib pulau itu disegel dalam pertempuran laut di Laut Jawa, 27 Februari sampai 1 Maret. Dalam keterlibatan ini AS dan Belanda gabungan armada kehilangan 13 kapal penjelajah dan kapal perusak, praktis lengkap mereka, dan tidak lagi mampu mencegah pendaratan Jepang di Jawa. Batavia jatuh pada tanggal 5 Maret dan 10 Maret oleh resistensi semua telah berakhir.

Dengan Hindia Belanda menaklukkan, komando tinggi Jepang diarahkan upaya dalam tiga ujung tombak. Satu mendorong pada melalui Burma, lain New Guinea menyerang dalam drive awal di Australia, dan ketiga terlempar di Filipina dalam upaya untuk memecahkan pertahanan Bataan. Drive Burma masih berjalan pada akhir April dengan Jepang mendekati perbatasan India. Inggris, berkaitan dengan ancaman ke India, telah menawarkan ini status dominion bangsa dalam pertukaran untuk kerjasama militer. Usul itu ditolak oleh para pemimpin India.

Di New Guinea, Jepang mendirikan tempat berpijak di Salamaua, 8 Maret, dari mana mereka mulai uang muka Port Moresby. Diperkuat Sekutu kekuatan udara, berdasarkan Australia, ditumbuk pangkalan Jepang di Rabaul pada Salamaua dan Inggris-yang sebelumnya telah ditangkap. Ancaman ke Australia tampak setidaknya untuk sementara diperiksa pada akhir April.

Setelah menunda serangan tiga minggu berkelanjutan oleh pasukan Jepang terpilih, para pembela di Bataan dipaksa menyerah pada 9 April. Beberapa tentara Amerika dan Filipina ribu melarikan diri ke Corregidor Island di mana mereka menyerah pada tanggal 6 Mei, setelah amunisi dan persediaan makanan menjadi kelelahan.

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Pada tanggal 2 Januari, dua puluh enam negara telah menandatangani Pakta PBB di Washington. Perjanjian ini menyerukan kebulatan tujuan dan tindakan terhadap Axis Powers. Setiap penandatangan berjanji sumber daya penuh negaranya dalam mengejar perang dan setuju tidak ada perdamaian terpisah itu harus dibuat.

Pada bulan Mei ada tanda-tanda yang jelas bahwa PBB telah memperoleh kekuatan. Untuk memblokir kontrol Jepang di Samudera Hindia, pasukan Inggris mendarat di pulau koloni Perancis Madagaskar. Setelah kampanye singkat Vichy-Perancis pasukan ditundukkan dan bahaya dihindari bahwa Madagaskar mungkin pergi jalan Perancis Indo-China.

Pada malam Mei 30-31, Inggris meluncurkan serangan udara pertama yang besar terhadap Jerman. Lebih dari 1000 pengebom mengecam Cologne dalam serangan yang diratakan banyak kota dan menghancurkan banyak industri vital perang. Serangan di Cologne adalah yang pertama dari serangan udara yang luar biasa di tanah Jerman yang terus selama dua tahun ke depan dan yang diharapkan dapat memberikan tindakan kecil depan kedua

 CORAL LAUT DAN MIDWAY
Kemajuan Jepang di Pasifik Selatan itu akhirnya dihentikan oleh dua pertempuran laut yang besar dan kritis. Pada tanggal 4 Mei armada Amerika yang kuat terdiri dari kapal induk dan kapal mengawal dihubungi armada Jepang yang besar berlayar di Laut Coral menuju Australia. Dalam keterlibatan yang berlangsung sampai 7 Mei, dan salah satu yang unik dalam bahwa armada menentang pernah berada dalam jangkauan senjata dari satu sama lain, Amerika carrier-borne pesawat tenggelam lima belas kapal perang Jepang termasuk salah satu operator besar. Kerugian Amerika adalah salah satu pembawa (Lexington), satu kapal perusak dan satu kapal tanker.
Pada tanggal 4 Juni, sebuah armada besar kapal perang Jepang dan transportasi tiba dari Midway Island dan memulai serangan udara yang jelas langkah awal di Pearl Harbor. Tanah pesawat berbasis Midway itu menghentikan serangan terhadap pulau dan memaksa armada Jepang untuk menarik diri. Sebuah armada Amerika, ditempatkan di sekitar untuk mengantisipasi seperti dorong musuh, mengejar kekalahan Jepang dan dikelola angkatan laut menghancurkan yang mengubah jalannya seluruh perang di Pasifik. Ketika pertempuran berakhir pada tanggal 7 Juni, pesawat pembom Amerika telah tenggelam empat operator, dua kapal penjelajah dan tiga kapal perusak, dan telah merusak tiga kapal perang dan empat kapal penjelajah, serta sejumlah kapal lebih ringan. Armada Amerika menderita hilangnya carrier “Yorktown” dan perusak. Midway adalah mirip dengan keterlibatan Laut Koral dalam jarak permukaan kebakaran kapal dilarang dan kerusakan berkelanjutan di kedua belah pihak akibat aksi udara.Libya TINDAKAN
Di Libya gambar untuk PBB itu tidak begitu cerah. Setelah Inggris telah mendorong Italia keluar dari Mesir pada musim semi tahun 1941, Afrika Korps Jerman dibentuk dan dikirim untuk bertempur di samping sekutu mereka. Lain ofensif Inggris di November (1941) kembali memenangkan Bengasi oleh tanggal 25 Desember. Pada titik ini German Jenderal Irwin Rommel mengambil alih kekayaan Axis di Libya dan berhasil merebut kembali Bengasi, 29 Januari 1942. Sebuah fase baru pertempuran melihat-melihat dari Cyrenaica dimulai pada bulan Mei ketika Inggris mulai lagi dorong ke arah barat yang menunjukkan banyak janji dalam minggu-minggu awal. Tapi Rommel segera dikalahkan Inggris, mengambil Tobruk, yang mereka telah diadakan melalui semua kemalangan mereka, dan memangkas jalan ke Mesir. Dia mengambil Matruh, benteng Mesir, 1 Juli, dan maju sampai ia mencapai El Alamein, hanya 70 mil dari Alexandria, pangkalan angkatan laut Inggris. Pada El Alamein yang braced Inggris dan pertempuran-lelah Afrika Korps tidak mampu untuk mendapatkan ke Alexandria dan Terusan Suez.Serangan yang lama ditunggu Jerman kedua ke Rusia dimulai pada awal Juni. Pasukan Nazi mengambil Sevastopol, 2 Juli, dan Rostov, 28 Juli, dan kemudian melaju dua ujung tombak, satu di Stalingrad, yang berada di bawah pengepungan di pertengahan Agustus, dan yang kedua di wilayah Kaukasus minyak sarat.

THE SOLOMONS
Amerika marinir membuka kampanye mereka untuk mengambil Jepang menduduki Kepulauan Solomon pada 7 Agustus. Para serangan pertama berada di Florida, Tulagi, dan kemudian Guadalcanal. Operasi pendaratan didukung oleh tindakan armada selama mana orang Amerika kehilangan empat kapal penjelajah dalam pertempuran laut dari Pulau Savo pada malam 9 Agustus. Dalam beberapa hari, Marinir merebut lapangan terbang yang dibangun Jepang di Guadalcanal (Henderson Field) dan perjuangan panjang untuk Solomon dan perlindungan dari jalur pasokan Sekutu sedang berlangsung.

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PICTORIAL HISTORY
OF THE
SECOND WORLD WAR

A PHOTOGRAPHIC RECORD
OF ALL THEATERS OF ACTION
CHRONOLOGICALLY ARRANGED

VOL. 2

New York
WM. H. WISE and CO., INC.
1944

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Copyright 1944
WM. H. Wise & CO., Inc.

Printed in the United States of America
American Book-Stratford Press, Inc., New York

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CONTENTS

  PAGE
STORY OF THE THIRD YEAR 519
PICTURE HISTORY OF THE THIRD YEAR 521
STORY OF THE FOURTH YEAR 771
PICTURE HISTORY OF THE FOURTH YEAR 773

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Photographs in this publication were obtained from the following sources:

Official U.S. Navy Photographs— Pages 574, 575, 576, 577, 578, 579, 664, 665, 675, 682, 683, 696, 697, 698, 728, 729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 788, 789, 816, 817, 843, 894, 920, 921, 938, 939, 946, 947, 950, 951, 968, 969, 970, 971, 972, 973, 1016

Acme Newspictures, Inc. —Pages 594, 595, 596, 597, 602, 603, 606, 607, 608, 609, 651, 652, 660, 661, 700, 701, 702, 703, 716, 738, 739, 764, 765, 773, 839, 960, 996, 997

U.S. Army Signal Corps Photos —Pages 650, 675, 676, 677, 678, 679, 735, 822, 823, 826, 827, 902, 903, 906, 907, 966, 967

Army Air Forces Photos —Pages 654, 655, 666, 667, 736, 746, 784, 785, 824, 825, 842

Official U.S. Marine Corps Photos —Pages 731, 732, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 753, 758, 790, 791, 808, 809, 948, 949

British Combine Photos, Ltd. —Pages 742, 743, 852

Official Coast Guard Photos —Pages 752, 1017, 1018, 1019

All other Odhams Press.

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FOREWORD

For a number of reasons, the reader may find the second volume of the PICTORIAL HISTORY OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR even more gratifying than the first. These pages depict American participation in the world combat, a factor of significance to those who have relatives in the services. We have taken special care to show American fighting men in action in all the various theaters where their increasing strength began to turn the tide of victory. The excellent photographic corps of the Army, Navy, Marines and Coast Guard have created a comprehensive pictorial bibliography of they events in the Solomons, New Guinea, North Africa and Sicily, places where troops from the United States played decisive roles.

From the purely dramatic point of view, the third and fourth years were fraught with climactic battles, upon which the camera did an exceptional reportorial job. We have read much about the treachery of Pearl Harbor. But the pictures of the sunken “Arizona”, the limp “California” and the capsized “Oklahoma” under the pall of smoke over Oahu really bring home the monumental nature of the disaster.

From the Russian front we have some great shots of the bloody battle of Stalingrad where the issue was fought from street to street and door to door until the Nazis went down to critical defeat. The naval engagements in the Coral Sea and at Midway Island, where the American Navy crushed Japanese hopes, are superlatively portrayed. In the Mediterranean theater, we are taken from the initial landings at Casablanca and Algiers through the Tunisian campaign to the conquest of Sicily. The minor but sanguinary retaking of Attu and the unresisted reoccupation of Kiska are both recorded.

These are but a few of the action phases we have recorded from the many battlefronts of the second world war. As in volume one, we have introduced each year with a brief running story of the highlights of that period. If this chronology seems sketchy, the onus must be jointly shared by the complexities of global war and our resolve to make these volumes a pictorial history and not a written one.

THE PUBLISHERS

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THE THIRD YEAR

By November, 1941, the United States was all but at war. The Lend-lease act, which permitted the shipment of arms and materials to England, had been signed in March. After she entered the war against the Axis, Russia was made a beneficiary and was now receiving useful contributions at Murmansk in the far north and through Iran in the south. The U.S. Navy was patrolling the Atlantic in an effort to insure the delivery of this material. Several American merchant-men had been sunk by German U-boats, and two U.S. destroyers had been torpedoed.

Tension between the United States and Japan, ascendant since 1940, had now reached the critical stage. The U.S. State Department was demanding two explanations from Japan. Specifically, why she was massing troops in French Indo-China and, generally, what was her future policy regarding China. Special Japanese envoy, Saburo Kurusu came to the United States in mid-November with a portfolio full of replies.

But the real answer came on Dec. 7, the “day of infamy”, when 200 aircraft carrier-borne planes attacked the American fleet and installations at Pearl Harbor. Simultaneously, Japan struck at the Philippines, Hong-Kong, Thailand, and the Malay States. Japan’s entire campaign in the Pacific was based on crippling the U.S. fleet at Pearl Harbor. Judged strictly on its military merits, the “sneak attack” was entirely successful. One battleship was lost and seven others so severely damaged that they were out of service for months to come.

Japan’s early progress was rapid. On Jan. 2, 1942, Manila fell, and General Douglas MacArthur’s forces retired to the Bataan Peninsula to begin their historic delaying tactics. The battle for Malaya was won on Feb. 15 when Singapore surrendered. By March 1, the Netherlands Indies, with Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes gone, were still carrying on with Java as the last stronghold. Japan had already invaded Burma, capturing Moulmein, Feb. 1, and then Rangoon, the entry port of the Burma Road, March 9.

Against the dark picture of Japanese victories in the Pacific was silhouetted the brighter situation on the Russian front. Starting in late November, 1941, and aided by the Russian winter, Soviet troops had staged a great recovery. In the south, Rostov had been retaken, and, in the north, the sieges of Leningrad and Moscow relieved. On March 1, 1942, the Russians were driving the Germans before them towards White Russia and exacting a heavy toll in manpower and equipment as they advanced.

FALL OF THE NETHERLANDS INDIES

In late February, the Japanese launched an all out attack against Java. The fate of the island was sealed in a naval battle in the Java Sea, Feb. 27 to March 1. In this engagement the combined U.S. and Dutch fleets lost 13 cruisers and destroyers, practically their full complement, and were no longer able to prevent Japanese landings on Java. Batavia fell on March 5 and by March 10 all resistance had ended.

With the Netherlands Indies conquered, the Japanese high command directed its efforts in three spearheads. One pushed on through Burma, another attacked New Guinea in a preliminary drive on Australia, and the third was catapulted at the Philippines in an effort to crack the Bataan defenses. The Burma drive was still progressing in late April with the Japanese approaching India’s border. Great Britain, concerned with the threat to India, had offered this nation dominion status in exchange for military cooperation. The proposal was rejected by India’s leaders.

In New Guinea, the Japanese established a beachhead at Salamaua, March 8, from which they began an advance on Port Moresby. Reinforced Allied air strength, based on Australia, pounded the Japanese base at Salamaua and Rabaul on Britain—which had been previously captured. The menace to Australia seemed at least temporarily checked in late April.

After holding off a sustained three week attack by picked Japanese troops, the defenders on Bataan were compelled to capitulate on April 9. Several thousand American and Filipino troops escaped to Corregidor Island where they surrendered on May 6, after ammunition and food supplies became exhausted.

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On Jan. 2, twenty-six nations had signed the United Nations Pact at Washington. This agreement called for a unanimity of purpose and action against the Axis Powers. Each signer pledged his country’s full resources in the pursuit of the war and agreed no separate peace was to be made.

By May there were definite signs that the United Nations were gaining in strength. To block Japanese control of the Indian Ocean, British forces landed on the French island colony of Madagascar. After a short campaign the Vichy-French forces were subdued and the danger averted that Madagascar might go the way of French Indo-China.

On the night of May 30-31, Great Britain launched the first great air attack on Germany. Over 1000 bombers blasted Cologne in a raid that razed much of the city and destroyed many of its vital war industries. The raid on Cologne was the first of the prodigious air assaults on German soil that were to continue for the next two years and which were expected to provide a minor second front action.

CORAL SEA AND MIDWAY

The advance of the Japanese in the South Pacific was finally halted by two great and critical naval battles. On May 4 a strong American fleet composed of aircraft carriers and escorting ships contacted a large Japanese fleet cruising in the Coral Sea towards Australia. In an engagement that lasted until May 7, and one that was unique in that the opposing fleets never were within gun range of one another, American carrier-borne planes sank fifteen Japanese warships including one large carrier. The American losses were one carrier (Lexington), one destroyer and one tanker.

On June 4, a large flotilla of Japanese warships and transports arrived off Midway Island and began an air attack that was obviously a preliminary move on Pearl Harbor. Midway’s land based aircraft stopped the assault on the island and forced the Japanese fleet to withdraw. An American fleet, stationed in the vicinity in anticipation of such an enemy thrust, pursued the Japanese and administered a crushing naval defeat that altered the whole course of war in the Pacific. When the battle ended on June 7, American bombers had sunk four carriers, two cruisers and three destroyers, and had damaged three battleships and four cruisers, as well as a number of lighter ships. The American fleet suffered the loss of the carrier “Yorktown” and a destroyer. Midway was similar to the Coral Sea engagement in that distances prohibited surface vessel fire and the damages sustained on both sides resulted from air action.

LIBYAN ACTION

In Libya the picture for the United Nations was not so bright. After the British had pushed the Italians out of Egypt in the Spring of 1941, the German Afrika Korps was formed and sent to fight beside their allies. Another British offensive in November (1941) again won Bengasi by Dec. 25. At this point German General Irwin Rommel took charge of Axis fortunes in Libya and succeeded in retaking Bengasi, Jan. 29, 1942. A new phase of the see-saw battle of Cyrenaica began in May when the British started another westward thrust which showed much promise in the early weeks. But Rommel soon outmaneuvered the British, took Tobruk, which they had held through all their adversities, and slashed his way into Egypt. He took Matruh, the Egyptian fortress, July 1, and advanced until he reached El Alamein, only 70 miles from Alexandria, the British naval base. At El Alamein the British braced and the battle-weary Afrika Korps were unable to get to Alexandria and the Suez Canal.

The long awaited second German offensive into Russia started in early June. Nazi forces took Sevastopol, July 2, and Rostov, July 28, and then drove two spearheads, one at Stalingrad, which came under siege in mid-August, and the second at the oil-laden Caucasus region.

THE SOLOMONS

American marines opened their campaign to take the Japanese occupied Solomon Islands on August 7. The first assaults were at Florida, Tulagi, and then Guadalcanal. The landing operations were supported by fleet action during which the Americans lost four cruisers in the naval battle of Savo Island on the night of August 9. Within a few days, the Marines captured the Japanese built airfield on Guadalcanal (Henderson Field) and the long struggle for the Solomons and the protection of the Allied supply lines was under way.

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The campaign in Russia
August-December, 1941

Kampanye di Rusia
Agustus-Desember 1941

THE EASTERN FRONT AS THE THIRD YEAR OPENED

Map showing stages of the German advances in Russia from August 17 to December 6, when the offensive was brought to a standstill. During this period the most serious threats to Leningrad, Moscow and the Caucasus developed and the Russians were forced to evacuate some of their most valuable industrial towns. Losses on both sides, both in men and material, were tremendous, but the Russians held on and forced a dreaded winter campaign.

DEPAN TIMUR SEBAGAI TAHUN KETIGA DIBUKA

Peta menampilkan tahapan kemajuan Jerman di Rusia dari 17 Agustus sampai dengan 6 Desember ketika serangan itu terhenti. Selama periode ini ancaman paling serius terhadap Leningrad, Moskow dan Kaukasus dikembangkan dan Rusia terpaksa mengungsi beberapa kota yang paling berharga industri. Kerugian di kedua belah pihak, baik pada pria dan materi, yang luar biasa, tetapi Rusia diadakan pada dan memaksa kampanye musim dingin ditakuti.

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レニングラードへの道に沿ってナチス攻勢パンチ
9月3-7、1941

さらに言語を深化所有する英国人を翻訳してください(カレンダーノート博士はイワン、すみません場所の在庫が翻訳に制限されます)

Pukulan serangan  Nazi di sepanjang jalan menuju Leningrad
September 3-7, 1941

selanjutnya silahkan anda memperdalam bahasa ingris agar dapat menterjemahkannya sendiri(catatn dr Iwan,maaf tempat terbatas untuk diisi terjemahan,)


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The Nazis smash along the road to Leningrad
September 3-7, 1941

LENINGRAD IN DANGER

After capturing Novgorod on August 27 and the Estonian town of Tallinn on September 2, the German forces attacking Leningrad pressed on to Luga, which they reached on the 3d. Here violent Russian counter-attacks momentarily stayed their advance. In accordance with an order from Hitler to take the city at all costs, however, General von Leeb threw masses of fresh men and material into the battle, regardless of huge losses, and on September 7 the German High Command announced that mobile divisions with strong air support had reached the River Neva on a broad front and had captured Schusselburg, twenty-five miles east of the city. This, together with the Finnish thrusts on the Karelian Isthmus and between Lakes Ladoga and Onega completely cut off Leningrad from outside communication. Meanwhile, in the city itself the whole population was mobilized ready if necessary to defend their homes to the last. The photographs show: first, a Russian armored train, its A.A. guns ready for instant action, on its way to the front line; second, German infantry entering a blazing village, set on fire by the Russians before withdrawing; third, Russian peasants who have been forced to leave their homes in a town that has just been occupied by the Germans take their children and a few personal belongings with them as they try to find sanctuary from the Nazi invaders.


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German brutality in occupied Russia
September, 1941

GERMANS HANG RUSSIAN CIVILIANS

The many reports of German brutality in the occupied towns and villages in Russia are strikingly confirmed by this remarkable series of photographs found on a dead German officer. They illustrate the callous hanging of five Russian civilians near the town of Velizh, in the Smolensk region, in September, and show: (1) The victims being paraded before an officer who is sentencing them to death; (2) Climbing on to the platform of the gibbet for a soldier to fix the nooses round their necks; (3) Nazi soldiers about to remove the platform; (4) Bodies of the five victims after the hanging.


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Britain’s biggest bombers raid Berlin in Force
September 7, 1941

BRITAIN’S GROWING AIR OFFENSIVE

On September 7, the first anniversary of the first German mass attack on London, a strong bomber force, which included Britain’s latest four-engined Stirlings and Halifaxes, gave Berlin its heaviest bombing of the war so far. The raid, which was carried out in bright moonlight, lasted for two hours and extensive damage was caused to buildings, factories, warehouses and railway yards. The weight of the attack was shown by the German Press, which called the raid “one of the most rotten and disgusting ever made on Berlin.” The Berlin raid, together with raids on Kiel and Boulogne cost the R.A.F. twenty bombers. The pictures show: first, a Stirling crew watching their aircraft being bombed up ready for the night’s operations; second, a Halifax heavy bomber in flight; third, a formation of Stirlings.


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The Commandos pay a visit to Spitzbergen
September, 1941

ALLIED LANDING IN THE ARCTIC CIRCLE

On September 8 a landing on Spitzbergen was made by a mixed force of British, Canadian and Norwegian troops under Canadian command. The object of the landing was to prevent the Nazis from using the island’s coal supplies, since it had become known that they had planned to seize all the coal. The operation was carried out unopposed; all the mines were completely destroyed, and all the inhabitants—some 700 miners and their families—were brought back to Britain where men of military age enlisted with the Royal Norwegian forces. Spitzbergen, which lies 240 miles north of Norway within the Arctic circle, had been completely cut off from its parent state ever since the German occupation of Norway in April, 1940, and although not actually occupied by the enemy, German mining experts were known to have paid several visits to the island in order to examine its potentialities. The pictures show: first, plant and machinery at a mining power station put out of action by British sappers; second, miners and their families, with their luggage and personal belongings, about to embark in the landing barges; third, fuel dumps blazing as the Allied force prepared to re-embark.


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American-made bomber captures a U-boat
September 8, 1941

SUBMARINE SURRENDERS TO A BOMBER.

On September 8, The British Admiralty announced that a German U-Boat had been attacked in the Atlantic by a Hudson reconnaissance bomber and forced to surrender. After radioing for naval and air relief, the Hudson guarded her prey for three and a half hours until a Catalina flying boat arrived to take over. After seven more hours, naval vessels arrived and took the submarine into port. The picture shows a British officer in a Carley float approaching the submarine.


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The Germans launch a drive for Kiev
September 10-14, 1941

TANK BATTLES IN THE UKRAINE

While the battle for Leningrad continued unabated, the Russian armies farther south counter-attacked fiercely in the Smolensk and Gomel areas thereby seriously threatening the German flanks. In order to relieve this pressure the enemy opened a new attack on Kiev which resulted in the fall of Chernigov, to the north of the city, on the 12th and of Kremenchug, on the Dnieper, on the 14th. The German tanks seen above are advancing through heavy Russian artillery fire towards objectives in the Ukraine.


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Tank battle in progress on the Ukrainian Plains
September, 1941

GERMAN TANKS GO FORWARD

During the fighting in the Ukraine, where the vast plains offered ideal country for tank warfare, the Germans threw masses of armored vehicles into the battle. Against these the Russians employed dive bombers and artillery, as well as their own armored forces. The picture of a tank battle in progress shows German tanks advancing through an artillery barrage from Russian batteries.


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The Nazis drive on in Russia
September, 1941

SEPTEMBER, 1941

German infantry are here seen passing at the double through a blazing Russian village which has been “scorched” by the inhabitants. Scenes such as this were common on all parts of the Russian front during the German advance.


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The fall of Kiev
September 19, 1941

GERMANS ENTER UKRAINIAN CAPITAL

After crossing the Dnieper at Kremenchug the forces of von Runstedt switched northwards and linked up with those of von Bock advancing southwards from Chernigov. This maneuver completely encircled the capital together with large bodies of Russian troops. As a result the evacuation of Kiev was carried out on September 19, leaving the Russian armies to fight their way out of the German ring. Above, two German soldiers are seen looking out across the captured city from the citadel.


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Nazis find Kiev a blazing inferno
September 19, 1941

GERMANS ENTER BURNING KIEV

Before the Russians evacuated the Ukrainian capital they carried out a systematic and thorough demolition of all plants and buildings likely to be of use to the enemy. A picture of the city as the Russians left it is shown above.


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The flames of war scorch the Ukrainian capital
September 19, 1941

THE GERMANS FIND A BLAZING KIEV

These dramatic pictures of the Ukrainian capital as the Russians left it, show: first, a party of German troops assaulting a Russian position on the outskirts of the city prior to their entry into the town; second, buildings in the center of Kiev left blazing by the retreating Russians; third, German soldiers in one of the city’s main thoroughfares watching a burning building.


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British troops enter Teheran
September 16-19, 1941

BRITISH DEPORT NAZIS IN IRAN

After the Anglo-Russian occupation of Iran in August, the Iranian Government agreed to close all enemy legations and to hand over enemy nationals for internment. There was considerable delay, however, in carrying out these demands, and, as a result of strong protests by Britain and Russia, the Shah abdicated on September 16 and was succeeded by his son. As many enemy nationals were still hiding in the country, British and Russian troops advanced to the outskirts of Teheran on the l7th, and on the 18th Soviet parachute troops occupied the airfields and barracks in the vicinity. The next day all the remaining Germans who had been sheltering in the legation were deported. The pictures show: first, British armored cars en route to the capital; second, luggage of the Germans being removed.


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Italian garrison at Wolshefit surrenders
September 28, 1941

BRITISH SUCCESS IN ABYSSINIA

After the fall of Amba Alagi, in May, the only remaining Italian resistance in the country was centered around Gondar. On September 28, however, British and native forces attacked and captured the Italian garrison of Wolshefit, an important position guarding Gondar from the north. The Italian commander, Colonial Gonella, his staff, and 3,000 troops were taken prisoner, and the way was paved for an assault upon Gondar itself. The pictures show: above, Colonel Gonella with his men receiving full military honors; below, some of the Italian colonial troops who took part in the battle.


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H. M. S. Nelson hit by a torpedo
September 30, 1941

AIR ATTACK ON BRITISH BATTLESHIP

On September 30, the British Admiralty announced that important convoy had been attacked by Italian aircraft in the Mediterranean. Escorting naval force accounted for thirteen enemy planes by putting up a terrific barrage from which only one attacker escaped. During a second attack the battleship Nelson was hit by a torpedo, but only slightly damaged. The attacker was shot down. The photograph shows the enemy plane actually attacking; the splash on the right is the torpedo hitting the water. The burst of shells from the Nelson’s A.A. guns are clearly visible.


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Negotiations for exchange of prisoners fail
October 3-6, 1941

A BAD BREAK FOR THE WOUNDED

On October 6, negotiations for the exchange of seriously wounded prisoners of war broke down after a first batch of Germans had been embarked. The ships should have left on October 4 for Dieppe, where they would have taken on British prisoners for the return journey. Negotiations which were conducted by radio failed because Germany, at the last moment, insisted on the exchange being made on a purely numerical basis. Above, the hospital ships, brilliantly illuminated, are at their dock waiting to depart, while, below, Medical Corps men carry out a disembarkation rehearsal.


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Russians bomb the Finns on the Karelian front
October, 1941

THE BATTLE FOR LENINGRAD

Throughout September the battle for Leningrad continued with undiminished violence, but despite the fact that the Germans, in accordance with Hitler’s orders to take the city at all costs, threw masses of men into the line regardless of loss, they were unable to break through the strong Russian defenses. Early in October, Russian counter-attacks, south, east and west of the city forced the Nazis on the defensive, while in the Karelian Isthmus, where the Finns were threatening the city, severe casualties were inflicted. Above, a town on the Karelian Isthmus after an attack by Russian bombers.


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The German steam roller advances on the Caucasus
October 6-14, 1941

RUSSIANS LOSE MARIUPOL AND BERDIANSK

The German crossing of the Dnieper at Kremenchug was a serious threat to the Russian armies in the Ukraine. Not only did it help to bring about the fall of Kiev, but threatened the whole of the Russian defenses on the east bank of the Dnieper and made it imperative that they should straighten, and consequently shorten, their line. In addition, the enemy succeeded in ferrying troops across the wide lower reaches of the river under strong aerial protection, and in pushing on toward the Crimea. On September 25 fierce fighting was reported at Kherson, and a few days later the enemy had reached the Perekop Isthmus and was endeavoring to force his way into the Crimea. Meanwhile another thrust along the shores of the Sea of Azov pushed the Russians back to Berdiansk and Mariupol, which fell on October 6 and 14 respectively. Farther north, where the great industrial city of Kharkov was threatened, the Russians launched counter-attacks, particularly in the Kursk area, with the object of relieving the enemy pressure. The pictures show: first, German infantry, supported by tanks, in action in the streets of Mariupol; second, the destruction of the railway station which was dynamited by Russians just before the evacuation.


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Moscow begins to feel the grip of the Nazi pincers
October 7-19, 1941

RUSSIAN CAPITAL HOLDS OUT

The third German drive towards Moscow began on October 1 with pincer thrusts in the Roslavl and Kholm areas. By the 7th the enemy were in Orel and were exerting heavy pressure near Bryansk and Vyazma which resulted in the fall of these towns on the 12th and 13th respectively. Two days later a German column penetrated as far as Mojaisk, but was driven back by well-timed counter-attacks. The seriousness of the situation was admitted by the Russians who announced that the Germans were using about 18,000 tanks on this front alone. On the 19th, after the fall of Kalinin and Kaluga, Stalin issued an Order of the Day declaring that Moscow would be defended to the last man, and at the same time a state of siege was proclaimed in the capital. The pictures show: first, Russian prisoners captured during the fighting at Bryansk; second men of the Hitler Corps passing through a burnt-out village; third, women and children sheltering from artillery fire; fourth, a German tank in Vyazma.


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A French port gets a going over from the R.A.F.
October 15, 1941

LE HAVRE BOMBED

During October the R.A.F. carried out almost daily attacks on objectives in enemy-occupied France. Huge four-engined Stirlings, like that seen above dodging enemy flak, took part in many of these raids, as did also Hurricane fighters equipped to carry two 250-lb. bombs. The lower picture shows an attack by Blenheims on the docks at Havre on the 15th. The numbers indicate: (1) bombs bursting on a 12,000-ton tanker moored alongside the quay; (2) a direct hit with a heavy calibre bomb on a 5,000-ton ship; (3) a near miss on a 9,500-ton vessel; (4) bombs hitting the quay; (5) damage done to a warehouse.


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Odessa falls—The end of an epic siege
October 16, 1941

RUSSIANS EVACUATE ODESSA

The Black Sea port of Odessa was occupied by German and Rumanian forces on October 16 after a siege that had lasted since August. The evacuation, which was carried out in perfect order, was dictated by events in the Eastern Ukraine and the consequent need of more men to reinforce the Crimea where the enemy, after crossing the Dnieper, was trying to force an entry through the narrow Perekop Isthmus. Before leaving the port the Russians destroyed all important works. The pictures show: top, Citizens cheering the Russian rearguard as they moved up; below, German Panzer vehicles.


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Stalino and Taganrog fall to the Nazi hordes
October 20-22, 1941

RUSSIANS LOSE TWO MORE TOWNS

After the fall of Mariupol on October 14, the German forces in the Ukraine, assisted by Slovak and Hungarian divisions, continued their advance, and on the 20th captured the important armaments centre of Stalino. Farther south, mechanized divisions pushing along the coast of the Sea of Azov, made progress towards the important port and communications centre of Rostov-on-Don, beyond which lay the valuable Caucasus oilfields. On the 22nd they captured Taganrog, between Mariupol and Rostov, after many days’ fierce fighting which cost them 35,000 casualties, as well as large numbers of armored vehicles, stores, and military equipment. The picture shows German troops entering Stalino; the chimneys in the background are those of a steel factory rendered useless by the Russians.


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FALL OF KHARKOV
OCTOBER 25-29, 1941

While the German armies in Southern Ukraine were hammering their way towards Rostov-on-Don, their armies farther north were exerting all their strength to reach the great industrial town of Kharkov. The defending forces, however, by repeated counter-attacks, managed to slow down enemy progress, but were unable to bring his advance to a stand-still. By the 25th enemy advanced units had entered the suburbs of the city, where fierce hand-to-hand fighting took place in the streets, which were reported to be littered with German dead. On one day alone enemy casualties amounted to 3,500 dead, but in spite of these huge losses the Germans continued to throw fresh troops into the battle and on the 29th the Russians had to abandon the city. Before the evacuation, however, all the most important factories and plants, railway rolling stock and military stores were removed and other plants that could not be got away in time were blown up. The loss of this great town was a severe blow to the Russian cause for not only was it of first importance as a manufacturing center, but it was a vital railway junction and supply center for the Russian armies covering the Donets Basin. The German victory, however, was only achieved by great loss in men and material. According to Russian sources they lost nearly 120,000 men in killed and wounded as well as 450 tanks and armored cars, nearly 3,000 trucks and more than 200 guns. The picture shows German troops, with tank support, fighting in the streets just before the town was abandoned by the Russian forces.


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The assault on the Crimea grows in fury
October 28, 1941

TWO MORE TOWNS FALL

Although the German offensive against the Crimea opened on September 27, it was not until October 28 that the enemy succeeded in penetrating the Russian defenses on the Perekop Isthmus and gaining a foothold. On November 1, Simferopol, thirty miles from Sevastopol fell, and two days later Feodosia. The picture shows German infantry leaving a trench to launch an attack.


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A Stop on the Road to Sevastopol
October 28-November 3, 1941

THIRTY MILES FROM SEVASTOPOL

When the Nazis succeeded in penetrating the Russian defenses on the Perekop Isthmus, they succeeded in dividing the defending armies into two groups, one of which retired towards the great naval base of Sevastopol and the other towards Kerch. On November 1, Simferopol fell, and above, German motorized units pass through the town after the surrender.


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The aircraft carrier Ark Royal
goes down in the Mediterranean
November 14, 1941

LAST MOMENTS OF A FAMOUS SHIP

On November 14, the British Admiralty announced that the 23,000 ton aircraft carrier H.M.S. Ark Royal had been sunk in the Mediterranean by a torpedo from a U-boat. Efforts were made to tow the ship into port, but she developed a heavy list and foundered before she reached her destination. Out of a complement of about 1,600 only one man was lost. The picture shows a British destroyer taking off the crew of the doomed ship before she foundered.

A LOG OF THE ARK ROYAL

H.M.S. Ark Royal, most famous of all British aircraft carriers, was the third ship of this type to be lost since the war opened. During her career on active service she had steamed some 205,000 miles and engaged in thirty-two operations. She served in the Norwegian campaign, participated in the hunt for the Graf Spee and her aircraft torpedoed the German pocket battleship Bismarck on May 28. Both Italians and Germans claimed to have sunk her on several occasions.


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The United States arms her merchant ships
November 13-18, 1941

NEUTRALITY ACT REVISED

In view of the frequency of Axis attacks on U.S. Ships, the Senate on November 13, recommended the amendment of Sections 2, 3, and 6 of the Neutrality Act, on the same day the House of Representatives approved. The President signed the bill on the 18th and on the same day the Navy department announced that 300 to 400 ships would be armed immediately, first preference being given to those serving Britain and Northern Europe, and second to those operating to and from the Red Sea. Above: men are seen at work on a gun that is being fitted to a U.S. merchant ship.


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Second British offensive in Libya
November 18, 1941

At dawn on November 18, Imperial forces under the command of Lieutenant General Sir Alan Cunningham, with strong air support, crossed the Egyptian frontier into Cyrenaica on a broad front from the coast east of Sollum to as far south as Jarabub. The object of this attack was to engage and destroy German and Italian forces who were massing on the frontier and constituting a threat to Egypt, and to regain if possible the territory which had been lost during General Rommel’s advance of the previous spring. For some months before the attack was launched the British forces had been steadily reinforced with men, tanks and aircraft, many of the tanks being of American manufacture. These forces had been skillfully dispersed, and camouflage had been used to such good effect that when the advance began very little opposition was encountered either from the air or from ground forces. Pressure was rapidly exerted on Axis forces holding positions from Helafaya to Sidi Omar where British armored formations, with New Zealand, South African and Indian troops in support crossed the frontier and penetrated some fifty miles into enemy territory. The R.A.F., and the Australian and South African Air Forces, gave strong support to the troops on the ground, and during the day destroyed between them eighteen Axis aircraft besides bombing enemy transport on the Benina road, near Benghazi. The picture shows a line of British tanks moving out to attack the enemy.


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Opening phases of the British advance in Libya
November 19-21, 1941

BRITISH CAPTURE SIDI REZEGH

In the evening of November 19, British advance forces captured Sidi Rezegh, southeast of Tobruk and on the following day battle was joined with strong German armored forces. After losing seventy tanks, thirty-three armored cars and several hundred prisoners the Germans withdrew. On the 21st a heavy tank battle began in the Sidi Rezegh-Gabr Saleh-Capuzzo triangle, but General Cunningham was able to interpose his forces between the main German tank strength to the east and a smaller force to the west. The enemy made three attempts to break through, but was driven back with heavy losses. The pictures show: first, enemy tanks ablaze; second, a knocked-out German tank, third, a British column moving across an enemy minefield; fourth, captured German guns; fifth, troops negotiating barbed wire.


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American-built planes see action in the desert
November 22-December 1, 1941

TOMAHAWKS TO THE RESCUE

The tank battle around Sidi Rezegh continued until November 28, when there was a pause. During this time General Rommel had been trying, without success, to break through the British ring and effect a junction with his troops to the west. Sidi Rezegh itself changed hands several times. Meanwhile New Zealand infantry pushing westwards along the coast occupied Bardia on the 22nd and Gambut on the 23rd, and on the 27th succeeded in linking up at El Duda with a force that had sallied out from Tobruk. During the next few days these troops gradually widened their corridor of contact, but on the 29th the Sidi Rezegh battle flared up once more. After several unsuccessful attempts to break through to the west, Rommel concentrated all his available tanks on a narrow front and on December 1 succeeded in hammering his way through the Tobruk corridor by sheer weight of armor. The R.A.F. and R.A.A.F. played a prominent part in these operations, bombing enemy communications and harassing his ground forces with machine gun and cannon fire. The fighter pilots in the above picture are members of an Australian Squadron using American-built planes. They are on their way to take the air.


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Conquest of Abyssinia complete
November 27, 1941

Just before dawn on November 27 an intense artillery bombardment was opened up on Gondar, last remaining centre of Italian resistance in Abyssinia, and the town was heavily bombed from the air. This was followed soon after daybreak by a general assault from several directions by British, Empire and Allied Forces under the command of Major General C. C. Fowkes. After capturing the advanced enemy positions at Deffeccia and Maldiba, Gondar itself was stormed by East African troops who, by the evening, had gained complete control of the town. At 6 p.m. the Italian commander, General Nasi, surrendered with all his forces, amounting to about 10,000 men, half of whom were Italians. This victory brought the campaign in East Africa to a successful conclusion. The pictures show: first, Italian prisoners marching through Gondar under escort; second, men of the King’s African Rifles marching past the saluting point during a ceremonial parade held to celebrate the victory in Abyssinia.


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Germans driven back in South Russia
November 22-29, 1941

ROSTOV LOST AND REGAINED

After the fall of Taganrog on October 22 the Russian forces on the southern front retreated slowly towards Rostov-on-Don about forty miles farther east. This town owes its importance to its navigational facilities and position on three key railways. The Russians employed skilful delaying tactics and blew up the Don dykes thereby inundating large tracts of country between the town and the Sea of Azov. In addition Soviet guerrillas were especially active behind the enemy lines. Nevertheless, on November 22, just a month after the fall of Taganrog, the Germans entered the town. Their victory, however, was short lived. On the 28th, the Soviet 57th Army, commanded by General Remizov, re-entered Rostov from the south-west and on the following day the 9th Army fought its way into the town from the north-west, thereby practically encircling the Germans who, after two days of fierce street fighting in which they lost more than 5,000 men killed, beat a disorganized retreat. The pictures show: top, German troops passing through Taganrog, where factories and other buildings are blazing furiously; second, Russian soldiers hunting down German stragglers in Rostov; third, citizens welcoming Russian troops when they re-entered the town.


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German drive towards Moscow halted at the gates
December 6, 1941

GERMANS AT THE GATES OF MOSCOW

The great German bid to take Moscow continued unabated throughout October and November, but the enemy made slow progress. Klin and Volokolamsk fell on November 26 and 28 respectively, but strong counter-attacks near Tula and Klin upset the German plans to encircle the capital. Early in December the enemy threw every available man and tank into a gigantic frontal attack; Mojaisk fell on the 6th and advance units actually penetrated to within about thirty miles of the capital after some of the bloodiest fighting of the campaign. But they got no farther. Thereafter the initiative passed steadily into Russian hands as winter’s icy grip descended upon the scene of battle. The pictures show: first, Moscow citizens digging anti-tank ditches at the approaches to the city; second, Cossack cavalry attacking an enemy position near the city on foot; third, ill-clad German soldiers, only one of whom is wearing an overcoat, with horse transport, retreating north of Moscow; fourth, a big Russian tank passing through the capital on its way to the front line only a few miles away.


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Pearl Harbor:
Japan declares war on the United States
December 7, 1941

JAPAN ENTERS THE WAR IN TRUE AXIS FASHION

At dawn on the morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941, a force of about 150 Japanese bombers and torpedo-carrying planes launched a surprise attack Pearl Harbor, the chief U.S. Naval base in the Pacific. Hits were scored on several naval craft lying anchor in the harbor and two battleships, the Oklahoma and the Arizona were sunk. Other military objectives on the island, including Hickam Field, U.S. Army air base, were attacked and considerable damage was done. The casualties amounted to 4,500, of which 2,300 were fatal. It was not until later in the day the formal declaration of war against America and Great Britain was made. The above picture, one of the best combat photographs of all time, shows the magazine of the U.S.S. Shaw exploding.


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Pearl Harbor:
Five U.S. battleships stricken from the air
December 7, 1941

DESTRUCTION ON A SUNDAY MORNING

Japan’s entry into the war, although sudden, was not unexpected. Ever since the previous October when the direction of Japan’s foreign policy had fallen into hands of the military clique under the leadership of General Tojo, that country’s relations with United States and Britain had steadily grown worse. The new premier had demanded a free hand to liquidate the “China Incident” once and for all, and had declared that until America and Britain refrained from supplying arms to China and recognized Japan’s leadership in the Western Pacific no peaceful settlement was likely to be reached. On November 14, however, a special envoy, Saburo Kurusu, arrived in Washington to aid Admiral Nomura, Japanese Ambassador, in the latter’s talks the United States government. Three days later General Tojo announced a three-point program upon which, he said, the success of these negotiations depended. The points were: (1) Third powers must refrain from obstructing the successful conclusion of the China affair; (2) countries surrounding Japan must refrain from presenting a military menace to the empire and must end all economic blockades and (3) must exert their utmost efforts to prevent an extension of the European war to East Asia. On December 6 President Roosevelt sent a personal note to the Emperor of Japan, but before any reply was received, and while the Washington talks were still proceeding the attack on Pearl Harbor announced that Japan had entered the war in true Axis fashion by striking first and declaring war afterwards. Testifying to the extent of the Japanese attack on December 7, as shown in the first picture, left to right, the U.S.S. West Virginia, severely damaged, U.S.S. Tennessee damaged and the U.S.S. Arizona sunk. In the second picture, alongside of the U.S.S. Oklahoma (far right) which capsized, the 31,500-ton U.S.S. Maryland was damaged slightly and was one of the first ships to rejoin the fleet after the Japanese attack. In addition to the damage to warships, Hickam Field, the Army Air Field outside of Honolulu, and a large floating drydock were blasted to wreckage. On the same day the Japanese occupied the International Settlement at Shanghai.


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A Sea Queen goes down
December 7, 1941

PEARL HARBOR

The U.S.S. California settles into the mud of Pearl Harbor. Clouds of smoke conceal all but the hull of the capsized U.S.S. Oklahoma, far right. The next day, Monday, December 8, United States and Great Britain formally declared war on Japan. In the United States President Roosevelt addressed a joint session of Congress after which a resolution was introduced in both houses and adopted with one dissenting vote. Three days later Germany and Italy declared war on the United States and on the same day the challenge was accepted by the American people.


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Pearl Harbor:
After smoke of battle cleared
December 7, 1941

DRYDOCK AT PEARL HARBOR

The jumbled mass of wreckage in the foreground of the drydock are U.S. destroyers Downes (left) and Cassin (right). The battleship in the rear is the U.S.S. Pennsylvania, flagship of the Pacific fleet, which suffered relatively light damage from the Japanese attack. Main and auxiliary fittings of the Downes and Cassin are being transferred to new hulls.


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Tragedy in the Crimea
December, 1941

SIEGE OF SEVASTOPOL

After capturing Feodosia, the German forces in the Crimea drove eastward and on November 16 captured the town of Kerch thereby compelling the Russian forces to carry out a hazardous withdrawal across the Kerch straits. Meanwhile, on the west of the Crimea, the enemy had thrown three armored and nine infantry divisions against the defenses of the great Russian naval base of Sevastopol, but the Russian line held firm and tremendous losses were inflicted upon the attackers. The picture shows parents who have just found the body of their son who was killed in the Crimea.


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German reverse near Leningrad
December 8, 1941

RECAPTURE OF TIKHVIN

Although the Germans succeeded in encircling Leningrad, their efforts to take it by storm failed. Nevertheless, during October and November, they pushed slowly eastwards and on November 29 captured Tikhvin, 100 miles south-east of the city. On December 8, however, Russian forces under General Merezhkov re-entered the town after a battle in which more than 7,000 Germans were killed and much valuable war material was captured intact. The pictures show: above, German horse and mechanized units in retreat; below, Russian infantry following up a tank attack.


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Sinking of the British battleships
Prince of Wales and Repulse
December 8, 1941

JAPANESE LAUNCH ATTACK ON MALAYA

On December 8 a fleet of Japanese transports, with strong naval support, approached the mouth of the Kelantan River, North-East Malaya, and landings were carried out north of Kota Bahru. On the same day a British Naval force which was steaming to intercept the enemy convoy was heavily attacked with bombs and torpedoes by a strong force of Japanese bomber. The Prince of Wales and the Repulse were hit several times and sunk. At the time of the attack the ships were without aerial protection owing to enemy attacks on the airfields from which their land-based aircraft operated. Casualties amounted to 595 officers and men, among whom was Admiral Sir Thomas (Tom Thumb) Phillips. The picture by the British artist, Frank Mason, shows the height of the attack.


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Japanese effect a landing in the Philippines
December 10, 1941

CAVITE IN FLAMES

At daybreak on December 10 strong Japanese forces, with heavy naval and aerial protection, attempted landings on the west coast of Luzon, in the Philippines, between Vigan and San Fernando, but were repulsed by American and Filipino troops, and three enemy transports were destroyed by U.S. Aircraft. Some parachutists who had been dropped near Vigan were rounded up. Later in the day, however, fresh Japanese troops, in considerable force, established themselves at Aparri, on the northern tip of the island, and attempted to push southwards, heavily engaged by the defenders. During the day Manila, the chief town of Luzon and capital of the Philippine Islands, was twice raided by waves of Japanese bombers; attacks were made on the Nichols airfield and Fort William McKinley, and considerable damage was done at the naval base of Cavite, on Manilla Bay, eight miles south-west of the capital, where 200 bombs were dropped, killing thirty and injuring 300 persons. Above: the water front ablaze after a raid.


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Another “Napoleon” retreats before Moscow
December 15-30, 1941

GERMANS RETREAT BEFORE MOSCOW

After bringing the German offensive to a standstill on December 6, the Russian armies defending Moscow launched strong counter-attacks all along the line. On the 15th, after a week’s fierce fighting, they recaptured Klin, and on the same day Kalinin itself was in their hands. In the center of the line heavy pressure was exerted near Mojaisk, while to the south of the capital, strong thrusts forced the enemy back to Kaluga, which fell on the 30th after changing hands several times. The pictures show: first, abandoned German guns and vehicles left behind by the enemy during their retreat from Klin; second, well-clad Russian soldiers advancing through a village on the Moscow front which has recently been cleared of the enemy; third, buildings in Kalinin set on fire by the Nazis.


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German battleships at Brest feel the fury of the R.A.F.
December 18, 1941

DAYLIGHT RAID ON BREST

Ever since March, when the German battle cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau entered the harbor at Brest to refuel after a raiding expedition in the Atlantic, these ships had been repeatedly attacked by the R.A.F., and several direct hits scored. In May they were rejoined by the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen which had managed to reach port after the action in which the Bismark was sunk. Attacks on these three valuable ships continued throughout the year, and the fact that they were unable to put to sea showed that they had suffered considerable damage. On December 18 a particularly heavy daylight attack was made on these ships by Sterling, Halifax and Manchester bombers, strongly escorted by Spitfire and Hurricane squadrons. A great weight of bombs was dropped and direct hits were scored on the dry docks in which the ships were berthed. Five British bombers and one fighter were lost against an enemy loss of eight fighters. Above, bombers are seen over the target during the raid.


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Derna recaptured as the Nazis retreat
December 19, 1941

GERMAN RETREAT IN LIBYA

After breaking out of the ring which British forces had thrown around them, the Germans in Libya retreated rapidly, pursued by mobile columns and harassed by bombers and low-flying fighters which inflicted severe damage to their closely-packed formations. On December 19 Derna and Mekili were entered without opposition, and by the following day advance British troops were within eighty miles of Benghazi and still advancing. Above, a heavily loaded Indian transport column is seen passing through Derna with supplies and equipment for the troops in the forward areas.


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Japanese invade the Philippines in force
December 22-25, 1941

FIGHTING IN LUZON

After the failure of their initial attempt to gain control of the Philippines, the Japanese, on December 22, landed a force of about 100,000 men, together with tanks, in the Lingayen Gulf area of Luzon. Landings were also made on Mindanao, the second largest island of the group, where fighting took place in the Davao area. On this day, too, the small garrison of 400 Marines at Wake Island, the U.S. naval base, 3,000 miles to the north-east, surrendered after an heroic defense lasting fourteen days. The pictures above show ruins of San Pablo, near Manila, after a severe raid on Christmas Day.


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The capital of Cyrenaica falls to the British
December 24, 1941

FALL OF BENGHAZI

After capturing Derna, the Eighth Army continued its pursuit of the retreating enemy forces. The main German Army was in the Soluk area, south-east of Benghazi while Italians were concentrated along the coast north-east of the town. On December 21 British forces captured Cirene and Apollonia and exerted strong pressure on the Italians covering Benghazi, and on the next day mobile columns reached the coastal plain on the Gulf of Sirte. On Christmas Eve Benghazi was entered by the Royal Dragoons after it had been evacuated by the enemy, and the nearby airfield of Barce was captured by Indian troops. On the same day a mixed mobile column occupied Benina. With the fall of Benghazi the whole of Cyrenaica except for the isolated enemy garrisons at Sollum, Helafaya and Bardia came under British control. Pictures show: first, Axis column under fire; second, bombs falling on the airfield; third, sunken Axis ships.


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A big gun on Corregidor replies to the invaders
December, 1941

DEFENSE OF THE ISLANDS

One of the big guns on Corregidor, the fortified rock in Manila Harbor, which inflicted severe damage on the Japanese before the gallant defenders succumbed to the constant pounding of the enemy. American and Filipino forces continued to resist the invader from this fortress long after Manila was evacuated but outnumbered and exhausted were forced to surrender on May 6, 1942.


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The Philippines feel the fury of the Japanese
December, 1941

NON-MILITARY OBJECTIVES

In the picture at top, a whole row of houses in the residential section of Pasay are shown leveled by Japanese bombs, while (below), residents of Cavite are evacuating the town after the raid of December 10 in which 200 bombs were dropped and thirty persons were killed.


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After the Japanese attacked the Philippines
December, 1941

HAVOC AND WOUNDED

The smoking ruins of the town of San Pablo, 35 miles from Manila, bear testimony to the effectiveness of Japanese bombs, while below, a group of wounded Filipinos are shown as they awaited medical attention in a dressing station speedily set up by volunteers.


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Manila feels the mailed fist of the invader
December, 1941

THE CAPITAL IS BOMBED

In the picture (top) fires set by Japanese bombs are shown as they swept the Intramuros, Manila’s famous walled city, while below, a residential section is shown after it was bombed mercilessly by the Prussians of the Orient. On the morning of December 10 the capital was twice raided by Japanese bombers and attacks were made and considerable damage done to Nichols airfield and Fort William McKinley, headquarters of the American Army on the island.


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Second British offensive in Libya—
Advance of Eighth Army
November, 1941-January, 1942

ADVANCE OF THE EIGHTH ARMY

This map showing the stages of the second British and Imperial advance in Libya from the opening of the offensive on November 18 until January 17 on which date the Axis garrison at Helafaya surrendered. By this time the whole of Libya had been cleared of enemy forces except for a pocket of resistance in the El Agheila area which was being strenuously attacked. During these operations a German and Italian army of more than 100,000 men had been notably defeated, and much of its equipment destroyed. Axis air losses during the first six weeks amounted to 467 aircraft against a British loss of 195.


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The crown colony of Hong Kong surrenders
December 25, 1941

JAPANESE SUCCESS IN CHINA

On Christmas Day, after resisting Japanese attacks for seven days, and rejecting three demands to surrender, the British colony of Hong Kong capitulated. Under the leadership of Sir Mark Young, the Governor, the garrison of British, Canadian and Indian troops, had fought heroically against overwhelming odds and continual artillery and air bombardment. The decision to surrender was only taken after important reservoirs had fallen into enemy hands and there was one day’s supply of water left. The picture shows Japanese artillery in action in the suburbs just before the garrison surrendered.


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British commandos raid coast of Norway
December 27, 1941

ATTACK ON ENEMY SHIPPING

On December 27, British forces landed on the coast of Norway at Maaloy and Vaagso Islands. Coast defenses were silenced by British warships and bombers and commandos were landed under cover of smoke screens. The operation resulted in the destruction of 15,560 tons of enemy shipping in addition to munition dumps, oil tanks and military stores. The pictures show: above, an oil factory at Vaagso ablaze after having been blown up by British sappers and below, a commando on a height overlooking Maaloy, where the garrison were killed or taken prisoner. All British ships returned safely.


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Pounding away at Bardia
December, 1941

A BIG GUN ROARS

Bardia, a small town on the north coast of Libya, was subjected to terrific bombardments from naval, land and air forces during the campaigns of 1940, 1941. Captured by the British on January 5, 1941, it was retaken by Axis forces on April 13, 1942. After the British launched their successful offensive in November, 1941, Axis troops in Bardia held out long after the main British assault had passed westward, but fell on January 2, 1942. In this picture, a heavy field gun is shown pounding away at the Axis-held town, just before the desert stronghold fell to the British.


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German reverse in the Crimea
December 30, 1941

RUSSIANS RETAKE TWO TOWNS

On December 30 Russian forces of the Caucasus command, with strong support from the Black Sea Fleet and the Red Air Force, crossed the Kerch Straights into the Crimea and after fierce fighting captured the towns of Kerch and Feodosia which had been occupied by the Germans in November. Cossack troops who played a prominent part in these operations are seen (above) bringing up machine guns in the face of heavy enemy artillery fire; and, below, waiting to attack an enemy blockhouses.


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Manila evacuated: Japanese move in
December 31, 1941

JAPANESE ADVANCE IN LUZON

On December 31 American and Filipino forces faced with overwhelmingly superior numbers of enemy troops, backed by tanks and dive bombers, were forced to evacuate Manila and Cavite and fall back to shorter lines. The island fortress of Corregidor, at the entrance to Manila Bay, continued to hold out. Japanese forces entered the capital (above) at 3 p.m., where they found all military stores destroyed. Below the city of Intramuros, the old section of Manila, ablaze after an air attack.


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Charging across the hot sands of the desert
January 2, 1942

ADVANCE

In this unusual picture, British infantrymen are shown advancing at the double across the open desert outside the seaport of Tobruk, during one of the phases of the battle of Libya during Great Britain’s second offensive. Imperial troops had been steadily reinformed with men from the dominions and American tanks and aircraft. Pressure was rapidly exerted on the Axis forces holding positions in the desert.


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Ready to repulse air attack in the western desert
January, 1942

ON THE ALERT

Anti-Aircraft gunners rush to their posts as word is received of approaching Nazi planes from one of the Axis controlled air bases during the height of the battle for Libya. While the axis forces had control of the air during this phase of the engagement, British anti-aircraft gunners had very good success and were able to bring down hundreds of the enemy planes at a small loss in men and equipment.


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Japanese drive for Singapore gains momentum
January 11, 1942

JUNGLE WARFARE IN MALAYA

After carrying out landings in Northern Malaya early in December, the Japanese launched strong assaults on the British positions with light tanks and armored vehicles, support by masses of dive bombers. Further landings on the coast behind the British lines seriously threatened the defenders’ flanks and forced them to carry out a series of tactical withdrawals in face of strong enemy pressure. By these tactics the Japanese gained control of the northern aerodromes and were able to concentrate overwhelming air superiority on all sectors of the front. By December 17, Penang, on the west coast, had been evacuated, and on the 29th the mining town of Ipoh was in Japanese hands. On January 7 the enemy launched a strong offensive in Lower Perak in which he used 12-ton tanks to crash his way through the British lines. As a result Kuala Lampur, capital of the Federated Malay States, was evacuated on the 11th. The pictures show: first, enemy tanks and motor vehicles on a jungle road on fire after being engaged by anti-tank guns; second, one of the crew lies dead beside his tank; third, British anti-tank gunners firing at enemy tanks, and fourth, a close-up of a knocked-out tank with its dead crew by its side.


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Bardia, Sollum and Helafaya
surrender to the Allies
January 2-17, 1942

AXIS GARRISONS SURRENDER

The town of Bardia, which had been occupied by the New Zealanders November 22 and reoccupied by the enemy on December l, surrendered unconditionally to British and Imperial forces on January 2 after a brilliant attack in which Polish and Free French forces took part. More than 7,000 Axis prisoners were taken, including Major-General Schmidt, administrative head of the Afrika Korps. British casualties were only sixty killed and 300 wounded. Having reduced Bardia, the British forces turned their attention to the strong enemy positions covering Helafaya, last remaining pocket of enemy resistance in East Cyrenaica. On the 12th they captured Sollum and five days later Helafaya itself surrendered after putting up a stiff resistance. Here a further 5,500 prisoners were taken, together with large quantities of guns and material. The pictures show: first, some of the 300 prisoners captured at Sollum; second, Axis surrender at Helafaya; third, Axis prisoners outside Bardia waiting to be taken to prison camps.


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ASSAULT ON MOJAISK

Hooded Russian infantry, clad from head to foot in white to make them invisible against the snow, are here seen approaching Mojaisk during the final stages of the Russian assault on the town.

RUSSIANS RECAPTURE MOJAISK

Although the Russians had succeeded in driving the Germans out of Klin, Kalinin and Kaluga, thereby removing the pincer threat to Moscow from the north and south, the enemy forces in Mojaisk, in the centre, fought desperately to retain this important position which they had won at great cost on December 6. On January l5, the Russians launched their assault on the town and after bitter street fighting in which the Germans defended themselves house by house, the Nazis were forced to retreat and the town which Hitler had ordered his troops to hold at all costs was recaptured.


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Japanese advance into Burma gets under way
January 20, 1942

FIGHTING BEGINS IN BURMA

On January 20, Japanese and Thai forces crossed the frontier into Burma and fighting occurred north of Myawaddi, sixty miles east of Moulmein. In face of a numerically superior enemy the British forces were obliged to fall slowly back towards Moulmein. The enemy used strong air forces to support his offensive, but fighters of the R.A.F. and the American Volunteer Group inflicted heavy losses on the raiders. Above, Japanese infantry, some of whom are equipped with cycles, are seen crossing a river by a temporary bridge, the main structure having been destroyed by the British before they retired.


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Japanese land on Borneo and New Britain
January 22-23, 1942

AUSTRALIA THREATENED

After a Japanese landing on Sarawak on December 16, the British forces withdrew, on January 1, to Dutch Borneo, where they joined up with Netherlands troops. On the 10th, however, the enemy landed at Tarakan, Dutch Borneo, and also on North Celebes. The oil installations at Tarakan were destroyed by the Dutch before they were forced to surrender on the 13th. On January 22, after fresh enemy landings, the oil wells at Balikpapan, on the east coast, were destroyed to prevent them falling into enemy hands. On the same day landings were carried out on New Ireland and at Rabaul, capital of New Britain, in the Bismarck Archipelago, thereby threatening New Guinea and bringing the war dangerously close to Australia. On the 23rd, heavy Japanese air raids were made on Lae, New Guinea, which was evacuated after the attack. The pictures show: first, blazing hangars at the airfield at Salamaua, not far from Lae, after a heavy Japanese raid; and second, the Balikpapan oil wells blazing furiously after their voluntary destruction by the Dutch forces. The radioed pictures show: third, a Japanese landing party somewhere in the Pacific; and fourth, warships putting up a smoke screen to cover a landing by Japanese.


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American troops land in northern Ireland
January 26, 1942

A NEW A.E.F. PREPARES FOR ACTION

On January 26 the first U.S. troops to land in Britain since 1918 disembarked at a Northern Ireland port. They formed the vanguard of the American Expeditionary Force to Europe, and they had been convoyed safely across the Atlantic by British and American warships. After disembarking, the troops marched to camps that had been prepared for their arrival and soon they were getting into battle trim by strenuous maneuvers over rough country. The pictures show: above, U.S. gun teams practicing with British artillery and below, infantry following heavy tanks during a mock attack.


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The retreat to Singapore—Malaya evacuated
January 30-31, 1942

BRITISH SET-BACK

After a fighting retreat in the face of a numerically superior enemy who had almost undisputed control of the air, all the British forces on the Malayan mainland were withdrawn to Singapore Island on the night of January 30-31. The operation was covered by a stand south of Kulai by three Highland regiments who inflicted heavy casualties on the enemy. After the withdrawal the Causeway linking the island with the mainland was blown up. The map shows the stages of the Japanese advance, with inset of Malaya in relation to surrounding territory, and Singapore Island.


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The U.S. Navy raids the Marshall and Gilbert Islands
February 1, 1942

U.S. NAVY HITS BACK

On February 1, a brilliant surprise attack was carried out on Japanese naval and air bases in the Marshall and Gilbert Islands by a U.S. force of aircraft carriers supported by cruisers and destroyers. Heavy damage was caused to enemy ships and harbor installations and many planes were destroyed on the ground. The Japanese losses amounted to one light cruiser, a destroyer, two submarines, a l7,000 ton liner, three 10,000 ton tankers, five 5,000 ton cargo ships, two fleet auxiliaries and two minesweepers, amounting in all to some 100,000 tons. In addition at least eight more ships, amounting to about 50,000 tons, were severely damaged. Thirty-eight enemy aircraft were destroyed in combat for a loss of eleven U.S. planes. The air bases at Taroa, Wotje, Roy and Enybor were wiped out. No U.S. vessel was lost. The pictures, taken during these operations, show: first, a U.S. naval plane over Wotje Atoll, the columns of smoke come from ammunition and fuel dumps that have been set on fire. Second, an American cruiser and aircraft carrier during the action; the latter has just been narrowly missed by a Japanese bomb. Third, the flight deck to one of the aircraft carriers with its aircraft lined up on the deck ready to take off.


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Japanese open attack on Singapore
February 8-12, 1942

LANDINGS ON SINGAPORE ISLAND

After the British retired across the Causeway from Johore Bahru to Singapore Island on January 31, there was a brief lull in the siege during which time the Japanese forces on the mainland reorganized for the final assault on the island fortress, which opened on the night of February 8 and by the 12th the invaders were near the racetrack, two miles north-west of the city, and the reservoir, only source of Singapore’s water supply was seriously threatened. The pictures show: top, Japanese light tanks at the Johore end of the Causeway and below, Japanese trucks crossing an improvised bridge to Singapore Island, built to replace the damaged Causeway.


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The “key to the Pacific” falls to the Japanese
February 15, 1942

SINGAPORE SURRENDERS

The capital of the Straits Settlements fell to the invaders on February 15, after a siege of fifteen days. Thus ended the campaign in Malaya which had lasted for seventy days and had been fought against a numerically superior enemy, who from the outset, had almost undisputed control of the air. The pictures show, top, a damaged British ship in the docks at Singapore during a bombing attack, and bottom, burning buildings and warehouses on the waterfront. In the center picture Japanese infantry and tanks in action on the outskirts of the city.


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Japanese continue their advance in Burma
February 15-22, 1942

FALL OF PEGU

On January 30 the Japanese forces in Burma occupied Moulmein and the British retired to the west bank of the Salween river. On February 10, however, the enemy crossed the river north-west of Martaban and after fierce fighting occupied the town. Farther north other attempts to cross the river in the Paan area were repulsed, but on the 15th, the British were withdrawn to the line of the Bilin river after evacuating Thaton. Here strong counter-attacks, in which the R.A.F., the Indian Air Force and the American Volunteer Group gave valuable support, slowed down the Japanese advance, but on the 22nd a fresh attack was mounted by the enemy who forced a crossing of the Bilin and made heavy assaults on a bridgehead on the east bank of the Sittang river, the next obstacle in their way. The town of Pegu, forty miles north of Rangoon, fell, and the railway from Rangoon to Mandalay and the road to China were thereby cut. The pictures show: first, General Yamashita, Japanese commander in Malaya and Burma, on a tour of occupied territory; third, Japanese troops passing through a Burmese village; second, a Japanese tank column crossing a river over an emergency bridge; and fourth, the R.A.F. taking off from a Burmese airfield.


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Russians encircle German 16th army at Staraya Russia
February 24, 1942

RUSSIAN ATTEMPT TO RELIEVE LENINGRAD

On February 23, the twenty-fourth anniversary of the creation of the Red Army, Russian forces launched an offensive on the Central Front and on the same day the High Command announced the capture of Dorogobuzh, fifty miles east of Smolensk. Farther north, where the Russians were striving desperately to break the German ring around Leningrad, Soviet troops, on the 24th, successfully accomplished the encirclement of the German 16th Army at Staraya Russa, ten miles south of Lake Ilmen. After the refusal of the German commander to surrender, the Russians began an attack in which two German infantry divisions and the crack S.S. “Death’s Head” Division were smashed and 12,000 Germans were killed. Nevertheless, the enemy, heartened by promises of airborne reinforcements, clung desperately to their positions. The pictures show: first, German infantry waiting in the snow beside their guns in readiness for an attack; and second, Russian sappers clearing a passage through enemy wire.


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Curfew imposed on Rangoon
February 25, 1942

BURMESE CAPITAL THREATENED

In view of the proximity of Japanese forces to Rangoon, a curfew was imposed and a military governor appointed, on February 25 in order to prevent looting. On the same day the R.A.F. and the American Volunteer Group scored a notable success by shooting down thirty Japanese bombers attempting to raid the capital. Meanwhile, in India, the evacuation of part of the Chittagong district, on the shores of the Bay of Bengal, was carried out as a precautionary measure. The pictures show: above, natives examining bomb damage in a main Rangoon street following a heavy Japanese air raid; and second, a grief-stricken Burman, whose wife has just been killed by a fragment from a Japanese bomb, clutching his little child closely to his side.


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Combined attack on the coast of France
February 27-28, 1942

RADIOLOCATION STATION WRECKED

On the night of February 27-28, the British Army, Navy and R.A.F. carried out a combined attack on an important German radiolocation station at Bruneval, on the French coast twelve miles north of Le Havre. Parachute troops dropped by R.A.F. bombers carried out the demolition, despite heavy enemy resistance, and the station was entirely wrecked. Infantry units landed from the sea by light naval forces covered the embarkation of the airborne forces. Heavy casualties were inflicted on the Germans and a number of prisoners were taken. No British ships or aircraft were lost. The pictures show: above, British parachute troops about to enter their aircraft, and below, landing barges returning to their bases after the raid.


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After the R.A.F. visited the Renault plant in Paris suburbs
March 3, 1942

DEADLY ACCURACY OF THE R.A.F. BOMBING

After the R.A.F. attack on the Renault factory at Billancourt on the night of March 3, the Germans claimed that most of the damage had been done to residences. This was disproved shortly after the raid by a remarkable series of photographs, one of which is reproduced above, that was smuggled out of France. This shows a tangled mass of girders and machinery, all that was left of one of the factory’s main workshops. In this building crankshafts, valves and motors were made. The loss of this factory was a serious blow to German war production.


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Russians recapture Yukhnov
March 5, 1942

GERMAN SUPPLY BASE CAPTURED

On March 5 Soviet forces under General Golubov recaptured Yukhnov, 125 miles east of Smolensk, an important rail center and supply base for the German armies on the Central Front. The town, which was protected by a formidable double row of fortifications, fell after a fierce struggle lasting several days, during which Soviet troops fought their way through the battered streets and engaged in house-to-house fighting. The pictures show: above, a Soviet Scouts Company, the first to enter the town, advancing cautiously through the ruined streets; and below, camouflaged infantry mopping-up.


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Bostons attack a factory near Paris
March 8, 1942

ATTACK ON MATFORD WORKS

Five days after the heavy night attack on the Renault factory, small formation of American-built Boston light bombers carried out a daring low-level daylight attack on the Matford works at Poissy, ten miles north-west of Paris, which was producing twenty trucks a day for the German Army. The picture taken from one of the attacking bombers during the height of the raid, shows bombs bursting in the center of the factory. Hits were also scored on the rows of parked trucks which can be seen in rear. Never before had British bombers penetrated so far into occupied France in daylight.


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Japanese enter a scorched capital of Burma
March 7-8, 1942

FALL OF RANGOON

As a result of the isolation of part of the British forces at Pegu, and Japanese landings on the Irrawaddy Delta, the city of Rangoon, capital of Burma, was evacuated on March 7, and on following day the Japanese entered the town. The British forces, despite heavy casualties, remained intact after the Pegu fighting and withdrew into Central Burma with the object of linking up with the Chinese armies farther north. Before the evacuation of Rangoon the “scorched earth” policy was thoroughly carried out; all dock installations, oil refineries and machinery that could not be removed were systematically destroyed. The photograph, taken from one of the last ships to leave the port, shows the dense clouds of smoke rising from the Burma Oil Company’s warehouses that have been set on fire to prevent them falling into enemy hands. On the same day as the evacuation of Rangoon, Japanese forces who had landed in Java on March 1 occupied Batavia, the capital, and three days later Surabaya, the Dutch naval base, and the city of Bandoeng, were in enemy hands, the latter having surrendered to prevent an aerial massacre of the civilian population. With the fall of these towns the fighting in Java came to an end. The gallant Dutch had lost most of their navy in trying to prevent the enemy landings, and their air force was no match for the masses of aircraft the enemy were able to use. The Japanese used at least ten divisions in the fighting.


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British and Chinese armies try to turn the tide of battle
March, 1942

BRITISH AND CHINESE CONTACT IN BURMA

After the fall of Rangoon Lieutenant-General Sir Harold Alexander took over command in Burma from General Hutton; Under his leadership the British forces withdrew northwards and on March 12 linked up with a powerful Chinese force that had marched 800 miles from Yunnan. On the 19th the enemy began to push northwards towards Toungoo on the Sittang, and towards Prome, on the Irrawaddy, with the result that the British were obliged to evacuate Tharawaddy, on the Rangoon-Prone railway, on the 20th. At Pyu, thirty-five miles south of Toungoo, the Japanese came up against strong Chinese resistance, but by an outflanking movement they managed to capture the airfield north of Toungoo and cut the Toungoo-Mandalay road, and on the 25th they occupied Kyungon, north-west of the town, thereby almost encircling the Chinese. The Chinese held Toungoo until the 31st, when they fought their way out of the trap and rejoined their main forces to the north-west. The pictures above show: first, Chinese forces passing through a Burmese village on their way to the battlefront; and third, digging anti-tank ditches in the jungle. Second, a camouflaged Chinese sniper in action; and fourth, a lightly-clad infantryman is on the double in the jungle.


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Australian and American flyers attack Japanese shipping
March 18-22, 1942

ALLIED AIR SUCCESSES IN THE PACIFIC

On March 18 the U.S. Navy Department gave details of successes obtained by American and Australian airmen in operations against the Japanese forces invading New Guinea. These included the sinking of two heavy cruisers, damage to three light cruisers, five transports gutted by fire and beached as well as damage to other miscellaneous craft. In all twenty-three enemy ships were sunk or damaged for the loss of one Allied aircraft. On the 19th considerable Japanese forces in New Guinea were seen advancing across the island in a south-westerly direction, but attacks by U.S. bombers on Lae and on Rabaul, where a heavy cruiser was sunk, so interfered with the enemy’s plans that he was obliged, at least temporarily, to call a halt. Tokio admitted that at Rabaul alone they had sustained 7,000 casualties. The pictures show the end of a Japanese twin-engined bomber that attempted to attack a U.S. naval force in the Pacific. It is seen over a U.S. destroyer (1) shortly before it received a direct hit on its port engine, which broke off and fell into the sea (2). The aircraft immediately went into a steep dive (3) and crashed into the sea in flames (4). The crew of three perished.


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Progress of the war in the Pacific after three months
March, 1942

PACIFIC THEATRE OF WAR

This map shows the progress of the war in the Pacific from the outbreak hostilities to the Japanese occupation of the Andaman Islands on March 23, 1942. During that time the whole of Malaya had been overrun, Borneo, Java, Sumatra and Celebes had been occupied, and fighting was in progress in New Guinea where Japanese landings had taken place after the enemy occupation of the adjoining islands of New Britain and New Ireland. American and Filipino forces in the Philippines were still resisting the enemy who had gained control of the greater part of the islands. The U.S. naval bases of Guam and Wake had fallen early in the campaign. On the Burmese front British forces were retreating before a numerically superior enemy in the direction of Mandalay. Japan’s entry cut the supply route to Russia.


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LUEBECK BOMBED
MARCH 28, 29, 1942

On the night of March 28, a strong force of heavy bombers gave the Baltic port of Luebeck, thirty-five miles north of Hamburg, one of the heaviest bombings experienced by any German city so far. The port handles nearly all the traffic between Germany and Sweden, and large imports of iron ore and other raw materials pass through it on their way to feed Germany’s war industries. In addition it was being used for the dispatch of military stores to Finland and to the German armies on the northern front, as well as to the army of occupation in Norway. The fact that it was also an important centre of U-boat construction and a training depot for submarine crews made it an extremely desirable target for the R.A.F.’s attention. The attack was pressed home with great determination, and soon after it began, fires could be seen dotted all over the city. These rapidly spread until it looked as if there was only one huge fire. Very heavy damage was done, and it was estimated that about 1,500 houses were destroyed, mostly by fire. The second photograph shows a section of the centre of the city stretching over 1,500 yards. In this area the Central Electric Station, the Market Hall and the Reich Bank were all completely gutted, and a close inspection of the picture shows that there is scarcely a building in the whole area retaining its roof. The first picture shows chaos caused by bombs in Breitstrasse.


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Russians smash German attack on the Kalinin front March 24-29, 1942

GERMAN ATTACK FAILS

On March 24, the Germans launched the biggest attack on the Kalinin front since the Battle of Moscow. Its object was to relieve a deep salient in their lines near Rzhev, where two large bodies of their troops had been isolated. For this purpose they employed three divisions and large numbers of tanks and aircraft, but after five days’ fighting they were obliged to call the attack off, having lost 2,500 men in killed alone. Meanwhile, near Staraya Russa, the Germans were still trying desperately to relieve their Sixteenth Army which had now been reduced by almost half. On the Leningrad front the Red Army was trying hard to free the encircled city before the thaw cut the supply line across the ice on Luke Ladoga, while in the Ukraine they had reached the suburbs of Stalino, which they had lost on October 20, and were fighting desperately to regain possession of the town. The picture shows a Russian battlefield after the tide of war has passed over it; dead bodies and burnt-out tanks litter the ground.


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British destroyer rams dock gates at St. Nazaire
March 28, 1942

RAID ON ENEMY INSTALLATIONS

In the early hours of March 28, a combined raid was carried out by British naval forces and commandos against the large dry dock and harbor installations at St. Nazaire. H.M.S. Campbeltown, carrying five tons of high explosives in her specially stiffened bows, crashed through the harbor boom defenses and charged the dock entrance at full speed. Such was the impact that she forced herself into the lock entrance as far as her bridge, where, after most of her crew had been taken off she blew up. Meanwhile commandos set about demolishing works, as shown above: (1) The dry dock, outer gate of which is missing. It was here that the Campbeltown blew up; (2) Severe damage to the dock pump house; (3) Damage to the machine house for operating dock gate; (4) Two sheds of the pump house completely demolished; (5) A five-bay building almost destroyed; (6) Damage to submarine pens under construction; (7) One end of a multi-bay building badly damaged.


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General MacArthur takes over in Australia
March, 1942

FROM BATAAN TO AUSTRALIA

In the latter part of March, 1942, it was announced that General Douglas MacArthur, hero of the Philippine campaign, had arrived in Australia by air to assume command of all land, naval and air forces in the south-west Pacific. At the same time it was revealed that for two months a steady stream of U.S. soldiers and flyers had been pouring into Australia and that U.S. troops were stationed at Darwin. In the picture above, General MacArthur, right, is shown with Lieutenant General Jonathan Wainwright, then a Major General, who succeeded him as Philippine commander.


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A chip of the old block
March, 1942

MacARTHUR’S SON AT CORREGIDOR

The first picture to come out of the Philippines of Arthur MacArthur, son of the General, in his soldier’s uniform, in the tunnel entrance on Corregidor, with his Filipino attendant, a few days before he flew to Australia with his mother to join his father. For the MacArthurs the Philippines were more than a battle assignment. The Philippines are in their blood. The General’s father, young hero of the Civil War, was military governor of the islands 45 years ago. His mother died there and under Manila’s tropic palms he courted his second wife and fathered his sturdy young son.


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Slowing Japanese advance in the Philippines
March, 1942

HANDLING DYNAMITE

The Filipino soldier in center foreground is distributing sticks of dynamite to some fellow defenders of the island. The bridge was destroyed to slow the Japanese advance and was one of the many efforts made by the natives to check the foe during the months of horror brought on by the invaders. These Filipino soldiers had been schooled in the American way of armed combat by General Douglas MacArthur, who had served for years as Marshal of the Philippine Army. How well these soldiers fought against the Nipponese was revealed by all American officers on the island and their work was of the greatest value to the Americans during the dark days of the invasion and retreat to Corregidor. Like their American comrades, practically all of the Filipinos that survived the campaign were taken prisoner after the fall of Corregidor, and subjected to horrible torture.


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The Japanese bomb Kipling’s Mandalay
March 31-April 3, 1942

FIGHTING RETREAT IN BURMA

After evacuating Toungoo the Chinese forces, now reorganized north of the town, launched a determined counter-attack, and on April 2, succeeded in recapturing Kyungon, which the enemy had occupied on March 25. Meanwhile, on the Irrawaddy front, Japanese forces in considerable strength penetrated the British positions south of Prome and on April 2, after an all-night battle, occupied the town. This brought them to within 120 miles of the important oilfields at Yenang Yaung, which was one of their main objectives. On April 3 Japanese aircraft bombed Mandalay in the heaviest raid of the Far East war to date. It was estimated that about two-thirds of the business area was destroyed and that more than 2,000 persons were killed. The picture shows damage in a Moslem quarter.


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Allied air attack on Japanese-held capital of New Guinea
April, 1942

AIRFIELD AT RABAUL BOMBED

Smoke rolling from burning Japanese planes on Vunakanau airfield at Rabaul, New Britain, as allied bombers made the heaviest attack of the Pacific war up to that time on the Japanese-held base. One hundred and seventy-seven planes were destroyed or damaged in the raid. Note the explosion near Japanese plane in the revetment in the foreground. This operation was one of many intended to end the threat of Japanese domination of allied lines of communication in the Pacific and the north coast of Australia, the enemy having exploited his successes on the Malayan Peninsula to bring the entire Netherlands East Indies under his domination. The effects of the desperate resistance offered by the Philippine Army and United States forces on Bataan, holding as they did a sizeable portion of Japanese strength, were now being felt. During the delay thus gained men and materials were dispatched to Australia, New Caledonia and other Pacific islands. The growth of power of the United Nations in the southwest Pacific was presaged by our air forces which were now performing long-range bombing missions against Japan’s newly acquired bases in the Bismarcks and New Guinea.


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Heroic Malta has its 2,000th air raid alert
April 7, 1942

MALTA DEFIES THE LUFTWAFFE

The island of Malta, which stands on the direct sea route from Italy to North Africa and from which attacks were carried out by British aircraft on Axis convoys carrying reinforcements to General Rommel in Libya, was the subject of almost non-stop attacks by German and Italian bombers. During April the enemy launched a particularly heavy offensive in order to ground British aircraft while his convoys made the dangerous crossing to North Africa, and on the 7th, Malta had its two thousandth alert since war began. On this day alone the enemy employed about 500 aircraft on attacks on the island. According to reports from Valletta about 4,200 houses had been destroyed in the raids to date, as well as the island’s Opera House, the Church and Monastery of the Sacred Heart, the Capuchin Convent Church, and the Chapel of our Lady of Lourdes. The pictures show: first, bomb damage at the center of Valetta; second, bombs bursting on the harbor; third, bomb bursts on the island.


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End of U.S. resistance on the Bataan peninsula
April 9, 1942

END OF AN HEROIC DEFENSE

On April 9 the U.S. and Filipino defenses on the Bataan Peninsula of Luzon were smashed by Japanese forces and an epic resistance which had lasted for four months was brought to an end. General Wainright’s forces on the island amounted to 36,800 men, nearly all of whom were killed or captured, but some of them, including 3,500 U.S. Marines succeeded in escaping to the island of Corregidor, which continued to hold out. Although outnumbered six to one, the defending forces put up a magnificent resistance and succeeded in inflicting 60,000 casualties on the enemy. It was only after they were physically exhausted by days and nights of fighting that they were finally compelled to give up. The pictures show: first, Japanese forces on the Peninsula passing blazing oil dumps that had been set on fire by the defenders before they surrendered, and third, some of the Japanese prisoners captured during the fighting. Second, two Japanese soldiers, killed in the fighting, are seen lying where they fell, and fourth, a Bataan village after it had been blasted by enemy artillery.


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Marching into hell
April, 1942

Their tragic ordeal of privation and humiliation at the hands of the brutal Japanese began for these gaunt weary defenders of Corregidor as they surrendered to the smirking enemy. Disclosures in January, 1944, revealed that these men, part of the 12,000 captured at the rock fortress of Manila Bay, were herded together like cattle and kept without food for seven days. Then they were marched in humiliation through Manila on a long weary trek to a Japanese prison camp, the weak and stumbling knocked right back into line. Those falling by the wayside being bayoneted to death by their inhuman foes, in direct violation of the Geneva Convention.


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Britain’s offer to India rejected
April 11, 1942

INDIAN NEGOTIATIONS FAIL

Charged with a special mission to present the British Government’s plan to solve Indian constitutional problems, Sir Stafford Cripps had arrived in New Delhi on March 23. In the Prime Minister’s words, Sir Stafford “did everything in human power” to insure a successful conclusion to the negotiations, but the Congress of India rejected Great Britain’s proposals for a settlement. England’s firm promise of Indian independence included a self-elected government for India after the War, but Congress made an uncompromising last-minute demand for the setting up of a National Government at once. Sir Stafford Cripps pointed out to Dr. Azad, the Congress President, that this demand implied absolute dictatorship of the majority, and would break all the pledges Britain had given to the great minorities of India. Above, Sir Stafford Cripps talks to some of the Sikh leaders during his visit. Below, Gandhi (in foreground), and Pandit Nehru (between the pillars) at a meeting.


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Pro-German government formed in Vichy
April 14, 1942

LAVAL COMES BACK TO POWER

On April 14 Berlin and Vichy announced that Pierre Laval would return to office and that Marshal Petain had decided to reconstitute the Vichy cabinet on a new basis. This reorganization was forced upon Petain by Hitler who, it was said, used the French prisoners of war in Germany and threats to starve the French people as bargaining weapons. With a pro-German head in Vichy, Hitler doubtless hoped to obtain the services of French workers for essential war work in German factories, and even to obtain the use of the French fleet, which had been disarmed under the armistice terms. The new cabinet, in which Laval held the post of Chief of Government, and the Ministries of Foreign Affairs, the Interior, and Information, was formed on the 17th. Petain retained the nominal title of Chief of State. Laval’s appointment led to disturbances in Paris and Northern France, and on the 16th, thirty-five German soldiers were killed in a troop train that was derailed near Caen. The picture above, doubtless a piece of German propaganda to prove the success of the new arrangement, shows French “volunteers” in German uniforms leaving Versailles for service on the Russian front. Below, Marshal Petain and Laval are seen together shortly after the new government was formed.


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“Off we go”—Destination Tokio
April 18, 1942

To Tojo from a former friend
April 18, 1942

SHANGRI-LA IS BORN

In April, 1942, the United States and the world at large was electrified by an announcement by President Roosevelt that American flyers had carried the Battle of the Pacific to the heart of the Japanese empire with a surprising and daring raid on military targets at Tokio, Yokohama, Osake, Kobe and other Rising Sun industrial centers. The dangerous mission was headed by Lieutenant General James H. Doolittle, and in the picture above, one of the planes is seen soaring off the flight deck of the USS Hornet enroute to Japanese territory. Taking off in the middle of the day, flying at low altitude, the squadron of American planes led by General Doolittle, and accompanied by 79 other aviators raided the mainland. In the navy yard south of Tokio a new cruiser or battleship under construction was bombed and left in flames. “Along the coast line,” said Gen. Doolittle on May 19, at Washington, when he was decorated by the President and the story of the raid was revealed, “we observed several squadrons of destroyers and some cruisers and battleships. About 25 miles to sea the rear gunners reported seeing columns of smoke rising thousands of feet in the air. One of our bombardiers strewed incendiary bombs along a quarter of a mile of aircraft factory near Nagoya. Another illuminated a tank farm. However, flying at such low altitudes made it very difficult to observe the result following the impact of the bombs. We could see the strike, but our field of vision was greatly restricted by the speed of the plume and the low altitude at which we were flying. Even so, one of our party observed a ball game in progress. The players and spectators did not start their run for cover until just as the field passed out of sight. Pilots, bombardiers and all members of the crew performed their duties with great calmness and remarkable precision. It appeared to us that practically every bomb reached the target for which it was intended. We would like to have tarried and watched the later developments of fire and explosion, but, even so, we were fortunate to receive a fairly detailed report from the excited Japanese radio broadcasts. It took them several hours to calm down to deception and accusation.” He added that he had issued instructions that the Imperial Palace in Tokio was not to be bombed. In the picture above General Doolittle is shown wiring a Japanese medal to the fin of a 500-pound bomb which shortly thereafter was returned to its Nipponese makers in a blast of destruction. The ceremony took place on the deck of the carrier Hornet from which the raiders took off.


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A Tokio raider comes down in China
April 18, 1942

AFTER THE RAID ON TOKIO

Several planes in the squadron that took off for Tokio from the airplane carrier Hornet failed to return to the mother ship. In the picture (at top) is the wing of one of the bombers after it crashed on top of a Chinese mountain, while at bottom is another view of the wreckage. At the time of the raid there was no mention of any American losses or that any of the squadron had fallen into the hands of the Japanese, but six months later a Tokio broadcast named four of the men they were holding. It was then that the U.S. disclosed that several of the Doolittle squadron never returned.


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Chinese come to the rescue of Tokio raiders
April 18, 1942

HELP FROM AN ALLY

Chinese carry some of the Tokio raiders from the summit of the Chinese mountain where their bomber was forced down after raiding the Japanese capital. Other flyers who were shot or forced down over Japan were not so fortunate and were forced to suffer horrible forms of torture, it was revealed several months later. One of the planes landed on Russian territory and the crew was interned by Soviet authorities, the Soviet not being at war with Japan. Several of the enemy’s interceptor planes were shot down by the American flyers.


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Germans relieve their Sixteenth army
April 24, 1942

GERMAN ARMY AVOIDS ANNIHILATION

On April 24, the Germans succeeded in relieving their Sixteenth Army which had been encircled near Staraya Russa in February. During the two months it had been cut off, it had been kept supplied by air, and although its numbers had been seriously depleted it had nevertheless remained intact as a fighting unit. The picture shows German soldiers surrendering. Dead bodies of their comrades in the foreground bear witness to the doggedness of their resistance, and their confidence in the promise, made by the German High Command, that they would be relieved.


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A famous cathedral city gets a dose of bombs
April 24, 1942

FIRST OF THE BAEDEKER RAIDS

On April 24, the Luftwaffe raided the historic city of Exeter where considerable damage was inflicted on many ancient buildings and churches, including the famous cathedral, dating from 1107. This raid was followed by raids on Norwich, Bath and York, and an official spokesman in Berlin described them as reprisals for the damage done by the Royal Air Force to buildings in Luebeck and Rostock and added that the Luftwaffe would “bomb every building in Britain marked with three stars in Baedeker.” Above, the cathedral is seen standing amidst the ruins of Exeter.


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Reprisal raids on Exeter, Bath, Norwich and York
April 25-29, 1942

(1) Firemen outside St. Martin’s Church, York, which was destroyed; (2) Damage in the residential quarter of Norwich; and (3) a hospital which has received a direct hit; (4) The interior of the burnt-out Guildhall, York; (5) Damaged houses in the center of Bath; and (6) the remains of the Regina Hotel and the Assembly Hall; (7) Interior of Exeter Cathedral, where a bomb fell on the choir aisle and demolished St. James’ Chapel and the Sacristy.

THE CATHEDRAL CITIES BOMBED

The raid on Exeter on April 24, was quickly followed by attacks on Bath (25 and 26), Norwich (27 and 29), and York (28), in all of which buildings and monuments of great historic value were blasted or demolished. By choosing these undefended cities as its targets, the Luftwaffe as good as admitted that it was unable to reply on anything like the same scale to the R.A.F.’s raids on military objectives in Germany, and was forced to seek targets in lightly protected areas.


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Japanese occupy Lashio,
western terminus of the Burma Road
April 29, 1942

BURMA ROAD CUT

On April 19, a Japanese force estimated at five divisions (about 100,000 men), with strong tank and aerial support, began a new thrust northwards through the Shan states towards Lashio, the western terminus of the vital Burma Road along which China was supplied with munitions of war by the Allies. In spite of desperate Chinese resistance the enemy reached Kehsi Mansam, only seventy miles south of Lashio, on the 28th, and on the following day, after a lightning advance of seventy miles, they captured Lashio itself after a mass attack which was covered by a violent artillery and aerial barrage. On the same day the enemy captured Hsipaw, forty miles south-west of Lashio, thereby seriously threatening the rear of the Anglo-Chinese forces and, at the same time, cutting the railway to Mandalay. The pictures show: first, trucks, carrying gasoline and oil for the Chinese air force during a halt on the Burma Road; second, supply vehicles negotiating some of the hairpin bends for which the road is famous. The map shows the course of the campaign in Burma.


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Mandalay falls to the Japanese
May 1, 1942

MANDALAY IN RUINS

After cutting the Lashio-Mandalay railway, the Japanese pressed rapidly to Mandalay, which they occupied on May 1. The beautiful city, with its many temples and pagodas had been almost completely destroyed by enemy bombs, and the victorious army found only a shattered ruin with all roads, bridges and military installations wrecked. The British forces were withdrawn north of the Irrawaddy, and the famous Ava Bridge across the river was blown up. The pictures show: above, damage wrought in Mandalay, and below, Japanese troops marching through a captured town.


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Corregidor gives up the fight
May 5-6, 1942

JAPANESE LAND ON CORREGIDOR

Ever since the fall of Bataan, on April 9, the island fortress of Corregidor had been subjected to intense artillery fire at point-blank range from Japanese batteries on the mainland. This, together with heavy aerial bombardment, inflicted heavy casualties on the defenders as well as serious damage to military installations. On May 5, after a particularly severe bombardment which swept away the beach defenses, Japanese troops crossed the narrow channel separating Corregidor from the mainland and landed on the island. By the 6th the battle was over, and the gallant defenders, outnumbered and exhausted by lack of sleep, were forced to surrender. Altogether 11,574 prisoners were taken. In the first picture, an American officer is shown giving a drink of water to a dying Japanese. A general view of the island is given below.


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General Stilwell’s march from Burma
May 1-20, 1942

MARCH THROUGH THE JUNGLES

The march of Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell and his party from Burma which started on May 1, 1942 in Burma and ended May 20, in Imphal, Assam, will go down in history as one of the great feats of an American soldier. The General, wearing old style campaign hat shown at the head of the column followed by Lieutenant Colonel Frank Dorn and Lieutenant Richard Young, two aides and Major General Franklin C. Sibert. General Stilwell, chief of staff to Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, had been in command of Chinese Fifth and Sixth Armies, operating with the British in Burma.


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The long trek to India and safety
May 1-20, 1942

MARCHING ALONG TOGETHER

General Stilwell’s party walking across the sands approach a river in Burma. From the time that the heroic band left Wunthe until they reached the Chindwin River the group was entirely out of touch with the world. In the spring of 1942 the Allies took what the General called a “hell of beating” in Burma, which they lost to the Japanese, but he was still full of fight after a weary march of 140 miles through the wild Burmese jungles and the dangerous rivers and declared Burma could and would be retaken from the Japanese invaders.


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The general lends a hand
May 1-20, 1942

THE MARCH TO INDIA

This picture, one of the most unusual pictures in military history, shows Lieutenant General Joseph W. Stilwell carrying a sack of bully beef from a spit across the Uyu River to his raft. An R.A.F. plane had just dropped food to the Stilwell party and the general was one of the first into water and carried his share of the food. The story of the Burma campaign, as General Stilwell put it, was one of outnumbered forces giving the best they had against a foe with more equipment and with complete air superiority. The last was a bitter pill for “Uncle Joe” to swallow.


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Rivers fail to halt the march to India
May 1-20, 1942

MARCHING THROUGH RIVERS

For the first three days of the march through the jungles after abandoning their transport the Stilwell group walked up the murky waters of the Chaunggyi River.

FLYING TIGER

One of the strangely decorated planes used by American and Chinese airmen under General Stilwell’s command in the campaign in China and Burma.


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British land in Madagascar—Diego Suarez capitulates
May 5-7, 1942

BRITISH OVERCOME FRENCH RESISTANCE

With the object of forestalling a Japanese move against the French island of Madagascar, which would have given the enemy a valuable base for naval and air operations in the Indian Ocean, a combined naval and military force made a landing at Courier Bay, on the western side of the island on May 5, covered by naval aircraft. The main objective was the important naval base of Diego Suarez, on the northern tip of the island, which was occupied by British forces the night of the 5th. On the 6th an attack on Ansirana, on the south side of the bay, was repulsed. Later in the day British troops penetrated the town and forced the defenders to surrender. The pictures show: first, an invasion barge ferrying a motor ambulance to the shore; third, the British Commanders, Rear-Admiral Syfret and Major-General Sturges, inspecting British troops after the surrender. Second, a German ship which its crew had unsuccessfully tried to scuttle is seen in Diego Suarez harbor, and on the right are French Colonials who defended the island, later joined the Allies.


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Last moments of the aircraft carrier Lexington
May 8, 1942

BATTLE OF THE CORAL SEA

On May 8, while U.S. aircraft were still in action against the Japanese fleet in the Coral Sea the enemy launched a counter-attack and scored several hits with bombs and torpedoes on the 33,000 ton U.S. Aircraft Carrier Lexington. Several hours after the battle, while steaming at 20 knots, the Lexington was rocked by a terrific internal explosion, probably caused by the ignition of gasoline vapors from leaks in the gasoline lines. As the flames grew the captain ordered the crew to abandon ship. Ninety-two percent of the ship’s company were rescued and reached port safely. The last man off the ship was her commanding officer, Captain Sherman, and, as he slid down a line into the water, a torpedo in the warhead locker exploded, and the Lexington sank soon afterwards. The picture shows the crew abandoning ship shortly after the explosion. A U.S. destroyer, which had come alongside to render assistance, can be seen through the smoke which envelops the carrier’s superstructure. The U.S. attacks on Salamaua and Lae, and the Battle of the Coral Sea, besides foiling the enemy’s invasion plans, cost him the aircraft carrier Ryukaku, three heavy cruisers, one light cruiser, two destroyers, and several transports sunk, a cruiser and a destroyer probably sunk, and damage to a second aircraft carrier, the Syokaku, which was hit on May 8 and left ablaze. American losses were the Lexington, the destroyer Sims, and the 25,000-ton tanker Neosho.


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Russian winter advance
December, 1941-May, 1942

RUSSIAN COUNTER ATTACKS

After the failure of the German attempt to capture Moscow, the Russian armies took the offensive all along the front and drove the enemy back over a large part of the ground he had overrun. The Germans, however, succeeded in holding most of the important railheads and in clinging to their positions around Leningrad, which despite furious attacks, the Russians failed to relieve. The map shows the territory (shaded dark) recaptured during the Russian offensive at enormous cost to the Nazis.


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Germans launch offensive in the Crimea
May 8-16, 1942

START OF GERMAN SPRING OFFENSIVE

On May 8, German and Rumanian forces, under General von Manstein, launched a limited local offensive in the Crimea with the object of clearing that area of Russian troops and safeguarding their right flank against any possible Russian attack. In face of very strong pressure, the Soviet forces slowly withdrew, inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy as they retreated. On the 15th, the enemy penetrated the suburbs of Kerch, and on the following day they claimed to have captured the town. The pictures show: above, Russian tanks, followed by infantry, advancing through enemy shell fire during a counter-attack in the Crimea; and below, Russian troops firing at the advancing Germans.


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Heavy fighting in the Crimea and around Kharkov
May 13-17, 1942

RUSSIAN ARMIES STRIKE FIRST

In order to forestall a probable German attack, Marshal Timoshenko on May 13, launched an offensive on a fifty-mile front stretching from Chuguyev to Volchansk and quickly made deep penetrations into German defensive positions covering Kharkov. By the 15th, Russian forces had crossed the Donets and had advanced ten miles west of the river. On the 17th, in an effort to envelop Kharkov from north and south, the Russians broadened their front, which now stretched for 100 miles from Byelgorod to Smiyev, and particularly heavy tank battles raged around the latter place, where giant Russian and American tanks scored notable successes against the enemy. Between May 12 and 16, Soviet forces liberated 300 inhabited localities in advances varying from twelve to thirty-eight miles, besides killing about 12,000 enemy troops. The pictures show: first, German machine gunners in action against the Russians, and second, a German sentry outside a factory in Kharkov that has been fired by Russian artillery.


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Germans attack in the Donets Basin
May 19-29, 1942

GERMAN COUNTER-OFFENSIVE

In order to hold up the Russian drive towards Kharkov, von Bock, on May 19, launched a strong counter-offensive in the Izyum-Barenkovo area where he struck hard at the Donets River crossings. As a result he succeeded in halting the Russian push farther north, and on the 29th, Berlin announced that the Kharkov battle had ended with Kharkov still in German hands. Meanwhile, on the 23rd, the Russians had been obliged to evacuate the Kerch Peninsula and the German right flank was now secure against attack from the rear. The pictures show: above, a street in a Russian village destroyed by the advancing Germans, and below, German tank and motor-cycle reinforcements rushing up to the front line to take part in their new drive.


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Anglo-Soviet twenty-year pact signed in London
May 26, 1942

HERE TWO ALLIES AFFIX THEIR SIGNATURES

On May 21, V. M. Molotov arrived in London to sign a twenty-year treaty of alliance between Great Britain and the Soviet Union. The signatories undertook to give each other military and other assistance against the Axis and agreed not to conclude a separate peace with the enemy. They also agreed to collaborate with one another and with the other United Nations in the peace settlement and during the ensuing period of reconstruction on the basis of the principles set out in the Atlantic Charter. The picture above shows, Anthony Eden, watched by Prime Minister Churchill, putting his signature to the treaty, while on his right, Mr. Molotov and Ambassador Maisky sign for the Soviet. The powerful Russian bombing plane that brought Mr. Molotov to England is seen below.


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GERMAN OFFENSIVE IN LIBYA
May 26, 1942

After heavy dive bombing attacks on the British positions in Libya, General Rommel, on May 26, launched a full scale offensive with the object of defeating the British armored forces and capturing Tobruk. His plan of campaign was to capture Bir Hakeim, at the southern end of the British minefield and send the Afrika Korps, supported by German and Italian mobile divisions, round the southern end of the minefields. At the same time a holding attack was to be made on the British positions running south from Gazala to the Trigh Capuzzo. On the night of May 26, 27, Rommel carried out the first part of his plan, the Afrika Korps passing round Bir Hakeim and advancing rapidly towards Acroma and towards El Duda and Sidi Rezegh, which some of his forward troops actually reached before being driven back by British armored columns. A few enemy tanks reached the escarpment overlooking the coastal road north of Acroma, but were driven back. On the same night the enemy attempted a landing from the sea at this spot with the object of joining up with the tanks, but this was frustrated by naval forces working in close co-operation with the army. Before the Axis forces reached El Adem or Acroma, they were brought to action by British mechanized divisions and turned back. The attack on the British positions between Gazala and Trigh Capuzzo, made on the 27th, was repulsed with heavy casualties and an attack on Bir Hakeim by the Italian Mobile Corps was repulsed by the Free French. The pictures, taken during the opening stages of the offensive, show: above, part of a German armored division advancing through a heavy artillery barrage put up by British batteries, and below, Axis tanks being rushed up to the main battle area to reinforce their hard-pressed forces.


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German tank attack repulsed in desert battle near Tobruk
May 26-31, 1942

ENEMY ATTACK REPULSED

After their failure to reach Tobruk, the German tank formations which had been advancing in two columns towards El Adem and Acroma, reunited in the neighborhood of Knights-bridge, twelve miles south of Acroma, where they were engaged by British armored forces and heavy fighting developed. This continued until the 30th, the battle swaying backwards and forwards over a wide area from Acroma in the north to Bir Hakeim, and from El Adem to the British minefields. By the 30th the enemy, finding himself running short of supplies and water, forced two gaps in the British minefields and attempted to pass his forces through these. By the morning of June 1 he had succeeded in withdrawing many of his vehicles and was bringing up guns to cover their retreat. A large number of his tanks, however, and many motorized units remained to the east of the minefield, and these were ceaselessly attacked by British troops and the R.A.F., and many of them were destroyed. It was estimated that during this period at least 600 enemy vehicles were put out of action, and in Cairo it was authoritatively stated that the Afrika Korps had taken a severe loss and that the position remained “not unfavorable” to the British. The pictures show: first, a mobile British anti-tank gun passing a knocked-out German tank; second, British soldiers examining a wrecked German tank. Third, a South African patrol is seen sheltering from enemy mortar fire.


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A thousand bombers raid
Cologne May 30, 1942

RHINE CITY RAIDED BY R.A.F.

On the night of May 30, a force of more than 1,000 bombers attacked the Ruhr and Rhineland, with Cologne as the main objective. More than 2,000 tons of bombs were dropped and it was estimated that more than 250 factory buildings and industrial plants were destroyed or severely damaged. The pictures show the workshops of the Koelnischer Gummifaden Fabrik, at Deutz, a suburb of Cologne, before and after the raid. This factory was engaged in the manufacture of tires and inner tubes.


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German reprisal raid on Canterbury
May 31, 1942

REPRISAL FOR COLOGNE RAID

On the last night of May, a small force of enemy bombers raided Canterbury, where considerable damage was caused in the business district and many people were made homeless. The German High Command described the raid as a “reprisal for the terrorist raid on Cologne,” and Berlin radio said that Canterbury, “a main centre of English hypocrisy,” had to pay for the attack on the old beautiful city on the Rhine. Although no bombs hit the Cathedral, several fell nearby, causing damage by blast. The picture shows Dr. Hewlett Johnson, Dean of Canterbury, inspecting the damaged library.


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The battle of Midway Island
June 3-7, 1942

AIRCRAFT CARRIER YORKTOWN GOES DOWN

On June 3, two large Japanese fleets approached Midway Island, U.S. naval and air base in the Pacific. As soon as the enemy’s presence was reported a strong force of army bombers set out to locate the Japanese fleet and in the attack that followed direct hits were scored on eight enemy ships. Meanwhile a force of about 180 Japanese carrier-borne planes raided the airfields, docks and harbor installations on the island, but succeeded in inflicting only minor damage. The strength of the U.S. attack forced the enemy to withdraw with tremendous losses, the greatest sustained by the enemy since the war began, amounting to four aircraft carriers, two battleships damaged, two heavy cruisers sunk and three damaged, one light cruiser damaged and three destroyers sunk. U.S. losses amounted to one aircraft carrier, the Yorktown (shown above) and the destroyer Hammon. Military strategists later interpreted the attack on Midway as a preliminary thrust, the ultimate objective of which was the Hawaiian islands and the complete neutralization of the base at Pearl Harbor. The complete defeat of the Japanese fleet was the stroke that equalized the strength of the American and Japanese navies and permitted the latter to drop the defensive role imposed upon it since the outbreak of hostilities. Like the battle of the Coral Sea, the engagement at Midway was unique in naval history in that there was no exchange of fire between the big guns of the opposing fleets. At all times at least 200 miles of Pacific ocean separated the opponents. All damage was scored by bomber and torpedo planes flown from carriers, with the Americans having the additional help of land-based bombers.


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Enemy action and a loss in the battle of Midway
June 3-7, 1942

ATTACK FROM THE AIR

Japanese planes in the battle of Midway attempt to attack Pacific fleet forces through heavy anti-aircraft fire. Smoke on the horizon is from an enemy bomber shot down. Splashes in the foreground are caused by falling shrapnel. This battle, described by many as the greatest sea engagement since Jutland of World War I, practically insured the safety of the American west coast.

THE ENEMY LOSES A CRUISER

A Japanese heavy cruiser of the Mogami class after she was hit by U.S. bombs and left in a sinking condition. The battle of Midway, lasting more than three days and nights, was such a complex and widespread action, that even the active participants of the United States forces were unable to sum up thoroughly all the damage inflicted on the enemy; but it is known that approximately 4,800 Japanese were killed or drowned and that the total losses to the United States forces were 92 officers and 215 enlisted men. In tonnage, the Japanese at Midway lost more than the Germans lost in the classic battle of Jutland. Almost without exception, these losses could be attributed to ship-based United States Navy aircraft. The Battle of Midway climaxed the first six months of the United States at war and marked the opening of a new phase of operations in the Pacific—the enemy offensive had been checked.


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The first air attack on North America
June 3, 1942

DUTCH HARBOR RAIDED

On the morning of June 3, Japanese planes raided the U.S. naval and air base at Dutch Harbor, Unalaska, in the Aleutians. High explosives and incendiary bombs were dropped, but damage was light. A few barracks and warehouse at Fort Mears and Dutch Harbor were bombed and set afire and a Navy patrol plane, which was about to take off with mail was strafed. The picture shows bombs dropping harmlessly in the bay. The ship in background staved off the enemy attack with machine gun fire. In the harbor at the time of the attack were three United States destroyers, an army transport, a minesweeper and a Coast Guard cutter, and also an old station ship, The Northwestern, which had been beached and was being used as barracks. This ship was destroyed in the second attack on June 4.


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Mobile defense against allied bombs
June, 1942

DAYLIGHT RAIDS ON THE ENEMY

During June daylight attacks of increasing force were made by British and American bombers on industrial targets in Germany and the occupied countries. Early in June nearly 100 bombers of the R.A.F. made a concentrated attack on the Philips radio works at Eindhoven in Holland. This factory, the largest of its kind in Europe, was entirely engaged on production for the German armed forces. Large sections of the works were destroyed by fire. Another great raid was made on the steel works at Lille by Flying Fortresses. Over 150 tons of high explosives and a great weight of incendiaries were dropped on the main buildings within a few minutes and fierce fires were seen spreading over the whole area as the attackers flew away. Above, a German “flak-train” used as an additional means of defense against the increased Allied air attacks over the Reich and enemy occupied countries.


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“The desert fox” reviews his troops
June, 1942

HEADACHE FOR THE ALLIES

In February, 1941, after brilliant successes in Europe, Lieutenant General Erwin Rommel was sent to Africa to head the Afrika Korps, following the rout of the Italians by the British. He began a counterattack that covered 1,125 miles in two months and drove the British back to the Egyptian border. Early in 1942 he was made a Field Marshal and after a successful campaign was finally checked by General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery at El Alamein and driven out of Africa. This photograph of the Marshal was taken from a Nazi prisoner captured by Fifth Army forces in Italy. Rommel’s record on the European continent and in Africa made him one of the outstanding generals of the war. Practically obscure before the start of hostilities in 1939, his first great success was scored during the conquest of France. It was the mechanized divisions under Rommel that breached the French line in the Sedan sector and made the famous drive towards the English channel. This operation cut off the British and Belgians from the French army and made the evacuation of Dunkirk imperative. After he was sent to Africa, Rommel’s reputation grew at an even greater pace. During early 1942 he was practically unbeatable. One of his quirks was a habit of entertaining captured English officers. During these seances he took considerable pleasure in lecturing them on military tactics and pointing out to them the mistakes which caused their downfall. In 1943, Rommel nearly accomplished the supreme objective of driving a wedge to the Suez Canal, a task upon which the Italians had embarked in 1940 with little success against the British.


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Artillery duel in the western desert
June, 1942

ACTION AT LONG RANGE

In the picture at top, British artillery are shown shelling enemy positions during the push against the Axis in Libya, while, below, British soldiers, manning a six-pounder, duck for a moment in the midst of loading their gun as an enemy shell lands close by.


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Holding out and fighting back at Tobruk
June, 1942

DEFENSE NEARS ITS END

Besieged for months by Axis forces, the British garrison at Tobruk not only held out comfortably, but continually strengthened its defenses. With the harbor accessible to British merchant and naval vessels the stronghold remained a deterrent and threat to Axis columns intent on driving on toward Suez. On December 10, 1941, however, Axis columns smashed through and one of the greatest sieges in the history of the world ended. The British first captured this Libyan fortress and seaport their 1941 drive, when the Italian garrison of 25,000 surrendered on January 22. Subsequently the Axis staged a counter-offensive and from mid-April until December 10, 1941, the British Imperial garrison, made up largely of Australians, withstood a German-Italian siege. The weary defenders were relieved when the British in their second drive across North Africa, pushed the Axis forces westward across Libya. The second siege of Tobruk lasted only four days, the port and 33,000 British prisoners falling to Marshal Rommel on June 21, 1942 in one of the war’s outstanding upsets. The above picture shows British soldiers at Tobruk manning an anti-aircraft post girt by Italian ammunition boxes filled with stones.


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Accurate bombing from high above the desert
June, 1942

TROUBLE FOR THE AXIS

A dispersed ammunition dump in Libya is bombed by aircraft of the South African Air Force which played a conspicuous role through many campaigns during the British activity in the Western Desert. The hits can be seen clearly.


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Russians on defensive near Kharkov
June 10, 1942

NEW GERMAN ATTACKS IN RUSSIA

The fighting for the Kharkov sector died down towards the end of May and there was a period of comparative quiet which lasted until June 10 when a fresh German attack was launched to recapture the strong points in their defenses round Kharkov taken by Marshal Timoshenko in his recent offensive. On the 25th the Russians evacuated Kupiansk, an important rail junction sixty miles southeast of Kharkov, and on the following day they had to abandon Izyum, on the Donets, the scene of the great tank battles a month earlier. The pictures show: above, Nazi tanks passing a burning church during their advance, and below, Soviet infantry riding into battle on their tanks during a counter-attack.


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Japanese land on the Aleutian Islands
June 13-21, 1942

JAPANESE LAND AT KISKA

On June 13, the U.S. Navy Department announced that Japanese landings had taken place at Attu and Kiska, in the Aleutian Islands, 1,300 miles from the Alaskan mainland and only 600 miles from the new American naval base at Dutch Harbor. Bad weather prevented immediate action, but on the 15th, U.S. forces attacked the enemy and sank one cruiser and severely damaged three other cruisers, an aircraft carrier, a destroyer and a gunboat. A few days later a number of transports were observed at anchor in Kiska harbor and were attacked by U.S. Army bombers, which succeeded in sinking one. The picture shows the ship ablaze. Two other transports can be seen on the left and right.


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GERMANS CAPTURE TOBRUK AND MERSA MATRUH
June 18-29, 1942

After the withdrawal of the British forces to the Egyptian frontier, mobile formations harassed enemy columns pushing eastwards towards Bardia and turned them back about twenty-five miles from the town. On the 20th, however, Rommel’s tank forces suddenly switched their attack towards Tobruk from the direction of El Adem and El Duda and succeeded, with the help of massed dive bomber attacks, in forcing a gap on a narrow front in the southeast perimeter defenses through which tanks and infantry passed. On the 21st, after desperate fighting, the town and port were occupied and the garrison of 25,000 was forced to surrender. On the same day the enemy occupied Bardia. By the 26th, after capturing Capuzzo, Sollum, Helafaya and Sidi Barrani, the enemy had got within fifteen miles of Mersa Matruh, and on the next day battle was joined with his main armored forces. As a result Mersa Matruh fell on the 29th and the British and Imperial forces fell back in good order. The pictures show : top, Italian infantry taking up positions prior to the Axis attack on Tobruk; second, some of the British troops taken prisoner in Tobruk; and third, British gunners in action before Mersa Matruh.


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Black Sea naval base of Sevastopol falls to the Germans
July 3, 1942

A CITY IN RUINS

The fall of Sevastopol was a severe blow to the Russian course. The great naval base, home of the Black Sea Fleet, was of the utmost strategic importance to the enemy, for not only did its capture remove the last remaining threat to his right flank, but it gave him a base from which he could in the future carry out landing operations south of the Caucasus Mountains. This would threaten the port of Batum and the vital oil centre of Baku. In addition its loss would seriously restrict the free movements of the Black Sea Fleet, which was now well within the range of enemy bombers. The defense of Sevastopol forms one of the most glorious episodes in the annals of military history, and the picture shows how the defenders heroically clung on to their positions until the whole town was reduced to a complete shambles. Those civilians who were not evacuated lived under unspeakable conditions, yet, together with the soldiers and the marines of the Black Sea Fleet, they defied the might of the invading German Army for many months.


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Germans cross the Don river and open a new offensive
July 1-10, 1942

DEFENSE OF VORONEZH

On June 28 the Germans began a new offensive in the Kursk sector, 120 miles north of Kharkov, the object of which was to capture the important rail junction of Voronezh, on the Moscow-Rostov railway, 130 miles east of Kharkov. This would have given the Germans a strong defensive bastion on the flank of their attack farther south. By early July fighting on a tremendous scale had also developed in the Byelgorod and Volchansk areas (between Kursk and Kharkov), where thousands of tanks, closely followed by infantry and supported by masses of dive bombers, battered at the Russian positions. In face of tremendous pressure the Russian armies slowly withdrew in good order, taking terrible toll of the enemy as they retired. On July 7 the Germans succeeded in establishing bridgeheads on the east bank of the Don opposite Voronezh across which they managed to throw an infantry division and 100 tanks. The crossings, however, were under continual fire from Russian artillery and aerial bombardment by Stormovik dive bombers, and the Russians launched repeated counter-attacks with strong forces of tanks and infantry. According to Russian reports the Don was flowing red with the blood of dead Germans. Meanwhile, farther south, the enemy was pushing eastwards in an attempt to gain control of the middle reaches of the Don. On the 8th the Russians evacuated Stary Oskol, and two days later they abandoned Rossosh after severe battles in which as many as 8,000 tanks were locked in combat on a front 110 miles long. The picture shows the ruins of a bridge across the Don blown up by the Russians in an attempt to slow up the smashing tactics of the well armed and fast-moving Nazi invaders in this new drive for territory. German troops can be seen threading their way past smashed trucks and cars, which litter the ground for miles around.


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British Eighth army strikes back at El Alamein
July 10, 1942

BATTLE OF EGYPT BEGINS

After the fall of Mersa Matruh, Rommel continued his advance eastwards, and by July 1 he had reached El Alamein, only sixty miles from Alexandria. It was here that General Auchinleck decided to make a stand, for the country formed a narrow bottleneck, the sea guarding his right flank, and the Qattara Depression his left. In the early morning of July 1 the armored strength of the opposing forces joined battle, and heavy fighting continued throughout the day. The Eighth Army repulsed repeated attacks by tanks and infantry, and on the evening of the 2nd the enemy retired, leaving the British positions intact. On the following day the British forces, with air support on a scale unprecedented on the Middle Eastern Front, counter-attacked, captured several hundred prisoners, and put many enemy tanks out of action. This was followed on the 10th by an attack by British and South African troops, with tank and air support, who occupied the ridge of Tel el Eisa, after a five-mile advance. A similar attack was made from the south on the 15th by New Zealand and Indian infantry who succeeded in taking Ruweisat Ridge, south of El Alamein and advancing into the enemy positions seven miles. The pictures show: first, British tanks setting off at dawn to attack enemy positions, and second, Matildas, followed by men of the Scots Guards, going into action at El Alamein. The third and fourth pictures show Bren carriers patrolling the forward areas of the battlefield.


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German drive threatens Stalingrad and Rostov
July 12-19, 1942

FIGHTING IN THE DON BEND

Although the Germans had reached the very gates of Voronezh, they were unable to take it by storm. Farther south, however, a rapid advance along the railways brought about the fall of Kantemirovka (south of Rossosh) and of Lisichansk (100 miles southwest of Kantemirovka) on July 12, and heavy fighting was in progress near Boguchar which, together with Millerovsk, the Russians were obliged to evacuate on the 15th. This created a dangerous bulge in the Russian lines which threatened the industrial city of Stalingrad, on the Volga, and the port of Rostov at the mouth of the Don. The Russian armies inside the Don bend fought fierce rearguard actions whilst retiring to their main defensive positions along the lower reaches of the river, but by the 16th fighting was taking place before Voroshilovgrad, and two days later the enemy was only seventy miles northwest of Rostov, and still advancing rapidly. On the following day Voroshilovgrad was evacuated by the Red Army in order to avoid encirclement. The pictures show: first, Russian sappers on the Voronezh sector crawling forward to clear a gap in a minefield for the passage of their tanks and infantry, and second, Soviet infantry equipped with automatic weapons.


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Action in the western desert as British advance
July, 1942

CHARGING UNDER FIRE

Indian troops charge through gaps in barbed wire (top), made with the aid of Bren gun carriers, as they advance to capture a stronghold in the desert, while below, men of an English regiment man their Vickers guns in a forward position as an enemy artillery shot finds the range close by. Men of all nations owing allegiance to the British Commonwealth played a part in the great campaign of the Eighth Army to oust the Axis from North Africa and eliminate the threat to Egypt, in which they wrote a glorious page in the annals of history during the dark days of the war for the United Nations.


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Campaigning on two fronts
July, 1942

SUCCESS IN NEW GUINEA

During the long campaign in Papua, New Guinea, the Australian troops played a part of conspicuous gallantry. Here three Aussies are seen in action in the jungle.

ADVANCE IN THE DESERT

Many daring and successful actions were fought by British troops during the fighting in the Libyan Desert. This picture shows British infantry charging through a smoke screen.


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British hold the initiative in Egypt
July 21-27, 1942

GERMAN COUNTER-ATTACKS REPELLED

On July 16 German forces attempted to recapture the positions they had lost on Ruweisat Ridge, and a big tank battle developed in which twenty-five enemy tanks were destroyed. In the north, where enemy counter-attacks had regained part of the ground lost on Tel el Eisa, Imperial forces drove the enemy out of most of the lost positions. On the 21st General Auchinleck launched a general offensive all along the front, and fierce fighting raged throughout the night and the following day. In this action South African troops drove the enemy from the whole of Tel el Eisa Ridge, while in the centre New Zealand infantry made considerable progress along Ruweisat Ridge. By the 25th fighting had died down, and the enemy began to “dig in.” The pictures show: first, some of the Axis prisoners taken by the New Zealanders on Ruweisat Ridge, and second, loading up a General Grant tank ready for action. The maps show, third, the German advance (indicated by black arrows), and fourth, the main battle area.


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A heavy British bomber prepares to scourge the Reich
July, 1942

FIRE BOMBS FOR GERMAN CITIES

During July the R.A.F. kept up its attacks on centres of German war production whenever weather permitted. Bremen, Wilhelmshaven, Danzig, Flensburg, Dusseldorf, Duisburg, Luebeck, Vegesack and Hamburg were visited, some of them more than once, and great material damage was done. Of these raids perhaps the most outstanding were the daylight raid on Danzig on the 11th and the night raid on Hamburg on the 26th. The former involved a flight of 1,750 miles—the longest daylight operational flight yet attempted. In the Hamburg raid 175,000 incendiary bombs were rained on the city within fifty minutes—far surpassing the number dropped on London in the fire raid of December 29, 1940. Some idea of the weight of the British offensive may be gathered from the fact that during June and July, 1942, 13,000 tons of bombs were dropped on Germany as against 8,500 tons in the same months of 1941, and 3,500 in June and July, 1940. The Stirling bomber, seen above, is being loaded with incendiary bombs.


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Germans recapture Rostov on the Don
July 27-31, 1942

FALL OF ROSTOV

After the evacuation of Voroshilovgrad, the German attack on Rostov was broadened by pressure both from Taganrog and Millerovo. On July 25, the enemy thrusts down the railways from Voroshilovgrad and Millerovo had linked up, and fighting on the whole Lower Don front became intense. Two bridges were thrown across the river at Tsymlyansk, and despite desperate Russian resistance, the railway joining Stalingrad with the Black Sea and the Caucasus was threatened. The superiority of the enemy in arms and numbers enabled him to consolidate his bridgehead and also to close in on Rostov. After carrying out thorough demolitions, the great port was evacuated by the Russians on the 27th. On the same day another enemy threat to the Black Sea coast and the oil of Maikop took shape in a swift German drive south-eastwards to Bataisk. The pictures show: first, German infantry in Rostov crawling forward with the support of field guns; second, burnt-out street cars which had been used as barricades by the Russians during the desperate street fighting which raged in the town and suburbs before the final evacuation. Third, shows German infantry surrendering to the crew of a Soviet tank.


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Germans open drive for the Caucasus oil fields
August 1-7, 1942

RUSSIAN OILFIELDS THREATENED

After the German capture of Rostov and Bataisk, fierce and prolonged fighting took place near Salsk and at Kuschev. Again the Soviet forces were driven gradually back, and on August 6, von Kleist’s tanks, after crossing the Kuban river, entered Tikhoretsk. The Germans were now advancing on Maikop across the rich Kuban steppes, and on the 8th, they broke through towards Armavir and Krasnodar, thereby developing a dangerous pincers threat to Maikop. The pictures show: first, Red Army men attacking an enemy outpost in an attempt to stem the advance, and second, German troops occupying a railway station that has been “scorched” by the retreating Russians. Third, Germans advancing along a road choked with refugees. Fourth, Germans attacking a building.


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U.S. MARINES LAND IN THE SOLOMONS
AUGUST 7, 1942

In the early hours of August 7, warships and aircraft of the U.S. Pacific Fleet opened up a heavy bombardment on the Japanese positions in the Tulagi area of the Solomons, and U.S. marines went ashore in landing barges. By nightfall they had gained strong positions on Guadalcanal, Tulagi, and Florida, after having overcome fierce enemy resistance, and on the following day they extended the occupied area of Guadalcanal and captured a vital aerodrome. On Tulagi almost all resistance had been overcome and huge quantities of munitions and supplies had been captured. By noon on the 10th the marines were in firm control of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, Gavatu, Tanambogo, Makambo and Florida, and were engaged in mopping up enemy forces which had been defeated on the beachheads and had retreated to the interior. During these operations long-range U.S. bombers carried out extensive reconnaissance besides bombing enemy ships and air bases in New Britain, New Ireland, and in the Solomons area. The pictures show, unloading men and supplies on the island.


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How Tulagi Island looked down a Navy bomb sight
August, 1942

BATTLE OF THE SOLOMONS

This is the famous Tulagi Island (center foreground), stronghold of the Japanese forces in the Solomon Islands. Fires can be seen burning (right center) after American carrier-based dive bombers paid their first visit with bombs. In addition to fortifications, anti-aircraft batteries and radio station the Japanese had a small golf course on the island, but the unexpected arrival of U.S. Navy bombers gave them no time to yell “FORE” to Tokio. The operation in the Solomons inaugurated a series of offensive moves in the Pacific which continued for several months. The enemy occupation of the Islands permitted him the use of advance air and naval bases from which to attack the allies long Pacific supply line and the north coast of Australia. On August 7, 1942, therefore, United States Navy and Marine forces seized beachheads on Guadalcanal and Florida Island and occupied Tulagi. The highly prized Henderson airfield on Guadalcanal was held by the Marines against a long series of heavy air, sea and ground assaults by the enemy. The resolute defense of these marines under Major General (now Lieutenant General) Alexander A. Vandegrift and the desperate gallantry of our naval task forces marked the turning point in the Pacific.


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Prelude to invasion of the Solomons
August 7, 1942

Camouflaged Marine in action in the Solomons
August, 1942

ENEMY STRONGHOLD BLASTED

Guns and planes of the Pacific fleet blast tiny Tanambogo Island, enemy stronghold in the Solomons, just prior to its capture by the Marines, on August 7. In the foreground is the famous causeway connecting with Gavut Island, which marines crossed under heavy machine gun fire. In the meantime, at Guadalcanal, the American transports engaged in unloading stores and equipment were attacked about midday by enemy planes, and shortly after midnight an enemy naval force, never clearly identified, appeared on the scene and managed to get between the outer defense task force, stationed near Savo Island and an inner guard lying closer to the transports. Flares were dropped by enemy planes on the south side of the Allied ships outlining these to the enemy, who promptly opened fire. In this sudden close-range exchange of fire the Australian cruiser Canberra was sunk, and also the American cruisers Quincy, Astoria and Vincennes. Loss to the enemy remains unknown, but he had failed to destroy or drive away the American transports and the marines were landed, and as shown in the picture above, proceeded to mop up the islands. His uniform and equipment painted to blend with the thick foliage, this Marine raider has just thrown a hand grenade and advances with a rush and a Reisling gun to clean up the machine gun nest before the enemy recovers from the shock.


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Death on the battlefield and death by hari-kari
August 8, 1942

DEATH IN THE MORNING
August 8, 1942

The rising sun reveals the corpses of these Japanese jungle fighters, half buried in the tidal sands of the Tenaru River where they fell in their vicious night attempt to dislodge the U.S. Marines from Guadalcanal Island. Note the bullet hole in right eyebrow of the Japanese in foreground. These troops were part of the enemy reinforcements which arrived on Guadalcanal during the night of August 10-11 and came out second-best in hand to hand encounters with the United States Marines. The landings were made mostly at night and when American planes could not operate from Henderson Field, still in process of being constructed. The Japanese had started the building of Henderson Field but were interrupted by the American landings on Guadalcanal.

BATTLEFIELD

Bodies of Japanese who succeeded in crossing the mouth of the Tenaru during the action are shown strewn along the sands the day after the bottle. Losses on both sides were extremely heavy.

THE JAPANESE WAY

Many Japanese preferred suicide to surrender which they believe is dishonorable. These two Japanese Marines placed the muzzle of their rifles against their foreheads and pushed the trigger with their toes. One of them (background) still has his toe on the trigger. In the early days of the South Pacific campaign the Japanese preferred death this way to surrender, but as the campaign progressed, more and more of the enemy allowed themselves to be taken prisoner.


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Gandhi arrested as rioting breaks out in India
August 9, 1942

RIOTING IN INDIA

After the failure of Sir Stafford Cripps’ mission to India, the Congress Party, on July 10, issued a resolution demanding immediate British withdrawal. Shortly afterwards the Government of India raided Congress headquarters and seized the records of its proceedings. Among the documents confiscated was Gandhi’s original draft resolution, submitted to the Working Committee on April 27, which contained a statement to the effect that if India were free one of her first steps would probably be to negotiate with Japan. The Government published the text of this draft on August 4, and on the following day Congress passed an amended resolution restating its demand for British withdrawal and threatening a mass civil disobedience campaign if its demands were not met. As a result the Government, on the 7th, issued an order forbidding the closing of shops dealing with vital necessities, and on the 9th arrested 148 Congress leaders, including Gandhi, Pandit Nehru, and Dr. Azad. Rioting broke out in Bombay and other cities and the police and military were called out to deal with the disturbances. Altogether 658 people were killed and 1,003 wounded by police and military action. Pictures show: above, the Yervada Palace, Poona, where Gandhi was imprisoned, and below Gandhi in 1931.


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East meets west on a highway in India
August, 1942

A THE TWAIN DOES MEET

Old and new ideas in transportation are seen as supplies for U.S. troops are carried along a highway in India, as the Americans joined their British allies to check the common foe.


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American plane scores a bull’s eye in the Pacific August, 1942

A TRANSPORT GOES DOWN

A camouflaged Japanese transport sinking off New Britain after attack by a flying fortress. This was one of the many attacks on this important Japanese base by American bombers in an effort to stop the enemy from reinforcing his troops in the Bismarck Archipelago.

ALL DRESSED UP

A close-up of the Japanese transport aflame in waters south of the Bismarck Archipelago. Note the intensive efforts to camouflage the ship with tropical foliage.


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Evacuation of Maikop
August 9-16, 1942

RUSSIAN OIL TOWN CAPTURED

After the German break-through towards Armavir and Krasnodar, the defenders, on August 9, set the oilfields on fire and demolished all equipment. The Germans made unsuccessful attempts to blast out the fires by dropping demolition charges from planes near the blazing wells. On the 16th the town of Maikop had to be abandoned. The enemy also made rapid progress towards the Black Sea port of Novorossisk and along the northern side of the main Caucasus range. On the 10th they captured Piatigorsk, 120 miles south-east of Armavir, and four days later then entered Georgievsk, 120 miles north-west of the Grozny oilfields, on the Rostov-Baku railway. Meanwhile, in the Don bend, the Nazis continued to throw masses of men into the battle regardless of huge losses. On the 15th they succeeded in driving a wedge into the Russian positions at the Don elbow between Kletskaya and Kalach, forty miles north-west of Stalingrad. The pictures show: above, German troops captured by the Russians during the fighting in the North Caucasus, and left, Nazi soldiers passing some of the blazing oil-fields near Maikop.


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Pushing ahead through the jungles of New Guinea
August, 1942

HEAVY GOING

A group of American soldiers starts down a New Guinea road in single file to open a flanking movement against the Japanese. In the face of strong enemy resistance, American and Australian troops continued their ever forward movement over mud-covered jungle roads to force the invaders back to the sea. A campaign that finally met with success despite the hardships involved.


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CANADIANS LAND AT DIEPPE
AUGUST 19, 1942

The biggest combined operations carried out on the Continent since the evacuation of Dunkirk took place on August 19, when a large force, consisting mainly of Canadians, carried out a daring daylight landing at Dieppe and remained on French soil for nine hours before withdrawing. Officially described as a “reconnaissance in force,” its objects were: (1) to test the defenses of what was known to be a strongly fortified part of the enemy coast; (2) the destruction of German batteries and an important radio-location station; and (3) the capture of prisoners for interrogation. Escorted by units of the British Navy, the force passed safely through the enemy minefields and landed according to schedule, at 4:50 a.m., on six selected beaches in the Dieppe area. At Varengeville, 4-1/2 miles west of Dieppe, a Commando force succeeded in destroying an enemy 6-in. gun battery of howitzers, but at Berneval, 4-1/2 miles east of Dieppe, a chance encounter with enemy E-boats and flak ships caused an initial set-back. Although landings were later made here, the enemy coastal guns were never silenced, and hindered the attackers on the central beaches throughout the operation. In the center, at Pourville and Puys, tanks were landed from special landing craft, and Canadian troops, with tanks in support, fought their way into the center of the town, where fierce fighting raged round the Casino. All the objectives of the raid were attained, and the withdrawal was carried out only six minutes after the scheduled time. All the tanks were blown up before re-embarkation. Throughout the day the Royal Navy supported the land operations by keeping up a constant bombardment of the enemy shore positions, and despite heavy retaliatory fire from German shore batteries only one ship, the destroyer Berkeley, was lost. Operational commands of the R.A.F., as well as Canadian, New Zealand, Polish, Czech, Belgian, Fighting French and Norwegian squadrons provided air cover for the attack, and Flying Fortresses of the U.S. Army Air Forces made a high-level raid on the airfield at Abbeville. The Germans called up air reinforcements from all parts of Occupied France, Belgium and Holland, but many of these were engaged and broken up by Allied airmen before they reached the scene of the operations. The picture shows British landing craft nearing Dieppe, despite a fierce barrage.


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The Commandos approach the cliffs of Dieppe
August 19, 1942

BOUND FOR FRANCE

Quiet, relaxed, almost nonchalant, Canadian troops approach the cliffs of Dieppe for the most daring and complex Commando raid on highly fortified enemy positions.

THE NAVY’S PART

A naval motor launch seen with four of the landing craft during the operations. Despite the heavy fire from German shore batteries only one ship, H.M.S. Berkeley was lost.


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Bringing home wounded from raid on Dieppe
August 19, 1942

FORTUNES OF WAR

Wounded soldiers being brought on board a British destroyer after raid on Dieppe. The wounded were evacuated from the town while the fighting continued, loaded on landing barges, they were convoyed to destroyers in the harbor while the R.A.F. put up an extensive air umbrella. While casualties were heavy fast work by medical detachments saved hundreds of lives.


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Scenes in France and England after raid on Dieppe
August 19, 1942

SUCCESS OF THE DIEPPE RAID

Throughout the Dieppe raid an extensive air umbrella provided support for the ground forces, and during the day, air fighting developed on a scale not seen since the Battle of Britain. In spite of the fact that the Allied airmen were operating over enemy occupied territory, they shot down ninety-one enemy planes and damaged and probably destroyed twice that number. The Allies lost ninety-eight planes. The Germans tried to create the impression that the raid had been a full scale attempt at invasion, but this had been foreseen and forestalled by a B.B.C. broadcast to the French people during the early stages of the operation, which urged them to avoid all action that would compromise their safety and told them that no invasion was contemplated. Canadians, who formed five-sixths of the attacking force, sustained casualties amounting to 3,350 men made up of 170 dead, 633 wounded, and 2,547 missing. The pictures show: first, a burning British landing craft and two Churchill tanks on the shore at Dieppe and second, a close-up view of a British tank whose tractor has been torn off. Some of the British airmen who took part in the operation are seen in the third; the fourth shows other raiders at a British port.


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The score was zero for this Japanese plane
August, 1942

CAUGHT ON THE GROUND

Here’s one Japanese Zero that never got off the ground in the fight for Tulagi, one of the Japanese-held islands in the Solomons. It lies in a revetment, smashed by attacks of the U.S. Army Air Forces. Soldiers are repairing damage done by U.S. bombs and shells prior to the occupation of the island on the morning of August 7. The landings at Guadalcanal, two hours later, were preceded by a preliminary naval bombardment which drove the Japanese to take shelter in the limestone caves which honeycomb the region. At first little opposition was encountered at Tulagi, but when darkness fell the Japanese counter-attacked, emerging from the caves and from the jungles and considerable hand-to-hand fighting resulted in the darkness, but by next morning the Americans succeeded in clearing up the area.


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The marines get a hand from man’s best friend
August, 1942

CANINE MARINE

This German Shepherd dog stands by his master on the shores of a Pacific Island. Any foreign movement will be heard or spotted by him as he helps his master see that “the situation is well in hand.” The landings in the Solomons marked the first time that a trained dog unit had been used by the American armed forces. The dogs were constantly employed during the operations of securing and extending the beachhead and proved themselves as messengers, scouts and agents of night security. In the field the dogs did very well on the C rations that were fed to the men. According to their trainers the dogs did even the marines credit, a great tribute from the “devil dogs,” excellent fighters themselves. The dogs had been recruited from civilians in the United States and trained at various posts in America and Hawaii.


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The jeep comes to the South Pacific
August, 1942

JEEPS AND MARINES

Jeeps, crowded with marines, push through the jungle on the Guadalcanal front.


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The mortars in action on Guadalcanal
August, 1942

MESSAGE FOR THE JAPANESE

An 80 mm mortar section in action during the fighting on Guadalcanal.


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A long way from the Halls of Montezuma
August, 1942

IN THE SOUTH PACIFIC

A group of Marine Corps raiders on the move in full battle dress on one of the islands in the South Pacific as the campaign in the Solomons started to roll.


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First aid in the jungles of the South Pacific
August, 1942

FRONT LINE DRESSING STATION

Men of medical corps attending wounded marines brought to this front line dressing station on the Solomons by jeeps doubling as ambulances.


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Stepping stone along the road to Tokio
August, 1942

A PACIFIC ATOLL INVADED

A column of U.S. troops are photographed by a Coast Guard combat cameraman as they advance to continue the attack on the Japanese, who had been pushed back to the other end of this South Pacific atoll. A large Japanese seaplane is partially submerged in the lagoon following strafing by American planes. In the right foreground Japanese fuel barrels can be seen.


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In full compliance with the Geneva convention
August, 1942

PRISONERS OF THE UNITED STATES

A group of Japanese prisoners of war being marched off to a prisoner of war camp on Guadalcanal, there to be treated with full honors of war in contrast to the treatment accorded Americans and British seized by the Japanese in the engagements in the South Pacific, details of which were revealed to a horrified world by Allied prisoners who were fortunate enough to escape.


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Threat to Stalingrad
August 24, 1942

FIGHTING IN THE DON ELBOW

On August 18 the German armies driving towards Stalingrad from the north-west reached the Don south-east of Kletskaya, and five days later they succeeded in getting tanks and men across on to the east bank under cover of an aerial umbrella. Farther south, the enemy drove a deep wedge into the Russian lines north-east of Kotelnikovo on the 24th thereby threatening Stalingrad from north and south. The pictures show: above, Cossack cavalry charging to attack the enemy during the fighting on the Don, and below, an aerial view of the Don elbow showing two out of three bridges destroyed.


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Churchill visits Moscow and the Middle East
August 24, 1942

CHURCHILL TALKS WITH STALIN AND SMUTS

On August 17 it was announced that important conversations had taken place in Moscow between Winston Churchill, W. Averill Harriman and Marshal Stalin and that a number of decisions had been reached concerning the conduct of the war against Germany. On his return journey the British Prime Minister visited the Middle East where he conferred with Allied leaders and visited Allied troops on the desert battle front. During his stay he met General Smuts, prime minister of South Africa. In the top picture Mr. Churchill is shown in Moscow with Harriman, Stalin and Molotov.


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The Duke of Kent dies in line of duty
August 25, 1942

ROYAL TRAGEDY

On August 25 a Sunderland flying boat, carrying H.R.H. the Duke of Kent to Iceland, crashed on a lonely mountain-side in Scotland, and all the occupants, except the rear-gunner, were killed. Born on December 20, 1902, the Duke married Princess Marina of Greece in 1934, by whom he had three children. The youngest, Prince Michael, was born on July 4, only a few weeks before his father’s tragic death. The funeral took place at St. George’s Chapel, Windsor, on August 29. The second photograph, by Cecil Beaton, shows the Duke and Duchess with their youngest child; the first shows the Duke’s coffin, draped with his personal standard, on its arrival in London from Scotland.


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Japanese set-back in New Guinea
August 27-30, 1942

NEW LANDING IN PAPUA

In an effort to bypass the Owen Stanley Mountains and capture Port Moresby, as well as to obtain an advance base for the recapture of their lost positions in the Solomons, Japanese troops landed at Milne Bay, Papua, on August 27. Allied aircraft and Australian troops were waiting unknown to the enemy, and inflicted such severe losses on his forces that the bulk of them were withdrawn on the 29th. The map shows the main centers of fighting in this area of New Guinea.


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Marine raiders establish a beach head in the Solomons
August, 1942

LANDING OPERATION

A true Marine Corps landing operation takes place on the tip of Guadalcanal Island as these soldiers of the sea come ashore from their landing craft during the preliminary fight to establish a beachhead on this South Pacific Island. These marines were part of a Raider battalion which was used with great success in landing operations in the South Pacific campaign. An expeditionary force of United States Marines, provided with a protective convoy and a task force arrived off the islands on August 6, and at dawn on August 7, split into two portions. One proceeded to the vicinity of Tulagi and the second to Guadalcanal. The approach to the area of operation was fortunately under cover of an overcast sky that made enemy aerial reconnaissance difficult. But on the night of August 6-7, the weather cleared. However, the expeditionary forces with their supporting craft proceeded to their assigned positions undetected, and the Japanese were taken by surprise. By nightfall on August 9 unloading operations had been completed and cargo ships left the area. By noon of August 10, they were fully involved and consolidated their positions on the islands of Guadalcanal, Tulagi, Gavutu, Tanamboga, Makambo and portions of Florida island.


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THE BATTLE FOR STALINGRAD OPENS
August 24, 1942

After throwing large infantry and tank forces across the Don on August 22-23 the Germans massed in strength for the final assault against Stalingrad. The enemy’s terrific blows on land and from the air pressed the Russians back relentlessly towards the Volga. Plainly, they were prepared to throw in everything in order to seize this large and important industrial center —the key to the whole Russian defensive system. Von Bock’s initial thrust for Stalingrad from the north-west, begun on August 24, was supported by masses of tanks and heavy artillery and hundreds of dive bombers. For days and nights battles raged with unparalleled ferocity at the city’s approaches and appalling casualties were suffered by both sides. In determined counter-attacks on September 2-7, the Red Army threw the invaders back, though not before the outer defense ring had been penetrated deeply at many points. By September 12, 13 German tanks and artillery, as well as large infantry forces, had entered the suburbs and industrial areas of Stalingrad. Fierce hand-to-hand fighting raged among houses and factory buildings in the northern part of the city. At times, a floor of a building would be held by one side while the other held the floor below. So stubborn was the Russian resistance that the enemy, despite greatly superior numbers, advanced only by the yard and at bitter cost. Attack after attack was repulsed with heavy casualties to the Germans, and by October 12 all their infantry and tank thrusts had been temporarily halted. Meanwhile, Stalingrad was subjected to the heaviest mass air attacks of the war. Three-quarters of the city was smashed by the Luftwaffe. Defenses were breached, buildings razed, civilians murdered in thousands; smoke and dust enveloped the whole of Stalingrad in a permanent cloud. Yet the spirit of the defenders was unbroken. Fierce German attempts to break through to the Volga were launched again in late October and, after regrouping his forces a second time, von Bock made his final bid to win Stalingrad on November 12. It failed. The tide had turned, and on November 19 the Red Army started its offensive north and south of the city. A week later both forces joined up. Stalingrad was relieved after the terrible three-months’ siege. Seventy thousand prisoners and vast booty fell to the Russian troops. This picture shows women crossing a devastated square on their way out of Stalingrad after the evacuation had been ordered.


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Advancing Germans smash into the suburbs of Stalingrad
September 2, 1942

BITTER DEFENSE OF STALINGRAD CONTINUES

In their desperate and unavailing attempts to capture the city, the Germans were thwarted time and again by the demolition tactics employed by the Russians, who did not hesitate to destroy storehouses, war factories, and armament works rather than yield their possession to the enemy. The history of warfare shows no more stubborn defense than that of Stalingrad. The pictures show: first, German transport approaching the Stalingrad battle area; second, enemy artillery advance into the shambles of a suburb; third, Nazi soldiers find a former factory in ruins.


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London firemen battle bomb-set blaze
September, 1942

HOME DEFENSE WORK

Firemen battle a vicious blaze which was set during a German air raid on the British capital. The fire services brought the blaze under control after a stubborn battle. The work of these volunteers was of great help to the military during the raids on London.


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Making London safe
September, 1942

AFTERMATH OF THE BLITZ

The unsafe walls of a bombed building in Central London is pulled down to clear the site for war rebuilding. Throughout the city, damage caused by the many Nazi raids was rapidly cleared and the work of preparing for the post-war era went on despite continuance of Nazi raids.


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Nazis round up women and children in Yugoslavia
September 1, 1942

BRAVE YUGOSLAV PATRIOTS DEFY THE INVADER

Ever since the German and Italian armies marched into Yugoslavia on April 6, 1941, the brave bands of native guerrillas in the mountains, forests and elsewhere continued their determined resistance against the hated invaders. In spite of repeated threats of shooting or torture in Nazi concentration camps, the patriots never for a single day ceased their activities of sabotage and train-wrecking as well as open armed combat. In the latter part of the summer of 1942 the whole railway system of Yugoslavia was brought to a complete standstill for about ten days because of wide-spread destruction done to tracks and rolling stock by the guerrillas. This brought about some considerable delay in the passage of German munitions and supplies which were being rushed through the Balkans to Rommel’s harassed armies on the North African front. Many towns and villages throughout Yugoslavia were bombed from the air or burned to the ground by gangs of infuriated young Nazis, but the remarkable resistance of the patriot forces continued seriously to upset the enemy’s plans. This resistance much increased when the guerrillas were properly organized into groups under various brave guerrilla leaders. On September 1 about 20,000 German and Croat Fascist troops began an offensive against the guerrillas in a rugged part of the Bosnian mountains, near the little town of Banjalucka. After fifteen days of fierce fighting the enemy were beaten back at all points, leaving the patriot forces in control of the whole area. In a surprise counter-offensive, detachments of the Yugoslav Army attacked enemy garrisons, took 200 prisoners and wiped out several Croat detachments who were forcibly taking grain and crops from the peasants. The picture shows the Nazis rounding up innocent women and children in a village of the Bosnian hills. These were but a few of the hundreds of peasants carried away to concentration camps as a reprisal for patriot defiance.


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Rommel launches a new attack on Egypt
August 31, 1942

RENEWED FIGHTING IN EGYPT

On August 31 the Afrika Korps launched an attack on the British positions near Mt. Hemeimat. They were immediately engaged, and British bombers subjected them to a withering non-stop air attack. Although the enemy penetrated the British minefields at a few points, he was unable to pierce the defenses, and on September 2 he retired nine miles. The pictures show: above, a U.S. built tank travelling at speed near Mt. Hemeimat; below, a patrol dodging fire near Mt. Hemeimat.


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The Russian front as the third year ended
September 2, 1942

GERMAN ADVANCE IN RUSSIA

After their advance near Kotelnikovo on August 24, both sides threw large numbers of reserves into the battle and fighting on a large scale developed along the whole front before Stalingrad. The Russians ceaselessly battered at the deep wedges the enemy had driven into their lines north and south of the city, but although they inflicted enormous losses on the enemy they were unable to halt them. The map shows the position on the Russian fronts as the third year ended.


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THE FOURTH YEAR

Since July, 1942, the British Eighth Army and Rommel’s Afrika Korps had been quiescent on the El Alemein line. On October 23 the British, now commanded by General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery, unleashed the great drive that was to write finis to Axis hopes for domination of North Africa and the conquest of Egypt. Bolstered by troop reinforcements, new American tanks and a protective aircraft umbrella, the British began a ten-day pounding of the Nazi emplacements that resulted in a break-through on November 3. By November 7 Rommel was in full retreat 240 miles west of El Alemein, pushing westward at a rate that had the British hard pressed to keep within striking distance of him. Tobruk fell November 13, then Bengasi November 21.

In mid-January, 1943, the Eighth Army was within 100 miles of Tripoli where the Afrika Korps was expected to make a stand. But, on January 24, Rommel gave up Tripoli and led his weary troops into Tunisia where he took temporary sanctuary behind the Mareth Line. In fifteen weeks Montgomery’s men had performed the phenomenal military feat of advancing more than 1,500 miles.

NORTH AFRICAN LANDINGS

Allied strategy in North Africa became apparent on November 8, 1942, when a convoy of 850 Allied warships and troop transports arrived at several ports in Morocco and Algeria. American soldiers, in their first big operation in the European theatre, swarmed ashore at Casablanca, Oran and Algiers.

A successful political conquest had paved the way for the invasion, the initial objectives of which were accomplished with little bloodshed. Algiers fell by nightfall of the first day, Oran on November 10, and Casablanca a day later. Admiral Jean Darlan, the former Axis collaborator, then ordered an end to resistance and all Morocco and Algeria passed under Allied control.

The plan of battle that then became evident was to strike at the Axis’ western flank while Montgomery was pressing them from the East. From Sicily the Germans began pouring heavy reinforcements into Tunisia where it became obvious that they would make their last stand in North Africa. American and British troops began driving into Tunisia a few days after the initial landings.

DEVELOPMENTS IN FRANCE

In France, Hitler’s response to the North African landings was an immediate occupation of the entire country with the single exception of the Toulon area. The bulk of the French navy was anchored in Toulon and Hitler’s discretion was interpreted as an invitation to the fleet commanders to turn over their vessels to the Reich. On November 27, apparently impatient of the French failure to cooperate, Hitler ordered Toulon taken and the fleet seized. The French officers promptly scuttled about 60 ships, and a few that were still seaworthy escaped to join the Allies.

STALINGRAD

The Russian theatre was being dominated by the exhaustive efforts of the Nazis to take Stalingrad and the heroic Russian defense of that city. By September 1, 1942, Stalingrad was under siege, German troops having established a foothold on the west bank of the Volga river. In a few weeks they were within the city, engaged in street to street fighting with Russian forces. In early October the German High Command virtually admitted the failure of their assault by announcing that it would depend on heavy artillery to level the city. By the end of the month the Red Army had started a counter-move against the rapidly tiring enemy. Picked units gradually encircled Stalingrad in preparation for the drive which later cut off the German army.

On November 22 the big Russian offensive was under way on three sectors of the long front. From Rezhev, a drive was made towards Velikie Luki, and, from Voronezh, another spearhead was directed at Kharkov. In the Stalingrad area a flanking movement was begun which, by January 10, 1943, had cut off the retreat of 330,000 Nazis and placed them under siege within the city. On February 2 the Soviet Command announced the surrender of the German garrison and the end to one of the bloodiest battles in history. A few hundred miles south, the Russians were mopping up the Germans in the Caucasus area. During the summer of 1942 the invaders had penetrated as far as Nalchik and {772} Georgievsk. The Russians recaptured Georgievsk on January 11 and then pressed towards the Sea of Azov. By February 8, the Red Army had taken most of the key cities on this body of water and were closing in on Rostov.

GUADALCANAL

Since August 7, 1942, American Marines had been struggling to maintain their grip on the tropical jungles of Guadalcanal. While of a minor character from the standpoint of the numbers involved, the battle for the Solomons was important in that the safety of Allied supply lines to Australia were at stake. Also, an American victory was necessary to insure the success of further operations against the Japanese Pacific outposts.

The fate of the Solomons campaign was really decided in two major naval battles which were fought off Guadalcanal on the nights of November 12-13 and November 14-15. In these two engagements the Japanese lost 28 warships and transports, a price which discouraged them from any further large-scale attempts to regain control of Guadalcanal. For months the Japanese maintained small garrisons on Guadalcanal and other islands of the Solomon group, but American control of the seas blocked their supply lines and brought about their eventual defeat.

From Buna, on the northeast coast of New Guinea, which the Japanese had taken early that year, the enemy began a drive towards Port Moresby on September 9, 1942. This was the beginning of a bitter campaign for the control of the island. The Japanese were finally stopped at the Owen Stanley mountain range by Americans and Australians under General Douglas MacArthur. As Allied air strength increased, the Japanese were pushed back to their bases on the Bismarck Sea.

VICTORY IN TUNISIA

During the winter of 1943 Allied progress in Tunisia was at a standstill. Axis reinforcements from Sicily and a muddy terrain contributed equally to the stalemate. But in mid-April the British Eighth Army struck in the south and American and British First Army forces advanced in the North and West. Simultaneously, on May 7, American troops captured Bizerte and the British took Tunis. The conquest of this area left open only the Cape Bon Peninsula into which the Eighth Army drove the remaining German and Italian troops. On May 12 all resistance in Tunisia had ended, and the Allies held 252,415 prisoners and a large amount of equipment.

The Tunisian campaign was followed by the conquest of Sicily, on the south coast of which the initial American and British beach-heads were established on July 10. The invading force was composed of the American Seventh Army and the battle-hardened British Eighth. The Americans moved north and west while the British veterans drove up the east coast. The capital of Palermo was taken on July 23 by the Americans who then turned east in the direction of Messina. Moving slowly against heavier opposition, the British took Catania on August 5 and drove the Axis towards Messina, the evacuation point to the mainland. When the Seventh Army took Messina on August 17, the Sicilian campaign was over.

THE ALEUTIANS

The summer of 1943 was marked by the American recapture of two of the principal Aleutian islands which the Japanese had taken in 1942. A strong American naval task force protected the landing of troops on Attu on May 11. After a minor but bloody campaign, Washington announced on May 30 the end of Japanese resistance. On August l5 a well balanced U.S. fleet arrived off Kiska only to find the island deserted of Japanese.

After the Stalingrad disaster, the German High Command had resorted to defensive warfare. Throughout the long spring little ground was exchanged by either the Red Army or the Nazis. On July 5 the Germans launched the abortive offensive in the Kursi area, but two weeks later the Russians were pounding them back and took Orel on August 5. Their big summer success was the recapture of Kharkov on August 23.

AIR OFFENSIVE

At the end of the fourth year, the Axis was on the defensive on all fronts. In addition to the pressure on the Russian, Mediterranean and Pacific areas, German’s key cities were being subjected to a terrific round-the-clock bombing by British and American planes from English bases. Allied strategists were confident that this continual hammering with its toll of German production, would provide an adequate temporary substitute for the western front action demanded by Russia.


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He made history in the fourth year of the war
September, 1942

SUPREME COMMANDER

General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme commander in chief of Allied Forces, photographed at his headquarters in North Africa, in front of the British and American national emblems and the four-star flag of a general of the United States Army. Fresh from his success in the African and Mediterranean theatres, this picture of General Eisenhower was taken shortly before his promotion to supreme allied commander-in-chief and before he transferred his headquarters to London, from which point he took over the preliminary task of preparing for the invasion of the continent, which was scheduled to come in the spring or early summer of 1944.


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The fourth year opens with all eyes on Stalingrad
September 4, 1942

FACTORY WORKERS SHOOT AT RAIDERS

As the fighting for Stalingrad reached a terrific climax, the defenders turned every house into a fortified point and every factory into a fortress. When the Germans began their massed air attacks early in September, workers throughout the city formed themselves into auxiliary anti-aircraft units. On September 4, forty-nine enemy bombers out of a force of 150 were shot down during a single raid. Picture shows members of a workers’ battalion firing at German planes.

A RED ARMY COUNTER-ATTACKS NEAR STALINGRAD

On September 4, the Red Army launched a surprise counter-attack to the south-west of Stalingrad where the enemy had driven deeply into the city’s main defenses. In close-range fighting which lasted many hours, eleven German tanks were destroyed and 600 of the enemy killed. On the same day, to the north-west of the city, the Russians repulsed strong tank attacks with heavy enemy losses. This dramatic picture shows Red Army infantry advancing.


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Heroic Russian resistance in devastating air raids
September, 1942

STALINGRAD WOMEN ENDURE WORST AERIAL BOMBARDMENT

The weeks of heavy air raids on Stalingrad, which preceded the street fighting, were the most severe experienced by any civil population up to that time. Yet while buildings were falling overhead, women in cellars and caves far below the streets were busily occupied on vital work. Here they filled shells and hand grenades for the Red Army soldiers who were feverishly stemming the enemy’s advance. Only between the bombings were they able to crawl up into the open in order to get food and water and wood for fuel. Above ground, the nurses of the city carried on calmly, going from one Red Army defense post to another. The pictures show: first, Nazi soldiers watching a Stalingrad woman emerge from a cellar; second, women searching for belongings after an air raid; third, women come up after a raid.


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The Yanks and the Aussies advance in New Guinea
September, 1942

MARCHING ALONG TOGETHER

After the failure of the Japanese landing at Milne Bay, Papua, on August 27, the enemy made an unsuccessful thrust for Port Moresby on September 10. The Australians began their advance into the Owen Stanley mountains on September 28, and recaptured Myola and Kagi without opposition on October 4. While Allied troops penetrated the Kokoda Gap on the Buna side before making contact with the enemy, their progress was hampered by the often impassable jungle and torrential rains. Above, Australian and American soldiers are shown building a road through the deep jungle.


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New Guinea jungle conquered by Yanks and Aussies
September, 1942

CROSSING NEW GUINEA JUNGLE

Behind the news of the Allied progress through the dense and almost trackless jungle of New Guinea lay the splendid work of Australian and U.S. engineers. They performed remarkable feats of road and bridge building under the most difficult conditions. These pictures show: first, Australian engineers building a suspension bridge over a wild jungle stream; second, bridging operations near Kokoda in the Owen Stanley range; third, American soldiers wading through a swollen river.


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Natives aid the Allies in New Guinea jungles
September, 1942

WAR IN THE JUNGLE

On the world’s toughest battlefront, Australian and American Forces maintained progress in the New Guinea jungle throughout September and October. By October 28, the Australians had overcome determined Japanese resistance in the Alola area, just south of Kokoda. After five weeks fighting, Kokoda was retaken on November 2. Thus the enemy lost their last foothold on the Buna side of the Owen Stanley Mountains. The Australians proved superb jungle fighters in a country of almost trackless bush, where natives acted as carriers for supplies. Natives are seen crossing a jungle torrent.


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U.S. marines hold on in the Solomons
September, 1942

BATTLE OF THE SOLOMONS

The reconquest of the Solomons by U.S. Marines, which began on August 7, involved hard fighting. Fierce resistance was encountered on Guadalcanal, where the trapped Japanese Forces fought to the last man. On September 3, Marines attacked enemy landing-parties in the south-east of the group, and U.S. bombers scored hits on several ships. On September 9-12, strong Japanese air formations raided Tulagi and Guadalcanal, destroying twenty Allied planes. Despite these air attacks the Marines strengthened their positions. Above, an American patrol carrying wounded back to a jungle base.


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Yankee surprise for the Japanese on New Guinea
September, 1942

LANDING OF PARATROOPERS

A view of a paratroop landing back of the foe’s lines on New Guinea. Below and to the right of the leading plane may be seen several parachutes in various stages of opening, swinging men at extreme angles and very close to the ground. The paratroopers, with their surprise tactics, played an important part in the retaking of New Guinea soil from the Japanese invaders.


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The aircraft carrier Wasp goes down in the Coral Sea
September 15, 1942

SINKING OF THE WASP

On September 15, the 14,700-ton U.S. aircraft-carrier Wasp was attacked and sunk by a Japanese submarine in the Coral Sea, although its loss was not announced officially until October 28. At the time the ship was escorting a large supply convoy bound for Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands which, however, reached port safely. Soon after the aircraft-carrier had been hit by three of the enemy torpedoes, she went down in an inferno of flame and smoke. Ninety per cent of the ship’s crew managed to get away in time, and were later picked up by escort vessels of the U.S. Navy. This remarkable picture, taken from the deck of one of the ships in the convoy, shows dense clouds of smoke billowing from the abandoned aircraft-carrier just before she went down. The Wasp, which was launched in 1939, had a proud record of war service. She earned much renown earlier in the year for her ferrying of reinforcements to Malta, making many voyages through the hazardous part of the Mediterranean.


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From the halls of Montezuma
to the shores of Guadalcanal
September, 1942

ON TO GUADALCANAL.

Looking from the air like a zig-zaging squadron of water bugs, troop-carrying barges carry U.S. Marine reinforcements to the beach of Florida Island during one of the stages of the battle for the Solomons. The Marines seized beachheads on both Florida and Guadalcanal and occupied Tulagi. Heavy Japanese opposition was encountered on Guadalcanal and during August and September the enemy, at night, continued to land small contingents of troops at distant spots at Guadalcanal. During all this period the Japanese were well aware that the American position was little more than a beachhead some six to seven miles long and three miles deep—the western boundary being the Matanikau River and the eastern boundary Henderson Field. However, early in October the marines started another offensive west across the Matanikau River which they succeeded in crossing, and also cleared out a Japanese bridgehead a few days later, but it was not until early in 1943 that the Japanese ended all opposition to the American occupation of the Solomons.


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Leathernecks take time out enroute to the front
September, 1942

MOVING UP IN THE JUNGLE

A detachment of U.S. Marines pauses in a jungle clearing for a brief rest enroute to the front on Guadalcanal Island. The marine in the right foreground has attached to his helmet netting for use in camouflaging himself in the dense undergrowth. Shortly after this photograph was taken these leathernecks drove an enemy band far into the hills. Commenting on the campaign in the Solomons, Admiral Ernest J. King, commander in chief of the United States fleet on October 18, 1943, said: “Because the Japanese through the subsequent weeks and months were determined that Guadalcanal, with its Henderson field, should not be lost to them, the whole story of what the United States Marines did there is one which is too big, too involved, and too valiant to be reported in a summary as brief as this. But as the world knows by now the marines, in their victory at Guadalcanal, completed an ageless epic for American history.”


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Field Marshal Smuts addresses Parliament
October, 1942

SOUTH AFRICAN PREMIER VISITS BRITAIN

On October 14, Field Marshal Smuts arrived in Britain by air for important consultations with the War Cabinet. On October 21, the famous Imperial statesman and soldier received a great welcome from the members of both Houses of Parliament whom he addressed at Westminster. In the course of his speech he paid a warm tribute to the fortitude of the British people and the courage, foresight and energy of its leader, Winston Churchill. “The defense phase has now ended,” he said. “The stage is set for the last, the offensive phase.” In the picture above the Field-Marshal is seen delivering his address in the chamber. On the extreme left is the late Speaker of the House, Captain Fitzroy. To the right are Mr. Churchill and Viscount Simon. Lloyd George presided over the meeting.


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Women’s land army on the job in Britain
October, 1942

WOMEN GATHER THE HARVEST

In a broadcast on October 11, R. S. Hudson, British Minister of Agriculture, announced that the 1942 harvest in England had been the greatest on record. Britain started the war having lost 3,000,000 acres of agricultural land by building and several hundred thousand more for new airdromes and factories. Nevertheless, the area under crops had increased by more than half since war began, and was, in fact, greater than in 1918. In the past summer thousands of women had played an important part on the land, tackling every kind of agricultural work. In this way men were released for other duties. The picture shows a Woman’s Land Army team cutting wheat on a downland farm in south England. A few years ago this land was derelict, but the demands of war transformed the scene.


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FAMINE VICTIMS IN CHINA

During October, 1942, a famine occurred in the province of Northern Honan which threatened about 20,000,000 people with starvation. This was brought about by nearly two years of severe drought and a plague of locusts, unparalleled for centuries, which ruined the grain and rice fields. The blighted area extended over more than 20,000 square miles, and the districts which suffered most acutely were along the Yellow River in the neighborhood of Cheng Chow, a town which lay only a dozen miles from the Japanese lines. While millions of people were able to leave the province for other parts of China, those who remained had to live on grass, straw, weeds and even the bark of trees. The disaster was greatly aggravated by Japanese troops who had for a long period been systematically burning fields, crops and villages in an attempt to put an end to the activities of the Chinese guerrilla bands. These gallant bands, in spite of many handicaps, had for long been a worry to the Japanese invaders. China was now in the sixth year of her war against Japan, and though she had lost much territory and had sacrificed countless lives, her armies still stood firm in the path of the aggressor. The spirit of the country was still a glorious example for the world. So this additional disaster of famine was borne as bravely as were all her other sufferings. China’s plight, however, was a serious one, especially as the loss of the Burma Road supply route made it extremely difficult for America, Britain and other Allies to come to her aid. The picture shows one of the many thousands of poor victims of what was probably the worst famine in the recorded history of China.


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Carrying supplies to Russia over the Arctic route
October, 1942

WINTER CONDITIONS ON THE ARCTIC CONVOY ROUTE

On October 6, the United States diplomatic representatives of Great Britain and the U.S.S.R. signed a protocol covering deliveries of military equipment and war material to Russia. The bulk of supplies had to be carried in convoys along the far northern route to Murmansk and Archangel, one of the most hazardous sea passages in the world. Apart from the menace of enemy submarines and shore-based aircraft, convoys had to fight their way through raging snow blizzards and seas infested with deadly ice floes, as the winter set in. These pictures of ice-coated decks on the ships of a Russia-bound convoy and escort give a vivid idea of the hardships endured.


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Furious Nazi onslaught hurled back at Stalingrad
October 18-23, 1942

STREET FIGHTING IN STALINGRAD

On October 18 the Moscow radio declared that the decisive stage of the battle for Stalingrad had been reached. The enemy, using masses of infantry, tanks, artillery and aircraft, launched “all-out” attacks both in the northern factory area and in a southern thrust parallel to the Volga. But after bitter fighting, especially around the Red October and Red Barricade factories, they failed to gain any fresh ground and lost several thousand men and twenty-eight tanks. On October 23 German infantry detachments suffered heavy casualties in hand-to-hand fighting, and two enemy tanks which penetrated into the Red October works were destroyed. For several weeks the Germans made attack after attack in the northern factory area of Stalingrad, but every one of them was repulsed by the Red Army. The German casualties mounted steadily day by day. By November 8-10, the Russian defenders had regained or destroyed many blockhouses and factory buildings which had been enemy strong points a few days earlier, and what advances the enemy was now able to make were weak and ineffective. Russian tenacity was, at long last, to gain its well-deserved reward. Seldom, if ever, in history has a more bloody and prolonged hand-to-hand fight taken place. In the picture, above, Red Army riflemen are seen in action in a Stalingrad street. The map of Stalingrad, below, shows the farthest enemy advance into the city.


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R.A.F. STRIKES AT ITALY’S WAR INDUSTRY

On the night of October 22 a powerful force of British four-motored bombers flew 1,400 miles across the Alps and back to drop a great weight of bombs, including many 4,000-pounders, on the Italian port of Genoa. Nearly twenty major fires were started all over the city, and R.A.F. pilots saw oil storage tanks and munitions dumps in the dock area blown into the air by direct hits. Another heavy attack was made on the city the following night when targets at Turin and Savona were also bombed. This was only the beginning of a sustained air offensive against the chief ports and manufacturing cities in North Italy, where Mussolini’s war industry was almost entirely concentrated. The bombing was part of the Allied plan to smash the Italian war machine and also to hamper the Axis forces in Libya and Tripolitania while the Eighth Army was making its great advance westwards. Genoa, besides having vital arms factories, power stations and dock installations, was the chief port of supply for Rommel’s armies. On October 24 a force of more than eighty home-based Lancaster bombers made the first daring daylight raid on Milan, attacking their targets from such a low altitude that many of the R.A.F machines flew in below the level of the balloon barrage over the city to release their loads of bombs. Nevertheless, in spite of much lively opposition from the anti-aircraft defenses, all except three of the British planes returned safely. The attack on Milan was continued after dark on the same day. For just as the Lancasters arrived back in Britain a stronger force of Stirlings, Wellingtons and Halifaxes took off from their bases to raid the Italian city again. On November 7 Genoa suffered its heaviest raid of the war so far when a great force of British bombers rained high explosive and incendiary bombs over a wide area of the city, leaving fires spreading rapidly among the warehouses and dock installations. Like many other cities in North Italy which were to feel the weight of R.A.F. blows in the weeks and months ahead, Genoa was obviously ill-prepared to meet these large-scale air attacks. The civil defense and fire-fighting organizations were thrown into such a state of confusion that they were quite unable to deal adequately with the many widespread fires and the dislocation of essential public services. The photograph shows loads of rubble collected from the devastated areas in Genoa being unloaded along the waterfront and dumped.


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Intensification of the anti-submarine war
October, 1942

ANTI-U-BOAT WARFARE INCREASED

After the British First Lord of the Admiralty had announced in Parliament in September, that 530 U-boats had been sunk or damaged since outbreak of war, new and more deadly methods were taken against the enemy at sea in the following month, when successes in the Atlantic, the Mediterranean and elsewhere were much more encouraging. On November 1 the new Anti-U-boat Warfare Committee held its first weekly meeting in London to discuss new means of grappling with the peril at sea. This organization, marking a new phase in Allied sea warfare, was formed out of the Battle of the Atlantic Committee which had been set up by Winston Churchill in February, 1941. The pictures show: first, the crew of a damaged Italian submarine surrendering to a British destroyer in the Mediterranean; second, a German U-boat returning to its concrete “pen” inside the well-protected harbor at Lorient; third, the crew of another Italian submarine in the water awaiting their rescue by Allied ships.


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Montgomery and his Eighth army
open battle for North Africa
October 23, 1942

BRITISH OFFENSIVE IN EGYPT BEGINS

The long-expected attack by the Eighth Army began in bright moonlight on the night of October 23 at El Alamein, following the heaviest gun barrage ever put up in the Western desert. For this preliminary softening of Rommel’s deep defense lines the Allied artillery were ranged on a front of six miles with one gun to every twenty-three yards. For several hours a hell of fury was let loose on the enemy’s positions before the Eighth Army, with powerful air, artillery and tank support, went forward to the attack. General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery used entirely new tactics in this battle by making a frontal attack against an unbroken line of trenches and minefields. The first stages of the attack were carried out by British and Dominion infantry, who, by dawn on October 24 had penetrated four miles through the gap in the enemy’s advanced minefields. The enemy’s main positions were successfully attacked at several points and many German and Italian prisoners were taken. Heavy fighting continued throughout the day and night while our troops consolidated their positions, and by the evening of October 25 the number of prisoners taken had mounted to 1,450. Meanwhile, the Allied Air Forces, working in perfect co-operation with the Eighth Army, kept up their non-stop blitz on enemy troop concentrations, landing-grounds, transport and supply lines. On the first day of the attack well over a thousand sorties were made by Allied bombers and fighters, dealing devastating blows on Rommel’s communications and paving the way for the advance. On the night of November l General Montgomery launched a great offensive with strong tank support on a 4,000-yard front fifteen miles west of El Alamein. British infantry, fighting their way through minefields, barbed-wire and booby traps, had at last cleared a way for the armored forces. All day long on November 2 the great tank battle raged at El Aqqaqir. This was the turning-point which led to the clearing of the enemy from Egypt and their pursuit into Libya. The picture shows a long line of British tanks moving up to the front.


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Fresh water for the desert fighters
November, 1942

NAVY BRINGS SUPPLIES ASHORE

Right from the first day of General Montgomery’s advance at El Alamein the British Navy maintained the closest co-operation with the British forces on land. Between October 24 and November 3 naval units, operating from Alexandra, carried out operations in the enemy’s rear, shelling defenses along the coast. Although the ships were attacked from the air they suffered no losses. With the reoccupation of Sollum and Bardia on November 12 the Eighth Army had now won back several useful ports on the Mediterranean to which the Royal Navy could bring regular supplies. Fresh water was one of the major problems of warfare in this arid desert country, particularly on account of the speed of the British advance. But the Navy, true to its tradition, helped to provide a solution. Soon after British troops had entered Solum 33,000 barrels of water, each containing about 44 gallons, were brought ashore at Sollum by improvised landing craft. This picture shows some of the barrels being rolled onto the beach.


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The Eighth army clears “Hell Fire” Pass
November 3-11, 1942

ROMMEL CHASED FROM EGYPT

On November 13 the Eighth Army began the pursuit of Rommel’s battered divisions towards Libya. Next day the Africa Korps was in full flight, leaving behind 13,000 prisoners and vast quantities of material. By November 6 Axis prisoners totalled 20,000 and the British had captured some 400 tanks, 350 guns and thousands of vehicles. After slight resistance Mersa Matruh was regained on November 8 and Sidi Barrani on November 10. The coast road towards Sollum and the Halfaya Pass became choked by the retreating enemy, whose columns were thrown into hopeless confusion by the incessant strafing of Allied bombers. By November 10 the Eighth Army was established on both sides of Halfaya, a contingent of Dominion troops having moved up from the south. Large number of Axis troops were trapped between Halfaya and Sollum. On November 11 the Halfaya Pass was captured and over 1,100 prisoners, mainly Italians, fell into British hands. As the Axis forces retreated Italian engineers were detailed to blow up the coast road at Halfaya. It took great numbers of them four days and nights to finish the demolitions. Nevertheless, the Eighth Army’s engineers (above) replaced it within twenty-four hours.


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Saved from the waters of the Pacific
November 13, 1942

STILL SMILING

Captain Edward V. Rickenbacker, still smiling despite his ordeal, is shown in a jeep on a south Pacific island after his rescue from the sea 600 miles north of Samoa. Captain Rickenbacker had been lost since October 2 on a flight from Hawaii. Discovered on the life raft with Captain Rickenbacker were: Captain William T. Cherry, jr., pilot of the plane; Colonel Hans C. Adamson and Private John F. Bartek. One member of the crew, Alexander Kaczmarczyk, died on the raft and was buried at sea. Three other members of the party were found on a small island and returned safely to America.


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Periscope view of a Japanese ship
November, 1942

BOUND FOR DAVEY JONES LOCKER

Plunging bow first to the bottom of the Pacific, a medium sized Japanese cargo ship is seen through the periscope of the submarine, USS Wahoo. The Wahoo sank the ship during a patrol in which she accounted for a total of eight Japanese vessels. The submarine has since been reported “overdue and presumed lost” on a South Pacific mission against enemy shipping.


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Eighth army pursues the “desert fox” to Benghazi
November 13-20, 1942

LIBYAN PUSH GOES ON

On November 13 South African troops under General Pienaar occupied Tobruk and freed hundreds of native soldiers who had been in German hands there for five months. Thus was avenged the loss of the 2nd South African division at Tobruk in Rommel’s offensive of the previous summer. By the next day the Eighth Army had advanced to Tmimi, sixty miles beyond Tobruk, where the retreating enemy, heavily bombed and strafed by the Allied air forces, was unable to put up any delaying rearguard action. On November 15 the finest airfield in the Western desert fell into British hands by the capture of Maturba. During the next few days operations were slowed down by bad weather. Nevertheless, General Montgomery’s forces made progress to the north and south of Benghazi. One of the R.A.F.’s heaviest attacks in the Western desert was made on the docks at Benghazi before its occupation by British and Dominion troops on November 20. During the attack seven Ju 52s were shot down and many destroyed on the ground, while two ships were left burning. The pictures show: first, a British Bren carrier negotiating enemy barbed wire, second, a German tank crew surrendering to British infantrymen. Third is a remarkable picture of a desert sandstorm, one of many with which the Eighth Army had to contend during its advance.


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Route of the British drive
from Benghazi into Tripolitania
November, 1942-February, 1943

BATTLE FOR EL AGHEILA

After the recapture of Benghazi on November 20 the Eighth Army continued to pursue the Axis forces relentlessly towards El Agheila. Bad weather made the going very hard and the loosened sand after heavy rains seriously hindered the progress of British tanks and supply vehicles. These unfavorable conditions also restricted air activity for some days. Nevertheless, forward units of the Eighth Army maintained contact with the enemy’s rearguards in the area around Jedabia, and this place was occupied by British troops on November 23. Air operations were resumed on November 26 when a strong bomber force attacked the Axis landing ground at “Marble Arch” and started large fires among hangars and dispersed aircraft. During the lull in the land fighting, General Montgomery concentrated his troops near El Agheila, where Rommel was expected to make a last stand before Tripoli. On December 13 the Eighth Army attacked in strength and occupied Rommel’s main defenses at Mersa Brega, east of El Agheila. Although El Agheila itself offered very good natural defenses, the Africa Korps had begun its retreat westwards again even before the Eighth Army delivered the main attack. The map above shows details of the British advance from El Alamein to El Agheila, which was taken on December 13, and the subsequent victorious drive to Tripoli. The pictures below show the difficult conditions for transport action.


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The Allied invasion of French North Africa
November 7-8, 1942

AMERICANS LAND IN FRENCH NORTH AFRICA

Early on November 8, a few hours after the first parties of the American Expeditionary Force had been put ashore at many points on the coasts of Algeria and Morocco, the world heard the news of the greatest combined military operation in history. In the statement issued from Allied headquarters it was revealed that the entire operations were under the supreme command of Lieutenant-General Dwight D. Eisenhower of the United States Army and were supported by powerful units of the Royal Navy and Allied Air Forces. Steps were taken immediately to inform the French people, by radio and leaflets, of the landings and to assure them that the Allies sought no territory and had no intention of interfering with the French authorities in Africa. The landings were designed to forestall the occupation by the Axis powers of any part of North or West Africa, and to deny to the enemy a starting point from which a possible attack might be launched against the Atlantic seaboard of the Americas and the British West Indies. They also provided an effective second front for relieving the great pressure on the Russians and, moreover, were the first bold step towards the liberation of France and her Empire. Another important factor was the timing of the landings in French North Africa to coincide with the Eighth Army’s offensive against Rommel in the Western desert. The outstanding initial success was due, not only to the perfect co-operation between the Allied forces, but also to the great secrecy which had been maintained. Winston Churchill, in a speech to the House of Commons on November 11 revealed that orders for the expedition to French North Africa had been issued at the end of July, 1942. A vast convoy of ships had to be assembled to carry tens of thousands of troops and their fighting equipment to the landing grounds. This armada included more than 500 transports with about 350 protecting naval vessels. Powerful air cover was provided for the convoy all the time it was at sea and, despite the very great hazards of the route across the Atlantic and through the Western Mediterranean, all the ships arrived safely. The troops disembarked under cover of darkness and were convoyed from the transports to the beaches in auxiliary landing craft. The picture shows part of the huge convoy heading for Africa.


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American eagles at rest in their nest enroute to Africa
November, 1942

PROTECTION FOR ALLIED CONVOY

Dauntless dive bombers of the U.S. Navy are lined up ready for action on the deck of an escort aircraft carrier in this great African convoy scene. Here, for miles, the horizon is dotted with ships in this great movement of men and equipment, traveling under the protection of the planes, battleships and warships of the combined American and British fleets.


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Casablanca feels the might of the A.E.F.
November 9-11, 1942

ASSAULT ON CASABLANCA

On November 10 French warships which offered resistance to the landing of the allies in Casablanca Harbor were fired on by allied warships and dive-bombed by allied planes, Rear Admiral Hewitt, commander of the U.S. Naval forces throwing the whole of his fleet into the battle, at the same time it was announced that the British land and air forces were operating with the Americans in this campaign. An entire flotilla of French destroyers and lighter craft was wiped out, a French cruiser was hit and badly damaged and the new 35,000-ton battleship, Jean Bart, was left in flames. Meanwhile the allies continued their advance inland. On November 11 a conference was held at Algiers between Lieutenant General Mark Clark and Admiral Jean Darlan, after which the latter issued a proclamation ordering all French land, sea and air forces to cease fighting against the Allies. It was also announced that members of the German Armistice Commission had been captured on November 9 by two British soldiers while attempting to flee from Algiers. The pictures show: first, transports moving inshore while U.S. soldiers await the order to transfer to the landing craft: second, a landing barge discharging troops; third, landing stores and equipment on a small beach to the west of Oran.


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The British First army moves rapidly on Tunis
November, 1942

FIRST BATTLES IN TUNISIA

After the Allied landings in North Africa early in November the Germans seized control of Bizerta and Tunis and formed a strong defensive ring around them. On November 15 British and American advanced troops crossed the frontier into Tunisia. British paratroops were dropped at many key points, seizing airfields and taking prisoners. After preliminary tank and infantry clashes and the routing of an enemy mechanized column on November 20 heavy fighting developed as the Allies advanced towards the German fortified line west, south and east of Bizerta. On November 27, after overcoming stiff enemy resistance, the British First Army occupied Medjez-el-Bab, thirty-two miles west of Tunis. On the following day General Anderson pressed forward, with strong air support, for another seventeen miles and entered the town of Tebourba. By the capture of Djedeida on November 29, the First Army cut the rail line between Bizerta and Tunis. the photograph shows supplies being unloaded at Oran.


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American tanks and tank destroyers in action in Tunisia
November, 1942

ADVANCE IN THE DESERT

An American tank of an armored division moves across the desert as the Allied advance into Tunisia gets under way. Immediately following the landings in North Africa, Axis forces were rushed into Tunisia by sea and air. As early as November 16, allied advance units encountered enemy patrols 60 miles west of Tunis. The leading units of the British First Army with American reinforcements of men and machinery, reached Medjez-el-Bab, 30 miles south of Tunis on November 25.

READY FOR THE FOE’S TANKS

An American tank destroyer company moving up to the front in the Tunisia sector over roads which are nothing but dust. On November 15, orders were issued for the movement of French troops then at Algiers and Constantine to protect the southern flank of the American and British units which were now advancing into Tunisia along the coastal corridors crossing the frontier. The French units were reinforced with American troops, including tank destroyers, as seen above.


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How the enemy tried to block our tanks in North Africa
November, 1942

ATTEMPT TO SLOW-UP THE AMERICANS

A view of one of the streets in the shell-battered town of Sousse in which the enemy had placed tank obstructions in an effort to slow up the advance of the Allies. In the campaign for Tunisia there were considerable tank losses on both sides. The enemy was able to maintain himself in his forward position by the use of extensive air power and delaying tactics and it was not until the spring or 1943 that the conquest of Tunisia was to be completed. This picture shows vividly the scenes of desolation which greeted the Allies in the captured town after the Nazi retreat.


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Italian prisoners on the march
November, 1942

THE WAR ENDS FOR THEM

Headquarters Company of the First Division, United States Army, escorting Italian prisoners of war, seized during the Tunisia advance, to a stockade outside the town of El Guetter, in North Africa; in the second picture, Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, (then a major general) who was in North Africa and Italy, is shown watching some of his troops marching up to the front. On November 27, General Clark received the D.S.M. for his feat of slipping into Africa from a British submarine and conducting the preliminary negotiations which opened Algiers to American occupational forces. This was the second instance of official recognition bestowed upon the forty-six year old officer since the North African campaign started. The first was his advancement from Major General.


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Red army stands firm in the Caucasus
November, 1942

FIGHTING IN THE CAUCASUS

Ever since August, 1942, the Germans had fought desperately to reach the oilfields of the Caucasus. After crossing the Kerch Straits from the Crimea they reached the Black Sea port of Anapa, twenty miles northwest of Novorossisk, on September 1. Another enemy force had already penetrated the mountains protecting Novorssisk from the north. On September 11, following a week of violent battles, the great naval base was evacuated by the Russians. Soviet Marines, co-operating with the Red Army and supported by the Black Sea Fleet, held the enemy’s drive along the coastal road towards Tuapse. The Germans were unable to put the Russian Fleet out of action, despite its loss of important bases. Consequently, they were prevented from landing large invasion forces on this front. Meanwhile, the German armies advancing south to Tuapse through the mountains from Maikop made little progress. The most serious enemy advance was along the northern mountain slopes of the Caucasus towards the Grozny oilfield. This came within the Germans’ grasp until, on September 8-12, they were halted on the Terek River by the Red Army. The Germans then brought up large Alpine troop reinforcements to attempt an out-flanking movement through Nalchik towards Ordzhonikidze at the end of the Georgian military highway. Little progress was made, and everywhere enemy attacks were repulsed with heavy losses. By October 30, the Red Army had to withdraw near Nalchik owing to the pressure of numerically superior enemy forces and the town was evacuated on November 2. But the Russian positions on the Terek River held firm. It appeared that the Germans were trying to break through at Ordzhonikidze and gain control of the outlets to the Georgian and Ossetian military highways. By November 5 the advance beyond Nalchik was checked and the approaches to Ordzhonidikze held. The pictures show a Red Army patrol in the mountains.


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The Russian army takes the offensive
November 19, 1942

GERMANS RETREAT IN CAUCASUS

After weeks of fighting, the Red Army regained the initiative in the Caucasus on November 19. Their decisive victory near Mozdok lessened the serious threat to the Grozny oilfield. Here the Germans suffered a crushing defeat, losing 20,000 men killed and wounded. Booty captured by the Soviets included 140 tanks, 70 guns, 84 machine guns, and 2,350 trucks. The map shows the extent of the German push and the line to which they were forced to retreat three months later.


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Germans retreat under Red army pressure
November 20, 1942

RUSSIAN REINFORCEMENTS MOVE FORWARD

On November 20 the Russians, continuing their offensive in the Caucasus, repulsed four enemy counter-attacks and wiped out a whole battalion of crack Rumanian infantry in a sector to the south-west of Mozdok. In the neighborhood of Ordzhonikidze the enemy were now in full retreat, abandoning one position after another with hardly a fight, while trying to retire into the cover of the mountain forests. The battered German divisions left behind thousands of dead and quantities of equipment and stores. Meanwhile, fresh Russian forces, trained for winter warfare, were sent from the east to strengthen the Red Army’s powerful offensive on this front. The pictures show: above, a column of Russian infantry passing through a valley in the Caucasus Mountains, and, below, German soldiers reaching an important rail siding, only to discover that the oil tanks had been set ablaze.


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French fleet scuttled in the harbor of Toulon
November 27, 1942

THE GLORY THAT WAS FRANCE

On November 27 German troops entered Toulon to seize the major part of the French fleet which lay in harbor there. But before they could reach the harbor the French naval commander, Admiral de Laborde, gave orders for all the ships to scuttle themselves. The captains stayed on the bridge until their ships went down, and many lost their lives. The scuttling of the French Mediterranean Fleet, in which 230,000 tons of naval shipping went to the bottom, was the greatest operation of its kind since the German Fleet committed suicide at Scapa Flow in June, 1919. Among the warships destroyed were the 26,000-ton battleships Dunkerque and Strasbourg, the old 22,000-ton battleship Provence, the 10,000-ton cruisers Algerie, Colbert, Foch and Dupleix, and the 7,600-ton cruisers Jean de Vienne, La Galissonnaire, and La Marseillaise. Twenty-eight destroyers and twenty submarines were also sunk. The drawing by Charles Cundell, gives a striking impression of the scene at Toulon as the ships went down.


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British and Americans forced back in Tunisia
December 1-4, 1942

GERMANS COUNTER-ATTACK IN TUNISIA

By December 1 the most bitter fighting in Tunisia was centered around Mateur and Djedeida where the Germans launched a heavy counter-attack with intensive air support. At first the enemy failed to break up the first Army’s thrust between Bizerta and Tunis, but further counter-attacks caused the Allies to fall back. By ceaseless dive bombing and repeated tank attack the enemy made all-out efforts to dislodge the British advance units before General Anderson was able to bring his main forces up to the battlefront. The Allies were at a disadvantage owing to local German air superiority, because their own air strength had not yet been fully brought into action. On December 4 enemy forces recaptured Djedeida and held it against attacks by British infantry and American tanks. Tebourba was evacuated by the British next day, when they retreated to entrenched positions overlooking the town in order to foil an enemy encircling movement. During these battles the Germans suffered heavy losses. Between December 1-3 no fewer than thirty-six of their tanks were destroyed and on December 6 twenty-one more were knocked out. Meanwhile Allied air strength continued to grow, although it was known that the Luftwaffe was also receiving reinforcements across the Mediterranean. The pictures show: first, a group of German parachutists taking cover and, second, how the enemy used Arabs for forced labor.


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Rapid Russian advance across the River Don
December, 1942

RUSSIAN ADVANCE CONTINUES

On December 5 the Red Army gained an important success when they recrossed the Don at several points in the Lower Don bend. Other Russian forces swooped down from the north and drove the Germans out of the towns of Sebretev and Parshin. So swift was the Red Army’s advance on this front that by December 26 they had retaken Tatsyaskaya, an important road and rail junction 175 miles west of Stalingrad. Both Millerovo and the Voronezh-Rostov railways were now threatened. From December 16-26 the number of enemy prisoners rose by 6,300 to a total of 56,000 and war material captured included about 350 aircraft, 172 tanks and nearly 2,000 guns. The pictures show: first, German prisoners being marched away; second, Russian women soldiers being questioned after capture; third Red Army men crossing the Don on collapsible floats.


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The President Coolidge goes down in Pacific
December 12, 1942

AMERICAN TROOPSHIP LOST

On December 12, while carrying troops to a destination in the Pacific, the President Coolidge hit an enemy mine off a small island in the Solomons group. Captain Henry Nelson, who was in command of the ship, rammed the stricken ship on to a coral reef. She slid off the reef, turned turtle and sank, but as a result of Captain Nelson’s prompt action only two lives were lost, although there were 4,000 troops on board. The picture shows troops scrambling down cargo nets from the transport.


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The assassination of Admiral Darlan
December 24, 1942

CHRISTMAS EVE TRAGEDY

On December 24, 1942, Admiral Jean Francois Darlan, 61 years old, self-appointed High Commissioner in French North and West Africa, who had been backed by the United States government as a “temporary expedient,” was shot to death in Algiers by Bonnier de la Chapelle, 20 years old, member of a French patriotic youth organization, which aided Allied landings in North Africa. The young assassin was tried by court martial and was executed two days later. The assassination of Admiral Darlan precipitated a political crisis which was met by the action of the French North African Government in designating Gen. Henri Honore Giraud, military leader of the French troops as Darlan’s successor. Admiral Darlan is shown, above, with General Eisenhower, Allied commander in chief.


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Allied air supremacy makes itself felt in the desert
December 13-15, 1942

BRITISH AIR POWER IN THE DESERT

Following the routing of Rommel’s armies at El Agheila on December 13, the R.A.F. kept up almost incessant day and night attacks on the fast retreating columns along the coastal road in Tripolitania. Whole lines of enemy transport and supply vehicles were wrecked, ammunition dumps were blown up, and airfields strafed from low levels. On December 15 day-long raids were carried out by British and American bombers on closely packed enemy columns about seventy miles west of El Agheila. At a place near “Marble Arch” blazing enemy vehicles caused a huge traffic block which delayed the retreating columns for many hours. Opposition from the Luftwaffe was negligible, but enemy fighters were shot down. These far-reaching air attacks were made possible by the fine work of R.A.F. Ground Forces in clearing advanced airfields so recently in enemy hands. At one airfield 2000 mines were removed from a landing field within forty-eight hours to make it serviceable for Allied bombers. The pictures show: first, twisted remains of aircraft on an enemy landing field in Libya, and, second, bullet-ridden Italian fighters and wrecked hangars at Castel Benito.


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American planes help defeat the Afrika Korps
December, 1942

HEADACHES FOR ROMMEL

Huge American B-25 bombers fly low over their camp after taking off on a mission somewhere in North Africa. Bombers like these “softened up” Rommel’s Mareth Line and played a large part in bringing about the Axis defeat in Tunisia. Despite all allied efforts, the short and easily maintained air and sea lines of communication between Sicily and Tunisia permitted the rapid build-up of Axis forces, however, his greatest advantage lay in the possession of all-weather airfields, as the development of the rainy season rendered fighter-plane support of Allied troops impossible.


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A picture of desolation in North Africa
December 14, 1942

SHATTERED BATTERIES

Blasted by demolition charges, the muzzles of these French 130 mm. guns present a picture of desolation on Pointe de la Tour, outside Safi, French Morocco. The guns were wrecked by their crews after their positions had been shelled by U.S. warships. Upon the cessation of hostilities in French territory, General Eisenhower’s forces were faced with numerous and pressing problems. Harbors had to be cleared of sunken ships, wharfs and docks repaired, neglected and slender lines of rail communications had to be developed and civilians provided for and started on the way to reconstruction.


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General MacArthur’s men capture Buna village
December 14, 1942

JAPANESE DEFEATED IN PAPUA

After a month of the most desperate fighting in the South-West Pacific, American troops captured Buna village on December 14. During the night of the 13th a Japanese convoy attempted to land a relieving force from barges. But practically all the enemy were drowned or killed on the beaches by the heavy strafing inflicted by waves of Allied bombers. Fighting continued, however, in the small but strongly held Japanese salient round the Buna Mission, from which the enemy were not finally cleared until January 2. The photographs show: first, American reinforcements landing on Papua; second, Australian infantry in action; third, the shore at Buna Mission strewn with dead Japanese.


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The Eighth army outflanks the enemy at Wadi Matratin
December 16-18, 1942

ADVANCE INTO TRIPOLITANIA

On December 16 the Eighth Army cut the retreating Afrika Korps in two by a brilliant outflanking movement at a place called Wadi Matratin, about sixty miles beyond El Agheila. This operation, which completely surprised the enemy, was actually planned by General Montgomery before the Battle of El Agheila, after British Intelligence officers had discovered a forgotten desert track running to the south and striking north, to the coast road again along the Wadi Matratin. It was carried out by New Zealand troops under the command of General Freyberg, V.C. For three days the infantry advanced more than 100 miles over the desolate sand dunes and rocky wadis, supported by a strong force of artillery, tanks and armored cars. The trapped Axis rearguard, which was entirely composed of German troops, fought desperately in its attempt to break through the British armored ring. But although a few enemy troops and tanks managed to escape and join their main forces farther west, heavy punishment was inflicted by the New Zealanders. The enemy lost at least twenty tanks, thirty guns and several hundred motor vehicles. Five hundred Germans were taken prisoner. One of the most important results emerging from this action, according to a Cairo dispatch, was the capture or destruction of a very considerable amount of Rommel’s motor transport and also appreciable numbers of his rearguard. On December 18 the Eighth Army after mopping-up operations, continued its advance from Wadi Matratin and came to within thirty miles of Sirte, almost half-way between Benghazi and Tripoli. This remarkable action picture shows a small forward party of Australian infantry with bayonets and fire-arms advancing in the desert through a protective smoke screen after being detailed to capture a German strong point on the way towards Tripoli.


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The Red army, brings a White Christmas to the Caucasus
December 25, 1942

WINTER ADVANCE IN THE CAUCASUS

On December 25 the Red Army launched a new thrust against the enemy south-east of Nalchik and recaptured Alagir and Krasnogorsk, thereby regaining the use of the Ossetian military highway. Next day Russian ski troops advanced thirty miles across the snow and wiped out an enemy salient which still menaced the Grozny oilfields. On January 3, Mozdok, the important communication center of the Caucasus, was retaken in a surprise attack by Cossack Guards. With Mozdok in Russian hands again the Grozny oilfields were denied to the invader. The picture shows a company of Russian ski troops on patrol. These soldiers played an important part in the Red Army’s winter offensive. Time and again they tricked the Nazis because they were equipped with white uniforms and hoods.


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EIGHTH ARMY ADVANCES TOWARDS TRIPOLI

Continuing to advance through Tripolitania, the Eighth Army chased the dwindling Afrika Korps along the coast road. The retreating enemy columns suffered continuous bombing from the air by the powerful Western Desert air force. On December 25, British troops occupied Sirte without opposition, but to the west of this town air operations were curtailed for a time owing to the bad weather conditions and violent sandstorms. Beyond the Wadi Bei-el-Kebir the Eighth Army’s sappers were busily engaged for several days clearing away mines and booby traps which the Germans had strewn over the roads in great numbers in order to delay the advance. On January 5 our forces entered Buerat-el-Hsun, about sixty miles west of Sirte where the coast road turns north along the salt marshes towards Misurata and Tripoli. After crossing the Wadi Zemzem on January 14, Eighth Army-troops encountered enemy rearguards at a point seventy miles from Misurata, but Rommel soon abandoned all his defensive positions in this area. Four days later Misurata was occupied without any opposition, and by January 20 the Eighth Army had progressed along the coast beyond Misurata to the important defensive positions of Homs and Tahuna, and on the following day advanced British columns had entered the suburbs of Tripoli, whose capture was announced less than forty-eight hours afterwards. Meanwhile heavy day and night blows were delivered against Tripoli harbor and the great Axis airfield at Castel Benito on the outskirts of the city. The picture shows British infantry advancing behind tanks in Tripolitania.


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Tanks which helped change the tide of battle for the Allies
January, 1943

ARMORED DIVISION IN TRAINING

As the year 1943 opened, tanks and armored units were to play a more important part in the Allied plans. The pictures on these two pages show the crew of a British armored division being trained under conditions made highly realistic by smoke bombs, high explosives and modern tactics in an effort to beat the Nazis at their own game.


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MacArthur’s troops gain control of Buna Mission
January 2, 1943

JAPANESE RESISTANCE ENDS AT BUNA

On January 2, Allied troops occupied the Government Station at Buna in New Guinea after shattering the Japanese defenses there. By this victory the battle for Buna was virtually brought to an end after six weeks of the most bitter fighting amid swamps and jungles in one of the worst climates in the world. The last remaining point of enemy resistance in the Buna area was a small pocket to the west of the Giropa creek. There the Japanese continued to fight on desperately for several days until they were finally cut off by an American force which joined the Australians after the latter had taken the Government Station. Such was the ferocity of the fighting at Buna itself that on the last day 650 Japanese soldiers were killed. Enemy troops which tried to escape from the coast by swimming were attacked from the air by Kittyhawk fighters. By January 3, all organized resistance in the Buna area had ended, but Allied troops continued to mop up groups of isolated snipers. A few miles west of Buna, small Japanese forces still showed resistance at Sanananda Point, but owing to heavy rains and swollen swamps ground operations here were seriously hindered for many days. On January 17, however, Allied troops cut the main road in two places behind the enemy’s rear, less than 2,000 yards from the coast and thereby split the remaining Japanese forces into three isolated groups. By the next day two headlands on either side of Sanananda Point had been captured and the enemy were now hemmed into a 500-yard strip of coast and a few isolated and surrounded pockets inland. Despite tropical rains and floods Allied progress continued and on January 22, the last remaining Japanese positions at Sanananda fell and the reconquest of the Papuan part of New Guinea was completed. About 750 Japanese were killed in the final attack and a great quantity of military equipment and stores was captured. The picture shows Japanese killed and drowned on the beach at Buna Mission with a smashed landing boat in the background.


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Reunion at Casablanca–
Roosevelt and Churchill meet again
January 14, 1943

ALLIED CONFERENCE AT CASABLANCA

On January 14, the President of the United States and the Prime Minister of Great Britain met at Casablanca in French Morocco, for important discussions on the future Allied operations in the war. They were accompanied by the combined Chiefs of Staff of the two countries and their expert advisers. This was the fourth wartime meeting of the two great Allied leaders. Although Marshal Stalin was invited to join in the talks he was unable to leave Russia owing to the offensive operations of the Red Army which he was directing. Nevertheless, he was fully informed of the decisions made, one of the objectives of which was to relieve pressure on the Russian forces. The far-reaching importance of this meeting in North Africa may be judged by the fact that it was the greatest gathering of Allied war chiefs called since the outbreak of the Second World War. Mr. Churchill left Britain on January 12 in the same Liberator which took him on his 14,000-mile trip to the Middle East and Moscow in August, 1942. President Roosevelt arrived in North Africa on January 14 after making the 5,000-mile flight across the Atlantic by Clipper. During the conference, which lasted ten days, the whole field of the Second World War was surveyed in detail, and all Allied resources were marshalled for the more intense prosecution of the war by land, sea and air. President Roosevelt, Mr. Churchill and their respective staffs arrived at complete agreement regarding plans for offensive operations which were to be undertaken by the Allies against the Axis in the 1943 campaign. The conference also provided an opportunity for a meeting between the Fighting French leaders, Generals de Gaulle and Giraud. These Casablanca pictures show: first, General Nogues (France) and General Patton (U.S.A.); second, President with Mr. Churchill; third, Generals de Gaulle and Giraud.


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The glory that was Rome fades in the African desert
January 23, 1943

BRITISH ENTER TRIPOLI

At 5 a.m. on January 23 the victorious Eighth Army entered Tripoli and the Union Jack was hoisted from a fort overlooking the harbor. Thus the last remaining capital of Mussolini’s former empire passed into British hands, three months to the day since the offensive began at El Alamein. The final advance on the city came from three directions. Two columns of armored units and New Zealand infantry pushed through the desert to the south, while the British infantry advanced from the east along the coast road. Most of the inhabitants of the city lined the streets as columns of British tanks, armored vehicles and infantry filed into the main square from the suburbs. At midday General Montgomery received the official surrender of Tripoli from the Vice-Governor of Libya at a point just outside the city walls. Since the attack at El Alamein the Eighth Army had advanced 1,400 miles in ninety days to reach Tripoli, an average of nearly sixteen miles a day in most difficult country and often in bad weather. The pictures show: first, British tanks entering Tripoli; second, a party of Gordon Highlanders, with the harbor behind them; third, hoisting the British flag over the harbor.


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French forces cross the Sahara
January 30, 1943

LONGEST DESERT MARCH

On January 30 a mechanized force of Fighting French under General Leclerc reached Tripoli after a hazardous journey of 1,700 miles across the Sahara from the Chad territory of Central Africa. From their headquarters at Fort Lamy, near Lake Chad, they advanced into southern Libya, attacking many Italian outposts with the support of the French air force. On January 6, El Gatrun was stormed by a camel corps detachment under Captain Saruzac. Much booty and 177 Italian prisoners were taken. On January 10, General Leclerc’s G.H.Q. announced the capture of El Gatrun and Brach, another enemy outpost in the Fezzan oasis. The conquest of the Fezzan was completed on January 12 with the capture of Murzouk, the capital, and Sebha, the chief military base. On January 27, the Free French joined with another force under General Giraud at Ghadames to undertake further operations. The photograph shows General Leclerc with two of his men.


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The Eighth army “mops up” in Tunisia
January 31, 1943

AXIS TROOPS CLEARED FROM LIBYA

Advancing still westwards from Tripoli the Eighth Army maintained contact with enemy rearguards and on January 31 occupied the port of Zuara, the last Italian town on the Tripolitanian coast. Meanwhile, advanced British patrols had already crossed the frontier into Tunisia to the south of the coastal road. On February 2, a fifteen-mile advance was made from Zuara to the village of Zelten, beyond which artillery duels were exchanged with the Axis forces withdrawing towards Pisada, only twelve miles from the Tunisian frontier. For the next two weeks progress was slower and operations on land were reduced to patrol activity until, on February 15, the Eighth Army occupied Ben Gardane and its big airfield and began the advance towards Medenine and the Mareth Line. The photographs show: above, British 6-pounder anti-tank gun in action; and below, British infantry moving to capture an enemy strong point under cover of a damaged German tank.


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Convoy survivors rescued after battle with U-bouts
February, 1943

GREAT ATLANTIC CONVOY BATTLE

On March 18, the British issued the account of one of the greatest winter battles of the Atlantic between a pack of U-boats and convoy escorts. The battle, which lasted for three days and nights in February, was fought out by British, U.S., and Fighting French escort ships, together with Liberator and Sunderland aircraft. The convoy did not escape without loss, but heavy damage was inflicted on the U-boats, three of which were sunk and many others probably sunk. The first picture shows some of the survivors from one of the torpedoed ships being assisted aboard a rescuing vessel. The second picture shows the rescue of three British seamen from a raft on which they had lived for eighty-three days before being sighted and picked up by a U.S. Navy patrol boat. Two other companions had died on the raft and were buried at sea. The three castaways who survived had lived—or existed—for almost twelve weeks on fish, birds and rainwater.


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Rapid construction of America’s “Burma Road”
February, 1943

NEW ROAD TO TOKIO

The U.S. State Department announced on March 18, 1942, a Canadian-U.S. agreement for the construction, under the auspices of the Joint Defense Board, of the Alaska Highway linking the Continental United States with Alaska via British Columbia and Yukon. Work on America’s “Burma Road” was begun at once and despite climatic and physiographic difficulties, 10,000 soldiers and 6,000 civilian workers under the direction of the U.S. Public Roads Administration pushed the construction work ahead at the rate of eight miles a day, bridging some 200 streams and laying the twenty-four foot wide roadway over mountain ranges, rivers and bogs. Intended to be in use by the end of the year the highway was designed to be one of the most important lines of communication for reinforcing Allied forces in the Pacific, as well as to carry supplies to Russia and China with practically no risk. The first picture gives some impression of the obstacles which had to be blasted from the path of the highway. Second, the highway in use at a point where transport drivers may obtain rest and refreshment; third, another section driven through virgin forest.


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The final offensive on Guadalcanal gets under way
February 9, 1943

ALLIES ON THE OFFENSIVE IN PACIFIC

The importance which the Japanese had attached to the Solomons, and especially to the island of Guadalcanal, where their construction of bases for the intended attack upon Australia was interrupted by the U.S. landing in August 1942, was revealed by the repeated attempts they made between then and February 1943 to regain control of the island. The strongest of these attempts, launched regardless of losses, involved the occupying U.S. forces and their protecting air and naval units in some of the toughest fighting of the whole Pacific campaign before it was finally announced on February 9 from Tokio that Japanese troops had been evacuated from Guadalcanal. The pictures show: first, U.S. marines engaged in the task of mopping-up the island during the final offensive on Guadalcanal which was launched on January 15; second, a command car of the American Army being ferried across a jungle river. Third, American troops in action on a gun site.


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Americans drive the Japanese from Guadalcanal Island
February 10,1943

U.S. VICTORY ON GUADALCANAL

On February 10 it was announced from Washington that the whole of Guadalcanal island was under American control. For six months it had been the scene of heavy fighting between U.S. forces and the Japanese. The loss of this vital Pacific base was a severe defeat for the enemy. The Henderson airfield, which the Japanese had almost completed when U.S. marines landed on Guadalcanal in August, 1942, was intended as an air base for the invasion of Australia. The campaign cost the enemy 75,000 men, 800 aircraft and 166 warships and transports. During the final offensive, which began on January 15, U.S. troops killed more than 6,000 of the enemy, captured 130 prisoners and vast quantities of material. The pictures show: above, an American landing barge at Guadalcanal and, below, troops bathing on the island.


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Bestial Nazi policy of extermination in Poland
February, 1943

NAZI TERROR IN POLAND

On July 9 the Polish Government in London issued a statement describing the pitiable fate of Poles and Jews under the terror regime of the Nazi occupying forces. Within the past year, declared the Polish Deputy Premier, the number of Poles and Jews murdered had increased to 400,000, and in the months following Himmler’s visit to Warsaw in March, the Gestapo had intensified their terror severely. The setting up of the ghetto in Warsaw in 1940 was later followed by the establishment of similar colonies in practically every Polish town and village. The Jewish death-rate in Warsaw alone was estimated at 6,000 weekly, and exhaustion, starvation and disease were systematically exterminating the Jewish population. The totally inadequate supplies of food for the inhabitants of these ghettos led to smuggling on a large scale, and the Germans themselves participated in this illicit trading. The consequences of this privation were particularly tragic during winter months, when scores of corpses were collected from the streets of the ghetto every day. The pictures, among the first to reach this country, reveal something of the desolation and misery in which inhabitants of the Warsaw ghetto eked out their precarious existence; first, a grim cameo of the New Order in Poland shows Polish peasants lined up awaiting the execution squad. The man on the left of the picture is one of the many Polish priests against whom the Nazi terrorists vented their brutal wrath.


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Great German winter retreat in Russia
February 4-16, 1943

KURSK AND KHARKOV RECAPTURED

Immediately following the expulsion of the enemy from Voronezh the Red Army advanced rapidly for nearly forty miles on a broad front and liberated some 200 inhabited places in this area. These included the vital railways junction of Kastornaya and the town of Novy Oskol, both of which were heavily defended and fell only after bitter hand-to-hand fighting in the streets. On February 4 further gains in this sector brought the Russians to within thirty miles of Kursk which was encircled by them on three sides. This great German bastion was captured on February 8 after tremendous tank and infantry battles, and its loss endangered the whole German position, in south Russia. Meanwhile, on the Donetz front farther south, fighting raged on the outskirts of Khurkov, the capital of the Ukraine. Despite the most stubborn German resistance by troops which included the “Adolf Hitler” tank division, the Russians, supported by great formations of dive bombers, smashed their way into the center of the city on February 16. Picked SS. troops, rushed from France to Kharkov only two weeks previously, were crushingly defeated and thousands were slain. The pictures show: first, aftermath of battle in a Russian village; second and third, German troops firing homes of Russian peasants.


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Red army continues to advance in the Ukraine
February 14, 1943

GERMANS DRIVEN FROM ROSTOV AND VOROSHILOVGRAD

On February 14 after several days of violent house and street fighting, the Red Army recaptured the vitally important city of Rostov-on-Don for the second time. The renowned Cossack Guards Division, under the command of Colonel-General Malinovski, led the final and decisive assault against the city from the south-west bank of the Don. Rostov had been in the enemy’s hands for practically six months. On the same day General Vatutin’s forces won another great victory with the reoccupation of the industrial city of Voroshilovgrad after a furious battle which raged without interruption for forty-eight hours. During this battle the Red Army had to force a way through some 3,000 blockhouses and an elaborate network of anti-tank traps which the Germans had built during their occupation. The arrival of the Red Army brought shouts of joy from thousands of Russian peasants. The pictures show: first, peasants returning to Rostov; second, a Russian family mourning a relative killed by the Germans; third, some of the refugees awaiting return to their homes.


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NAZI ATROCITIES IN THE UKRAINE

These are Russian peasants killed by the Germans in their retreat from Rostov-on-Don.


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Allied navies improve anti-submarine measures
February, 1943

GROWING SUCCESS AGAINST U-BOATS

During the most critical period of the war at sea the enemy employed packs of U-boats to lurk in the path of Allied convoys. These new methods of the Germans, however, were successfully countered and the 600-mile danger gap in the Atlantic became less hazardous. The great strain under which U-boat crews worked is evident from the picture, right, which shows a crew waiting in suspense, listening to depth charges. The picture above shows an Allied destroyer about to drop its depth charges in an endeavor to bag one of the Atlantic prowlers.


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American forces temporarily set back in Tunisia
February 14, 1943

U.S. TROOPS FALL BACK IN TUNISIA

On February 14, while the Eighth Army was pushing forward to Medenine after capturing Ben Gardane, the Germans launched a strong attack against the relatively lightly held American lines in the central part of Tunisia. The attack was delivered by a German armored division in two columns. Supported by masses of fighter aircraft and dive bombers, the Germans quickly overran the advanced American positions and completely isolated some artillery and infantry units. Counter-attacks somewhat delayed the enemy’s advance, but Axis reinforcements were brought up in very strong force with the result that the U.S. troops were compelled to evacuate the Gafsa Oasis and also three of their forward airfields—one at Sbeitla and two at Telepte. After four days of fierce fighting the Americans were pushed back about thirty-five miles from the advanced positions they had previously held. The pictures show: first the American-built Priest gun-howitzer in action; second, troops moving up through the enemy barrage; third, a camouflaged British gun.


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German assault on Thala stemmed by Allied Forces
February 21-23, 1943

DESPERATE FIGHTING IN TUNISIA

On February 21, having advanced thirty miles since they moved out from the Faid Pass, the Germans pierced the new shorter line held by the U.S. forces with a heavy Panzer attack. Thereafter they increased their pressure, and their mechanized and infantry columns made three strong assaults against Sbiba, Thala and towards Tebessa. The strongest attack, made with over seventy tanks and infantry, brought them to within a few miles of the key mountain town of Thala. British tanks and infantry were sent as reinforcements. After desperate fighting the Allies succeeded in holding the Axis thrust, inflicting severe casualties and taking prisoners. On the first day a score of enemy tanks were knocked out. The next day the British brought into action for the first time a number of 40-ton Churchill tanks, and these inflicted considerable losses on the enemy. In one of these tank battles nine Churchills took on fourteen German tanks and destroyed four of them. Only one of the British tanks was lost. On February 23 the Germans were forced to withdraw. Allied success in recapturing the ground they had lately lost was largely due to heavy attacks by their combined air forces from bases in the rear. The pictures show: first, British infantry attacking; second, shell bursting on German tank.


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German attacks repulsed in Northern Tunisia
February 26-March 2, 1943

BRITISH REGAIN GROUND IN THE NORTH

On February 26, while the enemy was hastily withdrawing from the Kasserine Pass, a heavy attack was launched against the British First Army in the north. No fewer than six separate attacks were made with 5,000 troops, including parachutists, with strong tank support. All of them, however, were repulsed and the enemy suffered a major defeat. More than 400 German prisoners were taken and many of their tanks and heavy guns knocked out. Nevertheless, the enemy continued to attack on an eighty-mile front from Cape Serrat to Jebel Mansour, south-east of Bou Arada. Again he was thrown back at every point with heavy losses in men and material. In particular, the Churchill tanks inflicted serious punishment on the enemy’s armored columns. By March 2 the British forces had regained all the important points and the enemy, having suffered such grave casualties, reduced the momentum of his attacks. The picture shows British troops crossing a ford.


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Russians drive the Nazis out of Rzhev and Vyazma
March 3-12, 1943

RUSSIA’S MIGHTY STRUGGLE

On a continuous front of over 1,000 miles Russia’s fight against the invader never slackened in its fierce intensity. The German hope that the spring thaw would slow down the Red Army’s advance proved unfounded. On March 3 the Germans were driven out of Rzhev (140 miles north-west of Moscow) with losses of 2,000 killed, and of booty including 112 tanks, 78 guns, and over 1,000 railway coaches. Rzhev had been so well fortified that to capture it by flank or frontal assault had been thought impossible; but the German commander, knowing that the Russians were grouping for a gigantic offensive, decided to evacuate the town. To hinder pursuit the Germans dynamited the bridges over the Volga. Advancing in the Northern Ukraine, Soviet troops had successes, capturing Lgov, fifty miles west of Kursk, and Dmitriev, thirty miles north of Lgov. On March 12 the Russians stormed Vyazma, and continued their drive towards Smolensk, the biggest German base in Russia. In the battles for Vyazma German losses were 9,000 killed. Pictures: first, the path of the Nazi retreat; second, Germans retreat through the snows; third, Russian troops with machine guns on sleds.


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CHINA ON THE OFFENSIVE

On March 15 the Chinese High Command announced a great victory on the Yangtse River front to the west of Hankow. A few days earlier more than 20,000 Japanese troops crossed the river in eight columns ready to launch an offensive towards Hankow. On March 13, however, a general Chinese counter-offensive was begun, and after less than two days fighting the enemy was flung back in disorder and full retreat. Several places of strategic importance were recaptured in the province of Hupeh. This splendid victory showed that even after six years of brutal warfare the spirit of China’s fighting forces was still high despite their isolation from the Allies, their serious lack of equipment and widespread famine among the civilian population. Nevertheless, in the spring of 1943 Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek had some 5,000,000 fighting men under his command and another 15,000,000 men standing in reserve, trained and awaiting equipment. Nearly another 20,000,000 had received preliminary militia training. The great bulk of these Chinese armies was recruited from the peasant classes. This, in fact, was a source of their strength. For, being bred in the countryside, every man was well acquainted with the terrain in which he had to fight and was tough enough to cover the distances involved in the campaigns against the enemy. Since the Japanese began what they called the China “incident” the Chinese had made rapid strides with the development of their own war industries. As the “incident” approached its seventh year there were nearly 2,000 arms factories in parts of the country remote from enemy attack with thousands of trained women to work in them. Picture shows supply barges on the Yangtse.


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Allied armored forces rout German panzers
March 6, 1943

BATTLES OF THE TANKS

In the Tunisian fighting the armored divisions of both sides played a considerable part, and their support was indispensable to secure the full exploitation of any break through of opposing forces. On March 6, the enemy made a heavy assault on British positions in Southern Tunisia with infantry and tanks. It failed signally. The enemy forces were compelled to withdraw towards the hills to the north of Medenine, and in one day’s fighting thirty-three Axis tanks were destroyed without a single British tank being lost. Two days later enemy tanks captured by the British totalled fifty. At the end of February the important Kasserine Pass, which had seen much bitter fighting when it had been taken from the Allies by a very heavy Panzer attack a week earlier, was successfully cleared of the enemy and was once again in Allied hands. American and British infantry, supported by tanks, forced this enemy withdrawal. Among the prisoners who surrendered were many Italians. As the Eighth Army advanced and the number of enemy prisoners increased, the ratio of captured Italians to Germans was, on many occasions, found to be six to one, showing that the Germans had no compunction in deserting the soldiers of Italy, then their ally. The pictures on these pages show some incidents during this stage of the fighting in Tunisia: first, British tank crews mounting before an advance against enemy positions; second, hundreds of war-weary Italian soldiers surrendering to the Eighth Army.


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The Eighth army attacks the Mareth defenses
March 20, 1943

BATTLE OF THE MARETH LINE

On the night of March 20-21 the Eighth Army began a full-scale attack on the Mareth Line along a six-mile front between the sea and the Medenine-Gabes road. After thirty six hours of fierce hand-to-hand fighting all preliminary objectives had been gained and British infantry strongly supported by masses of tanks and aircraft, had driven a wide bridgehead into the north part of the line between Mareth and Zarat. As at El Alamein, General Montgomery delivered a frontal assault against the enemy’s most vital sector and strengthened this assault by heavy artillery attack and air bombardment. During the first phase of the operations 1,700 prisoners, nearly all of them German, were captured. For some days bitter and bloody fighting ensued and the enemy suffered heavy casualties. On March 28, the Eighth Army captured Mareth, Toujane and Matmata and the entire Mareth Line fell into Allied hands. The photograph shows a section of British artillery shelling the Mareth defenses.


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Men who go down to the sea in ships
March, 1943

EIGHTY-THREE DAYS ON A RAFT

Wary of a possible trap, a U.S. patrol boat approaches cautiously to find three ragged, starved men on an 8′ x l0′ raft floated on two empty oil drums. The only American, 21-year old Basil Dominic Izzi, South Barry, Mass., an armed guard crew member, feebly hails the oncoming craft, the first seen by the trio since the thirty-fifth day of their 83-day saga. Izzi’s companions are both Hollanders. Two other Americans died on the raft and were buried at sea by their companions, the victims of a Nazi wolf pack that had been plying the South Atlantic during the spring of 1943.


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A HIT!
March, 1943

CURTAINS FOR AN ENEMY TANK

This dramatic picture was taken just as an R.A.F. plane scored a direct bomb hit on this German tank, filling the air with flying steel, smoke and clouds of desert sand. The efforts of the R.A.F. during the drive through the desert were of tremendous value to the Allies as they made it practically impossible for the enemy to bring up supplies to their sorely harassed troops.


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Struggle for the Wadi Zigzau
March 20-22, 1943

CROSSING THE WADI ZIGZAU

In order to reach their preliminary objectives in the Mareth Line on March 20-22, British infantry columns had to fight their way across the rocky precipices of the Wadi Zigzau in the face of bitter opposition from the enemy. This wadi was the toughest natural obstacle the Eighth Army had encountered since the earliest days of their advance from Egypt. Yet Royal Engineers managed to bridge it under fierce enemy fire. The picture shows a British casualty being treated.


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Eighth army breaks through the Mareth line
March 28, 1943

BIG OUTFLANKING MOVEMENT

After the capture of Medenine on February 17 the Eighth Army advanced to the Wadi Zigzau, a deep gorge forming part of the Mareth defense system. It proved to be such a tough obstacle that General Montgomery sent a wide outflanking force round the south of the Matmata Hills. On March 28 this outflanking force broke through strong enemy defense positions along the Wadi el Assiub. Meanwhile, Allied forces in the coastal sector occupied the whole Mareth Line.


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The Eighth army and the Yanks join forces
April 6-10, 1943

BATTLE OF AKARIT

The Eighth Army in Tunisia lost no time after its victory at Mareth. Only eight days after it had successfully broken the Mareth Line it gained a new victory. In the pitch darkness of a moonless night, on April 6, General Montgomery’s main forces attacked the strongly fortified position of Akarit, north of Gabes, and battered their way to success after heavy and bitter fighting. The advance of the British and Indian infantry was preceded and covered by a terrific artillery barrage—the heaviest yet known in Southern Tunisia—from 500 guns. Within a few hours General Montgomery’s troops wore down the enemy’s determined resistance, captured the two key hills, Djebel Houmana and Djebel Fatnassa, on each side of his positions, and forced a gap in the enemy’s line enabling the armored forces to pass through. Fierce counter-attacks by the enemy were successfully repulsed, and by nightfall British tank squadrons had reached open country and were in pursuit of the retreating enemy. Six thousand prisoners were taken as a result of the first day’s operations, and this fresh success by the Eighth Army enabled its troops to link forces with the Second U.S. Army Corps at Djebel Chemse, east of El Guettar. Most of the prisoners taken were Italians. Following up this success, the Eighth Army pushed forward along the coast, and on April 8 reached Cekhira, overlooking the Tunisian plain, an advance of fifteen miles from the Wadi Akarit line. It was now evident that the Afrika Korps was in full retreat. The fleeing enemy columns were harassed remorselessly by heavy and continuous air attack by bombers and fighter bombers of the Tactical Air Force. These wrecked or damaged great numbers of tanks and transport vehicles on the northern roads to Sfax, which British troops reached on April 10, having covered over fifty miles since the attack on Akarit began. The number of prisoners captured had now mounted to 10,000. This picture shows a dead Nazi beside his gun.


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The ports of Sfax and Sousse full to the Eighth army
April 10-12, 1943

EIGHTH ARMY STRIKES NORTH AGAIN

After it had captured the port of Sfax on April 10, the Eighth Army pushed on northwards over most difficult marshy country which the enemy had sown profusely with mines and booby traps. Nevertheless, in spite of these obstacles the advance was rapid over the eighty-mile stretch to Sousse, which was entered on April 12. Sousse, the third largest port in Tunisia, was occupied without opposition, although the enemy had destroyed all the port and dock installations and the town’s electricity and water supplies before evacuating. While Rommel’s armies had suffered further heavy casualties during and since the retreat from the Mareth Line, the greater part of that which remained of the Afrika Korps, nevertheless, escaped northwards into the high ground to the north of Enfidaville. Since March 20, when the attack on the Mareth Line opened, the Eighth Army alone had taken a further 20,000 prisoners in Tunisia. The pictures show: first, sappers of the Eighth Army repairing a bridge over the river at Gabes, which was blown up by the Germans as they retreated northwards; second, General Montgomery is seen entering the port of Sousse after its capture.


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Action by the Americans on the road to Tunis
April, 1943

ON THE DOUBLE

Members of the Rifle Brigade of the 1st Armored Division storming enemy positions, the last opposition before reaching Tunis, near Kounine Hills, Tunis. On April 15, General Eisenhower announced that Axis losses in the Tunisian campaign included 86,000 killed, wounded or captured, 250 tanks, 3,000 vehicles and 425 guns destroyed or captured; 1,754 planes destroyed and 586 damaged—a total of 2,618 put out of action. The Allied advance was mile by mile, in terrific hand to hand fighting, as shown in the above picture, and losses on both sides were necessarily heavy.


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CAPTURE OF FERRYVILLE

On 7 May, American forces entered Ferryville on the south shore of the Lake of Bizerta. Here is shown the great damage caused to the harbour by the Allied air attack. On the left of the jetty are the remains of an Italian 6000-ton ammunition ship after a direct hit. After the explosion, parts of the ship were picked up miles away.


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Prisoner of war camp and some prize “catches”
May, 1943

THE PATHS OF GLORY END

Aerial view of a Prisoner of War Camp near Mateur, North Africa. Equipped to take care of 40,000 prisoners, more than 9,000 were taken by the Allies on the day this picture was taken. Truckloads of the prisoners are shown arriving at their destination. By the time of the fall of Tunis in May, 1943, more than 252,000 Axis troops had surrendered, 48,000 of them taken by the French.

FAREWELL TO ARMS

German generals arriving at the prisoner of war camp. Among the generals were: General Von Quast, Major General Von Vaerst, General Bieldwius, Major General Basseage, Major General Borowletz, Major General Krause and Major General Neuffer. In accordance with terms of the Geneva convention, which prescribes treatment of prisoners, these officers were granted full honors.


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Tunis and Bizerte fall to the Americans and British
May 6-7, 1943

ALLIED ARMIES CAPTURE TUNIS AND BIZERTE

At dawn on May 6 the British First Army, supported by masses of bombers and fighter bombers, launched the final offensive for Tunis from the south of the river Mejerda, east of Medjez-el-Bab. A few hours later tanks, armored cars and infantry had broken through the strongly fortified German positions at Massicault, sixteen miles from the city of Tunis. The British armored columns then rolled on into the Tunisian plain, and on the afternoon of May 7 advanced elements of the First Army entered Tunis. They had covered about twenty-three miles in thirty-six hours despite stiff enemy resistance. Meanwhile, in the north the American and French troops, who began their offensive at precisely the same time as the British, were making equally rapid progress to Bizerte. An American force advancing northwards from Mateur cleared the enemy’s stronghold on Jebel Achkel, on the south shore of Lake Achkel. After the capture of Ferryville, the Second U.S. Corps poured into Bizerte at 4 p.m. on May 7. The pictures show: first, American tanks driving past smashed German guns; second, a British patrol marches into Tunis; third an American patrol enters Bizerte on the alert.


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Mopping up operations in Tunis
May 7, 1943

STREET FIGHTING IN TUNIS

Although the main body of the enemy had fled from Tunis by the time that British troops began to enter the city soon after noon on May 7, many German snipers’ nests had to be cleared up. German sappers were also blowing up munition dumps and installations. Consequently street fighting went on in the suburbs for many hours before all enemy resistance was liquidated. The pictures show: above, British Bren gunners in action in Tunis; below, German prisoners being marched away.


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The enemy trapped at Cape Bon
May 8-12, 1943

AXIS RETREAT IN TUNISIA

This map shows the stages of the Allied advance through Tunisia in the last two months of the campaign. Arrows indicate the main thrusts against the enemy: in the south by the Eighth Army, in the center through the Kasserine Pass and Pichon by the First Army and Americans, and in the north the final British and U.S. drive on Tunis and Bizerte. The Axis forces were pushed back with increasing speed in April, and were trapped on Cape Bon peninsula, where they surrendered on May 12.


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Allies advance to the Cape Bon Peninsula and victory
May 8-9, 1943

ENEMY RETREAT TOWARDS CAPE BON

By the capture of Tunis and Bizerte the whole Axis defense system in the center and northern parts of Tunisia was broken and their remaining forces cut into two. On the following day, May 8, British armored units made progress in a north-easterly direction from Tunis, linking up with American armored units of the U.S. 2nd Corps advancing from Bizerte and Mateur. Farther south a force of Fighting French, operating with part of the British First Army, fought its way over many miles of difficult country and occupied the important town of Zaghouan. Meanwhile, in the most southerly sector, the Eighth Army, which had repulsed a small enemy attack north-west of Enfidaville on the previous day, made good progress and captured a large number of prisoners. Except at the entrances to the Cape Bon peninsula only a few isolated pockets of enemy resistance were left in Tunisia. The pictures on these pages, which were taken on the day before the fall of Tunis, show: first, British infantry take an enemy mortar position; second, a German killed beside his gun; third, British advancing under fire.


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Churchill in America for fifth meeting with Roosevelt
May, 1943

CHURCHILL VISITS ROOSEVELT

It was officially announced on May 11 that Prime Minister Churchill had arrived in Washington at the invitation of President Roosevelt. This was the fifth wartime meeting of the two leaders. It took place earlier than had been expected because the sweeping Allied successes in North Africa—enemy resistance in the Cape Bon peninsula had collapsed and the surrender of the Axis forces remaining in Tunisia was imminent—necessitated conference and discussion upon the great problem of where Allied forces would make their next large-scale attack. A full review of the mighty problems of armaments, supply, and transport for that attack was essential. Mr. Churchills’s days in the American capital were taken up with meetings with political and service leaders and talks with President Roosevelt. Broadcasting to Britain from the White House, May 14, on the occasion of the third anniversary of the Home Guard, Mr. Churchill left no doubt as to the purpose of the momentous conferences which were being held. “We are gathered here now, with the highest professional authorities in all the fighting services of the two great English-speaking nations, to plan well ahead of the armies who are moving swiftly forward. We must prepare for the time which is approaching and will surely come, when the bulk of these armies will have advanced across the seas into deadly grapple on the Continent.” On May 19, in a speech to a joint session of the United States Congress, the Prime Minister declared: “Britain will wage war by America’s side against Japan while there is breath in our bodies and while blood flows in our veins.” He also gave Axis losses in Africa as 950,000 soldiers killed and captured, 2,400,000 gross tons of shipping sunk, 8,000 aircraft destroyed, 6,200 guns, and 2,550 tanks lost. Mr. Churchill flew back to England on June 5. He had made the outward journey by sea. The picture shows him leaving the battleship in which he had sailed.


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German dams and power plants wrecked by R.A.F.
May 16-17, 1943

R.A.F. ATTACKS BIG GERMAN DAMS

On the nights of May 16-17, a force of Lancaster bombers, led by Wing-Commander G. P. Gibson, D.S.O., D.F.C., carried out an attack with mines on the great Eder and Mohne dams in German Westphalia. The Mohne dam was breached over a length of 100 yards, the power station being swept away by the resulting floods. The destruction of the Eder dam—the largest in Europe —set the Eder river below it in full flood. Later R.A.F. reconnaissance pilots reported great havoc as 134,000,000 tons of water swept down the Ruhr valley, wrecking factories, power stations, villages and railways. Eight bombers were lost. Pictures show: first, the breach left after the attack on the Eder dam; second, the breach in the Mohne dam; third,, King George congratulating Commander Gibson after the raid.


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Strong American forces recapture Island of Attu
May, 1943

RECOVERY OF ALEUTIAN ISLANDS CONTINUES

Following the earlier occupation of Adak Island (Andreanof Group), U.S. forces in January landed unopposed on Amchitka Island and consolidated their positions there. A further stage in the clearing of the Japanese out of the Aleutians was reached on May 11, when American forces had landed on Attu, the outermost of the islands, which is 650 nautical miles east of the nearest Japanese-owned base and 196 miles west of Kiska, the other Aleutian island seized by the enemy in June, 1942. The Japanese had abandoned Attu the following September and reoccupied it in December. Under cover of a continuous bombardment from sea and air, the Americans poured a steady stream of reinforcements on to the island, and heavy fighting raged on the north coast around Holtz Bay. In spite of this the U.S. forces captured the high ground behind Holtz Bay, with what were reported to be slight casualties. On May 18 patrols from the American force advancing northwards from Massacre Bay joined up with the troops working inland from Holtz Bay. Later the same day the enemy withdrew to some high ground at the head of Chicagof harbor, where they attempted to make a stand, but by May 21 American official announcements were able to declare that the fighting had developed into a mopping-up process and that the alternatives facing the Japanese were surrender or liquidation. In spite of sleet, snow and rain, which tended to handicap operations, the American pressure increased and was reinforced by heavy bombardments from the sea, which, added to the continuous air strafing, totally reduced all buildings in the Chicagof area by May 26. At dawn on May 29 the Japanese launched a last desperate attack against the right wing of the U.S. forces in Chicagof valley and, with the exception of a few snipers, were completely annihilated. All organized enemy resistance thereupon collapsed. Two days later a broadcast from Washington said that small remaining pockets of resistance on Attu were being mopped up and fewer than 200 Japanese were fighting back from machine-gun nests. Of the garrison which Tokio announced to consist of more than 2,000 men, 1,845 were later reported to have been killed. Only twenty were taken prisoner. The pictures show: first, part of the American landing force approaching Holtz Bay; second, men and equipment for the expeditionary force being put ashore at Massacre Bay.


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The LST’s do their part in the occupation of Attu
May, 1943

JAWS OF LST’S GAPE AT THE JAPS

In all parts of the Pacific where American fighting men have carried the battle to the foe—Attu, Rendova, Kiska, Munda and New Guinea—the gaping jaws of American landing craft (LST) have opened wide as though to swallow the foe. The designation means Landing ship-tanks. Here marines are shown unloading the huge craft on Attu as a task force of the 7th Infantry Division took that base on the morning of May 11. Despite the mountainous character of the country the troops fought their way across the island to encircle the Japanese defending Chicagof Harbor.


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British “Chindits” return to India from Burma
May 20, 1943

BRITISH GUERRILLA EXPEDITION IN BURMA

On May 20 a guerrilla force of British, Indian and Australian troops led by Brigadier O. C. Wingate, D.S.O., returned to India after a three-months’ wrecking expedition behind the Japanese lines in the jungle of Central Burma. These highly trained men had crossed the Assam-Burma frontier on February 16, after which they operated in groups in the most difficult jungle and mountain country, penetrating more than 200 miles behind the enemy’s lines. Frequently they went for many days without food or water and lived on whatever they could find till supplies could be dropped to them in the jungle clearings by parachute from British aircraft. They cut communication lines, destroyed bridges and supply dumps, and also killed hundreds of the enemy while suffering only light casualties themselves. The pictures show: first, supplies being dropped by parachute to the guerrillas in the jungle; and, second, Brigadier Wingate, who was killed early in 1944, talking to some of his men.


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Allied triumphal march through Tunisian capital
May 20, 1943

VICTORY CROWNS THE AFRICAN CAMPAIGN

By May 12 General Eisenhower was able to announce that organized resistance in all parts of Tunisia had ceased. He gave the highest praise to General Alexander for his strategy in the final offensive and for the manner in which he had deceived the enemy as to his intentions and accurately gauged how the enemy’s mind would work. For 2,000 miles the Eighth Army had been the hammer and the First Army the anvil. Because of the efficiency and skill with which its long advance had been conducted, the Eighth Army had gained a well-deserved reputation as a fighting force, not only among the Allies, but in the minds of the enemy High Command as well. That the enemy’s morale had snapped utterly was shown by a record which had been found of the German Commander-in-Chief’s last signal. “I report,” it read, “that the order to defend Tunisia to the last cartridge has been carried out.” The operator who handled the signal had given the lie to this, however, by adding below: “Everything destroyed; we are now closing down.” The Germans, in fact, surrendered in mass, whole divisions capitulating with their arms, equipment and food. One dump alone, found undamaged, contained 12,000 tons of ammunition. In addition to General von Arnim, the supreme Axis commander captured by British troops, enemy prisoners totalled more than 200,000, and vast quantities of abandoned enemy guns and war material fell into Allied hands. It was estimated that the enemy had suffered 30,000 casualties, killed and wounded. British casualties between April 17 and May 7 were 10,800 killed and wounded. In the final stages of the battle for Tunis, R.A.F. bombers flew 2,500 sorties in a day. Over an area of four miles by 1,000 yards scarcely a patch of surface escaped the rain of high explosives. In a message to General Eisenhower, King George expressed the country’s heartfelt congratulations on the Allied victory. In the Tunisian capital on May 20 units from all the Allied forces marched through the town in celebration of the victorious conclusion of the long African campaign. All the Allied commanders were present, and the salute was taken by General Eisenhower, Alexander, Anderson and Giraud. The picture on these pages shows the Tunis victory parade in progress headed by a band of pipers of the 51st Highland Division.


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CHINA ON THE OFFENSIVE

At the close of six years’ resistance to Japanese aggression, resourceful Chinese troops overcome all obstacles to surprise the enemy.


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China’s armies attack the Japanese invaders
May 20-27, 1943

DEFENDING GATEWAY TO CHUNGKING

The Japanese attack early in May, south of the Yangtze River, failed. Two strongly reinforced Japanese divisions were routed with heavy losses and Chinese troops captured an important pass leading to Chungking. At the end of May the Chinese launched an offensive near the Hupeh-Honan border, trapping five enemy divisions. First, Chinese troops move up to the front; second, long lines of Chinese on the march; and third, camouflaged Chinese soldiers in the firing line.


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Churchill and Allied military leaders confer in Algiers
May 28, 1943

WAR CONFERENCE AT ALGIERS

On May 27, after his visit to Washington, Mr. Churchill, accompanied by General Marshall, U.S. Army Chief of Staff, flew from the United States to Gibraltar. After passing one night there he proceeded to Allied Headquarters in North Africa and was joined in Algiers by Anthony Eden, who had flown from England. The Prime Minister had conversations with all the Allied leaders (among them Generals Eisenhower, Alexander, Anderson and Montgomery, Admiral Cunningham, and Air Chief Marshal Tedder). He also met Generals Giraud and de Gaulle on June 4. Mr. Churchill visited the Tunisian battlefields and addressed 3,000 troops in the amphitheater in Carthage, near Tunis (third picture). The other pictures show: first, members of the War Conference and, second, Mr. Churchill, General Montgomery and General Marshall.


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The meeting of Generals Giraud
and de Gaulle at Algiers
May 30, 1943

DE GAULLE ARRIVES IN NORTH AFRICA

General de Gaulle, leader of the Fighting French since the fall of France in 1940, arrived in North Africa on May 30 for talks with General Giraud, Commander-in-Chief of the French forces in North Africa. This visit of General de Gaulle was the result of several months of negotiations between the French National Committee in London and General Giraud. The long-range exchange of views, effected through General Catroux, who had travelled to and from Britain with proposal and counter-proposal, led eventually to General Giraud’s agreement to a meeting at Algiers to discuss the co-ordination of Fighting French effort. The picture above shows the two leaders of Free French together. Their discussions culminated later in the establishment of the French Committee of National Liberation, presided over by the two Generals jointly. Meantime the French forces in North Africa, under General Giraud, were in action. The second picture shows French troops unloading mules on the way to the front.


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ALLIES GAIN FOOTHOLD IN SOUTHERN EUROPE

After the Tunisian campaign came to an end and the Axis armies had been finally driven out of the African continent, the victorious Allies were soon in a position to make their next move in the Mediterranean war zone. The capture of the small, but strategically important, island of Pantelleria gave the British and U.S. air forces valuable advanced airfields to complement those of Malta and those along the North African shores. For any amphibious military operations against the Mediterranean coastline of Europe powerful support by fighter cover, or “air umbrella,” was absolutely necessary. Indeed, as experience in this war had already shown, no landings on an enemy-occupied coast, however skillfully planned and boldly carried out, could hope to be successful without such fighter cover. The map on the right shows the approximate operational range of fighter aircraft based along the southern shores of the Mediterranean, including the islands of Malta and Pantelleria. It reveals quite clearly, therefore, why Sicily (although it was known to be the most strongly defended of all the chief Italian islands) was selected for the initial attack on the “under belly” of Europe, instead of Sardinia or Corsica. As the map shows, Sicily lay well within operational range of Allied fighter aircraft, whereas, Sardinia was only partly within their range and Corsica was right outside it. It follows, therefore, that while fighters could have accompanied military landings on Sardinia, they could not have covered such landings in anything approaching sufficient strength. Over Sicily, on the other hand, strong fighter protection could be provided quite easily. Another important factor which the Allied commanders must have undoubtedly had in mind when the decision to attack Sicily was made was its possession of a large number of first-class airfields which would prove of the greatest value for the next step in the Mediterranean campaign, the attack on the Italian mainland.


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Allied air attacks bring about
the surrender of Pantelleria
June 11, 1943

ALLIES CAPTURE PANTELLERIA

On June 11 the small Italian island of Pantelleria surrendered unconditionally. This immediately followed heavy day and night bombing and the shelling of enemy garrisons from the sea, after two previous Allied ultimatums, on June 9 and 10, had been rejected. One hour after the surrender, troops of the British First Division began to disembark on the island. After having overcome some slight resistance put up by Italian snipers they quickly gained their objectives. The island was occupied at a very small cost in Allied casualties, though a force of German dive bombers made a last-minute attempt to prevent the landings by bombing landing craft. These attacks were quite ineffective, as all the bombs fell wide. Pictures show: first, bombers over Pantelleria; second, shelling Pantelleria; third, the occupation.


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Amphibs “show their teeth” as they dress for action
June 22, 1943

READY TO ADVANCE ON ENEMY SHORES

Lined up along the docks of a North African port, a flotilla of LST’s (landing ship-tanks) ingest a mammoth menu of vehicles, supplies and men, which they will disgorge on enemy shores. These LST’s, a new departure in amphibious operations, played a prominent role in the invasion of North Africa and were to play an even greater part in the campaign in Italy.


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King George VI pays a visit to the African battlefront
June 24-26, 1943

THE KING FLIES TO THE FRONT

On June 12 a Service plane with two wing commanders at the controls landed on a North African airfield. Luggage in the plane was labelled T. Jerram, but out stepped the King, to be welcomed by General Eisenhower, Admiral Cunningham, and Air Chief Marshal Tedder. He had borrowed the name of Guardsman Jerram, his orderly, for his visit to the Eighth Army—the first time a King of England had ever flown to a battlefront. For several days he busied himself with consultations with service commanders, visits to the men of the forces, who welcomed him warmly, meetings with American military and naval leaders, and other activities. He spent a day with the Navy, shaking hands with many of the men who had seen action at Pantelleria, and talking to merchant sailors who had been engaged in hazardous convoy duty. With Sir Andrew Cunningham he visited units of the U.S. and British fleets in the Mediterranean, being piped aboard a British battleship and an American cruiser. The King inspected American infantry, watched a march past of armored forces, and exercises in street fighting. He invited General Giraud and General de Gaulle to lunch, with Robert Murphy, the American minister, and the British resident minister, Harold Macmillan. One of his visits, unofficial and unexpected, gave rise to a remarkable display of loyalty and enthusiasm. At a big convalescent rest centre by the sea, where several thousand soldiers were recuperating after wounds and illness, word flashed round that the King had arrived. Swiftly men raced to greet him, crowding, laughing, and cheering wildly, many of them dashing out of the water to be among the first to shake their visitor’s hand. Suddenly somebody started the National Anthem. It was taken up with fervor and emotion, and when it had been finished the men cheered the King again and again. This picture shows the King walking between the packed lines of soldiers on the sands.


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The Allies take up the matter of Sicily
June, 1943

AIR BLITZ ON SICILY

Preparatory to invasion, the Allies flung their full air strength against Sicily, Sardinia, and the Italian mainland. In one period of twenty-four hours, concentrating upon Sicily, Allied bombers, strongly covered by fighters based on Malta, destroyed several hundred planes on Sicilian airfields and shot down forty-four enemy planes in the air for an Allied loss of thirteen. The airfields of Catania, Gerbini, Sciacca, Comiso, and Milo were heavily attacked. Above, Martin “Marauders” bomb an airfield.


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“Softening up” ancient Sicilian town
June, 1943

CATANIA ATTACKED FROM THE AIR

Both before and during the invasion the large port and airfield of Catania were heavily bombed again and again, and enormous damage was done to the harbor and other important military targets. Though these raids often met with opposition, they provided significant evidence that the savage power of the Luftwaffe was weakening, for among the many types of Axis planes shot down, many would not have been used but for shortage of aircraft. Above, fires in Catania after a raid.


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Americans continue the offensive
in the Southwest Pacific
June 30, 1943

RENDOVA OCCUPIED

On June 30 U.S. Marines landed on Rendova, a mountainous island in the New Georgia group, 170 miles north-west of Guadalcanal. Enemy opposition was quickly overcome and within a few hours the whole island was occupied. Rendova is separated by only a seven-mile strait from New Georgia Island, where the Japanese held Munda and its important airfield. The first picture shows the Americans landing on Rendova; second, Australian troops at Sanananda, New Guinea; and third, Japanese prisoners captured by Americans in the Guadalcanal campaign.


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Americans take Japanese by surprise
on Rendova Island
June 30, 1943

AIR COVERAGE

Flying at tree top height, a U.S. Army P-40 snarls over a group of American infantry men charging across the beach at Rendova, in the Central Solomons. The Allied attack caught the Japanese by surprise and aerial opposition was small in the early hours of the attack. Thousands of picked troops came ashore under their fleet guns and the greatest plane concentration of the Solomons campaign, which took the American forces farther along in the direction of Tokio. Southerners joined Northerners in a battle song “Marching through New Georgia,” as landing craft snaked through tortuous reefs.


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How Rendova Island looked
to Marine eyes on invasion day
June 30, 1943

BRINGING THE MARINES ASHORE

Swift landing craft pour American forces ashore at Rendova Island as Army and Marine units closed in on the Japanese air base at Munda, eight miles away. From Rendova artillery rained fire on the Japanese field, which soon fell to American land forces. The all-out assault on this Japanese stronghold of New Georgia got under way at dawn. The brilliantly conceived and daringly executed plan caught the foe flat-footed; the landing of men and materials had actually begun before the enemy shore batteries opened fire, but by that time the ships had landed every man.


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A member of a Nazi wolf pack gets a “going-over”
June 30, 1943

A NAVY PLANE SCORES A HIT

Riding in a U.S. Navy plane, a Navy photographer got this remarkable close-up of a direct hit on a U-boat which was attempting to waylay a convoy in the North Atlantic. One bare-legged Nazi stands in awe of the monumental column of spray as another ducks. A depth bomb can be seen (arrow) about to hit the water in an attempt to deliver a coup de grace to the raider.


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Allies continue the Mediterranean offensive
July 9, 1943

ALLIED INVASION OF SICILY

At 10 o’clock on Friday night, July 9, gliders packed with Allied troops dropped behind the enemy lines in Sicily, and the invasion of the island had begun. The gliders were quickly followed by paratroops, and through the next two days American and British landing forces made contact with the air borne units, breached the coastal defenses, and established bridgeheads at many selected points. Protected by a great fleet of Allied warships, and by the Allied Air Forces, which had secured air supremacy, mighty reinforcements of men, tanks, guns, equipment, and supplies were successfully landed. Enemy coastal batteries were put out of action by the guns of the Fleet. By July 11 the first immediate objectives had been taken, and three Sicilian airfields were in Allied hands. One of these was at Pachino, captured by British and Canadian assault troops. American forces occupied two airfields at Gela, where the enemy, supported by tanks, made a counter-attack, which was successfully beaten off. Axis forces opposing the invasion were estimated at 400,000, including 100,000 Italians. The German radio admitted that the first phase of the attack had been successful at several points, and an Italian commentator boasted that the Allies would “bite their teeth out” on the strong Italian fortifications. The picture shows one of the many Sicilian landings.


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SICILY INVADED

By landing in Sicily on 10 July, 1943, Allied troops regained a foothold in Europe for the first time since the collapse of France and the retreat from Dunkirk.


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Allies land men and stores on Sicilian beaches
July 9-10, 1943

ZERO HOUR FOR INVASION ARMADA

Under the command of Admiral of the Fleet Sir Andrew Cunningham, 3,266 surface ships were engaged in the invasion of Sicily. This mighty armada of the Allies comprised craft of every type, from battleships to L.S.T.’s. In spite of adverse changes in the weather, of rising wind and choppy seas, the convoys of this multitude of ships made their crossings with such precision that the Allied landings on the beaches were carried out exactly to timetable. From long before dawn flare after flare arose from beach after beach at the appointed zero hour to signal “landing successful,” and thereafter all the supplies, arms, and equipment of the invading armies streamed steadily ashore. These pictures show: top, a landing party coming ashore, and below, the British safely land a Bren carrier.


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Allied bridgehead secured
July, 1943

BRITISH AND CANADIANS JOIN HANDS

One of the early successes of the invasion was the determined capture of the Pachino peninsula by British and Canadian assault troops, who landed on Costa dell Ambra beach, four miles from Pachino. They established a bridgehead within twenty-four hours, and then advanced inland to start the hard-fought campaign which was to end in the conquest of Sicily.


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Novel amphibious trucks
keep Allied armies supplied
July 10-17, 1943

FIRST WEEK OF SICILIAN INVASION

At dawn on Saturday, July 10, the first assault troops landed on the Sicily beaches, and the success of the greatest amphibian operation in history was quickly proved. Before seven o’clock that morning all landings, were established; Allied infantry were advancing into the interior; a few hours later the harbor of Syracuse was captured. British forces landed east of Cape Passero, Canadians on the western side, while United States forces came ashore at Gela. On the next day the Canadians took Pachino, and its airfield was very soon in use by Allied aircraft. On Tuesday, the 13th, American forces captured Comiso and its airfield, joined up with the Canadians, and commanded the railway from Syracuse to Ragusa. By the next day seven of Sicily’s airfields were firmly in the hands of the Allies. The Eighth Army successfully repelled fierce German counter-attacks. During Thursday and Friday the Eighth Army fought desperately for Lentini. The Americans and Canadians advanced and captured half a dozen towns. Lentini was occupied on Saturday, July 17. Pictures show the amphibious DUKWS (known as “Ducks”), which were used with success in the landing operations. This six-wheeled truck has a motor engine which drives wheels on land and a propeller at sea. First, “Ducks” approaching shore; second, drawing away from a ship: third, returning for another load.


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Generals at work in the Sicilian campaign
July, 1943

LEADERS OF THE ARMIES

Studying a map of Sicily at the Royal Palace in Palermo, are, left to right, Major General Geoffrey Keyes, General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery and Lieutenant General George S. Patton, Jr., commander of the American 7th Army. General Patton later made an excellent record for himself in the Sicilian campaign. This was marred to some extent by an unfortunate incident, the news of which was not released by the Army until months later. During an inspection of one of the field hospitals near the front line, General Patton struck an invalided soldier who was obviously suffering from combat hysteria. The General later made a profuse public apology and the affair was attributed to the tension of battle. After Sicily General Patton was relieved of command of the 7th Army to assume a high post in London.


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British wounded evacuated from Sicily
July, 1943

FIRST SICILY WOUNDED AWAIT EMBARKATION

Stretcher cases, wounded at Syracuse, waiting in landing craft to go aboard a hospital ship. On the first day of the invasion the hospital ship Talamba, was sunk by the enemy, although the vessel was fully lighted in accordance with the Geneva convention.


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Americans and British make progress in Sicily
July, 1943

EIGHTH ARMY’S THRUST FOR CATANIA

Within five days of the initial landings remarkable progress was achieved by the Allied forces. The U.S. Seventh Army under General Patton, which had encountered strong enemy opposition, not only held firmly to the bridgeheads at Licata and Gela, but even enlarged them. New Allied landings were made near Catania, which was the goal of the British Eighth Army under General Montgomery. Canadian units of his command joined up with the Americans at Ragusa, twenty miles inland, and Allied cruisers and monitors bombarded Augusta and entered the port on July 13, a party from H.M.S. Exmoor hoisting the white ensign over the town. On July 15 the British advanced to Bruccoli, less than twenty miles from Catania. Four Italian generals were killed in action, and another surrendered with all his staff. Seven airfields were securely in Allied possession, and prisoners taken in Sicily totalled 12,000. One of the airfields—Ponte Olivo—was taken by a fierce bayonet attack. German attempts to bring reinforcements into the struggle were frustrated by heavy air attacks upon vital links of communication, Turin being heavily bombed by Lancasters which flew across France and returned by the Atlantic. This was the third big successive campaign for the British Eighth, the other two being Libya and Tunisia. Pictures show: first troops of the 78th Division mopping up in a captured town; second, enemy gun captured at Syracuse in firing order; third, Canadian miners at work; fourth, British infantry rounding up snipers near Augusta; fifth, civilians giving a welcome to British troops at Pachino.


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THE CAMPAIGN IN SICILY

The Allied attack on Sicily began with massed airborne and naval landings in the south-east corner of the island on July 10 and virtually ended with the fall of Messina on August 17. The island was finally occupied after only six weeks of hard fighting by U.S., British and Canadian troops. They were delayed in their progress by the rugged and mountainous territory, by the difficulties of maintaining supplies and communications, and, not least, by the determined resistance of the German divisions, especially in the Plain of Catania. After the initial landings in the extreme south, the Allies soon gained their primary objectives, including many good airfields and the great port of Syracuse. Actually the enemy was taken completely by surprise, for, having expected the main Allied landings from the direction of Bizerte and other North-West African ports, they concentrated their main defenses in the north-west corner of Sicily. What the Allies did, however, was to land a large part of their forces from Malta, where, on account of the shorter sea crossing, the landings could be made under the cover of massed fighter aircraft. After the main bridgeheads had been established along a coastline of roughly one hundred miles, the Allies fanned out as they proceeded to advance rapidly inland. The Americans drove westwards along the coast, captured Agrigento, and then advanced to Palermo, the occupation of which cut off thousands of Italian troops in the north-west corner. The Canadians captured Ragusa, then fought their way through to the center of the island to take the important key towns of Enna and Leonforte. Meanwhile the Eighth Army advanced from Syracuse and Augusta towards the Catania Plain. It was here that the Germans made their greatest stand. The Eighth Army’s break-through towards Randazzo and Messina was thus delayed until U.S. and Canadian troops were able to sweep down from the north coast and smash the German rear.


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The Allies lose a ship in the invasion of Sicily
July 11, 1943

GOING UP IN SMOKE

An Allied ship, part of a convoy carrying supplies to the invasion forces at Gela, Sicily, explodes after a direct hit from Nazi planes just outside the harbor of this Sicilian town. The difficulties of maintaining supplies for the invading American and British troops was one of the major obstacles to this six-week campaign. Fortunately for the Allies, complete control of the sea lanes was in their hands. The Italian Navy had long since ceased to be a factor, and the Mediterranean was being patrolled by Allied warships exclusively, with the exception of a few Axis submarines.


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Death of an American fighting ship
in the Sicilian invasion
July 11, 1943

FAREWELL TO A HONORED SHIP

A bright blur of flame marks the end of the LCI-1, a landing craft (infantry) which had been honored by a Presidential citation for the part she played in the Sicilian invasion. The ship went down during an Axis raid on Allied shipping in Sicilian waters. Over her burning hull an arch of anti-aircraft fire is raised as though in homage to the ship and her men.


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A stepping stone on the road to Italy and victory
July 12, 1943

SICILIAN LANDING

Vari-sized American landing craft line the shore at Scoglitti, Sicily, as Allied troops land on the island—en route to Italy. The U.S. Army’s amphibious “ducks” and the Navy’s LCIs (Landing craft-Infantry). LCM’s (Landing craft-mechanized), LCT’s (Landing craft-tanks) and LCVR’s (Landing craft-personnel ramp) join in the mammoth operation. Scoglitti, located on the southwest tip of Sicily, was one of ten towns captured that day, giving complete control of this section to American troops. The capture of Scoglitti was a stepping stone to the taking of the important town of Agrigento.


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American methods on a beachhead in Sicily
July, 1943

RACE AGAINST TIME IN SICILY

Working coolly and methodically despite the constant danger of enemy attack, U.S. troops build a road with steel matting over the sandy Sicilian shore during landing operations near Scoglitti. Outlined against the far horizon, the ships of the vast invasion armada hover like protecting floating fortresses, their guns ever ready to lay down a curtain of fire. These operations in the Scoglitti sector were extremely important and served as preliminary moves to the occupation of the west coast and the final pincer movement in cooperation with the British Army on the east coast.


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Germans fortify Crete against British attacks
July, 1943

GERMAN FEARS OF INVASION

The Allied victories in North Africa represented, in the words of Winston Churchill, an immediate threat to the “soft under-belly of Europe” and the occupying German and Italian forces on the island of Crete reacted in characteristic fashion to the danger. A British commando raid on airfields and installations in Crete on the night of July 3-4, was followed by savage reprisals against the civilian population, accused by the Nazis of connivance in the raid. The first picture gives some idea of the cold-bloodedness in which these barbarous atrocities were committed. The other pictures show strong Nazi-built fortifications in Axis-occupied Crete.


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Germans launch a summer offensive in Russia
July 5-14, 1943

FRESH GERMAN ATTACK IN RUSSIA FAILS

On July 5 an intensive enemy artillery and aerial bombardment broke the comparative lull which had continued on the Russian front since the spring thaws had brought large-scale operations to a standstill. Large German tank and infantry forces with strong air cover launched the expected enemy summer offensive on a 200-mile front in the Orel-Byelgorod sector. The battle that ensued developed into some of the bitterest fighting of the war, with both sides throwing in masses of armor and infantry. But in spite of minor breaches of their positions here and there, made at enormous cost to the enemy, the Russians, by their stubborn resistance, completely neutralized the German attempt to repeat their massed drive to the East in the previous summer. By July 14 the enemy attacks had dwindled and, indeed, the Germans had again been forced back to their original positions. The photograph shows Red Army troops attacking an enemy strong point in a Russian village near Orel.


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The Red army hits back in drive towards Orel
July 12-17, 1943

RUSSIAN SUMMER OFFENSIVE BEGINS

On July 12, after the failure of the recent German assault on their positions, the Red Army launched a powerful offensive on a twenty-five mile front to the north and east of Orel. Within three days the enemy’s fortifications had been pierced to a depth of twenty-eight miles and three German infantry divisions and two Panzer divisions utterly routed. On July 17 the Red Army began their mighty attack on the Orel-Kursk-Byelgorod sector, and it was soon apparent that, not only had the German plan of a summer offensive, as Marshal Stalin announced, been “completely frustrated,” but, in fact, the Russians had achieved a victory of the first magnitude. The Red Army eliminated all the wedges that had been driven into their positions in the abortive German offensive. The pictures on these pages show: first, Red Army tanks taking up their fighting stations before the Russian offensive began; second, German infantry in retreat use every kind of transport to escape encirclement or annihilation; third, right, German soldiers firing a Russian village as they retreat.


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The Red army advances across the Upper Don
July-August, 1943

FIERCE FIGHTING BEFORE OREL

During the remainder of July fighting continued on a big scale in the Orel sector. Despite heavy rains and strong German Resistance the Red Army advanced steadily, and by August 1 they had reached places within twelve miles of the city. The picture on these pages show Red Army cavalry in action. The Cossacks, especially, played a great part in the Don and Caucasus fighting earlier in the year. First, Cossack warriors riding into battle; second, Red troops crossing a river.


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The Russian armies retake Orel and Byelgorod
August 5, 1943

RUSSIANS WIN GREAT DOUBLE VICTORY

On August 5 Moscow radio announced the recapture of Orel and Byelgorod exactly one month after the Germans began their unsuccessful offensive on this front. Orel, which had been in German hands for nearly two years, was one of the chief enemy bases in Russia during that time. While the fighting for Orel and Byelgorod lasted, the Red Army inflicted severe losses on their enemy, losses that would surely have serious repercussions on morale in the German forces. Between July 5 and August 5 the German losses were 100,000 killed and 4,600 tanks, 1,623 guns, 11,000 trucks and 2,500 aircraft, while in the same period the Red Army captured 521 tanks, 875 guns, 2,521 machine guns, 325 supply dumps and 12,400 prisoners. Yet on the eve of the offensive Hitler himself had issued an order of the day, declaring that that attack would be “the turning-point of the war and the last battle for Germany’s victory.” Picture shows a Russian farmer returning to her ruined homestead.


{984}{985}

Revolt against Fascism in Italy—Mussolini ousted
July 25, 1943

ARCHITECT OF FASCISM OVERTHROWN

As the Allied forces pressed north in Sicily and came within sight of the Italian mainland, Mussolini, first Fascist dictator, found himself facing internal revolt, which increasingly revealed itself in strikes and sabotage. So serious was the situation on both the war and the home fronts that he went to consult Hitler, who met him at Verona on July 19. Hitler’s proposed remedies were reported by Mussolini to the Fascist Grand Council, specially summoned to Rome on July 24. But the writing was already on the wall for this “sawdust Caesar”; a majority of the Council rejected his proposals, and the cornered and frantic Duce was forced to resign. To the people of Italy the tidings came like the sweet breath of Freedom, unsavored for twenty-one weary years, and in the cities and towns the jubilant crowds demonstrated in the streets for days. To all outside Italy, particularly the millions suffering under Nazi oppression, the fall of Mussolini brought new confidence that his master across the Alps would meet the same fate. Pictures on this page show: first, what the citizens of a Sicilian town did to one of his innumerable effigies; second, the effacing of one of the slogans he had caused to be painted on public buildings all over Italy. This one reads: “Great Britain has finally felt deeply the bite of the Roman wolf.” Third, an Italian crowd is shown hurling overripe fruit at another of Mussolini’s portraits.


{986}{987}

American daylight raid on Rumanian oilfields
August 1, 1943

AMERICAN AIRCRAFT SHATTER RUMANIAN OILFIELDS

Ploesti and its famous oilfields, covering an area of nineteen square miles, were bombed for the fourth time on August 1. Nearly 200 Liberators and 2,000 specially-trained airmen took part in this very heavy attack on a target of vital importance to the enemy—it was estimated that Ploesti, thirty-five miles from Bucharest, supplied one-third of all the oil fuel Germany required for war purposes. This mass raid involved a round journey of 2,400 miles. It was carried out at low level, many of the aircraft attacking from 500 feet and under, to insure accurate placing of their bombs. They smashed down 270 tons of high explosives upon the thirteen oil refineries, the pumping stations, and the storage tanks, causing huge explosions and devastating damage. Many of the installations were put out of action. Much of the destruction was done by delayed-action bombs. First, one of the attacking aircraft sweeps in just over the smoke-stacks, against a background of smoke and flame. Second: Liberators streaking into the attack through a gap in the dense smoke clouds; third, one of the storage tanks going up in flames during the first moments of the raid.


{988}

Naval base of Augusta falls
August 3, 1943.

EIGHTH ARMY IN AUGUSTA

Troops of the Eighth Army occupied the Italian naval and seaplane base of Augusta after it had been repeatedly bombed by the R.A.F. and shelled by the Allied Fleet. The first ship to enter the harbor was the Greek destroyer Kanaris, which engaged the shore batteries as she steamed in. Not only during the landings, but throughout the course of the Sicilian expedition, the Allied navies played a great part in supporting the land forces, subjecting Sicily to fifty organized bombardments. Above, British troops in Augusta, as smoke pours out of a shelled building.


{989}

The Eighth army takes Catania
August 5, 1943

CAPTURE OF CATANIA

Early on August 5 troops of the Eighth Army entered Catania. The people of the city welcomed the men of the victorious army with extraordinary enthusiasm. They clapped and shouted: “Viva!”, they seized the soldiers’ hands to shake them, they danced down the bomb-shattered streets by the side of the marching men. And they begged for food. The fall of Centuripe, a mountain stronghold with ridge on ridge held by snipers, which General Patton’s 78th Division had captured, had made the fall of Catania certain. Above: British troops passing through one of the bombed streets.


{990}{991}

Looting in Catania after the German retreat
August 5, 1943

RIOTS BEFORE THE ALLIES TAKE CATANIA

General Montgomery’s personal message to the troops on August 1 made it clear that a new Allied offensive in Sicily had begun. “Let us get on with the job,” said General Montgomery. “Together with our American Allies, we knocked Mussolini off his perch. We will now drive the Germans from Sicily. Into battle with stout hearts. Good luck to you all.” After brilliant successes in the opening stages of the Sicilian campaign, the advance of Eighth Army had been halted by the enemy’s formidable line of defenses along the Simeto river. The strongest bastions of that line were at Regalbuto and Centuripe. After much hard fighting the Eighth Army succeeded in occupying the mountains dominating the Simeto valley. The Canadians occupied Regalbuto, and the Americans captured Troina and Capizzi. Prime Minister Churchill promptly informed the House of Commons of their successes: “Our general offensive in Sicily began to develop on Sunday afternoon (August 1), and all Monday was passed in full battle. Large reinforcements have been moved up to the fighting front, and it has been properly garnished with artillery and supplies of every kind.” The 78th Division won a notable victory by storming the fortress-like position of Centuripe. The success compelled the Germans to begin the evacuation of Catania, enabling Allied forces to enter the Catanian plain. On August 5 Catania surrendered to the British Army. the picture shows Italians looting buildings in Catania.


{992}{993}

The conquest of Sicily almost complete
August 16, 1943

FALL OF TAORMINA

On August 16 Eighth Army troops captured Taormina. The Germans fought stubbornly in rearguard actions, but enemy evacuation was steadily going on. Enemy troops were escaping over the Straits of Messina, at the rate of a thousand a day, while the R.A.F. kept up an almost ceaseless attack on the beaches, and on the ferries, barges and lighters crammed with beaten fugitives. Messina, which had been the target of many attacks by the R.A.F. and U.S.A.A.F., was again heavily bombed. Pictures: first, the Bishop self-propelled gun-tank combination, which did much effective work in the mountainous Sicilian country; second, British patrol passing the dead bodies of Italians in a street of Avola; third, wrecked German troop-carrying tractor rests in a bomb crater on Messina waterfront.


{994}{995}

BRITISH GUNS COVER THE FINAL ASSAULT ON THE ENEMY IN SICILY


{996}{997}

Sicily conquered—Messina falls to the Americans
August 17, 1943

SICILY CONQUERED

After the fall of Catania on August 5, British and Canadian forces pressed forward and made important gains north of Regalbuto. The Eighth Army pressed north-ward along the coast road to Messina, fifty miles away. Ships of the Allied fleets kept up a heavy bombardment of Messina. The Germans made every effort to delay the advance of the Allies by mines and large scale demolitions, but numbers of Germans and Italians were already assembling on the beaches of Messina preparatory to evacuation, and evacuation barges were being pounded and sunk by Allied planes. The Allies remained master of the air. According to R.A.F. calculations, 12,000 German and Italian aircraft had been destroyed in the Middle East and North African campaigns since the entrance of Italy into the war. In Sicily alone, up to the surrender of Catania, the number of Axis prisoners was 100,000. On August 10 the Eighth Army and the U.S. Seventh Army linked up between Troina and Randazzo, and on the 17th the honor of capturing Messina fell to the Americans. All organized resistance on the island ceased. After a campaign of thirty-nine days the Sicilian campaign was over. Up to August 10 Axis losses were 167,000— 32,000 killed or wounded and 135,000 prisoners. Allied casualties were 26,000 killed, wounded, and taken prisoner. The picture shows American troops entering Messina on August 17.


{998}{999}

Nazis fail to subdue determined Yugoslav patriots
August, 1943

YUGOSLAV GUERRILLAS HARRY THE ENEMY

Patriot forces opposing the enemy occupying armies in Yugoslavia intensified their resistance over still wider objectives, and the Yugoslav Government G.H.Q. in Cairo reported on August 28 a number of recent successes. These included a daring attack on the Rajlovac (Serajevo) airfield on August 10 and the consequent destruction of twenty-eight German aircraft; the ambushing of a German armored train near Serajevo; the capture of three towns, including an important coal-mining center, in Bosnia and Slovenia; also the cutting at numerous places of the railway line in Dalmatia and the wrecking of key bridges. Some idea of the heroism behind the blows which the partisans were striking came from the enemy in this series of pictures showing: above, a lamp-post hanging of a patriot by the Germans in Belgrade; second, guerrillas captured by German troops; and, third, a band of captured guerrilla being marched away to face a Nazi firing squad.


{1000}{1001}

MAMMOTH HARVEST

Biggest crops in Britain’s history were safely gathered in time by U.S. volunteers and by workers on holiday.


{1002}{1003}

Nazis force peasants to bring in
the Ukraine harvest for Germans
August, 1943

NAZIS STEAL UKRAINE HARVEST

German spokesmen declared on more than one occasion that the German people would not go short of food, whatever might be the plight of the inhabitants in the countries Germany had overrun. The Nazis carried out systematic and ruthless pillage of the resources of the occupied countries. They forced whole populations of Russian villages into slave labor, compelling them to help gather the harvests of the Ukraine, and sending the full yield to Germany. Vast agricultural tracts in the rich Ukraine passed into their possession. When the brilliant successes of the Red Army in the summer campaign of 1943 forced the Germans to retreat, the latter made every effort to secure the harvest for their own use. It is estimated that they obtained from the Ukraine nearly half a million tons of grain for the needs of their invading armies. They deported numbers of the Russian population to Germany. After the Russian reoccupation of the Ukraine, there were many atrocity stories, confirmed and unconfirmed, told by the surviving peasant population. In several instances the guilt was actually pinned on captured German officers who were tried, convicted and executed for these offenses. Top, Nazi guns on fields during harvest; second, Russians forced to work under German guard; third, Nazi soldiers speed up the work of harvesting and dispatch the cream of the crop home to Germany.


{1004}{1005}

German capital undergoes
intensive aerial bombardment
August 23, 1943

SMASHING AIR ATTACK ON BERLIN

Bomber Command of the R.A.F. smashed Berlin on August 23 in the heaviest and most concentrated attack the capital of Germany had ever experienced. Seven hundred planes took part. In fifty minutes they dropped 1,700 tons of bombs, causing enormous devastation. Great fires were still burning at the end of the next day, and reconnaissance aircraft reported vast clouds of smoke four miles high. Important electrical works and plants were badly damaged, and railway stations were wrecked. The first picture is a reconnaissance photograph which reveals 100 fires still burning and shows distinctive features of the city: 1, River Spree; 2, two “flak” towers; 3, Zoo station; 4, Augusta Victoria Platz; 5, Grosse Stern; 6, Tiergarten. Second, women leaving the city; third, women sleeping out.


{1006}{1007}

The people of Berlin get
a taste of their own medicine
August 31, 1943

THE BATTLE OF BERLIN

In just over a week after the big attack with 1,700 tons of bombs, a great force of R.A.F. bombers carried out on August 31 another devastating onslaught on Berlin. This time the attack lasted forty-five minutes, and 1,000 tons of high-explosive and incendiary bombs were dropped. Forty-seven British planes were lost. Numbers of the German night fighters were shot down by the bombers. Pictures show scenes in the city and outskirts on the days following the raid by the R.A.F.; first, Berliners having a meal in the open air, with a large burned-out building in the background; second, bombed-out people living in the woods outside the city where light wooden shacks were hurriedly put together to shelter citizens whose houses had been destroyed; third, an emergency kitchen in the capital.


{1008}{1009}

Russian thrusts towards Bryansk and Kharkov
August 12-14, 1943

NEW SUCCESSES BY RED ARMY

The Russians followed up their success at Orel and Byelgorod with with a six-mile advance on August 6 when they reoccupied over seventy inhabited places. On both the Bryansk and Kharkov fronts the Germans were driven back in hopeless disorder as the Russian advances gained momentum. On August 12, after defeating strong enemy counter-attacks, the Red Army recaptured Chuguyev, an important German base twenty miles south-east of Kharkov, and two days later bitter street fighting was raging in the northern suburbs of the city. The victory at Chuguyev was swiftly succeeded by fresh advances on the Bryansk front, where the Russians liberated yet another sixty localities including the towns of Aktinino and Novlya, a junction of the Bryansk-Kharkov and the Bryansk-Konotop railways. For several days the enemy launched one counter-attack after another, throwing in huge tank and infantry forces, and although their fury temporarily held up the Red Army they were all repulsed. With losses estimated at 4,000 men a day the Germans began to show signs of exhaustion. Meanwhile, they were subjected to heavy air blows. The picture shows Russian infantrymen chasing the enemy.


{1010}{1011}

The Red army again liberates Kharkov
August 23, 1943

RED ARMY RECAPTURES KHARKOV

During the course of the war between Russia and Germany, Kharkov, the second largest city of the Soviet Union, had been four times captured. Twice the inhabitants of the city had known the bitterness of subjection to the German invaders. After retaking Rostov in February, the Red Army had delivered Kharkov. But they had been unable to hold the city. On March 15 the Germans again entered Kharkov, and made it one of the most important bastions of the summer campaign. They strove hard to keep the city, but despite all their efforts the Russians attacked desperately time and again, pressing their attacks on three sides with such success that eventually they had all but ringed the city, leaving the enemy the use of only one railway. Thus they forced the Germans to evacuate Kharkov and to retreat, and on August 23 the city was liberated. The map shows limit of Russian summer advance. Second, Germans retreat from Orel; third, a bridge blown up by the enemy.


{1012}{1013}

Russian counter-offensive scores on Ukrainian front
August 23-30, 1943

GERMANS RETREAT ALONG WHOLE RUSSIAN FRONT

During the last days of August the Red Army improved its positions along a vast front from the Smolensk area to the Sea of Azov. Progress was especially good on the Kharkov front where, on August 27, the Russians reoccupied Kotelva, sixty miles west of Kharkov. Meanwhile, our victorious Allies pressed on to Taganrog, the important Sea of Azov port. Pictures show: first, a German outside a blazing farmstead; second, a Russian family returns home.


{1014}{1015}

Allied pressure increases
in the North and South Pacific
August 15-20, 1943

ALLIES ADVANCE IN THE PACIFIC

After landings which began on August 15, the island of Kiska in the North Pacific was retaken by United States and Canadian forces. The loss of Attu by the Japanese had jeopardized the enemy’s supply lines and rendered enemy positions on Kiska hazardous, and Japanese troops evacuated the island under cover of fog. Far South, in the South-West Pacific, the Allies made good progress in New Guinea, employing their superiority in the air to smash the important airfields of Lae so thoroughly that the Japanese were unable to make use of them for any effective retaliation. This terrific “softening” of Lae was carried out systematically by U.S. heavy bombers, Liberators and Fortresses, in preparation for invasion. The Allies were determined to secure the great advantages of the harbor and airfields of Lae. First, bombs bursting on a Jap airfield at Lae; second, United States troops land on Kiska Island; third, two midget submarines abandoned by the Japanese.


{1016}

Allies occupy an island in the North Pacific
August 15, 1943

LAUNCHING ATTACK ON KISKA

Members of the joint American-Canadian force look over the rail of their landing craft toward comrades climbing the barren slopes contiguous to the harbor in which the attack was launched against Kiska at dawn, only to discover that the Japanese had fled under cover of fog.


{1017}

Coast Guardsmen come ashore at Kiska
August, 1943

AMPHIBIOUS OPERATIONS

An LST (Landing Ship, Tanks) with open bow doors, is shown in operation during the invasion of Kiska in this photograph by a U.S. Coast Guard officer whose ship participated in the unopposed occupation of this important Japanese-held base in the Aleutian Islands.


{1018}{1019}

Coast Guardsmen participate in
invasion operations in Aleutians
August 15, 1943

COMING ASHORE AT KISKA

The bow doors of two LSTs that have disgorged their cargoes of men and equipment yawn open at Kiska. Hitherto a secret, this photograph by a United States Coast Guard officer was among the first to be released showing the open bow doors of LSTs (Landing ship, tanks). The opening bow doors are probably the most revolutionary development in amphibious operations in modern warfare. The ships were so constructed that they could practically land at any selected spot, when the bow doors would open and men and equipment roll off as from a bridge and without any delay.


{1020}{1021}

Nazi fears of invasion mount as fourth year ends
August, 1943

FORTRESS WALL OF EUROPE

The German nation had become very apprehensive about Allied invasion, and leading German speakers boasted that their fortifications and coast defenses on the coasts of the Atlantic and the Mediterranean were impregnable. Parties of press correspondents were conducted over these defenses, and returned to bolster up morale by repeating these boasts and assuring the German people that a successful invasion was impossible. Although their defenses were immensely strong, the German claim that they could be equally strong along the whole coast line was ridiculous. These defenses included natural caverns on the coast, which the Germans had made invulnerable to bombing attacks from the air; first, gigantic guns in immensely strong positions; second, massed anti-tank obstacles, road blocks, entrenchments, and minefields. Huge bomb-proof shelters of steel and concrete were erected to house U-boats. Many of these positions were built by labor from the occupied countries.


{1022}{1023}

Invasion of Italy steals the spotlight as fourth year ends
September 2, 1943

NEXT MEDITERRANEAN PHASE

British troops at Catania ready for the invasion of the Italian mainland.


{1024}

NOW THOSE WHO SOWED THE WIND
ARE REAPING THE WHIRLWIND

“There is no halting place at this point. We have now reached a point in the journey where there can be no pause. We must go on.”

Extract from Winston Churchill’s speech of September 6, 1943.

The Indonesian Phillatelic Gems Collections

THE INDONESIAN PHILLATELIC GEMS COLLECTIONS

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

Number One

Dai Nippon Occupatiions Rising star or solar  Lombok Surcharge

for more info look the collections of east marien  naval Dai nippon occupations overprint included the Lombok solar choped on Kon 10cent courtecy dai Nippon Clun Netherland below

Dr Iwan had ever seen  a postally used cover with this rarest stamps  Dai nippon Solar Lombok stamps belongin to in memoriamMr Zakir ex the chief PTT Soematra Boekittinggi PTT and

other dai Nippon naval area postal used card also very rare

 

 

Number  two

 

  • bezj5a

The Postally used dai Nippon Occupation Flores Nippon Kite surcharge postal stationer card

look the sample pf cover at the front cover of JR Niewkerk Dai Nippon Postalhistory Book below

Number Three

 

The Block eight mint Surakarta military stamps 1949 and the postally used on Covers

Number Four

 

The Block 20 mint DEI first stamps willem III unperforated.also

 

postally used cover

Number Five

 

The Full sheet 50 stamps  used the

second DEI stamps Willem III perforated

Number Six

The Koninnerburg 35 cent postally used cover

Number Seventh

 

 
 
 

postally used West sumatra one years and two years  Indonesian Independennt proclamations 19456 and 1947

Number Eight

 

the earliest nri sumatra typewriter overprint republik indonesia on Dai nippon stmaps in Middle sumatra bagan si-api api

the earliest nri sumatra typewriter overprint republik indonesia on Dai nippon stmaps in Middle sumatra bagan si-api api

The Middle Sumatra type machine overprint Republik Indonesia  on definitive dai nippon  sumatra stamps overprint hand

Number nine

 

The Overprint NRI west sumatra on dai Nippon stamps used as emergency revenue in 1946 complete on Document

Number Ten

 

The postally used  cover   pre stamped landmail on cover

Number eleventh

Number tweleve

The Postaly used dai nippon occupation overprint Bencoolen David star on DEI Stamps,and other are like Djambi NIPPON MA, SOUTH SUMATRA POSTMASTER RING CHOPED ON dei STAMPS LIKE

TJOEROEP(NOW CURUP NEAR BENGKULU)

 postmater palembang IP Lengkong(IPL) ring signet overprint

 

1943 (Dec 1), cover from Palembang to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 7SS1. Bulterman 69), a 10¢ on 12½¢ revalued postal entire with IP Lengkong signet ring, franked with additional 5¢ (2) and 10¢ Netherlands Indies adhesives, each bearing signet strikes in blue or red, to registered, censored cover used to Japan. Fresh and Very fine, a tremendous rarity and major exhibition piece

Number Thirteen

The ppostally used on cover  Dai Nippon  occupations south Sumatra ring and hand signed Overprint  on DEI Kon 10cent from IPL Palembang, the chief of postal office Martapura Boestami,etc

Number fourtheen

The Postally Used on cover NRI Sumatra overprint from regional  west sumatra.south Sumatra  and Lampong

Number Fifteen

the unissued Salak stamps’

Number sicteenth

Indonesia Prestamped Cover,like

the private Watson and Co Batavia postal servive in 1846

also

The Dai Nippon Occupation overprint Sumatra Area on cover like

 

Lampong

 

the end @ copyright 2012

 

 

 

 

The Indonesian Independent Revolution and War History Collection CD-ROM part July-August 1945

Congatulations indonesian Independent Proclamation august,17th.1945-2012
Dirgahayu Hari kemerdekaan RI ke 67
Semata HUt Kemerdekaan RI
please look the special dr Iwan collectoions exhibition below,the part of e-book in D-ROM:”tHE iNDONESIAN iNDEPENDENT REVOLUTIONS aND wAR hISTORY COLLECTIONS 1945-1950, SAYA MENGUCAPKAN SLEMAT MENYAKSIKAN PAMERAN KECIOL INI, SALAM
dR iWAN SUWANDY,mha

This exhibition as the promotion of dr iwan E-Book In CD-ROM

‘THE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENT REVOLUTION AND WAR 1945-1950″

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Limited pruvate E-BOOK in CD ROM Edition

Copyright@2012

kotak rokok masa perang kemrdekaan di sumatra,salah satu koleksi langka yang ditampilkan dalam buku saya

SEKALI MERDEKA TETAP MERDEKA

 Independent day august,17th.1945

 

 

” Saudara-saudara sekalian.

saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha penting dalah sejarah kita.

Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa indonesia telah bejuang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan beratus-rqatus tahun !

Gelombang aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naik dan turunnya,tetapi jiwa kita tetap menujuu ke arah cita-cita.

Juga didalm zanman Jepang , usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-henti. di dalam zaman Jepang itu,tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka, tetapi pada hakekatnya tetap kita menyusun tenaga sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.

Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dn nasib tanah air didalam tangan kita sendiri.

Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapt berdiri dengan kuatnya.

Maka,kami tadi malam telah menadakan musyawarah dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia dari seluru Indonesia .

Permusyawaratan ity seiiya sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan itu.

Saudara-saudara dengan ini,kami menyatakan kebulatan tekat itu.

Dengarlah proklamasi kami.

PROKLAMASI

Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo sesingkat-singkatnya.

 

Jakarta,17 Agustus 1945

Atan nama Bangsa Indonesia

Soekarno -Hatta

Singkat,hanya dua kalimat,tidak sampai 30 kata.

Kata-kata sederhana dipilih dengan cermat,netral,tidak emosional,tidak menghasut,suatu pemberitahuan yang tidak menyinggung siapapun.

Ditujukan kepada bangsa sendiri dan kepada seluruh dunia.Bahwa,mulai saat ini,Indonesia bangsa merdeka.

Pemindahan kekuasaan dan bukan pengambilalihan kekuasaan dari siapapun. Diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama maksunya teratur dan bukan semerawutan.Dalam tempo yang sesingkat=singkatnya artinya sebelum siapapun datang atau datang kembali untuk meniadakan kemerdekaan kita.Disusul dengan kata-kata penutup yang juga singkat dan tenang,tapi jelas.

Demikianlah saudara-saudar .Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Kita sekarang telah merdeka.

Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita.Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara kita.Negara Merdeka.

Negara Republik Indonesia.Merdeka,kekal,dan abadi. Insyaalah Tuhan memberkahi kemerdekaan itu(diturunkan dari himpunan Peraturan Perundangan-Undangan RI ,1989 Jakrta.penusun dan penerbit PT Ichtiar Baru-van Hoeve)

After that Latief Hendranigrat with Peta Uniform mengerek(up) the Red and white flag with penghormatan (honour to ) .The Indonesian national anthem sing spontanously together without derigent(conductor0 .

The ceremony simple without protocoler, dihadiri only by hundreds people,with their ordinary shirt,without pasukan kehormatan(Honouraly ),without music corps,without radio journalist and without reception because that time Ramadhan month(puasa,feast) every bodies proud  and many cries.

No Dai nippon Kempetai attack ,although the Banteng Movement(Barisan banteng) Had already exist to protect command by Dr Muwardi and Sudiro with young man militan included the Medical Doctor student  in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from their headquaters(Markas) at Prapatan 10 street

 

The Informations above always seeden in Indonesia exhibition,but the complete info in CD-ROM many unpublished info and illustrations exist.

Because too many of my frined still didn’t bought the original complete CD-ROM due to the many problem , I will show the list of Info part July-August 1945

Especially for my new friend Dr Eko Prasetyo manado,and Mr Richard susilo Tokyo

I hope after read this Informations they will bought the limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM

RTHE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENT RECVOLUTION AND WAR 1945-1950

Let read carefully

1.July 1945

Dalam konferensi tanggal 21-23 Juli 1945

 masalah pendirian kembali CPN tidak lagi didiskusikan. Perdebatann yang agak sengit berkisar pada masalah pertanggung-jawaban, mencari siapa yang salah dan masalah-masalah pribadi.

Akhirnya dilakukan pemilihan pimpinan Partai dengan hasil pengikut De Groot mendapat mayoritas. De Groot berhasil bertahan berkat oposisi yang tampil compang-camping dan tidak taktis serta manuvernya yang cekatan dan menyakinkan.

 

Dalam hubungan di Belanda pendapat Roestam tidak sesuai dengan suasana “De Waarheid” dan juga PI yang diwakili oleh Setiadjit yang pada tahun 1944 duduk dalam Indische Commissie untuk perjuangan bersama yang dalam bulan Maret 1945 mengeluarkan pernyataan “Voor de bevrijding van Indonesie” (untuk Kemerdekaan Indonesia).

Ini merupakan pernyataan persetujuannya untuk bergabung dengan sukarela dalam suatu “vernieuwd gemenebest (persemakmuran bersama yang diperbaharui) dan akhirnya menyerukan agar “bekerja dengan sukarela” untuk memerdekaakan Indonesia dan bahkan menolak pengiriman “tentara milisi”.

 

Bagi de Groot dan kawan-kawan yang ingin menyebarluaskan gambaran tentang Gerakan De Waarheid/CPN yang moderat secara nasional,

 

 

 

visi Roestam Effendi

 tidak bisa diterima sama sekali

 

 

 

 World War II in the Pacific

General George C. Marshall
at Potsdam Conference July 1945
:

At the Potsdam Conference July 1945
General George C. Marshall, US Army Chief of Staff, agreed to transfer Java and nearby islands to the British Southeast Asia command raising the anger of General McArthur who planned the restoration of the Dutch government.

 
 

 

Potsdam, Germany July 1945
Those present are (from left to right):
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee;
U.S. President Harry S. Truman;
Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.

 

(Seated, left to right):
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee;
U.S. President Harry S. Truman;
Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
Standing (left ot right):
Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, USN, Truman’s
Chief of Staff; British Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin;
U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes;
Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov

   
 

The Potsdam Conference
July 17-August 2, 1945

was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzolern, in Potsdam, Germany.August 2, 1945. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Stalin, Churchill, and Truman—as well as Attlee,
who replaced Churchill after the Labour Party’s defeat of the Conservatives in the 1945 general election—
had gathered to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on May 8 (V-E Day).
The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties
issues, and countering the effects of war

 

July 1945

UK PM Clement Attlee, US President Harry S. Truman and USSR General Secretary Joseph Stalin
at the Potsdam Conference deciding the world’s fate

 

General McArthur’s reaction:

“After the Borneo campaign, I had planned to proceed with the Australian troops
to Java and to retake the Netherlands East Indies. Then, as in New Guinea, restoration
of Dutch government would have brought the return of orderly adninistration and law.
But for reasons I have never been able to discover, the proposed movement was vetoed
by Washington – even in the face of my assurances that its full success was certain at minor cost

 

(2)In July 1945 

Daan Mogot graduated from PETA

During the Japanese occupation, Daan Mogot entered the military organization formed by native Japanese in Java, the Defenders of the Homeland or PETA. The year was 1942, he became a member of PETA’s first generation. Daan Mogot actual age has not been determined eligible by the Japanese of 18 years. At that time he was 14 years old.

Because of his accomplishments, he was appointed manager of PETA members in Bali, then moved in Jakarta. When I was in Bali, he got two true friends of Kemal Idris and Zulkifli Lubis.

Those from Japan Seinen Dojo instructor was appointed as a Assistant Instructor. Therefore, training will be given to them much lighter than had ever received training at the Dojo in Tangerang Seinen. Education and training can be accomplished through four generations. The first batch started in December 1943 and the fourth generation, the last completed month of July 1945, before the Japanese surrender to the Allies on August 15, 1945.

There are 50 people taken from the first batch of trainees to attend educational “guerilla warfare” under the command of Captain Yanagawa. Among those who participated a special exercise that is Daan Mogot, Kemal Idris, Zulkifli Lubis, Kusno Wibowo, Sabirin Mukhtar, Syatibi and Effendi. The type of exercise is given, among others, how to maintain a dove, because birds that can be used for communication devices. In addition they are trained how to use a good weapon to face the opponent.

After the 50th person inducted into the officer, they no longer served as an Assistant Instructor, but a shodancho.

Once inducted into PETA officers, each officer returned to his native region. In Bali, Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis and Kemal Idris, along with several other officers set up PETA and PETA train candidates in there.

The reason Japan founded PETA in Bali because Bali is considered a defense areas and landing sites.

For that power is prepared, especially in the Nagara and Klungkung. Japan gives credence to the Daan Mogot train in Tabanan, Kemal Idris in the Nagara and Zulkifli Lubis in Klungkung.

 Although the three friends separated their posts, but they always make contact, either discuss matters relating to training as well as about the fate of people who are suffering under the soles of the invaders.

Specific training activities when it is preparing to face an enemy attack the defense on the beach. During the year the shodancho in Bali is doing well. The next year they should be separated.

 Four people shodancho should go back to Java, while Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis, and Kemal Idris, who stayed.

 They act as instructors PETA, provide training to prospective officers until they are proficient in various fields of the army.

Daan Mogot is famous in the history of the revolution time of war to maintain the independence of Indonesia in fighting in the forest-Serpong, Tangerang Banten Lengkong, when the Military Academy Midshipman Tangerang he leads try to seize weapons from the Japanese army on 25 January 1946.

Ironically, while he struggled to maintain the independence of Indonesia even willingly fall on the battlefield, his father was killed by robbers who thinks “people Manado” (Minahasa people) as londoh-londoh (minions) the Netherlands.

One time, Major Daan Mogot meet with his cousin Alex Kawilarang. Wearing a green cap, he was down on his motorcycle. 17-year-old youth was later picked up by Alex on the roadside, and he showed the face of joy. A warm meeting place.

Then they chatted in the house. Daan Mogot told me that he now lives in New Asem Jalan, riding on the family Singgih. Immediately disambungnya story of the struggle. About the attacks in Pondok Gede.

 He is also a story about his father who had just killed, is not known with certainty by whom. “A lot of true anarchy going on here,” said Alex. “Indeed, it is a must Torang clean up. Therefore, the weapon must be in the hands of Torang pe “continued Daan. He said again to Alex, “Torang, people of Manado, do not do the absurd. Caution, caution! Torang must actually demonstrate, at the side where we are. “

Then Daan also talked about his thoughts on a college to educate the youth who want to become soldiers, who later turned out to happen, is the establishment of “military academy” (military academy) on November 18, 1945 in Tangerang.

As a sponsor realization of the idea of ​​establishing a military academy school, then on 18 November 1945 he was appointed as Director of the Military Academy Tangerang (MAT) at the time he was 17 years old.

Actually in Yogyakarta also stand Military Academy Yogya (Yogya MA) almost simultaneously, which is dated 5 November 1945. The idea of ​​establishing a military academy is indeed like that be imagined by Daan Mogot.

 

 

 (c)In July 1945,

 

 Sudirman and several other officers maps that include the category of “dangerous” were called to Bogor on the grounds will receive further training.

Only then there is the impression that Japan intends to capture them. Even if they were in Bogor “Advanced Training” was canceled, because the single

 

(1)DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION JAVA’S  JULY 1945 CALENDER

THE  DAI NIPPON MILITARY OCCUPATION JAVA’S CALENDER COLLECTION , JULY  2605 (1945) with few days of August , THE LAST MONTH BEFORE SURRENDER TO THE ALLIED ARMED FORCES, AND THE BACK OF THIS CALENDER A NOTE HANDWRITTEN Married 16/7-1941 no.124 at Soerabaja.

On this Japanese callender,tehre were  the first day of August until 11th August , especially the day of  US “H”Bomb were thrown , Monday ,6th, at  Hirosima and thirsday, 9th, at Nagasaki

 

(, if some have the other month,  August until December ‘s Calender please show us-auth).

 

(2)In July 1945 

Daan Mogot graduated from PETA

During the Japanese occupation, Daan Mogot entered the military organization formed by native Japanese in Java, the Defenders of the Homeland or PETA. The year was 1942, he became a member of PETA’s first generation. Daan Mogot actual age has not been determined eligible by the Japanese of 18 years. At that time he was 14 years old.

Because of his accomplishments, he was appointed manager of PETA members in Bali, then moved in Jakarta. When I was in Bali, he got two true friends of Kemal Idris and Zulkifli Lubis.

Those from Japan Seinen Dojo instructor was appointed as a Assistant Instructor. Therefore, training will be given to them much lighter than had ever received training at the Dojo in Tangerang Seinen. Education and training can be accomplished through four generations. The first batch started in December 1943 and the fourth generation, the last completed month of July 1945, before the Japanese surrender to the Allies on August 15, 1945.

There are 50 people taken from the first batch of trainees to attend educational “guerilla warfare” under the command of Captain Yanagawa. Among those who participated a special exercise that is Daan Mogot, Kemal Idris, Zulkifli Lubis, Kusno Wibowo, Sabirin Mukhtar, Syatibi and Effendi. The type of exercise is given, among others, how to maintain a dove, because birds that can be used for communication devices. In addition they are trained how to use a good weapon to face the opponent.

After the 50th person inducted into the officer, they no longer served as an Assistant Instructor, but a shodancho.

Once inducted into PETA officers, each officer returned to his native region. In Bali, Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis and Kemal Idris, along with several other officers set up PETA and PETA train candidates in there. The reason Japan founded PETA in Bali because Bali is considered a defense areas and landing sites. For that power is prepared, especially in the Nagara and Klungkung. Japan gives credence to the Daan Mogot train in Tabanan, Kemal Idris in the Nagara and Zulkifli Lubis in Klungkung. Although the three friends separated their posts, but they always make contact, either discuss matters relating to training as well as about the fate of people who are suffering under the soles of the invaders. Specific training activities when it is preparing to face an enemy attack the defense on the beach. During the year the shodancho in Bali is doing well. The next year they should be separated. Four people shodancho should go back to Java, while Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis, and Kemal Idris, who stayed. They act as instructors PETA, provide training to prospective officers until they are proficient in various fields of the army.

Daan Mogot is famous in the history of the revolution time of war to maintain the independence of Indonesia in fighting in the forest-Serpong, Tangerang Banten Lengkong, when the Military Academy Midshipman Tangerang he leads try to seize weapons from the Japanese army on 25 January 1946.

Ironically, while he struggled to maintain the independence of Indonesia even willingly fall on the battlefield, his father was killed by robbers who thinks “people Manado” (Minahasa people) as londoh-londoh (minions) the Netherlands.

One time, Major Daan Mogot meet with his cousin Alex Kawilarang. Wearing a green cap, he was down on his motorcycle. 17-year-old youth was later picked up by Alex on the roadside, and he showed the face of joy. A warm meeting place. Then they chatted in the house. Daan Mogot told me that he now lives in New Asem Jalan, riding on the family Singgih. Immediately disambungnya story of the struggle. About the attacks in Pondok Gede. He is also a story about his father who had just killed, is not known with certainty by whom. “A lot of true anarchy going on here,” said Alex. “Indeed, it is a must Torang clean up. Therefore, the weapon must be in the hands of Torang pe “continued Daan. He said again to Alex, “Torang, people of Manado, do not do the absurd. Caution, caution! Torang must actually demonstrate, at the side where we are. “

Then Daan also talked about his thoughts on a college to educate the youth who want to become soldiers, who later turned out to happen, is the establishment of “military academy” (military academy) on November 18, 1945 in Tangerang.

As a sponsor realization of the idea of ​​establishing a military academy school, then on 18 November 1945 he was appointed as Director of the Military Academy Tangerang (MAT) at the time he was 17 years old. Actually in Yogyakarta also stand Military Academy Yogya (Yogya MA) almost simultaneously, which is dated 5 November 1945. The idea of ​​establishing a military academy is indeed like that be imagined by Daan Mogot.

 

 (c)In July 1945,

 Sudirman and several other officers maps that include the category of “dangerous” were called to Bogor on the grounds will receive further training. Only then there is the impression that Japan intends to capture them. Even if they were in Bogor “Advanced Training” was canceled, because the single August 14, 1945 the Japanese had surrendered to the allies. After that Soedirman and his friends returned to the propagators and respectively. At the time of the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia voiced, Sudirman was in Kroja

 

 

 

AUGUST 1945

 

a.Early August 1945:
The Shimoda detachment of the First Special Attack Force (12 Kairyu type midgets) receives a report about the sighting of an American submarine shelling Mikimoto lighthouse, off Shimoda harbor. A Kairyu is diespatched to intercept the submarine, but fails to locate it.

August 14, 1945

the Japanese had surrendered to the allies. After that Soedirman and his friends returned to the propagators and respectively.

 

August ,6th.1945:

At 0815, Colonel (later Brig Gen) Paul W. Tibbetts’ B-29 “Superfortress”, nicknamed “ENOLA GAY”, of the 509th Composite Group, drops the 15-kiloton yield “Little Boy” uranium atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

 

Colonel Tibbetts with B-29 ENOLA GAY

That same day, following TG 35.3′s bombardment of Kushimoto, four Kaitens are deployed from Otsujima base to Tanabe to be attached to the Sixth Special Attack Unit.

August,8th. 1945:
Moscow declares that from 9 August 1945, the Soviet Government will consider itself to be at war with Japan.

 August ,9th.1945:
At 1101, Major (later Brig Gen, ANG) Charles W. Sweeney’s B-29 “BOCKSCAR”, of the 509th Composite Group’s 393rd Bomb Squadron, drops the 21-kiloton yield “Fat Man” plutonium atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. [4]

That same day, carrying out Stalin’s pledge at Yalta, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, CINC, Soviet Far East Forces, launches Operation “August Storm”, the invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria (Manchukuo). The attack is made by three Soviet army groups (“fronts”) comprising 80 divisions of 1.5 million men. In less than two weeks, the Soviets defeat General Yamada Otsuzo’s depleted and ill-equipped Kwantung Army of over 600,000 men. [5]

August,10th. 1945:
Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, if Emperor Hirohito (Showa) is allowed to remain the nominal head of state.

 August,12th. 1945:
The United States announces it will accept the Japanese surrender and that the emperor can remain in a ceremonial capacity.

Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture. That same evening, the Suzaki kaiten detachment of the Eighth Special Attack Unit receives a report about the sighting of an enemy task force off Shionomisaki, Wakayama Prefecture. Based on that information the local IJA commander expects a landing at Tosa Bay the next morning. Two kaitens are immediately dispatched to Tosa Bay and sortie at 0600 the next morning, but fail to locate the enemy and return by 1000.

 August,13th. 1945:
Tokyo. At an evening conference attended by General Umezu Yoshijiro, Chief of the Army General Staff and Admiral Toyoda Soemu (33), (former CO of HYUGA), Chief of the Navy General Staff , the Vice Chief of the NGS, wild-eyed Vice Admiral Onishi Takijiro (40)(former XO of KAGA) proposes “that if we are willing to sacrifice 20 million Japanese lives in special attacks (kamikaze), victory can still be achieved!”

August,14th. 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day.

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks.

 

Emperor Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescrip

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

 

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement

 


Dutch prisoners just after release from a Japanese concentration camp, 1945.Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire.

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August

August,15th.1945

 

 

The rare money order fragment send to Serang CDS 15.8.05 ,and  the date on the  money order 2605,

 

 

 

 

 

.August,17th. 1945

 

 

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

Declaration event

 

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.

.


Provisional guards for President Sukarno, Jakarta, 1945.

 

 

PRANGKO DEFINIT dAI NIPPON SUMATRA DIGUNAKAN DIKANTOR POS pADANG DENGAN STEMPEL DAI NIPPON HURUF KANJI pA-DA-N(G) DENGAN TANGGAL SHOWA 20.8.17 YANG BERARTI 17 AGUSTUS 1945, SAYANG SUDAH DICOPOT DARI SAMPUL, SUART DIKIRIM SAAT KEMERDEKAN INDONESIA DI PROKLAMASI DI jAKARTA, INI KOLEKSI SANGAT HISTORIS, SAAT PROKLAMASI KANTOR POS PADANG MASIH DIKUASAI DAI NIPPON. koleksi ini juga ditampilkan dalam buku Indonesia Independdent revolution and War

 

At the time of the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia voiced, Sudirman was in Kroja

 

 August,18th. 1945:

Ini koleksi kartupos milter jepang yang digunakan dengan prangko pendudkan jepand jawa dikirim dari Djatinegara ke magelang stempelpos 18 agustus 1945.ternyata satu hari setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan kantor pos jatinegara masih dikuasai Dai Nippon

 

 

 

 September,2nd. 1945:

Formal Surrender Ceremonies:

September,15th. 1945:

Cessation of Hostilities:

Surrender(National Archives)

 

B. The chronology of Indonesian Independence Proclamation

a.SUNDAY-AUGUST.12th.1945

__________________________________

On this Japanese callender,tehre were  the first day of August until 11th August , especially the day of  US “H”Bomb were thrown , Monday ,6th, at  Hirosima and thirsday, 9th, at Nagasaki

 

C John Lennon Remembrance in Words for the 60th Anniversary of Hiroshima

     
 
The first atomic bomb
Imagine there’s no Heaven
It’s easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for todayImagine there’s no countries
It isn’t hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peaceYou may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will be as oneImagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the worldYou may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will live as one– Lyrics to “Imagine” by
John Lennon, 1971.
 
A-bomb goes off on Hiroshima
   
 
A watch that survived the blast which stopped at precisely 8:15
 
Devastation in Hiroshima….
   
 
One day after the bomb blast
 
Boy with burned back
   
 
A woman whose face is disfigured from the blast. Later, when the rain would fall, some of the mobile survivors would actually drink the rain water which was poisonous with radiation.
 
Young Japanese boy suffers from radiation burns
   
 
Japanese female whose face is totally disfigured from heat and radiation.
 
Another burn casualty from the A-bomb

 

May Man have learned from the lessons never to repeat again the tragedies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki…

 

 

 

 

 

 

Translate Indonesia:

Manusia mungkin telah belajar dari pelajaran untuk tidak mengulangi lagi

tragedi Hiroshima dan Nagasaki

Bayangkan ada Surga
Sangat mudah jika Anda mencoba
Tidak ada neraka di bawah kita
Di atas kita hanya angkasa
Bayangkan semua orang

Hidup untukBayangan Hari ini

tidak ada negara
Hal ini tidak sulit untuk dilakukan
Tidak ada yang membunuh atau mati
Dan tidak ada agama juga
Bayangkan semua orang
Hidup d
alam Damai Kamu  mungkin mengatakan bahwa saya adalah seorang pemimpi
Tapi aku bukan satu-satunya
Saya harap suatu hari nanti Anda akan bergabung dengan kami
Dan dunia akan menjadi seperti satu
bayangan tidak memiliki harta
Aku ingin tahu apakah Anda dapat
Tidak perlu untuk keserakahan atau kelaparan
Sebuah persaudaraan manusia
Bayangkan semua orang
Berbagi semua
dunia kamu dapat mengatakan bahwa saya adalah seorang pemimpi
Tapi aku bukan satu-satunya
Saya harap suatu hari nanti Anda akan bergabung dengan kami
Dan dunia akan hidup sebagai salah satu-
lirikuntuk “Bayangkan”

oleh
John Lennon, 1971

 

John lennon Record Imagine 1971 Collections

 

 
 
 
 
Target Hiroshima Nagasaki
Dead/Missing 70,000-80,000 35,000-40,000
Wounded 70,000 40,000
Population Density 35,000 per sq mile 65,000 per sq mile
Total Casualties 140,000-150,000 75,000-80,000
Area Destroyed 4.7 sq mile 1.8 sq mile
Attacking Platform 1 B-29 1 B-29
Weapon(s) ‘Tall Boy’ 15 kT
(15,000 tons of TNT)
‘Fat Man’ 21 kT
(21,000 tons of TNT)    
     
  “Ground Zero” at Hiroshima. The A-bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945.JAPAN – The 509th CG B-29 takes off from North Field, Tinian at 0245 hours. At two-minute intervals, 2 observation B-29′s follow. At 0815 hours local, an atomic bomb is released over Hiroshima from 31,600 ft; it explodes 50 seconds later. More than 80% of the city’s buildings are destroyed and over 71,000 people are killed. The B-29 lands on Tinian at 1458 hours followed within the hour by the 2 observation aircraft.– Source: Air War Pacific Chronology: America’s Air War Against Japan in East Asia and the Pacific 1941-1945″ by Eric Hammel, (Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Press, 1988, ISBN 0-935553-26-6)  
     
     
     
       
The atomic bomb used to flatten Nagasaki…  
 
     
   
           

 

Today, Japan does not forget the loss of life and destruction through nuclear weapons…
 
Hiroshima’s A-bomb dome is a constant daily reminder of the consequences of a nuclear bomb
 
A young woman rings the bell on the 60th Anniversary of Hiroshima
 
Japanese visitors at Peace Memorial Park
 
Japanese Youth Rally– they file in a field declaring “Stop Nuclear DU Weapons.”  The hut by the two vans at the top had musicians providing “live” entertainment.

B.THE V. ESBENSEN’S CATALOGUE 1980 OF INDONESIA STRUGGLE FOR INDPENDENCE POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS 1945-19450

After the official end of the war on 15.8.45 the Japanese(Dai Nippon) were instructed to maintain Government service until Allied Forces arrived.Therefore the Dai Nippon Occupation Postal services continue operating after 15.8.45.TGhe Republic Postal services was officially inaugurated on Sumatra sometime during October 1945(the earliest date is note known).

The affect of the change of postal administration started to appear during the first week of November 1945.Thus for the purpose of postal history,the Japanese Occupation postal service ended during October 1945. But the cgange from one postal administration to the next was gradual and the effects of the occupation lasted for about three years.Japanese occupation stamp without Republican overprint were sold at some post offices as late as January or February 1948.The date on which Japanese occupation stamps because invaluid is not know,but it was probably about mid-1948.

Giving exact information about 1945-1949 postal history odf the Republic is practically imposible because nearly all official records were destroyed prior to 1950 and philatelist did not do any serious research inti this postal history while it was still fresh.(Dr Iwan have starting in 1956 until now,and in 1985 had communication and echange info with Mr V.Esbesensen during he stayed at Canada,but in 1994 he moved to Singapore,but he did not want to met Mr Suwito Harsono,and one year after that he was pass away)

It appears that the Republic collected Japanese Occupation stamps at a number of central points.These stamps were then overprinted with Republican overprint and redistributed.However,many stamps without republican overprint also appear to have been redistributed.Thus one can find stamps of Bangka-Billiton Dai Nippon overprint were used in Tapanoeli or middle Sumatra,stamps of overprint Dai Nippon Palembang used in the East Coast province etc.How stamps of Bangka-Billiton came into Republican hands is not clear because the Republic did not control Bnagka-Billiton.

The situation in Java almost same with Sumatra,but in java the Dutch East Indie stamps without queen potriat like dancer stamps never overpr8int by dai Nippon ,also the postal stationer karbouw 31/2 cent,different in Sumatra all kind of DEI stamps were overprint in every province and redidency.

According to a post office circular Dutch east Indies and Japanese Occupation stamps remained valid after the postal service were taken over by the Republic,but the Nederlanda indies and Japanese characters were supposed to be crossed out .

As aresult many different crude overprints were used to cross out the words.It is believed,but cannot be proved.taht most of these overprints were applied to stocks of mint stamps at local post offices before the stamps were sold to the publ8ic(Dr Iwan have the unused stamps sample ).

But in some case it is imposisible to prove wheter an overprint was applied by the postal services(my friend,retires postman told Dr Iwan that the postman used parker ink ),  was applied by the postal services or by a private person.But at that time few people would have bought stamp to keep at home and street mail boxes were probably none existent.Thus the stamps pn most non-phillatelic items would have been purchased and applied when these iyems were brought into a post officed to be mailed.

(Dr Iwan will discussed about the rare philatelic items based on V.Esbensen Catalogue 1980 and other Dai Nippon Club catalogue,the discussion only in the specialist full illustration CD-ROM Only because the common philatelist very difficult to understand if they did not know about the Dai Nippon Occupation Java and Suamtra postal hisyory 1941-1945, for that Dr Iwan asked sorry in the common cheapest CD-ROM this infoo did not exist)

August .14th 1945

(1)14 August 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day. 

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks. 

Emp eror Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescript

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement 

15 August 1945: Cessation of Hostilities:
Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese
Empire.

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August  

Sunday august,12th.1945

When Sukarno,Hatta and Dr R went to Dalat via Singapore  by flight  they stop at singapore

 

Sukarno ,hatta and dr Radjiman flight from Saigon to Singapor at taiping arport

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia, respectively, landed at Taiping airport on 12 August 1945, for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi and Ibrahim Yaacob who were leaders of Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) to talk about the possibility of uniting Malaya with Indonesia (the concept of Indonesia Raya) when the latter achieved independence.

The meeting was arranged by Japanese army officers during World War 2.

Source:Archives: taiping

Monday, August 13th 1945

1)After returning from Dalat to Saigon,we heard that Russia had attacked Manchuria, and thus the blows against Japan were complete,coming from all direction(ibid yazni,page 117)

-Tuesday, August .14th .1945

August,14th.1945

Sukarno,Hatta and Dr Radjiman  Wedijodiningrat were invited by the highest command Japanese Military in east Asia to Dalat (Indochina)

a)to recieved  the decision of  Japanese Government about Indonesia Independence. In the official meeting ,General Terauchi

said :”Depand on your masters to decide when Indodesia will Independent”( Hatta,Legend and reality around Proclamation 17 Agustus,Mimbar Indonesia 17 Agustus 1951,no 32/33)

b) On the 12th of August ( which happened to coincide with may birthday) MARSHAL TERAUCHI told us in Dalat (300 km from Saigon) the decision of the Japanese Government to give up the question of Indonesia’s Independence to the Committee for Preparation of Indonesian Independence.

He said : “It is you gentlemen who are to carry this out, and it is entirely up to you to decide its execution”.

Sukarno then asked :”It is right if we do it a week from now ?

“It is up to you gentlemen” Answered Terauchi.

(Yasni Z,Bung Hatta Anwers,1981,page 116)

Field Marshal Terauchi

(1) ,who waswn’t Indonesian’s  friend ,Independence was forced by the government in Tokyo (gogle,internet).

(2)the vintage photo of Field Marshal Terauchi and his room with Sukarno’s  photo (P,google,internet)

The vintage  photo of Indonesian Proclamators

(1) Sukarno and Hatta during that time.

 

(2) I haven’t found the photo of Dr Radjiman

e) The Vintage picture postcard of Dalat and Saigon cochinchina

(   Emperor Bodai’s palace were in Dalat and used by Marskal Terauchi as Dai Nippon East Asia Command administrations Building, and Saigon after vietnam liberation change name to be Ho Chi Minh City-read the Vietnam Document and Postal History-auth)

1) when back from Dalat to Jakarta (Via Saigon and Singapore-auth),

(1) the three delegations meet with Mr Teuku Hassan,Dr Amir and Mr Abbas  , the member of PPKI (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan) or the committee for the Preparation of Independence from Sumatra, which will departed with us to Djakarta.They have heard that Russian have anounced the War to Japan and  in-vasion Mansjuria(Manchuria), After the discussion we have conclution that the Japanese were falling down  willn’t in month and we must proclaimed Indonesia Independence fastly. ( they don’t know about the US “H”Bomb auth)(Ibid,Hatta,1951)

(2 In the morning of August 14 , before we were to be flown back to Jakarta on a bomber, we met Dr Amir. He asked whether it was true that Russian had attacked Japan in Manchuria ? I said tjat it was right.Then Dr Amir said :” then it won’t be much longer”

I said ,”That’s right.We are not counting in months anymore bur a most in just weeks . Psychollogy Japan had already lost, being attacked from the south and the North”(ibid Yasni ,p-117,1985)

(3)So the three of us (Sukarno,Hatta and Radjiman) started home for Indonesia. In Singapore, we recieved an invitation from the Commander of the Japanese army there) . Delegates from North Sumatra (Dr Amir,Abbas and Hassan) were invited to a party by a lower level of the Japanese army leadership. We were invited by a higher level. It looked as though the Japanese were afraid for us to meet (ibid,Yasni,p 117,1984)

(2 )Sukarno annouced that  Independence will be fastly  in Kemayoran airpot.

(a)After came back at Jakarta, in Kemayoran airport (Kemayoran now the Jakarta Fair area, and Sukarno Hatta international airport in Cengkareng Tangerang-auth), sukarno have said in he front of many peoples “ In before I have said that our Independence  before the “Jagung”  berbuah”or seeds…., now I can concluded that. Independence before “Jagung” were flowered)”  (ibid Hatta,1951)

(b) When we arrived at Kemayoran airpot in Jakarta, we were met by the Gunseikan.

Without going home first, we were taken to the Palace to meet the Gunseikan. We were welcomed with a happy face and clear laughter by the Gunsereikan , and had dinner  with high –ranked  Japanese authoritied, there were even a toast and congratulation overIndonesia Independence” (Yasni,p-117,1984)

(3) Emperor Hirohito asked the Dai Nippon Military  surrendered to allied Army(D) 

(4) Sjahrir Told Hatta that Japanese have aksed peace to Allied Armed Forces and suggest Sukarno annouced via radio Indonesia Independence.

(a)In the afternoon 14th Agustus , Sjahrir came to told me that Japanese have asked peace to Allied, and he asked how about our Independence ? I have aswered our Independence was on our hands.

The Sjahrir’s opinion,that the Indonesia Indepen-dence proclamation  willn’t by the commitee of preparation Indonesian Independecde because the allied Army will said that the  birth of Republic of Indonesia  was made by the Japanese. Better only Sukarno  himself annouced as the  leader under the people’s named via Radio.(ibid,Hatta,1951)

(b) This party was over around 1.30 in the afternoon. Only then did we go home.At Home I found Syahrir waiting. “How was it?”he said .

I said that the japanese had given the matter up to us.  Then Syahrir said that it would be better if the proclamation of Independence  were not made by the Committee for the Preparationb of Independence, because Japan had already surrendered, whilst the Committee were made by Japan. It would be better if the proclamation were made just by Bung Karno.

I said , would he want to do that, because, after all, he was the Chairman of that Committee. I phoned Bung Karno tight away. I asked :”You weren’t asleep yet?”.Bung Karno answered :”No,not yet” Then I said :”Something important has come up, Syahrir and I would like to come now for a few minutes”. Bung karno said :”Alright,please comenow”

Syahrir and I went there immedietely. Bung Karno was waiting for us. Syahrir then suggested that Bung Karno himself should make the proclamation. Sukarno said that, however things might be, it would not be right for him to seize the opportunity himself in this matter without acting together with the Committee.

Syahrir said that with the regard to this matter, Bung Karno should act as leader of the people, while the Committee was made by Japan.

Again Bung Karno said that no matter how things might be, we had cooperated with the Japanese for quite a long time.

Bung Karno also said at that time that he did not yet know for certain and was not yet convinced that the Japanese had surrendered already, as Syahrir said.

“All right then , tommorow,together with Bung Hatta, I’ll go yo the Gunseikanbu to make inquiries; that won’t be too late ,will it?” Bung karno said. Said Syahrir ,”No,that won’t be too late”.(Yasni,1984,p-118)

AUGUST 15th 1945

Money order fragment,destination postal circulaire stamped CDS Serang 20.8.05

 

 

(2) Although Dai Nippon was officially surrendered, the Dai Nippon Military Administration still exist in Indonesia

(,they have waited to give the power to Allied army, but the allied army very late came to Indonesia, that is way the Japanese Military Administration still exist until The British Army under allied army came. The unique and postal  history collection will proved that situation-auth)

1.In 15th August,

(a)the Japanese have asked” Peace” to Allied Armed forces( they didn.t like  to say “Surrendered”,may be they ashamed and still had the power -auth), that is way we dicided

(b) to invited the member of PPPK (Indonesia Independence prepatory Committee) to have the meeting at 10.00 morning in the Sanyo Office at Pejambon 2.

 

(c) Indonesia Indepence Proclamation must be announce as fast as we could, the Indonesia National Basic Law (UUD) must be “Mufakat” without any discussed  and the Indonesia Governerment at Central and Regional area must be done in several days only.

(d) The PPKI’s members from regional area must came back to their area with bring the complete instructions from the Indonesia Independence Government. If they back latetly,may be the Japanese will banned them backhome because the Japanese have the powered from the Allied Army( Jurukuasa  underpower.)

(e) That True Japanese had aggreed Indonesian Independence, but may be the allied army will asked the Japanese army to liquidatied Indonesia and will tried to gave back to Dutch East Indie Government.

(f) Organized revolution must exist, then Indonesion Independence could resisted with all Indonesian people’s struggled. Depend on this ,then I am “menentang” or against the Youngman,Peta and peoples’s “Merebut Kekuasaan” or Fight the Power theory, that suggested in the afternoon by in memoriam Subianto and subadio, the Parlemen’s member now.

(g)The fight of Power must be after the Independence Proclamation by Bung karno via Radio.To the two Men I said that I like Revulution, but against the “Putsch”or Rebellion.The Young men didn’t sustified to this explenation but latter they have said that that were true and Subianto have done my special tasked until he was died in Serpong. (ibid Hatta,1951)

2.The following morning (15th August 1945)

we went to the Gunseikanbu,( Dai nippon Military Administration Headquaters , the present Pertamina building-auth). There was nobody there. Except for a single Lieutenant by the name of Nomura, If I’m not mistaken.

Everybody had been summoned to the Gunserei-kanbu .I thought, the Japanese had indeed already surrendered.

Subardjo, assistant to  Admiral Tadashi Maeda,

 

who was also with us at the time suggested that we go straight away to Admiral Maeda. Which we did, and we met Maeda.(in 1946 Maera was arrested by the Allied army,in 1946 bring backhome to japan as ther retired Navy, and in 1976 he had gave Indonesia Narariya Star Medal  by Indonesian Gverment, and in 1977 he was pass away-info from samsi jacobalis book,2000)

Bung karno asked whether the rumours were true, the Japan had surrendered .Maeda was silent , for sevela minutes he did not anwer and his head was bowed. I pinched Bung Karno and whispered :”It looks as if the rumours are true”

In the end , Maeda drew a long breath and said :” According to Allied broadcasts,yes.But we have not yet recieved any instruction at all from Tokyo. It is those instructions  from Tokyo that are decive”(He didn’t told that The Tenno Haika Hirohito asked the Military to Surrender –auth)

After that we took leave from Maeda. As you know, Bung Karno was Chairman of The Preparatory Commi-tee, I was the Vice Chairmain, and for daily activity Siebardjo assited us. I told Soebardjo to call a meeting of all members of the Prepatory Committee for the morning of 16th August 1945 at Pejambon (now Foreign affair Ministry office-auth) Soebardjo called all the members by phone: they were all staying in the Hotel Des Indes.

(d)In the afternoon of 15th August 1945

Two people came to my house, Soebianto (margono’s son) and soebadio. Both urged me to influence Soekarno to be willing to make the proclamation on behalf ofthe leaders of the people. Not on behalf of the Prepatory Committee, because ita was made by Japan.

I said that this depneded on Soekarno himself. I wondered whether he would want to do what or not. But I was afraid he would not want to, because he was the Chairman of that committee. If be stepped foward alone, he woulkd be usurping other people’s right. Maybe he wouldnot want to do that.

Soebianto and Soebadio continued to press me and said :” If you pres him, of course Bung Karno will do it.”I said :” On what grounds would I press him? He,myself, the member of the Committee, all have worked together with the Japanese, but if there somebody who will make the proclamation who ever never cooperated with the Japanese, it be best for him just vto do it.

We continue to argue, at the end those two people said : “Well, in arevolutionary period, Bung Hatta cannot be brought in.” I answered :” That is not how it is. I am now preparing a revolution. The revolution has not begun yet. We are preparing for it. I don not want to make a Putsch as Hitler did in Germany, which failed . If we act , we must succeed” then the two went away.

It shloud also be said here,that on the night of 15 august, in preparation fdor the meetinmg of the Prepatory Committee next morning in 16 August, I typed out the opening of the Constitution to be used as the text for proclamation.

While I was typing, Soebardjo came in, it was about eight o’clock at night.He said,”Bung Karno is being  attacked by the youth. We should go there together “. So I went in Soebardjo’s car because my driver was not there.Wikana talked a lot. Wikana insisted that the proclamation should be made the same night (The night of August 15th).Soekarno sait it could not de done because it was only tomorrow (August 16th) that we were going to have a meeting. Wikana said, we do not want the proclamation made by the Prepatory Committee is rgarded as made by Japan. I said, if the Prepatory Committee is regarded as made by Japan,Bung Karno and I, and also many other leaders, have been cooperatin with the Japanese for a long time.So if things are like this, it is neccessary to look for somebody to make the proclamation, chosen from among who have never cooperated with the Japanese.

And we will back them up.  But the youth still wanted Bung karno to do it. At the time Wikana said,that, if by twelve midninght Bung karno had not proclaimed the Indepnedence of Indonesia the on the following morning(16 August 1945) there would be bloodshed.Then Bung karno became angry.He stood up straight away and went up to Wikana, and, pointing to his neck, Bung karno said :” Here is my neck. You needn’t wait till tomorrow. Take me down and finishe me off this very night.”

“ Oh,that’s not what I mean,Bung” said Wikana.”Then ,what do you mean ?”.”The people and our youth will rebel and will start killing the Ambonese here”, said Wikana.

Then I put in ,:”Why  the Ambonese? You want to start a revolution, why do it by killing your own people , you want to kill innocent people? He answered :’ Well, the Ambonese are considered to be NICA (Netherlands Indische Civil Agency-auth) , aqccomplices of the Dutch”. I said :” That’s only what people think. For some time already, they have worked together with us, and now you want tokill them? What sort of way is that ?”

TEMPERS WERE RUNNING HIGH, the I SUGGESTED TO Bung Karno that the four of us should talk inside. These four were Bung karno, myself,Dr Boentaran and soebardjo. For fifteen minutes we talked in another room at Pegansaan Timur, I suggested to Bung Karno that he should tell thoise young people to find someone from among themselves who had never cooperated with Japanese to make the proclamation, and we would state we would(shall?) back them up to the full. Let them makes the proclamation.

After about fifteen minutes we came out again and Bung Karno firmly told them so.In turned out that they still wanted Bung Karno to make the proclamation. Not a single one of them was ready or dared do it.

“To nignt we will not come to an agreement. It is useless”’said Bung Karno,”I am determined to go on with the meeting of the Preparatory Commitee tomorrow. Then proceed with the proclamation of Independence. If you do not agree, that’sis your business.I’m not going to take their right for myself. There’s no use in your pressing me, just go home first, and we’ll stop here”(ibid Yasni,1984).

Thursday-AUGUST 16th 1945

1)SUKARNO AND HATTA , IN THIS MORNING AT 4.00 PM carried off  BY SUKARNI CS TO RENGASDENGKLOK .

(1)Vintage Hatta’s version in 1951

At 16 August 1945 ,10.00 morning, all members of PPKI  and several femous man with pers were presented in Pedjambon 2 building, but who weren’t present were…

…..the invitator, Sukarno and Hatta, because they at 4.00 morning they were carried out to Rengasdengklok by Sukarni cs.

Their  reason have told by Sukarni  for bring us,  because Sukarno didn.t proclaimed the Indonesia Indepenced like what their will or  preffered , then the Youngmen , PETA(ex Dainippon defend Homeland army) and peoples will “bertindak” done themself.

In Jakarta will be an Revolution to fight the power from Japanese, that is way Bung karno and us must be flee to Rengasdengklok to administratived the Indonesia Independent Government there.

When heared that , in the front of my face(mind) that the Disasters will happened  to Indonesia, the mad actions of the younmen willn’t succeeded .This  Rebellion will killed the Indonesian Revolution.

At this day , the Hot blood youngmen could not relized their own theory. Rebellion didn’t happened , outside Jakarta theren’t preparations aanymore. The Japanese have ready with their completed war machined to welcome all will be happaned.

In Rengasdengklok weren’t any meeting. There we workless “mengangur” Lost worked one day to saw from far the vision without based with reality.But, if there a place in Indonesia that realy be the fight of the power was at Rengasdengklok. The Rengasdengklok’s PETA have arrested  theJapanese’s  Wedana(Village’s Chief and two or three Japanese”Sakura” who adminstratived the Rice. The Jakarta’s  Syotyokan(Mayor)this day have came to Rengasdengklok to check the Rice stock, he also arrested “coup d’etats .

For Who and under the whomed’s  name the PETA fight the power there? For  and under the name of Indonesian Independence?  Indonesian Independence wasn,t birth this day and There wasn,t exist Indonesia Revolusioner Government.

In the afternoon Mr Subardjo have came as the Gunseibu’s envoy to bring us Home and Sukarni didn’t against that. In the night we came back to Djakarta also with Sutardjo and Sukarn and the Peta asked what about the Wedana, we said released him. At this nignh the the chief of Revolutiuon , will be started, and came back to the hand of Sukarno-Hatta (ibid Hatta,1951)

(2)Later Version By Hatta in 1984

At four o’clock in the morning, after my last meal before sunrise ( this during the Moslem fasting month). Soekarni came to my house with somebody from PETA ( I don’t remenbmber his name anymore) to fetch me.

Soekarni said :”I,m asking you to came with us”. “Where to?” I said.”Out of town” he said.”What are we going out of town for ?”I said again. Soekarni anwered : “ Well, we are going to free Indonesia and continue the Goverment from there, out of town”

”What government, it hasn’t been formed ye t.Independence hasn’t been proclaimed yet, only tomorrow morning. What gouvernment are you talking about?”

“Well that is how it is.This is the decision of the youth. Bung Karno and you aare going to be taken out of town, independence will proclaimed there “ said Soekarni.

I answer ,:” Oh,that’s how it is. What you are trying to do is the same as Hitler’s abortive Putsch in Munich,that is,trying to seize power without any backbone and mature planning” I laso said :” We were gpoing to proclaim our independence and you’re going to make a failure of it”

Soekarni said again :” Well,in any case ,just come with us,Bung. If you don’t come. Bung karno won’t want to come either”

From my house I was tkaen to Bung Karno’shouse. From there Bung Karno, Fatmawati, Guntur, all of us, were taken to the border of Krawang in the direction of Rengasdengklok. Near krawang before turning off to Rengasdengklok, the car stopped. We were removed into a pick-up vehicle. The milk for baby Guntur was left behind in the previous car, which was sent back to Jakarta. Perhaps the reason was to prevent people from knowing where they had taken us. With that pick-up finally arrived in Rengasdengklok.

We were put in the office of the Daidan ( a lower administrative unit of PETA) . We were ordered to sit there. The house was two-storied, upstair seemed to be their bedrooms. We sat there together . Then the Wedana of Rengasdengklok was brought there.He was startled to see us there.

After sitting there for an hour, we were told to move to another house not far away.It seemd to be the house of a Chinese, a landowner herer. We were guarded by a young man with a bambooo spear. Until close to tweleve noon nothing happened . Then I called the guard and asked him to call Soekarni. I said :” The man who brought us here, his name is soekarni,” He still didn’t know. I told him to ask the daidan.

The guard went away, Of course, he should not have left us. But Bung Karno and I told him to go, so he went. Miltarily of course, he was in fact being indisciplinary. Not long after that the guard came back with Soekarni. We asked him :”How is it, have you stated your revolution ? This morning you said that the people would attack.Have the people attacked jakarta yet ?”

He said , there had been no contact with Jakarta,yet. Bung Karno and I told him tophone Jakarta, to contact his headquaters and asked them whether it had taken place or whether it had failed or was it just talk and there had been no realization at all

He went . We waited for a long time. It almost an hour, and still he had not comeback. I thought,  nothing was happenening.

About two o’clock in the afternoon he came back at last and said that he tried to contact Jakarta; it was very difficult to make contacct at first, but at least he had done so,he said.

“And what has happened ? have the people attacked Jakarta ?” .”No,there’s been no attack”,he said.”This morning you said that the people were going to attack and disarm the Japanese, therefore you brought us here. Now,itseems , nothing has happened. So,you’ve failed.” I said.”That is not sure yet.” H e replied.

Thus , we just waited and waited as we had done since morning. All that Bung Karno and I did was to take turns with Fatmawati holding Guntur and trying to quieten him.

 

Guntur with Sukarno and Fatmawati

 

He kept on crying because there was no milk. Fatmawati couldnot feed him and there was no canned milk because it had been left in the car had been sent back to Jakarta that morning.

When it was my turn to be holding Guntur on my lap, he uninated. My trouser were wet and I had no change.So I could not say mt prayers, wheas it was fasting month. Only aound one in the afternoon was atin of milk brought and only then  did Guntur become quiet.

That evening toward six o’clock,Soebardjo came from Jakarta looking for us. He negotiated with the Daidan to take us  back to Jakarta.

First the daidan refused. Soebardjo pointed out “What is the use of detaining Bung karno and Bung Hatta here ? Nothing is happening in Jakarta. It is absolutely queit there. The meeeting this morning was cancelled because you brought Bung Karno and Bung Hatta here. Why must it be like this ?”

When we were to be taken back to Jakarta , i asked jokingly,”Better if we spent the night here, it is ill-time now,” Fatmawati(Soekarno’s wife)protested :”No, the tin of milk for Guntur which the guard brought is finished. Guntur will suffer and will cry again.At least we started for Jakarta.

In the end we were ready again to go back to Jakarta.

Soekarni also went with us.

Funny things happaned also on our way ack. Soekarno,myself and Soebardjo sat in the back in the car, while Soekarni sat in front next to the driver. Fatmawati and Guntur together with Soetardjo were in another car.

On our way to Jakarta before we passed Krawqang, we saw smoke in the distance, said Soekarni :” Now then the people have started to burn down the properties of the Chinese.” Bung Karno told the driver to goon, then to stop for a while when we told the driver to have a look. Laten on, he said it was only the people burning rice straw. We all doubled up with laughter. Soekarni did look slightly embarrassed.

When we reached jakarta, Soetardjo accompanied Fatmawati and Guntur home to 56 pegangsaan street (now Proklamasi street)with their own car ,

Bung Karno and myself ,Soebardjo and soekarni went to my place with our car.

I immediately asked Soebardjo to phone Hotel de Indess  to CALL A MEETING THAT SAME NIGHT OF MEMBERS OF THE PREPATORY COMMITTEE AT MIDNIGHT AT HOTEL das INDES to continue the meeting which had not taken place that morning.look at the picture of Hotel Des Indes  below

 

Those at Hotel des Indes said by phone that for some time past the Japanese has instructed the hotel management sot to allow meetings to be held after ten at night.

Soebardho suggested we try to ask MAEDA’S AGREEMENT TO HOLD THE MEEETING AT HIS HOUSE. We AGREED WITH Soebardjo suggestion.Maeda answered by phone:”He would with pleasure put his house at our disposal for the meeting and he was happy to hear that the two of us had returned to Jakarta. All 21 members were invited to hold that  MIDNIGHT MEETING.

Each of us wanted to go home first since there were still a few hours to go before midnight.”What about me?” asked Soekarni.”You go home too”I said. “But,I can’t go like this, in my PETA uniform”. “Why are you afraid. You took tke risk,you dared make a revolution, why should you be afraid of being arrested by the Japanese?”. In the end i lent him a few clothes, which happened to fiyt. Perhaps a bit tight, but he went home in those cloth. Going back to Jakaeta he was in PETA uniform, although he had no right to them because he was not a member of PETA.

Then there was a telephone call from Miyoshi, my laisson man at the Gunseikanbu, saying that the Sumobucho wanted to see me. I told Miyoshi that we would come around 10. p.m. . After taking bath I phoned Bung Karno to fetch me to go to Maeda’s and the Gunseikan at 10 p.m.

First we went to Maeda’s house and accompanied by Maeda too, we went to the house of the Sumabucho. (Read Dai Nippon Military adminstration Java about the Dai Nippon official goverment-auth) .

Maeda was delighted we were back and shook hands with us. The Sumobucho did not allow the holding of meeting any longer. “What can we do? We have surrendered to the Allies and now we are just tools of the Allies. The Allies instructed us to guard the status quo no changes are to be made anymore.

We immediately answered rather harshy :”You are a Samurai. General Terauchi at Dalat left it to us. What about your oath and your promise as a Samutai to us ?” “We are in a different position now”, he said. “You alway stalk, about your Samurai spirit. Show it to us no”,We retorted.

Bung karno and I indeed used rather harsh words and apparentley Miyoshi refined it translation a little, but eventually, we didn’t achieve anything.

Bung Karno said again :” So, if our youth takes action,will your army shoot them ?” The Sumobucho said :” Yes, we are forced to. Thoses are the Allied instructions, there is nothing esle to be done.”

Maeda went home earlier. He seemed bored by that endless talk. In the end, after about one hour, we also left the house of the Sumobucho and returned to Maeda’s house.Maeda just laughed, saying that the Sumobucho had no standpoint. At the beginning we were five people gathered there, that is,Bung Karno

 

 

, myself(Bung Hatta)

 

, Soebardjo

 

, Sayuti Melik and Soekarni.

We agreed ten to write the text odf the proclamation. I said that the text had been prpared since last night, was at my place. It wasn’t quite ready; I was typing it, when I was taken to Bung Karno’s house.

Bung karno said that we should make just a short text ,” Bung Hatta knows better Indonesian than I do. Think about it and write it down” said Bung Karno.

To think and write at the same time is rather difficult. I’ll think out the sentences and Bung Karno write them down” I said.

Then I spoke the sentences of the draft proclamation, and Bung Karno wrote them down on paper. The two main sentences that i dictated were,” We, the Indonesian peopke, hereby proclaim the Independence of Indonesia. The tranfer of power and the like, matters relating there to will be carried out carefully and in the shortest possible time”

Bung Karno slowly read the text of the proclamation. Tree time he read it. Ultimately everybody agreed unanimously, everybody accepted it happily. Everybody shouter :”Agrreed”.

Then I asked the all saying:” So this is an important document for the history of our nation.Let us all who are present here sign this document . Just as when George Washington made his proclamation, evereybody present signed the document .” Nobody answere. Dilence. Then Soekarni said:” It is not good if all of us sign the document. Soekarno-Hatta is sufficient on behalf of all the people of Indonesia

Everybody was happy. I was rather annoyed, because they were given an opportunity to make history, but didn’it want to take it (may be they were affraid to Japanese ????-auth ,what your comment?). So, it seem they only looked like tigers from the outside. Iapparently they were brave, but in fact they were not).

The meeting was ended, everybody was happy. Maeda

came down from his room upstairs. He shook hands with everybody present. We ordered the btext of the proclamation to be retyped, multiplied and broadcast.

Thus, only that night had the Sunobucho told us that since tweleve noon that day instruction had been recieved by Japan from the Allies that the status quo was not to be changed, and therefore the holding of meetings could not be approved. But Maeda not only gave permission , but even put his house at our disposal for that historic meeting. I think the reason Maeda did that was HIS CONSCIENCE AS SAMURAI SOLDIER HE FELT BOUND BY Japan’s promise, and (perhaps) he felt he was going to punished by the Allies anyway, so it was better to help the wishes of the Indonesian ppeople to reach the treshold of their ieals.

That is my private guess. So, the meeting which was to be held in the morning 0f 16th August 1945 was cancelled which we had been carried off to Rengasdengklok, and it was not true the Japanese prevent it.

It is necessary to note here, which I learnt afterwards, that threre was a proposal by Soekarni which he conveyed through Soebardjo, to add five more names to participate in the signing of the text of the proclamation, but Soebardji did not mention this during the early morning meetin in August 17. Maybe it was because Soekarni had said that night it was enough for just two people to sign it (ibid Yasni,1984).

 

and then typing by Sayuti Melik

 

(In the originnal text, Soekarno writting some off Hatta dictated were stripped and changed from”Af-voi vo q(not clear) change to”Penjerahan”(recapitulation) and then change to”pemindahan”, the word “ dioesahakan’ change to “diselenggarakan” Djakarta 17-8-’05 Wakil2 bangsa Indonesia. This text of Proclamation’s concept than Type by Sayuti Melik with change Djakarta hari 17 Boelan 8 tahoen 05 (japanese year 2605 or 1945) , atas nama bangsa Indonesia(On behalf of Indonesian people ) Soekarno- Hatta, this original concept informed on the merdeka magazine during six moth Independent “Merdeka” by the owner B.M.Diah, and many years keep by him and then after many years he gave back to president Soeharto and now keep in MONAS monument Jakarta-auth)

(3)Other version were written by the Youngmen like Adam Malik,Sukarni,etc but didn’t listed here.

 

AUGUST,17.1945)Batavia, 17th/1945Photo: ABC Press

“Better to the hell than to becolonized again” was painted on a streetcar in Jakarta on 17 August 1945. This is the day of the Proclamasi, the day Sukarno plants the red and white flag in front of his home in Jakarta and proclaims the independent Republic of Indonesia. Two days after the surrender of Japan the situation is chaotic, and the Dutch government is not even inclined to consider acknowledging the republic.

The Indonesians will have to endure two wars and wait for more than four years until sovereignty is officially granted, on 29 December 1949.

______________________________________

DURING AND AFTER INDEPENDENCE PROCLAMATION

IN 17th AUGUST 1945.

A.Samsi Jacobalis ,2000,books info :

In the early moning Chaerul saleh bring  The copy of Indonesian independent proclamotion direct from Maeda house, and the documen gave to Eri sadewo at Prapatan 10 for copying and disebarluaskan after the ceremony at Eat pegangsaan styreet (private documantation by DR.Rushdy Hussein)

Mamahit had met Dr Muwardi the leader of Barisan banteng,he told hi  that Bung Karno this morning still sleep and did’t wat absudr(tak mau diganggu0 becaus eafter backhome fro m maeda house early in the morning his Malaria kambuh(exist again) . He will dibangunkan(call from sleep) about 9 o’clock for preparing himself to read the proclamation(mengucapkan proklamasi).

During proclamation only PPKI member,pejuang and old potiticia generation ,also the memeber of Prapatan 10 and student who live outside asrama ,with peoples. Sayhrir,Chaerul saleh.Sukarni and Adam malik didnot join the proclamation ceremony, Adam Malik in his book said that he didn’t joint (hadir)  because waiting the moment (kesempatan) in Domei for send telegraph about proclamation abroad(menirim berita proklamasi keluar negeri dari kantor berita jepang Domei).

During proclamation ceremony by Bung Karno in the front of his house at Pegangsaan street, the Studet at prapatan 10 jakarta also read the copy of Indonesian Independet Proclamation by Eri Sudewo as  the ceromy Inspectuer (inspektur upacara) ,The command of ceremony salamun,the up of flag Muhardewo.

Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 merupakan tonggak bagi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Proses proklamasi yang berjalan cepat dan agak mendadak mengakibatkan reaksi yang beragam di kalangan masyarakat, pun demikian di kalangan kepolisian.

B.Info Of Indonesian Independent proclamation

(1)From Kuala tungkal Jambi

. August 17, 1945 Proclamation of Independence and Public Speech Kuala Tungkal

Head Office Telegraph Kuala Tungkal H. M. Kurchi / Madiah Syahbandar Kuala Tungkal, always follow the developments within and outside the country through radio broadcasts are heard in secret so as not known by the Japanese authorities. RI heard the news of the proclamation of independence by H. M. Kurchi on August 17, 1945, and then circulated(disebarluaskannya) to community leaders and youth. On August 20, 1945 a number of youth, among others, M. Kasim, Tuhirang Duladji at 07.00 am and flying the red and white flag at the port of Kuala Tungkal, which is then followed by a flag-raising by people in their homes.

(2)The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

(Indonesian: Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi)

was read at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, August 17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia’s independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they had decided to accept 17 August 1945 as Indonesia’s independence date[1]

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed President and Vice-president, respectively, were the document’s signatories.

Declaration event

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.

The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of August 16, by Sukarno, Hatta, and Soebardjo, at Rear-Admiral Maeda (Minoru) Tadashi’s house, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta (now the “Museum of the Declaration of Independence“, JL. Imam Bonjol I, Jakarta).

The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik.[2][3] Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia‘s independence, and had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asia and son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia’s independence, scheduled for August 24.

While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on August 15 following the Nagasaki atomic bombing.

The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Soekarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation’s diversity.

The particular act was apparently inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of Independence. However, the idea was heavily turned down by the radical activists mentioned earlier, arguing that the committee was too closely associated with then soon to be defunct Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue.

Instead, the radical activists demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All parties involved in the historical moment finally agreed on a compromise solution which only included Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers ‘in the name of the nation of Indonesia’

Soekarno had initially wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of Japanese sabotage, the venue was changed to Soekarno’s house at Pegangsaan Timur 56. In fact there was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had already surrendered to the Allies, and the Japanese high command in Indonesia had given their permission for the nation’s independence. The declaration of independence passed without a hitch.

Draft

Indonesian

PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan,d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempoh yang sesingkat-singkatnja

Djakarta (Jakarta), 17-8-45

Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia

Amendments

Three amendments were made to the draft, as follows:

  • tempoh“: changed to “tempo“, both meaning “time period”.
  • 17-8-45: changed to “hari 17, boelan 8, tahoen 05″ (“day 17, month 8, year 05″ of the Japanese sumera calendar); the number “05″ is the short form for 2605.
  • Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia” (Representatives of the people of Indonesian nation): changed to “Atas nama bangsa Indonesia” (“in the name of the nation of Indonesia”).

Final text

The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence

The monument commemorating the Indonesian Declaration of Independence

PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.

Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05Atas nama bangsa Indonesia,

Soekarno/Hatta.

English translation

An English translation published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as of October 1948 included the entire speech as read by Sukarno. It incorporated remarks made immediately prior to and after the actual proclamation. George McTurnan Kahin, a historian on Indonesia, believed that they were omitted from publication in Indonesia either due to Japanese control of media outlets or fear of provoking a harsh Japanese response.[4]

PROCLAMATION

WE THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA HEREBY DECLARE THE INDEPENDENCE OF
INDONESIA. MATTERS WHICH CONCERN THE TRANSFER OF POWER AND
OTHER THINGS WILL BE EXECUTED BY CAREFUL MEANS AND IN THE
SHORTEST POSSIBLE TIME.

DJAKARTA, 17 AUGUST 1945

IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA

SOEKARNO—HATTA

THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

B.Hatta Version

____________________________________________________

SATURDAY, AUGUST. 17th. 1945

________________________________________________

a)Proclamation Preparationed

1) Hatta’s version

(1) vintage version  (ibid,Hatta.1951)

At midnight(r early morning 17th August 1945-auth) , after the meeting with Sumobutjo where the Japanese have been the caretaker under the allied, there were the meeting with all the members of Independence prepatory Committee, the  delegation of Youngmen and people .

In the meeting  depend on the youngmen suggestion have the” round”(all said yes-auth) conclusion that the Indonesia Independent proclamation only sign by Sukarno-Hatta under the name of Indonesia’s nation.(Hatta didn’t told where and how the Independence declaration was produced, may be for the security. The detailed were told later in 1984 –auth.)

(2)later version (ibid,Yusni,1984)

I phoned Bung karno to fetch me to go to Maeda’s and the  Gunseikan at 10.00 PM (August 16th 1945). First we went to Maeda’s house, amd, accompanied by Maeda too, we went to the House of the Sumobucho (where the Gunsereikan, the hignest Dai Nippon military ‘s chief in Java, who know ? please give us information? –auth

The Sumobucho did not allow the holding of meetings any longer.(HE SAID)”‘WHAT CAN WE DO ?We have surrendered to the Allies and now we are just tools of the Allies. The Allies instructed us to guard the status quo, no changes are to be made anymore.”

We also left the house of the Sumobucho  and returned to Maeda’s house. At the beginning we were five people gather there. We agreed then to write the text of the proclamation. Etc read above!LOOK AT THE PHOTO OF BUNG KARNO AND BUNG HATTA IN BUNG KARNO HOUSE JUST BEFORE PROCLAMATIONS *ill.017

Later on, just before the meeting broke up, I asked for food of my before-dawn meal from Maeda. Before I went home in Soekarno’s car, we agreed to meet again at 10.00 a.m. that morning at Pegangsaan Timur , Soekarno,s house , to hold the ceremony of reading the text of the proclamation.

(This was the new information after 43 years independend  in 1984,that only five people in the meeting, and what about the member of Prepatory Committee as told in 1951 ?Hatta din’t mentioned in 1984?-who  have the factual collection about this, please momment- auth)

(3) Other version

Many version depend on the writers, (I haven’t written in this blocked, if someone need please tell us in the comment, and we will write in special topic-auth)

2)Proclamation ceremony

(1)vintage Hatta version

17 Agustus 1945 , 10.00 o,clock (Indonesia time )

the text of Indonesian Independence was proclaimed  to all the people (in the front of Sukarno house,East  Pengasaan street, the house was burned and now become the Pola Buildings and in the the locations was build Proclamation Sukarno-Hatta statue, the lattest locations was moved from the first location –look at the pictured postcard.(MANY MYSTERIOUS GUEST DURING BUNG KARNO READ THE TEXT WITH BUNG HATTA BESIDE HIM, because later many of that mysterious guest behind Bung Hatta were disapeared with black coloue, also the guest behind Bung Karno only Bu Fatmawati Sukarno dan Larief were said, who know the other mysterious gueast plese give info,look carefully the  mysterious guest from the three version  picture from the same photos below:

and compare with the Proclamation statue,the Bung Hatta Position not like  the really during proclamation,he look Bung Karno , look carefully  below:

Hatta didn’t mantioned who read the Text of proclamation Sukarno or another people in  vintage and later version, also in another version by Moerdijanto(1952) “ Ir Sukarno and Drs Moh Hatta , on behalf of Indonesia nation, proclaimed Independence of all Indonesia. After read the proclamation text etc…”  ? please comment and show us your factual collection related to this historic moment, one information  have found , please read (2)- auth)

(2)Merdeka magazine’s version (17 Feb.1946)

The Narasion left of the Proclamation photo( the photo was cutted and the two ladies beside Fatmawati and two men with PETA uniform didn.t seen and not got quality repro.uth) :Your excellency, PJM(Paduka Yang Mulia),Presiden Ir. Soekarno , between  M.Hatta and Colonel Abdul Latief Hendradiningrat (wrong , because that moment he haven’t choose as President snd Abdul latief ex PETA ,didn’t rank Colonel-auth), Proclaimed on Behalf of all peoples(Indonesia) Indonesia Independence.

(3)Vintage  Proclamations day ‘s collections

(a) Document history collection

(1)Until this day I haven’t found the original document related with the text of Indonesia  Independence Proclamations , only Repro photos of Proclamations ceremony  and the Sukarno handwritten ‘s concept WITHOUT SIGN in Merdeka Magazine (feb.1946)

(2) I have seen before a Java characnewspaper date August,17th,2605. without the informations of Proclamation and only the information of the Indonesia Independence preparation Committee. ( if someone have the original document/photos  about the cremony and  the text of Indonesia Independence Proclamation please contact us-auth)

(3) The original photo’s repro of  Indonesia Independence proclamations ,  Sukarno in Complete  White dress with “Kopiah”Cap, was holding bigger paper, not small Independece proclamation’s text, biside him at the left Hatta in white complete Dress and he put his hand back , without “Kopiah”Cap and at the right Abdoel latief Hendraningrat with PETA uniform, was holding Samurai.

They were standing in the front of the House and the vintage  loudspeaker was used.

In the back of repro photo,Violet  Handstamped “Foto Departemen Penerangan,Sumber”Foto Deppen” harus disebutkan jika foto dipakai untuk publikasi apapun. Kode negatip:”(the Photo of Indonesia “Penerangan”Departemen, source “Foto Deppen” must said if the photo was used for publication. Negative Code:

), Biside the stamped, three pen’s handwritten : 3 , R 83-4442 and  ½ Hal. In the biggest photo  we could seen Fatmawati (Sukarno wife, Hatta alone stilln’t married, and ten people , (Who were them ? please comment, because in small photo in another magazine Fatmawati didn’t seen and only five people with civil dress  behind sayuti Melik and  added three men with PETA uniform in the back of Hatta-auth) (page).(D)

in the front of Sukarno House, we can see Hatta  without cap and Soekarno with cap in the right side, and  Abdoel latief Hendradiningrat with PETA uniform and  two youngmen with civil dress (? Who) one  holding  the flag at left, and the other one in the center to pull the string to up the flag , also we can see Fatmawati(Sukarno’s wife who had made the flag)  from behind  Fatmawati with kebaya ,selen-dang on hair and  long stripdesign ‘s wear , and, beside her,  two another women with kebaya dress withoutt selendang on their hairs (who ?), and the leftside were seen  one  civillian’s youngmen (who ?).( who know the persons in the photo, please comment)

(5) The Situation before Independence proclamation ceremony at Pegangsaan Timur (D.Bassa,Merdeka Magazine,Jakarta, 17 February 1946)

In looked at the situation during Independence proclamation at East Pegangsaan , and at that memorable time, the writer was in the center of thousand youngmens.

Long before the ceremony, the sukarno’s house were different than anotther day, everybody who passed in the front of me that time with the meaning of that will be opened the new page of history.

In the front (beranda) and in the center o the house were exist many peoples , included envoys from other indonesian island ( outside Java-auth)  , the member of Independence Preparation Commitee, the other day(16 August)  they haved meeting to choose President and Vice-president Republic of Indonesia( The writer wrong , he didn’t know that the meetinh had cancelled because Sukarno-Hatta bring out to Rengasdengklok by Sukarni and Wikana-auth)

I couldn’t caculated how many youngmen and “Pelopor” guard(Barisan) which still came at this day. (Hatta later’s  information,” There were also rumours that it was(The Independence proclamation-auth) going to be read at Ikada Stadium (now was change to Market).

Therefore, may people went to Ikada, so that only about 100 people were present at the ceremony at Pegangsaan Timur; not many, but it was quite solemn, although it was short and concise.Ibid Yusni,1984,p-129)

Bung Karno and Bung Hatta Had came from the place (“Somewhere”? I think Sukarno stayed in that house because the Independence  Proclamation in the varanda at front of his house-auth) with Their Ex guard from PETA (? WHO) and the Independent Proclamation will fastly done (soon). My Heart Became “quiet” (easy) and “steady” (peace), although before feeled ‘sanctions’ (doubtness), The Independence will annouced “soon”.

The preparations of ceremony were done, the ceremony command’s(R.A.Abdoel Latif Hendraningrat)  words that asked all the participants : Famous men, youngmen and gilrs, the member of “Pelopor” (Barisan Pelopor) etc, to stand with “teratur” and must look atPresident and vice-president (the writers  haved written this article sixt month later, that is way he used the rank that time-aut)

 the ceremony with “Tertib” as still heared in my ear when write this article. He have said :”The People of Independence State must know how to honoured their “Leaders” (the writers used word President and vice prisident, he made the wrong statement again, that time Sukarno-Hatta only the National leaders-auth )

Everybody have done like the Young Opsir’s said . “The Indonesian Leaders Sukarno Hatta” in the front of the youngmen,students and Pelopor which stood in the bigger  “perkarangan” outside of the house were under the undrawned word’s feelling ( tak dapat dilukiskan dengan kata-kata), but deep in my heart I had feeled “Inocent (Kesoetjian) and happiness(kebahagiaan)”

After 55 years,this day,august.18th.2011, someone in Metro television  Jakarta told that he ,name Ilyas Karim still alive now) had “mengibarkan” the Red and white flag during Indonesia Independence Proclamation look the illustration below,a young man with short trouser in the center of the picture beside Abdul Latief Hendranigrat  (with PETA army dress and samurai  sword),also one young man hold the flag still donnot know who,why the man told now? very difficilut to confirmDr Iwan note.

This is the rare picture I have just found,we can see many people in the front of flag pole.who is the women with jilbab who pick the flag an 12 women behind her ,who?and at theother side many young people.who? still more research need,please the family tell me.

(6)Situation during Independence’s Proclamation ceremony (ibid,Basa.D,1946)

The text of Indonesia Independence Proclamation was readed by Dr Moewardi, the  Ceremonial,s Chief, and after that readed together ( by all the participants included Sukarna and Hatta, many years everybody have wrong that Sukarno had read the text, because in 1950 The Radio of Republic  Indonesia (RRI) have produced the record Indonesia National Song”Indonesia Raya” arranged by Indonesian National Police’s band command by in memoriam  R.Sudjasmin with the sound of Sukarno who read the proclamarion text, I have that record. Every morning the RRI have played this record as the started’s song before the beginning of the program -auth)

R.Soewirjo on the behalf of Jakarta city ‘s people, also gave “sambutan”’s word , “We, Indonesian People have choosed our  way to confrontated the difficult situation of this time, that we have dicided as the best and right moment  to proclaimed our  Independence at this day.(Later  he became the first Mayor of Jakarta-auth)

The Ceremonial’s participant have more attantioned when Hatta have came in the front of Microphone  and told about the meaning of Indonesia Independence text.

Soekarno have made the ceremonial’s participant into the  melanchollied’s felling(terharu),  when he said :” After many centuries all of  the people of Indonesia had fighted (became to be reality-auth)  , the duty and loaded (beban)  as the people of Independence’s state have became more heavy.

Sukarno said :”All the people,  at long time  in their heart have the believed  that  the Independence of any nation must be found by the power of their own nation.Sukarno also said “The enemy willn’t declined the “Red-White” Indonesia national’s flag before stepped up the dead-bodies of 70 millions Indonesia People bodies. We only like to see the Red-white flag inclined but not declined . Lets we guarded and  took care the flag still “berkibar”,fleed, until the end of the century  ”

The ceremony were closed with “Soempah Kesetiaan” The loyalty’s of the people and sung the Indonesia  national’s Song “Indonesia Raja” ( the tradition now that the National Song only Sing with or without Band during the inclination of the Flag ,

Only two photos exist taken By Frans mendur until now

From the front

And from the backside of Flag Pole(this photo not many published,may be someone in the picture had the political problem?

 

Photographer Frans Mendur (also Frans Mendoer)

 The writer have said the Song have sung at the end of ceremony after the inclination of the flag,I think that true , because if we look at the historic’s photo by Mendur ‘s brother every bodie’s mouth especially Sukarno and Hatta still closed not sung/open , if   some one have another information please comment-auth.)

The Bung Karno Introduction Said in Indonesia language :

Gentlemen All.I . has, anda-saudara brothers present here to witness an all-important event in our history.
Decades of our nation to independence Indonesia has stragulle our homeland. Rqatus hundreds and even years!
Wave action we are to achieve our independence there were ups and downs, but our souls remain to toward ideals.
Also in   Japan, era,  our efforts to achieve national independence did not halt. in the Japanese era, it seems we rely on them, but in essence we are still preparing its own power, we still believe in the own power .Sekarang it is time we really take the fate of the nation’s homeland dn fate in our own hands.
Only a nation that dared to take fate in own hands, will stand with the strong DAPT.
So, last night we had menadakan deliberations with leaders of the people of Indonesia Indonesia legendary eluruh. Deliberative ity seiiya one word opinion, that now comes the time to declare independence.
Brothers with this, we declare our unanimity embroidery iyu.Dengarlah proclamation.

PROCLAMATION
We the people of Indonesia hereby declare the independence of Indonesia.
The things about the transfer of power and others carried out by carefully and within shortest possible time.

Jakarta, August 17, 1945
Indonesia on behalf of the Nation
Soekarno-Hatta
Brief, only two sentences, not to 30 kata.Kata-simple words carefully chosen, neutral, unemotional, not incite, a notification that does not offend siapapun.Ditujukan to our own people and to all dunia.Bahwa, starting today, Indonesia merdeka.Pemindahan the takeover of power and not from anyone. Organized by regularly and not careful maksunya semerawutan.Dalam tempo shortest = brevity means that before any data or come back to destroy the independence kita.Disusul with words that also cover a brief and quiet, but clear.
So brothers and saudar. We have now been merdeka.Tidak merdeka.Kita now there’s one more ties that bind our land and our nation is currently preparing kita.Mulai State kita.Negara Merdeka.Negara Indonesia.Merdeka Republic, eternal, and immutable . God bless Insyaalah independence (derived from the set of Regulations-Regulations Invitation RI, 1989 Jakrta.penusun and publisher of the New Ichtiar PT-van Hoeve)
After That Latif Hendranigrat with Uniform Map hoist (up) the Red and white flags with honor (honor to). The Indonesian national anthem sing together without derigent spontanously (conductor0.
The simple ceremony without protocoler, Hundreds attended only by people, with ordinary Their shirts, without honor troops (Honouraly), without music corps, without a radio journalist and becaus ethat time without reception of Ramadan month (fasting, Feast) bodies every proud and many cries . No Dai nippon Kempeitai attack, although the Bull Movement (Barisan bull) Had already exist to protect the command by Dr. Muwardi and Sudiro with Youngman militants included the Medicla Doctoral student in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from Their headquaters (Headquarters) at Prapatan 10 street

Original info:

” Saudara-saudara sekalian.Saya telah ,inda saudara-saudar hadir disini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha penting dalah sejarah kita.

Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa indonesia telah bejuang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan beratus-rqatus tahun !

Gelombang aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naik dan turunnya,tetapi jiwa kita tetap menujuu ke arah cita-cita.

Juga didalm zanman Jepang , usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-henti. di dalam zaman Jepang itu,tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka, tetapi pada hakekatnya tetap kita menyusun tenaga sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dn nasib tanah air didalam tangan kita sendiri.

Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapt berdiri dengan kuatnya.

Maka,kami tadi malam telah menadakan musyawarah dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia daris eluruh Indonesia .Permusyawaratan ity seiiya sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan itu.

Saudara-saudara dengan ini,kami menyatakan kebulatan tekat iyu.Dengarlah proklamasi kami.

PROKLAMASI

Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo sesingkat-singkatnya.

 

Jakarta,17 Agustus 1945

Atan nama Bangsa Indonesia

Soekarno -Hatta

Singkat,hanya dua kalimat,tidak sampai 30 kata.Kata-kata sederhana dipilih dengan cermat,netral,tidak emosional,tidak menghasut,suatu pemberitahuan yang tidak menyinggung siapapun.Ditujukan kepada bangsa sendiri dan kepada seluruh dunia.Bahwa,mulai saat ini,Indonesia bangsa merdeka.Pemindahan kekuasaan dan bukan pengambilalihan kekuasaan dari siapapun. Diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama maksunya teratur dan bukan semerawutan.Dalam tempo yang sesingkat=singkatnya artinya sebelum siapapun data atau datang kembali untuk meniadakan kemerdekaan kita.Disusul dengan kata-kata penutup yang juga singkat dan tenang,tapi jelas.

Demikianlah saudara-saudar .Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita.Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara kita.Negara Merdeka.Negara Republik Indonesia.Merdeka,kekal,dan abadi. Insyaalah Tuhan memberkahi kemerdekaan itu(diturunkan dari himpunan Peraturan Perundangan-Undangan RI ,1989 Jakrta.penusun dan penerbit PT Ichtiar Baru-van Hoeve)

After that Latief Hendranigrat with Peta Uniform mengerek(up) the Red and white flag with penghormatan (honour to ) .The Indonesian national anthem sing spontanously together without derigent(conductor0

The ceremony simple without protocoler, dihadiri only by hundreds people,

with their ordinary shirt,without pasukan kehormatan(Honouraly ),

Why rthis photo was cutting?and the women with head cup disappeared who is she?

without music corps,without radio journalist and without reception becaus ethat time Ramadhan month(puasa,feast) every bodies proud and many cries.No Dai nippon Kempetai attack ,although the Banteng Movement(Barisan banteng) Had already exist to protect command by Dr Muwardi and Sudiro with youngman militan included the Medicla Doctor student  in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from their headquaters(Markas) at Prapatan 10 street

3)AFTER PROCLAMATION CEREMONY

After the proclamation of independence 17/8-1945, the youth Jakarta moves to spread the news of the proclamation. Not only the villages in Jakarta, but the various corners of the country. “Better dead than colonized again,” the expression of the people to maintain independence. The situation 63 years ago got hotter when NICA troops allied with the free ride back to Indonesia.
All villages in Jakarta was established fortifications of barbed wire and bamboo spears. So if there are soldiers who entered the village NICA then heard a voice of command: Siaaap. Because of that era is also called the ‘time ready’.

Considering the event has been going 63 years, and have rarely experienced it, let us remind you again how the atrocity NICA soldiers during the revolution. They opened fire on people who look suspicious. To that end, President Sukarno announced so people do not leave the house after eight o’clock. Records in the National Archives of just eight thousand people have been killed between September and December 1945.
 Youths in the village of Kwitang aged 12 -18 years, participated as a student army even if it means carrying bamboo spears.
Many of them breathed her last the bullet NICA. At that time the mother-village kampong setting up soup kitchens for the fighters. Unknown in terms of corruption until they are willing to defend the homeland menymbangkan possessions they have.
Among the most feared fighters Dutch Betawi KH Nur Ali was from Bekasi. Until the Dutch courage to give a great gift for anyone who can catch it live or die. Betawi hero, Imam Syafi’ie collect the thugs Pasar Senen be a scary force the Netherlands. They operate in various neighborhoods in Jakarta

a) VINTAGE VERSION(ibid Hatta,1951)

The youngmen, Student, the Communication official and the writer”wartawan”  of Japanese Domei  announced the text of Indonesian Independence proclamations to all Indonesia.

b) Later Version (ibid Yusni,1984)

Among those present at that midnight meeting were also people from the Japanese news agency Domei in Jakarta. They succeeded in sending the news abroad that very same morning. The outside world was soon informed about this important event.

When they broadcast the news, the announcer’s booth was locked from the inside, to prevent the possibility of disturbance from the Japanese guard.

c)Samsi Jacobalis version(2000):

The Student ‘s attampt to sedn the new about proclamtion abroad trough Dai nippon Doemi radio not succeded. Suyono Martosewoyo which alway stayed at Dr Abdulrahman Saleh house , now that at that house there were the illegal radio broadcast  and with the permission of the owner that radio broadcast , Bung Karno and Bung Hatta were invited to Medical doctor Faculty Campus at Salemba street  for repeat the reading of Indonesian Independent Proclamatiomn  snf speaking(oration) through that illegal radio broadcasting, the instrument were bring to Physiology Laboratorium,where the attampt radio broadcasting had been trail by the student.Also exist Dr Abdulrachman Saleh,Mr Subarjo,Dr Buntaran,Mr Iwan Kusumasumatri,Wangsawijaya Bung hatta secretary,Suyono Martosewoyo .

d) Other Version

Many version have written, but all of the informations without   the factual documents ( that is way willn’t list in this infomation sheets , the factual documens and photos still needed, please comment-auth)

THE POSTAL HISTORY

 During Indonesia Independence

Proclamation day

AUGUST,17th,1945

During Indonesian Independence day Dai Nippon still had power at Postal office ,given by the British allied Forces until they came to Indonesia,

To proved thi situation ,until this day Dr Iwan only have two postally history collections:’

(1)                   Off cover, Dai Nippon  sumatra Definitive stamp,cds Padangin ahow date 20.8.17(17.8.1945)

(2)                 Money order fragment,dai Nippon java stamp CDS Malang 17.8.45

August,18th.1948

(a)The rare dai nippon Postal card, used with add Dai Nippon Java stamp  send from CDS Djatinegara  18.8.45 to Magelang

The next day on August 18, 1945. Japan dissolve Map and stripped of their weapons, then they are sent home to their respective homelands. After the announcement of the formation of BKR, Soedirman trying to gather them back and gather strength People’s Security Agency (BKR). Together with Mr. Resident Banyumas. Iskaq Tjokroadisurjo and several other figures, Soedirman a coup d’etat from the hands of Japan peacefully. Japanese Army Battalion Commander Major Yuda pretty much handed weapons. Therefore BKR Banyumas an entity that has a complete weapon

original info:

Pada bulan Juli 1945, Soedirman dan beberapa orang perwira Peta lainnya yang termasuk kategori “berbahaya” dipanggil ke Bogor dengan alasan akan mendapat latihan lanjutan. Hanya kemudian ada kesan bahwa Jepang berniat untuk menawan mereka. Sekalipun mereka sudah berada di Bogor “Pelatihan Lanjutan” dibatalkan, karena tunggal 14 Agustus 1945 Jepang sudah menyerah kepada sekutu. Sesudah itu Soedirman dan kawan-kawannya kembali lagi ke dai dan masing-masing. Pada saat Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia dikumandangkan, Soedirman berada di Kroya.

Esok harinya tanggal 18 Agustus 1945. Jepang membubarkan Peta dan senjata mereka dilucuti, selanjutnya mereka disuruh pulang ke kampung halaman masing-masing. Setelah pengumuman pembentukan BKR, Soedirman berusaha mengumpulkan mereka kembali dan menghimpun kekuatan Badan Keamanan Rakyat (BKR). Bersama Residen Banyumas Mr. Iskaq Tjokroadisurjo dan beberapa tokoh lainnya, Soedirman melakukan perebutan kekuasaan dari tangan Jepang secara damai. Komandan Batalyon Tentara Jepang Mayor Yuda menyerahkan senjata cukup banyak. Karena itu BKR Banyumas merupakan kesatuan yang memiliki senjata terlengkap.

Agustus,19th.1945

Ingkang Sinuwun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senopati Ing Ngalaga Abdurrahman Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatullah ingkang kaping IX ing Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat,

pada kedudukannya dengan kepercayaan bahwa Sri Paduka Kanjeng Sultan akan mencurahkan segala pikiran,tenaga,jiwa dan raga untuk keselamatan daerah Yogyakarta sebagai bagian Republik Indonesia.

Jakarta 19 Agustus 1945
Jogja berdiri dibelakang Negara Indonesia,… bahkan ketika Belanda masuk lagi ke Indonesia… dan terpaksa Republik ini harus memindahkan Ibukotanya dari Jakarta ke Jogjakarta…. Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX tidak segan-segan membantu …!!! Segala gaji pemerintahan, penyiapan gedung untuk menjalankan roda pemerintahan… dikeluarkan dari ‘kocek pribadi’ Kanjeng Sultan …!!!

Peti-peti duit emas dan gulden… dikeluarkan oleh Kanjeng Sultan… dan Bung Hatta mengetahui sekitar 5 Juta Gulden telah dikeluarkan Kanjeng Sultan …. dan ia pernah menanyakan apakah perlu diganti… ???

Sampai akhir hayatnya… Kanjeng Sultan HB IX… tidak pernah menjawab… seolah mengerti betul akan “sepi ing pamrih rame ing gawe” …!!! Ntaaagh apa jadinya,… jika saat itu Kanjeng Sultan HB IX tidak fully support untuk Ibu Pertiwi ini …. ???

Ada kisah menarik tentang Kanjeng Sultan HB IX setelah pasca Indonesia merdeka… seorang wanita tua pedagang beras sudah biasa ‘nebeng’ jika ada kendaraan yang lewat …!!! Ketika asyik menunggu… kemudian ada Jeep Willys yang lewat… si wanita tua itu menyuruh sang supir… untuk menaikkan karung-karung berasnya… !!! Setelah itu, wanita tua itu nebeng… dan sampai ditempat yang dituju… meminta lagi sang supir untuk menurunkan karung berasnya … !!! Sang supir kembali menurunkan karung-karung beras permintaan wanita tua itu… !!! Kemudian setelah seluruh karung beras diturunkan… wanita tua itu memberikan duit Rp. 1,- namun supir itu menolak… dan langsung melanjutkan perjalanan …!!! Wanita tua itu

Sukarno addressed the youth of Jakarta on Ikada field (now part of Merdeka Square) on 19 August 1945 to inform them on Indonesia’s proclamation of independence

Pada tanggal 19 Agustus 1945 anggota-anggota polisi di markas Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai Semarang menurunkan bendera Hinomaru dan menggantinya dengan Sang Saka Merah Putih secara lancar dan tertib.

August,20th.1945

The postally used dai Nippon Shiokuio Haikyu Humiai private  card send from CDS Semarang 20.8.05  to Bajoeran with dai Nippon Java stamp.Dai Nippon still had power at Semarang Post office

(during dai Nippon occupation,all Dai Nippon office must paid if send letter,except the military post and the postal office,different with Dutch and NRI free _Beabs Bea _Vrij Post)

The letter about Coconut Oil distribution.special for the “pegawai negeri”Civil employee. Price f 0,04 per liter from Syokoku Haikyu Kumia(dai Nippon basic need office like now BULOG- national logistic organization)

 

Note in the letter: attation! When You came please bring this Postcard

August,29th.1945

The very rare earliest Ryo Kano(port had paid) used on the postal used Sumatra 31/2 cent Card to increase the rate of stamps,this done because lack of stamps, and the official chopped with dai Nippon character overprint with blob violet ink ,only one ever seen,send from CDS in katakana dai Nippon Padang 20.8.29(August,29th.1945) to Padang Pandjang west Sumatra.

 

August,21th.1945

Beberapa hari setelah peristiwa pengibaran bendera  di semarang tanggal 19 agustus 1945 , para anggota markas kepolisian Surabaya mengadakan pertemuan yang dipimpin oleh IP.1 M. Jassin dan PIK.1 Soetardjo yang menghasilkan keputusan bahwa para anggota kepolisian bersedia untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan Indonesia

AUGUST,21th,1945

Lintasan Kelahiran POLRI di Sumatera Barat

BirthtrajectoryPoliceinWestSumatra

Police were three friends who like to survive in the city of Padang facing the Allies / Dutch struggle for independence period of 1945-1946. Police Commissioner Johny Anwar, Inspector Pol. Amir Mahmud, Pemb. Inspector Pol. Boer Tamar (Photo: Collection / documentation Adrin Kahar)
 
August 17, 1945, from Jakarta Indonesia echoed the Declaration of Independence by Soekarno-Hatta on behalf of the people of Indonesia. People in West Sumatra is officially not yet able to receive clear information about independent, even though that time Indonesia has the atmosphere of “Dawn of Independence” as it has announced the establishment Investigation Agency Efforts Preparation of Independence (Dokuritsu Zyumbi Chosa Kai) in Jakarta (May 28, 1945 ). The atmosphere at that time still showed the Japanese military government rule, the prisoners of war are released. Units Gyu-gun and Heiho (paramilitary troops and the People’s Voluntary Army Japan) consisting of the sons of Indonesia has been disbanded and the weapons collected by the Japanese. The offices of civil administration and police continue running as usual but the leadership held by the Japanese have been uncertain.

In the town of Padang and surrounding areas in those days there were several police units, such as: West Sumatra Police Residency (Nishi Kaiganshu Keimubu), City Police Padang (Padang Si Keisatususho), Outer City Police Padang (Padang Si-gai Keisat susho) and Forces A Special Police (Tokubetsu Keisat sutai). Padang City Police Office is located in the center of town (now: Police face portion of Padang, Jl. Moh. Yamin). Padang Outer City Police Office on Jl. Teak (now: Police Police Hospital complex Sumatra) and Tokubetsu-tai-based complex in Belantung Catholic Seminary (now: Jos Soedarso complex, Jl. Sudirman). All police units are under the leadership of the Japanese people, except the Outer City Police Padang Indonesia have led people (Keishi Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue).

On August 21, 1945,

 four police officers at the rank of Keishi (Police Commissioner) in West Sumatra, called by Keimubucho (Chief Constable of West Sumatra) and was told that the Greater East Asia War was stopped. Prompted by the Japanese police chief so that all the police weapons were collected. Demand-cho Keimubu it can not be accepted by police officers, instead they demand that the Japanese side immediately hand over the leadership offices to the Indonesian Police. Four Indonesian police officers are: Raden Soelaiman, Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue and Soelaiman Effendi.

on 21 August 1945

It may be noted, that before the flag-raising event in the middle of the city of Padang, has been first hoisted at the headquarters of the Red White BPPI (Balai Pemuda Indonesia Illumination) jl. Mudik market on 21 August 1945

The certificate of the children iisued by dai Nippon Surakarta kooti jimmu kyoku(bagian pencatatan Jiwa)

August,23th.1945

The People’s Safety Agency (BKR), which was formed on August 23, 1945 set up his headquarters in Jalan Cilacap No. 5 for the residency of Jakarta, four days after its formation. Moefreini Moe’min, a former battalion syodancho of Jakarta I was appointed as chairman. A number of officers engaged in it is Singgih, Daan Yahya Kemal Idris, Daan Mogot, Islam Salim, Jopie Bolang, Oetardjo, Sadikin (Cikampek Regiment), Darsono (Cikampek Regiment), and others.

August,23th.1945

The unique scarce Dai Nippon Grogolsuntyo (lurah grogol Jakarta era dai nippon ) ‘s Poor certificate and did not had worked(workless)

August,24th.1945

pada tanggal 21 Agustus empat keishi (komisaris polisi di tingkat Karesidenan) di Padang, yaitu Ahmadin Datuk Berbangso, Kaharudin Datuk Rangkayo Basa, R. Suleiman, dan Sulaiman Effendi setelah mendengar kabar proklamasi telah dikumandangkan langsung memerintahkan anak buahnya untuk mengambil senjata agar tidak disalahgunakan oleh pihak Jepang.

Sedangkan Polisi di ibukota Jakarta lebih belakangan dalam menyatakan bergabung secara resmi kepada republik

The Dai Nippon revenue 15 cent  at Grabag on complete received Money (kwitansi)document for paying Tobacco 933 kg f 1866

August,27th.1945

Only weapons with bamboo spears capitalize the people of Indonesia in Jakarta ready to sacrifice lives to defend the newly proclaimed independence of Bung Karno and Bung Hatta.

 In the picture looks troops BKR (Rows of People’s Security) with bamboo spears on the shoulders of the middle line which is specifically formed on August 27, 1945 in order to face the troops NICA (Netherlands) who came to colonize Indonesia hitchhike back to the Allies (Britain).

on 23-8-1945

The NRI flag –rising in the Outer City Police Station Jalan Jati Padang on 23-8-1945

 


On August 28, 1945 night,

held more talks between the Indonesian side (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin and Soelaiman Effendi) with the Japanese (Keimubu / Police and Honbu / Government) in the way of the Rose (the former British Consulate building, next to the hotel Estuary now).

 

The conclusion that can be pointed out Japan that the Japanese would not surrender to government offices and the police to Indonesia without any provision granted by the Supreme Allied leaders in Singapore.

 

Before the meeting ended the Indonesian side also gave a statement: “Tomorrow we will fly the flag red and white, do not deter the Japanese side.”

 

Towards 22 o’clock hour,

 three police officers were leaving the place of negotiation and the way Rose was escorted by Kenpeitai (Japanese Military Police).

 

Arriving at the intersection of five end Kampong Java, appear motherly (Police Inspector) Bachtaruddin of Tokubetsutai with some young leaders in Padang has been waiting to find out the results of negotiations with the Japanese.

On that night

 Bachtaruddin given the task with the help of the youth mobilize the masses to be present to enliven the red and white flag raising will be done in the Office of Police on the morning of August 29, 1945.


At about 7:00 am on August 29, 1945

 along the north field Nanpo Hodo (now: Imam Bonjol field), from the side post office, front office and front office Police Syuchokan (now: Padang City Hall) visible members of the public lively, young and old, youth groups, including groups of students gathered to watch the ceremony raising / raising the flag on government buildings.


In the meantime the Japanese soldiers armed to the teeth to hold a guard-guard at the crowd around people, but no incidents occurred.

 

Raids flag in front of Padang Police

conducted by members of the police themselves, while raising the flag on the building Syuchokan carried out by young men and a post office in Padang flag was raised by a young man who is actually also PTT postal workers, telegraph and telephone in the city of Padang.(the leader of PTT was Mr Mas Soedibjo) .
After the  flag-raising ceremony in front of Padang City Police Office, on the morning of 29-8-1945 was also an important event is reported by telephone to all Police Regional Office of West Sumatra se, explained also that the leadership of the police was already in the hands of Indonesia.

Instructed the officials of the Indonesian police of the highest rank in the office of District Police to take over the leadership.

The night of 29-8-1945,

starting at 19:00 there was a meeting of senior police officers held at the Office of Police Padang Besar.

Tonight it was agreed that national ice structure and personnel of West Sumatra as follows:
1. Raden Soelaiman, as Chief Constable of West Sumatra, Padang and concurrently Chief of Police
2. Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, as Deputy Chief Constable of West Sumatra;
3. Soelaiman Effendi, as the Head of Administration and concurrently Head of Strategy / Politics at the Office of Police of West Sumatra;
4. Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongues, as the inter-Area Police Officer Consolidation in West Sumatra.
To increase the cadre of middle-power in West Sumatra Police, recruited several youths graduate high school.
Police armed cadres of the first of Padang, which are: Johny Anwar, Amir Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Syawaluddin, Moh. Anhar.

Original info:

Lintasan Kelahiran POLRI di Sumatera Barat 

Tiga sekawan POLRI yang betah bertahan dalam kota Padang menghadapi tentara Sekutu/Belanda, perjuangan kemerdekaan periode 1945-1946. Komisaris Polisi Johny Anwar, Inspektur Pol. Amir Mahmud, Pemb. Inspektur Pol. Boer Tamar (Foto: Koleksi/dokumentasi Adrin Kahar)

 

17 Agustus 1945, dari Jakarta dikumandangkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia oleh Soekarno-Hatta atas nama rakyat Indonesia. Rakyat di Sumatera Barat secara resmi belum dapat menerima informasi yang jelas tentang merdeka, sungguhpun masa itu Indonesia telah dalam suasana “Fajar Kemerdekaan” seperti yang telah diumumkan berdirinya Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan (Dokuritsu Zyumbi Chosa Kai) di Jakarta (28 Mei 1945). Suasana pada waktu itu memperlihatkan masih berkuasanya pemerintahan militer Jepang, para tawanan perangnya sudah dilepaskan. Kesatuan-kesatuan Gyu-gun dan Heiho (Lasykar Rakyat dan Tentara Sukarela Jepang) yang terdiri dari putera-putera Indonesia telah dibubarkan dan senjata-senjata dihimpun oleh pihak Jepang. Kantor-kantor pemerintahan sipil dan polisi tetap berjalan sebagaimana biasa tapi unsur pimpinan yang dipegang oleh Jepang sudah tidak menentu.

Dalam kota Padang dan sekitarnya pada masa itu terdapat beberapa unit kepolisian, seperti: Kepolisian Keresidenan Sumatera Barat (Nishi Kaiganshu Keimubu), Kantor Polisi Kota Padang (Padang Si Keisatususho), Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota (Padang Si-gai Keisat susho) dan Pasukan Istimewa Polisi (Tokubetsu Keisat sutai). Kantor Polisi Kota Padang berlokasi di pusat kota (sekarang: bahagian muka Polres Padang, Jl. Moh. Yamin). Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota di Jl. Jati (sekarang: kompleks Rumah Sakit POLRI Polda Sumbar) dan Tokubetsu-tai bermarkas di kompleks Seminari Katolik di Belantung (sekarang: kompleks Yos Soedarso, Jl. Sudirman). Semua unit-unit kepolisian tersebut dibawah pimpinan orang-orang Jepang, kecuali Polisi Padang Luar Kota mempunyai pimpinan orang Indonesia (Keishi Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa).

Pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945, empat orang perwira polisi yang berpangkat Keishi (Komisaris Polisi) di Sumatera Barat dipanggil oleh Keimubucho (Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat) dan diberi tahu bahwa Perang Asia Timur Raya telah berhenti. Diminta oleh Kepala Polisi Jepang itu supaya semua senjata-senjata polisi dikumpulkan. Permintaan Keimubu-cho itu tidak dapat diterima oleh perwira-perwira polisi tersebut, malah mereka menuntut supaya pihak Jepang segera menyerahkan pimpinan kantor-kantor Polisi kepada orang Indonesia. Empat perwira polisi Indonesia itu adalah: Raden Soelaiman, Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa dan Soelaiman Effendi.

Pada tanggal 28 Agustus 1945 malam, diadakan lagi perundingan antara pihak Indonesia (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin dan Soelaiman Effendi) dengan pihak Jepang (Keimubu/Kepolisian dan Honbu/Pemerintahan) di jalan Mawar (gedung bekas Konsulat Inggris, di sebelah hotel Muara sekarang). Kesimpulan yang dapat dikemukakan Jepang, bahwa pihak Jepang tidak akan menyerahkan kantor-kantor pemerintahan dan kepolisian kepada pihak Indonesia tanpa ada ketentuan yang diberikan oleh Pimpinan Tertinggi Tentara Sekutu di Singapura. Sebelum pertemuan diakhiri pihak Indonesia memberikan pernyataan pula: “Besok kami akan mengibarkan bendera merah putih, janganlah pihak Jepang menghalanginya”. Menjelang jam 22.00, tiga orang perwira polisi tersebut meninggalkan tempat berunding dan jalan Mawar dikawal oleh Kenpeitai (Polisi Tentara Jepang). Sesampai di persimpangan lima ujung Kampung Jawa, kelihatan Keibu (Inspektur Polisi) Bachtaruddin dari Tokubetsutai bersama beberapa orang pimpinan pemuda di Padang telah menunggu untuk mengetahui hasil perundingan dengan pihak Jepang.

Pada malam itu juga Bachtaruddin mendapat tugas dengan bantuan para pemuda-pemuda menge-rahkan massa rakyat untuk hadir meramaikan pengibaran bendera merah putih yang akan dilakukan di Kantor Besar Polisi pada esok pagi 29 Agustus 1945.

Kira-kira jam 07.00 pagi tanggal 29 Agustus 1945 di sepanjang jalan sebelah Utara lapangan Nanpo Hodo (sekarang: lapangan Imam Bonjol), dari samping kantor Pos, di muka kantor Polisi dan di muka kantor Syuchokan (sekarang: Balai Kota Padang) terlihat anggota masyarakat ramai, tua muda, pemuda-pemuda termasuk pelajar-pelajar berkelompok kelompok berkumpul ingin menyaksikan upacara pengibaran/penaikan bendera Merah Putih pada gedung-gedung pemerintah.

Dalam pada itu serdadu-serdadu Jepang bersenjata lengkap meng-adakan penjagaan-penjagaan di keliling keramaian rakyat, namun tidak ada terjadi insiden-insiden. Penggerekan bendera Merah Putih di muka Kantor Polisi Padang dilakukan oleh anggota Polisi sendiri, sedangkan penaikan bendera Merah Putih di gedung Syuchokan dilaksanakan oleh pemuda-pemuda dan yang di kantor Pos Padang bendera Merah Putih dinaikkan oleh pemuda PTT yang sebenarnya adalah juga pegawai pos, telegraf dan telepon di kota Padang. Dapat dicatat, bahwa sebelum terjadi peristiwa penaikan bendera Merah Putih di tengah kota Padang ini, telah lebih dahulu berkibar Merah Putih di markas BPPI (Balai Penerangan Pemuda Indonesia) jl. Pasar Mudik pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945 dan di Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota Jalan Jati pada tanggal 23-8-1945.

 

Seselesainya upacara pengibaran bendera Merah Putih di muka Kantor Polisi Kota Padang, pada pagi 29-8-1945 itu juga peristiwa penting ini diberitakan dengan telepon kepada semua kantor Polisi Wilayah se Sumatera Barat, dijelaskan pula bahwa pimpinan kepolisian sudah berada di tangan orang Indonesia. Diinstruksikan kepada pejabat-pejabat polisi bangsa Indonesia yang tertinggi pangkatnya pada kantor Polisi Wilayah supaya mengambil alih pimpinan.

 

Malam tanggal 29-8-1945, dimulai jam 19.00 diadakan rapat para perwira senior polisi bertempat di Kantor Besar Polisi Kota Padang. Malam itu disepakati susunan dan personalia Polisi RI Sumatera Barat sebagai berikut:

  1. 1.      Raden Soelaiman, sebagai Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat, merangkap Kepala Polisi Kota Padang
  2. 2.     Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, sebagai Wakil Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat;
  3. 3.     Soelaiman Effendi, sebagai Kepala Administrasi merangkap Kepala Siasat/Politik pada Kantor Besar Polisi Sumatera Barat;
  4. 4.     Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa, sebagai Petugas Konsolidasi Kepolisian antar Wilayah di Sumatera Barat.

 

 

Untuk menambah tenaga kader menengah POLRI di Sumatera Barat, direkrut beberapa pemuda-pemuda tamatan sekolah menengah. Kader-kader POLRI angkatan pertama dari Padang ini, diantaranya adalah: Johny Anwar, Amir Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Syawaluddin, Moh. Anhar.

Dr iwan ever met KOMBES POL Johnny Anwar in 1963 during the winner of west sumatra lawn tennis Police open tournament at Padang,his daughter Windy anwar Dr iwan high school classmate at Don Bosco High School Padang.

 

August 18th.1945

PPKI moves to form an interim government with Sukarno as President and Hatta as Vice-President.August 18Piagam Jakarta (Jakarta Charter) mentioning Islam among the Pancasila principles is dropped from the preamble to the new constitution.

August 18

New Republic consists of 8 provinces: Sumatra, Borneo, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Sunda Kecil.August 22Japanese announce their surrender publicly in Jakarta.Japanese forces disarm and disband Peta and Heiho. Many members of these groups have not yet heard of independence.

 

 

August ,23th.1945

Sukarno delivers first radio address to the nation.August 23BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat), first Indonesian military force, begins organizing from former Peta and Heiho members. Some former Peta batallions join as entire units, having been told to disband only a few days before.Dutch forces land at Sabang in Aceh.

August 29th.1945

The New Republic:The constitution that had been drafted by the PPKI preparatory committee, and announced on the 18th, is adopted (UUD 45). Sukarno is declared President, Hatta is declared Vice-President. PPKI (originally BPUPKI, founded under the Japanese occupation the previous March) is remade into KNIP (Central Indonesian National Committee). KNIP is the temporary governing body until elections can be held.

 

 

The new government is installed on August 31.The Patih (chief advisor) of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya dies. No successor is chosen; the Sultan takes charge of his own affairs, and begins to institute reforms in YogyaTan Malaka reappears in Jakarta.

 

Proklamasi: Sukarno at the microphone on August 17, 1945.The original constitution of 1945 is not very specific on many issues, and placed much power in the hands of the President.

 

 

 In 1950 a more comprehensive constitution was adopted that gave the most power to the Assembly, but this constitution was dropped in favor of a return to the 1945 constitution under Sukarno’s orders in 1959.

 

 

In the opinion of the victorious Allied powers in 1945, Lord Mountbatten, the Allied supreme commander in southeast Asia, was in charge of Sumatra and Java. Australian forces were given responsibility for Kalimantan and

.

 

August,29th.1945

The earliest used Dai Nippon Postal Port Choped Ryokin kanno(port have paid) to increase the rate of postal stationer 31/2 cen to 7 cent. Sedn from CDS katakana dai Nippon Pa-Da-n(Padang) 20.8.29 or august,29th.45,and the Dai Nippon official stamped change with English character and dai Nippon character inside the chopped overprint by violet ink(the office were changed.

 

August,30th.1945

daerah lainnya pada pada tanggal 30 Agustus 1945, pernyataan bergabung Polisi Indonesia  dengan NRI  dihasilkan setelah para pegawai polisi tersebut menyatakan bahwa mereka adalah pegawai Republik Indonesia dan tunduk kepada pimpinan nasional

The off cover,block four DEI 5 cent stamps used CDS Tegal 30.8.05(1945) dai Nippon still had power at Tegal Post Office

 

the end @ copyright 2012

The 63th Indonesian Independent proclamation exhibitions

Congatulations indonesian Independent Proclamation august,17th.1945-2012
Dirgahayu Hari kemerdekaan RI ke 67
Semata HUt Kemerdekaan RI
please look the special dr Iwan collectoions exhibition below,the part of e-book in D-ROM:”tHE iNDONESIAN iNDEPENDENT REVOLUTIONS aND wAR hISTORY COLLECTIONS 1945-1950, SAYA MENGUCAPKAN SLEMAT MENYAKSIKAN PAMERAN KECIOL INI, SALAM
dR iWAN SUWANDY,mha

This exhibition as the promotion of dr iwan E-Book In CD-ROM

‘THE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENT REVOLUTION AND WAR 1945-1950″

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Limited pruvate E-BOOK in CD ROM Edition

Copyright@2012

kotak rokok masa perang kemrdekaan di sumatra,salah satu koleksi langka yang ditampilkan dalam buku saya

SEKALI MERDEKA TETAP MERDEKA

 Independent day august,17th.1945

 

 

” Saudara-saudara sekalian.

saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha penting dalah sejarah kita.

Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa indonesia telah bejuang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan beratus-rqatus tahun !

Gelombang aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naik dan turunnya,tetapi jiwa kita tetap menujuu ke arah cita-cita.

Juga didalm zanman Jepang , usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-henti. di dalam zaman Jepang itu,tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka, tetapi pada hakekatnya tetap kita menyusun tenaga sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.

Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dn nasib tanah air didalam tangan kita sendiri.

Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapt berdiri dengan kuatnya.

Maka,kami tadi malam telah menadakan musyawarah dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia dari seluru Indonesia .

Permusyawaratan ity seiiya sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan itu.

Saudara-saudara dengan ini,kami menyatakan kebulatan tekat itu.

Dengarlah proklamasi kami.

PROKLAMASI

Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo sesingkat-singkatnya.

 

Jakarta,17 Agustus 1945

Atan nama Bangsa Indonesia

Soekarno -Hatta

Singkat,hanya dua kalimat,tidak sampai 30 kata.

Kata-kata sederhana dipilih dengan cermat,netral,tidak emosional,tidak menghasut,suatu pemberitahuan yang tidak menyinggung siapapun.

Ditujukan kepada bangsa sendiri dan kepada seluruh dunia.Bahwa,mulai saat ini,Indonesia bangsa merdeka.

Pemindahan kekuasaan dan bukan pengambilalihan kekuasaan dari siapapun. Diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama maksunya teratur dan bukan semerawutan.Dalam tempo yang sesingkat=singkatnya artinya sebelum siapapun datang atau datang kembali untuk meniadakan kemerdekaan kita.Disusul dengan kata-kata penutup yang juga singkat dan tenang,tapi jelas.

Demikianlah saudara-saudar .Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Kita sekarang telah merdeka.

Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita.Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara kita.Negara Merdeka.

Negara Republik Indonesia.Merdeka,kekal,dan abadi. Insyaalah Tuhan memberkahi kemerdekaan itu(diturunkan dari himpunan Peraturan Perundangan-Undangan RI ,1989 Jakrta.penusun dan penerbit PT Ichtiar Baru-van Hoeve)

After that Latief Hendranigrat with Peta Uniform mengerek(up) the Red and white flag with penghormatan (honour to ) .The Indonesian national anthem sing spontanously together without derigent(conductor0 .

The ceremony simple without protocoler, dihadiri only by hundreds people,with their ordinary shirt,without pasukan kehormatan(Honouraly ),without music corps,without radio journalist and without reception because that time Ramadhan month(puasa,feast) every bodies proud  and many cries.

No Dai nippon Kempetai attack ,although the Banteng Movement(Barisan banteng) Had already exist to protect command by Dr Muwardi and Sudiro with young man militan included the Medical Doctor student  in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from their headquaters(Markas) at Prapatan 10 street

 

 one taer independent 1946

two year indepemdemt 1947

THIS THE SAMPLE COLLECTIONS FROM THE  BOOK

WHO WANT TO HAVE THE CD ROM PLEASE  SUBSCRIBE VIA COMMENT

THE LIMITED EDITION ONLY 10 CD

Ini adalah sebagian koleksi dr iwan yang ditampilkan dalam buku Indonesia Independent Revolution and War, ditampilkan di facebook dlam rangka peringatan hari Proklamasi kemerdekaan indonesia yang ke 67 sama dengan usia dr iwan,semoga para pecinta kemerdekaan republik indonesia akan gembira melihatnya, apakah Kick andy ada minat untuk menampilkannya di Metro TV,bila mau harap komunikasi liwat comment

PRANGKO DEFINIT dAI NIPPON SUMATRA DIGUNAKAN DIKANTOR POS pADANG DENGAN STEMPEL DAI NIPPON HURUF KANJI pA-DA-N(G) DENGAN TANGGAL SHOWA 20.8.17 YANG BERARTI 17 AGUSTUS 1945, SAYANG SUDAH DICOPOT DARI SAMPUL, SUART DIKIRIM SAAT KEMERDEKAN INDONESIA DI PROKLAMASI DI jAKARTA, INI KOLEKSI SANGAT HISTORIS, SAAAT PROKLAMASI KANTOR POS PADANG MASIH DIKUASAI DAI NIPPON. koleksi ini juga ditampilkan dalam buku Indonesia Independdent revolution and War

 

Ini koleksi kartupos milter jepang yang digunakan dengan prangko pendudkan jepand jawa dikirim dari Djatinegara ke magelang stempelpos 18 agustus 1945.ternyata satu hari setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan kantor pos jatinegara masih dikuasai Dai Nippon
 
 

    •  buku belanda yang dicoret pejuang kemerdekaan dengan kata DENGAN INI SEMULAI MILIK BELANDA DIKUASAI INDONESIA, SANGAT HISTORIS
      kolksi majalah revolusi langka peringatan enam bulan indonesia merdeka pebruari 1946,koleksi saya ini baru satu yang dilaporkan dan ada ilustrasinay dalam buku saya
      salah satu koleksi meretai revolusi kemerdekaan dari bukittinggi berupa prangko pendudukan jepang dipakai jadi meterai darurat karena belum diterbitkan tahun 1946 diatas dokumen merupakan bukti faktual keberadaan Negara republik indonesia sehingga para kolektor filateli dinegeri belanda telah mengakui peroklamasi kemerdekaan 1945 yang walaupun pemerintahnya khususnya ratu belanda sampai ahri ini belum pernah hadir saat hari proklamasi kemerkaan RI 17 agustus di istana merdeka jakarta,semoga yang mulia melihat buku ini dan illustrasi yang saya tampilkan jadi sadar bahwa indonesia merdeka 17 agustus 1945 adalah suatu kenyataan bukan karangan da n khayalan.koleksi in8i juga ditampilkan dalam buku Indonesia Indepnedent revolution and war
       
      ini suatu koleksi CTO dari Kota padan
      ini isi koleksi langka majallah star weekly 31 agustus 1946 milik saya,yang juga merupakan salah satu isi dari buku Indonesia independent Revolution and War
      g dalam rangka perinagtan satu tahun merdeka 17.8.1945 dibuat oleg kolektor padang gho kong Liang dengan prangko yang asli tetapi distempel kemudian karena saat ini padang sudah dikuasai belanda,inilah salah satu contoh koleksi CTO yang langka.

      Pada tanggal 15 april 1946, saat Tarakan sudah dikuasai tentara belanda NICA,slah seorang anggotanya mengirim surat dengan stempel tarakan 15.4.46 disensor RNF ke Jakarta(batavia) dengan stempel kantor pso pusat yang dikuasai belanda dibagian belakang surat tersebut.

      prangko cetak tindih mesin ketik republ ik indoneia diatas prangko pendudokan jepang definitif 20 cent used diatas guntingan wesel dengan stempel bagansiapi-api adalah prangan revolusi indonesia di sumatera yang paling langka, hanya ada dua satu ini koleksi saya dan satu lagi off cover strip dua koleksi ricardo yang sekarang disimpan di mueum den haag
       

      the earliest nri sumatra typewriter overprint republik indonesia on Dai nippon stmaps in Middle sumatra bagan si-api api

      kartu pos peringatan satu tahun merdeka used satu tahun kemudian dari pariman ke kayutanam,ini diterbitkan kantor sosial sumatera barat thaun 1946,menurut PR Bulterman seluruh kartupos ini disita belanda,hanay satu ini yang terpakai liwat pos,saya menemukannya di Padang,tetapi sudah berpindah tangan kepada Karel dan terakhir dibeli kolektor kaya di USA,ini adalah satu-satunya postally used didunia,ilustrasinya ada dalm buku saya.
      kartu psol langka peringatan indonesia merdeka dua tahun, kartu pos ini yang used hanya satu ini yang baru ditemukan ,mantan koleksi saya saat ini sudah dibeli oleh kolektor kaya dari USA,ilustrasi ini ada dalam buku saya.
      ini buku arsip catatan penerbitan prangko revoludi milik kasntor pos padang yang disimpan bendaharawan pos Pak soewil, ia memuiliki catatan tanggal penerbitan prangko revolusi sumatra di padang lengkap dengan stempel posnya ,ini salah satu contongnya ,sekarang milik dr Iwan

      ini contoh sampul CTO palsu dengan prangko cetak tindih revolusi NRI Sumatera Utara ,dikirim tercatat dengan banyak jenis prsngko tetapi palsu,alamat digunting mungkin pemiliknya malu,biasanya alamatnay ada dua satu kepada pengumpul prangko Medan atau tuan Phoa lim Kway surabaya,para kolektor supaya harti-hati karena saat ini kota medan dan kantor posnya sudah dikuasai belanda,karena itu baca kisah sejarah terkait yang lengkap dan CD-ROM ini

      ini contoh sampul palsu dari medan lihat ratenya tidak cocok dan saat ini kantor pos medan dikuasai belanda

       
      ini prangko revolusi definitif sumatra yang langka dengan warna coklat tua dan cetak cermin strip tiga,ini ditemui dari koleksi pak soewil mantan bendaharawan kantor pos padang saat revolusi yang sudah almarhum,sekarang milik dr iwan yang dibeli dari janda pak soewil dan ank-anaknya,cetak cermin ini hanya ada 10,enam masi ada pada saya dan empat saya jual pada suwito harsono mungkin sudah lari keluar negeri,dan ada dalam katalogus terbitannya.yang stripo tiga hanya ada satu didunia,ada dalm biku saya
      ini koleksi majalah filateli belanda mij stockparje yang memuat prangko revolusi NRI, ini hadiah dari filatei padang almarhum Gho kong Liang kepada saya,koleksi ini sudah sangat sulit ditemukan,karena masa revolusi bila ketemu akan dikatakan mata-mata belanda dengan diiringi tindakan pemmusnahanilustrasi ini juga ada dalm buku saya
      postally used postal card with nRI sumatra stamps tahun 1947 dikirim dari Painan ke Padang,koleksi ini saya temukan dari keluarga bekas kepala kantor pos painan,dan kemudian jadi bendaharwan pos padang saat revolusi terakhir kepala kantor pos teluk bayur,koleksi prabdinya saat ini jadi milik saya,sebagian ditampilkan dalam buku.
      ini koleksi meterai republik Indonesia pertama dari sumatra dalam block mint yang banyak ditemukan dan satu-satunya yang used iatas fragment document baru dua ditemukan
      ini contoh koleksi prangko used mara revolui di sumatra yangdalm fagment dan dilepas dari sampul tanpa cetak tindih dan dengan cetak tindih,saat ini sudah sulit ditemukan dengan kwalitas seperti ini,ini milik dr iwan yang ditampilkan dalam buku
       
      ini salah satu meterai dagang belanda yang dicetak tindih Negara republik Indonesia diatas dokumen tahun 1946,ini salah satu koleksi meterai yang sangat langka,kebanyak sudah dilepas dari dokumen,koleksi ini gambarnya sudah dipinjam J.Vosse untuk ditampilkan dalm katalogus menetrainya yang baru
      ini salah satu koleksi foto bung karno saat revolusi ,miluik dr iwan ,terdiri dalm 10 album foto asli,ini salh sartu contoh yang ditampilkan dalam buku
       
       

      ini salah satu contoh meterai revolusi sumatra cetak tindih meterai dai nippon digunakan di Sumatra barat,koleksi ini terdiri dari satu album mulai dari tahun 1946 sampai 10 desember 1948,ini sebagian diatas fragment dokumen,suatu koleksi lengkap yang langka,ini contoh tahun 1947 ,seluruh koleksi ada dalam buku
       

      ini salah satu koleksi milik dr iwan yanh ditampilkan dalam buku ,meterai revolusi nRI sumatra diats dokumen untuk melegalisir surat oleh kepala kantor pos bukittingi tahun 1948,masih ada beberapa dokumen lain seperti ini
       

      ini salah satu koleksi uang revolusi NRI langka dari aceh gambar bung karno edisi tahum 1948,ditemukan dr iwan saat bertugas di aceh saat masih ada GAM,masih banyak lagi koleksi uang kertas revolusi langka yang ditampilkan dalam buku
       

      ini koleksi meterai revolusi NRI sumatra f 15,- diatas dokumen yang ditanda tangani penghoeloe , ditemukan di Padang Pandjang dari Ayah mertua ,ayah isteri dr Iwan
 

ini koleksi langka sampul surat asli dikirim dari Padang sidempuan ke Padang mengunakan prangko NRI bung karno dengan cetak tindih dan definitif,sangat sulit ditemukan saat ini

ini foto dr Iwan sat beurmur 3 tahun tahun 1948 masa revolusi kemerdekan di Padang didepan rumah,dikemukan sendiri dari laci kaca hias yang diahdiahkan kakek kepada saya,sungguh sangat menakjubkan,ini ditampilkan dlam buku saya.
 
ini koleksi meterai revolusi NRI sumatra terakhir uang baru R o,50 (50 sen) warna kuning dalam used strip tiga,ini koleksi terbesar yang used,kebanyakan ditemukan mint
 
THE END @ COPYRIGHT 2012

The Comic History Collections part one Detective Comic

The Comic history

Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Prive Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member

Copyright@2012

 

 

March 1937

The first detetctive Comic no 1 in March 1937

the detective comic no 40 june 1937 Batman

 

1938

The detective comic no 21 in 19281939

The Detective Comic no 27 the Batman in  1939

Synopsis for “The Case of the Chemical Syndicate”

Commissioner Gordon learns that a chemical industrialist named Lambert has just been murdered. It appears as if Lambert’s son is guilty of the crime, but he confesses only to finding his father’s body. Bruce Wayne is present at the crime scene and decides to investigate as the Batman.

Exploring Lambert’s contacts, he discovers the names of his old business partners, Steven Crane, Paul Rogers and Alfred Stryker. Shortly thereafter, Steven Crane is found dead in his home. Paul Rogers learns of the murder and seeks out the last surviving business partner, Alfred Stryker. But Stryker reveals himself to be behind the crimes and kidnaps Rogers. He wants total control over their business interests.

Batman swoops down inside of Stryker’s chemical factory and rescues Rogers. Stryker tries to attack him but Batman beats him back, toppling the criminal into a vat of acid

 

April 194

The Detective Comic no 33 in nopember  1939

0

 

Detective comic no 38 The Robin in 1940

1941

The detective comic no 41 in 1941