The Story Behind The Rare Unissued China Mao -Lin Biao Stamps 1968




One of the great rarities of PRC stamps

Sold at auction this year for US $ 29,118

Unissued because there was no victory perhaps?


.Unissued because of that person standing to the right of  Mao


And who, font of all knowledge and keeper of the black flame of all that is ugly in philately, is that (non?) person standing to Mao’s left?

Lin Biao

Mao’s chosen successor who was killed in a plane crash in 1971, after which he was vilified. Supposedly was involved in a coup attempt, if memory serves?

But that all occured in 1971 and this stamp was planned, it seems, for 1968 when he was still beloved of the Chairman?

1968 W14 All China is Red 8f Expertly repaired, still one of the most famous stamp of PRC.Sold for US $ 23,529



this stamp was issued but recalled because the “All China is Red” slogan on the map was contradicted by Taiwan being shown on the map in white.
In September 1968, after the establishment of Cultural Revolution Revolutionary Committees, the Ministry of Posts issued the “All China Is Red” stamp.

It pictured workers, farmers and soldiers holding “the Quotations of Chairman Mao” and cheering; at the top, a red map of China with golden letters read “All China Is Red.” They were issued in Beijing for half a day before the China Atlas Press discovered that the Xisha and Nansha archipelagos were mistakenly missing from the map!

Due to its extremely limited number, the “All China Is Red” is one of the most famous rare ones in the world. Ten years ago, a post office sheet of 50 was displayed at the China Philatelic Expo in Guangzhou City and was considered a “national treasure,” valued at over 10,000,000 RMB.

Read More Info abou Lin Biao


Lin Biao

This article is about the Marshal of the People’s Republic of China. For the politician of the Republic of China, see Lin Biao (ROC).
This is a Chinese name; the family name is Lin.
Marshal Lin Biao
Marshal Lin Biao
First-ranking Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China
In office
21 December 1964 – 13 September 1971
Premier Zhou Enlai
Preceded by Chen Yun
Succeeded by Deng Xiaoping
Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China
In office
25 May 1958 – 13 September 1971
Chairman Mao Zedong
Vice Premier of the People’s Republic of China
In office
15 September 1954 – 13 September 1971
Premier Zhou Enlai
Personal details
Born (1907-12-05)5 December 1907
China Qing Dynasty Flag 1889.svgHuanggang, Hubei, China
Died 13 September 1971(1971-09-13) (aged 63)
Flag of the People's Republic of Mongolia (1949-1992).svg Öndörkhaan, Mongolia
Political party Communist Party of China
Spouse(s) Zhang Mei
Ye Qun
Lin Liguo (son)
Alma mater Whampoa Military Academy
Religion none
Military service
Years of service 1925-1971
Lin Biao
Chinese 林彪
- Hanyu Pinyin Lín Biāo
- Wade–Giles Lin Piao
Lin Yurong
Chinese 林育蓉
- Hanyu Pinyin Lín Yùróng

Lin Biao (pinyin: Lín Biāo; IPA: [lǐn pjɑ́ʊ]; December 5, 1907– September 13, 1971) was a major Chinese Communist military leader who was pivotal in the communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeastern China. Lin was the general who commanded the decisive Liaoshen Campaign and Pingjin Campaign, co-led the Manchurian Field Army of the People’s Liberation Army into Beijing, and crossed the Yangtze River in 1949. He ranked third among the Ten Marshals. Zhu De and Peng Dehuai were considered senior to Lin, and Lin ranked ahead of He Long and Liu Bocheng.

Lin abstained from taking an active role in politics after the civil war, but became instrumental in creating the foundations for Mao Zedong‘s cult of personality in the early 1960s. Lin was rewarded for his service to Mao by being named Mao’s designated successor during the Cultural Revolution, from 1966 until his death.

Lin died in September 1971 when his plane crashed in Mongolia, following what appeared to be a failed coup to oust Mao. Because little inside information is available to the public on this “Lin Biao incident”, the exact events preceding Lin’s death have been a source of speculation among China scholars ever since. Following Lin’s death, he was officially condemned as a traitor by the Communist Party of China. He and Jiang Qing are still considered to be the two “major Counter-revolutionary cliques” blamed for the excesses of the Cultural Revolution



Lin Biao in Kuomintang uniform

Lin Biao was the son of a prosperous merchant family in the village of Huanggang, Hubei.[1] His name at birth was “Lin Yurong”.[2] Lin’s father opened a small handicrafts factory in the mid-late 1910s, but was forced to close the factory due to “heavy taxes imposed by local militarists”. After closing the factory, Lin’s father worked as a purser aboard a river steamship. Lin entered primary school in 1917,[3] but moved to Shanghai in 1919 to continue his education.[2] As a child, Lin was much more interested in participating in student movements than in pursuing his formal education.[4] Lin joined a satellite organization of the Communist Youth League before he graduated high school in 1925. Later in 1925 he participated in the May Thirtieth Movement and enrolled in the newly established Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou.[1]

As a young cadet, Lin admired the personality of Chiang Kai-shek, who was then the Principal of the Academy.[4] At Whampoa, Lin also studied under Zhou Enlai, who was eight years older than Lin. Lin had no contact with Zhou after their time in Whampoa, until they met again in Yan’an in the late 1930s.[5] Lin’s relationship with Zhou was never especially close, but they rarely opposed each other directly.[6]

After graduating from Whampoa in 1926, Lin was assigned to a regiment commanded by Ye Ting. Less than a year after graduating from Whampoa, Lin was ordered to participate in the Northern Expedition, rising from deputy platoon leader to battalion commander in the National Revolutionary Army within a few months. It was during the Northern Expedition that Lin joined the Communist Party[1] By 1927 Lin was a colonel.

When he was 20 Lin married a girl from the countryside with the family name “Ong”. This marriage was arranged by Lin’s parents, and the couple never became close. When Lin left the Kuomintang to become a communist revolutionary, Ong did not accompany Lin, and their marriage effectively ended.[4]

[edit] Chinese Civil War

After the Kuomintang-Communist split Lin’s commander, Ye Ting, joined forces with He Long and participated in the Nanchang Uprising on August 1, 1927.[2][7] During the campaign Lin worked as a company commander under a regiment led by Chen Yi.[8] Following the failure of the revolt, Lin escaped to the remote Communist base areas, and joined Mao Zedong and Zhu De in the Jiangxi–Fujian Soviet in 1928. After joining forces with Mao, Lin became one of Mao’s closest supporters.[6]

Lin became one of the most senior military field commanders within the Jiangxi Soviet. He commanded the First Army Group, and achieved a degree of power comparable to that of Peng Dehuai, who commanded the Third Army Group. According to Otto Braun, Lin was “politically… a blank sheet on which Mao could write as he pleased” during this period. After Mao was removed from power in 1932 by his rivals, the 28 Bolsheviks, Lin frequently attended strategic meetings in Mao’s name and openly attacked the plans of Mao’s enemies.[9]

Within the Jiangxi Soviet, Lin’s First Army Group was the best-equipped, and arguably most successful, force within the Red Army. Lin’s First Army became known for its mobility, and for its ability to execute successful flanking maneuvers. Between 1930 and 1933 Lin’s forces captured twice the amount of prisoners of war and military equipment as the Third and Fifth Army Groups combined. The successes of Lin’s forces are due partially to the division of labour within the Red Army: Lin’s forces were more offensive and unorthodox than other groups, allowing Lin to capitalize on other Red Army commanders’ successes.[10]

During the Communists’ defense against Chiang’s 1933-34 Fifth Encirclement Campaign, Lin advocated a strategy of protracted guerilla warfare, and opposed the positional warfare advocated by Braun and his supporters. Lin believed that the best way to destroy enemy soldiers was not to pursue them or defend strategic points, but to weaken the enemy through feints, ambushes, encirclements, and surprise attacks. Lin’s views generally conformed with the tactics advocated by Mao.[11]

After Chiang’s forces successfully occupied several strategic locations within the Jiangxi Soviet, in 1934, Lin was one of the first Red Army commanders to publicly advocate the abandonment of the Jiangxi Soviet, but he was opposed by most Red Army commanders, especially Braun and Peng Dehuai.[12] After the Communists finally resolved to abandon their base, later in 1934, Lin continued his position as one of the most successful commanders in the Red Army during the Long March. Under the direction of Mao and Zhou, the Red Army finally arrived at the remote Communist base of Yan’an, Shaanxi, in December 1936.

Lin and Peng Dehuai were generally considered the Red Army’s best battlefield commanders, and were not rivals during the Long March. Both of them had supported Mao’s rise to de facto leadership at Zunyi in January 1935. Lin may have become privately dissatisfied with Mao’s strategy of constant evasion by the end of the Long March, but continued to support Mao publicly.[13]

Lin Biao did not present the bluff, lusty face of Peng Dehuai. He was ten years younger, rather slight, oval-faced, dark, handsome. Peng talked with his men. Lin kept his distance. To many he seemed shy and reserved. There are no stories reflecting warmth and affection for his men. His fellow Red Army commanders respected Lin, but when he spoke it was all business …. The contrast between Mao’s top field commanders could hardly have been more sharp, but on the Long March they worked well together, Lin specializing in feints, masked strategy, surprises, ambushes, flank attacks, pounces from the rear, and stratagems. Peng met the enemy head-on in frontal assaults and fought with such fury that again and again he wiped them out. Peng did not believe a battle well fought unless he managed to replenish—and more than replenish—any losses by seizure of enemy guns and converting prisoners of war to new and loyal recruits to the Red Army.[14]

The American journalist Edgar Snow met Lin Biao in the Communist base of Shaanxi in 1936,[15] and wrote about Lin in his book, Red Star Over China. Snow’s account focused more on the role of Peng than Lin, evidently having had long conversations with, and devoting two whole chapters to, Peng (more than any individual apart from Mao). But he says of Lin:

With Mao Zedong, Lin Biao shared the distinction of being one of the few Red commanders never wounded. Engaged on the front in more than a hundred battles, in field command for more than 10 years, exposed to every hardship that his men have known, with a reward of $100,000 on his head, he miraculously remained unhurt and in good health. In 1932, Lin Biao was given command of the 1st Red Army Corps, which then numbered about 20,000 rifles. It became the most dreaded section of the Red Army. Chiefly due to Lin’s extraordinary talent as a tactician, it destroyed, defeated or outmanoeuvered every Government force sent against it and was never broken in battle …. Like many able Red commanders, Lin has never been outside China, speaks and reads no language but Chinese. Before the age of 30, however, he has already won recognition beyond Red circles. His articles in the Chinese Reds’ military magazines … have been republished, studied and criticised in Nanking military journals, and also in Japan and Soviet Russia.[16]

(Within a year of Snow’s reporting this, Lin was seriously wounded).[17]

Lin and Mao generally had a close personal relationship,[18] but some accounts claim that Lin sometimes made disparaging comments about Mao in private, and that Lin’s support of Mao was largely for the pursuit of power.[19] After arriving in Yan’an, Lin became the principal of the newly founded “Anti-Japanese University”. In 1937 Lin married one of the students there, a girl named Liu Ximin, who had earned the nickname “University Flower”.[20]

[edit] Second Sino–Japanese War (1937–1945)

In August 1937, Lin was named commander-in-chief of the 115th Division of the Communist 8th Route Army[2] and ordered to aid Yan Xishan‘s forces in repelling the Japanese invasion of Shanxi. In this capacity, Lin orchestrated the ambush at Pingxingguan in September 1937, which was one of the few battlefield successes for the Chinese in the early period of the Second Sino-Japanese War.

In 1938, while he was still leading Chinese forces in Shanxi, Japanese soldiers who had joined the Communists and were serving under Lin’s command presented Lin with a Japanese uniform and katana, which they had captured in battle. Lin then put the uniform and katana on, jumped onto a horse, and rode away from the army. While riding, Lin was spotted alone by a sharpshooter in Yan’s army. The soldier was surprised to see a Japanese officer riding a horse in the desolate hills alone. He took aim at Lin and severely injured him.[21] The bullet grazed Lin’s head, penetrating deep enough to leave a permanent impression on his skull.[22] After being shot in the head, Lin fell from his horse and injured his back.[21]

Recovering from his wounds and ill with tuberculosis, Lin left for Moscow at the end of 1937, where he served as the representative of the Communist Party of China to the Executive Committee of the Communist International. He remained in Moscow until February 1942, working on Comintern affairs and writing for its publication.[2] Lin was accompanied by his wife, Liu Ximin, but their relationship deteriorated in Moscow, and Lin eventually returned to Yan’an without her.[21]

While in Moscow, Lin became infatuated with Zhou Enlai’s adopted daughter, Sun Weishi, who was studying in Moscow from 1938 to 1946. Before returning to China, in 1942, Lin proposed to Sun and promised to divorce his wife, from whom Lin had become estranged. Sun was not able to accept Lin’s proposal, but promised to consider marrying Lin after completing her studies. Lin divorced Liu Ximin after returning to China, and married another woman, Ye Qun, in 1943. The relationship between Sun and Ye was notably bad.[23] After returning to Yan’an, Lin was involved in troop training and indoctrination assignments.

[edit] Defeating the Kuomintang

Lin with high-ranking officers under his command (Harbin, 1946)

Lin as commander-in-chief of the Manchurian Field Army.

Lin was absent for most of the fighting during World War II, but was elected the sixth-ranking Central Committee member in 1945 based on his earlier battlefield reputation.[17] After the Japanese surrender the Communists moved large numbers of troops to Manchuria, and Lin Biao moved to Manchuria to command the newly created “Communist Northeast Military District” in the fall. The Soviets transferred Japanese military equipment that they had captured to the Communists, making Lin’s army one of the most well-equipped Communist forces in China. By the time that units from the Kuomintang were able to arrive in the major cities of Manchuria, Lin’s forces were already in firm control of most of the countryside and surrounding areas.[24]

By the end of 1945 Lin had 280,000 troops in Manchuria under his command.[25] For the sake of bargaining with the Kuomintang in peace negotiations, Mao ordered Lin to assemble key armies to defend key cities, which was against the previous strategy of the Red Army. Lin suffered a major defeat in Siping, and retreated without receiving clear orders from Mao. After Siping Lin changed tactics, abandoning the cities and employing a strategy of guerrilla warfare and winning peasant support in the countryside.

When the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1947, Lin conquered the Manchurian provinces, and then swept into North China. Forces under Lin were responsible for winning two of the three major military victories responsible for the defeat of the Kuomintang. Lin suffered from ongoing periods of serious illness throughout the campaign.[17] Between the fall of 1948 and the spring of 1949, Lin commanded two of the “three great campaigns” waged by the PLA in northern China. Lin directed the Liaoshen Campaign, commanding a force of 700,000 against a KMT force of 550,000. Lin eliminated 470,000 Nationalist soldiers and secured the region for the Communists. Following the victory in Manchuria, Lin commanded over a million soldiers, encircling Chiang’s main forces in northern China during the Pingjin Campaign, taking Beijing and Tianjin within a period of two months. Tianjin was taken by force, and on January 22, 1949 General Fu Zuoyi and his army of 400,000 men agreed to surrender Beijing without a battle, and the PLA occupied the city on January 31. The Pingjin Campaign saw Lin eliminate a total of approximately 520,000 enemy troops. Many of those who surrendered later joined the PLA.[26]

After taking Beijing, the Communists attempted to negotiate for the surrender of the remaining KMT forces. When these negotiations failed, Lin resumed his attacks on the KMT in the southeast. After taking Beijing, Lin’s army numbered 1.5 million soldiers. By the end of 1949 the Red Army succeeded in occupying all KMT positions on mainland China. The last position occupied by Lin’s forces was the island of Hainan.

Lin Biao was considered as one of the Communist’s most brilliant generals after the founding of the People’s Republic of China, in 1949. Lin was the youngest of the “Ten Marshals” named in 1955, a title that recognized Lin’s substantial military contributions.[17]

[edit] Politician

[edit] Illness

Lin Biao continued to suffer from poor health after 1949, and chose to avoid high-profile military and political positions. His status led him to be appointed to a number of high-profile positions throughout most of the 1950s, but these were largely honorary and carried few responsibilities. He generally delegated or neglected many of the formal political responsibilities that he was assigned, usually citing his poor health as an excuse.[17]

After Lin’s injury in 1938, he suffered from ongoing physical and mental health problems. His exact medical condition is not well understood, partially because his medical records have never been publicly released. Dr. Li Zhisui, then one of Mao’s personal physicians, believed that Lin suffered from neurasthenia and hypochondria. He became ill whenever he perspired, and suffered from phobias about water, wind, cold,[27] light, and noise.[4] He was said to become nervous at the sight of rivers and oceans in traditional Chinese paintings, and suffered from diarrhea, which could be triggered by the sound of running water.[27] Li’s account of Lin’s condition is notably different from the official Chinese version.

Lin suffered from excessive headaches, and spent much of his free time consulting Chinese medical texts and preparing traditional Chinese medicines for himself. He suffered from insomnia, and often took sleeping pills.[28] He ate simple meals, did not smoke, and did not drink alcohol.[27] As his condition progressed, his fear of water led to a general refusal to either bathe or eat fruit. Because of his fear of wind and light, his office was gloomy and lacked any ventilation. Some accounts have suggested that Lin became a drug addict, either to opium[4] or morphine.

As early as 1953, Soviet doctors diagnosed Lin as suffering from manic depression. Lin’s wife, Ye Qun, rejected this diagnosis, but it was later confirmed by Chinese doctors. Lin’s fragile health made him vulnerable, passive, and easily manipulated by other political figures, notably Ye Qun herself.[27]

Lin’s complaints got worse with time and age. In the years before his death, the fiancee of Lin’s son reported that Lin became extremely distant and socially and politically detached, even to the extent that he never read books or newspapers. His passivity made him difficult to connect with at any meaningful level: “usually he just sat there, blankly”. In Lin’s rare periods of activity, he used his time mostly to complain about, and seek treatment for his large variety of medical issues.[29]

[edit] Alliance with Mao

Lin, like most of the Politburo, initially held serious reservations about China’s entry into the Korean War, citing the devastation that would result if the “imperialists” detonated an atomic bomb in Korea or China. Lin later declined to lead forces in Korea, citing his ill health.[30] In early October 1950, Peng Dehuai was named commander of the Chinese forces bound for Korea, and Lin went to the Soviet Union for medical treatment. Lin flew to the Soviet Union with Zhou Enlai and participated in negotiations with Joseph Stalin concerning Soviet support for China’s intervention, indicating that Mao retained his trust in Lin.

Due partially to his periods of ill health and physical rehabilitation in the Soviet Union, Lin was slow to rise to power. In the early 1950s Lin one of five major leaders given responsibility for civil and military affairs, controlling a jurisdiction in central China. In 1953 he was visited by Gao Gang, and was later suspected of supporting him.[31] In 1955 Lin was named to the Politburo.[17] In February 1958 Peng Dehuai, then China’s Defense Minister, gave a speech for the fortieth anniversary of the Soviet Red Army in which he suggested increasing the military cooperation between China and the Soviet Union. Mao wanted to distance China from the Soviet Union, and began grooming Lin Biao as a viable successor to Peng.[32] In 1958 Lin joined the Politburo Standing Committee[33] and became one of China’s Vice-Chairmen. In 1959, after the Lushan Conference, the relationship between Mao and Peng led to Peng’s arrest and removal from all government positions.[17] Privately, Lin agreed with Peng’s perspective on, and opposition to, Mao’s Great Leap Forward, and he was strongly opposed to Peng being purged, but Lin’s fear of being purged himself kept Lin from publicly opposing Mao’s efforts to purge Peng,[34] and Lin publicly condemned Peng as a “careerist, a conspiricist, and a hypocrite”.[35] Following Mao’s direction, Peng was successfully disgraced and put under indefinite house arrest.[34] Lin was the senior leader most supportive of Mao following the Great Leap Forward,[36] in which Mao’s economic policies caused an artificial famine in which tens of millions of people starved to death.[37]

Lin initially refused to replace Peng, but finally accepted the position at the insistence of Mao Zedong. As Defense Minister, Lin’s command of the PLA was second only to Mao, but he deferred many of his responsibilities to subordinates. The most important figures who Lin deferred the day-to-day operations of China’s armed forces to were Chief of Staff Luo Ruiqing and the Central Military Vice-Chairman, He Long.[17]

As Defense Minister, Lin’s policies differed from that of his predecessor. Lin attempted to reform China’s armed forces based on political criteria: he abolished all signs and privileges of rank, purged members considered sympathetic to the USSR, directed soldiers to work part-time as industrial and agricultural workers, and indoctrinated the armed forces in Mao Zedong Thought.[38] Lin’s system of indoctrination made it clear the Party was clearly in command of China’s armed forces, and Lin ensured that the army’s political commissars enjoyed great power and status in order to see that his directives were followed.[33] Lin implemented these reforms in order to please Mao, but privately was concerned that they would weaken the PLA (which they did).[39] Mao strongly approved of these reforms,[17] and conscientiously promoted Lin to a series of high positions.[40]

Lin used his position as Minister of Defense to flatter Mao by promoting Mao’s cult of personality.[41] Lin devised and ran a number of national Maoist propaganda campaigns based on the PLA, the most successful of which was the “learn from Lei Feng” campaign, which Lin began in 1963.[42] Because he was the person most responsible for directing the “learn from Lei Feng” campaign, Lin may have directed the forging of Lei Feng’s Diary, upon which the propaganda campaign was based.[41]

Because of Lin’s fragile health, Ye Qin controlled many aspects of Lin’s public life during the 1960s, including who would see Lin and what others would know about him. Mao encouraged Ye to act on Lin’s behalf, giving her an unusual amount of power and responsibility. In 1965 Mao asked Ye to publicly criticize Lin’s chief of staff, Luo Ruiqing, on Lin’s behalf, even though Ye did not yet hold any high political position. When Lin discovered that Ye had done so (after Luo was purged), he was angry at Ye, but powerless to alter Luo’s disgrace.[43]

Lin often read speeches prepared by others, and allowed his name to be placed on articles that he did not write, as long as these materials supported Mao. One of the most famous articles published in Lin’s name[44] was the 20,000-word pamphlet on revolution in developing countries, Long Live the Victory of the People’s War!, which was released in 1965. This article made Lin one of China’s leading interpreters of Mao’s political theories. The article likened the “emerging forces” of the poor in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to the “rural areas of the world”, while the affluent countries of the West were likened to the “cities of the world”. Eventually the “cities” would be encircled by revolutions in the “rural areas”, following theories prevalent in Mao Zedong Thought.[33] Lin made no promise that China would fight other people’s wars, and foreign revolutionaries were advised to depend mainly on “self-reliance”.

Lin worked closely with Mao, promoting Mao’s cult of personality. Lin directed the compilation of some of Chairman Mao’s writings into a handbook, the Quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong, which became known as the Little Red Book.[45] Lin Biao’s military reforms and the success of the 1962 Sino-Indian War impressed Mao. A propaganda campaign called “learn from the People’s Liberation Army” followed. In 1966, this campaign widened into the Cultural Revolution.

[edit] The Cultural Revolution

Main article: Cultural Revolution

[edit] Rise to prominence

Lin’s support impressed Mao, who continued to promote Lin to higher political offices. After Mao’s second-in-command, Liu Shaoqi, was denounced as a “capitalist roader” in 1966, Lin Biao emerged as the most likely candidate to replace Liu as Mao’s successor. Lin attempted to avoid this promotion, but accepted it on Mao’s insistence.[17]

Privately, Lin opposed the purging of Liu and Deng Xiaopeng, on the grounds that they were “good comrades”, but was not able to publicly oppose Mao’s condemnation of them. Lin privately admired Liu, and once told his daughter that Liu had “a better understanding of theory than Mao”. Zhou Enlai was also considered for the position of Vice-Chairman, but Zhou successfully withdrew from the nomination, leaving Lin the only candidate.[46]

Lin also seriously attempted to withdraw from the nomination, but was not able to do so because Mao had made Lin’s appointment a decision of the Central Committee, so rejecting the position would violate Party procedure and would risk ending Lin’s political career. Lin was not present at the conference where it was decided to name him vice chairman. After Lin was named, he met with Mao and begged him personally not to name him to the position, but Mao criticized him, comparing Lin to the Ming emperor Shizong, who devoted so much of his time to the search for longevity medicines that Shizong neglected his government responsibilities.[47] In 1966 all other candidates for the position were removed, and Lin accepted the position as sole Vice-Chairman, replacing Liu Shaoqi as Mao’s unofficial successor.[40] After his appointment, Lin again attempted to submit a formal written request to Mao, asking Mao to rescind Lin’s appointment to the position of vice-chairman, but Mao again rejected this request. When Lin received the rejection letter, he was so angry that he tore the letter up and threw it in the garbage.[47]

Because there was no way to avoid becoming Mao’s second-in-command, Lin attempted to protect himself from the chaos of the Cultural Revolution by giving absolute support to Mao and doing very little else. Lin avoided expressing any opinion, or making any decision on any matter, until Mao’s own opinions and positions on that matter were clear, after which Lin would adhere as closely to Mao’s direction as possible. Lin made sure that, whenever he and Mao were scheduled to appear in the same place, Lin would always arrive earlier than Mao, waiting to greet the Chairman. Lin attempted to make all observers believe that he was Mao’s closest follower,[48] always appearing beside Mao in all of Mao’s public appearances with a copy of Mao’s Little Red Book.[49] When he was informed that the public’s image of Lin was that he was “Mao’s best student”, Lin was pleased, and stated: “I don’t have any talent. What I know, I learned from Mao.”[48]

[edit] Activities

Because Lin had no real interest in the position of Vice-Chairman, he did little other than whatever he believed would ingratiate himself to Mao. Privately, Lin had no interest in promoting the Cultural Revolution, and attended government meetings only when Mao demanded that he do so. Those colleagues closest to Lin noted that Lin avoided talking about the Cultural Revolution in any context other than public speeches, and when pressed would only make very brief and ambiguous statements. After 1966, Lin made no phone calls, received few visitors, secluded himself from his colleagues, and gained a reputation as being “reticent and mysterious”.[attribution needed] He did not take an active role in government, but allowed his secretaries to read short summaries of selected documents for half an hour in the morning and half an hour in the afternoon. This was generally insufficient to fulfill the responsibilities of vice-chairman,[39] and he left most important work and family duties to his wife, Ye Qun.

Lin’s passivity was part of a calculated plan to survive the Cultural Revolution alive and well. When Lin perceived that his longtime subordinate, Tao Zhu, was in danger of being purged in the beginning of the Cultural Revolution, Lin sent a letter to warn Tao, advising Tao to be “passive, passive, and passive again”. Tao probably did not understand Lin’s advice, and was successfully purged in 1967.[39] In his relationship with Mao, Lin adopted a policy of “three ‘nos’: no responsibility; no suggestions; no crime”.[50]

Following the lead of Mao, in 1966 Lin directed Red Guards in Beijing to “smash those persons in power who are traveling the capitalist road, the bourgeoisie reactionary authorities, and all royalists of the bourgeoisie, and to forcibly destroy the “four olds“: old culture, old ideas, old customs, and old habits.[51] In August 1966 Lin publicly called for a “three-month turmoil” within the PLA, and on October 6 Lin’s Central Military Commission issued an urgent instruction that all military academies and institutes were to dismiss their classes and allow their students to become fully involved in the Cultural Revolution. Following the orders of this directive, officers and commissars were expelled from their positions, and some were beaten to death.[52] Students at Chinese military academies followed Lin’s instructions to rebel against their senior officers, breaking into the offices of Lin’s National Commission for Defense Science to abduct one of the department’s directors, and claiming Lin’s deputy chief of staff, Li Tianyu, whom students accused of disciplining them.[51] The students “overthrew” General Xiao Hua, the head of the PLA’s Political Department since the previous July, and went on to purge 40 other top officers working under him in the Political Department, most of which died in prison.[52]

Lin continued to support the Red Guards until May 1967, when Mao accepted Zhou Enlai’s appeals to moderate their radical activity through military intervention.[51] Lin moderated some of the most radical activity within the PLA; but, from 1967 to 1969, 80,000 officers were purged, 1,169 of which died from torture, starvation, or execution. Research programs were cancelled and the number of military academies across China shrank by two thirds. Many defensive fortifications were destroyed, and regular training within the PLA ceased.[52]

After 1966, Lin’s few personal political initiatives were efforts to moderate the radical nature of the Cultural Revolution. Privately, he expressed unhappiness with the Cultural Revolution, but was unable to avoid playing a high-profile role due to the expectations of Mao, China’s unpredictable political environment, and the manipulations of his wife and son, Ye Qun and Lin Liguo.[17] After 1966, Lin, like Liu before him, attempted to build his own base of support so that he could better position himself for the inevitable, unpredictable political situation that would occur following the death of Mao.[53] Lin’s few proactive attempts to direct the Cultural Revolution were attempts to protect Red Guards and his political allies from political persecution, and to mediate the attempts of Jiang Qing and her followers to radicalize China’s political climate.[34] In May 1967, Lin’s follower, Chen Boda, saved Zhou Enlai from being persecuted by Red Guards by convincing them that Zhou was Lin’s follower and supporter. Zhou repaid Lin’s assistance by giving him excessive public praise three months later, in August, but was forced to write a formal apology to Lin after Lin complained to Mao that such praise was inappropriate.[54]

Lin and Jiang cooperated at the outset of the Cultural Revolution, but their relationship began to deteriorate in 1968 as Jiang frequently attempted to interfere in Chinese military affairs, which Lin found intolerable.[55] By 1970 Lin and Ye were very unfriendly with Jiang Qing: Lin referred to her as a “long-nosed pit viper”.[34] From 1968 until his death in 1971, Lin and his supporters disagreed with Zhou Enlai and his followers over the issue of China’s relationship with the United States and the Soviet Union. Lin believed that both superpowers were equally threatening to China, and that they were colluding to thwart China’s interests. Zhou Enlai believed that China should become closer to the United States in order to mediate the threat posed by the Soviet military. Lin was supported by Jiang Qing in his opposition to pursuing a relationship with the United States, but was not able to permanently disrupt Zhou’s efforts to contact the United States.[56]

Lin Biao, as Defense Minister, was responsible for the Chinese response to the Zhenbao Island incident of March 1969, a battle with the Soviet Union over a small, uninhabited island on the border of Mongolia. Lin issued a report labeling the Soviet Union a “chauvinist” and “social imperialist” power, and issuing orders warning Chinese troops to be wary of an impending Soviet attack. Lin’s followers attempted to use the hysteria generated by the incident in an effort to deepen the power that they had gained during the Cultural Revolution, disregarding and acting against the interests of Zhou Enlai and his supporters.[57]

[edit] Height of power

Lin officially became China’s second-in-charge in April 1969, following the 1st Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. Lin’s position as Mao’s “closest comrade-in-arms and successor” was recognized when the Party constitution was formally revised to reflect Lin’s future succession.[58] At the 9th Central Committee, Lin’s faction was unquestionably dominant within the Politburo. Of the Politburo’s twenty-one full members, Lin counted on the support of six members: the generals Huang Yongsheng, Wu Faxian, Li Zuopeng, Qiu Huizo; Ye Qun; and Chen Boda, an ambitious ideologue. Lin’s support surpassed the number of members aligned with Jiang Qing, and far surpassed those aligned with Zhou Enlai. Because over 45% of the Central Committee were of members of Army, Lin’s supporters dominated the Politburo, and Lin’s power was second only to Mao.[59]

During the Second Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee, from August–September 1970, Mao became uncomfortable with Lin’s growing power, and began to maneuver against Lin by undermining his supporters and attacking some of Lin’s suggestions at the conference. At the Second Plenum, Lin advocated that Mao take the position of President, which had been dissolved after the removal of Liu Shaoqi, but Mao dismissed this appeal, suspecting Lin of using it to increase his own power.[58] Mao did not attack Lin directly, but showed his displeasure by attacking Lin’s ally, Chen Boda, who was quickly disgraced. Lin kept his position, but the events of the Lushan Conference revealed a growing distrust between Lin and Mao.[60]

Because Lin was one of the most influential figures in promoting Mao’s personality cult, he began to be criticized within the Party for its excesses later in 1970.[17] After 1970, some factions within the Army, and those led by Zhou Enlai and Jiang Qing, began to distance themselves from Lin.[58] In order to mediate Lin’s growing power, Mao approved Zhou’s efforts to rehabilitate a number of civilian officials who had been purged during the first years of the Cultural Revolution, and supported Zhou’s efforts to improve China’s relationship with the United States.[61]

A serious rift developed between Mao and Lin. Mao was displeased with comments that Lin had made about his wife, Jiang Qing, at the Second Plenary Session of the 9th Central Committee. Generals loyal to Lin refused to accept Mao’s criticism of them, and Mao began to question whether Lin continued to follow him unconditionally.[49] Mao wanted Lin to make a self-criticism, but Lin stayed away from Beijing and resisted doing so. Ye Qun made a self-criticism, but it was rejected by Mao as not genuine. Zhou Enlai attempted to mediate between Mao and Lin, but by 1971 Lin had become extremely reclusive and difficult to talk with at any level, and Zhou’s mediation failed. In July 1971 Mao decided to remove Lin and his supporters. Zhou again attempted to moderate Mao’s resolution to act against Lin, but failed.[62]

[edit] The “Lin Biao incident”

Lin died when a plane carrying him and several members of his family crashed in Mongolia on September 13, 1971, allegedly after attempting to assassinate Mao and defect to the Soviet Union. Following Lin’s death, there has been widespread skepticism in the West concerning the official Chinese explanation, but forensic evidence conducted by Russia (which recovered the bodies following the crash) has confirmed that Lin was among those who died in the crash.[6]

[edit] Official Chinese narrative

According to the Chinese government, Lin Biao was made aware that Mao no longer trusted him after the 9th Central Committee, and he harbored a strong desire to seize supreme power. In February 1971 Lin and his wife, Ye Qun (who was then a Politburo member), began to plot Mao’s assassination. In March 1971, Lin’s son, Lin Liguo (who was a senior Air Force officer) held a secret meeting with his closest followers at an Air Force base in Shanghai. At this meeting, Lin Liguo and his subordinates supposedly drafted a plan to organize a coup, titled “Project 571″ (in Chinese, “5-7-1″ is a homophone for “armed uprising”). Later that March, the group met again to formalize the structure of command following the proposed coup.[60]

Mao was unaware of the coup plot; and, in August 1971, scheduled a conference for September to determine the political fate of Lin Biao. On August 15 Mao left Beijing to discuss the issue with other senior political and military leaders in southern China. On September 5, Lin received reports that Mao was preparing to purge him. On September 8, Lin gave the order to his subordinates to proceed with the coup.[60]

Lin’s subordinates planned to assassinate Mao by sabotaging his train before he returned to Beijing, but Mao unexpectedly changed his route on September 11. Mao’s bodyguards foiled several subsequent attempts on Mao’s life, and Mao safely returned to Beijing in the evening of September 12. By failing to assassinate Mao, Lin’s coup attempt failed.[63]

Realizing that Mao was now fully aware of his abortive coup, Lin’s party first considered fleeing south to their base of power in Guangzhou, where they would establish an alternate ‘Party headquarters’ and attack armed forces loyal to Mao in cooperation with the Soviet Union. After hearing that Premier Zhou Enlai was investigating the incident, they abandoned this plan as impractical, and decided to flee to the Soviet Union instead. In the early morning of September 13, Lin Biao, Ye Qun, Lin Liguo, and several personal aides attempted to flee to the Soviet Union and boarded a prearranged Trident 1-E, (a CAAC B-256) piloted by Pan Jingyin, the deputy commander of the PLAAF 34th division. The plane did not take aboard enough fuel before taking off, ran out of fuel, and crashed near Öndörkhaan in Mongolia on September 13, 1971.[63] Everyone on board, eight men and one woman, was killed.[29]

[edit] Foreign perception of official Chinese explanation

The exact circumstances surrounding Lin’s death remain unclear, due to a lack of surviving evidence. Many of the original government records relevant to Lin’s death were secretly and intentionally destroyed, with the approval of the Politburo, during the brief period of Hua Guofeng‘s interregnum in the late 1970s. Among the records destroyed were telephone records, meeting minutes, personal notes, and desk diaries. The records, if they had survived, would have clarified the activities of Mao, Zhou Enlai, Jiang Qing, and Wang Dongxing relative to Lin, before and after Lin’s death.[6] Because of the destruction of government documentation related to Lin’s death, the Chinese government has relied on the “evidence” provided by the “confessions” of purged officials close to Lin to corroborate the official narrative, but non-Chinese scholars generally regard this “evidence” as unreliable.[49]

Ever since 1971, scholars outside of China have been skeptical of the government’s official explanation of the circumstances surrounding Lin’s death. Skeptics assert that the official narrative does not sufficiently explain why Lin, one of Mao’s closest supporters and one of the most successful Communist generals, would suddenly attempt a poorly planned, abortive coup. The government narrative also does not sufficiently explain how and why Lin’s plane crashed. Skeptics have claimed that Lin’s decision to flee to the Soviet Union was illogical, on the grounds that the United States or Taiwan would have been safer destinations.[49]

Influential Western historians critical of the Chinese government’s official story have promoted the view that Lin did not have either the intention or the ability to usurp Mao’s place within the government or the Party.[63] One theory attempted to explain Lin’s flight and death by observing that Lin opposed China’s rapprochement with the United States, which Zhou Enlai was organizing with Mao’s approval.[64] Because the Chinese government never produced evidence to support their report that Lin was on board the plane that crashed in Mongolia, Western scholars originally doubted that Lin had died in the crash. One book, published anonymously using a Chinese pseudonym in 1983, claimed that Mao had actually had Lin and his wife killed in Beijing, and that Lin Liguo had attempted to escape by air. Other scholars suggested that Mao had ordered the Chinese army to shoot down Lin’s plane over Mongolia.[65]

The Chinese government has no interest in re-evaluating its narrative on Lin Biao’s death. When contacted for its comment on fresh evidence that surfaced on the Lin Biao incident after the Cold War, the Chinese Foreign Ministry stated: “China already has a clear, authoritative conclusion about the Lin Biao incident. Other foreign reports of a conjectural nature are groundless.” Non-Chinese scholars interpreted China’s reluctance to consider evidence that contradicts its “official” history as the result of a desire to avoid exploring any issue that may lead to criticism of Mao Zedong or a re-evaluation of the Cultural Revolution in general, which may distract China from pursuing economic growth.[22]

[edit] Subsequent scholarship and reliable eyewitness accounts

A six-month investigation by Western scholars in 1994 examined evidence in Russia, Mongolia, China, the United States, and Taiwan, and came to a number of conclusions, some of which were contrary to the official Chinese version of events. The study confirmed that Lin Biao, Ye Qun, and Lin Liguo were all killed in the crash. Lin’s plane was travelling away from the Soviet Union at the time of its crash, making the exact sequence of events before Lin’s death more confusing, and casting doubt on the possibility that Lin was attempting to seek asylum in the USSR. Lin’s wife and son may have forced Lin to board the plane against his will. Several senior leaders within the Communist Party hierarchy knew that Lin’s party would flee, but chose not to attempt to stop their flight. According to this study, Lin had attempted to contact the Kuomintang in Taiwan on two separate occasions shortly before his death.[65] The findings of Lin’s attempt to contact the Kuomintang supported earlier rumors from inside China that Lin was secretly negotiating with Chiang’s government in order to restore the Kuomintang government in mainland China in return for a high position in the new government. The claims of Lin’s contact with the Kuomintang have never been formally confirmed nor denied by either the Communist government nor the Nationalist government in Taiwan.

The eyewitness account of Zhang Ning, who was Lin Liguo’s fiancee before his death, and another witness who requested anonymity, indicate a sequence of events different from the official narrative. According to Zhang, Lin Biao had become extremely passive and inactive by 1971. When Lin Liguo informed Ye Qun that Mao was preparing to strip Ye of her Politburo seat, the two became convinced that their family would be purged if they failed to act, and developed a plan to escape.[28]

At 10 o’clock the night before Lin’s party fled, Ye Qun announced that the family would board a plane at 7 the next morning to fly to Guangzhou. Lin’s 27-year-old daughter, Lin Liheng (known by the nickname “Doudou”) opposed the escape plan, and contacted Lin’s bodyguards to request that they guard her father from Ye. Doudou then phoned Zhou Enlai,[66] but was not able to contact him directly, and Zhou only received Doudou’s report second-hand.[55]

Zhou received Doudou’s message shortly after Doudou’s phone call, directly from the general office of the Central Committee responsible for guarding China’s senior leaders. The message contained Doudou’s warning that Ye Qun and Lin Liguo were attempting to persuade Lin Biao to flee the country using an aircraft currently being prepared at Qinhuangdao Shanhaiguan Airport. Zhou called Wu Faxian, the commander of the air force, who verified the plane’s existence. Zhou then issued orders that the plane could not take off without the written permission of himself and several other senior military officials, including Wu Faxian, general chief-of-staff Huang Yongsheng, and the commander of the navy and general chief-of-staff, Li Zuopeng. At 11:30, Ye Qun called Zhou and informed him that Lin Biao was planning to fly to Dalian, and denied that they had prepared a plane at Shanhuaiguan. Zhou then told Ye to wait for him to travel to see Lin before they left Beidaihe (where they were staying), issued orders to neutralize potentially disruptive officers close to Lin (Wu Faxian and Huang Yongsheng), and ordered two planes readied in Beijing so that he could fly to Lin’s residence to personally deal with the matter.[67]

Ye made an announcement that the party were to pack quickly. Two hours after Doudou contacted Zhou, soldiers had still not responded in any meaningful way. Ye and Lin Liguo woke Lin Biao and packed him into a waiting limousine. The party then drove to Shanhaiguan airport, 25 miles away from their residence in Beidaihe, where their plane was waiting. Lin’s bodyguards told Doudou and another companion that they were ordered to take them as well, but Doudou and her companion refused.[66]

One soldier shot at Lin’s limousine as it left Beidaihe, but missed, and most soldiers that the party encountered on their way to the airport allowed the limousine to pass. According to the driver of Lin’s limousine, there was no time to place mobile stairs next to the plane’s entrance, so the party boarded the plane via a rope ladder. Lin Biao was so weak that he had to be lifted and pulled onto the plane.[66]

Zhang Ning observed the plane after it left the airport. Lin’s plane initially traveled southeast (in the direction of Guangzhou). The plane then returned twenty minutes later and circled the airport several times as if it were trying to land, but the runway lights had been turned off. Soviet officials and Mongolian witnesses reported that the plane then flew north, over Mongolia and almost to the Soviet border, but then turned around and began flying south before it crashed. A Mongolian who witnessed the plane crash reported that the plane’s tail was on fire when it crashed.[68]

None of Zhou’s instructions prevented Lin’s flight, and he learned that Lin’s plane had taken off before he, himself, could fly to see Lin. Zhou then ordered all planes in China grounded without the written permission of Mao, himself, and several senior military leaders. He rushed to Zhongnanhai to brief Mao of Lin’s flight, and asked Mao if he wanted to order Lin’s plane shot down, but Mao replied that China should “let him go”. At 8:30 PM, September 13, the Mongolian Foreign Ministry summoned the Chinese ambassador to make a formal complaint about the unauthorized entrance of a plane into Mongolian airspace, and reported to the ambassador that the plane had crashed, killing all on board. The Chinese ambassador to Mongolia then phoned Zhou Enlai, who then instructed the ambassador to tell the Mongolians that the plane had entered Mongolian airspace because it had gone off course.[69]

Mongolian investigators were the first to inspect the wreckage, arriving later the same day. They found an identity card belonging to Lin Liguo, confirming Lin Liguo’s presence on the flight. Markings on the plane and surviving miscellaneous personal items confirmed that the plane and passengers had originated from China, but the Mongolians were uncertain that any of the dead were either Lin Biao or Ye Qun. After inspecting the crash, the Mongolians buried the dead onsite.[29]

Through the Chinese ambassador, Zhou requested and received permission for Chinese embassy staff to inspect the wreckage of Lin’s plane, which they did on September 15–16. The staff reported to Zhou that the plane had caught fire while attempting to land, and then exploded. Zhou then sent additional staff to interview Mongolian witnesses of the crash, and to perform a detailed technical assessment of the crash. The report concluded that the plane had approximately 30 minutes of fuel when it crashed, but attempted to land without activating its landing gear or wing flaps.[70]

Later in 1971 a Soviet medical team secretly traveled to the crash site and exhumed the bodies, which were by then modestly decomposed. The team removed the heads of two of the corpses suspected to be Lin Biao and Ye Qun and took them back to Russia for forensic examination. In 1972 the team concluded that the heads belonged to Lin Biao and Ye Qun (the heads are still stored in Russian archives). In order to corroborate their findings the team returned to Mongolia a second time to inspect the body believed to be Lin Biao’s. After exhuming the body a second time the team found that the corpse’s right lung had the remains of tuberculosis, which Lin had suffered from, confirming the Soviet identification. The Soviet team were not able to determine the cause of the crash, but hypothesized that the pilot was flying low to evade radar and misjudged the plane’s altitude. Judging from the fires that burnt after the plane crashed, the Soviets estimated that it had enough fuel to fly to the Soviet cities of Irkutsk or Chita. All of the work and its results were kept secret from the public: outside of the investigative team, only KGB director Yuri Andropov and Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev were informed. The report remained classified until the early 1990s, after the end of the Cold War.[71]

[edit] Aftermath

Graffiti with Lin Biao’s foreword to Mao’s Little Red Book. Lin’s name (lower right) was later scratched out, presumably after his death

Lin Biao was survived by Doudou and one other daughter.[17] All military officials identified as being close to Lin or his family (most of China’s high military command) were purged within weeks of Lin’s disappearance.[63] On September 14, Zhou announced to the Politburo that four of the highest-ranking military officials in China were immediately suspended from duty and ordered to submit self-criticisms admitting their associations with Lin. This announcement was quickly followed by the arrest of ninety-three people suspected of being close to Lin,[72] and within a month of Lin’s disappearance over 1,000 senior Chinese military officials were purged.[49] The official purge of Lin’s supporters continued until it was closed by the 10th Central Committee in August 1973.[73] The incident marked the end of the myth that Mao was always considered absolutely correct within the Party.[63] The National Day celebrations on October 1, 1971, were cancelled.

The news of Lin’s death was announced to all Communist Party officials in mid-October 1971, and to the Chinese public in November. The news was publicly received with shock and confusion. Mao Zedong was especially disturbed by the incident: his health deteriorated, and he became depressed. At the end of 1971 he became seriously ill, he suffered a stroke in January 1972, received emergency medical treatment, and his health remained unstable. Mao became nostalgic about some of his revolutionary comrades whose purging Lin had supported, and backed Zhou’s efforts to conduct a widespread rehabilitation of veteran revolutionaries, and to correct some of the excesses of the Cultural Revolution (which he blamed on Lin).[74] In the aftermath of the purge of Lin’s supporters, Zhou Enlai replaced Lin as the second most powerful man in China, and Jiang Qing and her followers were never able to displace him. Without the support of Lin, Jiang was unable to prevent Zhou’s efforts to improve China’s relationship with the United States, or to rehabilitate cadres who had been purged during the Cultural Revolution.[75] The clause in the Party constitution indicating that Lin was Mao’s successor was not officially amended until the 10th Central Committee in August 1973.[73]

The position of the Chinese government on Lin and the circumstances of his death changed several times over the decade following 1971. For over a year the Party first attempted to cover up the details of Lin’s death. The government then began to issue partial details of the event, followed by an anti-Lin Biao propaganda campaign. After Mao’s death, in 1976, the government confirmed its condemnation of Lin and generally ceased any dialogue concerning Lin’s place in history.[76] Throughout the 1970s, high-ranking leaders of the Chinese Communist Party, including Hua Guofeng, spread the story to foreign delegates that Lin had conspired with the KGB to assassinate Mao.[77]

In 1973 Jiang Qing, Mao’s fourth wife and a former political ally of Lin’s, started the Criticize Lin, Criticize Confucius campaign, aimed at using Lin’s scarred image to attack Zhou Enlai. Much of this propaganda campaign involved the creative falsification of history, including (false) details about how Lin had opposed Mao’s leadership and tactics thoroughout his career.[78] Lin’s name became involved in Jiang’s propaganda campaign after flashcards, made by Ye Qun to record Lin’s thoughts, were discovered in Lin’s residence following his death. Some of these flashcards recorded opinions critical of Mao. According to Lin’s writings, Mao “will fabricate ‘your’ opinion first, then he will change ‘your’ opinion – which is not actually yours, but his fabrication. I should be careful of this standard trick.” Another critical comment of Lin’s states that Mao “worships himself and has a blind faith in himself. He worships himself to such an extent that all accomplishments are attributed to him, but all mistakes are made by others”.[46] Lin’s private criticisms of Mao were directly contradictory of the public image cultivated by Lin, who publicly stated following the Great Leap Forward that all mistakes of the past were the result of deviating from Mao’s instructions.[79]

Like many major proponents of the Cultural Revolution, Lin’s image was manipulated after Mao’s death in 1976, and many negative aspects of the Cultural Revolution were blamed on Lin. After October 1976, those in power also blamed Mao’s supporters, the so-called Gang of Four. In 1980, the Chinese government held a series of “special trials” to identify those most responsible for the Cultural Revolution. In 1981, the government released their verdict: that Lin Biao must be held, along with Jiang Qing, as one of the two major “counter-revolutionary cliques” responsible for the excesses of the late 1960s.[63] According to the official Party verdict, Lin and Jiang were singled out for blame because they led intra-Party cliques which took advantage of Mao’s “mistakes” to advance their own political goals, engaging in “criminal activity” for their own self-benefit.[40] Lin has been officially remembered as one of the greatest villains of modern China since then. Lin was never politically rehabilitated, so the charges against him continue to stand.[63]

For several decades Lin’s name and image were censored within China, but in recent years a balanced image of Lin has reappeared in popular culture: surviving aides and family members have published memoirs about their experience with Lin; scholars have explored most surviving evidence relevant to his life and death, and have gained exposure within the official Chinese media; movies set before 1949 have made reference to Lin; and, Lin’s name has re-appeared in Chinese history textbooks, recognizing his contributions to the victory of the Red Army.[76] Within modern China, Lin is regarded as one of the Red Army’s best military strategists. In 2007 a portrait of Lin was added to the Chinese Military Museum in Beijing, included in a display of the “Ten Marshals”, a group considered to be the founders of China’s armed forces.

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c Leung 69
  2. ^ a b c d e Lazitch and Drachkovitch 265-267
  3. ^ Lin 164
  4. ^ a b c d e Lee 170
  5. ^ Barnonin and Yu 240
  6. ^ a b c d Mackerras, McMillen, and Watson. 140
  7. ^ Leung 70
  8. ^ Barnouin and Yu 242
  9. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 253
  10. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 263
  11. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 257-260
  12. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 264
  13. ^ Salisbury 188
  14. ^ Salisbury 191–192
  15. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 267
  16. ^ Snow 135
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Mackerras, McMillen, and Watson 141
  18. ^ Snow 84
  19. ^ Chang and Halliday 504
  20. ^ Lee 170-171
  21. ^ a b c Lee 171
  22. ^ a b Hannam and Lawrence 4
  23. ^ Zhang 2
  24. ^ Leung 70-71
  25. ^ Barnouin and Yu 103
  26. ^ Barnouin and Yu 116
  27. ^ a b c d Qiu The Culture of Power. 145
  28. ^ a b Hannam and Lawrence 2-3
  29. ^ a b c Hannam and Lawrence 2
  30. ^ Barnouin and Yu 142-143, 145
  31. ^ Barnouin and Yu 164, 166
  32. ^ Domes 82
  33. ^ a b c Lee 172
  34. ^ a b c d Hu Xingdou 1
  35. ^ Barnouin and Yu 183
  36. ^ Barnouin and Yu 191
  37. ^ Yang. Section I
  38. ^ Snow. “Biographical Notes”.
  39. ^ a b c Qiu The Culture of Power 80
  40. ^ a b c Qiu The Culture of Power. 15
  41. ^ a b Tanner 522
  42. ^ Ebrey 442
  43. ^ Qiu The Culture of Power. 149
  44. ^ Teiwes and Sun 5
  45. ^ Han
  46. ^ a b Qiu The Culture of Power. 78
  47. ^ a b Qiu The Culture of Power. 78-79
  48. ^ a b Qiu The Culture of Power. 79-80
  49. ^ a b c d e Qiu Distorting History
  50. ^ Hu Xingdou 2
  51. ^ a b c Barnouin and Yu 226, 229
  52. ^ a b c China at War 136
  53. ^ Robinson 1081
  54. ^ Barnouin and Yu 236–237, 241-243
  55. ^ a b Barnouin and Yu 272
  56. ^ Ross 268
  57. ^ Uhalley and Qiu 389
  58. ^ a b c Uhalley and Qiu 388
  59. ^ Ross 269-270
  60. ^ a b c He 248
  61. ^ Ross 270-272
  62. ^ Qiu The Culture of Power. 134-135
  63. ^ a b c d e f g He 249
  64. ^ Ross 265
  65. ^ a b Hannam and Lawrence 1
  66. ^ a b c Hannam and Lawrence 3
  67. ^ Barnouin and Yu 272-273
  68. ^ Hannam and Lawrence 1, 3
  69. ^ Barnouin and Yu 273-274
  70. ^ Barnouin and Yu 274
  71. ^ Hannam and Lawrence 3-4
  72. ^ Barnouin and Yu 275
  73. ^ a b Barnouin and Yu 280
  74. ^ Barnouin and Yu 275-276
  75. ^ Ross 275-276
  76. ^ a b Robinson 1080
  77. ^ Pacepa
  78. ^ Hu Chi-hsi 269
  79. ^ Barnouin and Yu 190

[edit] Bibliography




DrIwan CD-ROM”The Investation Value Of Uniquecollection”






Ming Vase







The Value Of Uniquecollection

Part One


Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limites E-book In Cd-rom Edition

Special For Antique Trader

Copyright @ 2012




a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother is just pass away in July 2010.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the developing the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world communications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me can built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memorian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.

also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above

c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD) the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty


3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978

6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos


During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonanto Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.

10.Between 1990-1994
I was on the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarawak,and I have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.

13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008 until now
I built the Blog , and built the special site UCM-uniquecollections CyberMuseum with many types collections :
1. The Unique books collections
2. The Unique Stamps collectins
3. The rare Coins collections
4. The rare ceramic collections
5. The Unique label collections
6. The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S0
7. The Tionghoa Unique Collections
8. The Asia Unique Collections
9. The Africa Unique collections
10. The Padang minangKabau CyberMuseum

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.IN AUGUST AFTER BUILD THE NEW BLOG some interseting information from old blog were tagg to the new blog and edit and add the new informations I have just found, this uAsia unique collections became new tittle from Asia cicra 1976 to Asia Uniquecollections 1950-1980. Many new unique colletions and Informations will added.

If The google Adds didnot answer my communications, I am sorry this e-book will became Premium Info due to the operational cost special for premium members, I have contact Google Addss but still problem with my URL adress,may be Google didnot want to sponsor the blog,please informations from another wordpress blokker about this.





The Rarest and valuable Chinese red In Glazed Vase

I have read about the New world record for Ming vase
from China Daily newspaper Updated: 2006-05-31 05:52 HONG KONG: about A rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) vase sold for HK$78.52 million (US$10.13 million) in Hong Kong yesterday, setting a world auction record for Ming porcelain.Ming Vase Theow Tow, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Asia and the Americas International Director of Chinese works of Arts, looks at an early Ming underglaze copper-red vase after it was sold for a world record of US$10,122,558 for any Ming porcelain during an auction in Hong Kong May 30, 2006. [Reuters]
“He’s bought the vase at the right price, making a world record,” said Edward Dolman, chief executive officer of Christie’s International, referring to buyer Steve Wynn, chairman of Macao-based Wynn Resorts.


The pear-shaped vase, decorated with a peony scroll, is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years, said Christie’s Hong Kong office.

The vase was originally inherited by a Scottish couple who used it as a lamp and did not realize its value until they saw a similar example in a museum.

Ceramics with underglaze copper-red decoration are very rare, owing to their complicated production process.

Dr Iwan note

I have found in Indonesia near same copper red vase but in broken condition one only top and the other which have restoration.,what about the value of this artifact ,please comment.This artifact important to compere with your own collections because many fake exist now.

I also found semipor celain red in glazed in boken near 80% per shape vase, so0meonje said to me that this is from anamaese,please comment

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011



kartu pos ultah I kemerdekaan RI yang  langka


Dr  I W A N   S

Publikasi Pribadi terbatas 100 expl. Khusus Untuk Kolektor


1.Kajian tentang  koleksi  yang memiliki nilai investasi (unik dan langka) sehingga ”layak koleksi” adalah sesuatu hal yang menarik pada saat ini, terutama sejak terjadinya krisis Global pasar saham pada akhirtahun 2008 dimana keyakinan para investor terhadap pasar modal(saham) mulai menurun dan mulai melirik ”Investasi dibarang Koleksi”*1)

2. Nilai investasi suatu koleksi ditentukan bukan hanya oleh kelangkaan atau umur yang tua  tetapi juga oleh kualitas dan keindahan untuk kesenangan pribadi dan pameran   *2)

3.Keindahan koleksi tergantung pada mata konsumen dan kondisi koleksi  seperti nilai investasinya  adalah suatu hal subjektif

4.Istilah Koleksi Unik berasal dari bahasa Inggeris Unique Collection sering diartikan secara keliru sehingga koleksi unik diidentikkan dengan koleksi dengan nilai investasi tinggi dan akhrnya jadi tumpukan lumpur

5.Koleksi unik ada juga yang menyebut”Rare”, ”Limited Edition” atau “Curio”,”Antique”*3)

6. Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik selalu menemui kesulitan dalam memilih koleksi yang layak dikumpul, sering kecewa saat menjual koleksinya karena dinilai sangat rendah tidakseperti yang diperkirakannya.Sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas perlu dilakukan kajian  berupa studi kepustakaan, sudi perbandingan perkembangan nilai koleksi deri katalogus dan hasil lelangan dalam suatu kurun waktu tertentu guna dapat menjawab  beberapa hal yang selalu menjadikan pertanyaanbagi para kolektor dan investor koleksi unik :

a.      Jenis koleksi yang layak dijadikan investasi


Prangko Hindia Belanda yang paling langka dan layak dikoleksi

b.      Bagaimana membuktikan hipotesis dibawah ini:

1)     Koleksi unik tidak selalu memiliki nilai investasi


Prangko Masa perang kemerdekaan RI di Sumatera  yang paling langka hanya  dua biji ditemukan,salah satunya ada dimuseum prangko Den Haag Negeri belanda kepunyaan kolektor terkenal Ricardo dan yang ini milik pribadi Dr iwan S, tetapi walaupun unik dan langka belum tentu nilai inventasinya tinggi, isteri saya berkomentar prangko jelek tak menarik siapa yang tertarik, tetapi bila dilihat Bulterman pakar filateli belanda langsung berteriak wow sambil pegang kepala,sangat menarik,hanya ada dua didunia,mau jual , jawab saya tidak karena sepantasnya prangko ini dipajang di mueum prangko Indonesia atau disandingkan dengan koleksi Ricardo di Museum den Haag, tetapi saat saya tawarkan kepada pakar filateli lainnya dari Negeri Belanda, saya katakan,prangko ini ingin saya sumbangkan ke musuem den Haag dengan syarat nama saya dicantumkan dan saya diundang ke negeri Belanda saat penyerahan piagam tanda terima sumbangan prangko langka ini, Ia jawab boleh saya akan beri tahu,tetapi sudah lima tahun tidak ada jawaban,bagaimana ,benarkan hipotesis saya langka tapi tak menarik dan tak selalu memiliki nilai investasi tinggi.

2)     Koleksi unik selalu memiliki informasi yang dibutuh orang-orang tertentu.


peta butut ini tidak menarik, tetapi memiliki informasi yang anda pasti ingin tahu, Subang anda tahu dan Kalijati mungkin tidak, tempat tersebut sangat bersejarah, kalijati adalah lapangan terbang yang dijatikan tempat perundingan penyerahan kekuasaan dari Militer Hiundia Belanda Kepada Panglima pasukan pendarata Dai Nippon di Jawa Let.jen. Hitoshi Immamoto, nah lu, baru koleksi ini bernilai histori karena ada informasi yang dibutukan rakyat Indonesia dan tentunya Belanda, dan selanjutnya anda pasti ingin tahu bagaimanakah profil Jendral Immamura ,untuk memenuhi penasaran anda lihat foto yang bersangkutan dibawah ini


Stelah melihat profil jen.Hitoshi Immamura,anda tambah penasaran , ia berunding dengan siapa,-silahkan baca Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa 1942 atau The Dai Nippon Military Administration Java atau Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu Jawa.(waah,memang penasaran membuat orang haus informasi-Dr iwan s)

Nilai investasi  koleksi dapat diketahui dari market  perdagangan barang antik yang akhir-akhir ini menjadi tidak diketahui  akibat resesi sehingga banyak “dealer”(pedagang-peyalur) dan “auctioner”(pelelang)  yakin  situasi jelek ini akan berakhir. Benda-benda koleksi berkembang jenisnya dan harga  bersaing selalu ditemukan  dan kadang-kadang suprising  suatu jenis benda dengan cepat berubah statusnya menjadi barang koleksi *4)


Medali Mao ini dulu siapa yang mau koleksi, tetapi saat ini diburu kolektor China, karena ekonomi negaranya meroket dan rakyatnya mulai makmur, maka komeradnya yang paling dicintai khususnya yang langka masa revolusi kebudayaan di beli dengan harga sangat tinggi, malah tiruannya yang banyak diproduksi tahun 1978 saat mao baru meninggal dunia saat ini masih dibeli di China untuk kenang-kenangan oleh turis karena yang asli harganya selangit. Pakar filatelis almarhum V.esbensen pernah menulis surat kepada saya, apa yang anda kumpulkan benda filateli masa pendudukan jepang dan perang kemerdekaan RI di sumatra,suatu wkatu akan menjadi investasi yang sangat tinggi nilainya apabila negara anda tambah makmur ekonominya,ternyata benar saat Jepang booming ekonominya tahun 1985, pendudukan jepang diborong semua orang jepang denga harga selangit, tapi saat ini para kolektor jepang sudah tua danbanyak meninggal seperti mr Aoki pasarannya jadi sepi lagi,untung saya sudah jual saat lagi booming, sampai sat ini koleksi saya dari China masih utuh danmuali booming,mungkin saya harus egera melepasnya, bagaimana, menakjubkan bukan.

Minat investasi perangko yang sempat memudar mulai berbinar *5) setelah berbagai pasar modal mengalami krisis.

Para pedagang koleksi uang (numismatik) akan kecipratan duit apabila uang lama bergambar seseorang tokoh meninggal dunia. *6)

Tentang hal ini , ada pengalaman saya ,suatu waktu saya menemui setumpuk duit lama gambar bung Karno pecahan Rp.25 alias uang prit jigo yang sangat banyak beredar,dalam kondisi yang masih mulus sulit didapat, anda tahu bagaimana harganya meroket mulai sepuluh ribu rupiah, kemudian naik dua puluh lima ribu rupiah tahu 1990 dan akhirnya tahun 2000 meroket jadi seratus ribu rupiah,tapi karena resesi ekonomi jatuh lagi tinggal 75 ribu rupiah,untuk saat paling tinngi sudha saya lepas seluruhnya kecuali yang nomor serinya urus dan cantik masih sya koleksi karena prospeknya bagus terutama nomor seri satu atau dua huruf,belum tahu belajar dong, baca buku, penasaran pean buku ini sebelum habis disikat orang lain,informasi adalah guru kita untuk menjadi kolektor yang sukses(Dr iwan S)

Penulis artikel berjudul “Sang Kolektor” kagum  kepada kolektor  yang kecintaannya  terhadap koleksi menjelma  menjadi  pengetahuan bagi orang banyak, tetapi ia  prihatin terhadap kerakusan dan kesrakahan mereka *7)

Koleksi yang memiliki nilai investasi tinggi tidak selalu likuid susah dijual dengan nilai pasar, pedagang punya prinsip Beli semurah-murahnya dan jual setinggi-tingginya. Kendatipun demikian ada juga koleksi yang liquid antara lain Jam tangan Antik *8)

Kekayaan warisan budaya suatu etnis merupakan refleksi suatu kultur, salah satunya adalah peralatan dan meubeler etnis tionghoa “cuiho” yang dimanfaatkan saat menikah *9)(termasuk alat musik,meja sembahyang dan pakaian serta Ranjang Pengantin berikut pernak-perniknya-pen)

Setiap orang memiliki idola dan heronya masin-masing sehingga berminat menyimpan barang cetak,foto dan kartu dengan gambar sang idola yang dikenal sebagai “trade card”*10)

Sang Idola tempo dulu da masa kini dibidang oleh raga menjadi incaran para kolektor seperti spot card sepak bola*11) dan Basket Ball NBA*12)

Istilah Unusual Coins( koin yang tidak biasa)  “ sometimes confusing” (beberapa waktu  membingungkan) dengan  istilah kreasi   “ the cormercial marketplace”(Tempat terbuka dikota yang gunakan  sebagai lokasi pasa), sering  merupakan “deceptive realm of numinmatic  emission  “ ( penerbitan matauang  tipuan ). Kendatipun demikian Unusual Coins ada juga yang diterbitkan sebagai mata uang lokal atau token *12)


Koin perk ini tahun1975-1980 dijual toko mas dengan menibang berat peraknya sekitar 45 gr,dijual per gram rp 500 sama dengan satu US $ ,jadi harganya sekitar 45 US$, anda tahu berapa harganya sekarang, karena sangat langkadan edisinya sangat terbatas koin perak belanda raja willem I ini nilainya sama dengan sebuah mobil toyota avanza,kalu tak percaya coba cari bila dapat pasti ada yang mau tukar dengan mobilnya,tapi jangan yang butut.

Membahas Koleksi Unik tidak akan habis-habisnya sehingga dalam karya tulis ini dibatasi mengenai Koleksi Unik Pribadi saja tidak meliputi Koleksi Unik Warisan Bangsa atau National (National Heritage Collection*13)

Kolektor dan investor koleksi unik didunia sangat banyak  seperti Koleksi perangko  Raja Inggeris orang tuanya Ratu Elisabeth II Inggeris, Bekas Raja Mesir yang koleksi luar biasa saat ia turun tahta dilelang dengan harga yang cukup tinggi saat itu sehingga dijulukilah kolesi perangko sebagai “The King of collection and the collection of the King” seiiring dengan berkembangnya komunikasi pos pada akhir abad ke XX pihak pos menerbitkan perangko dalam julah yang sangat tinggi sampai 20-100 juta eksp. Serta gerakan propaganda negara komunis liwat perangko yang membagi-bagikan perangko yang telah distempel pos investasi dikoleksi perangko menurun sehingga saat inin hanya yang perangko unik yang langka saja yang masih jadi incaran kolekstor dan investor spesialistis *14)

Kolektor dan Investor lokal di Indonsia cukup banyak akhir tahun 2008 timbul kasus Arca Kuno di Solo dan melibatkna kolektor yang tidak mengaku sebagai investor , dibebaskan oleh pengadilan Negeri  ,dan saat ini jaks a naik banding ( jangan koleksi koleksi unik warisan budaya nasional yang dilindungi secar hukum,-pen).

Beberapa kolektor yang dikenal penulis dibahas dalam karya tulis tersendiri antara lain kolektor Postal History Pendudukan Jepang dan revolusi kemerdekaan NRI 1942-49 Mr Ricardo mantan direktur BUMN Jacobson van den Berg –Batavia  yang saat ini milik  Museum Fiateli den Haag Negeri Belanda, Koleksi Keramik Mantan pimpin IOC Mr Average Brundage  , Koleksi Samurai Jepang Mr Baud –Srilangka, Kolektor Bungkus Rokok Butet Kertajaya,Koleksi Lukisan Afandi Bp Sumarican dan lainnya.Keberhasilan beberapa Kolektor Koleksi Perangko Unik yang mampu membeli rumah,Kolektor meubel antik membangun toko antik di Jakarta, Kolektor lukisan yang memvisualisai Indonesia dari negeri Belanda dan lainnya*14)

Hasil kjian mengenai Jenis, Nilai Investasi koleksi unik serta pembahasannya serta illustrasi koleksi unik pribadi kolektor Jakarta secara sederhana pada bab berikutnya, untukkolektor senior dan spesialistik dapat menhubunggi penulis guna dapat berdiskusi dan memperoleh karyatulis khusus pribadi dengan perjanjian.

Setelah membaca buku sederhana ini , pembaca yang memahami bahasa Indonesia diharapkan memberikan koreksi dan masukan informasi temuam koleksi unik baru sehinga selanjutnya dapat diterbitkan buku yang lebih lengkap dalamdua bahasa Indonesia dan Inggeris pada tahun 2010  .


Englis version

Machinal translate




The Literature Study

  The rare  Postcard Of First Anniversary Of independence of Indonesia

Dr I W A N S

Publications Private Limited 100 expl. Special For Collectors

1.Kajian about the collection that has investment value (unique and rare) that “a decent collection” is something that is interesting at the moment, especially since the global crisis on the stock market akhirtahun 2008 where the investor confidence in the capital market (stocks) declined and started looking at the “Investment dibarang Collection” * 1)
2. The investment value of a collection is determined not only by the scarcity or old age but also by the quality and beauty for personal enjoyment and exhibitions * 2)
3.Keindahan collection depends on the eye of the consumer and the condition of the collection as the value of the investment is a matter of opinion
4.Istilah Unique Collections from Unique Collection English often mistakenly interpreted so identified with a unique collection collection with high investment value and akhrnya so heaps of mud
There is also a unique 5.Koleksi called “Rare”, “Limited Edition” or “Curio”, “Antique” * 3)
6. Collectors and investors unique collections always have difficulty in choosing the appropriate collection gathered, often disappointed when selling his collection because it is considered so low that diperkirakannya.Sehubungan tidakseperti to the above necessary to study the form of literary study, comparison of the development of value deign deri collection of auction catalogs and results within a certain period of time in order to answer some of the things that always makes pertanyaanbagi collectors and investors a unique collection:
a. Type collection worthy investment

Netherlands Indies stamps most rare and worthy collection
b. How to prove the following hypothesis:
1) Unique collection does not always have the value of investments
Stamps during the war of independence of Indonesia in Sumatra’s most endangered only two seeds are found, one of which was dimuseum Hague stamp collector belongs to the Dutch State and is renowned Ricardo Dr iwan S privately owned, but the unique and rare though not necessarily high value inventasinya, my wife commented stamps ugly unattractive who is interested, but when viewed Bulterman philatelic expert wow dutch shouted while holding the head, very interesting, there are only two in the world, they want to sell, I am not responsible for proper postage stamps on display at mueum Indonesia or paired with a collection of Ricardo at the Hague Museum, but when I offer to other philatelic experts from the Netherlands, I say, these stamps I want to donate to the musuem den Haag on the condition my name mentioned and I was invited to the Netherlands as the delivery instrument donation receipt of this rare stamp , He said I should not be let out, but it’s been five years no answers, how to, justify my hypothesis is rare but not attractive and do not always have a high investment value.
2) always has a unique collection of information needed certain people.
battered map is not attractive, but it has the information that you would want to know, you know and Kalijati Subang maybe not, is a very historic place, Kalijati is dijatikan airfield where the transfer of power from military talks Hiundia Netherlands To the Commander of troops pendarata Dai Nippon in Java Let.jen. Hitoshi Immamoto, well lu, this new collection of historically valuable because there is information that dibutukan people of Indonesia and of course the Netherlands, and then you’ll want to know how Immamura General profile, to fulfill your curiosity is concerned see photo below
Stelah see Immamura jen.Hitoshi profile, you add curiosity, he conferred with whom,-please read the Japanese Occupation in 1942 or The Java Dai Nippon Military Administration Gunseikanbu Dai Nippon Java or Java. (Whoa, it makes people curious thirst for information-Dr iwan s)
The investment value of the collection can be seen from the antiques trade market lately become known due to the recession so many “dealers” (trader-peyalur) and “auctioner” (auctioneer) believe this ugly situation will end. Collection of objects evolving and price competitive types are always found and sometimes suprising some types of objects quickly turned into a collectible status * 4)
Mao’s first medal who wants a collection, but China is now hunted by collectors, due to the country’s economy soared and people began to prosper, the most loved komeradnya especially scarce during the cultural revolution in the purchase price is very high, even many replica produced in 1978 had died when mao is still bought in China for a memento by tourists because the original price was exorbitant.


 In Memoriam Expert philatelists V.Esbensen had wrote to me, what do you collect philatelic items during the Japanese occupation and war of independence of Indonesia in Sumatra, one time  will be a very valuable investment if you added prosperous state economy,


it is true as Japan’s booming economy In 1985, the Japanese occupation of premises hired all the Japanese people exorbitant prices, but now the older Japanese collectors danbanyak died as Mr Aoki market value so lonely anymore,


I’ve been selling at a profit again booming, till this sat my collection from China remain intact danmuali booming , maybe I should take it off imminent, how amazing is not it.

Investment interest had faded stamps began to shine * 5) after various capital market crisis.


The merchant cash collection (numismatic) will be showered money if someone figures illustrated old money dies. * 6)

On this, there is my experience, any time I see a pile of old money image bung Karno Rp.25 denominations aka money prit jigo very widely circulated, in circumstances that are difficult to obtain smooth, you know how the price skyrocketed from ten thousand dollars, then up twenty-five thousand dollars out 1990 and finally in 2000 rocketed be one hundred thousand dollars, but because of the economic recession fell again lived 75 thousand dollars,


 for the moment at least tinngi sudha I loose all but the serial numbers are still sya mismanagement and beautiful collection because prospects are good especially the serial number of one or two letters, do not know yet learned dong, read a book, curious pean brushed finished the book before anyone else, information is our teacher to be a successful collector (Dr iwan S)

Authors of articles titled “The Collector” admiration for the collectors who love the collection transformed into knowledge for the people, but he is concerned about the greed and their kesrakahan * 7)

Collections that have high investment value is not always hard sell illiquid market value, traders have principles Buy cheap-cheap and sell as high. Nevertheless there is also a collection of liquid including Antique Watches * 8)

An ethnically rich cultural heritage is a reflection of a culture, one of which is the equipment and the Chinese ethnic meubeler “cuiho” is used at marriage * 9) (including musical instruments, table clothes and bed praying and Bride follows the trimmings-pen)

Every person has the idol and brackish heronya one so interested in saving print items, photographs and cards with a picture of the idol known as “trade card” * 10)

The past Idol da field of the sport today the target of the collector as a football card spot * 11) and Basket Ball NBA * 12)

Terms Unusual Coins (Unusual coins) ‘sometimes confusing “(some times confusing) with the creation of the term” the cormercial marketplace “(an open place in the city who use the site pasa), often a” deceptive realm of numinmatic emission “(publishing matauang hoax ). Unusual Coins Nevertheless there is also published as a local currency or tokens * 12)
This perk Coins 1975-1980 sale store with menibang carp weighing about 45 grams silver, sold for Rp 500 per gram equals one U.S. $, so the price is about 45 U.S. $, you know how much it costs now, because it’s very langkadan very limited edition silver coin netherlands king Willem I was worth the same as a car toyota avanza, kalu disbelief can certainly try to find if one wants to exchange with the car, but do not be battered.

Discussing the Unique Collection not be exhausted so that the paper is limited to the Unique Personal Collection not include Unique Collection Nations Heritage or National (National Heritage Collection * 13)

Collectors and investors a unique collection of the world very much like the King of Great Britain Stamp Collection parent British Queen Elisabeth II, former King of Egypt’s extraordinary collection when he abdicated auctioned at a price high enough so dijulukilah kolesi time stamps as “The King of collection and the collection of the King “seiiring with the development of postal communication in the late twentieth century the postal stamps issued in the amount of the very high up to 20-100 million eksp.


As well as the communist propaganda movement through the following dispenses stamps that have been stamped postal stamps collectible stamps declining investment so that when this link is only a rare unique stamps are still so sought kolekstor and investors spesialistis * 14)

Collectors and local investors in Indonsia pretty much the end of 2008 raised the case of the ancient statues melibatkna Solo and collector are not claiming to be investors, acquitted Affairs, and is currently a Jaks appeal (not a collection of unique collection of protected national heritage laws secar ,-pen).

Some collectors are known writer discussed in a separate paper include collector Postal History of Japanese occupation and revolution 1942-49 NRI Mr. Ricardo former state director Jacobson van den Berg-Batavia which is now owned by Museum Fiateli den Haag Holland,


former lead Ceramic Collection IOC Mr Average Brundage, Japanese Samurai Collection Mr Baud-Sri Lanka, Collector Wrap Cigarette Butet Kertajaya, Mr. Affandi Painting Collection Sumarican and lainnya.Keberhasilan some Unique Stamps Collection Collectors who can afford to buy houses, collectors antique furniture antique shop building in Jakarta, Collector paintings memvisualisai Indonesia from the Netherlands and other countries * 14)

Results kjian the type, a unique collection of Investment and discussion and illustration of the unique collection of personal collectors Jakarta is simply the next chapter, untukkolektor menhubunggi senior and specialist authors to be able to discuss and obtain private special karyatulis agreement.

Having read this simple book, readers are expected to understand the Indonesian corrections and input temuam unique collection of new information can then be published so that a more complete book dalamdua Indonesian and English in 20102

The writer


Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA






Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

Number One

Dai Nippon Occupatiions Rising star or solar  Lombok Surcharge

for more info look the collections of east marien  naval Dai nippon occupations overprint included the Lombok solar choped on Kon 10cent courtecy dai Nippon Clun Netherland below

Dr Iwan had ever seen  a postally used cover with this rarest stamps  Dai nippon Solar Lombok stamps belongin to in memoriamMr Zakir ex the chief PTT Soematra Boekittinggi PTT and

other dai Nippon naval area postal used card also very rare



Number  two


  • bezj5a

The Postally used dai Nippon Occupation Flores Nippon Kite surcharge postal stationer card

look the sample pf cover at the front cover of JR Niewkerk Dai Nippon Postalhistory Book below

Number Three


The Block eight mint Surakarta military stamps 1949 and the postally used on Covers

Number Four


The Block 20 mint DEI first stamps willem III unperforated.also


postally used cover

Number Five


The Full sheet 50 stamps  used the

second DEI stamps Willem III perforated

Number Six

The Koninnerburg 35 cent postally used cover

Number Seventh



postally used West sumatra one years and two years  Indonesian Independennt proclamations 19456 and 1947

Number Eight


the earliest nri sumatra typewriter overprint republik indonesia on Dai nippon stmaps in Middle sumatra bagan si-api api

the earliest nri sumatra typewriter overprint republik indonesia on Dai nippon stmaps in Middle sumatra bagan si-api api

The Middle Sumatra type machine overprint Republik Indonesia  on definitive dai nippon  sumatra stamps overprint hand

Number nine


The Overprint NRI west sumatra on dai Nippon stamps used as emergency revenue in 1946 complete on Document

Number Ten


The postally used  cover   pre stamped landmail on cover

Number eleventh

Number tweleve

The Postaly used dai nippon occupation overprint Bencoolen David star on DEI Stamps,and other are like Djambi NIPPON MA, SOUTH SUMATRA POSTMASTER RING CHOPED ON dei STAMPS LIKE



Number Thirteen

The ppostally used on cover  Dai Nippon  occupations south Sumatra ring and hand signed Overprint  on DEI Kon 10cent from IPL Palembang, the chief of postal office Martapura Boestami,etc

Number fourtheen

The Postally Used on cover NRI Sumatra overprint from regional  west sumatra.south Sumatra  and Lampong

Number Fifteen

the unissued Salak stamps’

Number sicteenth

Indonesia Prestamped Cover,like

the private Watson and Co Batavia postal servive in 1846


The Dai Nippon Occupation overprint Sumatra Area on cover like




the end @ copyright 2012



Dr Iwan Cybermuseum


Home Office

The Introduction From The Founder of Driwancybermuseum Web Blog

















The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)


Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”


Qillin decoration


Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard




Meeting room


working room


Dragon boat mini musuem


Ceramic Collection


Ceramic Collections 2


VOC ship tile


VOC Tile&Token


Ngoc San Tample Hoan Kiem Lake Hanoi tile


Ancient Wayang Petruk Manuscript


Ancient wayang Semar

Hallo Collector

THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem:

1. The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2. The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :
(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1 and 2)
(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)
(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles), VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).
(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.

also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above

c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD) the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty


3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978

6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos


During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.

10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.

13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://


In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections


8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp:// 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011









Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty





History of China



wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.







The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng)

refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644,

 Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty,

breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands.

Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.





Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)


The Original Dr Iwancybermuseum logo Collections .

Frame one:


1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.


3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and their on red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.

The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.

3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.

Jakarta, February.27th 2011

The founder of Cybermuseum Blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy


Frame Two :

The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo

1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum

private home office


2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)


the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy






The Highest value Of Uniquecollections




Rarest Gems

The world’s rarest gem is believed to be painite, a gem that most have never heard of. The painite is orangish or reddish brown and was first discovered in Burma in the ’50s.

 Within the last couple of years, the source of the two original painite crystals was discovered and now a few hundred faceted stones exist.

A more well-known (but still very rare) gem is the red diamond


 Meteorites are rare and wondrous things, fragments of worlds other than our own.

The weight of gold that has been mined on Earth far exceeds the total weight of all meteorites in the world’s collections. Among the rarest of meteorites are pallasites, in which translucent yellow or green crystals of the gem mineral olivine occur embedded in crystalline nickel-iron metal.

Photo by Iris Langheinrich, pallasite slice on display in the Window on Our World, click image to enlarge.

In their raw state, pallasite meteorites are far from attractive. Their exteriors are blackened by the intense heat of entry through Earth’s atmosphere, or rusted by centuries embedded in soil. But cut into thin slices they can be stunningly beautiful.

Their structure is unlike anything found on Earth, but perhaps resembles what lies deep beneath our feet. The Earth has an iron core surrounded by a thick layer, the mantle, composed of olivine. Pallasite meteorites are from the core-mantle boundary of a small rocky planet that formed very early in the solar system but was later destroyed by planetary collision. These windows into another world give us a tantalizing glimpse of the deep interior of our own planet.

This particular pallasite slice, 46cm wide by 35cm high and weighing 3.45kg, is from a large meteorite found 150km northwest of the town of Seymchan, in the Magadan district of north-eastern Siberia. It was acquired by the Ulster Museum in 2009 and is on display on the upper level of Window on our World. More meteorites are on display in the Origins gallery of the Nature Zone


Rarest Signature

He may have done a lot of writing, but with only 6 of them in existence William Shakespeare’ s signature is one of the rarest of all and is valued somewhere around $3 million dollars.

Georgie Boy’ &  ‘Motherdear’





Collecting seems to bring out that primitive instinct for the hunt in some of its devotees, who stalk their prey with skill.  –

 Alicia Craig Faxon


Rarest Stamps

According to Wikipedia, the most expensive item by weight and volume is the Treskilling Yellow stamp from Sweden. It has a current estimated worth of $2.3 million. Here’s what makes it so valuable: In 1858, when the currency was known as the skilling, the 3-skilling stamp (“treskilling”) was printed in blue. And an 8-skilling stamp was printed in yellow. But due to a printing error, a few 3-skilling stamps were printed in yellow.


That instinct for the hunt has given a friend of mine the ability to assemble a “world class” collection of very rare stamps. 

The stamps are, in fact, so rare that I will make an exception to my usual rule that all posts must relate to cars. 




 My friend, Mahendra Sagar has spent a lifetime hunting and acquiring the rarest stamps in the Philatelic world,

called “Inverted Centers.”


These inverted centers, are stamps with the design element upside down with respect to the rest of the stamp. 

Most famous of these types is the inverted Jenny,  a stamp with the printing of the plane upside down. 

These errors are so rare, and so priceless, that they are pursued by only the most determined, skilled, and knowledgeable collectors.


Mahendra Sagar is such a man. 

He started collecting stamps when he inherited his older brothers collection at an early age. 

Now he specializes in these rarest of rare inverted centers. 

 His collection includes many choice stamps from other major collections, as well as some previously unknown stamps, all of which were acquired through years of auction bidding throughout the world.


The Mahendra Sagar Collection,

 as it is called, is one of the greatest offerings of inverted center stamps. 

Portions of the proceeds from the sale of the collection will go to various charitable institutions,

like Vipassana Research Institute, and Buddhist Global Relief.



Even if you are not a stamp collector, the catalogue is a brief history lesson into the world of inverted centers, and worthy of a look.  The auction house has created a special website linked here, which describes the collection in detail, and offers a printed brochure for prospective bidders.




It is one thing when a friend tells you that he is a stamp collector, but it is entirely different when you learn that his collection is “world class.” 

 In the car world, it would be like finding out your best friend doesn’t just own a classic car, but has a collection that rivals Ralph Lauren or Jay Leno. 

You have to be impressed.

the world’s rarest classic cars


A 1914 Dodge Type 30

 was the initial inspiration for the Louwman Collection of classic cars and automotive art housed in the newly-constructed National Automobile Museum of the Netherlands in the Hague.

Located near the Queen’s Palace, the collection dates back to 1934 when a Dutch car importer happened upon the 20-year-old Dodge that was already vintage classic. The Louwman family continued to expand over the years to its current size, boasting over 230 cars.

The cars are divided up into sections consisting of Dawn of Motoring, Motoring, Racing and Luxury. Highlights include a 1900 Georges Richard, which is rumored to have been found in a Parisian side street and “Genevieve,” a 1904 Darracq from the 1953 film. Rare 1948 Tatra T87 and a Spatz Victoria bubble car with central tube chassis, are both designed by the legendary Hans Ledwinka.

The collection includes an impressive range of vehicles, ranging in year and stature from 1944 Willys Jeep Model MB to a 1875 Thirion Modele N 2 Horse Drawn Steam Fire-Engine and 1922 American Lafrance Hook and Ladder Aerial Type 31/6.

Conceived by architecture firm Michael Graves & Associates, the 185,000-square-foot structure with its peaked roofs and woven brick facade, consists of temporary and permanent exhibition galleries, a reception hall, an auditorium and workshops for conservation and car repairs.


Rarest Cats Dogs

Of the rarest cat breeds, the Ashera (pic. left) is the most expensive ($20K+), the Sokoke the most exotic (from the wilds of Africa), and the Egyptian Mau has the coolest history (lived with the Egyptians). As for dog breeds, the one that keeps popping up on all the “rare” lists is the Lundehund, originally bred by the Vikings to hunt Puffins. Other rare breeds include Otterhounds and Stabyhounds.


Rarest Sea Salt

The earliest known sea salt produced by the Japanese may be the rarest of all. Called Amabito No Moshio (“Ancient Sea Salt”), unpolluted sea water is collected from the Seto-uchi inland sea, infused with seaweed to develop the “unami”, and then processed by cooking in an iron kettle, put into a centrifuge, and finally, cooked over an open fire while stirring constantly. The salt is worth over $40 per pound.


01. Don’t Leave me Alone


02. Transform Your Portrait in to Zombie


03. Surreal ocean scape in a bottle


04. Simple 3D Text Effect


05. Seductive Digital Art


06. Trap Your Friends in a Jar


07. Beautiful Abstract Portrait


08. Create an Abstract Playing Card


09. Create an Anti-Smoking Ad


10. Create a Fantasy Miniature World


11. A Professional Cartoon Effect from a Real Photograph


12. Creating an Ecological Fairy Tale


Advertise Here

13. Create a Beautiful Fan Surrounded by Magic Shapes, Runes and Plants


14. Flaming Car


15. The Police Officer


16. Powerful Human Disintegration Effect


17. Create a Beautiful Fantasy Angel


18. Creating Mechanical Horse


19. Create a Disturbing Scene of a Flooded Room with a Giant Hand Carrying a Fish


20. Underwater Vector Illustration


21. Create Movie Poster


22. Underwater 3D Text Effect


23. Road of Dreams


24. Fly High Light Effect


25. Texture Cube


26. Unique Abstract Text Effect


27. Create A Warm and Serene Portrait


28. create a Puss in Boots movie poster


29. Create an Exploding Light Text Effect


30. Create 3 Retro MP3 Players



Rarest Jeans

According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the most valuable jeans are an original pair of Levi Strauss Co 501 jeans aged over 115 years old which were sold to a collector in Japan for $60,000 through eBay in 2005. Quite rare indeed considering a new pair sells for $46.




Rarest Baseball Cards

In February 2007,

 a “near mint-mint” Honus Wagner sold for $2.3 million, at that point probably the highest sale for a baseball card in history.

 Then, in September 2007,

the same card was reportedly sold again.

This time for $2.8 million to a private collector.

The card in question, aT206 Honus Wagner, was made by the American Tobacco Company in 1909.

It has been called the “Mona Lisa of baseball cards.”




Rarest Comic Books

One of the rarest comic books still in existence in near-perfect condition is an issue of “Amazing Spider-Man #1,”

rare not only because of its singularity but also because of its quality.

The comic book sold for only 12 cents per copy when it was published in March 1963, and is now worth over $40K — not an exceedingly high price for comic books — but extremely rare in such pristine condition.




Rarest Real Estate

At the intersection of location, exclusivity and history you find some of the rarest pieces of real estate. With that criterion, blogger’s pick for the rarest piece of real estate currently on the market is Bran’s castle, the castle in Transylvania that inspired Bram Stoker’s Dracula, which is expected to fetch upwards of $135 million.


Rarest Horses

The Sorraia Horse is said to be the direct descendant of the wild Iberian horse but only 200 currently remain living in South Iberia. The Tiger Horse is a rare breed which is said to have existed in Ancient Spain and the beginning of the New World. Rare in terms of its abilities and characteristics, is the Lipizzaner (pic. left). Bred for its military prowess, one of these animals can sell for up to $100,000.




Rarest Books

There are countless rare books in the world, but by most experts’ standards the rarest of them all is the Gutenberg Bible. It was the first book ever printed back in 1456, and although several hundred copies were originally printed finding a complete first edition would net you $25-$35 million. In today’s market single pages alone go for $25K each, and several years ago just 1 volume (it’s a 2 volume set) sold for $5.5M.


Rarest Necklaces

In the world of rare necklaces, a couple million dollars doesn’t get you much. Even ten million dollars is cheap for these babies. The most expensive necklace may likely be one built around the Blue Empress, a rare natural blue diamond. The pear-shaped diamond weighs about 14 carats. It is set in 18k white gold and surrounded with white diamonds. It’s estimated to be worth $16 million



Rarest Wine

One of the rarest bottles of wine ever sold was purchased by Christopher Forbes for a mere £105,000 ($160,000). It was an unmarked green glass bottle with the inscription of “1787 Lafitte Th. J.” (now known as Lafite and thought to be owned by Thomas Jefferson), found behind a wall in Paris.


Rarest Vases

In 2006, a 20-inch high blue and white Yuan Dynasty vase fetched over $2 million. That sounds rare but at the end of that year, casino owner Steve Wynn paid even more for a rare vase. The small copper red and white porcelain vase, is a 14th century Ming vase (pic. left) decorated in scrolling flowers. It is from the exceptionally rare Hongwu period and went for around $10.9 million, making it the world’s most expensive.





Rarest Coins

As a general rule the more rare a coin is the more it’s worth, so what’s the rarest coin ever? It’s a debatable subject as not all experts always agree, but if the Double Eagle isn’t at the top of that list it’s sure near it. Back in 2002 the only Double Eagle coin left to be in private hands (or so everybody thought) sold for $7.9 million dollars.


Rarest Food

Served in China for over 400 years, the primary ingredient in bird’s nest soup or “Caviar of the East” is saliva nests built by cave swifts. Among one of the most expensive animal products consumed by humans it is believed to aid digestion, raise libido, and even alleviate asthma as it is dissolved in water to create a gelatinous soup. In Hong Kong, a bowl costs up to $30. Red version can cost $10K per gram.


Rarest Travel Trips

What is the rarest trip? There’s no real consensus on this, but blogger Deidre Woodward says that the trek to summit Mount Everest still remains among the rarest trips in the world. But even this has become something that is accessible to more people. In two months and for around $60,000 you can join a group and make the attempt of a lifetime.


__What You choose

Let we asked Coocle

What is the rarest collections In the world today September 2012


3 day ago jaguar

Argyle Pink Diamonds’ Beyond Rare campaign has been released through luxury fashion, financial and trade publications.


Media releases

Rio Tinto launches its 2012 collection of exceptionally rare pink, red and blue diamonds
03 September 2012 – Rio Tinto today announced the launch of its exclusive Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender 2012, an increasingly rare opportunity to purchase the world’s most precious diamonds …

Argyle Pink Diamonds glitter at the 84th Academy Awards
Los Angeles, February 27, 2012 – Australia’s exquisite Argyle pink diamonds were showcased to the world during the 84th Academy Awards ceremony ..

Rio Tinto discovers Australia’s biggest rough pink diamond at Argyle
21 February 2012 – Australia’s biggest pink rough diamond has been discovered at Rio Tinto’s Argyle mine, the world’s largest producer of rare pink diamonds …

Rio Tinto announces winning bids for the world’s most precious diamonds
Perth, October 26 Rio Tinto’s 2011 Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender, the most exclusive diamond sale in the world, has demonstrated strong global appeal and enduring value …

Rio Tinto launches its 2011 collection of exceptionally rare pink diamonds
Perth, July 13, 2011 – Rio Tinto today announced the launch of its exclusive Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender 2011, an increasingly rare opportunity to purchase the world’s most

Argyle Pink Diamond O pendant raises A$14,500 for indigenous Australian school
Perth, May 18 – Rio Tinto’s Argyle Pink Diamonds business is proud to announce the successful auction of a beautiful piece of Australian history – the sale of the “Number 1” …

Argyle Pink Diamonds announces new Authorised Partner in India
Perth, December 13, 2010 – Rio Tinto’s Argyle Pink Diamonds business today announced specialist diamond jewellery designer, manufacturer and luxury retailer, Nirav Modi …

Rio Tinto’s rare pink diamonds set new records and enter new markets
Perth, November 4, 2010 – Rio Tinto is delighted to announce an exceptional result for its 2010 Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender. Known as the most exclusive diamond sale in the world .

Rio Tinto’s exceptional pink diamonds to be showcased in New York
New York, October 12, 2010 – Rio Tinto’s exclusive Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender has arrived in New York, to be showcased alongside a much sought-after pink diamond tiara

Iconic Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender is showcased for the first time in China
Hong Kong, September 14, 2010. Rio Tinto today announced the inaugural showcasing of its Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender in mainland China.

Rio Tinto’s exceptional pink diamonds set to entice collectors and investors alike
Perth, August 18, 2010 – Rio Tinto today announced the launch of its exclusive 2010 Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender, an increasingly rare opportunity to purchase the world’s most precious

New publication highlights the immense appeal of the world’s most precious pink diamonds
Perth, July 5, 2010 – Rio Tinto today announced the launch of its new publication, Rare and Collectable, which focuses on the unique market position occupied by the rare pink diamonds

Rio Tinto’s Argyle Pink Diamond Tiara plays tribute to past and present crown jewels
Perth, June 24, 2010 – Rio Tinto’s rare Argyle pink diamonds today made a royal debut at the Masterpieces London Fair, a unique showcase of the most covetable objects on earth

Rio Tinto announces winning bids for the world’s most precious diamonds
Perth, October 22 – Rio Tinto has celebrated the 25th anniversary of its iconic Argyle Pink Diamonds Tender with an exceptional result that belies the global financial crisis

Iconic Argyle Pink Diamond Tender is showcased for the first time in India
Mumbai, August 9 – Rio Tinto’s 2009 Argyle Pink Diamond Tender is celebrating the 25th anniversary of its iconic offering of rare pink diamonds with its first ever viewing in India

Rio Tinto’s pink diamonds play tribute to grand passions and great loves
Perth, June 3 – Rio Tinto’s 2009 Argyle Pink Diamond Tender is set to celebrate the 25th anniversary of its iconic offering of pink diamonds with an exceptional collection

Rio Tinto’s Blue Diamond Tender Exceeds Expectations
PERTH, April 29, 2009 –Rio Tinto’s recent tender of rare blue diamonds from the Argyle Diamond Mine in Western Australia has set record prices and in doing so ..

Carats Direct Unveils Pink Diamond Jewelry Collection to Promote a Future Without Breast Cancer
VANCOUVER, 12th March, 2009 – Carats Direct has entered into a unique partnership with the Canadian Breast Cancer Foundation (CBCF). Carats Direct will donate .

Rio Tinto Tenders a Rare Offering Of Blue Diamonds
PERTH, 3rd March, 2009 – Rio Tinto’s Argyle Diamond Mine is set to showcase its rare blue diamonds to the world in a unique sale known as the ‘Once in a Blue Moon “ ..

Red Carpet Provides Unique Opportunity to Showcase Rare Argyle Pink Diamonds
NEW YORK, 26th January, 2009 – Rio Tinto’s iconic Argyle pink diamonds were the focus of much red carpet activity at the finale of the 2009 G’Day USA Australia …

Rare Argyle Pink Diamond Sells For Record Price
PERTH, 22nd December, 2008 – Rio Tinto’s Argyle Pink Diamond business today revealed that it had received the highest price ever for a pink diamond  

Argyle Pink Diamonds Set To Sparkle On The Red Carpet
ANTWERP, 22nd December, 2008 – Rio Tinto’s iconic Australian diamonds are set to grace the red carpet at the G’Day USA Australia Week events in New York in January 2009.

World’s Most Precious Pink Diamonds Deliver Strong Result
PERTH, 27th October, 2008 – Results from Rio Tinto’s 24th annual Argyle Pink Diamond Tender have demonstrated a strong market for this truly rare product..

World’s most precious pink diamonds go on sale
ANTWERP, 21st August, 2008 – Diamond experts and high society figures around the globe are preparing for the 24th annual Rio Tinto Argyle Pink Diamond Tender.




Press Clippings and Publications

Argyle pinks celebrated with special pendant
Rio Tinto’s Argyle Diamond Mine in Western Australia, which produces more than 90 percent of the world’s pink diamonds, is turning 25 this year, and the mining company plans to mark the milestone with the creation of one very rare pendant…

Oprah audience gifted diamond necklace
Each member of Oprah Winfrey’s 6000-strong Sydney audience will be given a white gold and diamond necklace, courtesy of mining giant Rio Tinto:

  • Oprah audience gifted diamond necklaces – AAP, PERTH, Dec 14
  • Audience gifted with diamonds – Daily Advertiser, Dec 15
  • Gem of an idea helps jewellers sparkle – The West Australian, Perth, Dec 15
  • Oprah Australia, Dec 15 – Oprah’s been and gone but diamonds are forever
  • Oprah’s audience get jewels – Bendigo Advertiser, Dec 15
  • Oprah shares the love – Ballarat Courier, Dec 15  >
  • Oprah shares the love, and the sponsors, on Aussie trip – Border Mail, Dec 15  >
  • Thousands gather at the Oprah House as ‘love festival for Australia’ reaches its climax – Melbourne Age, Dec 15  >
  • Pink diamonds and stars for Oprah’s fans – Daily Telegraph, Dec 14 Ossie! Ossie! Ossie! 0! 0! 0! – Daily Telegraph, Dec 15

The Argyle Pink Diamond Tiara
Combining the mystique and romance of a bygone era with the design of a contemporary treasure, the Argyle Pink Diamond Tiara is a signature jewellery piece

Diamonds are forever – Crystal Magazine Issue 3
CRYSTAL speaks with Josephine Archer, business manager of Argyle Pink Diamonds, about one of the most significant diamond tenders the world

The Green Carpet Challenge – In the Pink
Diamonds are a tricky issue on the red carpet. The Oscars will be covered in jewels and attendant security guards

Rio drives indigenous workforce boom
Apprentice mechanic Jono Adrian reckons anybody who really wants a job in the Kimberley can get one. The 22-year-old, who works at Rio Tinto’s Argyle diamond mine, is just one of the many young indigenous people employed on the siteLuxury Guide – Pretty in Pink
The east Kimberley is a culturally rich part of Australia that captivates the visitor in deep and mysterious ways. If it is not the Indigenous heritage or the supernatural out back landscapes, it’s the pink diamonds that the land creates..

Luxury Guide – Needful Thing
Argyle pink diamonds make up less than one tenth of one per cent of the total diamonds mined at the Argyle Diamond Mine – they are beyond rare…

Sitting Pretty in Pink – Crystal Magazine feature
How do you find a diamond in the rough? You need a helicopter and “the best team” according to Warren Atkinson, one of the geologists who originally discovered the Argyle mine in 1979…


WW II Propganda Poster

A rare collection of Second World War propaganda posters sold for almost £15,000 when they went under the hammer.

The 110 prints, bearing morale-boosting slogans such as Keep Calm And Carry On, were sold in 11 lots at Wallis and Wallis Auction Galleries in Lewes, East Sussex.

Bidding clerk Lyn Hayward said the total of £14,590 that was fetched was ”well in excess of what was expected”.

The posters, described as being in mint condition, were brought into the auction house by a relative of a worker who saved them from being thrown away during a clear-out at a print firm.

Many of the prints were part of the Back Them Up range of posters aimed at encouraging civilians to join the armed forces.

Others were emblazoned with extracts from some of Winston Churchill’s speeches, such as ”We shall not fail”.

Mrs Hayward said a pair of prints, one bearing the warning, Tell Nobody – Not Even Her, and the other, Careless Talk Costs Lives, fetched the highest single bid of £2,700.

She said the posters were believed to have been sold to a range of private collectors and there had also been interest from a number of museums.

Roy Butler, auctioneer, previously said he expected each lot to sell for up to £250 and had not known of such a collection going on sale before


The Investation Value Of Phillately collections




One of the Dutch east Indie (Hindia Belanda) rare stamps,the  hignest nominal value used stamps,the mint stamps more expensive, 55 years I am seeking this time ,and in 2009 I found this stam in jakarta from the senior stamps collectors from Bogor, I bought this stamps joint with my trader friend, I only bought this stamps and Bandung Jaarbeurs 10cent, and the other He bought, I am very happy as the phillatelist, I had ever seen in the auctions many times but never win the bidding, after the economic crisis and the price became only 10% of catalogue price I can bought this expensive stamps.(Dr Iwan S).


The  very rare Indonesia postal stationer,Bulterman catalogue price 5000 US Dollar, I found this postal history 1n 1984, and in 1985 I sold to Mr Karel US$ 1500, Mr Karel Sold in Van Dieten Auction Nederland in 2008 estimate price US  5000,- but I didnot now who baought this very rare postal History, Mr Karel promise me not sold abroad,but  because the economic crisis  he must sold abroad due ton in Tangeran Stamps Austion of Mr Suwito Harsono no one bidding, I am very upset this collections must keep in Indonesia, like I have keep the Type Machinewriter overpring Republimk Indonesia on 20 cent Dai N ippon Sumatra stamps,used on fragment ,only two exist one My Ricardo Collections now in Den Haag Musuem ,and the other one still in my collections.(Dr Iwan S)


This article dedicated to my Philatelist friend Mr Gogo who just pass away last week at Bandung, he was the first Phillatelist give me informations about Dai Nippon Occupation and Indonesia Independence war during my visit his stamps shop at Braga Street in 1984, this informations have help me starting to a phillatelist.

Before from 1955 until 1984 I am only the Stamp Collectors and investors I didnot know and no one gave me informations about phillatelis althought I have met senior Indonesia Phillatelist like Susantio, Dr Nelwan,Mr Thung Kim Tek, Wuysiang.General Surya Darma. Mr Pantau, Mpek Kok Sioe etc.

After have the phillatelist information from Mr Gogo Bandung in 1984 , starting from 1985 until now I learn many phillatelist literature, and met many senior phillatelis like Mr Ramkema, Mr P.R. Bulterman, Mr Suwito Harso, Mr Untung Raharjo, Mr Karel, Mr Dani etc from them I have many experience and information, I have bough many phillate;list Boooks, The International Stamp Catalogue like Stanly Gibbons,Yvert,Scott, and Michel, also collecting classic vintage catalogue,the postal history books and literature especially about the earliest 19th century Stamps.

I have write 389 article about unique collections, also about phillatelist from Asia country,after the old blog full, I am starting built the new internet blog in june 2010, with more profesional e-book,If you want to be the phillatelist you must joint my unqiue collection Club, and  my editor will send the new e-book info you like via your e-mail, you only paid the operational cost,please fast contact my editor via comment, I have only send 100 e-book only, if you late , you never found the very best information which I have learned almost 25 years.

I am sorry, the -book very limited because I didnot have enough time to produce the e-boook, like Indonesia Independence war and Dai Nippon Occupation Indonesia I have write almost two years still not finish that is why I only send you if you join the club, part and part have finish may be in two or three years because I have thousand collections realted to this very special momment for Indonesian Nations.


Yesterday (and as well as today) I got involved into a somewhat “interesting” discussion on my facebook and internet blog  that gathered five of comments in matter of hours. Unfortunately, it turned also into a catfight between stamp collectors and philatelists in few responses. I understand thta in the world 99 % were the stamp collectors and only one % phillatelist. My thoughts precisely. Why on earth can’t stamp collectors and philatelists co-exist in peace ?

Anyway – one of the comments hit a nerve as it labeled Yours truly as a philatelist based on the fact that I know lots of stamp related stuff (as well as share it openly with others).


Kemarin (dan juga hari ini) saya terlibat dalam diskusi agak “menarik” pada saya facebook dan blog internet yang mengumpulkan lima dari komentar dalam hitungan jam. Sayangnya, ternyata juga menjadi catfight antara kolektor perangko dan filatelis dalam beberapa tanggapan. Saya mengerti thta di dunia 99% adalah kolektor perangko dan hanya satu phillatelist%. Pikiranku tepat. Kenapa tidak dapat stempel kolektor dan filatelis hidup berdampingan dalam damai?
Pokoknya – salah satu komentar menabrak saraf seperti label Hormat sebagai Filatelis didasarkan pada kenyataan bahwa saya tahu banyak hal terkait cap (serta berbagi secara terbuka dengan orang lain).

When the first time found this stamps,Personally I consider myself nothing more than ordinarie stamp collector, as 99,9% of my time with stamps goes into hoarding large worldwide lots and filling spaces. In my books it definitely doesn’t qualify as philately. But after the China stamps became booming, The Mao Stamps  issued by DDR -easr Germany also up the value,every body in china more than 10 Million collectors seeking the M ao profile stamps and also after the Belrin wall broken and the unity of Germany this stamps became popular. in Germany and China, I like this stamps if on postally used cover to add my Mao Profila Postal history,you have  I want to buy. I am interested of things such as postmarks, errors or printing methods?

Who has said it is philatelists exclusive privilege to be interested of these things? Though stamp collecting is simply a task of filling spaces, there is a very clear need to know all sorts of stuff. Such as how to identify two printing methods from each other to successfully fill a specific gap. Or to verbally express one’s need very accurately to a seller / dealer / trading partner. Or to simply look out for all those “eBay bunnies” that try to sell “bogus products of crapmanistan” as the real thing because stamp collectors buy it all.

Both stamp collectors and philatelists share and live in same world where knowledge is power. It would simply be damn foolish for a stamp collector (or philatelist for that matter) to remain ignorant!

So what is the difference between a stamp collector and a philatelist? My personal opinion is that the main difference is in attitude towards collecting.

STAMP COLLECTORS do things with heart and with “easy rider” feeling. They are on a road to nowhere in particular, and they enjoy pretty much of everything (and all the stamps) that life throws at them.


Top of Form

Ketika pertama kali ditemukan ini perangko, Secara pribadi saya menganggap diri saya tidak lebih dari kolektor perangko ordinarie, sebagai 99,9% dari waktu saya dengan perangko masuk ke banyak menimbun seluruh dunia yang besar dan ruang mengisi. Dalam buku saya itu pasti tidak memenuhi syarat sebagai filateli. Tapi setelah perangko China menjadi booming, The Stamps Mao dikeluarkan oleh DDR-easr Jerman juga naik nilai, setiap tubuh di cina lebih dari 10 Juta kolektor mencari M perangko ao profil dan juga setelah dinding Belrin rusak dan kesatuan Jerman ini perangko menjadi populer. di Jerman dan China, aku seperti ini perangko jika pada penutup postally digunakan untuk menambah saya Mao Profila sejarah Pos, Anda memiliki saya ingin membeli. Saya tertarik hal-hal seperti cap pos, kesalahan atau metode cetak?

Siapa yang mengatakan itu adalah hak istimewa filatelis eksklusif untuk tertarik hal-hal ini? Meskipun mengumpulkan prangko hanyalah sebuah tugas mengisi ruang, ada kebutuhan yang sangat jelas untuk mengetahui segala macam hal. Seperti bagaimana mengidentifikasi metode pencetakan dua dari satu sama lain untuk berhasil mengisi kesenjangan tertentu. Atau untuk mengekspresikan secara verbal kebutuhan seseorang sangat akurat untuk penjual / agen / mitra dagang. Atau untuk sekadar melihat keluar untuk semua orang “kelinci eBay” yang mencoba untuk menjual “produk-produk palsu dari crapmanistan” sebagai hal yang nyata karena kolektor perangko membeli semuanya.

Kolektor perangko baik dan berbagi filatelis dan hidup di dunia yang sama di mana pengetahuan adalah kekuatan. Ini hanya akan sialan bodoh bagi seorang kolektor prangko (Filatelis atau dalam hal ini) untuk tetap bodoh!
Jadi apa perbedaan antara seorang kolektor perangko dan seorang Filatelis? Pendapat pribadi saya adalah bahwa perbedaan utama adalah dalam sikap terhadap mengumpulkan.



 melakukan hal-hal dengan hati dan dengan perasaan “mudah pengendara”. Mereka berada di jalan ke mana-mana pada khususnya, dan mereka menikmati cukup banyak dari segala sesuatu (dan semua perangko) bahwa kehidupan melemparkan pada mereka


The Stamps collectors will comment this stamps beautiful pin color and  ethnic building I like it, but the Phillateslist different ,they look the related history  as the Postal History, this stamps issued during Indonesia in the United State Republic (Republik Indonesia Serikat) ,very short republic from December .27th 1949 until August ,17th 1950 ( after that became The United Republic of Indonesia -NKRI Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia until now), thi high nominal stamps from Rp. 2 to RP 25 didnot sold at Post office, the sdtamps will put on the cover or pakket and postal cancelled, only Indonesia phillatelic association can buy one sets for their collections, that time teh goverment protect the stamps used as investation like othe monetery -Papermoney, that is why the high nominal value especially RP.2 and Rp. 3,- very difficult to find in Mint stamps , and the other nom inal Rp.5, Rp 10 and 25 later many exist because many reprint and the stamps didnot used by the postal office sold to Indonesian and Nederlands trader. I have the Indonesian First issue stamp sample (contoh) put on the document for Postal announcement what kind of Stamps sold that time, that stamps still sold until 1952 after RIS. When the first RIS stamps sold and used on cover, you can read at my story about Indonesia Independent War and RIS in my old blog, and now i have starting to upgrade that story with more profesional style and illustrations, bvut not many stamps collector like this story, but they found that their stamps were fake ,they starting thingking to became phillatelist, also when they want to sold their collections, the trader didnot want to buy, they said your stamp collection not valuable or low valuse ,thay want to buy swapt with very low price, that is why the Stamp Collectors starting slowly but progress to disappears in the world, only the Phillatelic collections still alive and more valuable, I have an very best experience . If you are only want to be stamps collectors stop reading this article , you can seen many informations at facebook where many traders show their common beautiful which you can found many everywhere,very cheapest, that you can buy in Kilogram, when you want to sold noone will buy, also exchange in swap 100 different stamps in Stamp Circuit Club, or 10 kg from Christian Mission stamps Kiloware for charity, I have ever bought 10 kg British stamps, all the stamps were definitive stamps thaousand Elizabeth II stamps in 1986 only about 20 uncommon  stamps from the England state area stamps. I have bought 30 poundsterling which send via Bankdraft. I still have that garbe stamps until now,no one want to buy, maybe 100 years later my grandchild next generations  can sell this stamps.

PHILATELISTS  on the other focus on study and research, and take things much more seriously. And various “guidelines and rules” give them a very precise goal and path to follow for years to come.

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Para kolektor Perangko akan komentar ini warna prangko pin yang indah dan bangunan etnis Saya menyukainya, tapi berbeda Phillateslist, mereka terlihat sejarah terkait sebagai Sejarah Pos, perangko ini dikeluarkan selama Indonesia di Amerika Negara Republik (Republik Indonesia Serikat), sangat pendek republik dari Desember .27 th 1949 sampai Agustus, 17 1950 (setelah itu menjadi Republik Indonesia Serikat-NKRI Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia sampai sekarang), thi tinggi perangko nominal dari Rp. 2 sampai RP 25 didnot dijual di kantor Pos, para sdtamps akan mengenakan penutup atau pakket dan pos dibatalkan, hanya Indonesia phillatelic asosiasi dapat membeli satu set untuk koleksi mereka, bahwa pemerintah waktu teh melindungi perangko digunakan sebagai investasi seperti lain yang patut moneter-Papermoney , itulah sebabnya nilai nominal tinggi terutama Rp.2 dan Rp. 3, – sangat sulit untuk menemukan dalam perangko Mint, dan nom inal lainnya Rp.5, Rp 10 dan 25 banyak kemudian ada karena cetak ulang banyak dan perangko didnot digunakan oleh kantor pos dijual kepada pedagang Indonesia dan Nederlands. Saya memiliki masalah Indonesia sampel cap Pertama (Contoh) diletakkan pada dokumen pengumuman Pos apa Stamps dijual saat itu, yang stempel masih dijual sampai 1952 setelah RIS. Ketika perangko RIS pertama dijual dan digunakan pada penutup, Anda dapat membaca di cerita saya tentang Indonesia Independen Perang dan RIS di blog lama saya, dan sekarang saya telah mulai meng-upgrade cerita itu dengan gaya yang lebih profesional dan ilustrasi, bvut tidak banyak kolektor prangko seperti cerita ini, tetapi mereka menemukan bahwa perangko mereka palsu, mereka mulai berfikir untuk menjadi phillatelist, juga ketika mereka ingin menjual koleksi mereka, pedagang didnot ingin membeli, mereka mengatakan valuse koleksi perangko Anda tidak berharga atau rendah , thay ingin membeli swapt dengan harga yang sangat rendah, itu sebabnya Kolektor Stamp mulai perlahan tapi berkembang menjadi menghilang di dunia, hanya koleksi Phillatelic masih hidup dan lebih berharga,


saya memiliki pengalaman terbaik. Jika Anda hanya ingin menjadi kolektor perangko berhenti membaca artikel ini, Anda dapat melihat banyak informasi di facebook di mana banyak pedagang menunjukkan indah bersama mereka yang Anda dapat menemukan banyak di mana-mana, sangat murah, yang dapat Anda beli di Kilogram, bila Anda ingin menjual noone akan membeli, juga pertukaran di swap 100 prangko yang berbeda di Club Stamp Circuit, atau 10 kg dari Christian Mission perangko Kiloware untuk amal, saya pernah membeli perangko kg 10 Inggris, semua prangko adalah prangko definitif thaousand Elizabeth II perangko pada tahun 1986 hanya sekitar 20 perangko biasa dari perangko wilayah negara Inggris. Saya telah membeli 30 poundsterling yang kirim melalui Bankdraft. Saya masih memiliki perangko Garbe sampai sekarang, tidak ada yang ingin membeli, mungkin 100 tahun kemudian cucu saya generasi berikutnya dapat menjual perangko.

Filatelis pada fokus lainnya pada studi dan penelitian, dan mengambil hal-hal yang jauh lebih serius. Dan berbagai “pedoman dan aturan” memberi mereka tujuan yang sangat tepat dan jalan untuk mengikuti tahun-tahun mendatang.


This is my very rare phillatelic collection,  Indonesia Independence War Sumtra typemachine overpint

only two exist two in the world.

I’m not saying that neither of the paths a collector can go is better than the other. And they are not even mutually exclusive…So let’s let all the flowers blossom.

If you are the real phillatelist, join my unique collection club via comment, and you will find many special informations which guide you to be the phillatelist and valuable collections investors,look the sample below

Ini sangat jarang koleksi phillatelic saya, Indonesia Perang Kemerdekaan Sumtra typemachine overpinthanya dua ada dua di dunia.

Saya tidak mengatakan bahwa tak satu pun dari jalan kolektor bisa lebih baik daripada yang lain.

 Dan mereka bahkan tidak saling eksklusif … Jadi mari kita membiarkan semua mekar bunga.

Jika Anda adalah phillatelist nyata, bergabung dengan klub koleksi unik saya melalui komentar, dan Anda akan menemukan informasi khusus banyak yang membimbing Anda untuk menjadi phillatelist dan berharga koleksi investor, terlihat contoh di bawah


1. Rare Sweden philatelic collections

One of the most valued Swedish stamp issues are so called Landstormen surcharges.  These are semipostals used to collect funds to equip soldiers during World War I.

First about the series name… Between 1885 and 1941 Swedish soldiers were divided in “Beväringen” and “Landstormen”. Beväringen was the younger classess / men in the active service,  and Landstormen referred to  older classes in reserve.   In practice Landstormen was used mostly for the Swedish army’s area defense.

The first Landstormen series (Landstormen I) contains a new print of the invalidated 1872/86 Circular type series.  The stamps differ from the original circular type series on paper, which has wavy lines +letters watermark.  However, there exists an special edition Landstormen I on original stamp paper (with post horn on back).  The stamps were overprinted with new values and sold for the double face value.

1916 Sweden Landstormen I semipostal – Michel #86, cat.value 6.00€

The second Landstormen (Landstormen II) set was overprinted on old, and not any more used postage due stamps (or as swedish call – Löjsen).  These are extremely difficult to find as perfectly centered copies;  catalog prices usually apply for mixed / poorly centered copies.

On the left 1916 Landstormen II type, on the right 1918 Landstormen III typThe third Landstormen series (Landstormen III) reused unsold stamps from Landstormen I set. These were once again applied with new face value overprint.  The Circular type values of 2 – 6 öre should be overprinted with 7+3 öre, and 12 – 50 öre with 12+8 öre face value.  But there was some kind of mix up in the printing, and some of the overprints were mixed. The mixed overprint values are somewhat rare as used, but more common as mint/unused





2.The Rare Australian Bridge Postal History

Bridge Fever



Former Australia Post Chairman Maurice Williams sold his collection of Sydney Harbour Bridge stamps for more than $120,000

at the same Prestige May 24 auction mentioned above.The “Five Bob Bridge” is this country’s most iconic stamp design – the one issue every collector of Australian stamps aspires to own.It is to Australia what the 1929 £1 PUC Pound is to Great Britain fans, and what the 1893 $5 Columbus is to United States collectors.Mr Williams’ collection went far beyond the basic stamps. He managed to acquire First Day Covers, rare plate dot blocks, varieties, and many of the non-stamp collectables associated with the Opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in 1932.The illustration no installed !!!!!







$10,000 Smithy Cover

Charles Kingsford Smith carried 15 postcards on his dare-devil flight to commemorate the opening of the Sydney Harbour Bridge. The example in this sale franked with a near worthless 2d red, was signed by John Bradfield who designed the Bridge and other dignitaries, and sold for almost $10,000.Only a month or so back a similar opening day postcard flown by Kingsford Smith and signed by others, sold at a Charles Leski Melbourne auction for $A3,737.  Maurice Williams’ example went for almost three times that figure at $9,611.A client of mine bought the Leski piece, and is absolutely delighted with his savvy judgment!   Earlier this month I sold him a far rarer ‘Smithy’ signed cover for far less than that, so he is having a good year.The Illustration not installed!!!!!!








Sheet of 5/- Bridge

A sheet of twenty of the 5/- Bridge value cost £5 ($10), or at least  two weeks wages in the Depression era, when issued in 1932. It is no surprise that very few complete sheets still exist.  Maurice Williams’ sheet of 20 in good condition sold for $27,960.Mr Williams and his wife Norma attended the sale, and claimed that they were thrilled with the results.  As Mr Williams left the room he punched the air with delight I am advised! the illustration not installed !!!!!!!

I bet that got your attention

It certainly got mine when I found this pamphlet, and I thought Stampboarders might be interested to see it too.

This Raffle was held in 1978 to raise money for Nudgee College, a boys boarding school in Queensland.

Wow (at) the stamps ! I wonder who has them now




Cannon-balled  5 shilling Sidney Bridge stamps

The one result that amazed me was a pretty rough looking telegraph punctured copy   Has blue pen marks on it and lumpy perfs etc.Stolen goods pure and simple, as no telegraph punctured examples of any stamps have ever legally reached the market.  In the past they have been sold as very cheap gap-fillers by the trade.High value Kangaroos sell for about 20-25% of normal price with a telegraph puncture, as space-fillers.This 5/- stamp shown nearby sold for about $A875 – or around four times what a nice CTO copy brings.    How fashions change in stamp collecting – and very fast











Private limited e-book for philatelic collectors

Jakarta copyright Dr IWAN S 2010





I.The Introduction Of  Singapore  Ship mail

SHIPMAIL cover from Singapore with PAQUEBOT  Singapore postmark type 3 send on the High Seas at S.S. SIBAYAK ship (no postmark, because send at Singapore Port) to Indonesia BUTITENZORG  (now Bogor) CDS 6.12.1937. The other type  look at SHIPMAIL 1 and 2.



Five type Singapore Post MARK , Si-S2 straight line and S3-5 combine with port  name (Singapore)-Brig.M.A Studd’s work published only 200 copies.”PAQUEBOT  and SHIP LETTER  Cancellations of the world 1894-1951.M.A.Studd.


One of  unique postal history were the SHIPMAIL postmark when letters posted on the High Seas on the ship DEPARTURE from Singapore  and destination at Indonesia port. Many collectors asked me why Straits stamps from Perak and Johor were cancelled Singapore , Straits stamps were cancelled Indonesia (DEI) port or city cancelled (used abroad) and why the letter from Singapore cancelled with KPM (Dutch East indie Royal Ship) beside Paquebot stright line and PAQUEBOT  Singapore ?

Rules for letters posted on the HighSeas were drown up at the Postal union Conference in 1891. The used of the world “PAQUEBOT” was officially adopted at the UPU Congress ,Whasington.USA in 1897 for international use on correspondence posted on the HighSeas and handed over to the Postal administration at the first port of call.

Brief  the rules are : letters posted on the High seas bearing the stamps of the country in which the ship registered will accepted at the first port of call in any country for onward transmisssion to another member country of the UPU without further charge.

The stamp(s) should be cancelled with the chancellor  of the port and the indicator mark “PAQUEBOT” applied alongside. The letters posted on the High Seas are to be handed over to the postal authorities immediately on arrival, they should not be posted in a shore  side letter box.

Many variation were found, Singapore have 2 type straight line PAQUEBOT Mark type 1 and 2, beside that 3 type PAQUEBOT   combined Port’s name “PAQUEBOT -Singapore”  postmark type S3,4, and 5.

Pre war Singapore PAQUEBOT  postmark S4 and S5 very shortly used after the reoccupation (rare0, and some of destination postmark (Indonesia port) on Singapore departure ship without PAQUEBOT Postmark (Used abroad).

I hope after look carefully at the illustration from SHIP MAIL  1 ( with Singapore PAQUEBOT or KPM-Dutch east Indie (Indonesia) royal ship postmark, and SHIP MAIL h 2 : Indonesia (DEI) port only postmark without PAQUEBOT mark  , all the collector will understand and have the answer why other country stamps used in other country (Used abroad) with or without PAQUEBOT  postmark. This collection were the Marine ship collection thematic , became popular among the  Marine persons as the memorable of te ship where he/she or their family ever  work or travel and write  the letters on the high seas. Now everybody travel via AEROPLANE  and PAQUEBOT  mark never seen anymore. The last PAQUEBOT  letters circa 1970, a ship route from Singapore to Indonesia , like Medan (Belawan) ,Jakarta (TandjongPriok) should used her country’s stamps at the Port Belawan or Tandjong Priok  but Indonesia Stamps at Medan or Jakarta





II.Straits Ship mail abroad (Malaya and Indonesia )

1.Singapore PAQUEBOT Johore


2. Straits post agent ship mail Indonesia

(1) Makasar straits ship mail  agent post


2) Sumatra straits shipmail agent

(1) Pakanbaru straits Ship Mail agent



*ill 001

Disusun oleh Dr IWAN S

Berdasarkan koleksi pribadi dan informasi yang dipeoleh saat berkunjung ke Vietnam tahun 2007


JAKARTA  @hakcipta Dr Iwan S 2010

*ill oo1Le loi  pahlawan perang pertahanan vietnam terhadap dominasi kerajaan tiongkok abad 15



PADA WAKTU PERTUALANGAN SAYA KE HANOI TAHUN 2007,  yang kemudian dilanjutkan ke Nanning China meliwati perbatasan yang sangat terkenal Longson dengan nama perbatasan Persahabatan, tempat ini sangat bersejarah pada saat perang pertahanan rakyat Vietnam terhadap dominasikerajaan Tiongkok dipimpim oleh Le Loi dan Nguyen Trai sehingga patung le loi *ill 002  dan nama mereka di DIPATRIKAN PADA SIMPANG DAN JALAN*ill 004 &005  DIMANA SAYA MENGINAP   di hotel Phi Vu*ill003 Ho Chi Minh City lihat peta hotel tersebut*ill 6.

*002       *003     *006

*004     *004        *005

berkat informasi dari pegawai Hotel , karena takut nyasar naik bus maka  saya berjalan kaki seorong diri bertualang mencari informasi terkait dengan perang yang sangat bersejarah ini,stelah hampir tiga jam  akhirnya saya menemukan sebuah toko buku antik, dan menemukan banyak literatur perang Vietnam termasuk buku tentang Nguyen Trai* dalam bahasa Inggris lihat illustrasi kulit buku tersebut .*ill007


saya berusaha menterjemahkan dalam bahasa Indonesia agar Kolektor Bangsa Indon esia dapat memahami semangat Juang dan strategi dari pahlawan Vietnam Nguyen Trai sedemikian istimewa sehingga dapat dijadikan pedoman bagi gnerasi penerus, setelah membaca kisah ini  anda dapat memahami mengapa rakyat Vietnam mampu mempertahankan tanah airnya dari dominasi penjajah dari Kerajaan Tiongkok, Prancis dan Amerika Serikat, mereka tetap bersatu menghadang segala tantangan dari luar negeri dan saat ini Vietnam dikatakan sebagai  Naga baru yang  ekonominya sangat berkembang dengan situasi politik dan ekonomi relatif  stabil setelah perang Pembebasan Vietnam terakhir dimenangi oleh rakyat Vietnam tahun 1975.

Tulisan ini masih banyak kekurangannya dan banyak kesalahan ejaan sehingga komentar dan saran perbaikan serta tambahan informasi masih diperlukan liwat komentar,terima kasih.

Terima Kasih kepada berbagai teman di Vietnam yang telah memberikan banyak info dan jugasesama turis yang ditemukan di Vietnam dari Negeri belanda,Israel, Tiongkok dll yang memberikan semangat kepada saya untuk merampungkan tulisan ini.

Tulisan ini tidak dibuat dalam e-book,hanya sebagai karya tulis biasa , kolektor dan teman-teman dapat membacanya dengan gratis, tetapi saya mohon hormatilah hak cipta sya dengan tidak memanfaatkan informasi ini tanpa izin penulis.

Jakarta,July 2010



The Value Of Painting collections








Private limited e-book special for painting collectors

Jakarta @copyright Dr IWAN S 2010


I had starting interesting and collecting Painting from 1984 when many foreigners came to Indonesia asking me to find the native ethnic paintings, but also the expatriate painting collectors said to me that the painting’s investations value  low  due to the non professional painters or due to  repro or fake paintings. Ihave seen some best painting from old dutch painters and indonesian painters wakidi and Oesman Effendi from west Sumatra,but I didnot by their painting because too many fake or his son repro paintings.



In 1985, a dutchman visit my house and he told me that he ever met Indonesian painter Oesman Effendi which stayed at his father house near the john enschede printing office, he stayed three month to painting the Indonesian Money , everyday he made sketch wayang painting and other paintings, if he didnot like he thrown out, the dutchman as a boy made this for playing, very pity he didnot collect that sketch because now the Oesman Effendi sketch very expensive at least Oesman Effendi and his friend ABDUL SALAM HAVE MADE THE PAINTING OF THE 500 RUPIAH INDONESIAN MONEY PLEASE LOOK  BELLOW ;





Before pass away Oesman Effendi stayed at Koto Gadang Bukittinggi, he still made some paintings but I didnot bought because I didnot understans and many fake repro by his son.


After that I had collecting all kind of literature related with the Painter history and their paintings, The famous painter masterpiece painting auctions, but I still didn’t understand how to estimated the painting’s investation value, that is why I did not bought the masterpiece painting of Famous Indonesian Painters Affandi  during Affandi’s  daughter Kartika sold some of his father master price painting in very low price for  paid his father medical treatment cost in 1996 only US8000.- and I had seen the same painting sold at the Auction in 2006 US$250.000.-The same situation when I visit Sudjojono painting shop in Jogya 1984, and The La Meiyer sketch at his wife Nji Polok shop beside the Musuem, and Ida Bagus Made did not want to sold his native painting because not finish with frame he said to me if you want to buy comeback next year.

After almost 35 years learning from many literature, I still didn’t understand the value of a painting, but two weeks ago when I look again my vintage Painting literature I met several literature and starting to look at my paintings collections one Vintage Dutch Oil Painting of Nederland landscape from my grandpa who bought from the  Dutchman  in Indonesia before the WW II, Two watercolour black and white painting by DATUK BASA, Padang Ocean beach and ANAI Waterfall Padang Panjang , found at Padang city in 1986,Dutch expatriate painters  BETAWI found at Jakarta 1998, and the Mountain ANONIM  ,Also some painters sketch .


After read the literature and take the close up picture of the painting, I am starting to understand how to estimate the painting’s INVESTATION  value and write this e-book for painting collectors.

I REMEMBER DURING YOUNG BOY IN 1979, I ever met the famous Indonesian painters DULLAH at the BRANTAS HOTEL Surabaya, he stayed in the from of my room,in the morning he paint a waterfall painting, he told me that he always made the sketch in in notebook when trevelling, he show me that sketch and he told me to give the soul of the painting we must give the sun rays from the east to the waterfall, when I aske my father to bought that painting, he said to expensive that time US40.000.- but I think now the value US $ 100.000.-

When my friend Mr Fikri asked me to show my painting collections, I cannot show the masterpiece because I did not understand the investation value, I only told he that I have met many Indonesian Famous painters ,seen their masterpiece painting, and I have write the autobiography of Indonesia Senior painter which you can read in this blog.


I hope my information will useable by the painting collectors during identified what kind of paintings will be their collections.

Jakarta, June 2010



The Sun is high, and the scene you are painting is a patchwork of  sparkling color , and deep shadow. Your watercolor painting is looking good, but it’s drying too fast. Or you working in oils and you want to layer one color over another, leaving flecks of the first color showing through. You have seen this in other paintings, but you are not sure how to do it . Or do you wonder which medium to mix into your acrylic paints to get the effect you want?

Even professional painters have frustrations and near-disasters, but they learn to overcome them, and so will you with the help of this book. Unlike other books, this is not a painting course, but a source of the valuable painting’s working in watercolor and oils.(compile from many vintage books)
















14.      NO BLOTCHES


16.        OPACITY












The best painters created a varied surface, experiment with different ways of their handling brushes. They can stab the painting with the tip of the brush for very textural marks. They hold the brush horizontal to the paint surface and drag it across the surface for broken appl;ication of paint, or apply thin paint with a scrubbing motion for ascumbled effect.

Let’s we look at the sample from the best painting below, pain has been put on arange of ways. Energetic vertical brushstrokes in the figure ,offset with long flowing brusstrokes in the hair and distinct marks in the flower or three leaves , produced a lively image.








In order to harmonize the colour used across a painting,apply a layer of colour to the white ground.


Known as a toned ground,before starting the painting. If glazing and scumbling techniques are used to allow the ground colour to show through in places,then this will have a unifying egfect on the painting.





To keep the colour clean and vibrant when working into wet paint, work with a limited palette and have a plentiful supply of bushes.Loan the brush with planty of paint,and make aquick stroke holding the brush as nearly horizontal to the painting surface as you can.


look at the painting, the painter individual brushstrokes of strong colour are worked into wet paint with decisive marks to create an image that has clean and vibrant color.









The first step in estimate the Sketc painting, we must now the best sketch, then the handwritten of the painter, and the painters original mark or sign , let begin with Henk Ngfantung sketch below:

(1) Best sketch style


(2) original handwritten


(3)Original  Mark sign


After the first step OK, then we look at several  best sketch performance :



3 .         VARIETY OF MARK








THE END@copyright Dr IWAN S 2010

The value Of Medal collections







The Value Of Banknote Collections(Numismatic)

DEI Banknote



25 GULDEN 1815. P-4r! H-55a. Black! Government Credit Paper called Creatie. JEZ! Unused & Unsigned. ND, Uniface. Text in Dutch and Malay-Arabic, within musical frame. W/o Serial #. Strong paper. Crisp Very Fine or Better.
Limit price :   Rp.  8,000,000


50 GULDEN 1815. P-5r! H 56a. Government Credit Paper called Creatie. JEZ! Unused & Unsigned. ND, Uniface. Text in Dutch and Malay-Arabic, within musical frame. W/o Serial #. Strong paper. Stains at margin right on back! Good Extremely Fine.
Limit price :   Rp.  9,000,000


300 GULDEN 1815. P-7r! H-58a. Black! Creatie note or Government Credit Paper, issued during the reign of King Willem I. JEZ, ND, Uniface. Text in Dutch and Malay-Arabic, within musical frame. Unused, Unsigned & w/o serial #. Uncirculated. VERY RARE.
Limit price :   Rp.  16,000,000


600 GULDEN 1815. P 8r! H 59a. Brown! Creatie note. Unused, Unsigned & w/o serial #. Good Extremely Fine. VERY RARE.
Limit price :   Rp.  18,500,000




Elected Kings Period (1307 – 1526) Charles Robert of Anjou, Groschen (1330-1332) – Mint.: 0, Av.: Crowned King seated on the throne, holding sceptre and orb. (Kráľ s korunou sediaci na tróne, držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko.), Rv.: Halved shield with coat of arms of Anjou and…



Elected Kings Period (1307 – 1526) Charles Robert of Anjou, Groschen (1337) – Mint.: Smolník (Schmöllnitz), Av.: Crowned King seated on the throne, holding sceptre and orb. (Kráľ s korunou sediaci na tróne, držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko.), Rv.: Heraldic helmet with ostrich head…



Elected Kings Period (1307 – 1526) Charles Robert of Anjou, Denar (1330-1332) – Mint.: Budín? (Buda?), Av.: Crowned King seated on the throne, holding sceptre and orb. (Kráľ s korunou sediaci na tróne, držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko.), Rv.: Halved shield with coat of arms of Anjou…



Elected Kings Period (1307 – 1526) Charles Robert of Anjou, Parvus (1329) – Mint.: 0, Av.: Crowned King seated on the throne, holding sceptre and orb. (Kráľ s korunou sediaci na tróne, držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko.), Rv.: The lamb of god carrying the cross with flag. (Baránok…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Coronation token 1712 Pressburg – Mint.: Viedeň (Vienna), Av.: Text and date CAROLUS.VI:/ROM:IMPER:S:A:/GER HISPAN.HUNG:/BOH:REX. A:AVST./CORONAT 9/POSON. 22 MAY/1712 in seven lines. Crown above. (Hore uhorská koruna, pod ňou nápis…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Coronation token 1712 Pressburg – Mint.: Viedeň (Vienna), Av.: Text and date CAROLUS.VI:/ROM:IMPER:S:A:/GER HISPAN.HUNG:/BOH:REX. A:AVST./CORONAT 9/POSON. 22 MAY/1712 in seven lines. Crown above. (Hore uhorská koruna a pod ňou…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Ducat 1726 – Mint.: Kremnica (Kremnitz), Av.: Emperor standing, holding sceptre and orb. Mintmark K-B on either side of the Emperor. (Stojací panovník držiaci žezlo a korunovačné jablko. Po stranách panovníka mincové značky K-B.),…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Taler 1737 – Mint.: Kremnica (Kremnitz), Av.: Laureate bust of Emperor to right. Inscription devided on the left side by halved shield with Hungarian bars and double cross, on the right by Madonna and Child. (Doprava orientovaný portrét…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., Taler 1739 – Mint.: Kremnica (Kremnitz), Av.: Laureate bust of Emperor to right. Inscription devided on the left side by halved shield with Hungarian bars and double cross, on the right by Madonna and Child. (Doprava orientovaný portrét…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., 1/2 Taler 1740 – Mint.: Kremnica (Kremnitz), Av.: Laureate bust of Emperor to right. Inscription devided on the left side by halved shield with Hungarian bars and double cross, on the right by Madonna and Child. (Doprava orientovaný portrét…



House of Habsburg Period (1527 – 1918) Charles VI., 1/4 Taler 1726 – Mint.: , Av.: Laureate bust of Emperor to right. On the left side halved shield with Hungarian bars and double cross, on the right Madonna and Child. Inscription divided by rhombus. (Doprava orientovaný portrét panovníka…



British Coins and Medals. Elizabeth I, sixth issue, shilling, mm. hand (1590-1592), crowned bust l., rev. long cross fourchée over shield (S.2577; N.2014); third and fourth issues, sixpence, mm. eglantine, 1575 (S.2563; N.1997), both pierced, fair to fine; Charles I, halfcrown, Tower mint, under…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, hammered coinage (1660-1662), first issue, unite, mm. crown/-, laur. and dr. bust l., rev. crowned, oval, garnished shield, C R at sides (S.3301; N.2753), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as AU55, portrait slightly double-struck, otherwise extremely fine,…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, hammered coinage (1660-1662), second issue, double crown, mm. crown/-, laur. and dr. bust l., mark of value behind, rev. crowned garnished oval shield of arms with C-R at sides, wt. 4.56gms. (S.3305; N.2756; Schneider 416), attractively toned, extremely fine,…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, hammered coinage (1660-1662), third issue, shilling, mm. crown, crowned bust l., mark of value behind, rev. shield of arms over cross fourchée, wt. 5.96gms. (S.3322; ESC.1016), toned, extremely fine, an exceptional example Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, five guineas, 1673, QVINTO, first laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3328), light surface marks, adjustment marks on French shield, tiny rim bruise at 5 o’clock on obverse, otherwise almost extremely fine with brilliant…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, five guineas, 1684, SEXTO, second laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3331), some light flecking on both sides, good very fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, two guineas, 1683, second laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3335), good extremely fine – practically as struck, a superb coin and very rare this choice Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, guinea, 1676, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3344), cleaned, about very fine Estimate:…


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British Coins and Medals. Charles II, guinea, 1676, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3344), about fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, guinea, 1681, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3344), some digs and scratches, fair Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, half guinea, 1670, first laur. bust r., rev. crowned, cruciform shields, sceptres in angles (S.3347), coin appears to be double struck on obverse, and has been cleaned in the past, otherwise extremely fine, rare Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, crown, 1662, first laur. bust r., rose below, edge undated, rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3350; ESC.15), about very fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, crown, 1662, first laur. bust r., rose below, edge dated, rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3352; ESC.19), good fine/about very fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, crown, 1672 V. QVARTO (S.3358); William III, shilling, 1696, first bust (S.3497); Anne, halfcrown, 1707 SEXTO, E below bust (S.3605); Victoria, crown, 1893 LVI (S.3937), fine to very fine (4) Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, crown, 1681, T. TERTIO, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3359; ESC.64), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as MS63, slight weakness on the top of the hair, otherwise practically as struck, extremely rare in…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, halfcrown, 1666, XVIII, third laur. and dr. bust r., elephant below, rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3364; ESC.462), very fine and very rare Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, halfcrown, 1673, V. QVINTO, plume under bust and in centre of reverse, fourth laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3369; ESC.475), small nick on the neck and slight scratch by 3 of date, about fine One of the great…



British Coins and Medals. † Charles II, sixpence, 1675/4, laur. bust r., rev. crowned cruciform shields, interlinked Cs in angles (S.3382; ESC.1514), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as MS63 Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. Charles II, gold coronation medallion, 1661, crowned, draped bust r., rev. king enthroned l., crowned by Peace hovering above, 29mm., 11.2gms. (Eimer 221), very light surface marks, otherwise extremely fine or better, very rare Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. George III, dollar, oval countermarked on portrait 8 reales of Charles IV, 1794, Potosi (S.3765A; ESC.131), with old collector’s ticket, lightly toned, about as struck, exceedingly rare in this grade Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. George III, dollar, oval countermark on portrait 8 reales of Charles IV, 1794, Potosi (S.3765A; ESC.131), host coin good very fine, countermark extremely fine Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. † George III, half dollar, oval countermarked on portrait 4 reales of Charles III, 1774, Potosi (S.3767; ESC.611), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as VF25, rarely found on Potosi host coin Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. George III, Bank of England, dollar, 1804, type A/2, laur. and dr. bust r., rev. Britannia seated l. within oval band (S.3768; ESC.144; L&S 53), overstruck on a Seville 8 reales of Charles III dated 1772, good very fine and extremely rare Extremely rare with a Spanish…



British Coins and Medals. George III, Bank of England, dollar, 1804, type C/2, laur. and dr. bust r., rev. Britannia seated l. within oval band (S.3768; ESC.149; L&S 58), overstruck on a Santiago 8 reales of Charles IV dated 1806, fine, rare Estimate:…



British Coins and Medals. George III, Bank of England, dollar, 1804, type C/2b, laur. and dr. bust r., rev. Britannia seated l. within oval band (S.3768; ESC.156; L&S 66), overstruck on a Seville(?) 8 reales of Charles III dated 1779, some tooling on obverse, otherwise about extremely fine,…



British Coins and Medals. George III, Bank of England, pattern dollar, 1804, type I/3, laur. and dr. bust r., rev. shield of arms within Garter (S.3768; ESC.182; L&S.91), overstruck on an 8 reales of Charles IV dated 1801, reverse struck twice with the die rotated 180° between strikes, once…



Foreign Coins and Medals. Spain, Carlos III, 8 escudos, 1788C, Seville, draped bust r., rev. crowned shield of arms (KM.409.2a; Fr.283; Cayon 13011), in plastic holder, graded by NGC as AU53 Estimate:…



Foreign Coins and Medals. Spain, Carlos III, 8 reales, 1776CF, Seville, draped bust r., rev. crowned arms (Calico 1038; KM.414.2), obverse lightly brushed, otherwise extremely fine Estimate:…


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EUROPÄISCHE GOLDMÜNZEN UND -MEDAILLEN ITALIEN NEAPEL UND SIZILIEN Karl I. von Anjou, 1266-1278. Salut d’or o. J., Neapel. 4,37 g. Fb. 808; Pannuti/Riccio 1. R Sehr schön­vorzüglich 1278 führte Karl I. von Anjou mit dem Saluto d’oro einen neuen, einprägsamen Münztyp ein. Dabei griff…



KÖNIG JOHAN III., 1568-1592 Daler 1571, Stockholm. 28,55 g. Münzmeister Hans Höjer. Ahlström 23 (R); Dav. 8705; Hagander 27. Henkelspur, winz. Schrötlingsfehler am Rand, sehr schön Exemplar der Slg. Karl-Erik Schmitz, Teil I, Auktion Schweizerischer Bankverein/Spink & Son, Zürich…



KÖNIG JOHAN III., 1568-1592 Daler 1586, Stockholm. 29,12 g. Münzmeister Gillis (Julius) Coyet d. Ä. Ahlström 29; Dav. 8705; Hagander 33. Attraktives Exemplar mit hübscher Patina, winz. Randfehler, sehr schönvorzüglich Exemplar der Slg. Lars Emil Bruun, Teil 1, Auktion Adolph Hess…



KÖNIG KARL IX. 1604-1611, SEIT 1560 HERZOG VON SÖDERMANLAND UND REICHSVERWESER 1592/1593 UND 1599-1604 PRÄGUNGEN KARLS ALS HERZOG VON SÖDERMANLAND UND ALS REICHSVERWESER Klippe zu 8 Mark 1599, Stockholm. 3,33 g. Münzmeister Gillis (Julius) Coyet d. Ä. Gekrönte Korngarbe…



KÖNIG GUSTAV II. ADOLF, 1611-1632 IN SCHWEDEN GEPRÄGTE MÜNZEN DES KÖNIGS GUSTAV II. ADOLF 16 Mark (Carolin) 1615, Stockholm. 4,88 g. Münzmeister Gillis Gillisson Coyet d. J. GVSTAVVS • ADOLF • D : G • DES • REX • SVE Geharnischtes Brustbild l. mit Lorbeerkranz und umgelegtem…



KÖNIG FREDRIK I., 1720-1751 Dukat 1746, Stockholm. 3,48 g. Münzmeister Hans Malmberg. Ausbeutedukat, geprägt mit Gold aus Ost-Indien. Ahlström 35; Fb. 66; Hagander 373; SMH 9.3. GOLD. RR Winz. Randfehler, vorzüglichStempelglanz Exemplar der Slg. T. J. Clarke, Jamestown (USA); durch…



KÖNIG FREDRIK I., 1720-1751 Riksdaler 1726, Stockholm. 29,50 g. Münzmeister Esaias Zedritz. Mit Stempelschneidersignatur auf der Vorderseite. Mit Randschrift. Ahlström 63 a; Dav. 1720; Hagander 396; SMH 26.4. Hübsche Patina, winz. Schrötlingsfehler am Rand, sehr…



KÖNIG FREDRIK I., 1720-1751 Riksdaler 1742, Stockholm. 28,81 g. Münzmeister Hans Malmberg. Mit Randschrift. Ahlström 83 (XR); Dav. 1728; Hagander 421; SMH 32.5. Von großer Seltenheit. Nur 486 Exemplare geprägt. 3. bekanntes Exemplar in Privatbesitz. Herrliche Patina, sehr…



KÖNIG KARL XIV. JOHAN, 1818-1844 Riksdaler 1843 (Jahreszahl im Stempel aus 1842 geändert), Stockholm. 33,95 g. Münzmeister Alexander Grandinson. Mit vertiefter Randschrift: 75/100 DELAR FINSILFVER (Verzierung). Büste r.// Gekröntes Wappen: Drei Kronen (Tre kronor), umher die Kette des…



BRITISH COINS Charles I (1625-1649) Tower mint, Unite, Gp C, mm. rose, class IIa, reads fr and hi, 9.05g/1h (SCBI Schneider 141; SCBI Brooker 75; N 2150; S 2690). About extremely fine £1,500-2,000 Footnote Provenance: DNW Auction 79, 24 September 2008, lot…



BRITISH COINS Charles I (1625-1649) Tower mint, Shilling, Gp G, mm. sun, coarse narrow bust, 6.01g/5h (Sharp H1/1; SCBI Brooker 564; N 2233; S 2802). Slightly small of flan and scratched in front of face, otherwise good fine £90-120 Footnote Provenance: E. Bohr Collection, Part II,…



BRITISH COINS Charles II (1660-1685) Third issue, Shilling, mm. crown, 6.06g/3h (ESC 1016; N 2764; S 3322). Weak on King’s face (and corresponding on reverse), otherwise very fine or better, toned £700-800 Footnote END OF SESSION…



BRITISH COINS Charles II (1660-1685) Halfpenny, 1672 (BMC 506; S 3393). Obverse good very fine, reverse with flan flaws and edge part-bevelled …



BRITISH COINS Charles II (1660-1685) Farthings (5), 1672 (2, both loose drapery, one with o over l in carolo), 1673 (2, one with no stop on rev.), 1675, o of carolvs over r (Cooke –, 730, 739, 747, 753; BMC 521, 522, 526, 528 var; S 3394) [5]. Second fair, others generally fine, BMC 526 and…



BRITISH COINS William and Mary (1688-1694) Proof Halfpenny, 1694, in copper, figure of Britannia from a punch used for Charles II, no stop after britannia, edge plain, thin flan, 9.96g/12h (BMC 612 var). Smoothed, fine, very rare £100-150 Footnote Provenance: P.W. Lawrence Collection; bt…



BRITISH COINS George V (1910-1936) James I, Third coinage, Halfgroat, mm. thistle, 0.82g/11h (N 2127; S 2671); together with other hammered and later coins (5), Charles I to Charles II [6]. First about very fine, others in varied state …



BRITISH COINS George V (1910-1936) Charles II to Victoria, Halfcrowns (10), 1683, 1688, 1689, 1708 plumes, 1713 roses and plumes, 1714 roses and plumes, 1817 small head, 1820, 1826, 1901 [10]. Second removed from a mount and poor, others generally fine or better £300-400 Footnote …



WORLD COINS Germany Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Karl II, 10 Thalers, 1828cvc (KM. 1115; F 742). Surfaces rather hairlined and a few minute rim nicks, otherwise nearly extremely fine; in attractive contemporary fitted case …



EUROPÄISCHE MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN SCHWEDEN KÖNIGREICH Karl XI., 1660-1697. Silbermedaille 1693, unsigniert, von A. Karlsteen, auf die 100-Jahrfeier des Religionstreffens in Uppsala am 26. Februar. Schiff mit Kreuz am Heck und einer Fahne mit dem Monogramm Christi fährt in tosendem…



DEUTSCHE MÜNZEN UND MEDAILLEN HESSEN HESSEN-KASSEL, LANDGRAFSCHAFT, SEIT 1803 KURFÜRSTENTUM Karl, 1670-1730. Silbermedaille 1704, von G. F. Nürnberger und M. Brunner, Nürnberg, auf die Eroberung von Trarbach und der Gräfenburg an der Mosel durch Erbprinz Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel (ab…


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HOCH- UND SPÄTMITTELALTER EUROPA ITALIEN VENEDIG Ludovico il Pio, 814-840. Denaro. 1,46 g. +DSCVSERVA RoMANo IMP Kreuz, in den Winkeln je eine Kugel//XPE SALVA VINECIAS Kirchengebäude. Biaggi 2748 (R5, dort unter Anonym, 875880); Depeyrot 1116 G (dort unter Ludwig II., 855875); Gamberini 4…



DEUTSCHE SILBERMÜNZEN UND -MEDAILLEN WÜRTTEMBERG WÜRTTEMBERG-OELS, HERZOGTUM Sylvius Friedrich, 1664-1697. Reichstaler 1686 IN, Bernstadt, auf den Tod seiner Mutter Elisabeth Maria von Münsterberg-Oels. 26,95 g. Stempelschneider Johann Neidhard. Brustbild mit geblümtem Kleid und…



Great Britain. Guinea, 1679. S. 3345; Fr-289; KM-440.2. Charles II, 1660-1685. Head right with Elephant and castle below. Reverse: Cross of four shields with scepter between. Moderate surface marks, cleaned, polished and removed from jewelry. Very Good. Estimated Value $400 -…



Austria – Olmütz. Taler, 1706. Dav-1211; KM-378. Karl III Joseph. Bust right. Reverse: Crowned arms. Some surface corrosion and light cleaning. Toned. Extremely Fine. Estimated Value $200 -…



Bolivia. 8 Reales, 1774-JR (Potosi). Eliz-12; KM-55. Charles III, 1759-1788. Laureate, draped, and cuirassed bust of Charles III right. Reverse: Crowned Bourbon arms, flanked by bannered pillars. Sharply struck on both sides with reflective obverse fields and full original mint fresh luster. NGC…

1,700 USD 



Chile. 8 Reales, 1768 So-A (Santiago). Eliz-15; WR-2; KM-18. 26.75 grams. Charles III, 1759-1788. Pillar coinage. Crowned Bourbon arms. Reverse: Crowned globes flanked by crowned and bannered pillars, over water. Bold, even strike, with excellent detail at globes and shield. Choice original…



Great Britain. Medal, 1660. MI-460,53; Eimer-212. Silver 320 grams. 85.7 mm. by J. Roettier. Charles II. Restoration, ‘Felicitas Britanniae’. Armored and draped bust of King Charles II right. Reverse: Britannia seated beneath a cliff, receiving an olive-branch from Justice, standing before her…



Great Britain. Embarkation at Scheveningen Medal, 1660. Med Ill. 455,44; Eimer-210. 70 mm. Silver medal consists of two cast embossed plates joined at the edge by a broad rim. Charles II, 1660-1685. Executed in Holland by Peter van Abeele, to commemorate the embarkation, on June 2, 1660, of…



Great Britain. Medal, 1720. Woolf-38:1; MI-452, 60; Eimer-488. Bronze. 41.4 mm. by Otto Hamerani, Rome. Birth of Prince Charles. James (III), ‘Elder Pretender,’ and Princess Clementina. Conjoined busts of James and Clementina facing right. Reverse: Hercules takes the hand of Venus, attended by…



Great Britain. Group of Miscellaneous: Edward II, Penny; Elizabeth I. Milled 6 Pence, 1562 (only 2 of date shows); Charles I. Shilling; Charles II 3 Pence, 1679; William III. 6 Pence, 1696Y (scratches); Anne. 4 Pence, 1710 and 2 Pence, 1710; George II. 6 Pence, 1757; George III. Shilling, 1787…



World COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 2 Escudos (22mm, 6.76 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1783-SF. Armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece / Crowned coat-of-arms; all within Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece. ME 12522;…



WORLD GOLD COINS MEXICO. Escudo, 1775-FM. Charles III (1759-88). Fr-36; KM-118.2. Sharply struck and very attractive.NGC AU-58. Estimate: 600…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS GREAT BRITAIN. Kings and Queens of England Medals, 1830. 40 mm; BHM-1437. 31 Pieces in lot. By Sir Edward Thomason after Jean Dassier. Struck in silvered white metal. Partial set includes William the Conqueror, Stephen, Richard I, Henry II, John, Henry III, Edward II,…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS MEXICO. 8 Reales, 1762-66. Charles III (1759-88). KM-105. 5 Pieces in lot. Pillar 8 Reales with an example of each date from 1762 to 1766. A couple of pieces have been cleaned and/or polished. SOLD AS IS/NO RETURNS. GradesVERY FINE to EXTREMELY FINE. Estimate: 500…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS MEXICO. Mexico City. 8 Reales, 1772-89. Charles III (1759-88). KM-106.1 & 106.2a. 21 Pieces in lot. Bust 8 Reales comprised of examples from every year that this type was struck for Charles III. Including legend and assayer varieties, in particular inverted mint and assayer…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS MEXICO. Chihuahua. 8 Reales, 1805 (produced in 1810?). 23.81 gms. Colonial milled edge. Ferdinand VII (in the name of Charles IIII) (1808-21). KM-unlisted (see KM-123 for basic type); Cal-unlisted(see 89 for basic type); EL-unlisted (see page 199 for basic type). This…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS PERU. 8 Reales, 1762-71. Charles III (1759-88). KM-A64.1/.2 & 64.2. 6 Pieces in lot. Pillar 8 Reales, 1762, ’64, ’67-’69 and ’71. The 1762 and 1764 are of the double dot variety. A few pieces have minor scratches, one has some graffiti. SOLD AS IS/NO RETURNS. Average…



WORLD CROWNS & MINORS MIXED LOTS. Exploratory Group of Bronze Medals, 30 Pieces in lot. Medals of France and Great Britain. Includes portrait pieces of French monarchs, writers, musicians, philosophers and a Holy Year of Pope Benedict XIV medal. British medals include eighteen pieces from Jean…



WORLD COINS. MEXICO. Charles II, 1665-1700. Cob 8 Escudos, 1700-L (OXM). AV 27.06 g. Cal 31. F 2. Oval shaped with full date and mintmark. Quite well struck for this issue and thus extremely rare. Good very fine . Estimate: US$…

26,000 USD 



Russian Coins & Historical Medals. Nicholas II, 1894-1917. Bicentenary of the Battle of Gangut Commemorative Rouble 1914 BC. Bit 337 (R2), Sev 4187 (RRR), Uzd 4202 I. Authenticated and graded by NGC MS 63. Steely lavender types set against a superb hematite gray on lustrous, reflective fields….


: Research tools for professionals


GERMANY, Aachen (Stadt). AR Groschen (24mm, 1.90 g, 10h). Dated 1420 in mixed spelled-out and Roman numerals. · SCS : KΛROL : mΛ G : IPЄRΛTO’ * (double annulet stops), crowned half-length bust of Karl der Große (Charlemagne) facing slightly right, wearing mantum and holding city model and…



GERMANY, Pfalz bei Rhein (Alte Kurlinie). Ludwig IV von Wittelsbach. 1436-1449. AR Groschen – Weißpfennig (25mm, 1.74 g, 10h). Bacharach mint. Dated 1448 in Roman numerals. · MOnЄ’ · nOVΛ · · BΛCҺ’ (rosette stops), coat-of-arms, with three smaller coats-of-arms around in trefoil…



LOW COUNTRIES, Vlaanderen (Flanders [Provincie]). Karel de Stoute (the Bold). 1467-1477. AR Dubbel vuurijzer (26mm, 2.99 g, 4h). Brugge (Bruges) mint. Dated IΩΛ5 (1475). + KΛROLVS : DЄI : GRΛ : DVX : BVRG : CO : F : (double saltire stops), two lions rampant combatant; briquet above, sunburst…



GERMANY, Erfurt (Stadt). Uniface AR Scherf (13mm, 0.14 g). Dated 9Ω (1494). Wheel with five spokes; 9Ω above / Incuse and reverse of obverse. Levinson I-313. Good VF, toned. Very rare. From the R. J. Weinstein Collection (purchased privately from Charles H. Wolfe III). Estimate: 750…



GERMANY, Würzburg (Fürstbistum). Lorenz von Bibra. 1495-1519. AR Groschen (24mm, 2.11 g, 1h). Dated IΩ96 (1496). + LΛVRЄ · ЄPS’ · ҺЄRBn’ · FRΛ’ · DVX (annulet stops), garnished coat-of-arms; IΩ96 above / · SΛnCT’ · · KILIΛnVS (annulet stops), St. Kilian standing facing,…



GERMANY, Sachsen-Ernestinische Linie (Kurfürstentum und Herzogtum). Friedrich III der Weise (the Wise), with Johann and Albrecht. 1486-1525. AR Zinsgroschen (26mm, 2.54 g, 10h). Schneeberg mint. Dated 98 (1498). FRI · ΛL · IO · D · G · DVCЄS · SΛXOn (saltire stops), coat-of-arms…



CHILE, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 27.01 g, 12h). Santiago mint. Dated 1788-DA. CAROL · III · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1788· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



CHILE, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 26.99 g, 12h). Santiago mint. Dated 1798-DA. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1798· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



CHILE, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 26.98 g, 12h). Santiago mint. Dated 1799-DA. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1799· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



CHILE, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 27.07 g, 12h). Santiago mint. Dated 1806/5-FJ. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1806/5· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX ·…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 2 Escudos (23mm, 6.72 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1768-J. · CAROLS · III · D · G · HISPAN · ET IND · REX · (flower stops), armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; 1768 below / · NOMINA…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 27.00 g, 12h). Nuevo Reino (Bogotá) mint. Dated 1760-JV. (flower) CAROLS × III × D × G × HISPAN × ET IND × REX (flower), armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; 1760 below…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (38mm, 27.00 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1771-J. · CAROLS · III · D · G · HISPAN · ET IND · REX · (flower stops), armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; 1771 below / (flower)…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 26.98 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1788-SF. CAROL · III · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1788· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



COLOMBIA, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (35mm, 27.05 g, 12h). Popayán mint. Dated 1802-JF. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1802· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…



MEXICO, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 27.00 g, 12h). Ciudad de México (Mexico City) mint. Dated 1802-FT. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1802· below / IN ·…



MEXICO, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 27.02 g, 12h). Ciudad de México (Mexico City) mint. Dated 1804-TH. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1804· below / IN ·…



MEXICO, Colonial. Carlos IV. King of Spain, 1788-1808. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 27.03 g, 12h). Ciudad de México (Mexico City) mint. Dated 1805-TH. CAROL · IIII · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1805· below / IN ·…



PERU, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (36mm, 26.93 g, 12h). Lima mint. Dated 1761-JM. · CAROLUS · III · D · G · HISPAN · ET IND · REX ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; 1761 below / NOMINA MAGNA SEQUOR, crowned…



PERU, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 26.91 g, 12h). Lima mint. Dated 1770-JM. CAROLUS · III · D · G · HISP · ET · IND · REX, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1770· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · ·…


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PERU, Colonial. Carlos III. King of Spain, 1759-1788. AV 8 Escudos (37mm, 26.95 g, 12h). Lima mint. Dated 1786-MI. CAROL · III · D · G · HISP · ET IND · R ·, armored and draped bust right, wearing Collar of the Order of the Golden Fleece; ·1786· below / IN · UTROQ · FELIX · · AUSPICE…

1,800 USD 



Frequently Asked Questions

Asia Coin Value


THAILAND, tektite, glassy meteorite, from Thailand, image about 90% of actual size, LEFT, $35.00 MIDDLE, $24.00 RIGHT, $24.00 sold


TURKEY, Abdul Mejid, 1839-61, gold 100 kurus K679 1255 AH year 23 ( 1861) VF $145.00 sold


TURKEY,Abdul Aziz, 1861-76, gold 20 kurus K696 1277 AH year 2 (1862) XF $155.00 sold


TURKEY, Mehmet V, 1909-18, gold 100 kurus K776 1327 AH year 9 (1917) XF $155.00 sold



A, 19th c., silver “pat” fingenail protector, ~75mm long, floral engraving with “double-coin” cutout at base, VF, minor broken element at cutout $13.00


CHINA, 19th c. token, Bs33, Bai Ge Tong Yuan / same, “100 ge (~1 decilitre) same as 1 (of these tokens),” with 2 c/ms: double circle & unread character each side & 6 cuts on edge, from Jiangsu, VG $35.00 sold


ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Al-Basrah, 142 AH (759 AD), edge chip, aVF $13.00 sold



ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Al-Basrah, 143 AH (760 AD), cleaned F $15.50 sold


ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Al-Basrah, 147 AH (764 AD), VF+ $24.00 sold


ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Al-Kufah, 140 AH (757 AD), light clipping, aVF $17.50 sold 10/3/2007


ABBASID, Al-Mansur, 753-775, silver dirham, Madinat Al-Salaam (Baghdad), 151 AH (768 AD), F $16.00 sold


ABBASID, Al Mahdi, 775-85, silver dirham, Al-Muhammadiyya, 161 AH (778 AD), citing Ja’far, dents, cl G $11.00 sold


ABBASID, Al Mahdi, 775-85, silver dirham, Madinat Zaranj, 168 AH (785 AD), F $20.00 sold


ABBASID, Al-Rashid, 786-809, silver dirham, Balkh (in central Afghanistan), 187 AH (803 AD), VF/F $24.00 sold

Medal History One


Created By
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5004
Griechenland – Erinnerungskreuz
für das bayerische Hilfskorps. Bronze, grün lackiert, 33 x 33 mm (Romanoff 161).

Zustand: II Limit: 450 EURO  

680 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5005
Freimaurer – fünf Bijoux und eine Medaille.
Bijou der Stephens Lodge Nr. 3089. Silber, vergoldet und emailliert mit Winkelmaß 1907/08. Bijou der Provinz Staffordshire 1907, Silber, emailliert, rs. lange Tragenadel. Bijou Nr. 3305 der Masters Lodge Buckinghamshire, Silber, vergoldet und emailliert. Altes, unbekanntes Bijou in Sternform mit rot-blauem Band, rs. Tragehaken, vergoldet. Bijou der Kölner Loge “Zum ewigen Dom”, sternförmig, vergoldet und emailliert, am hellblauen Halstrageband. Bronzemedaille der Wuppertaler Loge “Hermann zum Lande der Berge” zum 75-jährigen Bestehen der Loge 1890, Durchmesser 50 mm.

Zustand: II Limit: 160 EURO  

160 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5006
Königreich beider Sizilien – Orden Franz I.
Ritterkreuz mit Krone. Silber vergoldet und emailliert. Die Kreuzarme teilweise gechipt, die Medaillons unbeschädigt. Silberpunzen. In Etui der Firma Lemaitre, Paris. Fertigung um 1860. Dazu Frankreich, Ritterkreuz Orden der Ehrenlegion (1830 – 48), Silber, die Medaillons Gold, mit zwei Miniaturen und Belgien, Leopold-Orden, Offizierskreuz mit Miniatur um 1900.

Zustand: II Limit: 500 EURO  

800 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5007
Italien – Verdienstorden der Republik,
Stern zum Kommandeur 1.Klasse. Silber, teilvergoldet, emailliert (Zei 1423).

Zustand: I-II Limit: 280 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5008
FSR Jugoslawien – Orden des Volkshelden,
1. Stufe, verliehen am 27.11.1953 an Generalmajor Stevo. Vergoldete Ausführung, kleine Fehlstellen. In rotem Etui. Dazu die Verleihungsurkunde, Pergament mit anhängender, hölzerner Siegelkapsel. In geprägter, rot bezogener Dokumentenröhre.
Der Orden des Volkshelden wurde am 15.8.1943 gestiftet, der Entwurf stammt von Dorde Andrejevic-Kun.

Zustand: I- Limit: 1500 EURO    



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5009
Kirchenstaat/Vatikan – zwei Bronzemedaillen
anlässlich der 25-Jahrfeier der Weihe Pius XII. zum Erzbischof 1942. Bronzemedaille, 90 mm und identische, kleinere Medaille, 59 mm, jeweils in rotem Verleihungsetui mit Wappen des Papstes. Dazu eine einseitige Bronzemedaille zum Andenken an den Kirchen-Kunsthistoriker Joseph Wilpert, Durchmesser 60 mm.

Zustand: I- Limit: 100 EURO  

100 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5010
Kroatien – Sturm-Orden,
goldene Medaille. Vergoldet, rs. Schriftzug “Republika Hrvatska – Oluja”. Am Dreiecksband mit Interimsspange, im Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: I Limit: 80 EURO  

100 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5011
Pakistan – Orden Quaid-I-Azam,
Halsdekoration 2.Klasse, datiert 10. Dezember 1970. Gold, 104 g, emailliert, rückseitig Gravur für den US-Botschafter “Benjamin H. Oehlert Jr. December 10, 1970″. Der Orden wurde 1957 vierklassig für zivile und militärische Verdienste gestiftet und kann auch an Ausländer verliehen werden.

Zustand: I Limit: 2000 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5012
Peru – Orden der Sonne von Peru,
Großkreuz. Bronze vergoldet, emailliert, rückseitig Herstellerbezeichnung “Casa Nacional de Moneda Lima-Peru”. An Schärpe mit Rosette.

Zustand: I-II Limit: 180 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5013
Polen – Auszeichnungskonvolut.
Orden Polonia Restituta 1944, Ritterkreuz (Zei 2364). Verdienstorden der Volksrepublik, Offizierskreuz “RP” (Zei 2377), Ritterkreuz “PRL” (Zei 2378), Bronzekreuz “RP”. KZ-Opferkreuz (Öse neu verlötet). Tschechoslowakei, Kriegskreuz 1918.

Zustand: II Limit: 80 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5014
Polen – sechs Auszeichnungen/Abzeichen.
Erinnerungsabzeichen für die Internierten des poln. Hilfskorps in Ungarn 1918, Nr. 4340, Messing versilbert. Tapferkeitskreuz 1920, Kupfer, 44 mm. Medaille “3. Maj 1925″, Silber, Nr. 8190. Medaille “POLSKA SWEMU OBRONCY” 1945, Messing, dazu die Miniatur an Band. Miniatur des Unabhängigkeitskreuzes 1930, Bronze vergoldet und teilemailliert. Außerdem vier Mützenadler, drei mit Schraubscheibe, teils mit Herstellerbez.

Zustand: II Limit: 350 EURO  





Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5015
VR. Rumänien – sieben Auszeichnungen.
Orden “Stern der sozialist. Republik”, Stern der 5. Klasse, versilbert, Arbeits-Verdienstorden, 1. und 3. Klasse, jeweils versilbert, vergoldet und emailliert, Ehrenzeichen “20 Jahre Befreiung des Vaterlandes”, Bronze, Ehrenzeichen “40 Jahre Kommunistische Partei 1921 – 1961″, vergoldet, Medaille “Fünf Jahre Republik 1947/1952″, vergoldet und emailliert, Militärverdienst-Medaille, 1. Klasse, versilbert. Jeweils an Band oder Tragespange, in Etui.

Zustand: II Limit: 70 EURO    

Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5016
Sowjetunion – drei militärische Abzeichen.
Erinnerungsabzeichen “Khasan”, Russ.-Jap. Kriegszwischenfall 1938, vergoldet und emailliert. Abzeichen für den besten Richtschützen in der artill. Ausbildung um 1940, vergoldet und emailliert. Erstes Bestenabzeichen “RKKA” der Roten Armee 1939, vergoldet und emailliert. Rs. jeweils mit Schraubscheibe.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

200 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5017
Sowjetunion – Ordenskonvolut.
Ruhmesorden 2.Kl. Silber, Nr. “8688″, 3.Kl. Silber, Nr. “293741″. Tapferkeitsmedaille Nr. “471826″ (Her.3.14.2). Medaille Verdienste im Kampf (Her.3.15.2). Orden d. Vaterländischen Krieges 3.Form, 1. und 2. Klasse (eine Schraubscheibe fehlt). Orden des Roten Sterns, Nr. “1584209″ (Her. 2.22.2).

Zustand: II+ Limit: 150 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5018
Serbien – Abzeichen für Skijäger.
Bronzierte Buntmetallplatte mit aufgenietetem, versilbertem Wappenadler, Lorbeerkranz und Medaillon (mit bronzefarbenem Skijäger). Rs. zwei Schraubscheiben.

Zustand: II Limit: 650 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5019
Serbien – St. Sava-Orden.
Kommandeurskreuz 2.Typ ab 1915 (Heiliger im grünen Mantel). Silber, vergoldet, mit genähtem Halsband, in goldbedrucktem Verleihungsetui des Herstellers “Kovnica Sorlini Varazdin” (Zeige 3533).

Zustand: II Limit: 300 EURO  

420 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5020
Großkreuzsatz “1300 Jahre Bulgarien”.
Bruststern, Durchmesser 9 cm, Gewicht 140 g, und Schärpendekoration, Durchmesser 7 cm, 102 g. Gold, Silber vergoldet und farbiges Email.
Seit ihrer Stiftung wurde diese Auszeichnung 128 mal verliehen.

Zustand: I- Limit: 750 EURO  

950 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5021
Goldene Medaille an Tragespange, Gold 17,3 g (ohne Spange), mit Verleihungsetui. Selten.

Zustand: I Limit: 400 EURO  

520 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5022
gestiftet 1972. Goldmedaille an Tragespange, Gold 23,44 g (nur Medaille), im Verleihungsetui. Nur 18 Verleihungen, selten.

Zustand: I- Limit: 750 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5023
Georgi Dimitroff-Orden.
Gold, emailliert, mit Pentagonalband. An Bandtragespange. Im braunen, goldbedruckten Original-Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: II Limit: 290 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5024
Orden der Ehrenlegion,
Ritterkreuz aus der Zeit Napoleons III. (1852 – 1870). Silber, Gold und emailliert, winzige Emailchips.

Zustand: II Limit: 100 EURO  

320 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5025
Ritterdekoration, Gold, emailliert, mit Band (Zei 814).

Zustand: II Limit: 80 EURO    

Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5026
St. Helena-Medaille,
1861. Bronze, privat vergoldet. Ohne Band.

Zustand: II Limit: 50 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5027
Orden vom Goldenen Drachen,
7.Stufe, Silber, teilvergoldet mit Band, dazu die bedruckte Verleihungstüte.

Zustand: I- Limit: 360 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5028
Orden der aufgehenden Sonne,
6.Klasse, Silber, emailliert, mit Band, dazu die bedruckte Verleihungstüte.

Zustand: I- Limit: 350 EURO  

350 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5029
Orden der aufgehenden Sonne,
7.Klasse, Silber, mit Band, dazu das bestoßene Verleihungsetui (schwarze Lackschachtel).

Zustand: II+ Limit: 80 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5030
Orden vom Heiligen Schatz,
5.Klasse, Silber, emailliert, mit Dreiecksband, Knopflochrosette und Lackschachtel, etwas bestoßen.

Zustand: I- Limit: 280 EURO  

320 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5031
Zwei Auszeichnungen.
Orden vom Heiligen Schatz, 6.Klasse, Silber, 38 mm, emailliert, an Bandstück in leicht beschädigter Lackschachtel. Orden der aufgehenden Sonne, 7.Klasse, Silber, mit Band, in bestoßenem Verleihungsetui (schwarze Lackschachtel). Dazu schwarze, bestoßene Lackschachtel mit zwei länglichen, z.T. polierten und mit Schriftzeichen versehenen Steinen, einer mit Chip, 7,5 x 2 cm.

Zustand: II Limit: 280 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5032
Verdienstorden vom Roten Kreuz,
Silberner Verdienstorden. Silber, emailliert, Dreiecksband, Knopflochrosette, Lacketui.

Zustand: I- Limit: 180 EURO  

260 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5033
Kommandeurskreuz. Gold, emailliert, punziert für Vincenz Mayer & Söhne Wien und Gämsenkopf “3 A” für 18 Karat Gold. An rotem, genähtem Halsband (Breite 5 cm). In goldbedrucktem Etui des Herstellers mit dunkelgrüner Samteinlage, rs. gestempelt “1908″ (Marko 086).

Zustand: II Limit: 1300 EURO  

2800 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5034
mit der Darstellung des Militärverdienstkreuzes 3.Klasse mit KD in feinstem Grubenemail, ziseliert, handgemalt. Innenseite vergoldet, Widmungsgravur an den bayerischen Artilleriehauptmann Hans Butz (s.Nachlass desselben unter Ordensspangen) “Ihrem hochverehrten Kommandanten zur Erinnerung an die Dolomitenkämpfe. Die Offiziere der Batterie VIII F.K.R. 41 Oktober 1915″. Silberstempel “935″, Gewicht 122 g, 93 x 75 mm.

Zustand: I-II Limit: 280 EURO  

380 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5035
1917. Bronze, vergoldet und emailliert. Monogramm Kaiser Karls I. Rückseitige Klammern und Herstellerbezeichnung “J. Zimber Wien VII”.

Zustand: I-II Limit: 800 EURO  

1500 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5036
achtteilig in österreichischer Dreiecksbandausführung. Silberne Tapferkeitsmedaille 1.Klasse, Kaiser Karl, versilbert (Feilspur). Silberne Tapferkeitsmedaille 2.Klasse mit Wiederholungsspange auf dem Band und bronzene Tapferkeitsmedaille, jeweils Franz Joseph. Eisernes Verdienstkreuz mit der Krone 1916, am Kriegsband. Kaiser-Karl-Tuppenkreuz. Verwundetenmedaille am Band für dreimalige Verwundung. Medaille für Österreich 1914/18. Ungarn Medaille 1914/18 für Kämpfer. Rs. große Sicherheitsnadel.

Zustand: II Limit: 120 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5037
fünfteilig. DR, Medaille 1.10.1938, Verwundetenmedaille am Band für einmalige Verwundung, Kaiser-Karl-Truppenkreuz, Bronzemedaille 1848 – 1898 “50 Jahre reich an Taten”, versilberte Medaille zur Erinnerung an den 70. Geburtstag Kaiser Franz Josephs 1900. Rs. drei Haken zur Uniformbesfestigung.

Zustand: II Limit: 100 EURO    

Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5038
Militärverdienstkreuz 3.Kl. KD mit Band, im Verleihungsetui, rs. gechipt. Eisernes Verdienstkreuz mit Krone. Signum Laudis-Medaille am Band (FJI). Tapferkeitsmedaille in Bronze (FJI). Signum Memoriae 1898. Karl-Truppenkreuz. 1.Republik, Ritterkreuz 1.Klasse, im Etui, Band fehlt.

Zustand: II/II-III Limit: 120 EURO  

160 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5039
Feldzugmedaille Dänemark (Marko 359a). Kriegsmedaille 1873 (Marko 364b), Jubiläums-Erinnerungsmedaille (Marko 396), Jubiläumskreuz 1908 für Zivil (Marko 403). Karl-Truppenkreuz (Marko 419a), Weltkriegserinnerungsmedaille (Marko 551), Kreuz der Österr. Ehrenlegion. Ungarische Weltkriegserinnerungsmedaille mit Schwertern. Luftfahrerabzeichen 1917, sehr qualitätvolle Sammleranfertigung. Vier Signum-Laudis-Medaillen, Franz-Joseph, silbern, versilbert (Marko 146b), in Bronze, vergoldet (Marko 148b), Kaiser Karl Erinnerungsmedaille in Silber und Bronze (Marko 148/149a).

Zustand: II Limit: 120 EURO  

260 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5040
20 Auszeichnungen:
Medaille Elisabeth-Orden, Ehrenzeichen vom Roten Kreuz 2.Klasse, Verdienstkreuz in Silber. Zwei große (FJ) und zwei kleine (FJ und Karl) Tapferkeitsmedaillen in Silber, sowie eine kleine in Bronze (FJ). Militärdienstzeichen für Offiziere für 25 Jahre, Erinnerungskreuz 1912/13, zwei Erinnerungsmedaillen 1898, Bosnische Erinnerungsmedaille, zwei Weltkriegserinnerungsmedaillen, Medaille Landesverteidigung von Tirol, Medaille zum 70. Geburtstag, Medaille Jubiläum 1848 – 1898, kleine, silberne Verdienstmedaille der Republik. Sowie preußische Kriegsdenkmünze 1864. Jeweils Emailschäden, teils am falschen Band.

Zustand: II/III Limit: 250 EURO  

460 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5041
20 Auszeichnungen:
Militärverdienstkreuz 3.Klasse mit KD im Etui, Verdienstkreuz in Gold mit bzw. ohne Krone, Ehrenmedaille in Bronze vom Roten Kreuz mit bzw. ohne KD, zwei Kriegsmedaillen 1973, zwei Militärverdienstmedaillen (FJ) in Bronze, Militärdienstzeichen für 6 bzw. 12 Jahre, Ehrenmedaille 25 Jahre Feuerwehr, zwei Jubiläumskreuze 1908, zwei Karl Truppen Kreuze und drei Verwundetenmedaillen. Emailschäden, teils mit nicht dazugehörigem Band.

Zustand: II-/III Limit: 250 EURO  

440 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5042
Konvolut Auszeichnungen.
Orden der Eisernen Krone, 3.Klasse mit Kriegsdekoration (linkes Eichenlaub fehlt), am Dreiecksband im goldgeprägten Etui der Juweliere Roszet & Fischmeister Wien (Marko 074), Militärverdienstkreuz 3.Klasse mit Kriegsdekoration, rs. Medaillon fehlt, am Dreiecksband im goldgeprägtem Etui (Marko 134f), Militärverdienstmedaille FJI in Bronze, am roten Band im goldgeprägten Etui (Marko 148b). Serbien, St. Sava-Orden, V.Klasse, Silber emailliert, am Dreiecksband, im blauen Etui. Zwei Medaillen “Signum Memoriae” und zwei Feldspangen. Die Etuis leicht bestoßen, eines mit Wasserflecken.

Zustand: II-III Limit: 420 EURO  

1250 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5043
Zwölf Kappenabzeichen.
Abzeichen Franz Joseph I. mit Eichenlaub, vergoldet. 11.Armee, “Mit vereinter Kraft” Weltkrieg 1914/15. I.Armee “Weihnachten im Felde 1914″. 4.Armee “Feldzug 1914 – 15″. Isonzo-Armee 1915. IV.Korps Arz, z.T. emailliert. IR 59, Schild 1914 – 16, roter Rand. Heeresgruppe Bosnien, Herzegowina 1916. Landwehr Inf.Rgt. 10, 1914 – 16. K.u.K. Kraftfahrtruppe im Weltkriege. Abzeichen Karl I. 1914 – 1917. Wiedersehensfeier des Edelweiß-Korps Scharding, August 1925.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

320 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5044
Kreuz der Königin Maria,
2.Klasse aus dem Besitz eines deutschen Stabsarztes. Silber vergoldet, der rechte Kreuzarm mit rumänischen Punzen. Am originalen Band, im weißen, goldgeprägten Etui. Dazu “Auf den Straßen des Sieges, Erlebnisse mit dem Führer in Polen”, Dr. Otto Dietrich, 1941, bebildert.

Zustand: II Limit: 250 EURO  

280 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5045
Buntmetall versilbert mit aufgelegtem, emailliertem Wappenschild, Sicherheitsverschluss.

Zustand: II Limit: 180 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5046
Orden vom Stern Rumäniens 1.Typ, Offizierskreuz, Bronze vergoldet, emailliert mit Band (Zei 2675). Kronenorden 2.Typ, Ritterkreuz mit Band (Zei 2737). Medaille Kreuzzug gegen den Kommunismus. Volksrepublik, Militärverdienstorden 2.Kl. (Zei 2865).

Zustand: II Limit: 80 EURO  

180 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5047
Orden vom Weißen Adler – gestickter Bruststern
um 1840. Fein gestickte Ausführung in silbervergoldetem Lahn, vergoldeten Silberfäden und Pailletten. Rückseitige Abdeckung aus weißem Leder. Durchmesser 82 mm. In zeitgenössischem, zugehörigem, goldgeprägtem, rotem Lederetui mit heller Fütterung in Samt und Seide. Vermutlich geliefert von Kämmerer und Keibel, von 1836 – 1841 offizieller Lieferant der kaiserlichen Ordenskanzlei. In unberührtem Zustand.

Zustand: I Limit: 3500 EURO  

34000 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5048
Orden St. Alexander Newsky – gestickter Bruststern
um 1840. Fein gestickte Ausführung in Silberlahn, Silberfäden und Pailletten. Rückseitige Abdeckung aus weißem Leder. Durchmesser 82 mm.

Zustand: II Limit: 3000 EURO  

9000 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5049
St. Stanislaus-Orden,
Schärpe zur 1.Klasse, 11 cm breites Seidenripsband, genäht mit vergoldetem Karabinerhaken. Getragenes Original.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

2100 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5050
aus der Regierungszeit Katharina II. der Großen 1762 – 1796. Bronze, vergoldet, Vergoldung berieben, über dem massiven Schaft gebrochen, der Schaft mit dem Bart unsachgemäß seitenverkehrt zusammengefügt. Länge 19,7 cm.

Zustand: II Limit: 500 EURO  

17000 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5051
Akademieabzeichen für Ingenieure
des Instituts für Eisenbahntechnik. Miniatur, 22 x 27 mm, Silber mit Schraubscheibe (Patrikeev/Bojnovich 1.1.12).

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

200 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5052
des Vereins zur Wiederaufrichtung der Flotte, 1905. Silberanhänger, darauf Anker und Flaggen farbig emailliert, Aufschrift, 27 x 17 mm, rückseitig Feingehaltspunze “84″ und Silberschmiedemarke “DO” für Dimitri Osipov.

Zustand: I-II Limit: 150 EURO  

180 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5053
Schildförmiger Jeton
mit Öse und Tragering. Silber, vs. reliefierter Schriftzug “Kornilowtsy”, darunter erhabener Totenkopf über gekreuzten Schwertern, flammender Granate und “1917 – 1918″, rs. Silberpunze für “84″ zolotniki. Größe 23 x 32 mm, Gewicht 4,7 g.

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

7200 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5054
Spottmedaille 1914.
Bronze, vs. Kopfrelief Nikolaus II. Rs. Schriftzüge “Zum Einzug in Berlin 1914″. Dazu Artikel in der Schlesischen Zeitung vom 20.10.1914, Verwahrung gegen diese Plakette die das Bildnis des Zaren trägt die besonders in Berlin vertrieben wurde. Sie stelle eine Bloßstellung des deutschen Vaterlandes dar.

Zustand: II Limit: 120 EURO  

350 EURO




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5055
Ordensgruppe eines französischen Grafen
in schön gearbeiteter Schatulle aus Palisanderholz. Der Deckel mit Neusilbereinfassung und eingearbeitetem gräflichem Wappen mit Darstellung der verliehenen Orden in Boulle-Technik. Auf der Einfassung Herstellergravur “P. Sormani, Rue Charlot 10 Paris”. Im Inneren, mit blauem Samt und Seide ausgeschlagen, ein herausnehmbarer Einlegeboden mit eingearbeiteten Fächern für die Auszeichnungen. In den Fächern folgende Auszeichnungen: Königreich Spanien, Orden Carlos III. Kommandeurskreuz 1.Klasse mit Bruststern. Das Kreuz in Gold, emailliert, 22,1 g, der Bruststern zum Kommandeurskreuz Silber brillantiert mit goldenem, emailliertem Medaillon, rs. zwei Tragehaken, spitz zulaufende Nadel, das Medaillon bezeichnet “Nr. 46 Kretly Palais Royal Paris”, 61 g. Orden Isabella la Catolica, Kommandeurskreuz mit Bruststern. Kreuz, Silber, vergoldet und emailliert, Schriftreif des Medaillons mit minimalen Haarrissen, 38 g, Bruststern zum Kommandeurskreuz, Silber brillantiert, das vergoldete, emaillierte Medaillon mit Chiffre Ferdinands VII., rs. vergoldet mit zwei Tragehaken und geschwungener, punzierter Nadel, Medaillon bezeichnet “Halley Palais Royal Paris”, 56 g. Mexiko, Orden unserer lieben Frau von Guadeloupe, 2.Modell 1863 – 1867, Offizierskreuz, eingeführt 1865 für zivile Verdienste “Al Merito y Virtudes”, Silber, vergoldet und emailliert, am Band mit Rosette, 22 g. Frankreich, Orden der Ehrenlegion, Ritterkreuz (spätere Ausgabe) mit zwei Knopflochrosetten für das Offizierskreuz (nicht vorhanden). Dabei konfektioniertes Doppelhalsband mit zwei Trageringen für die Kommandeurskreuze und Vierfach-Barettband in den Farben der Auszeichnungen. Unter dem Einlegeboden die genähten Schärpen zu den Kommandeurskreuzen 1.Klasse, des Ordens Carlos III. und des Ordens Isabella la Catolica. Sehr schöne Ordensgruppe in exzellenter Aufbewahrungsschatulle. Breite 29,5 cm, Tiefe 29,5 cm, Höhe 11 cm. Der Schlüssel fehlt.

Zustand: II+ Limit: 2500 EURO  

5300 EURO






Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5056
Orden vom Joch und den Pfeilen,
1943 – 1975. Bruststern zum Großoffizierskreuz. Vergoldet und emailliert, rs. Nadel und zwei Steckhaken (C. Zeige 3965).

Zustand: II Limit: 300 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5057
Kreuz 1.Klasse der roten Abteilung, vergoldet und emailliert. An Bandstück. Zeit der Franco-Regierung.

Zustand: II Limit: 50 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5058
Abzeichen “Merito Penitenciario”.
Silber, teils emailliert. Feingehaltspunze “925″. 79 g. An gelb/roter Kordel.

Zustand: I- Limit: 130 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5059
Tombak vergoldet, bunt emailliert. Vs. spanisches Staatswappen aus der Franco-Zeit, rs. blaues Medaillon mit Inschrift “His Praevide et Provide – 8″. Das wappenförmige Medaillon an Blattkrone. Dazu zwei goldene Tragekordeln.

Zustand: II+ Limit: 150 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5060

Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5061
NASA Outstanding Leadership Medal.
Bronze. Auszeichnung am Band, Miniatur, Bandspange und Knopflochminiatur, im Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: I Limit: 160 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5062
NASA Exceptional Engineering Achievement Medal.
Bronze. Auszeichnung am Band, Miniatur, Bandspange und Knopflochminiatur, im Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: I Limit: 160 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5063
NASA Equal Employment Opportunity Medal.
Bronze. Auszeichnung am Band, Miniatur, Bandspange und Knopflochminiatur, im Verleihungsetui.

Zustand: I Limit: 160 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5064
Drei Auszeichnungen.
Army Distinguished Service Cross. Navy and Marine Corps Distinguished Service Medal. Miniatur (25 mm) Legion of Merit, Officer mit Miniaturbandauflage.

Zustand: I Limit: 50 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5065
für 25 Dienstjahre der Unteroffiziere und Soldaten, Schnalle 1831 – 1868. Vergoldet, rs. Bandsteg mit Herstellerbezeichnung “I. Teuber”, ohne Nadel (OEK 305). Provenienz: Sammlung Dr. Söllner.

Zustand: II Limit: 240 EURO  

300 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5066
Fünf Auszeichnungen.
Erinnerungskreuz 1870/71 für freiwillige Krankenpflege (OEK 299). Felddienstauszeichnung (OEK 278). Gedächtnismedaille für 1849 (OEK 298). Dienstauszeichnung, Schnalle für IX Jahre 1868 – 1913 und Schnalle der Landwehr 1877 – 1913. Zusammen auf einem Bandstück ohne Blech (OEK 312/316). Z.T. an Bandstücken. Provenienz: Sammlung Dr. Söllner.

Zustand: II Limit: 160 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5067
Drei Auszeichnungen.
Silberne Verdienstmedaille Großherzog Friedrich I., 1882 – 1908, Silber, rs. kleine Fehlstelle (OEK 209). Silberne Verdienstmedaille Großherzog Friedrich II., 1916 – 1918, Kriegsmetall (OEK 215). Verdienstmedaille des bad. Helfer- und Sammlervereins 1918, Kriegsmetall. Provenienz: Sammlung Dr. Söllner.

Zustand: II-II- Limit: 80 EURO  



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5068
aus der Regierungszeit des Prinzen Luitpold bzw. des Prinzen Ludwig (1886 – 1914). Silber, vergoldet, am Bart Silbermarke “800″ und Silberschmiedemarke “G. Weishaupt”. Silbernes Portepee aus Lahnstickerei mit goldgestickter Krone im Zentrum der Rosette. Portepee nur mäßig gedunkelt.
Vgl. S. Duwe, “Erzkämmerer, Kammerherren und ihre Schlüssel”, S. 183.

Zustand: II+ Limit: 1500 EURO  

1500 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5069
1827 – 1923. Ordenskreuz, Gold und Email (minimale Chips). Halbhohle, goldene Krone, rs. Herstellerpunze “EQ”. An kleiner Bandschleife (OEK 445).

Zustand: II Limit: 1200 EURO  

1200 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5070
Ehrenkreuz des St. Annen-Ordens,
1783 – 1918. Kreuz des Münchner Stifts. Gold und Email (kleine Haarrisse), an genähter Bandschleife (OEK 447).

Zustand: II Limit: 1300 EURO    




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5071
Kreuz 4.Klasse mit Krone und Schwertern. Silber, Gold, emailliert, linker Kreuzarm beidseitig nachemailliert. Agraffe mit Hersteller- und Feingehaltspunze. An Bandstück (OEK 412).

Zustand: II- Limit: 320 EURO  

380 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5072
Kreuz 4.Klasse mit Schwertern. Silber, Gold, emailliert. Agraffe mit Hersteller- und Feingehaltspunze “J.L. 950″. An kurzem Bandstück (OEK 410).

Zustand: II Limit: 180 EURO  

190 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5073
Drei Militär-Verdienstkreuze,
2.Klasse, 3.Form 1913 – 1918. Kreuz mit Krone und Schwertern, ein Kreuz mit und eines ohne Schwerter, jeweils versilbert, mit kurzen Bandstücken. (OEK 428/29/30).

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

170 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5074
für die Feldzüge 1790 – 1812, verliehen 1848. Bronze, geschwärzt mit Teilvergoldung, an Bandstück (OEK 506). Militär-Denkzeichen für 1813, 1814, 1815 für Offiziere und Mannschaften, 1817 – 1818, Bronze, schwarz-grün lackiert (OEK 508).

Zustand: II Limit: 120 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5075
Zwei Jubiläumsmedaillen
für die bayerische Armee 1905. Goldene Jubiläumsmedaille mit Krone und den Jahreszahlen “1839 – 1909″, vergoldet, an Einzeltragespange (OEK 518/1). Jubiläumsmedaille in Bronze, an Bandstück (OEK 517).

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5076
Sechs Dienstauszeichnungen.
Dienstauszeichnung, Kreuz 2.Klasse ab 1906, Kreuz 1.Klasse der Unteroffiziere für 15 Jahre, Medaillen 2. und 3.Klasse für 12 und 9 Jahre, Landwehr-Dienstauszeichnung, Medaille 2.Klasse 1913 – 1918. Jeweils am Band (OEK 526/30/31/32/35). Dabei Luitpoldkreuz für 40 Dienstjahre im Staats- und Gemeindedienst, 1911 – 1918 (OEK 471).

Zustand: II Limit: 180 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5077
des Wilhelm von Grandjean. Militärdenkzeichen 1813/14, Bronze vergoldet, grün lackiert, an 23 cm langem Band, extrem schönes Exemplar (OEK 508). Dazu zeitgenössische, handschriftliche Notiz über die Stiftung des Militärdenkzeichens. Dazu goldene Miniatur des portugiesischen Christusordens, Gold, emailliert, 10 x 21 mm, sehr feine Arbeit, kleine Emailchips, an 40 mm breitem Band sowie Verleihungsetui aus rotem Saffianleder mit goldgeprägter Zierkante (20 x 7,5 cm) und Übersendungsschreiben mit blindgeprägtem Staatssiegel. Dazu eine Quittung von 1843. Das Ganze in einem beschrifteten, zeitgenössischen Umschlag.

Zustand: I/II Limit: 1000 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5078
18 Auszeichnungen
und Abzeichen. Zweiteilige Ordensspange, EK 1914, 2.Klasse und Frontkämpferehrenkreuz, zwei Feldspangen, drei Militär-Verdienstkreuze 3.Klasse, Kreuz mit Krone und Schwertern, eines mit und eines ohne Schwerter, jeweils in bestoßenen Etuis, König-Ludwig-Kreuz, Hochzeitsmedaille 1921, fünf Feuerwehrauszeichnungen, Kreuz “Treu dem Regiment”, 1.InfRgt. “König”. Kriegervereins-Ehrenzeichen “In Treue Fest”, jeweils mit Bändern. Brosche mit Matrosenbild 1.WK, Medaille Kriegerverein Prien, Abzeichen der Kavallerie-Vereinigung Straubing und des Reserve-InfRgts. 17 Augsburg.

Zustand: II Limit: 320 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5079
Feldspangen und Bänder. Veteranen-Denkzeichen für die Feldzüge 1790 – 1812, verliehen 1848. Bronze patiniert, an Bandstück (OEK 506). Militär-Denkzeichen für 1813, 1814, 1815 für Offiziere und Mannschaften, 1817 – 1818, Bronze, an Bandstück (OEK 508). Drei Feldspangen, überwiegend bayer. Auszeichnungen. Bänder für Militär-Verdienstorden ab 1913, Dienstauszeichnungen, EK-Band, Doppelbänder EK und MVO u.a., Band für Kreuz der französischen Ehrenlegion u.a.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5080
Drei Medaillen.
Prinzregent Luitpold-Medaille in Silber (versilbert) und Bronze, jeweils am roten Band (OEK 460/61). Medaille des Infanterie-Leib-Regiments den Verteidigern Tirols 1915, versilbert, am Dreiecksband.

Zustand: II Limit: 160 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5081
Kronprinz Rupprecht.
Erinnerungszeichen an den 60. Geburtstag des Kronprinzen, 1929. Bronze, vergoldet, rs. Nadel und Jubiläumsdatum “18.5.1929″.

Zustand: II Limit: 100 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5082
für 50 Dienstjahre des bayerischen Landesfeuerwehrausschusses 1925 – 1936. Silber, mit vergoldeter Krone und vergoldetem Mittelteil, blau emailliert, rechter Kreuzarm mit Feingehaltspunze “900″. An Einzelbandspange.

Zustand: II Limit: 220 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5083
Bayerischer Verdienstorden,
Silber, vergoldet, emailliert. Im Verleihungsetui mit Halsband und den beiden Knopflochrosetten. Im Deckel Tintenspur.

Zustand: II Limit: 360 EURO  

380 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5084
Bayerischer Verdienstorden,
Silber, vergoldet, emailliert, im Verleihungsetui der Fa. Hemmerle München, an konfektioniertem Halsband mit Knopflochrosetten und 16 mm-Miniatur an Band mit Nadel. Dabei silberne Ehrennadel der CSU an gedrehter Nadel und bronzene Ehrenmedaille “Für Verdienste um die Kommunale Selbstverwaltung” des Bayerischen Staatsministeriums des Inneren, im Verleihungsetui. Durchmesser 5 cm.

Zustand: II Limit: 450 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5085
des Ministerpräsidenten für Verdienste im Ehrenamt. Silber, vergoldet und emailliert, an gedrehter Nadel mit Sicherungsschraube. Im Verleihungsetui der Fa. Hemmerle München.

Zustand: II+ Limit: 200 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5086
Konvolut Ehrenzeichen
und ein Etui. Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen der Sonderstufe, vergoldet, emailliert und bemalt, rs. Längsnadel, dabei die Miniaturnadel. Feuerwehr-Ehrenzeichen in Gold für 40 Jahre, vergoldet, mit Band und Miniaturnadel, in bedruckter Tüte “40″. Ehrenzeichen für Verdienste um das Bayerische Rote Kreuz, Steckkreuz für Besondere Verdienste, vergoldet und emailliert, rs. Längsnadel. Verdienstmedaille der Wasserwacht des Bayerischen Roten Kreuzes in Gold, vergoldet und emailliert, rs. Längsnadel. Verleihungsetui der Fa. Hemmerle zum Bayerischen Verdienstorden.

Zustand: II Limit: 210 EURO  




Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5087
des Säuglingsheimes Prinzessin Arnulf-Haus. Runde, silberne Brosche, im Zentrum plastisches Kinderportrait, umschrieben “Säuglingsheim Prinzessin Arnulf Haus”, rs. Querbroschierung und Feingehaltspunze “800″. Durchmesser 4 cm. Dazu drei Hebammenabzeichen. Brosche der Fachkräfte der Deutschen Hebammen, emailliert mit HK (HeHü 5803a). Allgemeiner Deutscher Hebammenverband (ADHV), silberne und goldene Verdienstbrosche (HeHü 5802bc).

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO    


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5088
Drei Medaillen.
Ehrenzeichen 1.Klasse, Medaille 1903 – 1918, Silber (OEK 604). Versilberte Medaille des InfRgt. 92 den Veteranen 1870/71, 1896, an gelb-blauem Band. Centenarmedaille Peninsula 1809 – 1909, vergoldet.

Zustand: II Limit: 150 EURO  

150 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5089
Gibraltar-Medaille 1785.
Silber, 49,4 g. Ursprünglich nicht tragbare Medaille, oben in den Rand gebohrtes Loch zur Befestigung einer Rahe mit Zapfen (OEK 741). Es gelangten 1311 Medaillen zur Verleihung.

Zustand: II-III Limit: 500 EURO  

540 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5090
Urkunde zum Militär-Sanitätskreuz
für Dr. Wilhelm Oncken vom 8.5.1872 mit Blindprägesiegel und OU Ludwigs III. Gefaltet.

Zustand: II Limit: 200 EURO  

480 EURO


Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5091
Hausorden von der Goldenen Flamme,
Bruststern ab 1757. Silberner, brillantierter Sternkorpus. Goldenes, aufgelegtes Ordenskreuz, fein gekörnte Kreuzarme, in den Winkeln der Kreuzarme Flammen. Medaillon dunkelblau emailliert, mit goldenem, in Zierschnitt aufgelegtem Wahlspruch “IN SENIO”. Rs. Medaillondeckel mit Firmenbezeichnung “F. Steinam-Hofjuwelier-Stuttgart”, taillierte, stumpfe Nadel. Gewicht 37,6 g, Durchmesser 65 mm (OEK 1017).

Zustand: II Limit: 1600 EURO  

1700 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5092
Hausorden von der goldenen Flamme,
Bruststern ab 1757. Silberner Sternkorpus. Schwach vergoldetes, aufgelegtes Ordenskreuz, fein gekörnte Kreuzarme, in den Winkeln der Kreuzarme Flammen. Medaillon dunkelblau emailliert, mit vergoldetem, in Zierschnitt aufgelegtem Wahlspruch “IN SENIO”, dieser mit Altschliffdiamanten verziert. Rs. zwei Steckhaken, taillierte, stumpfe Nadel, Medaillondeckel mit Firmenbezeichnung “J. Godet & Sohn – Königliche Hoflieferanten – Berlin”, Gewicht 81 g, Durchmesser 87 mm (OEK 1017). In rotem, leicht beschädigtem Etui mit blauer Seide und Samt ausgelegt.

Zustand: II Limit: 2000 EURO  

2000 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5093
Fürstlicher Hohenzollernscher Hausorden.
Ehrenkreuz 2. Klasse mit Krone und Schwertern seit 1866. Silber, vergoldet und emailliert (minimaler Chip unter der Kronenaufhängung). Fünfbügelige, halb gefütterte Krone mit rot emailliertem Futter, beweglich aufgehängt. Gewicht 24 g. An Bandstück.

Zustand: II Limit: 600 EURO  

660 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5094
Zwei Ehrenzeichen.
Silberne Medaille Bene Merenti, Fürst Friedrich 1927 – 1965, versilberte Bronze, an Bandstück (OEK 1055/3). Erinnerungskreuz des Bayerischen 22. Infanterie-Regiments “Fürst Wilhelm von Hohenzollern”, versilbert, am Band (OEK 1074).

Zustand: II Limit: 220 EURO  

220 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5095
Ende 19. bis Anfang 20.Jhdt. Messing vergoldet, Länge 14 cm. Dazu ein Königlich Sächsischer Kammerherrenschlüssel 1904 – 1918, Bronze vergoldet, Teil des Schlüsselkopfes abgebrochen.

Zustand: I-/III Limit: 350 EURO  

420 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5096
Militär-Verdienstkreuz 1870
für Frauen. Bronze, vergoldet, querstehende, angelötete Öse, an Damenschleife (OEK 1345).

Zustand: II Limit: 180 EURO  

360 EURO



Bottom of Form



Los Nr.5097
Haus- und Verdienstorden von Herzog Peter Friedrich Ludwig,
Bruststern zum Goldenen Großkreuz mit der goldenen Krone. Silber, farbig emailliert, rs. vergoldet, geschwungene Nadel (OEK 1489). Gewicht 54 g.

Zustand: II Limit: 1000 EURO    

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The China History collections 1800-1915




The China pre 1915

History Collections



Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectot

Copyright @ 2012



Early 19th Century


Chine  Picture Postcard  Missionaries pf Tsingtau



Chinese Empire, 1836 (July 4th) early folded entire from London to Canton, from a London firm “W. I. Hall & Co.” to “Wetmore & Co” in Canton, with oblong framed British company in China firm chop alongside, VF piece of early Chinese trading history, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 19,000







Chinese Empire, 1851 stampless folded letter from Shanghai to Kingston MA, reverse with Hong Kong and London transits, New York receiver, ms “45″ rate, 11 page letter, describes in detail life in China, scarce, Fine. Realized HK$ 2,800





Chinese Empire, 1853 (Feb 8) stampless folded letter from Canton to Boston, front re-rated twice with manuscript “via Marseilles” and crossed out “via southampton”. Reverse shows Hong Kong 10 FE 1853 transit and red blurred AP 2 1853 British (?) transit. Interesting and unusual usage, F-VFRealized HK$ 3,200


Chinese Empire, 1853 stampless folded letter from Canton to Middletown CT USA, Hong Kong and London transits on reverse, “75″ rate with complete “New-York Am Pkt/APR/17″ cds, manuscript “via Marsailles”, discusses rebels heading northward, levelying captured towns and heading for Nanking, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500



Chinese Empire, 1854 (Sep 23) stampless folded letter from Canton to New York, via Marseilles with back showing Hong Kong and London transits, front has corrected rate of “53″ with complete “New York Br Pkt/NOV/29″ cds, letter on tea trade, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500






Late 19th Century











Foochow, 1863 (March) cover from US Consulate in Foochow to NJ, forwarded to London, 24¢ Victoria tied on front by B62 killer on cover to Dover, NJ, then onto London. Front shows red london PAID dated 19 May and British Pkt 39 marking dated May 2(?). Reverse shows Hong Kong MR 31 63 cds and lovely, bold red “Consulate USA Foo Chow Foo” and fancy Eagle design handstamp. Slight reduction at left, F-VF, nice usage.
Estimate HK$ 1,500 – 2,000.



In 1875, the Qing government ordered Li to the creation of the Northern Navy, allocated four million taels of silver a year for the training of officers and men, the purchase of warships. In 1881, the Qing government has chosen to build a naval base in Port Arthur and Weihai. December 17, 1888, the Northern Navy was officially inaugurated. Since then, modern China officially has a sixth in the world at the time called Asia’s first naval fleet. The picture shows the custom-made 1880 the Qing government to the German ironclads, the “set” because of heavy tonnage, heavy caliber guns, armor thickness, once known as Asia’s first ship in


Northern sailors and more recruitment from coastal Shandong Province, joined the army to accept the strict Western training must learn, in a six month period based on the ship operational knowledge and English. Major warship captain and senior officers of almost all specialized Chuanzheng graduation, students practice and more than once to foreign Naval Academy, the late Qing Dynasty China walk in the forefront of the modernization of the crowd. However, for this reason, the Northern Navy became a stubborn conservative moment of envy, as the target. The picture shows the drilling in Weihai Liugong Island Northern sailors


[ 转自铁血社区 ]



This to follow the example of Western naval steam of the ship as the fleet of major equipment, clothing system, changed the style of the continuation of the “livery” in China since thousands of years, began the transition to the modern direction. Even though the style of the Northern Navy clothing is still Chinese, but the colors of the clothing, cuff rank logo design concepts have begun and European standards. The picture shows a Northern naval officer to receive warships in Europe during the shooting of a photo.




Shanghai, 1877, Small Dragon, 1ca on 3ca and 1ca on 6ca, blue surcharge (Scott 79-80. Chan 65-66), without gum, lovely, nicely centered pair, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.





Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca-5ca complete (Scott 1-3. Chan 1-3), all with o.g., very clean and fresh, sharp rich deep colors, outstanding set, scarce this fine, Very FineRealized HK$ 20,000


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca-5ca complete (Scott 1-3. Chan 1-3); 5 ca couple of short perfs on right side, deep rich colors, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 10,000


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragon on thin paper, 1 ca green (Scott 1. Chan 1), with thin gum residue; fresh, slightly wrinkled, otherwise FineRealized HK$ 5,500


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 1ca green and 3ca brown red, 2 each (Scott 1-2. Chan 1-2), shades, all without gum or small gum residue; small odd tonings on 3ca values, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000



Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca orange (Scott 2-3. Chan 2-3), used, the former with Customs cds, plus a fake 3ca on card like paper, with trimmed margins all around, fake cancel, 3 itemsRealized HK$ 6,000


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragons on thin paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca orange (Scott 2-3. Chan 2-3), both with part seal cancel, deep rich color, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1878, Large Dragon on thin paper, 5ca orange (Scott 3. Chan 3), used with foreign cancel “Sydney/Australia” and other foreign cancels, three different types; stamp has diagonal crease, most unusual and scarceRealized HK$ 4,000




Chinese Empire, 1883, Large Dragon on thick paper, 3ca brown red and 5ca yellow (Scott 8, 9. Chan 11-12), rough perfs, 3ca with weak inking resulting in hollow “3″ and weak frameline, 5ca intensive deep rich color, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500



Chinese Empire, 1885-1888, Small Dragons mint group, including rough perfs and perforation varieties (Scott 10//15, Chan 13//21) comprised 1 ca (x6), 3 ca (x3), 5 ca, total 10 examples, some without gum, shades, overall fresh & clean, a nice group, o.g. or without gum, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000.




Shanghai, 1886, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS 117a, 117ci), a lovely mint pair of these eye-catching varieties, o.g., Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.


Shanghai, 1886-88, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS117a & ci), two lovely used examples showing surcharge inverted and reading from top left to bottom right varieties, Very Fine, scarce pair, each unpriced used.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.






Qing court the internal political struggle, the senior likes and dislikes, and other reasons, after 1888



Chinese Empire, 1888, Small Dragon, 1ca bright green, perf 11½ (Scott 13. Chan 19), margin block of 4, o.g., very lightly hinged at top, never hinged at bottom, beautiful front & back, a choice block, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,600


the Northern Fleet funding substantially reduced, to naval equipment update in 1890 was forced to completely terminate. For the Navy and technology are advancing by leaps and bounds, Japan by two naval expansion in the case of the rapid rise.







Shanghai, 1893, Double Dragons, 5¢ carmine pink, left half with inverted surcharge (Chan LS141a), with watermarked paper, Type I with Shanghai double circle postmark in blue, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.



Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca value color proof on very thin cigarette paper (Scott 16 var.), without gum as issued, complete margins all around, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.


Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca orange red, imperf horizontally (Scott 16 var.), vertical pair, used with complete Shanghai seal chop in dark blue; some overall aged toning, stamp Very Fine, rare item. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing, mint group (Scott 16-20,22. Chan 22-26, 28), comprising 1ca(3), 2ca(3), 3ca(3), 4 ca(2), 5ca and 9ca, most with o.g., 12 values, a clean group, generally F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing (Scott 16-18, 20-24. Chan 22-24, 26-30), group of 11 values, comprised 1ca, 2ca, 3ca (2), 5ca, 6ca, 9ca (2), 12ca, 24 ca(2), majority very fine, odd faults on couple of values as expected, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 4,500. Realized HK$ 9,000


Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing,1ca-24ca complete (Scott 16-26. Chan 22-33), neat cancels, very clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 10,000





To the outbreak of the Sino in 1894,

the original Northern Fleet warships, regardless of speed, rate of fire, are behind Japan. While the Empress Dowager Cixi morbid extravagance and waste, to include the Navy’s military spending, including state financial burden of non-constructive


The summer of early 1894,

Japan provoke Sino aimed at aggression against the DPRK and China. September 17, 1894, the main force of the Northern Navy and the main force of the Japanese combined fleet encountered in the waters Yalu River, the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Navy’s first decisive naval battle known as the Yellow Sea Dadonggou.

The picture shows a Japanese war ship “Atlantis pill” shot to the naval battle scene, near the Japanese combined fleet warships, the virtual shadow of the ship in the distant smoke is the Jigong the Northern Fleet to Japan’s combined fleet


[ 转自铁血社区 ]

The beginning of the Battle of Yalu River,

the intention of the Northern Navy cross team cut off at multiple points, disrupting the formation of the Japanese columns, however, the Northern Navy Gejian ship age old, and the speed of the fire completely overwhelmed by the Japanese failed to achieve the established tactical objectives, and ultimatelyinto was the siege of the Japanese. Has suffered serious injuries of the Northern Navy “Zhiyuan” ship under the command of Captain Deng Shichang Japanese ship launched a suicide assault, the intent in order to reverse the situation, and ultimately fall short unfortunately, was sunk by the Japanese. Deng Shichang fell into the meaning of not only students, refused to rescue, Daohai was martyred.


Battle of Yalu River ended with the defeat of the Northern Navy, Northern Navy was sunk by a number of large ships, but failed to sink a Japanese ship, the loss of ship equipment too heavy, the loss of the Yellow Sea naval supremacy. The Japanese army has launched the Battle of Port Arthur and Weihai, an attempt to annihilate the Northern Navy cleared the final obstacles to landing Bohai Bay. In February 1895, experienced a bitter struggle, the downfall of the Northern Navy ammunition aid must in Weihai. The picture shows before the destruction of the Northern Navy after the Japanese torpedo hit the stranded flagship be far “to avoid falling into the scene after the rival blew.


Carved in the of Weihai land fall, Northern Naval Commander Ding Yu to organize all of the Marines through the Gulf backs against the wall on the shore of the Japanese launched a counterattack final Marines advantage of the Japanese oppression to Longmiao mouth Beach, annihilated.Ding Yu suicide. The picture shows the post-war Japanese army shot near in Longmiao mouth killed in the Northern officers and men of the Marine Corps remains.


[ 转自铁血社区 ]




Amoy, 1895, First Issue, 2¢ blue, Type 1 (Scott 3. Chan LA3), block of 4, o.g., fresh mint, Very Fine, scarce block.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.





Chefoo, 1895 (20 July) US – Chefoo combination piece, franked by 5¢ US Grant issue (Scott 270) tied to piece along with Chefoo 1¢ Pagoda by “Chefoo 20 JUL 95 Local Post” cds and 5¢ Grant additionally cancelled by duplex “1″ and partial “Postal Agency Jul 31 Shanghai;” nice combination, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,000.


Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, Overprinted on ½¢ wide spaced (Scott J9, var. Chan LCHD8 & 8di), horizontal 4 stamps used on piece, second stamp showing “U” in “”DUE”” inserted by hand variety, Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.


Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, 15¢ carmine, black over red overprint, both inverted (Scott J12cd. Chan LCHO24b), horizontal pair, o.g.; fresh, bright pair which is sensibly reinforced, right stamp tiny, pinpoint thin speck, otherwise F.-V.F., striking variety, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,500.



Hankow, Postage Dues, 1895, Type III complete (Chan LHD11-13), o.g.; 10¢ carmine with shallow thin spot, otherwise F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000. Realized HK$ 7,500

February 17, 1895,

the Japanese Navy with the landing in the island of Liu, Ji-Canton C, the town of medium remaining 10 ship for the Japanese army captured the northern fleet was wiped out. Subsequently, the Qing government sent Li plenipotentiary to Japan to peace, and the “Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17, the Sino-end. The destruction of the Northern Navy also marks the failure of the Westernization Movement, the Qing Empire’s international standing has plummeted, and once again become the object of the powers creeping. The picture shows the Japanese occupation of the Northern Navy Liugongdao Navy hall


  • ·              战舰军港尽失,拨银数千万两打造的北洋海军成为众矢之的。而清廷内部的门户派系斗争,更让海军衙门在战争结束之前就被撤销。1895428日,光绪帝颁布上谕将大批海军军官革职查办。三个月后,北洋海军各级职务从建制上被正式取消。从1874讨论南北洋海防,到1895年北洋海军覆灭,前后历时21年。图为北洋海军覆灭后,幸存官兵被集中至威海遣散。

battleship naval port lose dial Silver number of 10.002 million to build the Northern Navy become common knowledge. The Qing government portal within the factional fighting, leaving the Navy Yamen before the end of the war has been revoked. April 28, 1895, the Guangxu Emperor issued the Edict of a large number of naval officers dismissed and punished. Three months later, the Northern Navy positions at all levels from the establishment was officially canceled. Yang Hai Phong to discuss North-South from 1874 to 1895 collapse of the Northern Navy, and it took 21 years. The picture shows after the destruction of the Northern Navy, the surviving officers and men were concentrated to Weihai severance.





W. B. Thornhill, Shanghai, 1895 first edition published by Stanley Gibbons, with notes and publishers’ prices, Extremely Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200. Realized HK$ 2,600




Chinkiang, Official, 1896, 15¢ carmine, inverted overprint variety (Scott O8a. Chan LCHO8var), o.g., never hinged, pristine mint, F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200


Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 + var. Chan LHD6 + 6a), a lovely vertical strip of 3, top stamp showing large top of left character variety, fresh, Very Fine, scarce multiple.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,600.


Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 var. Chan LHD6a), an attractive example, showing large top of left character variety, used, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,400.



Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure ½¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 3ca orange, wide spacing, imperf horizontally (Scott 47c. Chan 56eii), vertical strip of 3, o.g., lightly hinged, fresh, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 34,000 – 40,000.



Chinese Empire, 1897, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 2nd Printing, 4ca pale rose (Scott 19n. Chan 25S), o.g., fresh and F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,400 – 3,000.


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 1¢ on Empress Dowager 1st Printing 1ca vermilion, wide spacing (Scott 39. Chan 48), o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,100



Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing, mint group (Scott 47//55, 73-74. Chan 56//64, 82-83), plus re-engraved set, comprised ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢, 8¢, 10¢ and 30¢, re-engraved ½¢ missing corner and 2¢(2), total 14 values, majority clean and fresh overall condition, o.g., F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 6,000 – 7,000. Realized HK$ 11,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, mint group (Scott 28//36), comprising ½¢(4), including pair shifted perfs, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 8¢(2) one with “8″ shifted to right, 10¢ on 6¢, 10¢ on 9¢ and 10¢ on 12¢, o.g. on all values, one 8¢ bottom straight edge, clean group, 13 values, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000. Realized HK$ 9,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing (Scott 47-51, 53-55), 8 values without 8¢ on 6ca, but with extra values, comprising ½¢(2), 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢ on 9ca(2), 10¢/12ca and 30¢/24ca, total 11 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 5,000





Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Narrow Spacing, mint & used group (Scott 65//71, 73. Chan 74-79, 83), comprised mint ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢, 4¢, 10¢ and used ½¢, 1¢(3), 2¢(2), 10¢ on 9ca, 10¢ on 12ca, minor varieties noted, plus ½¢ on 3ca, total 17 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,500



Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, used selection (Scott 28//36), comprised of ½¢(3), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢(4) including pair, 8¢(3), 10¢ on 6ca, 10¢ on 9ca used on piece, 10¢ on 12ca with nearly complete “Tangku” cds in blue, overall F-VF, some faults expected, 18 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,800 – 3,500. Realized HK$ 7,500


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 30¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 24ca dark red, 2mm spacing (Scott 55a. Chan 64d), o.g., F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000



Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), o.g., small hinge remnant, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 5,000





Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,400


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., hinge remnant; perfs trimmed close at top, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78), block of 4, part o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 26,000





Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), 3 examples, one mint and two used copies, the former has small gum thinned spot, used fine, all with surcharges shifted to the right, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), used, fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 2,200





Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), o.g., clean, exceptionally well centered, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), surcharge slightly shifted to left; small thin top left corner, Fair exampleRealized HK$ 6,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), used, well centered, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500






Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), neat large part Customs postmark, good color and centering, Very FineRealized HK$ 19,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), o.g., hinge remnant, clean, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 11,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), has o.g. but used example, neat part Shanghai Dollar chop cancel, good color and superb centering, exceptional beauty, Very FineRealized HK$ 4,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Small $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 86), regummed, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 38,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 14, surcharge shifted downward, o.g., good color, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 40,000









Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), used, clean, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 7, used with complete strike of Swatow Pakua cancel, good color and centering, Extremely FineRealized HK$ 22,000


Hankow, 1897 P.P.C. “Pour Prendre Congé” overprint issue complete (Chan LH26-30), full o.g., fresh mint, F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 18,000


Hankow, Postage Due, 1895, 20¢ blue on buff, Type III (Scott J13. Chan LHD13), used, full margins, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,500.









Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post, 50¢ blue green, color error (Scott 94b. Chan 100b), clean o.g., scarce shade,very well centered, VF, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,500


Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), with 8 additional shades, o.g., overall fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000



Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), $2, $5 appear to be no gum, others with large part o.g., vivid bright colors throughout, good to well centered, F.-V.F. setRealized HK$ 18,000


Chinese Empire, 1897 (May 27) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing blue “Customs 27 May 97 Chungking” handstamp, with Japan 5s Koban tied by Shanghai 11 Jun 97 IJPO cds from China inland Mission corner card with “Hankow” crossed out and replaced by “Chungking”. Reverse shows brown Shanghai large dollar chop date 7 Jun97, Yokohama 17 Jun transit Vancouver JU 30 transit and Philadelphia Jul 7 receiver. Scarce combination of markings, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 8,500


Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 19) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, a lovely cover, with front showing bold, black “Chungking 19 Jun 97 Customes” handstamp, and 5s Japanese Koban, tied by “Shanghai 8 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows a wonderful array of clear markings including brown Shanghai 7 Jul large dollar chop, Yokohama 12 Jul transit, S.F. transit and Philadelphia Aug 9 receiver. Excellent usage, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 13,000


Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jul 5) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, showing on front a lovely strike in black of “Chungking 5 Jul 97 Customs” oval dater along with vertical pair of 5s Japanese Koban which is cancelled “Shanghai 23 July 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse offers a wonderful range of marking including a brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 29 Jul transit and Philadelphia Aug 17 receiver. Atrractive and F-VF, a choice coverRealized HK$ 22,000


Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 9) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing nice strike of “Chungking 9 Jun 97 Customs” oval handstamp, along with 5s Japanese Koban, which is cancelled by “Shanghai 21 Jun 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows lovely, brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 26 Jun transit, Tacoma, Wash. Jul 16 transit and Philadelphia July 21 receiver. Lovely usage, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 15,000


Chinese Empire, 1897 (July 11) cover front from Chinkiang to North Carolina, franked by 5s Japanese Victory issue, tied by clean, “Shanghai 19 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Front shows at lower left a choice strike in brown of Chinkiang small Customs chop and missionary corner card. Very scarce combination, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 18,000







Chinese Empire, 1898 (Apr 18) cover from Shanghai to Wellington, New Zealand, 10¢ rate with large 10 surcharge, franked with “Large Ten” Chinese character surcharge 10¢ on 30¢ QV (Scott 69a, Yang 54b), postmarked Shanghai cds, Ap/18/98, manuscript “Via Hong Kong Sorres Straits” and reverse Hong Kong “D” Ap/22/98 cds transit and Wellington/NZ 26 My 98 cds receiver alongside, “Large Ten” surcharge is rare, used on commercial cover possibly unique, rough opening, not affecting the attractiveness of this rare coverRealized HK$ 4,500


Chinese Empire, 1898 (Jan 4) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, with front showing Chungking 4 Jan 98 large dollar chop along with two 5s Japanese Kobans, which are tied by “Shanghai 22 Jan IJPO” cds. Reverse shows black Shanghai 22 Jan 98 large dollar chop, Yokohama 27 Jan transit and SF Feb 18 1898 Paid All transit andvery light and indistinct Philadelphia receiver. This cover when compared with the other, surrounding covers from thsi missionary correspondence, shows the transition from the Chungking oval to the large dollar dater. F-VF, a lovely item. Realized HK$ 20,000


Chinese Empire, 1898, Chinese Imperial Post, 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢, Waterlow & Sons trial color proof in maroon (Scott 104-106 vars. Chan 110-112 vars.), block of 9, overprinted” Specimen” and security punched, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 20,000

Early 20th Century




Chinese Empire, 1901, BRA 5¢ on Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon ½¢ chocolate, green surcharge (Scott 98 var. Chan BRA 1), with usual BRA postmark in blue; odd toning spots, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 700


Chinese Empire, 1901 (Nov 28) registered combination cover from Chunkiang? to Yokohama, Japan, a neat standard size envelope, franked with pair of 10¢ green coiling Dragon tied by bisected light cds with 10s Kiku Blue offices in China vertical pair alongside tied by dark blue Shanghai IJPO 16 Dec 01 dater. IJPO Shanghai registration label applied with straight Registered handstamp in purple. Large red “R” handstamp in Red alongside, docket 4198 in blue, red wax seals over flap on reverse. A clean neat colorful cover, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,000



Chinese Empire, 1901 (April 21) picture post card from Chefoo to Italy, franked on front by 4¢ Coiling Dragon tied by Chefoo 4/21 cds, while address side bears pair of 2¢ hong Kong Victoria’s tied by Shanghai Ap 26 01 British PO transit, Shanghai 25 April Chinese PO transit and Roma Jun 28 receiver. neat and Very Fine, nice usageRealized HK$ 1,800



Chinese Empire, 1902 (Dec 18) First Issue post card usage from Chungking to Philadelphia, 1¢ card uprated by 1¢ and 2¢ Coiling Dragons, all tied by Choice strikes of Kweiyang double-margin tombstone chops. Front additionally shows Chungking 18 Dec 02 cds, Shanghai bilingual 3 Jan 03 cds along with French PO Shang-Hai 3 JANU 03 cds, Nagasaki 6 Jan transit, Yokohama 8 Jan transit and Phila Jan 31 1903 arrivial. A spectacular card with wonderful eye-appeal, F-VF, a beauty! Realized HK$ 15,000


Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 1901, ½¢, 1¢ and 2¢ in ultramarine, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 110, 111, 112 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, unpunched (quite unusual), overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 5,000


Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in blue green, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 116 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at bottom left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, pristine, Very Fine and choiceRealized HK$ 4,500


Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in orange brown, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 115 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at top right, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine, scarceRealized HK$ 3,800


Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Jumping Carp, 30¢ and 50¢ in violet, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 117, 118, 119 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at lower left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine and choice. Realized HK$ 2,400



Followed by the Boxer of the change and the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing government aware of the reconstruction of the Navy is still the only way.

1902 onwards,

a large number of former Northern naval officer to open recovery officer, and the establishment of the Naval Academy, from the talent to start rebuilding the Navy.

 [ 转自





Chinese Empire, 1903 & 1906 uprated 1¢ postal card usages to Philadelphia, two 1¢ cards, comprised of Oct 1903 card, uprated by 1¢ & 2¢ marginal coiling Dragons tied by Shanghai cdss to Philadelphia, plus a lovely 1906 1¢ uprated card with lunar cancels and tombstone branch marking to US as well. Interesting pair, F-VFRealized HK$ 7,000




The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship "sea", where "sea Sum", "sea-chips", "Hairong" After the revolution, uprising, "sky" sank the ship ran aground in 1904. "Hai Qi" ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the "Hai Qi" ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.



The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.





Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection.

The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.





Chinese Empire, 1909, Temple of Heaven, mint & used group (Scott 131-133. Chan 137-139), comprising mint 2¢(3), 3¢(3), 7¢(4) with or without gum, used 2¢(4), 3¢ & 7¢, 16 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,200



Chinese Empire, 1909 printed local addressed registered cover, franked with complete set "Temple of Heaven" issue, individual postmarked by Shanghai registered cancels, handstamped Registered/Shanghai #132, with similar Shanghai receiver "Index 1" on reverse, a fine cover used on second day of issue, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,500


Chinese Empire, 1909 cover from Fukien to England via Siberia, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven and 2¢ green & 4¢ brown coiling dragons tied by Fukien bilingual cds, on reverse various transit marks and Frome/England receiver Ja/15/10, minor imperfection, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 7,500


Chinese Empire, 1909 (Sept 15) small cover from Peking to Germany, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven issue, tied by Peking bilingual bisected cds (15 Sept 09), VF and clean cover, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,400

July 15, 1909,

 the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet.


 China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command.

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College.

1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.


Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family.

Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship "Horizon" custom-made in Britain


Boxer ordered before the "sea" cruiser Hai Qi "sky" Hai Chen and Hai, Hai "have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team.

Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the "sky" sister ship "Hai Qi" ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.




Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons.

These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, "Chu Qian warship instrument



Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China's modern navy.

Same year in August 24 to September 24,

contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony.

To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships).

Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.








Chinese Empire, 1910 (Apr 10) picture postcard from Lungchow to England, franked on picture side CIP Coiling Dragon 1¢ and 3¢ Temple of Heaven, each tied by strike of Lungchow 14th Apr/10 bisected bilingual cds, on reverse similar Lungchow date & French style Lang-son/Tonkin 15 April/10 transit cds alongside, VF, accompanied with Experts & Consultants Ltd photo certificate #1870, scarce Lungchow usage. Realized HK$ 6,500


Long flagship team's defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia's largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the "Dragon's flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-'s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty's ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 ]

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.




As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.




Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.



The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.


[ 转自铁血社区 ]

May 8, 1911,

 the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active.

October 10,

the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge.

On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression.

The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames




December 6,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy.

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships


Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies .

Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.


The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.


The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces.


When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.





Chinese Republic, Group of 6 examples all with specimen overprints, 1912-1923 (Scott 192-3, 240-1, 253 & 260), comprising President Yuan Shih-Kai 3¢ and 5¢ First Peking Junk Issue, 1½¢ and 13¢ and 2nd Peking Printing 4¢ and 15¢, the former two values without gum, others o.g., overall fresh and clean, 6 values. Realized HK$ 500


Chinese Republic, 1912, Foochow “Provisional Neutrality”, 3¢ slate green (Scott 134. Chan 140), group of 4 items, comprised of 2 mint and 2 used examples; one mint copy light crease, F.-V.F. or better, one stamp each signed Bloch and Livingston. Realized HK$ 4,000


Chinese Republic, 1912, Nanking “Provisional Neutrality”, 7¢ maroon (Scott 140. Chan 146), used, fresh, F.-V.F., signed Livingston. Realized HK$ 1,800

February 12, 1912,

the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.




Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships.

The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official


[ 转自铁血社区 ]




As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.



Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 146-160. Chan 152-166), full o.g., never hinged, good color, key values well centered, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000


Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose, overprint inverted (Scott 158a. Chan 164b), cancelled Kuang-Tong, Kuan-Chow (Canton) June 17, 1st Year, clean and well centered, Very Fine, a major rarity, signed Livingston, ex Pedersen.
Estimate HK$ 140,000 – 160,000

One of 10 documented examples known and fourth copy referenced in”The Inverted Overprint Chung Hwa Min Kuo” by Henry Nyi, in “The China Clipper”, Volume 56, No. 6, pages 196-199



Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose (Scott 175 & var. Chan 181, 181a), horizontal pair with right sheet margin, left stamp with “One” retouched, part original glazed gum, lightly hinged top margin, extremely fresh, F.-V.F., rare in pair.
Estimate HK$ 25,000 – 30,000.



Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 163-177. Chan 169-174), full o.g., several never hinged, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 20,000


Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives nearly complete (Scott 178-187, 189), 11 values without $2 value, mint, plus a short set 1¢-$1 used, 21 values, all o.g. except 1¢ without gum, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,000


Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-189. Chan 184-195), o.g., clean fresh appearance, F.-V. Realized HK$ 12,000








Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution and Republic Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-201. Chan 184-207), o.g., clean, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000



China related covers, composed of registered red band Coiling Dragon cover, 1915 censored India to Canton cover, US Consular Service cover from Tsinan to USA and PPC from Shanghai US Postal Agency to New York



Post 1915



Chinese Republic, 1921, Postal Service issue plus overprinted for use in Sinkiang complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 243-246, Sink. 39-42), o.g., F.-V.FEstimate HK$ 3,000 – 3,500.


Chinese Republic, 1923, Constitution complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 270-273. Chan 289-292), clean o.g., Post Office fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 2,500.




The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

 United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter


est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.


are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

 dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

 As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.


The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.

China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

 from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.


Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,


 Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

 United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter


est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.


are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

 dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

 As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.


The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.

China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

 from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.


Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,


 Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

  1. 1.      A Bullet For Chiang1 May 1926
    Republic of China (Kuomintang)Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang.Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of ChinaDespite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles.5-8 May 1926With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months.The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army.

    Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4].From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong PressTan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5].In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.


Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.

Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.

Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.

Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History


2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.

Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”

Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.

Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History


Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]

Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.

Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.

The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.

General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.

Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China


Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.

Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.

Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.


Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.

The flag of the Chinese Soviet State

CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.

A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou

Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”

General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.

A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?




Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100


a Coiling Dragon cover franked with strip of 5 2¢ green one missing, a red band cover franked with 11 1¢ Martyrs including a block of 10 and a pair of 5¢ SYS, and a forwarded gold yuan red band.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

The end @ Copyright 2012

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The Dai Nippon War In China


Dai Nippon Occupation Myanmar(before Burma) History Collections



This E-Book Dedicated To President Aung Syu-Ki

Because many informations about her father

General aung San and His loving Country during the WW II

I am sorry this E-Book still need more corrections and please send comment  and more info

Dai Nippon War In Burma(Myanmar)



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Army commanders “Reporting Troops Ready To Attack ‘
Ceremony Inspector “Organized”
Army commanders “Work”


1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Island 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.


2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

1.Saya  memiliki koleksi lengkap sejarah pos dan dokumen serta gambar  selama Dai Nippon Menduduki Pulau Jawa  1942-1945  berupa kronologi hari per hari dari hari kapitulasi pada Maret, 8th.1945 sampai Agustus, 17, 1945 (2605), juga sampai Jepang Tentara kembali ketanah airnya , sampai untuk Dec.1945 Tentara Dai nippon masih memiliki kekuasaan yang dberikan oleh Sekutu sehingga prangko dan meterainya masih digunakan oleh Republik Indonesai hingga 1947.

2. Sekarang aku hanya menambahkan 1942 (2602) Koleksi, dan jika kolektor ingin terlihat koleksi lengkap, tidak hanya dari pulau Jawa tetapi juga dari Pulau sumatra, silakan berlangganan sebagai anggota premium blog melalui komentar, dan kami akan contack Anda melalui Anda pos udara. Kami akan membantu Anda untuk mengatur koleksi sangat langka dan amizing Dai Nippon Pekerjaan Indonesia pos dan dokumen khusus untuk Anda.

3.saya  telah menambahkan di blok saya, artikel perang Dai nippon dari seluruh negara asia timur, banyak kolektor dan teman meminta saya untuk mengedit  seluruh informasi tersebut dalam sebuah  buku, dan sekarang saya sudah menyelesaikan BUKU yang menarik ini.
4.Gambar  sejarah selama  periode ini,  kami ditemukan selalu dalam kondisi buruk dan  hitam putih dari  ilustrasi buku, saya berharap suatu hari nanti gambar warna terbaik akan ada untuk menambahkan dalam buku ini.
5.Tulisan ini  adalah bagian dari buku karangan saya : ” PERANG DAI NIPPON (THE DAI NIPPON  WAR)”
6. Koleksi saya masih perlu info dan koreksi dari kolektor di seluruh dunia, terima kasih atas partisipasit Anda untuk membuat koleksi ini lebih lengkap.7. terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu sya sehingga buku ini dapat terwijud, maaf namanya tidak saya tampilkan satu persatu.

Jakarta, April 2011

Salam  Dari

Dr Iwan Suwandy



Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :


The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942.




2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:


The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:


The Dai Nippon war In China

Part Four :


The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore,also Phillipine


In Malaya the Japanese overwhelmed a Commonwealth army composed of British, Indian, Australian and Malay forces. The Japanese were quickly able to advance down the Malayan peninsula, forcing the Commonwealth forces to retreat towards Singapore. The British lacked aircover and tanks; the Japanese had total air superiority. The sinking of HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse on December 10, 1941 led to the east coast of Malaya being exposed to Japanese landings and the elimination of British naval power in the area. By the end of January 1942, the last Allied forces crossed the strait of Johore and into Singapore. Hong Kong surrendered to the Japanese on Christmas Day.

In the Philippines, the Japanese pushed the combined Filipino-American force towards the Bataan peninsula and later the island of Corregidor. By January 1942, General Douglas MacArthur and President Manuel L. Quezon were forced to flee in the face of Japanese advance. This marked among one of the worst defeats suffered by the Americans, leaving over 70,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war in the custody of the Japanese.

On February 15, 1942, Singapore, due to the overwhelming superiority of Japanese forces and encirclement tactics, fell to the Japanese, causing the largest surrender of British-led military personnel in history. An estimated 80,000 Indian, Australian and British troops were taken as prisoners of war, joining 50,000 taken in the Japanese invasion of Malaya (modern day Malaysia). Many were later used as forced labour constructing the Burma Railway, the site of the infamous Bridge on the River Kwai.

During 1943 and 1944, Allied forces, backed by the industrial might and vast raw material resources of the United States, advanced steadily towards Japan. The Sixth United States Army, led by General MacArthur, landed on Leyte on 19 October 1944. In the subsequent months, during the Philippines Campaign (1944–45), the combined United States and the Philippine Commonwealth troops, together with the recognized guerrilla units, liberated much of the Philippines.














Dai nippon War Part Four (3).

“The Dai nippon War In Burma(Myanmar)”



Burma is a vast country, half the size of Europe. The main part of the country is a serried rank of knife-edges mountain ridges north of Rangoon and Mandalay, covered in near-impenetrable rain forest.

The country is split by three huge rivers, the Sittang, Salween and Irrawaddy.

These provide highways into the inland during the dry season and even in the monsoon, but become massive barriers to movement when swollen by the torrential downpours of the monsoon.

This lasted from mid-May to mid-October and turned the major rivers into inland seas, much of the country being flooded. All communications ran north-south with the rivers.

There was a railway bridge across the Sittang, but the great Salween was not bridged. There were no roads on the Tenasserim, only cart tracks, and only foot paths and cart tracks crossed the Kra to Thailand.

The ‘road’ through Three Pagodas Pass was a mixture of footpath and cart track. The coastal swamps swarmed with saltwater crocodiles, and the jungles teemed with tigers and other wildlife.

The southern panhandle of the country stretches 600 miles from Moulmein to Victoria Point. There were four airfields from north to south, Moulmein, Tavoy, Mergui and Victoria Point.

The country was also traditionally quite restive. King Thibaw’s army had not surrendered in 1886, it had dispersed and turned brigand (Dacoit). The subsequent Dacoit Wars lasted five years and absorbed 30,000 troops. Limited self-administration was granted in 1932 (excluding law and order, finance and defence) un

der the Government of India Act of 1919.

However, the students at the university of Rangoon grew increasingly restive, bitter at the increase in land ownership of Indian chettyars.

Aung San National Hero of Burma
13th February 1915
Born at Natmauk, a township in Magwe district, central Burma.

In April 1926,

 Ba Maw married Daw Kinmama Maw.

During the colonial-era Dr. Ba Maw’s interest in Burmese (Myanmar) politics took root when he was practicing law in Rangoon (Yangon).

 In 1931

Ba Maw acted as the defense attorney for Saya San, a prominent nationalist rebel leader, who had recently staged a tax revolt.

In a sensational trial that captured the public’s imagination, Dr. Ba Maw courageously defended Saya San against charges of sedition and treason. Although Saya San’s life was eventually forfeit, the case helped sow the seeds of rebellion in the hearts and minds of the people of Burma (Myanmar). For Dr. Ba Maw, the trial embodied the plight of the downtrodden, in particular, the Burmese (Myanmar) peasants. He vowed to break the vicious cycle of poverty, illiteracy and poor health that had plagued his countrymen for so long.

While serving as Education and Health Minister, and later as Premier, Dr. Ba Maw authored several important initiatives in the pursuit of universal health-care and education for all Burmese (Myanmar). One of these initiatives helped establish State scholarships for postgraduate students; another abolished the unpopular and onerous British tax of five rupees a person; and yet another instituted the State lottery..


Background to the Political History of Myanmar (Burma)

The official name of the country is the Union of Myanmar (Myanmar from the Burmese word for the martial attributes of strong and fast). It used to be the Union of Burma and even now most people outside of the country call it Burma but in actuality it is the Burman Empire, basically as it existed in the late nineteenth century when the British conquered it.

That encounter was a matter of local imperialists (Burmans) clashing with a global imperialists (the British). But the area which encompasses what later was designated Burma was more of a cockpit in which various ethnic groups vied for control.

The Burmans were in control at the time of the British conquest but there were times in history when other groups such as the Mons or the Tai people of the Shan State were dominant.


Bogyoke (Major General)
Aung San in 1946

The Life of Aung San

Aung San was the youngest of six children born to a family of some prominent heritage in central Burma. His father, U Pha, had tried to pursue a profession of an advocate (attorney) but was not inclined to be very talkative. His mother, Daw Su, through energy and resourcefulness became the major support for the family. Aung San’s ancestors were scholars and his mother’s uncle was executed by the British for rebellion. These traits Aung San seemed to inherit.

As a child he was so slow to start talking and said so little that people thought he might not be able to talk. He started his schooling a year late because he did not want to go to school without his mother. When he saw the interesting things that his older brothers were doing he decided on his own to start school. This self-willed aspect of his personality was a life-long trait.

He attended a monastery school which provided some modern education as well as Buddhist training. He was an excellent student, in part because of his self-discipline. At that time fluency in English was required for going on to institutions of higher education. Aung San’s brothers had learned English and he decided to learn it even though it was not taught in his school.

At age thirteen

 Aung san  went on to a National (secular) School where his brother was a teacher. This required he live away from home. Aung San’s mother was not in favor of his doing so but gave in to his determination. The National schools had a Burmese nationalist orientation and Aung San had become a fervent Burmese nationalist.

 At age fifteen

 Aung San won a scholarship through a competitive examination.

At this time Aung San began to show an interest in politics. He participated in debates and edited the school journal.

When he graduated from the National School he was accepted in Rangoon University. At that time various Burmese nationalist were organizing and fragmenting. Nationalism was the most vital issue among university students at the time.


This was the early 1930′s,

 the time of the Great Depression, and students also becoming concerned about economic ideology.

Aung San began to participate in the debates at Rangoon University. At one being conducted in English on the issue of whether Buddhist monks should participate in politics, Aung San rose to speak. He believed fervently that monks should not be involved in politics. He spoke in his imperfect English and continued even when the more English-fluent members of the audience heckled him and advised him to stick to Burmese. This took a good deal of will power on Aung San’s part to finish speaking his thoughts in English. He continued his efforts to improve his English.

Matriculated in the “A” category with distinctions in Burmese and Pali.

Elected to the executive committee of the Rangoon University Students’ Union and became the editor of the Students’ Union Magazine.


In 1935

 Aung San  and other nationalist student organized to gain control of the hitherto apolitical Students’ Union of Rangoon University. By the end of the academic year the nationalist student leaders, including Aung San, had gained election to the executive committee and political control of the Student Union. Aung San became the editor of the Student Union magazine.

An article in the magazine criticizing a university administrator published led to the expulsion of Aung San in 1936. U Nu had also been expelled. This led to the calling of a student strike at examination time. The strike was successful and the administrators had to consider the strikers’ demands.

Aung San was re-admitted and rose in status.


IN 1935

 a leading Burmese politician, U Saw, had made contact with the Japanese

 By 1938


Aung San  had become the president of both the Rangoon University Students’ Union and the All Burma Students’ Union.

He achieved respect for his hardwork and single-minded adherence to principles despite the fact he was not an easy person to work with. He was given to moody bouts of refusing to communicate.

When Aung San finished his bachelor’s degree he began work for a law degree.

In 1938 Aung San left Rangoon University to join a new political party called Dohbama Asi-ayone (We Burmese).

He soon became the secretary general of the party. This group was infamous for demanding that they be addressed by the title Thakin (master), which was the title that Englishmen insisted that they be addressed by Burmese.

February 1936
Expelled from the university for publication of the article “Hell Hound at Large” in the union magazine. Expulsion of Ko Aung San and Ko Nu from the university led to the university strike. Later, the government conceded strikers’ demands and retracted expulsion orders.

Elected as president of the Rangoon University Students’ Union and the All Burma Student’s Union. Appointed as a student representative in “Rangoon University Act Amendment Committee” by the government.

October 1938
Joined Dohbama Asi-ayone (“We-Burmese” Organization) and became Thakin Aung San.

1938 to August 1940
Acted as the Head Office General Secretary of Dohbama Asi-ayone.


In 1940

 Aung San  and another Thakin journeyed by ship to southern China

where they tried to make contact with the Chinese communists. They were unsuccessful in making contact with the Chinese communists but a Japanese agent arranged for them to fly to Tokyo.

 In Tokyo the government made them a part of a plan to invade Burma to close the Burma Road, which was transporting supplies to the Nationalist forces in southwest China. A Colonel Seiji Suzuki was assigned to organize the Japanese-Burmese rebellion against the British.

Burmese communists were opposed to any agreement with the Japanese, but Aung San, pragmatist that he was, said they should accept help from any source where it was available. Aung San returned to Burma to sell the deal to his associates.

In 1940,

U Saw became Premier of Burma.

 Affable, charming, duplicitous and corrupt, U Saw had raised a private army of young men (the Galon Army) with Japanese money.

March 1940
Attended Indian National Congress Assembly in Rangar?, India.

Went underground due to arrest warrant issued by the British government.

August 1940
Left for Burma and reached Amoy, China and later to Tokyo, Japan.

February 1941
Came back to Burma with offer of arms and money support from the Japanese for uprising.

Arrived in Japan for military training together with the first batch of the Thirty Comrades.

December 1941
Founded Burmese Independence Army (BIA) in Bangkok, Thailand with the help of the Japanese and became chief-of-staff Major-General Aung San (a.k.a. Bo Teza).



After being refused promises of independence in November 1941

by Churchill and Avery, U Saw arrived in Hawaii

on 8 December 1941

to see the shattered US Pacific Fleet. Unable to proceed he headed back to the UK, and then took a flight to Burma via Egypt.

 In Portugal he visited the Japanese Embassy and agreed to lead a revolt against the British the moment the Japanese Army crossed into Burma, on a promise of Japanese support for Burmese independence. Howver, the British were reading the Embassy’s communications,a nd U Saw was arrested in Haifa and inerned.

After the student strike of 1936, feelers were put out to the Japanese, Dr Ba Maw finally approached the Japanese in 1939 and was promptly supported by the IJN through agents. He was placed in contact with the Japanese ‘controller’ for Thailand and Burma, Colonel Tamura, at the Bangkok Embassy, to avoid unmasking the real head of the substantial Japanese intelligence system in Burma,

Colonel Suzuki Keiji. This lead by 1940 to direct support of Burmese independence movements by the Japanese. However, these were confined to the Burmese, and not to any of the hill tribesmen, who despised the valley-dwelling Burmese.

By 31 December 1941,


 Colonel Suzuki was able to inaugurate the ‘Burma Independence Army’ of some 300 trained personnel in Bangkok. These were then moved in to Burma ahead of the Japanese advance to provide support and reconnaissance.

Despite being critical to the supply of China, Burma was poorly defended. There was little need, the Japanese move into Siam had been met with the development of powerful land and air forces in Malaya – and the Fleet had come to Singapore.

The GOC Burma, Lieutenant-General Tom Hutton, had deployed his forces well. The 17th Indian Division under Major-General Smythe was deployed at Moulmein, with the raw and poorly equipped 1st Burma Division between Kemapyu and Papun, guarding the west bank of the Salween from invasion from northern Siam.

Only a smattering of forces were in the panhandle, with the 2nd Burma Rifles at Mergui, the 6th at Tavoy, and the 3rd outside Ye covering the Three Pagoda’s Pass. Of Smythes three brigades, the 16th (Brigadier K. Jones) only had two battalions, 4 Burma Rifles and 1/7 Gurkhas, while the 46th Indian (Brigadier R Ekin)and 48th Gurkha Brigades were reasonably well equipped, but were rather green. The 46th in particular lacked transport.

When he first inspected the Moulmein position

on 19 January,

 Smythe was appalled. Hutton had ordered him to defend east of the Salween to keep the Japanese as far as possible from the Burma Road, which ran close to the Sittang in many places, while the small forward garrisons were supposed to keep them away from the airfields on the Tenasserim coast.

He told Smythe to fight the Japanese as far forward as possible. Smythe regarded his position bleakly. He had a massive river 7000 yards wide at his back, with few ferries to move across it.

Moulmein itself had 50,000 people with three main streets running parallel to the river, and it was indefensible. Merely to defend the town needed two Divisions to cover the 25 miles of low ridges, but this force was not available, the 18th Division having been delayed.

 Only its first elements were in Rangoon and it would take some time to form there. He reported this to Hutton, who agreed, but there was not another Division to assist at the present time. Despite his orders to operate forward, Smythe ordered his most recent arrival (46th Indian Bde), which lacked transport, to remain on the west bank of the Salween and to prepare defences there. An engineer battalion from Rangoon was ordered to prepare defences further back, covering a bridgehead on the eastern bank of the Sittang to cover the approaches to the Sittang bridge, and also defences on the western bank to prevent a crossing north of it.

Hutton had appealed to Wavell for armour, but none was available despite the vehicles moving through Rangoon towards China, although he was given permission to use the schools in an absolute emergency.

Hutton had therefore become creative, and asked for Wavell’s permission to raise independent volunteer units if he could find any, and to ask for help in making the BVAS rather more capable than it was. This had been approved.

On a visit to Calcutta in December

just after the Japanese attack, Hutton had dined at the Saturday Club, and had been asked if there was anything the Calcutta Light Horse could do. While the unit had not been active in decades, and all the younger members had joined, there were still a number of older men with WWI experience attached to it.

The majority of men attached to this unit had, of course gone to other units on war call up. By early January, 25 of these, with several hundred volunteers from transport units and various branches, were forming as an armoured Battalion at Rangoon with a mixture of 18 old Vickers medium tanks and 20 equally outdated Mk V light tanks.

Another 4 old Vickers mediums had had their turrets removed and replaced with an extempore 12pdr naval gun to provide the unit with some AT capability. These various relics had been assembled from store in India and Egypt, or had arrived on ships but been thought too outdated to be of any use in China. The Calcutta Light Horse formed at Payagyi and was training there

by early February.

The BVAS request had fallen on Air Ministry ears which were at least interested in helping. It was noted that large numbers of old 1930s front line aircraft (especially Hawker Ospreys, Audaxes, Harts and Furys) were being shipped to South Africa and India for precisely this sort of purpose.

An effort was made to send some of these to Burma, and a number of twin engined aircraft suitable for target towing, bomber training and other such duties were also located, refurbished and shipped.

The presence of two Chinese (NRA) divisions in the Shan states had allowed the redeployment of the 1st Burma to cover the north, but this unit was itself well understrength and none too reliable.


Indian Army

British dispositions in the region were developing quickly. The pre-war regular UK 6th Division (later renamed the 70th) provided the Ceylon garrison.

The Indian Army was expanding and was planning the send the 14th Indian, 19th Indian, 20th Indian and 23rd Indian Divisions to Burma. The 1st Indian Armoured Division (with only the 1st Indian Armoured Brigade and 49th Motorised infantry Bde in 1941) was also slated to go. The 49th Motorised Bde was composed of the three battalions of the Bombay Grenadiers.


Air Defence at the start of December 1941 was limited. There was only the following in 221 Group:

67 Sqn RAF with 16 Hurricane Mk II (most pilots were New Zealanders)

17 Sqn RAF with 16 Hu


17 Sqn RAF with 16 Hurricane Mk II

211 Sqn RAF with 16 Blenheim

Spare acft 32 Buffalo (most shipped to the NEI in due course)

Burma Volunteer Air Service (re-equipped by 15 Jan 42 as follows)

BVAS 1 Sqn

22 various civil light acft in 5 independent army support flights

1 Bomber Flight: 4 Boulton-Paul Overstrand bombers (plus 2 spares)

2 Bomber Flight: 6 Handley-Page Heyford bombers (plus 5 spares)

BVAS 2 Sqn

6 Hawker Fury in 2 fighter flights (plus 8 spare acft)

6 Hawker Audax in 2 light bomber flights (plus 13 spare acft)

18 Westland Wapiti in 6 Independent Army cooperation flights



9th Air Regiment. Known to the RAF as the Chinese OCU, this formation was based at ‘John Haig’, a satellite field of Mingaladon. It was basically a conversion unit, where existing ROCAF veterans trained new pilots who had passed through basic and initial flight training in India. At John Haig, they were converted on to P-40. A P-39 course (using P-400 aircrat) was in early stages in December 1941, this machine just having been delivered. The P-400 was a version of the P-39 lacking oxygen equipment and so incapable of use above about 10,000′.

Despite these efforts, at the outbreak of the war Burma was poorly defended from the air. There was one RAF SQN, 60 SQN at Mingaladon in Rangoon. 60 SQN had 12 Blenheim IV. 67 SQN had only arrived from Singapore in October 1941to take over 16 Buffalo fighters assembled by 60 SQN. Aside from this, there were a variety of other units in the area. The Indian Air Force had promised to supply a Squadron of Lysanders when possible, but it too was in the throes of an expansion. Fortunately, they were at least able to provide a number of aircrew to help the BVAS

Japanese Forces

The British did not have a good estimate of actual Japanese strengths. The Japanese army was expected to deploy by the end of 1941 up to 150,000 men in Thailand, to which was to be added the 60,000 men of the Thai Army. No less than 350 tanks were thought to have been deployed (250 light and 100 medium), to which around 50 Thai tanks (mostly Vickers 6 toners) were to be added.

The problem for the British had started on 12 June 1941 when the Thai government officially agree to the deployment of Japanese forces in Thailand. This was just after the brief border war between Siamese and French forces. The Japanese government deployed the 15th Army under Lt. Gen. Shojiro Ida as a mean of preventing a “French Revenge War” against Thailand.

Units based in Thailand.

3rd Hikoshidan including

3rd Hikodan with 24 Ki-43 fighters, 40 Ki-48 twin engined light bombers, 15 Ki-30 single-engined light bombers, 23 Ki-51 close support planes.

7th Hikodan with 35 Ki-43 and 6 Ki-27 fighters, and 102 Ki-21 heavy twin-engined bombers.

10th Hikodan with 27 Ki-27 fighters, 22 Ki-21 twin-engined bombers, 24 Ki-30 light single engined bombers, 8 Ki-15 reconnaissance planes.

12th Hikodan with 81 Ki-27 fighters.

15th Dokuritsu Hikotai with 7 Ki-15 and 4 Ki-46 reconnaissance planes.

83rd Dokuritsu Hikotai with 19 Ki-51 close support planes and 12 Ki-36 close support and observation planes.

81st independent Sentai with 9 Ki-15 and 7 Ki-46 reconnaissance planes.

Total: 173 fighters (of which 59 Ki-43), 124 Ki-21 Heavy twin-engined bombers, 40 Ki-48 light twin-engined bombers, 39 Ki-30 light single-engined bombers, 50 Ki-51 close support planes, 12 Ki-36 close support and observation planes, 35 reconnaissance planes of which 11 Ki-46.

Royal Thai Air Force units:

27 Ki-27 fighters

12 Ki-21 twin-engined heavy bombers

21 Ki-30 single engined light bombers

14 Ki-36 close-support and observation planes..

In 1941 Aung San was taken to Hainan Island

off the coast of China for military training. Hainan was then under Japanese control. The Burmese group undergoing training on Hainan became known as the Thirty Comrades. This group became the core of the Burmese Independence Army (BIA). In December of 1941 the BIA was launched from Thailand with Colonel Suzuki the commanding officer and Aung San the chief of staff. It was at this time that Aung San became known as Bogyoke (Major General).

The conquest of Rangoon and much of Burma was soon under Japanese control. However there was little effort on the part of the Japanese to grant Burmese real independence. Their was a token Burmese government set up but it did not last long and soon the Japanese were ruling Burma as a conquered territory.


The storm had broken at last. With the news of war arrived the order for general mobilization.


Read More at another E-book In CD_ROM

“The Dai Nippon War In Pearl harbor “


9 Dec 41

An IJAAF bomber force was sent to attack Victoria Point, but weather prevented all but 5 Ki-27 of 11th Sentai from finding it. No damage was caused.

10 Dec 41

A single 60 SQN Blenheim, escorted by two Hurricanes staged through Victoria Point for a recce of Southern Thailand.

11 Dec 41

A Yale Z-31, two Heyfords and an Overstrand of the BVAS evacuated RAF personnel from Victoria Point. The airfield was occupied by Japanese forces that afternoon.

12 Dec 41

A ROCAF P-40 fitted with Fairchild 20-inch camera and escorted by two Hurricanes imaged Don Muang airfield at Bangkok. Over 50 IJAAF Ki-27 and Ki-30 were observed on the runways.

As a result of this, two BVAS Heyfords conducted a night attack on Don Muang, the first combat sortie of this elderly type. They located the airfield, but their bombs missed the aircraft there.

13 Dec 41

27 Ki-27 of 77th Sentai attacked Tavoy airfield, destroying one BVAS Yale Z-31 transport. The pilot, FLTLT L. Gill, was not injured. Ground fire hit 4 of the fighters. While all made it back, Warrant Officer Kikuji Kishida was badly wounded in the leg, and died in hospital of blood loss after landing.

14 Dec 41

51 Ki-21 of the 12th and 60th Sentais attacked Mergui

15 Dec 41

25 Ki-21 of 98 Sentai attacked Moulmein, disrupting the army deployment there and damaging the docks.


16 Dec 41

A ROCAF P-40 and two Hurricanes imaged Chumphon and Raheng airfields

17 Dec 41

A ROCAF P-40 and two Hurricanes imaged Prachaub Girikhan airfield. On the flight back, the two Hurricanes buzzed a trainload of Japanese troops. However, they were under orders not to attack ‘unauthorised targets’ in Thailand at the time! These sorties formed the basis of planning for an attack on 20 December.

20 Dec 41

Three 67 SQN Hurricanes from Mergui attacked Prachaub Girikhan airfield\, firing a fuel dump and claiming to have destroyed five aircraft.

During the night, four Heyfords of the BVAS attacked Don Muang, leaving some fires burning on the ground. Morale in the BVAS soared in consequence.

22 Dec 41

HQ of 55th Division (Lieutenant-General Takeuchi), moved in to Rahaeng. Extensive development of maps since mid-1941 had revealed much about the terrain between the Thai border and the coast, but maps of the region from the Dawna Ranges and from Papun to Ye were still far from adequate. The Rahaeng-Menado road was the invasion route to Moulmein. The Japanese had long established Lieutenant Takahashi Hachiro at Rahaeng as a teak buyer; he had even taken a local wife at the advice of Colonel Suzuki.

23 Dec 41

A major raid hit Rangoon and its airfields. The raid was composed of 27 K-21 of 60th Sentai, 18 from the 98th, 15 of the 62nd and 27 Ki-30 of the 31st Sentai. Escorting the raid were 30 Ki-27 of the 30th Sentai. The 60th and 98th hit the docks, while the others hit the airfields.

The defenders were not caught flat footed, a dozen ROCAF P-40, 15 Hurricanes and 4 Harts attacked the Japanese formations. As a result, a series of furious battles raged over Rangoon. Despite enthusiastic claims of 35 IJAAF machines shot down, only 2 Ki-21 of the 98th Sentai and 5 of the 68th were shot down. One other aircraft was lost, a Ki-27 which was shot down by FLGOFF Mohan Singh of the BVAS, flying a Hawker Fury.

This action took place right over Mingaladon: the Ki-27 was faster but the Fury was more manoeuvrable, and the Japanese pilot insisted on the turning fight for which he was trained. After eight minutes of aerobatic action, Singh killed the enemy pilot with a burst, the Ki-27 diving on to the lawn in front of the officer’s mess and breaking up without exploding, although the area was soaked in petrol.

Three ROCAF P-40 were lost. While other fighters were damaged, none were lost. A Hurricane piloted by FLGOFF Lambert was forced down after its engine seized due to radiator damage, but he was able to dead-stick land it safely at Mingaladon. The operations room at this base was destroyed and 17 men killed, including the chief instructor of the BVAS (Mr H Ealey), while a BVAS Gypsy Moth and a Tiger Moth were destroyed on the ground.

Rangoon Docks were heavily hit. Fortunately, the warning and cover (slit trenches and sandbag revetments) prevented many casualties. However, 35,000 tons of supplies were burned and the US transport City of Tulsa sank after a direct hit.

During the night, 3 Overstrands and 2 Heyfords conducted an attack on Don Muang, without obvious result.

The Japanese were determined to destroy the RAF at Rangoon, and prepared a larger attack for Christmas Day.

25 Dec 41

27 Ki-21 of the 12th and 36 of the 60th Sentais were escorted by 25 Ki-43 of the 64th. 8 Ki-21 of the 62nd and 27 Ki-30 of the 31st were escorted by 32 Ki-27s of the 77th.

The loss of the Mingaladon Ops Room hampered the British, but 4 ROCAF P-40 were on patrol and reported the raid when it was ten miles from the split point. These attacked as other fighters streamed off the airfields to join the battle.

 The result was a series of sharp actions, and again results were wildly over-estimated. The ROCAF claimed no fewer than 24 kills, one being rammed by Flight Officer Chin Yee. Two ROCAF P-40 were forced down after engine damage, both planes being destroyed but both pilots surviving.

Four Hurricanes were lost but only one pilot died, seat armour saving the rest. Japanese losses were not as claimed, 12th Sentai losing 3 Ki-21. 64th lost 2 Ki-43, while 77th lost 2 Ki-27. FLGOFF Singh again shot down a Ki-27 in his Fury, through effective low-level tactics. In his own words:

‘The Fury was perhaps the best biplane fighter ever made. Sydney Camm’s masterpiece had superlative low level manoeuvrability. I basically stayed behind a row of trees as Type 96 fighters [Ki-27] strafed the airfield.

As this one came over he pulled up sharply after his run as he passed over the trees. I climbed from his lower starboard beam and hit him with a deflection burst, the aircraft rolled over and went straight into a rice paddy. I do not believe the pilot ever saw me.

Killed was LT Someya.

Mingaladon was very badly damaged by this attack. Three Hurricanes in dispersal were destroyed, five being assemble din the hangars were also destroyed. The runways were very badly damaged and half the AA was destroyed of had the Indian Army gunners killed by strafing. Field Marshall Wavell was at the airfield, transiting back from Chungking with General George Brett USAAF. They found an inelegant shelter in a slit trench.

The Allies believed they had won a victory with 45 IJAAF machines shot down, especially as no further massed raids followed. In fact, the aircraft were simply required in Malaya, so more massed daylight bombing raids could not be afforded at the time.

The effect on Rangoon was very bad, with chaos reigning in the city. However, order was restored with the assistance of Chinese troops. About 2500 Rangoonese were killed in the attacks, the fires which affected a quarter of the city, of the panic.

December,13th 1941

aerial bombardments continue to harp on the unfortunate 6th Indian Brigade which has just reached Kuala Lumpur. Additional 700 men hors de combat.

The 24/12 British artillery regiment 155 is virtually destroyed by aircraft, losing 17 guns and 32 trucks towing worst parts, nailing guns and place intact.(121)



The Japanese aircraft stationed in Rangoon opened a few days a bombing campaign on Burma.

The 2nd brigade stationed at Moulmein Burma lost 200 men caused by a raid Sally, Bettys and old dive bombers Ann.




Burma coordination of several raids from Bangkok to Moulmein goes wrong. Sallys 43 bombers took off before Ann and Zeros supposed to escort.

They arrive at the target to fall into an ambush by the 1st Squadron of the AVG. 7 bombers sank.

The result could have been worse if the American pilots had not chosen an altitude of 32,400 feet, giving them certainly the height advantage but at the expense of maneuverability.

At this altitude the H81-A3 drop like stones with little room to maneuver.
A new raid came a half hour later with Bettys and Zeros of the escort. Japanese planes shoot 2 AVG without loss on their side. Paratrooper operation seized the abandoned base Tavoy on the west coast of  Burma.(121)

December 26, 1941,

from General Aung San is organizing a volunteer army of independent Burma (23,000 six months later)

about 1,500 people,

start fighting with the British and Japanese troops.

26 Dec 41

In what became a nightly routine, 17 Ki-21 of the 62nd Sentai bombed Mingaladon, Rangoon’s docks and the city itself. In response, an Overstrand and two Heyfords bombed Rangoon. Attacks on this scale (about 20 Ki-21 and 3-5 BVAS bombers) became nightly events. morale



Border of Burma and Thailand the 15th Regiment of the Imperial Guard Japanese trudges through the jungle on bumpy tracks. The objective is to force

the British to evacuate Moulmein under penalty of being identified.
RAF harassed for several days these columns with Blenheims. The December 28, 70 Japanese victims of British aviation.(121)


30 Dec 41

The first reinforcements arrived. 17 P-40 arrived at John Haig along with Chinese pilots to fly them. The Generalissimo had stated that the defence of Rangoon was as much a priority as the defence of Chungking.

 This made the 9th Air Regiment an operational, as well as a training unit. This unique dual function was to earn it the name ‘the Ace Factory’ in the ROCAF. The 8th Indian Heavy and 3rd Indian Light AA batteries arrived and were positioned in Rangoon to stiffen civil population


Reinforcements for Burma, December 41 – March 42

Reinforcements arrived at Rangoon (unless otherwise noted) and are shown with arrival date.

December 1941

Independent Units

23rd Garrison Company (Akyab) 31-Dec-41

8th Heavy Antiaircraft Battery, Indian Artillery31-Dec-41

3rd Light Antiaircraft Battery, Indian Artillery31-Dec-41

The Malerkotla State Field Company, Sappers and Miners 31-Dec-41 ? left Calcutta after 09-Dec-4



Burma, 1942




The U.S. Army Campaigns
of World War II

General Stilwell’s party hikes from Burma to India. (National Archives)


World War II was the largest and most violent armed conflict in the history of mankind. However, the half century that now separates us from that conflict has exacted its toll on our collective knowledge. While World War II continues to absorb the interest of military scholars and historians, as well as its veterans, a generation of Americans has grown to maturity largely unaware of the political, social, and military implications of a war that, more than any other, united us as a people with a common purpose.

Highly relevant today, World War II has much to teach us, not only about the profession of arms, but also about military preparedness, global strategy, and combined operations in the coalition war against fascism. During the next several years, the U.S. Army will participate in the nation’s 50th anniversary commemoration of World War II. The commemoration will include the publication of various materials to help educate Americans about that war. The works produced will provide great opportunities to learn about and renew pride in an Army that fought so magnificently in what has been called “the mighty endeavor.”

World War II was waged on land, on sea, and in the air over several diverse theaters of operation for approximately six years. The following essay is one of a series of campaign studies highlighting those struggles that, with their accompanying suggestions for further reading, are designed to introduce you to one of the Army’s significant military feats from that war.

This brochure was prepared in the U.S. Army Center of Military History by Clayton R. Newell. I hope this absorbing account of that period will enhance your appreciation of American achievements during World War II.

General, United States Army
Chief of Staff


Burma, 1942
7 December 1941–26 May 1942

On 8 December 1941, after the surprise attack on Pearl Harbor, the United States declared war on Japan and became an active participant in World War II. For some months prior to that attack, however, the United States had been supporting China’s war against Japan with money and materiel. Pearl Harbor formally brought America into World War II, but it was an earlier American commitment to China that drew the United States Army into the Burma Campaign of 1942.

Japan had invaded China in 1937, gradually isolating it from the rest of the world except for two tenuous supply lines: a narrow-gauge railway originating in Haiphong, French Indochina; and the Burma Road, an improved gravel highway linking Lashio in British Burma to Kunming in China. Along these routes traveled the materiel that made it possible for Chiang Kai-shek’s Nationalist Chinese government to resist the Japanese offensives into the interior.

In 1940 Japan took advantage of the German invasion of France to cut both supply lines to China. In June, with France focused on the war in Europe, Japanese warships moved into French Indochina and closed the railroad from Haiphong. A month later, threatening war if its demands were not met, Japan secured an agreement from the hard-pressed British government to close the Burma Road to war materiel temporarily.

The Burma Road reopened in October 1940, literally the sole lifeline to China. By late 1941 the United States was shipping lend-lease materiel by sea to the Burmese port of Rangoon, where it was transferred to railroad cars for the trip to Lashio in northern Burma and finally carried by truck over the 712-mile-long Burma Road to Kunming. Over this narrow highway, trucks carried munitions and materiel to supply the Chinese Army, whose continuing strength in turn forced the Japanese to keep considerable numbers of ground forces stationed in China. Consequently, Japanese strategists decided to cut the Burma lifeline, gain complete control of China, and free their forces for use elsewhere in the Pacific.

Strategic Setting

Burma, a country slightly smaller in area than the state of Texas, lies imbedded in the underbelly of the Asian landmass between India and China. Along the northern, eastern, and western borders of Burma



are high mountains. The Himalayas to the north reach altitudes of 19,000 feet. The western mountains between Burma and India, forming the Burma-Java Arc, have pinnacles as high as 12,000 feet. On the east the Shan Plateau, between Burma and China, features relatively modest peaks of less than 9,000 feet. The Bay of Bengal and the Andaman Sea mark the southern boundary; on the southeast, Burma shares an extended border with Thailand. The central part of the country consists of north-south belts of fertile plains, river valleys, and deltas. Rainfall is heavy throughout the year. The Irrawaddy River and its major tributary, the Chindwin, drain the western portions of the country, and the Salween and Sittang Rivers drain the regions in the east.


The geography of Burma had isolated it from India and China, its larger and more populous neighbors. The high, rugged mountain ranges discouraged trade and travel. This lack of contact had shaped Burma into a country distinctly different from either of those larger neighbors, who in turn had little interest in Burma given the natural barriers to invasion. Japan’s dramatic 1941 bid for dominance in the Far East, however, caused both India and China and their Western patrons, Great Britain and the United States, respectively, to focus attention on Burma.

At one time the British had attempted to govern Burma as a province of India, but the artificial mixing of the two cultures proved unworkable. In 1937 Burma had become a separate colony with a largely autonomous government. Its still-dependent status dissatisfied many of the more politically aware Burmese, who formed a vocal minority political party favoring complete independence from Britain. When a number of the leaders of this movement visited Tokyo in the years before 1941, Japanese government officials had expressed sympathy with their efforts to attain independence. Burma, however, was still very much a permanent possession in the eyes of Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who clearly had no intention of presiding over the dissolution of the British Empire. Churchill saw the status quo ante helium as a primary British war aim, with both India and Burma remaining colonies as they had been since 1941.

President Franklin D. Roosevelt had a different vision for postwar Asia. Roosevelt believed that the European empires in the Far East were archaic and that their colonies would soon be independent countries. He also wanted China treated as an equal Allied partner in the war against Japan in the hope that it would develop into a great power friendly to the West. On a more immediate and practical note, keeping China in the war would also keep a large contingent of Japanese ground forces occupied on the Asian mainland, out of the way of American operations in the Pacific.

Although Great Britain and the United States were pursuing the same strategic goal of ultimately defeating Japan, they disagreed about Burma’s role in attaining that goal. Their leaders agreed that Burma should be defended against the Japanese, but their motives differed. For the British, Burma provided a convenient barrier between India, the “crown jewel” of their empire, and China with its Japanese military occupation. The Americans saw Burma as the lifeline that could provide China the means to throw off the shackles of Japanese occupation and become a viable member of the international community.


Despite the Allies’ determination to hold Burma, their plans for the defense of the region were incomplete. The Burmese were not consulted and had little reason to fight the Japanese. More significantly, neither Britain nor the United States was prepared to commit significant forces to save the area. Japanese leaders, in contrast, were prepared to do more and viewed Burma as critical to their overall strategy for the war. The occupation of Burma would protect gains already secured in the southwest Pacific, set the stage for a possible invasion of India that conceivably could link up with a German drive out of the Middle East, and once and for all close the Allied supply line along the Burma Road into China.


Less than a week after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Japanese planes took off from captured bases in Thailand and opened the invasion of Burma by bombing the Tavoy airdrome, a forward British outpost on the Andaman Sea south of Rangoon. The next day, 12 December 1941, small Japanese units began the ground offensive by infiltrating into Burma. Not having prepared for war, Imperial British forces in Burma lacked even such rudimentary necessities as an adequate military intelligence staff. Although a civil defense commissioner had been appointed in November 1941, the British had not made contingency arrangements, such as military control of the railroads and the inland waterways. The only British forces in Burma were a heterogeneous mixture of Burmese, British, and Indian units known as the Army in Burma. Their air support consisted of some sixteen obsolete Royal Air Force (RAF) fighters.

The only American combat force even remotely available at the onset of the fighting was the fledgling American Volunteer Group (AVG). Organized by retired Army Air Forces Col. Claire L. Chennault, with the approval of both the Chinese and American governments, the AVG was preparing to provide air support to the Chinese Army against the Japanese in China. The AVG had begun training during the summer of 1941 in Burma to be out of range of Japanese air raids until ready for combat.

Chennault had hoped to employ his three squadrons of fighter aircraft, after thorough training, as a single unit in China, but the outbreak of war in the Pacific and subsequent Japanese invasion of Burma quickly changed his priorities. In response to a British request for support on 12 December, one squadron of the AVG moved from the training base in Toungoo to Mingaladon, near Rangoon, to help protect the capital city




P-43′s being serviced at a field in China. (National Archives)

and its port facilities. The two remaining squadrons deployed to China to protect Chinese cities and patrol the Burma Road.

When Japan began operations in Burma, the United States recognized that the British would need assistance. The American Military Mission to China (AMMISCA), under Brig. Gen. John Magruder, had been in Chungking since September 1941 to coordinate, among other things, American lend-lease aid for China. On 16 December the War Department gave Magruder authority to transfer lend-lease materiel awaiting transportation in the port of Rangoon from Chinese to British control. The transfer, however, was subject to Chinese approval since, in accordance with lend-lease agreements, title for the materiel had been technically transferred to China when it left the United States.

Shortly after the War Department authorized the transfer, the responsible American officer in Rangoon, Lt. Col. Joseph J. Twitty, came under considerable pressure to release some of the weapons and equipment without waiting for Chinese approval. He responded by asking the government of Burma to impound and safeguard the materiel in Rangoon. He ostensibly made this request to ensure that the materiel was not moved elsewhere until Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, the ruler of Nationalist China, approved the transfer to the British. Not unexpectedly, the Chinese swiftly objected to the transfer. With little love for the British or their colonial objectives, the Chinese


government quickly labeled the arrangement “illegal confiscation.” Because the most valuable materiel affected was a cargo of munitions on board the Tulsa, an American ship anchored in Rangoon harbor, the controversy became known as the Tulsa incident.

The senior Chinese representative in Rangoon, General Yu Feipeng, a cousin of the generalissimo, became the focal point of the affair. Colonel Twitty apparently convinced him that the materiel really had been impounded to safeguard it. Nevertheless, the Chinese authorities in Burma requested the establishment of a committee of experts from China, Britain, and the United States to determine the appropriate disposition of specific items of equipment. This suggestion was acted upon immediately, and by the time Magruder’s headquarters in Chungking learned of the committee’s existence, it was already busy deciding what to keep in Burma for British use and what to send on to China.

Magruder hoped to settle the question of providing Chinese lend-lease materiel to the British at a 23 December conference in Chungking, on the assumption that the Chinese had concurred with the actions already taken in Rangoon. Like many Americans, however, Magruder had much to learn about internal Chinese politico-military affairs. On Christmas Day, when the question of the sequestered materiel finally arose, Magruder was startled to hear the Chinese charge that the British had stolen Nationalist lend-lease stocks in Rangoon with American assistance. The generalissimo had decided that the seizure of the Tulsa cargo amounted to an unfriendly act and that all lend-lease materiel at Rangoon should therefore be given to the British or returned to the Americans. All Chinese personnel in Burma would return to China and all cooperation between China and Britain would cease.

Magruder immediately made conciliatory gestures to both the British and the Chinese in the hope of preventing an impending Allied rift. He gained an audience with the generalissimo and found him in a friendly mood. After listening to Magruder’s assurances that all was well with the lend-lease program, the generalissimo announced that he had already approved the initial list of British requests for materiel. He also sanctioned the joint American, British, and Chinese allocation committee in Rangoon and suggested that it continue its work. In an apparent face-saving gesture for the Tulsa incident, the generalissimo insisted that Magruder replace Colonel Twitty. Magruder acquiesced, and eventually large amounts of lend-lease weapons and equipment, originally earmarked for Nationalist China, went to the British for use in the defense of Burma. The affair, however, typified the problems Americans would face when dealing with the mercurial Chiang Kai-shek.


The international tensions existing among the nations defending Burma would, in fact, bedevil the entire campaign. Abrupt changes of mind by Chiang Kai-shek, such as his apparent reversal on the Chinese lend-lease policy, were a constant source of irritation for American and British officers who could never be sure when they had a real decision from him. The Tulsa incident also emphasized the differences between the British and American policies regarding China. The British were fighting for the future of their empire in the Far East and had little concern for China. The Americans, sensitive about their treatment of China in the past, sought to make it a more equal member of the Alliance.

Other problems originated with the British, who were jealous of their imperial prerogatives. The Chinese were willing, even anxious, to provide troops to assist in the defense of Burma. The generalissimo offered two armies with the proviso that they would operate in designated areas under Chinese command and would not be committed to battle piecemeal. Reluctant at first to permit large Chinese forces to operate in Burma, the British agreed to accept only one division of Chinese troops. Field Marshal Sir Archibald P. Wavell, British commander in chief in India, believed the Japanese offensive in Burma was overextended and would only end in failure; Chinese forces were not required for victory. Accepting the use of one Chinese division, he judged, was an adequate response to the generalissimo’s offer.

Although the British were lukewarm about Chinese participation in the defense of Burma, the Americans embraced the idea. When the Chinese threat of stopping cooperation with Britain after the Tulsa incident had reached the Allied Arcadia Conference in Washington, D.C., the Americans reacted with alarm, fearing China might actually elect to withdraw from the war. This fear was exacerbated by the continuing string of Japanese successes in the Pacific (Hong Kong had surrendered on Christmas Day and Manila was declared an open city the next day).

Roosevelt, a long-time China booster, convinced Churchill to appease the generalissimo by inviting him to serve as supreme commander of Allied forces in a separate China theater. The offer was somewhat hollow, since there had never been any plan to put British or American forces into China and there would be no Chinese participation in the Allied Combined Chiefs of Staff. Nevertheless, the generalissimo accepted the offer and even requested an American officer to head the Allied staff.

After some discussion, the War Department nominated Maj. Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell to the Chinese government to be the Allied chief of staff. Stilwell’s numerous tours on the Asian mainland had made him


extremely knowledgeable about the Chinese Army. However, he was somewhat less than enthusiastic about the position, since he had already been tentatively selected to command the Allied invasion of North Africa. When Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall informed him of his new posting on 23 January 1942, a disappointed Stilwell simply replied, “I’ll go where I’m sent.”

Stilwell’s misgivings proved well founded. His specific command authority was vague from the beginning. Prior to his appointment, the War Department had received Chinese approval for Stilwell to command the Chinese forces sent to Burma, or at least to have “executive control” over them. But executive control would turn out to be a rather vaguely defined term that would lead to considerable confusion and much rancor between Stilwell and the Chinese.

Stilwell’s assignment orders designated him “Chief of Staff to the Supreme Commander of the Chinese Theater.” When he reported to the Chinese theater, his orders designated him “Commanding General of the United States Forces in the Chinese Theater of Operations, Burma, and India.” The orders did not address the specific duties implicit in these positions, especially his relationship with British theater commands. Nevertheless, with the prospect of commanding Chinese forces in Burma, Stilwell planned to organize his staff along the lines of a corps headquarters. Before his departure for the Far East, he had received the approval of the War Department to designate his headquarters, to include any U.S. forces that might join him, the United States Task Force in China.

Even as Stilwell assembled his staff in Washington and began the long journey to the China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater of Operations, the situation in Burma was deteriorating rapidly. After a round of meetings in Washington, which included President Roosevelt, the secretary of war, and various Chinese diplomats, Stilwell and his staff left Florida on 13 February 1942, appropriately enough a Friday.

As the party traveled to the Far East, accomplishing the twelve-day trip in a series of plane rides through the Caribbean to South America, over to Africa, and across the Middle East, Japanese successes in the CBI theater continued to mount. Singapore surrendered with 80,000 troops on 15 February; eight days later the British-Indian brigades in Burma were crushed in the Battle of the Sittang Bridge, a defeat that effectively left the path to Rangoon open to the Japanese advance. On 25 February, the Australian-British-Dutch-American Command (ABDACOM), the Allied command established on 15 January to defend the region, was dissolved in the face of continued Japanese pressure. Although Stilwell was assigned duties in China,


Japanese troops firing a heavy machine gun. (National Archives)

events in Burma thus dominated his first months as Chiang Kai-shek’s Allied chief of staff.

With Rangoon threatened, Magruder ordered the destruction of all lend-lease stocks in an effort to deny them to the invading Japanese. As the Japanese approached, there had been frantic activity to move as much materiel as possible north to the Burma Road, but it was still necessary to destroy more than 900 trucks in various stages of assembly, 5,000 tires, 1,000 blankets and sheets, and more than a ton of miscellaneous items. Magruder transferred much materiel to the British forces, including 300 British-made Bren guns with 3 million rounds of ammunition, 1,000 machine guns with 180,000 rounds of ammunition, 260 jeeps, 683 trucks, and 100 field telephones. In spite of the destruction and transfer to the British, however, over 19,000 tons of lend-lease materiel remained in Rangoon when it fell to the Japanese on 8 March.

As Stilwell prepared for his new assignment, the 10th U.S. Air Force was activated in Ohio and slated for deployment to the CBI


Crew chief intes a P-40 pilot’s scores. (National Archives)

Theater of Operations. The 10th was to be based in India with the mission of supporting China. Maj. Gen. Lewis H. Brereton, an airman experienced in fighting the Japanese in the Netherlands East Indies, assumed command of the new air force when it arrived in India in early March 1942. Although the 10th Air Force was assigned to the CBI to support the Chinese, the Japanese offensive in Burma meant that Brereton’s bombers would be supporting the interests of two major Allies, China and Great Britain.

About the only good news in Burma in early March was that Chinese troops were soon expected to enter the defensive campaign. Chiang Kai-shek had agreed that Stilwell would command Chinese forces sent to Burma, and in the press of the military emergency, Chiang Kai-shek and the British had even come to an agreement on the use of these forces. During February, the 5th and 6th Chinese Armies, each with three divisions, slowly began moving into Burma. The 5th was the stronger of the two, with three divisions at full strength, one of which


was mechanized. The 6th, however, was generally considered a second-rate outfit, with all three of its divisions understrength.

The movement of the two Chinese armies into Burma proved arduous. Troop transport was scarce, and the Chinese Army had little or no internal logistical support system. Moreover, the Chinese senior officers, their army and division commanders, customarily responded only to orders directly from Chungking. Chiang Kai-shek waited until 1 March to allow 5th Army units to begin moving into Burma. There, the British were able to provide some logistical support, but not unexpectedly, they found Chinese commanders difficult to deal with.

Meanwhile, after spending almost a week in India learning what he could from the British (“nobody but the quartermaster knew anything at all,” he wrote in his diary during the visit), Stilwell finally arrived in Chungking on 4 March and opened the Headquarters, American Army Forces, China, Burma, and India. With this action, Magruder and AMMISCA in China, as well as Brereton and the 10th Air Force in India, came under Stilwell’s command. However, Chennault’s AVG, which had not yet integrated into the U.S. Army, remained independent. Two days later, just before the fall of Rangoon, Chiang Kai-shek met with his new Allied chief of staff.

When they met on 6 March, Chiang Kai-shek expressed his concern about the overall command in Burma and the state of Sino-British relations. He informed Stilwell that he had already “told those [Chinese] army commanders [in Burma] not to take orders from anybody but you and to wait until you came.” If the British tried to give orders to his commanders, they would simply return home. The generalissimo went on to express his dissatisfaction with British command in Burma and surprised Stilwell by suggesting that Stilwell take overall Allied command of the entire theater of operations. Following the meeting, the Chinese government sent to Washington a strong message to that effect.

Although this turn of events apparently took everyone by surprise, it fell into a larger pattern. Chiang Kai-shek’s mercurial temperament was well known, and the basis of the general animosity between the Chinese and the British had been laid centuries before Stilwell’s arrival in the theater. In the case of Burma, British generals held the supreme Allied command there by imperial prerogative and not through any international agreement. In discussions which China, Britain, and the United States held in December 1941, no mention had been made of changing the existing command relationships in Burma. Yet the commitment of major Chinese forces to the theater would challenge and strain the existing command arrangements.


Generalissimo and Madame Chiang Kai-shek with General Stilwell. (National Archives)


The British leaders reacted strongly to the Chinese proposal. While welcoming the two Chinese armies to Burma, they were not pleased with the proposal of Stilwell’s commanding them. General Sir Harold R. L. G. Alexander, then commanding the British forces in Burma, had fully expected to control any Chinese troops committed to defense of the region. The fact that Stilwell had no established staff also disturbed the British since they had already prepared a liaison system with Chinese forces that would extend as far down as the division headquarters. Churchill and Chiang Kai-shek each appealed to President Roosevelt to see his side of the matter and take appropriate action. Roosevelt and Marshall answered both pleas in similar fashion, suggesting that the problem be resolved in Burma by the parties involved. They assured the British and the Chinese that Stilwell was a resourceful officer who could work well under any command arrangement.

While his superiors struggled to resolve these matters, Stilwell himself was still in Chungking, learning, to his dismay, that there would be a few restrictions on his command in Burma. From 6-11 March Stilwell had several discussions with the generalissimo regarding the defense of Burma and the future role of the Chinese forces. Stilwell wanted to take the offensive and had already begun to develop plans for recapturing Rangoon. He believed that a bold course of action might reveal Japanese weaknesses in Burma. The generalissimo, however, had other ideas, advocating caution and insisting that the Chinese forces remain on the defensive. He made it clear that the 5th and 6th Armies were not to attack the Japanese unless provoked; he also established specific geographical limitations on the deployment of those forces. Finally, he reiterated his distrust of British motives and his insistence that Chinese forces remain independent of British command. China, he explained’ had no interest in sustaining the British Empire, and would fight in Burma only long enough to keep the supply line open.

Throughout the spring of 1942, continued Japanese successes in Burma made an Allied offensive in the region extremely unlikely. Following the fall of Rangoon in early March, the Allies prepared to defend the two valley routes leading north along the Irrawaddy and Sittang Rivers into the heart of Burma. While the British forces concentrated at Prome along the Irrawaddy, Chinese divisions focused on Toungoo along the Sittang.

General Alexander, now designated Allied commander in chief in Burma, organized these forces into the equivalent of two corps, with Lt. Gen. William J. Slim commanding the British Burma Corps at Prome and Stilwell commanding the Chinese Expeditionary Force at Toungoo. Stilwell secured the cooperation of the 5th and 6th Army


“On the Edge of the Jungle” by J Milford Zornes. (Army Art Collection)

commanders, both of whom agreed that holding at Toungoo was the key to defending northern Burma. They resolved to remain there as long as the British stayed at Prome. But British intelligence was weak, and unknown to Burma’s Allied defenders, the Japanese were steadily increasing their forces in the country and had developed plans which would soon outflank these defenses.

At the beginning of March, the Japanese already had four divisions in Burma, twice the number the Allies had estimated. The Japanese planned to surround and annihilate the Allied forces in central Burma near Mandalay by moving three of their divisions north along separate axes of advance. One division would advance along the Irrawaddy Valley through Prome and Yenangyanug; another would drive up the Rangoon-Mandalay Road in the Sittang Valley through Meiktila; and a third would move east to the vicinity of Taunggyi and head north toward Lashio. The fourth division would remain in reserve in the Sittang Valley where it could react to assist any of the three advancing divisions if needed.


While the Allied ground forces prepared their defensive plans, what little friendly air support existed in Burma was for all intents eliminated from the theater. The fall of Rangoon had limited the RAF and AVG to Magwe, an airfield located in the Irrawaddy Valley about halfway between Rangoon and Mandalay. On 21 March the RAF conducted a successful raid on an airfield near Rangoon, destroying a number of Japanese aircraft on the ground with the loss of only one RAF Hurricane.

But the Japanese had increased their air strength in the theater during March. On the day following the British strike, the Japanese conducted a massive raid on the inadequately protected Magwe airfield and destroyed many of the Allied aircraft on the ground. To prevent further losses, the RAF moved its planes west to Akyab on the coast and the AVG went north to Lashio and Loiwing. Further raids followed, ultimately forcing the Allied air forces completely out of Burma. Without opposition in the air, the Japanese enjoyed virtually unlimited air reconnaissance which, when coupled with a growing number of sympathetic Burmese on the ground, provided them with detailed information on Allied troop dispositions and movements.

A Japanese offensive begun in early March rapidly achieved success. However, the Chinese 200th Division held at Toungoo for twelve days against repeated Japanese assaults. Their stand represented the longest defensive action of any Allied force in the campaign. Even so, another major Allied withdrawal was inevitable.

Meanwhile, the Toungoo battle revealed the problems involved in Stilwell’s commanding the Chinese forces in Burma. When he ordered the Chinese 22d Division south to relieve the 200th, for example, he received little response except excuses from the division commander. Despite Kai-shek’s assurances to the contrary, Stilwell had not been given the “Kwan-fang” (seal or chop) as commander in chief in Burma; he had only been named chief of staff. The Chinese commanders, therefore, refused to carry out orders from Stilwell until they had been cleared with the generalissimo, who persisted in his habit of constantly changing his mind. The subsequent withdrawal of the 200th Division exposed the Burma Corps at Prome to Japanese attack. As a result, by the end of March the Allies were retreating north with the British and Chinese blaming each other for the repeated reverses


Any hope for holding central Burma required increased air power in the theater. The most readily available sources were the 10th Air Force in India and the AVG in China. Brereton had assumed command


of the 10th Air Force on 5 March, but it remained largely a paper organization. During a 24 March meeting with Stilwell at Magwe, the air corps general estimated that his command would not be ready for combat until 1 May. Stilwell accepted that estimate, and Brereton returned to his headquarters in Delhi.

A few days later, a puzzled Stilwell learned of two bombing raids which the 10th Air Force conducted on 2 April against Japanese shipping: one at Port Blair in the Andaman Islands and a second at Rangoon. Neither had been coordinated with Stilwell’s headquarters which Brereton supposedly supported. Brereton, however, had found himself caught between conflicting requirements and had authorized the 2 April missions to support the British in India on direct orders from Washington. After Brereton explained the problem to Stilwell, the matter was closed. On 15 April the War Department extinguished any further hope of air support for the Burma Campaign from the 10th Air Force. In accordance with British desires, the 10th would concentrate its efforts on defending India.

In the meantime, even though the AVG had been forced from Burma in March, Chennault attempted to keep up the fight from Loiwing, just inside China. During April the group flew patrol and reconnaissance missions over the Chinese lines in Burma, but their efforts were too small to be significant. Moreover, the volunteer pilots of the AVG regarded the Burma missions as needless and unappreciated risks. By the end of April, even this effort came to a halt as continued Japanese pressure forced the AVG deeper into China.

Finally, a desperate scheme to give the AVG a longer-range bombing capability came to naught. On 18 April, Lt. Col. James Doolittle’s raiders bombed the city of Tokyo, the first offensive action the Allies conducted against the Japanese homeland. The bombers had been launched from aircraft carriers in the Pacific with the intention of flying them to China and attaching them to the AVG after striking Japan. Unfortunately, a longer than anticipated flight, poor communications, and inclement weather contributed to the loss of all sixteen planes that conducted the raid.

Japanese successes on the ground and in the air continued throughout the month of April. As the Allied forces fell back along the Irrawaddy and Sittang Valleys into central Burma, the third prong of the Japanese offensive toward Lashio became apparent. With their forces concentrated in the river valleys, the Allies could do little about the Japanese thrust in the northeast. Lashio fell on 29 April, completing the Japanese blockade of China by closing the Burma Road. With Lashio in Japanese hands, the defense of Burma became untenable and


Japanese Conquest ofBurma
April–May 1942


General Stilwell marches out of Burma, May 1942. (National Archives)

Stilwell ordered an emergency evacuation. Part of the Chinese force managed to withdraw east into China, but three divisions headed west into India. Determined to begin a renewed defensive effort, Stilwell sent part of his staff ahead to prepare training bases in India.

On 6 May Stilwell sent a last message, ordered his radios and vehicles destroyed, and headed west on foot into the jungle. With him were 114 people, including what was left of his own staff, a group of nurses, a Chinese general with his personal bodyguards, a number of British commandos, a collection of mechanics, a few civilians, and a newspaperman. Leading by personal example, Stilwell guided the mixed group into India, arriving there on 15 May without losing a single member of the party.

Several days later, on 26 May, the campaign ended with barely a whimper as the last of the Allied forces slipped out of Burma. Stilwell’s assessment was brief and to the point: “I claim we got a hell of a beating. We got run out of Burma and it is humiliating as hell. I think we ought to find out why it happened and go back and retake it.”


Officers resting en route to India. (National Archives)


The loss of Burma was a serious blow to the Allies. It completed the blockade of China, and without Allied aid, China’s ability to oppose the Japanese invasion was extremely limited. Militarily, the Allied failure in Burma can be attributed to unpreparedness on the part of the British to meet the Japanese invasion and the failure of the Chinese to assist wholeheartedly in the defense.

In the larger picture, however, the conflicting goals of the countries involved made the loss of Burma almost inevitable. Neither the defenders nor the invaders saw Burma as anything other than a country to be exploited. To Britain, Burma was simply a colony and a useful buffer between China and India; to China, Burma was the lifeline for national survival; to the United States, Burma was the key to keeping China in the war against Japan, which in turn would keep large numbers of Japanese tied up on the Asian mainland and away from American operations in the Pacific. The wishes of the local population remained unaddressed and local resources therefore remained untapped.


The Japanese had a tremendous advantage from the beginning of the campaign. The invading forces were under a single command with one goal, the capture of Burma. Their unity of purpose and unity of command were complemented by the commitment of adequate resources to accomplish the agreed-upon task. Japanese air superiority gave their ground forces significant advantages, not the least of which was using air reconnaissance to confirm Allied troop dispositions and denying the same information to their opponents. However, had their leaders found such actions necessary and compatible with their overall designs, the Japanese might have further exploited the support available from Burmese citizens anxious to escape so many decades of British rule.

For the Allies, the CBI theater would remain low on their priority list throughout the war. In this economy-of-force theater, the Allies conducted limited operations to occupy Japanese attention. That role, however, did not restrict Allied forces to purely defensive operations. Immediately after the humiliation in Burma, Stilwell and Allied planners began preparations for their next campaign, drawing on the lessons they had learned from the 1942 disaster. Allied strategy during the next phase of the war in the CBI theater would center on recapturing enough of Burma to reestablish a supply line into China. However, continued problems with inter-Allied cooperation, among other factors, would make it a very costly campaign.


Further Readings

The Army’s 1942 Burma Campaign has no single source for further reading, although there is a good bit of information in the U.S. and British official histories of World War II. Charles F. Romanus and Riley Sunderland, Stilwell s Mission to China (1953), remains the most valuable volume in the U.S. Army in World War II series. Other useful volumes in this series include Richard M. Leighton and Robert W. Coakley, Global Logistics and Strategy: 1940-1943 (1955), and Maurice Matloff and Edwin M. Snell, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare: 1941-1942 (1986). Volume I in the Army Air Forces in World War II series, edited by Wesley Frank Craven and James Lea Cate, Plans and Early Operations: January 1939 to August 1942 (1949), is also helpful. Major-General S. Woodburn Kirby, India’s Most Dangerous Hour (1958), outlines the British perspective of the Burma Campaign in Volume II of the War Against Japan series. Barbara W. Tuchman, Stilwell and the American Experience in China, 1911-45 (1971), provides an in-depth look at the most prominent American in the campaign.






AVM D Stevenson arrived in a 31 SQN DC-2 to take over as AOC Burma from GPCAPT E Manning. A fighter flight (3 Hawker Fury) and a light bomber Flight (3 Hawker Audax) of 2 SQN BVAS were deployed to Moulmein airfield, where well-camouflaged revetments had been prepared for them by the father of one of the pilots, a prosperous teak merchant. They joined 4th Coast Defence Flight, IAF (FLTLT E. Sprawson, with 4 Wapiti and 2 Audax) at the base.


55th Division, with Thai Army assistance, finalised supply contracts at Rahaeng an a ceremony was held by the Governor of Pitsanuloke Province to celebrate this. Two battalions of RTA troops moved to the border, clearing tracks and signposting the way. Large numbers of cattle were assembled on the border as supplies for the IJA.


Walking without stopping for days on infamous jungle tracks the 15th regiment of the guard is leading the Japanese advance on Rangoon. The British spotted for a week long columns that meander through forests and plantations.
Blenheims returning to Singapore, flying from Rangoon and try to stop the Japanese market but six Oscars interpose. Bomber crashed to the cheers of the soldiers, seven others away riddled with bullets.(121)

3 Jan 42

55th Division finished exchanging its motorised transport for pack animals.

Nine Ki-27 of 77th Sentai took off from Lampong, refuelled at Raheng, and attacked Moulmein. These caught two Wapiti and two Audax of the 4th CDF on the ground preparing to take off. All four were destroyed. As the strafing continued, two of the BVAS Furys arrived back from patrol. While low on fuel, they tangled with the Ki-27 force. Neither side scored in the brief action, but the Ki-27 (also low on fuel) quickly departed.

Meanwhile, four 67 SQN Hurricanes strafed Raheng, buring one Ki-27 on the ground and damaging to others. They were then bounced by two Ki-27 on patrol. One of these was shot down (Warrant Officer Yokoyama being injured) in return for two Hurricanes damaged.

4 Jan 42

Myitkyina (Burma) Ferried by former transport pilots or young trainees from OTUs, 37 Hawk-81 were on Myitkyina airfield as French pilots coming either from Malaya or from Indochina begin to gather. Some newly commissioned pilots coming from Meknes (the French Fighter school) begin to arrive too to re-form 3 fighter squadrons (GC I/40, III/40 and IV/40).Ltn. Col. Lionel de Marmier, the officer in charge of this operation confirms, to the Wing commander, Commandant Marin la Meslée, that he expects that before mid-January 80 Hawk-81 will have been ferried. However Lionel de Marmier warned Marin La Meslée that some planes were to be allocated to the AVG, which sent 15 pilots via Kunming collect them. The three 40th Fighter Wing squadrons were then not to be operational before the end of January.

After the usual nigh raids, 32 Ki-27 of 2nd Sentai conducted an offensive sweep over Rangoon. They encountered 6 ROCAF P-40 over Mingaladon and a battle developed. The P-40 were roughly handled on this occasion, two being shot down (both pilots survived) and the rest damaged for no IJAAF loss.


5 Jan 42

The Ki-27 of the 77th were back over Mingaladon at dawn, escorting 8 Ki-30 of the 31st. They encountered no opposition, destroyed the officer’s mess and badly damaged the repair unit’s buildings. The Ki-27 destroyed a 31 SQN DC-2 on the runway.


RAF reinforcements arrived. 113 SQN from Egypt arrived with 16 Blenheim IV and two ground crew in each aircraft. These joined with 60 SQN’s ground staff to service both Squadron’s Blenheims. Also, 28 SQN arrived with 12 Lysanders.


During the night of 5/6 Jan, eleven 113 and 60 SQN Blenheims joined with 3 BVAS Heyfords to attack the Bangkok Docks. AA fire was intense but the docks were hit, firing several large godowns. One Heyford was damaged, but returned safely.


6 Jan 42

Three ROCAF P-40 attacked Raheng, wrecking four Ki-27 of 77th Sentai in the flight line. AA fire was intense, and Flight Officer Christopher Yung (from Shanghai) was shot down. His P-40 pancaked on to a river flat reasonably intact. This was a machine still wearing RAF roundels, and it was this that saved Yung. He parachuted clear but the Japanese were looking for a European. Yung filched clothing from a line and ran into the last place the Japanese would look, Raheng itself.


 There he was able to find refuge within a related clan-house. Two months later and after many adventures, he re-appeared at John Haig.

During the nigh three Hurricanes tried to intercept the nightly raid. They were unsuccessful, and one crashed on landing.


Moulmein is captured without a fight.(121)

8 Jan 42

Elements of he 143rd Regt and Thai troops seized the British airfield at Victoria Point.

9 Jan 42

4 ROCAF P-40 and 6 Hurricanes attacked Raheng. One Ki-27 was destroyed and three damaged for no loss. The nightly raid on Mingaladon hit the fuel dump, creating a large fire and destroyed over a thousand 44 gallon drums of fuel.


10 Jan 42

Four Hurricanes of 67 SQN attacked Mehsoht, destroying 2 Ki-30 of 31st Sentai.


12 Jan 42

FLGOFF Mohan Singh led a strike of 2 Furies and 3 Audax light bombers against Kawkariek, where the Japanese roadhead was successfully attacked and a supply dump damaged. As the Audax were making their bomb run, Singh spotted an aircraft, which he engaged and shot down. This was a Ki-15 conducting local aerial mapping.


Bettys run the four British stars who managed to flee Singapore.(121)

15 Jan 42

A 67 SQN attack against Prachuab Girikan with 6 Hurricanes and 3 113 SQN Blenheims was quite successful. While one Blenheim was shot down by a Thai Air Force Ki-27, six RTA aircraft were badly damaged on the ground and a taxying Ford Trimotor destroyed. Killed aboard this machine was a member of the Thai Royal Family. This resulted in public upset, leading to the government authorising retaliatory action.


The first IJNAF offensive sweep of the Bay of Bengal bore considerable fruit. Six G3M located, bombed and sank the valuable French cargo liner Jamaique (1922, 10,123grt, 13.5kt, UK for Rangoon with military supplies, piece goods, ammunition, aircraft and tanks for China) west of the Andamans. All shipping was immediately ordered to move west to hug the Indian coast, and plans to convoy shipping were started.


17 Jan 42

55th Division’s lead elements crossed the border at Mae Sot.


19 Jan 42

Tavoy airfield was seized by 112th Regt’s III Bn. The garrison at Tavoy (6th Burma Rifles, a former Police Bn) was dispersed without difficulty.


The lead elements of 267 Wing (17, 135 and 136 SQN) arrived in Rangoon. This took the form of CO 267 Wing (WGCDR Pennington-Leigh) Squadron Leaders Carey and Stone.


20 Jan 42

Three Hurricanes setting out to reconnoitre Raheng were attacked on take-off by an arriving Ki-27 strike after they had refuelled at Moulmein. All three were shot down.

Later in the day, a Ki-36 attempted to reconnoitre Moulmein. This machine was met and shot down by FLGOFF Mohan Singh, his fourth victory. The Ki-36 was normally quite safe, as it possessed extremely good low level manoeuvrability and could easily evade Hurricanes and P-40. However, against the old Fury biplane, it was a sitting duck.


A Blenheim raid headed for Mehsoht (6 Blenheims escorted by 6 Chinese P-40) was intercepted by chance over Kawakereik. One Ki-27 was lost but a P-40 and a Blenheim were also shot down.(125)


The 15th Regiment of the Guard Japanese (4300 men) bar the road from Rangoon to Mandalay. For 8100 from British evacuate Rangoon must go at all costs otherwise it’s death by encirclement.
Bombardment with Hudsons gets in a great plain devoid of protection significant results. The British attack failed to dislodge the Japanese from their positions but 700 Japanese soldiers are put out of action more or less temporarily.(121)



21 Jan 42

Six Blenheims successfully bombed Raheng and Kawakereik.

The usual night bombing by both sides occurred, Rangoon and Mingaladon both being heavily hit. Two local coasters were burned out in Rangoon harbour.


22 Jan 42

Mergui was seized, the garrison (2 Bn Burma Rifles) being dispersed after a brief resistance. Wavell, underestimating the Japanese at this time, sent the Imperial General Staff the following message:

Japanese advance in Tenasserim should not have the results it did. Trouble started at Tavoy where indifferent battalion Burmese Rifles… apparently allowed itself to be surprised and then gave way without putting up a fight. Troops at Mergui were never attacked but were withdrawn rather hastily for fear they might be cut off…

Wavell added that he thought eh Japanese were attacking in small parties and should have been held easily. He was wrong, Two regiments of the 55th Division were attacking, one straight across the Dawna Hills through Kawkareik, and the second straight through Three Pagodas Pass. This latter was supported by 6000 Thai troops.


On the afternoon of 22 January, an overloaded ammunition truck overbalanced and sank the Kyiang River ferry on the Kawkareik Road. This was the only available ferry. Brigadier Jones, retreating before the Japanese troops, was unnerved by this. Abandoning his transport and heavy weapons, he crossed the river and force marched the 16th Bde towards Moulmein. When Smythe became aware of this he realised that he was about to be pinned against the Salween and destroyed. However, obeying his orders, he moved his remaining transport and artillery back across the Salween and prepared to contest Moulmein from fixed positions. He took care to erect log bunkers covering dead ground, collected boats and had lines strung across the river at these points to allow for an escape route should his thin defence line crack.


The IJAAF 5th Flying Composite Division was finally brought to full strength. It was composed of:

Don Muang

HQ 5th CFD

HQ 4th Flying Bn

8th Sentai – 31 Ki-48

14th Sentai – 25 Ki-21

62nd Sentai – 21 Ki-21

Nakhorn Sawan

50th Sentai – 31 Ki-27


31st Sentai – 31 Ki-30


HQ 10th Flying Battalion

70th Independent Chutai 6 Ki-15

77th Sentai – 30 Ki-27

January 1942

17 Indian Infantry Division

01-Mar-41 Raised as a War Office Reserve Division in Ahmednagar in the spring of 1941.

The division was to be sent to Iraq early in 1941 for training and equipment for desert warfare as a fully mechanised division. In December 1941 the division was incomplete and unfit for active operations.


04-Dec-41 Maj Gen JG Smyth VC


Divisional Troops

Divisional HQ 09-Jan-42


60th Field Company, Madras Sappers and Miners 09-Jan-42

46 Indian Infantry Brigade16-Jan-42

3rd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles16-Jan-42

5th Battalion, 17th Dogra Regiment16-Jan-42

7th Battalion, 10th Baluch Regiment 16-Jan-42

48 Indian Infantry Brigade (ex 19 Indian Infantry Division) 31-Jan-42

1st Battalion, 3rd Queen Alexandra’s Own Gurkha Rifles 31-Jan-42

1st Battalion, 4th Prince of Wales’s Own Gurkha Rifles 31-Jan-42

2nd Battalion, 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles (Frontier Force) 31-Jan-42


Independent Units

14th Battalion, 7th Rajput Regiment (relieving 23 Garrison Company at Akyab) 25-



1st Battalion, The West Yorkshire Regiment29-Jan-42


23 Jan 42

The first 136 SQN Hurricane IIB arrived at Mingaladon, fitted with non-jettisonable long range fuel tanks. Within minutes of their arrival, a Japanese attack came in. This was 24 Ki-27 of the 50th Sentai. Seven Hurricanes challenged them. Two Ki-27 were shot down and while three Hurricanes ere badly damaged, none were shot down. The sweep had cleared the sky for 12 Ki-48 of the 8th Sentai, which attacked the shipping in the estuary. Four ships were damaged but none severely.

A second IJAAF raid (24 Ki-27 of the 77th Sentai and 12 Ki-30 of the 31st Sentai) came in 30 minutes later. The Ki-27 had missed the rendezvous and the Ki-30 formation decided to carry on unescorted. They were intercepted and chopped to ribbons by 12 P-40 of the ROCAF’s 9th Regt, one being shot down, 3 badly damaged and 7 damaged. Few bombs fell on Mingaladon.

The Ki-27 turned up just after the initial P-40 attacks broke up the Ki-30 formation and bounced them. Three P-40 were shot down for no loss


24-29 Jan 42

Japanese troops in small parties infiltrated the Moulmein perimeter area, observing the British efforts to build a defensive line and cutting up advance parties.


24 Jan 42

Six Ki-21 of the 14th Sentai, escorted by 20 Ki-27 of the 50th Sentai attacked Mingaladon. The faster Ki-21 outpaced the Ki-27, ignoring the calls of Captain Ryosuke Motomura of the 2nd Chutai to throttle back.

Waiting for the raid was a mix of Hurricanes and P-40, some 20 machines. These bounced the unescorted bombers and slaughtered them, downing 5 for no loss. They were then hit by the enraged 50th Sentai escorts. However, luck was again on the Allied side, and three of these were downed. No Allied fighters were lost. Meanwhile, underneath this battle, 3 Ki-30 of the 31st Sentai and 25 Ki-27 of the 77th attacked Mingaladon, destroying two Blenheims staging to Singapore and two BVAS Gypsy Moths, and firing another fuel dump.

During the day Wavell paid another visit to Rangoon, arriving after dusk aboard a B-20 ‘Brisbane’ flying boat. He noted the usual night raid (that night by 12 Ki-21 and 8 Ki-48), and the heavy damage to the docks.


25 Jan 42

5 Blenheim I of the IAF 3rd Coast Defence Flight set out for Bassein. Only four arrived, as one ditched on the way 100 miles from Chittagong, the crew being picked up by fishing craft.


26 Jan 42

23 Ki-27 of 50th Sentai did a sweep over Mingaladon, tangling with eight P-40 and Hurricanes. Two P-40 were lost, as was one Ki-27.

In the afternoon, 5 113 SQN Blenheims escorted by 2 Hurricanes and 6 P-40 attacked Kawakereik, hitting a Japanese column on the cart track across the pass.


27 Jan 42

Kunming (China)

No less than 37 Hawk-81, belonging to French GC I/40 and II/40, which had been reconstituted in Northern Burma, arrive to Kunming to relieve the AVG squadrons. These were not withdrawn, but moved to Chungking and started the process of reconstitution there.

Additional Lysanders arrived, taking 28 SQN up to 18 machines on strength.


Six Ki-21 hit Mingaladon accurately during the night, destroying two Hurricanes. However, one was shot down by SQNLDR Stone, flying a Hurricane. This was the first IJAAF loss in night bombing. Also during the night, 5 Blenheims, 2 Overstrand and 4 Heyfords had hit various targets in Thailand, without loss aside from a Blenheim which had crashed on take-off. The machine was destroyed, but the crew was unhurt.


28 Jan 42

Aware of the Allied airpower still present at Mingaladon, 5th Flying Division organised a busy day. 37 Ki-27 (27 from the 77th and 10 from the 50th) surged into the area. Coordination was poor and there were two separate actions. One ROCAF P-40 was shot down, but the 77th suffered heavily, losing 4 Ki-27. One machine, flown by LT Kaneki Yamamoto was seen to be hit. The pilot deliberately dived his fighter into a taxying ROCAF P-40, which was destroyed, tearing away the airframe aft of the very surprised pilot. Yamamoto was subsequently buried by the RAF with full military honours and an account of his death complete with photographs of his funeral was dropped by message streamer at Racheng.


29 Jan 42

Six Hurricanes and six ROCAF P-40 intercepted 20 Ki-27 of 77 Sentai over Rangoon. Four Ki-27 were lost to two P-40 and a Hurricane which was written off when it force-landed. One of these Ki-27 (piloted by Warrant Officer Yoshida) was hit in the cockpit. Yoshida was hit by several .303 rounds and attempted to dive onto a 113 SQN’s Blenheims. However, his machine clipped the top of the berm and broke up.


30 Jan 42 Battle of Moulmein

The battle opened with a strong Japanese attack on the perimeter from the south and south-east. General Smythe VC moved his HQ to the ridge overlooking the town at 0800, and this area came under artillery fire at 0930. By 1200 the attack had been beaten off, but the Burma Rifles battalions east of the town had withdrawn to shorten their perimeter. This left a detachment of Sikh Airfield guards, recruited by a Sikh officer of the 15th Sikhs who had served with Smythe in France in WWI, cut off at the airfield. These fought magnificently during the day and night.


The BVAS responded strongly from Pegu. The Japanese were treated to the remarkable sight of six Heyfords, two Overstrands and eight Audax, escorted by four Fury fighters and three Hurricanes attacking their forces outside the town. His raid was intercepted by seven Ki-27 of 77th Sentai, one Heyford and an Audax being shot down. However, they also lost two Ki-27.

Also during the day, 8 Blenheims of 113 SQN raided the area without loss. The IJAAF was also busy, 31st Sentai making no fewer than four raids on the town, none of them escorted. They lost two Ki-30, both to BVAS Hawker Fury fighters. One of these was FLGOFF Mohan Singh’s fifth kill, making him the first IAF ace of the campaign. The BVAS were forced from the airfield early in the day, having to burn two of their Audax light bombers which could not be flown to Pegu.


31 Jan 42

The Sikhs trapped at the airfield conducted a bayonet charge just before dawn, cutting their way out of the encirclement and rejoining the main defences. Ominously, they reported that they had heard tanks moving past them during the early hours of the morning.

At 1000, Brigadier Ekin reported that a battalion of the Burma Rifles (composed of valley Burmese) on the left flank of his position had disappeared. In fact, they had defected en masse to the Japanese. These promptly attacked through the gap, their attack spearheaded by four Type 95 tankettes of the 2nd Tank Regiment and two Vickers six tonners of the Royal Thai Army. Forming this thrust was two battalions of Japanese and one of Thai troops.

Again, the remaining Burmese troops in the area melted away, with the notable exception of the Hill tribesmen. These rallied to the Indian units in the area, but could not stop the advance. However, they slowed it in heavy fighting. Here, the tanks played a critical role. The Hills (and indeed most Indian) troops had never seen one. By 1400 Ekins brigade HQ was under infantry attack. The staff had little choice but to try and hold the ridge, and most ere killed in the fighting, Brigadier Ekin himself losing his life in hand-to-hand fighting.

Meanwhile, Smythe had moved his own HQ into the Public Works bungalow in Salween park and had his own troubles. He succeeded in rallying his forces and held the Japanese at the edge of the town, using the buildings for cover.

However, at 2000 his own HQ as assaulted by Japanese troops disguised as Burmese. The hand to hand fighting was ferocious, with General Smythe himself killing two Japanese but being badly bayoneted in return. However, the Divisional HQ staff and nearby troops fought off the attack. During the night Smythe began evacuating parts of his force across the river.

 The fire of his divisional artillery (such as it was) which he had left on the western bank of the Salween played a decisive role in stopping the Japanese attack. Smythe also had irrefutable proof that his force was under attack from the bulk of 55th Division, supported by significant elements of 2nd Infantry Division, Royal Thai Army, as well as Japanese and Thai armour.

Aircraft of both sides were very active over Moulmein during the day. The RAF lost two Hurricanes, a BVAS Audax, three Blenheim IV and a Blenheim I during the day, for two Ki-27, a Ki-30 and a Ki-48. The 113 SQN Blenheims were brought down by one of the few appearances by Ki-43 in this stage of the campaign.

the schedule had been speeded up and before

the end of the month

 the 15th Army had pushed across the Thai-Burma border and seized


Dai Nippon in  Moulmein 1942






dutvh POW at Moulmein camp


japanese infantry using a type 89 Grenade Discharger against british troops in burma 1942



The British and their allies decided to block the road to Mandalay north of Rangoon. An assault by the 15th Regiment of the Imperial Guard pushes a British division of 2200 men strong. 1100 men were lost against 350 Japanese side. The British retreated slowly toward the river Irawady.
Too slow! On 4 February the Japanese back in touch with the same troops who lost 1400 men again.
An unprecedented battle occurs not far away between Thai soldiers fighting more or less willingly alongside Japanese and soldiers of the 16th Indian Brigade. Thais, not very combative, losing 600 men, most evaporating in nature.
February 5th Battalion of Gloucester, left behind to cover the retreat is almost annihilated, losing more than 500 men against the 31th DI.(121)



officer of the japanese army 56th infantry Division carrying the regimental flag (burma 1944)


read more


                                 The Sword and the Cross

                               Two of the dramatic photographs in Pacific Fury illustrating

                                   the cruelty and the compassion of the Pacific conflict




February 1942

1 Feb 42

The Japanese-Thai force renewed its attack at dawn, forcing the perimeter back. Smythe knew that he had no choice but to fall back across the river, and this he ordered.To here 1 Jun. 08

HQ Army in Burma 1st February 1942

[based on Public Records Office Document WO212/543 with minor amendments]

A. 1 Burma Division


Mountain Regiments

27th Mountain Regiment, Indian Artillery HQ

Mountain Batteries

23rd Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery

2nd Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery

5th Field Battery, Royal Artillery, Burma Auxilliary Force


Field Companies

56th Field Company, Queen Victoria’s Own Madras Sappers and Miners

Field Park Companies

50th Field Park Company, Queen Victoria’s Own Madras Sappers and Miners


13 Indian Infantry Brigade

5th Battalion, 1st Punjab Regiment (5/1st Punjab)

2nd Battalion, 7th Rajput Regiment (2/7th Rajput)

1st Battalion, 18th Royal Garhwal Rifles (1/18th R Garh Rif)

1 Burma Brigade Group (The Maymyo Infantry Brigade)

2nd Battalion, The King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry detached to 46 Indian Infantry Brigade

1st Battalion, The Burma Rifles

5th Battalion, The Burma Rifles

B. 17 Indian Infantry Division


Mountain Batteries

5th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery detached to 16 Indian Infantry Brigade

12th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery detached to 46 Indian Infantry Brigade


Field Companies

60th Field Company, Queen Victoria’s Own Madras Sappers and


The Malerkotla State Field Company, Indian States Forces

1st Burma Field Company, Burma Sappers and Miners


2 Burma Brigade Group attached from 1 Burma Division

7th (Burma Police) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

8th (Frontier Force) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

4th Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment (4/12th FFR) attached from 16 Indian Infantry Brigade

12th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery attached

Section, Field Company

16 Indian Infantry Brigade

4th Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment (4/12th FFR) detached to 2 Burma Brigade Group

1st Battalion, 9th Jat Regiment (1/9th Jat)

1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles (1/7th Gurkha Rifles)

3rd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles (3/7th Gurkha Rifles) attached

2nd Battalion, The Burma Rifles

5th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery attached

46 Indian Infantry Brigade

2nd Battalion, The King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry attached from 1 Burma Bde Grp

7th Battalion, 10th Baluch Regiment (7/10th Baluch)

5th Battalion, 17th Dogra Regiment (5/17th Dogra)

3rd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles (3/7th Gurkha Rifles) detached to 16 Indian Infantry Brigade

48 Indian Infantry Brigade in Burma Army Reserve (waiting for transport)

1st Battalion, 3rd Queen Alexandra’s Own Gurkha Rifles

(1/3rd Gurkha Rifles)

1st Battalion, 4th Prince of Wales’s Own Gurkha Rifles

(1/4th Gurkha Rifles)

2nd Battalion, 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles (Frontier Force)

(2/5th Gurkha Rifles)

C. Line of Communication

1st Battalion, The West Yorkshire Regiment

1st Battalion, The Gloucestershire Regiment

6th Battalion, The Burma Rifles possibly only a company in strength remaining


AA Artillery

1st Heavy Antiaircraft Regiment, RA, Burma Auxiliary Force

1st Heavy Antiaircraft Battery, BAF 8 X 3.7inch guns

3rd Light Antiaircraft Battery, BAF 8 X 40mm Bofors guns

8th Heavy Antiaircraft Battery, RA

8th Indian Heavy Antiaircraft Battery, Indian Artillery less two sections

3rd Indian Light Antiaircraft Battery, Indian Artillery

E. Other Troops

BurmaFrontier Force

7 X “infantry battalions”

[Bhamo Battalion

Chin Hills Battalion

Myitkyina Battalion

Northern Shan States Battalion

Southern Shan States Battalion

Kokine Battalion

Reserve Battalion]

BurmaAuxiliary Force

4 infantry battalions

[presumed to be:

The Burma Railways Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force

The Rangoon Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force

The Upper Burma Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force

The Tenasserim Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force]

The Rangoon Field Brigade, Royal Artillery, Burma Auxiliary Force

Armoured Car Section, Rangoon Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force (four armoured cars with Vickers .303 MGs)


3rd Battalion, The Burma Rifles

4th Battalion, The Burma Rifles

9th (Reserve) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

10th (Training) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

11th Battalion, The Burma Rifles

12th (Lower Burma) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

13th (Shan States) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

Six anti-tank troops (forming)

12 garrison companies (7 formed) [not identified]

Order of Battle of the Chinese Expeditionary and Re-equipment Force in Burma – 1942

Note: After intense negotiations during 1941, the British had built three training and re-equipping centres at Rangoon, Prome and Mandalay, all ports with exercise and training areas nearby. Each Training Centre had a cadre of British staff whose task it was to train the Chinese trainers. Two of these units were planned to rotate back to Chungking and Changsha when sufficient equipment had been sent to start a broad upgrading of the NRA field forces. The three NRA Armies brought south were equivalent to a weak British Division, but were among the best remaining NRA formations. Initially overwhelmed by the amount of equipment supplied, these forces quickly adapted to their new situation.

Commander – Lieut.-General Lin Wei

Chief of the Chinese General Staff Mission to Burma – Lieut.-General Lo Cho-ying

1. V ARMY (Lieut.-General Tu Tu-ming) Established in Burma during Nov 41

22nd Division (Major-General Liao Yao-shiang)

64th Regiment

65th Regiment

66th Regiment


96th Division (Major-General Yu Shao)

286th Regiment

287th Regiment

288th Regiment


200th Division (Major-General Tai An Lan)


599th Regiment

600th Regiment


Training Depot Rangoon

1st Reserve Regimental Training School

2nd Reserve Regimental Training School

Army Troops attached

V Army Cavalry regiment

V Army Artillery regiment

V Army Engineer regiment

V Army Armoured regiment

V Army Motor regiment

V Army Signal battalion


2. VI ARMY (Lieut.-General Kan Li-chu) entered Burma during Dec 41

49th Division (Major-General Peng Pi-shen)

145th Regiment

146th Regiment

147th Regiment

55th Division (Lieut.-General Ch’en Mien-wu)

1st Regiment

2nd Regiment

3rd Regiment

93rd Division (Lieut.-General Lu Kuo Ch’uan)

277th Regiment

278th Regiment

279th Regiment

Army Troops attached

Engineer battalion

Transport battalion

Signal Battalion

1st Battalion, 13th Artillery Regiment


Training Depot Pegu

3rd Reserve Regimental Training School

4th Reserve Regimental Training School

Army Troops attached

VI Army Cavalry regiment

VI Army Artillery regiment

VI Army Engineer regiment

VI Army Armoured regiment

VI Army Motor regiment

VI Army Signal battalion



3. LXVI ARMY (Major-General Ma Wei-chi) entered Burma from mid-Jan-42

28th Division (Major-General Liu Po-lung)

82nd Regiment

83rd Regiment

84th Regiment

38th Division (Lieut.-General Sun Li-jen)

112th Regiment

113th Regiment

114th Regiment

29th Division (Major-General Ma Wei-chei)

85th Regiment

86th Regiment

87th Regiment

Army Troops attached

1st Battalion, 18th Artillery Regiment


Training Depot Mandalay

5th Reserve Regimental Training School

6th Reserve Regimental Training School

Army Troops attached

LXVI Army Cavalry regiment

LXVI Army Artillery regiment

LXVI Army Engineer regiment

LXVI Army Armoured regiment

LXVI Army Motor regiment

LXVI Army Signal battalion


(1) These were ‘German’ troops, called such due to some prewar German training. The strength of a Chinese regiment was equivalent to the strength of a British battalion, that of a division to a British brigade and that of an army to a British division.

(2) These Chinese formations were unique in the Chinese Army as actually having some supporting or ancillary units and transport.

(3) The infantry had all been re-equipped with British .303 rifles, Lewis guns and .303 Vickers guns.

(4) The training armoured regiments were British battalion size, and used a mixture of US and British tanks (mostly Covenanter training tanks, Vickers My VI, Valentine and Stuart tanks). The Cavalry Regiment was similarly small and used a mixture of South African built armoured cars and Vickers VI light tanks. The artillery were equipped with US supplied ‘French 75mm’ field guns, these already being in NRA service. The British 25 pdr (known to the Chinese as the ’87mm’) was regarded as a heavy gun by the NRA.

15th Army Headquarters (Lieut.-General S. Iida)

33 Division (Lieut.-General S. Sakurai)

NOTE: This division was removed from the Campaign and sent to Malaya due to the severity of the fighting there.

33rd Infantry Group Headquarters (Major-General M. Araki)

214th Infantry Regiment (Colonel T. Sakuma)

215th Infantry Regiment (Colonel M. Harada)


33rd Mountain Artillery Regiment (less two battalions – nine guns)

11th Anti-Tank Gun Company (four 37mm guns)

one tank platoon (four Type 95 light tanks/tankettes detached from the light tank company of 2nd Tank Regiment)

33rd Engineer Regiment (one company only)

33rd Transport Regiment (two horse companies only)

Divisional medical unit

Two field hospitals

Veterinary and ordnance sections


55 Division (Lieut.-General Y. Takeuchi)


112th Infantry Regiment (Colonel K. Obarazawa, later Colonel S. Tanahashi)

143rd Infantry Regiment (Colonel M. Uno)

55th Cavalry Regiment (less one mounted infantry squadron and less part MMG and anti-tank gun companies)

55th Mountain Artillery Regiment (less one battalion – 12 guns)

55th Engineer Regiment (less one company)

55th Transport Regiment (less two companies)

Divisional medical unit

One field hospital

Veterinary and ordnance sections


Army Troops

4th Independent Engineer Battalion

20th Independent Engineer Battalion

Two bridging companies

One railway battalion

Two wire communication companies

Two fixed radio units

One line of communication sector unit

Two independent transport companies (motor transport)

Two independent transport companies (horsed)

One line of communication hospital

One base hospital


33 Division.

213th Regiment (Colonel K. Miyawaki) and two mountain gun battalions left behind in China for lack of shipping and did not rejoin the Division until the end of March 1942.


The anti-tank guns and the light tank platoon came into action at Pegu on 6 March. The guns were captured by a company of the 1st West Yorks, supported by tanks. The three tanks were quickly knocked out at long range by Stuarts of 7th Hussars. A fourth tank had been lost earlier whilst crossing the Sittang River. The parent light tank company had been left in Thailand, these four tanks had been driven on their tracks all the way from Thailand.


55 Division.

55th Infantry Group Headquarters had been sent to Guam, with the Division’s third regiment, 144th Regiment, and other sub-units under command. When the main invasion began the second battalion of 143rd Regiment (2/143 Battalion) was at Victoria Point and 3/112 Battalion was at Tavoy. Both battalions rejoined at Moulmein.


55th Cavalry Regiment’s normal composition was three mounted infantry companies, one armoured vehicle company, one MMG company and an anti-tank gun company. The missing elements had also been sent to Guam.


What is interesting about the NRA is just how pitiful their armament was. Even in the troops the NRA sent into Burma, only about two thirds to three quarters had rifles! In normal units, only half the troops were armed, and some of the weapons were jezzails and muskets. So in FFO, we are quickly building towards a situation where just by supplying rifles and a decent supply of ammo, the combat power of the entire NRA is doubled. Argus came up with the fascinating idea of packing a Sten gun, cleaning kit, 4 magazines and 800 rounds into a box. Instant infantryman.

We have added .303 SMLE, .303 Lewis guns and Boyes AT rifles in quantity to the NRA. We are adding all the trucks we can find, lots of jeeps, mortars, a bit of artillery and light to very light armour. Do this for a while and the NRA will be within the ballpark of being as well armed as the IJA, at least away from the ports.

Now, these blokes dealt the Japanese some heavy blows in OTL. They forced them out of much of the territory they occupied in the south, for example. Arming all their infantry and adding some other kit may treble their combat power. That is going to cause the IJA catastrophic problems.

Logistics in Burma are a real problem for Imperial forces, because they are coastal and depend on shipping…. but for the IJA they are disastrous until Singapore falls and they can freely use the Strait of Malacca. Worse, they can only have one Division there until then, and it has to be supplied over the Dawna Ranges and Three Pagodas Pass – during the Andaman Sea monsoon. That’s like trying to walk along a mountain goat-track while people are aiming fire hoses at you. By the time the Monsoon ends, they will be facing two full Indian Army Corps plus a full Chinese Army. Worse, they will be in an Army where the staff is vastly experienced about this region and has more experience in fighting the IJA than anyone else (except the Chinese and not many of them), they will be led by General Percival and be composed of the boys from Fort Canning. So they will have blood in their eyes and one single aim – to retake Singapore.

Cheers: Mark L. Bailey


February 1942

17 Indian Infantry Division


Divisional Troops

28th Mountain Regiment, Indian Artillery14-Feb-42

15th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery 14-Feb-42

28th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery 14-Feb-42

2nd Antitank Regiment, Indian Artillery 14-Feb-42

24th Field Company, Bombay Sappers and Miners 14-Feb-42


Independent Units

“Force Viper”, Royal Marines detachment (from Ceylon aboard the cruiser HMS Enterprise) 11-Feb-42

2nd Battalion The Duke of Wellington’s Regiment 14-Feb-42

1st Battalion, The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)21-Feb-42

7 Armoured Brigade21-Feb-42

2nd Royal Tank Regiment 21-Feb-42

7th Queen’s Own Hussars 21-Feb-42

‘A’ Battery, 95th Antitank Regiment, RA 21-Feb-42

414 Battery, Royal Horse Artillery21-Feb-42

March 1942

March 1942
Rangoon, capital of Burma, fell to the Japanese Army. The Japanese military administration took over Burma.


17 Indian Infantry Division


Divisional Troops

1st Field Regiment, Indian Artillery 03-Mar-42

70th Field Company, Bengal Sappers and Miners 03-Mar-42

63 Indian Infantry Brigade (ex 23 Indian Infantry Division?) 03-Mar-42

1st Battalion, 10th Gurkha Rifles 03-Mar-42

1st (KGO) Battalion, 11th Sikh Regiment 03-Mar-42

2nd Battalion, 13th Frontier Force Rifles 03-Mar-42


Independent Units


8th Heavy Antiaircraft Battery, RA03-Mar-42

1st Battalion, The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers (arrived by air at Magwe) 09-Mar-42


The Japanese advance in Burma continues.

 The Hudsons and Blenheims British attempt to intervene but are severely countered by Oscar who kill half a dozen devices.

The most serious events occurring in the South Pacific. After taking the Japanese Noumea send three squadrons of combat in Fiji, are more than 50 ships. This armada is spotted quickly by Catalinas stationed in Suva. Two planes were shot down by the zeros of the Navy.


Burma Army Command – 19 March 1942

I. 1 Burma Corps (Burcorps)

(a) Corps Troops

7 Armoured Brigade

2nd Royal Tank Regiment

7th Queen’s Own Hussars

1st Battalion, The West Yorkshire Regimentattached from 17 Indian Infantry Division


Antitank Batteries

‘A’ Battery, 95th Anti-Tank Regiment, RA

Royal Horse Artillery

414th Battery, Royal Horse Artillery


Heavy Antiaircraft Batteries

8th Heavy Antiaircraft Battery, RA

Light Antiaircraft Batteries

3rd Indian Light Antiaircraft Battery, Indian Artillery less one troop


Artizan Works Companies

18th Artizan Works Company

17th Artizan Works Company

Field Companies

1st Burma Field Company, Burma Sappers and Miners

Pioneer Battalions

6th Pioneer Battalion, Indian Engineers


1st Special Service Detachment


(b) 1 Burma Division


Antitank Batteries

8th Indian Anti-Tank Battery, Indian Artillery

Mountain Regiments

27th Mountain Regiment, Indian ArtilleryHQ

Mountain Batteries

23rd Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery

2nd Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery


Field Companies

56th Field Company, Queen Victoria’s Own Madras less two sections

Sappers and Miners

The Malerkotla State Field Company, Indian States Forces

Field Park Companies

50th Field Park Company, Queen Victoria’s Own Madras

Sappers and Miners


BurmaFrontier Force

FF1, Burma Frontier Force attached

FF3, Burma Frontier Force

FF4, Burma Frontier Force

FF5, Burma Frontier Force attached

2nd Special Service Detachment


1 Burma Brigade Group

2nd Battalion, 7th Rajput Regiment (2/7th Rajput)

1st Battalion, The Burma Rifles

2nd Battalion, The Burma Rifles attached

5th Battalion, The Burma Rifles

2 Burma Brigade Group

5th Battalion, 1st Punjab Regiment (5/1st Punjab)

7th (Burma Police) Battalion, The Burma Rifles attached

FF8, Burma Frontier Force attached

13 Indian Infantry Brigade

1st Battalion, 18th Royal Garhwal Rifles (1/18th R Garh Rif)


(c) 17 Indian Infantry Division


Antitank Batteries

5th Indian Anti-Tank Battery, Indian Artillery attached from 2nd Indian Anti-Tank Regiment

Antitank Regiments

2nd Anti-Tank Regiment, Indian Artillery assigned to Line of Communication Troops

Field Regiments

1st Indian Field Regiment

Field Batteries

1st Indian Field Battery, Indian Artillery

2nd Indian Field Battery, Indian Artillery

Mountain Batteries

5th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery detached, re-equipping at Mandalay

12th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery less one section re-equipping at Mandalay

15th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery detached, re-equipping at Mandalay

28th Mountain Battery, Indian Artillery detached, re-equipping at Mandalay


Field Companies

24th Field Company, Royal Bombay Sappers and Miners

60th Field Company, Queen Victoria’s Own Madras Sappers and Miners

70th Field Company, Bengal Sappers and Miners


1st Battalion, The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)attached to 48th Indian Infantry Brigade

1st Battalion, The West Yorkshire Regimentattached to 7 Armoured Brigade

5th Battalion, 17th Dogra Regiment (5/17th Dogra)

8th (Frontier Force) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

1st Rangoon Battalion, Burma Military Police

“Force Viper”, Royal Marines detachment – river patrol

BurmaFrontier Force

1st Detachment, Burma Frontier Force

2nd Detachment, Burma Frontier Force

3rd Detachment, Burma Frontier Force

FF2, Burma Frontier Force attached

FF6, Burma Frontier Force


1st Battalion, The Gloucestershire Regiment


16 Indian Infantry Brigade

2nd Battalion The Duke of Wellington’s Regiment

1st Battalion, 9th Jat Regiment (1/9th Jat)

7th Battalion, 10th Baluch Regiment (7/10th

4th Battalion, 12th Frontier Force Regiment (4/12th FFR)

48 Indian Infantry Brigade

1st Battalion, The Cameronians (Scottish Rifles)attached

“5th Battalion, 3rd Gurkha Rifles (Composite Battalion)”

1st Battalion, 3rd Queen Alexandra’s Own Gurkha Rifles (1/3rd Gurkha Rifles)

2nd Battalion, 5th Royal Gurkha Rifles (Frontier Force) (2/5th Gurkha Rifles)

“7th Gurkha Rifles (Composite Battalion)”

1st Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles (1/7th Gurkha Rifles)

3rd Battalion, 7th Gurkha Rifles (3/7th Gurkha Rifles)

1st Battalion, 4th Prince of Wales’s Own Gurkha Rifles (1/4th Gurkha Rifles)

63 Indian Infantry Brigade

1st Battalion, The Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers attached from Army Command

1st Battalion, 10th Gurkha Rifles (1/10th Gurkhas)

1st (King George’s Own) Battalion, 11th Sikh Regiment (1/11 Sikh)

2nd Battalion, 13th Frontier Force Rifles (2/13th FF Rif)


II. Army Troops


28th Mountain Regiment, Indian Artillery

1st Heavy Antiaircraft Regiment, RA, Burma Auxiliary Force

The Rangoon Field Brigade, Royal Artillery, Burma a detachment

Auxiliary Force

9th (Reserve) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

10th (Training) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

The Bhamo Battalion, Burma Frontier Force

The Chin Hills Battalion, Burma Frontier Force

The Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Forceless detachments

The Myitkyina Battalion, Burma Frontier Force

The Northern Shan States Battalion, Burma Frontier Force

The Reserve Battalion, Burma Frontier Force

The Southern Shan States Battalion, Burma Frontier Force

The Karen Levies


III. Line of Communication Troops


2nd Anti-Tank Regiment, Indian Artillery

RHQ only – less both batteries, no guns

8th Indian Heavy Antiaircraft Battery, Indian Artillery

3rd Indian Light Antiaircraft Battery, Indian Artillery one troop

The Rangoon Field Brigade, Royal Artillery, Burma no guns, less one detachment

Auxiliary Force

56th Field Company, Queen Victoria’s Own Madras two sections

Sappers and Miners

2nd Battalion, The King’s Own Yorkshire Light Infantry (KOYLI)

3rd Battalion, The Burma Rifles

4th Battalion, The Burma Rifles

6th Battalion, The Burma Rifles possibly only a company in strength remaining. Became a garrison company of Karens during Mar-Apr-42

11th Battalion, The Burma Rifles

12th (Lower Burma) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

13th (Shan States) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

14th (Shan States) Battalion, The Burma Rifles

The Tenasserim Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force

The Burma Railways Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force

The Upper Burma Battalion, Burma Auxiliary Force

The Mandalay Battalion, Burma Military Police

The Kokine Battalion, Burma Frontier Forcedetachments

The Chin Hills Battalion, Burma Frontier Force detachments

MI (Mounted Infantry) Detachment, Burma Frontier Force

1st Garrison Battalion

2nd Garrison Battalion

1st Garrison Company

2nd Garrison Company

3rd Garrison Company

4th Garrison Company

5th Garrison Company

6th Garrison Company

7th Garrison Company


March 1942,

an independent volunteer army occupied the Yangon (Rangoon) Rangoon,

British troops were mopping up further to the Indian border.(125)






April 1942

April,1st 1942


The front line in South China
On the Burmese coast but India is already the Japanese seized without a fight Cox’s Bazar.
Akyab-Chittagong road is cut. Therefore the basis of Akyab will live very difficult days(121)




April 5th,1942

April 6th, 1942:

The invasion force Cocos Islands just arrived at his goal. A nasty surprise awaits Japanese: a destroyer and a frigate entering a minefield. The two ships were severely damaged but will be returned to service several weeks later. The minesweeper W-12 integrated with the landing force avoids the worst. The island is infested with mines reveal. It will take several days to W-12 to overcome. How many mines have been wet on this isolated island remains a mystery.
Without adequate preparation the Japanese lose 200 men during landing operations. Australians just retaliate.

A rare landing ships of the Japanese Navy
In the afternoon the Japanese naval air group stationed two aircraft carriers (Akagi,, Kaga) just arrived in Noumea after attending support operations during the invasion of Java runs a freighter Steel travel and a minesweeper Bustard at a hundred miles east of the islands of the New Hebrides. What the Japanese later discover is that these two ships were used goat to force them to disclose their device.
In the afternoon, although the Japanese have not fully landed launches an assault on Coco Island. Australians are that in 2900, having lost more than 1000 of them in the sinking of their convoy, against 12,000 Japanese troops belonging essentially to the sea.
Australians of the 21th brigade, probably poorly supplied, demoralized and stunned by the bombing, not having had time to dig, not surrender without selling their skin dearly: 1900 Japanese disappear in the fighting.(121)

April 7th.1942:


April 8:

The British, presumably to better position their fighters who have a shorter range than their Japanese counterparts, abandoning Chittagong and install an air base in Akyab. This database will become a point of attachment for the coming weeks bring many troubles to the British. For now the Oscars are launching a new raid to measure the balance of power. 6 British fighters are shot against three Japanese.
Zeros attacked the next day. 3 aircraft were lost on either side. Intervene immediately behind the Oscars. The AVG lost 3 planes but failed to shoot down a Japanese. This advantage is immediately lost with the loss of 7 Sallys on Chittagong tragic mistake of a squadron that is lost, while 25 Sallys are raining bombs on the air base Akyab(121)


Believing that the Japanese are too busy elsewhere the British launched their Hudsons Mandalay without escort. A squadron newly arrived Oscars awaits: 15 bombers do not fit. B17 raid also turned into a fiasco with 13 fortresses riddled with bullets and shells should turn back. Many are unable to return.
The Blenheims prey on the 33th DI columns advancing on the Indo-Burma without conclusive result.
In the days following new bombardments are organized with losses Akyab balanced side.
Nationalist troops attempt a frontal assault to regain their lost Nanchang in January. Meanwhile, the Japanese have managed to build a great defensive network (level 5) This attack costs 3400 Chinese men in the 26 000 e(121)

The 9th of April, 1942,

was a dim day for Allied power in the Far East. British and Chinese troops were retreating across Burma. Col (now Maj. Gen.) Claire L. Chennault’s game but outnumbered Flying Tigers were abandoning their air bases in central Burma before the advancing Jap ground forces. Lashio, southern terminus of the Burma Road and key point in the last Allied supply route to China, was in imminent danger of falling.

Just after dawn on that morning of Apr. 9

, a battered and worn Douglas DC-3 transport plane took off from a jungle airfield in Assam, India, and climbed laboriously over the 14,000-foot peaks of the Himalaya Mountains, which separate India from China. The aging plane was loaded with 100-octane gas intended for the B-25s of Brig. Gen. (now Maj. Gen.) Jimmy Doolittle’s Tokyo raiders, if they landed safely in China. Pilot of the DC-3 was Lt. Col. (now Brig. Gen.) William Donald Old of Uvalde, Tex.

Old’s flight had little immediate effect on the course of the war in the Far East. But the long-range possibilities of that first aerial supply trip across the Hump – the name U.S. airmen have given the Himalayas – were not lost on a group of U.S. Army officers in India.

They saw that this new air route was more than the last hope of keeping China in the war until the vast potential of Allied power could be concentrated in the Far East. They realized that some day it might actually surpass the supply capacity of the winding, tedious Burma Road.

They were right.

American planes are now carrying more military supplies, by actual weight, to China than were hauled over the Burma Road in any average month during the two years before its capture by the Japs.

Those supplies are being transported by a constantly increasing fleet of U.S. two and four engine airplanes, operated by the Air Transport Command’s India-China Wing between bases in Assam and Yunnan Province.

Gasoline and bombs used by Maj. Gen. Chennault’s Fourteenth U.S. Air Force are flown into China by ATC planes. Weapons carriers, 2½-ton trucks, jeeps, 4,000-pound ack-ack guns, medical supplies, food and clothing for both Lt. Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell’s U.S. forces in China and the Chinese Army itself are ferried through the skies by this huge cargo-carrying operation.

Dwarfing any commercial air-line operation in history, the India-China Wing’s 24-hour-a-day ferry service over the Hump hauls more cargo then the combined pre-war freight carried by all U.S. civilian air lines. It has more pilots and operates more planes than America’s three largest commercial lines did up to December 1941.

It even has its own “shuttle run” from the United States to Assam. Planes bring necessary spare parts and other high-priority supplies direct from Patterson Field, Ohio, to the ATC bases in northeastern India. The shuttles make the 15,000-mile trip in a few days, stopping only for fuel and new crews en route.

Officially the flyers of the ATC are not combat men; they are only freight crews. Yet they have flown the most dangerous air route in the world, bucking weather, mountains and Japs in daily defiance of the law of averages. Some of them have died carrying out their missions. Others have suffered injuries that will cripple them for life. All of them have done a job that rates right up alongside Guadalcanal and Salerno.

Weather and mountains are the principle headaches. Monsoons that ground the Jap air force in Burma don’t stop the ferry crews flying the Hump. Freezing overcasts put three inches of ice on their windshields and two inches on their wings.

The pilots have to fly blind when snow static cuts off radio communication and leaves them lost for hours. Sudden storms and downdrafts haunt them. Towering mountain peaks bend their radio beams miles off, so the pilots have to correct navigational drifts many degrees, and force the overloaded planes up to altitudes exceeding those at which they were designed to fly. Even so, there is always the threat of a mountain wall looming up still higher ahead.

A forced landing in this jungled and mountainous terrain is a million-to-one shot. Those odds were lengthened when the Japs offered the head hunters 300 rupees for every GI head.

Finally, the ferry crews face the constant threat of being jumped by roving Jap fighter patrols, packing a heavyweight punch of firepower; against this, the ATC transports have only tommy guns for protection.

  Brig. Gen. Old was in charge of the first ferry service to China. But his duties were not limited to flying and administrative work. He was right down on the line with privates and corporals, loading and servicing planes for their daily flights.

 One night, the general and a ground crew sergeant packed about 300 crates of gasoline on a plane. The next morning, Old flew it across the Hump and helped unload it. That was just a routine day for the general and his crew – Lt. John J. Boll of Ironton, Ohio; T/Sgt. Ernest Creach of Hammon, Okla., and S/Sgt. Albert Wagner of Salt Lake City, Utah.

Col. (now Brig. Gen.) Caleb V. Haynes of Mount Airy, N.C., took command of the ferry service late in April 1942 when U.S. Army transports arrived to supplement the Pan-American ships then on the route. All Burma was about to fall into Jap hands.

 The transport crews were called on for double emergency duty. After unloading their cargoes of supplies for the Flying Tigers and the retreating Chinese Army, the planes stopped at Lashio and Myitkyina to pick up loads of Burma refugees.

In the 10-day period before Lashio and Myitkyina fell to the Japs, 3,608 evacuees and 623 Chinese and British wounded soldiers were ferried to safety in India. DC-3s normally carrying 26 passengers were loaded with almost three times that number, On one trip Capt. Jake Sartz carried out 75 evacuees. Maj. Gen. Chennault himself was flown out of Loiwing in a ferry plane piloted by Brig. Gen. Old, when the Jap Army was only a few miles away.

Food for Lt. Gen. Stilwell’s party on its retreat from Burma was dropped by Brig. Gen. Haynes from a DC-3 that was jumped by Jap Zeros on the way back to its base. The U.S. plane escaped after T/Sgt. Ralph Baldridge, the radio operator from Wynnewood, Pa., and Sgt. Bob Mocklin, the crew chief from Royalton, Pa., had emptied their tommy guns at the enemy fighters.

The entire Burma evacuation was accomplished without the loss of a single ferry plane, thanks to the one-man pursuit force activities of Col. Robert L. Scott Jr. He kept the Japs off the tails of the ferry planes by bombing enemy bases and intercepting enemy patrols in his lone P-40.

Keeping the transport planes in operation during the monsoon months of 1942 was a desperate struggle. Not only the weather but lack of spare parts and reserve planes plagued the Assam-China-India Ferry Command, as it was then known. One crash put four grounded planes back in the air when the damaged ship was cut up and its parts distributed. Minor repairs were even made with adhesive tape and paper clips.

A shortage of mechanics was another drawback. Truck drivers and cooks double in brass as mechanics and maintenance men. At one time, one field had only nine mechanics to take care of 15 planes. They worked an 18-hour daily schedule until reinforcements arrived.





 April 10th.1942 :


April 11th.1942 :

April /11th, 1942,


April 12th.1942:




April,14th -15th.1942

April 16th.1942:

Southeast Asia:
Indian offshore submarine I-166 torpedo the light cruiser Colombo 2 Long range. Flowing down the ship reached the port of Cochin very close to heal its damage.
The Japanese cruisers back on Akyab more efficiently enriched by daily reconnaissance. The naval bombardment had destroyed seven of which 4 Warhawks AVG. Industrial installations Akyab ignite triggering massive fires, tracks AFB are destroyed.




The air war takes on Akyab which, despite naval bombardment continues to harbor many planes.
Zeros raid encounters 45 hunters. 3 Zeros are shot against four Allied fighters. Occurs when a massive raid with 83 bombers escorted by 85 fighters. The result is not up to the resources committed. Blenheim is one destroyed on the ground.
Akyab to relieve the Americans launched their B17 on Rangoon. They face a squadron composed of experimental fighter Ki-45 twin Kaia. Bombers turn back, all riddled with bullets or shells of 20 mm.
A new sweep Oscars will destroy three Allied fighters over Akyab.
Cut British troops in India are gradually pushed towards the Chinese border.

The three squadrons of AVG squadrons to face daily in the sky dOscars Burma.
Losses are heavy on both sides.(121)


18 april 1942






Akyab is attacked by the sea but also by air. A raid consisting of 84 bombers escorted by 45 Sallys Oscars destroyed five British aircraft on the ground.
Raid escorted Blenheims not totaled by the loss of 10 of the 14 units engaged.(121)


April 22:



after the outbreak of World War II, Japan occupied Hong Kong from Macau of a neutral country


A new naval bombardment shakes Akyab.

The airbase is again devastated and plunges into chaos. Is a Blenheim destroyed on the ground.(121)




April 27:


The Japanese felt strength after controlling


Akyab return to

Chittagong. 99 Oscars encounter Buffalos technically obsolete. 5 Allied fighters are shot against the loss of two Oscars.

The raids will continue in the following days with balanced results, the Allies had managed to resurrect some of the AVG(121)




The Japanese cruisers are back to Akyab. Their shells again ravage the base, destroy a Warhawk belonging to AVG, and light huge fires. 115 British soldiers are the victims of the raid.
The I-158 on duty at Colombo, Ceylon, is attacked by the destroyer Pakenham. The British, having the best weapons ASW among belligerents, the Japanese submarine goes hard times.
After a rest day the Japanese launched another assault on Manila and capture a new line of fortifications. 10,000 Japanese were knocked out in 2900 against Allied troops(121)


April 28, 1942.














Allied raids did not cease. Continuously varying goals they attack industrial facilities in Burma. A refinery is affected by B17.(121)

By the end of April 1942

the Japanese had thus gained control of Burma, Malaya, Thailand, French Indochina, the Netherlands Indies, and the Malay Archipelago; farther to the east, they had won strong lodgments on the islands of New Guinea, New Britain, and in the Solomons. They were in a position to flank the approaches to Australia and New Zealand and cut them off from the United States.

The Japanese had won this immense empire at remarkably little cost through an effective combination of superior air and sea power and only a handful of well-trained ground divisions.

The Japanese had seized and held the initiative while keeping their opponents off balance. They had concentrated their strength for the capture of key objectives such as airfields and road junctions and for the destruction of major enemy forces, while diverting only minimum forces on secondary missions, thus giving an impression of overwhelming numerical strength.

 They had frequently gained the advantage of surprise and had baffled their enemies by their speed and skill in maneuver.

The whole whirlwind campaign, in short, had provided Japan’s enemies with a capsule course of instruction in the principles of war


Balance of April

An extremely high number of ships sank in April. The largest Japanese losses occurred mainly during the first half of the month.

The main losses were accompanied by large naval battles and the war of attrition in the skies over Burma.(121)



In May 1942,

a declaration of military rule has been conquered the whole of Burma.


After the British expulsion because Colonel Suzuki

had promised the independence of the early generals Aung San,

appealed to the higher ups that make up an independent government army Burma as soon as possible.


the army chief of staff,

such as Colonel Ishii Akiho south is “without order to make a mere administrative agency first,

and to manage under the instruction of military commanders”,

the corresponding inefficiently. Japan did not want an independent Burma,

closed the institution south is reassigned to with divisional headquarters Guards Colonel Suzuki(125)




May 16
The night is punctuated by naval bombardment to Makin and Akyab.

The Royal Navy is still formidable in its capacity to fight ASW. The I-121 must join the base painfully after undergoing 4 hours grenadage off the coast of India.

In the afternoon

 the Americans begin landing operations at Paramushiro-jima Island, the northernmost of the islands in the archipelago of the Kuril Islands. Japanese territory for the first time in the war trodden by the enemy. A Tokyo emotion in circles orbiting Hirohito is great. A Staff because it is relatively serene precautions to guard against such an eventuality


were taken.

 Seven battalions recently landed on these islands. For 36 hours the patrols had spotted the advance of enemy convoy. But Aerodrome archipelago are not able to accommodate bombers. The 5th Fleet, which is responsible for the sector has only a few submarines and a dozen reconnaissance aircraft.

On the island of Honshu to reassure the Emperor is mobilized 10 new divisions. The deduction from the reserves of manpower available is considerable further accentuating the Japan market to a total war economy and making life even more difficult for Japanese.

On the evening of May 16


630 men belonging mainly to the U.S. 32nd DI have a foothold on Paramushiro. This indication of the commitment of a large enemy unit is valuable for the Japanese as they learn that they face a major offensive. This decides Yamato and Staff of the Army to mobilize large resources.

Several units stationed in Manila with the 4th ID were put on alert on May 16 evening. They boarded May 17 in the morning on transport ships anchored in Manila. Squadrons in training in Japan and the Philippines are directed on the island of Hokkaido, where the bases are arranged in an emergency. Young drivers to experience very low for some, are thrown into the fight faster than they had expected.

Two wings are established with destroyers and cruisers from completing their program of reform more ships held in reserve in Tokyo. Work Completion super-battleship Yamato, the giant of the seas, are pushed to that ship of 72 000 tonnes will become the new flagship of the fleet created in an emergency.

These forces they arrive in time to save the Kuril Islands?(121)




Hunters Oscars leading a raid on Chittagong shoot seven British fighters losing a single unit. Renewed following a raid eliminates four British aircraft against an Oscar shot.
Two British reconnaissance units formed with light tanks occupy Cox’s Bazar. Sallys bombers attempting to alleviate these units. They destroy 10 tanks. On the night following a bombing squadron unsuccessful tanks of the 3rd Hussars and Lancers Patalia Bengal. Ah traditions in Britain are tough with such names! Allied bombers involved in turn above the Cox’s Bazar to halt the march of the 14th regiment of the guard but without success.(121)



The town of Cox’s Bazar is taken by the 14th Regiment of the Guard Japanese. The hussars and lancers are pushed unceremoniously into the jungle. These two regiments lost 52 tanks on 60 of their endowment. The next day the Allied bombers arrive en masse on Cox’s Bazar including B17 squadrons Oscars but had anticipated the attack. The raid was cut to pieces with 7 bombers killed 11 and damaged. To counter the British raid is conducted against Chittagong airbase from which the Allied attacks on May 20 but it was a failure. 3 aircraft were lost on either side.(121)





The Oscars continue their raids on Chittagong. They still face the same Allied squadrons constantly renewed: AVG 1, 2 and 3, 17th, 27th, 135th, 261st and 453rd squadrons of the RAF. The Japanese have brought on this front almost all their squadrons Oscars. Some have more than 130 victories to their credit but the Allies constantly throw new aircraft into battle. Allied fighters destroyed five against one Oscar does not return. In this crucible of emerging as the Japanese side as the Allied side, but the losses are heavy. Weekly from one to two dozen young drivers from driving squadrons flock to fill the gaps.(121)



Raids on Japanese succession Chittagong: 2 Oscars lost 4 against Allied fighters of different models.(121)




British units are marked walking on Chittagong Cox’s Bazar. Sallys bombers intervene to stop the progression.(121)






The Oscars shoot nine Allied fighters over Chittagong losing a unit.
Recognition of Cox’s Bazaar 45th British regiment of light armor is rejected. Losses are lightweight side.
An assault by the 147th U.S. Infantry Regiment on the island of Shimushiri-jima is thwarted by the 302nd Infantry Regiment Japanese. A new U.S. attempt Paramushiro-jima fails advantage. The Japanese are now 5500 and 8900 Gis oppose supported by 200 vehicles(121)




For the first time since the war began a naval battle occurs in the Bay of Bengal. The Japanese squadron of southeast Asia was reduced after harvesting to other theaters in two heavy cruisers (and Myoko Suzuya) and 12 destroyers. Under the command of Admiral Yasuo Inoue, its mission is to bomb and destroy Chittagong aircraft airbase. She stumbled upon a convoy of five British ships escorted by HMS Stronghold DD ferrying reinforcements. The battle ended in disaster for the British lose their ships. The size of a brigade, 6,600 men are, is completely destroyed. The afternoon cruisers bombard Chittagong. The damage to the base are important but do not affect the operational level. A coastal artillery battery response repeatedly touching the cruiser Myoko must withdraw.
Raids continue on Chittagong. 6 Wakhawk s are shot against five Oscars.

The cruiser Myoko destroyed a British convoy with another heavy cruiser Suzuya the Tarawa:
The minesweeper Ataka Maru is lost due to the effects of a torpedo launched by the USS Growler.(121)




The Oscars attack again Chittagong. They cut 7 devices but 2 of them do not fit. The Allies were able to meet their losses. 80-100 hunters are operating on this basis.
Air cover provided by the base extends to Chittagong Cox’s Bazar where, despite the Japanese fighter escort bombers lose 2 and a fighter against a Warhawk in AVG. A 2nd raid in the same area escorted by Ki-45 Oscars and more successful with 3 Warhawks shot. On this occasion the Japanese unit detects a new ally, the British 53rd Brigade. It is the turn of Wellingtons attack Cox’s Bazar. The British lost two bombers no profit. In the afternoon the Oscars locate a new squadron and a new model of Burmese fighter in the sky, the Kittyhawks of the 14th New Zealand squadron.
Raids resumed on Akyab. The British managed to get the basic service and have brought new aircraft
The Warhawk opponent equal to the Oscars(121)



Successive raids over Cox’s Bazar where British troops continue to grow. The 28th Brigade of Gurkhas is identified.
The Warhawks of AVG and New Zealand Kittyhawks shoot 3 planes. 2 hunters in New Zealand and the AVG aircraft are lost(121)




The air war continues over Cox’s Bazar. 2 Hurricanes are slaughtered. A new type of bomber makes its appearance in the sky of Burma, B25 Mitchell. Warhawk an escort and B25 3 are shot into the sky to Cox’s Bazar by indestructible Oscars.
The Japanese have the confirmation, if any were needed, of the return to service of the basis of Akyab. A Japanese raid encounters 31 hunters AVG. 4 hunters are lost each side.





The 53rd British Brigade and



the 28th Brigade of Gurkhas have finally arrived at




 Cox’s Bazar.

 Read more about Gurkha Brigide




1955 airmail envelope addressed to Scotland locally redirected franked 10c adhesive. Fine triple oval “1st BATTALION 7th GURKHA RIFLES THE BRIGADE OF GURKHAS” cachet in violet. From a Sgt in the Regiment. The envelope has a very light horizontal paper fold and a staple mark at right


The 14th Guard Regiment supported by a part of the Parachute Regiment, the Yokosuka Assault SNLF in total 4800 men try to repel the Commonwealth have 5600 men. The attack was a bloody failure. 1600 Japanese remain on the floor.

Thus ended the month of May, the month very difficult for the Americans, who have continued to attack across the fault by looking into the Japanese. With more discretion and better coordinate their attacks with other sectors they could succeed in the Kuril Islands. They encountered each time responsiveness and determination of the Japanese. The attack on Nauru and Ocean Island was by cons doomed from the start due to lack of sufficiently powerful ships and air support to escort the convoys.

Statement of operations at the end of May 1942
May is again terrible for the Allied navies losing 63 vessels(121)


June 1942,

had been backing to these Aung San,

the next month dissolved the volunteer army independent Burma,

defense forces were reorganized into Burma was reduced to (3,000) about one-eighth of the troops.

August 1943, Japan in order to obtain the cooperation of the Burmese war of the war situation from worsening,

formally recognized the independence made a puppet regime.

History textbooks for junior high school student in Burma →

“Japan is in each department of administrative agencies.

Was given the independence of the only form in Burma Commonwealth


Bank Japanese has been appointed always.

Of Japanese paper money not no guarantee at all (military scrip) foreign trade.

to buy a grain of rice and paper money worthless.


the issue endlessly, and destroyed the economy Burma,

had also walk away without having to pay even that sometimes has been dominated by

large Japanese companies

such as Mitsubishi and Mitsui people. other are forced to be Kyoshutsu precious metal, was hunted

as a boy laborer.

under the rule of Japan, food, clothing, housing, drugs

and deficiency, malaria, plague, smallpox has been spread.



The people suffered poverty,

who Toriiri in Japanese, aimed at illegal gain in a way that the government “” Burma

is the only benefited Japan there was a fascist authority is acceptable. general public of the military police

result of the crackdown was arrested while, been tortured, and even there they were massacred,

but I think. of fascist these people spread throughout the voice you want real independence.

was Tagira the flames of anger “,

[Thailand] (independent country)
Initially, Thailand had a relatively pro-Japanese mood.

Japan went into the spring of 1941 Indo-China border disputes,

and Thailand, a summary of the negotiations in favor because the Thai side.

● … war with the Army 1941.12.8 Thailand


Thailand has declared neutrality quickly and the outbreak of World War II in Europe in 1939.

Although the Japanese army landed in the southern part of Thailand in the “purpose pass”, aims to capture Singapore, the state had engaged in coastline for landed prior to obtaining the permission of the Thai government. In some districts continued to fight even for 40 hours, 150 people, the Thai side, issued a 250 people who died of the Japanese side. 12/21, “treaty of alliance between Japan and Thailand” will be entered into.


But declared war on both countries Anglo-American Thailand also on the basis of this alliance,


the Thai side in order to reason the pressure of Japan,

have not written only two people the declaration of war rather than

the required signatures of three people regent (one are hiding at the time).


After the war, declaration of war was not satisfied with the claim.
even though there was a sentence “(compliance) compliance with international law” in the (imperial rescript) The decree of the war by the Emperor of the Russo-Japanese War and the Sino-Japanese War, the imperial edict of war of 12/8 did not. Army were concerned about the deterioration of the anti-Japan sentiments of Thailand in the occupation marked Buddha south, so there is a possibility that violate the neutrality of Thailand in the amphibious operation, in order to avoid that lie Emperor, “observance of international law” stuck to that you want to delete the wording of the.(125)



In July of 1942

the Japanese commander of the Burmese Independence Army, Colonel Suzuki, left Burma and Aung San was made commander of the BIA reorganized and renamed as the Burma Defense Army (BDA). His rank was colonel. There were however many Japanese advisors who prevented the BDA from taking actions contrary to the interests of Japan. The Japanese Army set up a token Burmese government under the leadership of the former prime minister Ba Maw.




● Japanese troops occupied the (Myanmar),




Burma, 1942,

card KGV 9 p. green marked „X” w. red seal canc. „TWANTE 17 AUG 42” to Myaungmya w. arrival “19 AUG 42„

ビルマ、1942年、カードKGV 9 P。緑は “X” wをマーク。赤いシールCANC。ミャーンミャに “TWANTE 817日、42″ワット到着 “819


it is necessary to ensure the supply line to Burma in preparation for the coming invasion of India


Burma railway construction in March 1942 …

(appearances) Hull Tai 1942.6.28-1943.10.25 was.

Transportation from Cairo is difficult,

Imperial Headquarters to determine the total length of railway construction of the 415km zone

between the jungles of Thailand and Burma are transported by ship sinking


and people following the U.S. submarine attack.


Had to be completed quickly, from both the construction of the Thai and Burmese side.


Greatly reduce the construction period was seen as five years,

was completed in one year and four months, there was abuse that work 14 hours a day.


The construction of 62,000 people about Allied prisoners of war has been turned on,

hitting about 12,619 people about 20% of this has died.

As wage laborers,

but have worked (42,000 dead) (40,000 dead) 100,000 people about 6,000 Burmese, about 80,000 Malays

in other harsh environments fiercely nearly half to death was.

Many were infected dies of cholera, dysentery and malaria in the breakdown by malnutrition.

In addition, what had been paid wages, the breakout of military boots and kicking after another slap directed by Japanese rampant.

Number of deaths is unknown to the other, has been put 45,000 people in Indonesia, also 12,000 Japanese troops.

Thai people do not have local impact (see below) pawn burn incident. Taimentetsudo of 36 participants who became a death penalty

because of the inhumane treatment against prisoners in the War Crimes

Trials after World War II.

Currently, the city of Kanchanaburi railway construction sites, there is a war memorial and cemetery of allied prisoners of war.
the Yasukuni Shrine are “dedication” is C56 locomotive ran Taimentetsudo.




BURMA 1942: 5c on 1a scarlet on reverse of cover to Toungoo, tied with ”EXPERIMENTAL P.O./R-539/25 DEC 42” double circled d/s,

further ‘R-595′ Experimental d/s and ‘Rangoon Dely’ d/s alongside. A scarce cover.

ビルマ1942実験PO/R-539/25 1242縛らトングーにカバーの裏面に緋色に5C 1A

二重はさらに、 “R-595″実験D / SラングーンDelyD / Sを丸で囲んだ“D / Sと一緒に。希少なカバ

Cultural differences [in Southeast Asia ~ /

burn incident should not be touched pawn head]
It is believed that in the sphere of Buddhism in

Southeast Asia, Thailand, Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos,

the most sacred place in the body from the head at the top.

The head is soul, spirit, and France is alive and kicking,

to touch the head of an act of insulting others will be maximum.

No habit, therefore, that the pat a child on the head.



On the other hand, Japan is from Tekken and slap sanctions had been made almost daily in the army,

due to the slap in the trivial sense of the local people from the occupied territories of Asia in Japanese,

instill a deep hatred We had many cases. In addition, because under most foot,

was also an insult or indicate something in the foot, showing the soles of the feet. Of course, to kick the others are very rude.





BURMA 1942 (Aug. 1),

Burma 1a KGVI. PS envelope uprated with KGV. 9p and KGVI. 3p,

all with Henzada Peacock ovpt used as local mail within Myanaung (arrival b/s dated 2nd Aug.).


Was that the Japanese soldiers and local people,

such as a kick! “Do not slow”, give a sense of humiliation that these also unnecessary.
In the construction of Taimentetsudo,

originally had been recruited in Hiyatoi those who want local, (11/24),

“priest” was the pledged tobacco to Allied POWs at Baan pawn

after about five months of the start of construction


(Thai monks are highly respected people from)

doing something outrageous that would slap to the Japanese soldiers.

This will be in uproar, the Japanese military camp of railroad work force will be moonlighting in retaliation,


the number of names, such as officer has been shot dead.

And, even though Thailand was a country relatively pro-Japanese,

Japanese soldier explode into conflict with the Thai police. The Japanese side to the Thai government,

“said the ringleader of capital punishment the priest,

to pay 80,000 baht compensation to the dead” requires that the.


However, in Thailand could not be punished by the law monk.

It has issued a lifeboat to the Thai side was at a loss, (Metropolitan Open)

Lieutenant General Akito Nakamura

was appointed garrison commander in Thailand (military direction 18) of the incident the following year.


Commander Nakamura for the families of military personnel in Thailand capital punishment of the ringleader,

“is withdrawn from Baht 80,000 compensation is donated to the Thai side from the Japanese after the receipt,

who died in the battle with the Japanese Army

at the time of the outbreak of the war two years ago and suggestions

“help, you pick up the pieces in this elegant solution.

Nakamura commander communicated to the Japanese soldiers stationed again


“Do not touch the head strike to respect the customs of the Thai people.

To the head is unreasonable,” and since the incident Baan Thai pawn employment was discontinued.
incident site / burn pawn to reference external

June 1942

The air war has never wavered in this sector. But some days the battle redoubled intensity.

On the morning of June 1 raid Japanese hitherto unprecedented power comes on



Akyab.(no sitwe)

Look some collections from akyab


Telegraph from akyab

1882 Indian Government telegraph receipt form from Akyab, Burma. Front (top) and back (bottom).


Postcard from akyab to Rangoon(now yangoon)



Airmail cover via akyab

Return of First Experimental Airmail
NZ/Australia to UK

The flight for London left Melbourne on 23 April with the mail from New Zealand

leaving Wellington on 17 April and joining the flight at Sydney on 24 April.
Only 229 ordinary and 106 registered letters were sent from New Zealand.
The route
The New Zealand mail was carried by Australian National Airways from Sydney to Brisbane

on the Southern Sun on 24 April and then by Qantas in a DH 61 from Brisbane to Darwin,

 on 25 – 26 April.
The plan had been for the Imperial Airways DH 66 to fly the mails from Darwin,

 but as it had crashed at Koepang on the 19th

and Imperial Airways had no replacement aircraft, Kingsford Smith and Allan,

who had arrived in Darwin from Koepang on the 25th,

flew the mail from Darwin to Akyab in Burma on 27 April – 3 May.
At Akyab, the mail was transferred to the Imperial Airways DH 66 City of Karachi

 on 3 May and flown to Delhi, arriving on 5 May.

From Delhi it joined the regular Imperial Airways flight to London

where it eventually arrived on 14 May, 27 days after leaving New Zealand.

 The Japanese sent the bulk of their squadrons Oscars are 144 hunters and hunters have added 27 night twin Ki-45 Nick. Across the 63 waiting hunters with Kittyhawks, Warhawks, Hurricanes

and well-known models for the first time the Mohawks. The Allies were apparently thrown new squadrons in battle. The Japanese lost 15 aircraft fighter against allies.

A 2nd raid follows with zeros. Warhawk is an additional shot.
A raid against minesweepers seen in the port of Chittagong

 is a bloody defeat for the Japanese who unfortunately lost 7 bombers left without escort.
A few hours later the Blenheims and Hudsons trying to stop the advance

of the armored division of the Guard on Akyab. Successive raids fail.

A British bomber crashes into the jungle.
That same morning the B17 bomb nickel mining in the region of Nouméa. Some excavators and conveyors are damaged.
In the afternoon the rain bombs on Akyab. Despite the means of closing the base Britons lose only 3 hunters against a Japanese bomber. The basis of Akyab is damaged but not at a level sufficient to asphyxiate.
Evil refueled, the 14th regiment of the guard backed by a fraction of a para regiment

was expelled from Cox’s Bazar by the Brigade of Gurkhas brigade and British troops.
Everything is for the Japanese to rebuild in this area.

The AVG squadron suffered heavy losses but opposes months since the Japanese Oscars

June ,2nd.1942



Oscars raid conducted on the basis of Chittagong hours to six aircraft squadrons plus the full AVG a total of 65 hunters. The Japanese are upgraded to having effective only sent 37 aircraft squadron together. 10 Japanese aircraft were shot down against 11 of the next ally. Japan ranks emerge as 1 double with 10 wins and 3 to 5 wins as new. Their exploits are celebrated throughout Japan.
In the afternoon a new model B25 Mitchell bomber used against the 112th Infantry Regiment to no avail.(121)




in the standing row) with the officers of VMSB-241 on Midway, May 1942.

Ward flew in Major Henderson’s Third Section, with Captain Armond DeLalio as his leader and wingman.

 On June 3, 1942,


On June 3rd 1942

a PBY Catalina from Midway discovered the Japanese invasion force and US long range bombers launched attacks against but inflicted no damage. On the morning of the 4th the Americans adjusted their search patterns in and the Japanese came into range of Midway and commenced their first strike against the island.  In response land based aircraft from Midway attacked the Japanese carrier force taking heavy casualties and failing to damage the Japanese task force.


The American Carrier task forces launched their strike groups at the Japanese fleet leaving enough aircraft behind of the Combat Air Patrol and Anti-submarine patrol.  As the Americans winged toward the Japanese fleet the Japanese were in confused.  A scouting report by an aircraft that had been delayed at launch discovered US ships but did not identify a carrier until later into the patrol.  This was the Yorktown and TF 17. The Japanese attempted to recover their strike aircraft and prepare for a second strike on the island and then on discovery of the carrier embarked on the task of unloading ground attack ordnance in favor of aerial torpedoes and armor piercing bombs.  The hard working Japanese aircrew did not have time to stow the ordnance removed from the aircraft but by 1020 they had the Japanese strike group ready to launch against the US carriers.


As the Japanese crews worked the Japanese carriers were engaged in fending off attacks by the US torpedo bomber squadrons, VT-6 from Enterprise, VT-8 from Hornet and VT-3 from Yorktown.  The Japanese Combat Air Patrol ripped into the slow, cumbersome and under armed TBD Devastators as they came in low to launch their torpedoes.  Torpedo Eight from Hornet under the command of LCDR John C Waldron pressed the attack hard but all 15 of the Devastators were shot down.  Only Ensign George Gay’s aircraft was able to launch its torpedo before being shot down and Gay would be the sole survivor of the squadron.


Torpedo 6 under the command of LCDR Eugene Lindsey suffered heavy casualties losing 10 of 14 aircraft with Lindsey being one of the casualties.  The last group of Devastators to attack was Torpedo 3 under the command of LCDR Lem Massey from the Yorktown.  These aircraft were also decimated and Massey killed but they had drawn the Japanese Combat Air Patrol down to the deck leaving the task force exposed to the Dive Bombers of the Enterprise and Yorktown.


There had been confusion among the Americans as to the exact location of the Japanese Carriers, the Bombing 8 and Scouting 8 of Hornet did not find the carriers and had to return for lack of fuel with a number of bombers and their fighter escort having to ditch inn the ocean and wait for rescue.  The Enterprise group under LCDR Wade McClusky was perilously low on fuel when the wake of a Japanese destroyer was spotted.  McClusky followed it to the Japanese Task Force.  The Yorktown’s group under LCDR Max Leslie arrived about the same time.  The found the skies empty of Japanese aircraft. Aboard the Japanese ships there was a sense of exhilaration as each succeeding group of attackers was brought down and with their own aircraft ready to launch and deal a fatal blow to the American carrier wondered how big their victory would be.


At 1020 the first Zero of the Japanese attack group began rolling down the flight deck of the flagship Akagi, aboard Kaga aircraft were warming up as they were on the Soryu

VB-3 under LCDR Max Leslie from the Yorktown stuck the Soryu with 17 aircraft, only 13 of which had bombs due to an electronic arming device malfunction on 4 of the aircraft including the squadron leader Leslie.  Despite this they dove on the Soryu at 1025 hitting that ship with 3 and maybe as many as 5 bombs. Soryu like her companions burst into flames as the ready aircraft and ordnance exploded about her deck. She was ordered abandoned at 1055 and would sink at 1915 taking 718 of her crew with her.


The remaining Japanese flattop the Hiryu attained the same fate later in the day after engaging in an epic duel with the Yorktown which her aircraft heavily damaged. Yorktown was abandoned after a second strike but when she did not sink her her returned to attempt to save her. However despite their efforts she and the destroyer USS Hamman DD-412 were torpedoed by the Japanese Submarine I-168. Hamman sank almost immediately with heavy loss of life while Yorktown sank on the morning of the 7th.



June 4th 2602



the Japanese carrier Soryu during the Battle of Midway, on June 4, 1942.


during the attack on the Japanese fleet off Midway, in June of 1942

Figure 9: Destroyers stand by to pick up survivors as the carrier USS
Yorktown (CV-5) is being abandoned during the Battle of Midway, 4 June 1942,


following Japanese torpedo plane attacks. Destroyers at left are (left to right): Benham (DD-397), Russell (DD-414), and Balch (DD-363). Destroyer at right is Anderson (DD-411). This picture was photographed from USS Pensacola (CA-24). Official US Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the US National Archives. Click on photograph for larger image.

Figure 10: USS
Benham (DD-397) during the Battle of Midway with 720 survivors from the carrier USS Yorktown on board. She is nearing USS Portland (CA-33) at about 1900 hrs on 4 June 1942. A report of unidentified aircraft caused Benham to break away before transferring any of the survivors to the cruiser and they remained on board her until the following morning. Note Benham‘s oil-stained sides. The abandoned Yorktown is in the right distance. US Naval History and Heritage Command Photograph. Click on photograph for larger image.





June 6th 2602


Figure 11: Survivors from the destroyer USS
Hammann (DD-412) are brought ashore at Pearl Harbor from USS Benham (DD-397), a few days after their ship was sunk on 6 June 1942, towards the end of the Battle of Midway. Note Navy ambulance in left foreground, many onlookers, depth-charge racks on Benham‘s stern, and open sights on her after 5-inch gun mount. Official US Navy Photograph, now in the collections of the National Archives. Click on photograph for larger image.

June 7:1942


The air war after 2-day break restarts finest. The main mission of the day is for the Japanese to halt the march of the 28th Brigade of Gurkhas who returned after Cox’s Bazar advance on Akyab retirement and threat paratroopers of Yokosuka SNLF Assault Guards and 14th Regiment.
A large bomber raid is planned in the afternoon but in the morning the Oscars fly zone to eliminate the threat before the arrival of the bombers. Wise precaution! The Warkawks the AVGsont already there and fall on Oscars.Seule the numerical superiority of Japanese avoids disaster. 78 Oscars in a confused and whirling successful battle to counter the 23 hunters Americans. Immediate balance is not glorious. 2 Oscars are killed against only 3 Warhawks.

The B17 U.S. Air Force advantage of the situation and the lack of hunters Magwe to bomb oil wells. The damage is significant.

In the afternoon the sky is free for 66 bombardiersjaponais who raining bombs on the Gurkhas. Given the difficulty of seeing clearly the objectives to land due to dense vegetation cover (jungle) the shelling is quite successful in putting out of action temporarily more or less a hundred Indians. The Japanese did not expect more. Warhawk is an additional shot by the escort.

As they expected the Japanese receive full front attack Gurkhas in the afternoon. Gurkhas stunned by aviation have lost their bite. They face elite troops who quit on their net start line. 400 soldiers of the British Empire turn back having lost any desire offensive. The Japanese continue their decline to recross the river and the area demangroves Kaladari Akyab separating from the rest of Burma.(121)

June 8, 1942



Lyndon Baines Johnson (on right) shaking hands with Brigadier-General Martin Scanlon

on the morning of 9 June 1942 at 7 Mile airfield in Port Moresby prior to him taking off for a bombing raid on Lae

June 9, 1942

The British are desperately trying to open the road from Cox’s Bazar to Akyab still besieged. Once again, the Lancers Patialas equipped with some armored brigade of Gurkhas and frontally attack the positions of the 14th regiment of the Guard and paras 1 Yokusuka. Jungle advantage defense. The fights are summarized in firefights throughout the day with a few dozen casualties on both sides. The next day the Japanese bombers pounded the allied units to provide air colleagues infantrymen still clinging. June 11 Oscars escorting bombers face the 135th squadron of the RAF equipped with Hurricanes. The British lost 3 devices. Japanese raids fail to halt infiltration of Gurkhas. On June 11, the Japanese semi-circled abandoned their positions, leaving 130 men on the ground. The British lost 30 men and four plows.

June 10, 1942:


The base is again bombed Akyab by three heavy cruisers (Furutaka, Suzuya and Mogami) plus 2 light cruisers (Yura and Kashima). Launched incendiary shells on the village trigger huge fires. Air Base, the main objective of the raid is relatively spared. On the way back wing is caught by Blenheims and Hudsons who drop their bombs at random. The next day the attack was renewed but protect Zero Wing. 3 bomber crashed into the sea.(121)


Heavy bomber raids continue on lesinstallations oil Magwe too exposed. The Oscars have biendu wrong way to counter these raids bites pin lentementmais but surely leading to the reduction of petroleum potential of Burma(121)

June 12, 1942:


Despite the incessant bombing the British reoccupied the airbase Akyab. Japanese reinforcements led by two squadrons equipped with 2 new models, hunters and A6M3 Tojos Ki-44-IIa.

The new model A6M3 Zero was released a few weeks ahead of schedule. The Navy plans to equip one squadron.

The Tojo should in principle replace the Oscars are for the moment had the most products. Used mainly in Burma, the Oscars have killed as many enemy aircraft but also the model that has accumulated more losses. Several squadrons Oscars count more than 100 victories.

The staff of the 5th Air Division responsible for operations in Burma launches its fighter squadrons on Akyab. The shock is one of the most violent of the war. Allies rounded up many times the AVG reconstituted with Warhawks Mohawks and a squadron of a total of over 60 aircraft. Despite their numerical inferiority initial new Japanese models shoot four Warhawks losing two Tojos. Occur then 41 Oscars are breaking six new devices allies losing three of them. The bulk of the A6M3 Zero arrives and kills 4 devices without any damage Japanese side. Balance at the end of day indicate that the Allies lost fifty devices. Indeed many had not recognized as killed but were damaged during the fighting seems to have crashed on landing rutted tracks of Akyab. The next day the Allies were again abandoned base. Warhawks few who could not be evacuated because their damage is destroyed on the ground by bombing succeeding.

Advantage of the situation Allied bombers pounded the Japanese who oppose the advance on Akyab Gurkhas without much result due to the density of the DCA(121).



Use the standard version of the Navy special aviation postcard.
March 18, 2006 submissions
cable Saitama door.
Addressed to “circle Gokoku” special cruiser.

Round Gokoku special cruiser
Renamed in building a circle round Gokoku countries Osaka merchant ship cruise ships, ship entered service as excellent 10438t, Osaka merchant.






 Let’s attack in the arrivals from French Indochina

It is a post from outside of Yu addressed to Japan after the war.

That’s what French Indochina (now, Phnom Penh, Cambodia) censored at the central station of Saigon in submissions, addressed to the Japanese trading company on June 13, 1942.

It is a post from outside of Yu addressed to Japan after the war.

That’s what French Indochina (now, Phnom Penh, Cambodia) censored at the central station of Saigon in submissions, addressed to the Japanese trading company on June 13, 1942.

Let me rest a detailed description today.
To return to the normal version from next year please wait a while, soon (miso Ψ (` ‘) Ψ is not written properly deadline) (^ ^) m (_) m
Was established after World War II, the SDF also make changes name three times, I have today. Police Reserve is beginning, the next era was called constabulary.
Today we will introduce the current registration of the submissions in the annex of the era constabulary constabulary such(124)


June 14, 1942:


Akyab is again shelled by Japanese cruisers relighting fires just off. On the way back wing falls on the USS Permit and Dutch KVII beyond the grenadage due to their ability to plunge well below the zone of blast depth charges.

Against by the KX can not be positioned to launch a torpedo on a cargo part of a huge convoy off Phuket, destination tourism grâceau become famous 60 years later.

The large escort forced to dive. A new attack KX occurs in the day. Repelled by escort the submarine was forced to retreat with damage.(121)


U.S. and British bombers return to Magwe. Devices is one of 11 killed and nine damaged.


June 15, 1942:


The air war still rages over Chittagong.
The British remounted their 67th and 79th squadrons with 43 Hurricanes. To top up two other squadrons are equipped Mokawks and Warhawks.

The 1st wave of Oscar tries to take the advantage over Chittagong with forty machines. It was partially successful. The British lost 8 devices against 5 on the Japanese side. Then come the new zeros A6M3. Half of British aircraft present at the first attack are no longer there. Japanese crush their opponents by shooting four Allies while losing only one aircraft.

The 3rd wave consists of 44 Oscars find only 12 opponents. A Briton was killed, other devices abandon the fight.

In the early afternoon the Japanese back. Losses continue to climb with Oscar lost against three British fighters. A new batch of Oscars arriving later can not find anything in front of it. The British were no longer able to resist the Japanese.

Moments later arise sixty bombers each carrying four 250 kg bombs. Two British aircraft crashed on the slopes, but the result is disappointing raid, many bombs did not reach their goal because of the strong base that protects the DCA.(121)

June 17:1942


From sunrise comes a huge raid on Chittagong. 124 Japanese fighters trying to eliminate the 40 Allied fighters defending the British base. 5 British are slaughtered against a Japanese. A 2nd wave comes an hour later with 67 Oscars. 6 British planes are shot against two Japanese.(121)



That same night Cox’s Bazar defended by the 16th Australian Brigade and the 53rd British brigade visited by four Japanese cruisers that irrigate copiously port without much results. On the way back the O21 awaits watchers but decidedly Japanese in great shape that night spotted the submarine. Rushing to 28 knots the escort destroyers have not the time to deepen and disappear into the darkness.(121)

June 22, 1942:


The 28th Brigade of Gurkhas supported by the 254th Armored Brigade British tried again to open the road to Akyab. The Japanese have replaced the paratroopers and infantry regiment of the Guard guarding position by a regiment fees, the 56th, and especially a newly formed armored division belonging to the Guard. What follows in the jungle the largest tank battle in south-east Asia. 300 British gear face 250 Japanese tanks. The British harassed all day by Japanese bombers are grounded. They must fall back on their starting line having lost 80 tanks.(121)

June 23, 1942:


The Japanese cruisers bombarded overnight Cox’s Bazar. The positions of the 16th Australian Brigade and 53rd British brigade are barely begun.(121)

June 28, 1942


The intensity of the air battles has decreased a lot in the sky Burma. However skirmishes still punctuate chronic two camps. An outpost held by the 112th Infantry Regiment was attacked by Japanese Hudsons.Les Oscars, placed in ambush, shoot 9, nine others dropped their bombs at random and fled. Mitchells training does not insist and turned around.(121)








Northern or the President when the government officials, Japanese Comrade People’s Friendship visit to Eastern France


French leader of the East are discussing intimate with his Japanese comrades





Japan you carry a gun to protect his comrade Eastern France



VN army troops with the same emperor in the second-fruit trees.

Before you wonder do not know the origin of the hat where mortars for the Army. Now they can claim is derived from the Japanese imperial army natural
Japs are different in that the helmet again, fighting the helm, not the mortar for cap … cool, like the Germans in North Africa or France in a number of British troops elsewhere
And our army is always required … cool


Maneuver is Pu-liter patrol against illegal racing and security for people

political economy in the Far East “in the hope of the Japanese occupation

Mitsubishi tractors (by the Japanese Emperor Hirohito ODA to support the people of eastern France to increase agricultural output) This is a spicy jtrong the first machine with a blade diameter of 12.7 mm cayf

How many sheets at a distance is difficult to distinguish Japanese dc ng ng Vietnamese, but machine vision and saw the Japanese near real fat.
Do you want to ask this, I told his grandfather after his government won in 45 with a number of Japanese soldiers to surrender his army and government service (this one’s for sure) they teach you how to fight , but then not shooting well, but for whatever reason in my village the soldiers that were brought ng all executed (beheaded and buried into the hole for always), this status can not take place and where not more than why? Is it under the pressure of his troops that Chiang had to do this because after this ng Japanese soldiers to surrender, everyone treated each other so well that
Japanese troops in Vietnam during World War II

This route has become the lifeline for Chiang’s own, the Hai Phong – Kunming has shipped 48% of the most important necessities for the Kuomintang forces. In 1939, when Japan requested a half times the French authorities in Vietnam to stop transporting goods to Chiang Kai-shek, the “mother country, only very limited ability to protect the colony.

Japanese military leaders believe that, cut off supplies to Chiang Kai-shek can accelerate the victory of Japan, and they became furious when full Georges Catroux did not do it. Recognizing the inability of the government is not elected in France in the defense of Southeast Asian empire his Catroux in an effort to thoroughly prevent the occupation of the army which the emperor more powerful, had yielded a required number of Japanese. Within months, the transport of weapons to Chongqing almost ended, but food supplies and vital medicines continues to ROC. To cut off this supply route, the Japanese had bombed railway, but without much effect. During the remaining months of 1939, Japan continues to require close to railway Catroux southern China also continued to evade the requirements of Japan.

However, after France fell in June 1940, Catroux found himself serving Vichy government should decide that the more limited concessions to Japan is a lot better option than losing the entire colony. Believe that if bargain wisely enough he can keep Indochina as the last ramparts of the independent territories of France, Catroux has allowed the Japanese inspectors monitor the transport of materials in Chinese.

Read more info at

Dr Iwan CD-ROM The Dai Nipon War In Vietnam Indochina.


July 1942
Reorganized BIA and become Burma Defence Army (BDA). Appointed as Commander-in-Chief Colonel Aung San.


July,4 th.1942

July 4, 1942:


3 waves of Chittagong night led mainly by Sallys bombers destroy only 3 hunters Hurricanes despite substantial resources committed. Bomber does not fit.(121)








Japanese Occupation Burma

July,16th. 1942

legal-size cover franked with 1a Yano Seal strip of four (Scott 2N10), tied by “Experimental PO” postmarks with “1941″ date error. “Rangoon Cantonment” backstamp (July 18). Minor wear not affecting stamps or markings





Revive the British air war in Burma. 6 bombers Wellingtons come to 18,000 feet Magwe. The 50th Sentai abandoned his Oscar put into service in December 41 and has been retrofitted with Tojos Ki-44 IIa brand new. The Japanese positioned at 20 000 feet plunge on British bombers by shooting 3 devices. Others give up. The British were the vanguard of B17 bombers toughest otherwise. Oscars hunters break their teeth on the block 9 aircraft flying in formation compact. A Japanese fighter down to the ground in flames. Hunters Tojos more manageable and equipped with two additional guns shoot a B17.

Tojos hunters gradually fall hunters Oscars on Burma front.
DCA recently reinforced with pieces arrived in Japan at great expense to 8 devices damage that does not prevent them from dropping 500-pound bombs on the runways of the airbase. The damage is quickly repaired.

B17 bombers committed by Americans on the Burma front are difficult to counter. The only hope of the Japanese is damaging hoping they crash on the way back to their base.

In the afternoon Blenheims escorted by Kittyhawks attack armored Armoured Division whose advance guard of Chittagong has been blocked for a month by a brigade of Gurkhas. The results were zero(121)








Pike submarine attempting to enter the port of Rangoon probably undermine it. Identified by the squadron of Admiral Tanaka, assigned to cover this area of ​​operation is pursued in the delta leading to the port of Rangoon. The next day the Dutch F-20 is caught in the delta probably going to drop mines.(121)




The road from Akyab to Cox’s Bazar is blocked for months, Indo-British and Japanese facing face in the jungle. Akyab held by the British is cut from two months the rest of the British Empire. The Japanese air raids on positions of Brigade of Gurkhas and an armored regiment are daily, almost without opposition. For the first time in many years the squadron of Kittyhawks New Zealand try to resist the Japanese. The fight is between no thank you A6M3 Zeros and New Zealanders who had lost nine against one zero.

The Japanese were routed in the greatest secrecy on potholed roads and terrible of Burma 39,000 men and 1,100 vehicles and tanks belonging to an army training news: the 21st.

This mass crosses the Irrawaddy river in the worst conditions and greater difficulties. She joined a vanguard of 4,000 men which has been stalled for two months between Akyab and Cox’s Bazar.Le lock on the road Akyab-Cox’s Bazar defended by the 254th British armored brigade, the 45th Armoured Regiment of the 28th Brigade and ereconnaissance Gurkha explodes . 3600 soldiers of King George V in the jungle disperse or disappear without a trace. Brigade of Gurkhas disbands. It is destroyed and disappears altogether from the British order of battle. 220 tanks were lost.(121)




The air war had paused several weeks gradually reborn. The sweep Tojos hunters Mokawks 17th squadron of the RAF over Cox’sBazar. The British lost two aircraft.

By against the sky three squadrons Akyab expect Tojos. Hurricanes shoot two Japanese losing one of them.

Poor coordination due to emissions Posts disrupted by tropical storms prevents hunters twin-engined bombers Nick synchronize with the bombers yet the same parties base.Les Japanese lose an apparatus for incursion become useless.

Japanese bombers then arise without an escort. 6 aircraft were shot down by the Hurricanes. 22 aircraft are damaged. Some crash return. The raid was a fiasco without any result.

At the same time the Blenheims attempt to disrupt the progress of the Japanese 21th Army Akyab without conclusive result.(121)

Battle of the central Pacific:

The Battle of Marcus slip gradually eastward, American convoys attempting to flee the Japanese squadrons much faster. In fact allied ships are so numerous that only a few stumble and are caught in the net. Like a herd fleeing from predators, lower or larger are caught and eliminated. Thus the seven vessels in a convoy attempting to join Midway aircraft is intercepted by Shokaku group. 5 transport is severely affected. The escort Tydeman disappears and the enormous transportation President Jackson. The sinking of the former liner leads to the disappearance of 870 GIs. Transportation Franklin Bell comes out without a scratch. Aircraft fail to reach the corvette Thyme.

Transport President Jackson undergoing Japanese naval attack.


The anti-aircraft cruiser Atlanta Marcus left only the day before taking the road to the northeast. It is far too late. It is overtaken by the Group’s aircraft Hosho-Taiyo which housed five bombs. The days are counted from the cruiser.





Training Blenheims, Hudsons and B17 are trying to stop or at least slow down the Japanese forces advancing on Akyab. A squadron of dive Tojos on US-British Blenheims and shot 12. Knowing their firepower Japanese whalers have not even attempted to address the flying fortresses. The raid ally no results.(121)




The British resumed the air war in Burma. A squadron of 12 Hurricanes sent to scout bombers, flying over the Japanese troops march on Akyab.
Tojos 30 Oscars and hidden in cloud formations based on the Hurricanes. 2 British are slaughtered, autresavions recede. A British squadron 2nd arises. A confused scrum engages with a camera shot on each side. Then comes the big 40 bombers escorted by 27 Hurricanes. Fighting between hunters allow bombers pass. Japanese troops arrive to hide in the jungle but some bombs are a target. 40 men are knocked out. 4 Japanese fighters were lost against three British. 1 Blenheim is shot. For the first time the Mitchells are emerging.(121)


August  1942

Aung San had no illusions that August 1st  would bring real independence for Burma.

He had already started making plans for armed resistance against the Japanese.

An emissary of the BNA made his way to India to tell the British army leaders t

that Aung San would lead the BNA in resistance  to the Japanese army in Burma when the time was opportune.

 Meanwhile Aung San was trying to cope with factionalism within Burma.

The Burmese communists were always opposed to cooperation with the Japanese who were allies of the fascist states fighting the Soviet Union. Aung San arranged a meeting and the creation

 of an Anti-Fascist Organization (AFO) which the communists could support and which he would be the military leader of. He also strove to discourage younger officers from initiating resistance

to the Japanese on their own before he felt it was time to act.

Aung San was also at this time making agreements with the leaders of various ethnic groups.

There were open clashes between the BNA and the ethnic groups. Aung San convinced the ethnic goup leaders that if they cooperated with his political movement that their interests would be respected.

 The ethnic groups came to trust Aung San as they would no other Burman.


August ,3th. 1943




Oof cover Dai nippon emergency overprint Lampong Hinomaru red ball , type 1 during Sumatra under DN Singapore administration(April 1st 1942-1943), very rare, Ihave sold one postally used cover with this stamps to bulterman that put in his catalogue

Top of Form

1 August 1942:


From the dawn air battle takes over the 21th Army. 22 Warhawks trying to shake forty Tojos and Oscars. This is the collapse in the Allied camp who loses 8 hunters against a Tojo. Hurricanes, much more efficient, straightens the score by shooting an Oscar. Then follows the usual raid bombers. The Tojos break a wall of B17 Mitchells and Blenheims escorted by Hurricanes. The Japanese lost three aircraft shot down a Blenheim and Mitchell. The bombs rained down on the troops of the 21th Army, which well camouflaged by the jungle lost few men. A Japanese raid on Akyab is unsuccessful.(121)


August 3, 1942


The squadron returned five Japanese cruisers bomb Akyab. The results are modest compared to the resources committed. On the way back to the submarine HMS Permit intercept vessels but gets no result, as the Japanese destroyers unable to identify which parts are four torpedoes.(121)

August 4, 1942


Shelved for a long time, with some sporadic outbreaks, the Burmese front just turn it on. The Allies launched two bombing raids on two new armed troops, 15th and 16th. These two formations are addressing the 21th Army positions on the track Akyab-Cox’s Bazar and headed to Cox’s Bazar. Raids do not work, the protection of the jungle by his office.

In the afternoon Sallys 20 bombers escorted by 20 fighters Oscars come over Cox’s Bazar. Coverage provided by Hurricanes and Kittyhawks Mohawks ahead. 11 Japanese aircraft were lost against nine Allied aircraft. The raid was a total failure.

His back well protected by the 15th and 16th armies, the 21th day before the army arrived Akyab launched his attack. The instructions given to Japanese soldiers were to assess the strength of the enemy by launching a sounding force supported by tanks in 1100.

Soon the city’s defenses are pressed. The 6600 defenders whose backbone is formed by an Australian commando regiment, the Black Force, British armored cars and some are overwhelmed by the 39,000 soldiers of the Empire built in 21th and 33th divisions. This August 4th Churchill faced a new disaster suffered by the British Empire. Akyab is lost with 6600 soldiers resulting in the disappearance of 4 units. Akyab had suffered a seat since April. Regularly bombed by the Japanese fleet cruisers of the British fold their planes or on Chittagong Cox’s Bazaar. The wisest course would have been to evacuate the base, but Churchill had never accepted.

Akyab and temples(121)

August 5, 1942:


In the afternoon a powerful bomber raid Sallys Helens and is set to Cox’s Bazar. As the aircraft just off the HQ 3rd Air Division in order to divert raid on Akyab. Indeed, in the late morning seaplane patrol in the Gulf of Bengal have reported the presence of British ships near the recent conquest of the Rising Sun. So after the Japanese, the British decided to bomb that unfortunate city, became the point of attachment of the war in Burma. One can imagine the horrors of the British Admiralty, unwilling to launch its newest ships in a risky and injunctions requiring Churchill lords of the sea a response after the loss of Akyab. The Royal Navy in the Indian Ocean absent for months, aligned cruisers Marblehead, Capetown, Dauntless, Ceres, Danae, Dutch Van Heemskerck plus two battleships. The battleships Resolution and Ramillies are dinosaurs considered by Admiral Sommerville as floating coffins. They participated in the first World War and the Battle of Jutland. Their only asset is their endowment 380mm guns.

The British Admiralty did not hesitate to take the initiative in Burma to engage two class battleships “R”
Here Ramillies

HMS Resolution lined loose its 380mm of Akyab.

No bombs, launched at 15,000 feet, do not touch the British. Bombers lost their escort route, they are attacked by hunters and lost three of them. The naval bombardment guided seaplanes board is accurate. Port and air base facilities were once again ravaged, if any were needed. The Japanese lost 200 men.(121)


Top of Form

August 6, 1942:

Burma and the Bay of Bengal:

The British squadron launches 2nd night bombing on Akyab. The results are void for lack of visibility.

The day before, the Japanese rounded up the entire Southeast Asia is their torpedo bombers Nells and Bettys by focusing on Rangoon. They pass under the command of the 3rd Air Division and the Zeros responsible escort to ensure perfect coordination between different squadrons. The aim is to torpedo the British ships. Alas! In the morning the sky is completely clogged and the Royal Navy faded into the Bay of Bengal. No plane takes off. In the afternoon two ships were spotted off the coast of Chittagong. 11 Nells escorted by 56 Zeros occur on the port. 6 Mohawks expect the Japanese. Zero is a lost against a fighter of the RAF. The auxiliary cruiser Cornwallis succumbed to the impact of two torpedoes. The tanker Athelduke, bigger, cash 2 Long Lances. It remains afloat. Small consolation. The British battleships were found.(121)




On 7 August 1942, U.S. Marines landed on Guadalcanal in the first amphibious assault against Japanese-occupied territory in the Pacific.

U.S. marines bring supplies ashore in the first days
of the Guadalcanal campaign in August 1942

August 7, 1942:


Japanese raids succeed all morning on Cox’s Bazaar. The aim is the conquest of the air supremacy preparing for the arrival of the bombers. Zeros and Oscars Tojos face the Hurricanes for the first time to Airacobras. Losses are significant with 3 against Japanese whalers killed 12 on the British side. The squadron of Airacobras, fighter bombers little maneuvering is almost annihilated. In the afternoon the bombers come in several waves on the positions of an armored brigade, an air base, 2 Australian brigades, an armored regiment. The raid is inconclusive.(121)


Units of the 16th Army, a total of 33 000 men and 1,400 armored vehicles arrived at Cox’s Bazar in the worst conditions because of the monsoon that slows movement, slows the arrival of supplies and causes malaria. The recovery of this modest base, captured by a hand in May, the Japanese lost again in June, may not be simple. 14,000 soldiers of the British Empire defend supported by 430 tanks. Among them the 16th and 19th brigades Australian elite troops who fought in the Libyan desert and the survivors of previous battles as the 53rd Brigade and the 254th Armored Brigade British.
August 10, 1942


Top of Form

August 21, 1942:


The Allies have closed during the last weeks of their losses squadrons stationed in India. The arrival of new squadrons recovery air battle in the sky with the Burmese 5th and 615th squadrons laRAF with the Hurricanes last model, the Ic, and with an American unit equipped Warhawks

The goal of this battle is the control of the airspace above Cox’s Bazar to allow bombers of two camps operate with impunity against enemy positions.

Several Japanese squadrons led by veterans, all present in the area since February, face the Allied formations. First time in 21 84avions allies to confront Oscars coming in small packages. Japanese airmen outperform their expertise but their opponents gradually the Japanese must withdraw for lack of ammunition or fuel or technical problems fina … At l4 devices are slaughtered each side. A fresh squadron of 21 Oscars arises when the airmen already tired. Japanese 6 opponents down without any loss. Then it was the turn of a squadron of 4 devices Tojos who slaughters losing a plane. A new squadron of Hurricanes 2 Oscars blind but losing a unit. 30 Tojos arise. Most drivers are cracks with more than 200 missions to the counter. The squadron has a record of 130 victories approved. In a few minutes the Japanese shoot 7 devices without any loss.

End of the day the Allied air losses reach 50 hunters, thirty damaged devices having crashed during the return. The Japanese lost 10 aircraft due to various accidents.

The arrival of American hunters P38 Burmese in the sky, yet technically superior to the Japanese aircraft has not really changed the balance of forces.(121)


War in Burma

Drivers of two camps continue to face over Cox’s Bazar. 9 Tojos a fighter against three manage to kill six hunters but losing three of them. Then a massive raid of 54 Oscars sweeps the sky. 4 Allied fighters are lost. For the 2nd time the Japanese face of P 38 Lightning. The formidable firepower of these planes can not compensate for their low maneuverability. One of these devices is killed and three Hurricanes.

A reconnaissance in force on Cox’s Bazar ends in bloodshed. Mikado 440 soldiers were killed or injured victim against battery fire. In front there are 13,000 men.(121)

August 23, 1942


Conducted a reconnaissance in force east of Cox’s Bazar on the road to Chittagong first city of the British Empire in India out of Burma (now in Bangladesh) by 25,000 men of 21th and 33th Japanese DI clashes the determination of a light armored regiment, the 3rd British hussar, but especially an armored regiment of the 6th Australian cavalry unit and a new arrival on the scene, the 70th DI Kingdom. Without armored Japanese offensive side without getting bogged down lead.

A division of Japanese infantry movement is on the road between Akyab and Cox’s Bazar. Burmese population feels absolutely not affected by this war “colonialist(121)


August,24 th ,1942

Telp from M rang sing about Soya beans(Kedelai) , coconut oil and soap (distribution) (119.MB)



Solomons on 24 August 1942. Builder: Yokohama Dockyard Company, Yokohama


Launching of HMAS Fremantle, August 1942


August 25, 1942:



The sky is still as deadly Burma for two aviation camps. The Oscars compensate for their lack of firepower with maneuverability and agility of their drivers. Pass weapon morning ended with the loss of 12 Allied fighters Lightnings including 4 against 4 Oscars. The British undertake a new squadron, the 17th of the RAF flying Martlet II.121)


August 27, 1942


The Allies began a new tactic of war by bombing air bases Burmese night. Meiktila is defended by Tojos poorly adapted to night fighting. The powerful machine guns B17 bombers and F Mitchells, not only pushing the hunters, but shoot 3. Lesrésultats bombardment are zero. A new alert occurs in the afternoon. 2 Hudsons do not fit.

A Cox’s Bazar 36 000 men of the 16th army went on the offensive. They face the two Australian brigades supported by a British brigade and an armored brigade especially in all 13,000 hommes.Le jungle terrain and fortifications favor defenders. Commonwealth soldiers retreated in good order on a defensive line further back. The battle stops itself in deluges of rain.(121)



August 28, 1942


Night raids now punctuate the nights of Meiktila. The Japanese have not found ways to counter the Allied bombers strongly defended and bristling with machine guns. Japanese shoot 1 Wellington, damaging two Flying Fortresses but lose three zeros.(121)

 August 29, 1942:


Meiktila Air Base halfway between Rangoon and Mandalay is awake at night. Type B17F Flying Fortress bombers and Mitchells arise again in small packets for them for the night. Two squadrons, one of A6M3 Zeros and other night fighters Kaia Nick trying to confront the powerful Allied flying machines but were repulsed by machine gun turrets bristling on the fuselage of these formidable opponents.


The only merit of these interventions are unsuccessful raids to disrupt and force opponents to drop their bombs at random. Zero is still a lost aircraft and crashed to the ground by a 500 kg bomb.

Nocturnal visitors: B25 Mitchells bomber. Mass produced model is now met by the Japanese on all fronts.

Another nocturnal visitor: the B17 bomber.
Bristling with heavy machine Japanese whalers lacking firepower are struggling to counter it.

In the morning an aerial battle major fires over Cox’s Bazar. Oscars face 36 to 59 hunters alliésd e models. Japanese, overwhelmed by the number 7 machines lose against five Allied fighters. A 2nd squadron equipped on Tojos then arises and restores balance by shooting 7 Allied aircraft losses without wiping.

A P39 shot down a Zero over Cox’s Bazar. This case is still rare in Burma.

The 63rd Indian Brigade having walked in the jungle without being seen, perhaps for weeks, appeared on the backs of Japanese cutting line railway from Rangoon, bordering Burma. To counter this new threat the Japanese have nothing on hand to immediately available. Lack of a better one squadron equipped with the new Oscar Ki43 IIa attack at low altitude Indian unity. The new aircraft can carry a bomb under each wing 250 kg which makes it a formidable fighter bomber. In a single pass of the 32 Oscars are hors de combat a hundred men.

The new fighter Ki IIa 43 carries two 250 kg bombs under its wings. This plane is awesome as ground support attack at low altitude.(121)

South Pacific

The Bettys strike again allied convoy trying to strengthen Norfolk Island. President Adams the big ship is hit by a torpedo, transportation Mac Cawley capsizes under the blows of 4 impacts of eels. American heavy bombers return over Nouméa. The raid does not work after removing two Flying Fortresses. Zero is a shot.

A Japanese naval raid trying to attack a minesweeper and destroyer USS Sands to Pago Pago turns into fiasco. 5 Zeros escorting destroyers Kates are lost after being intercepted by Warkawks P 40B. One American fighter is down.

By Sierstad against the tanker is torpedoed and sunk devan Wallis tles by Kates took off from an aircraft carrier




Top of Form


August 31, 1942:


The Japanese response to night raids allieslancent also their night raids. Chittagong asleep when, at 2 hours in the morning, a hundred bombers Helens Sallys and come in several waves on the British base. DCA dense reacts quickly. Bombers flying at 7000 feet which makes them vulnerable. 2 and 5 Sallys Helens become fireballs disintegrating. During this time the bombs fall. 5 fighters and torpedo bomber Vildebeest are pulverized by bombs of 250 kg, 23 aircraft were screened shine and made temporarily unavailable.

Meiktila almost simultaneously attacked by the British. 2 Sallys are destroyed on the tracks while the Japanese whalers completely miss their interception.

In the Strait of Malacca Dutch submarine torpedo KX cargo Tamaki Maru integrated heavily escorted convoy yet. The nature of the cargo, fuel, causing damage control. The ship is lost.(121)

September 1942


The rigors of the army life for Aung San and his cohorts resulted in his hospitalization for malaria and exhaustions. Aung San came under the care of a senior staff nurse, Ma Khin Kyi. He fell in love with her and convinced her to marry him.


They were married in September of 1942.

The Japanese government continued the facade of sanctioning Burmese independence.

6th September 1942
Married with Daw Khin Kyi.

September,1st, 1942



Top of Form

September 1, 1942


Once again dogfights high intensity occur in Burma. The Japanese committed no less than 100 Oscars to overcome hunting ally. The British, New Zealand, Australian and American line 2 times less devices with 6 different models. Fighting over Chittagong are extremely deadly for two camps. The Allies lost 15 fighters against 12 for the Japanese. 3 aces disappear in furious scrums, another wounded.

A land operations to Cox’s Bazar are suspended due to lack of supplies.(121)



September 3, 1942


Massive raids bombers Sallys Helens and have the afternoon to Cox’s Bazar. The results are disappointing but the DCA British unleashed by consuming a large quantity of ammunition.

As soon as the aircraft left and before the dust settles Japanese artillery opens the second act. It took 8 days to replenish stocks of ammunition into coming to Rangoon by tracks soggy. 700 guns stun defenders. Then when the guns are silent trumpets sound the charge Japanese. Banzai! Forward! Tanks quake followed by 35,000 infantry put the bayonet after guns and grenades filled their pockets.

Australians across the 16th and 19th brigades of the British 53rd Brigade, the tanks of the 254th. They have no fortifications since the last Japanese attack on August 28.

The Japanese crossed the Irrawaddy under fire Australians. Determination can do nothing against the Japanese fury. They will capitulate.

Worse, the British and their allies do not know but their line of retreat through the tracks heading towards Chittagong are cut by two Japanese divisions. Soon the Japanese attack enters the city. There is no possible escape on one side the sea, in the back of the mangroves and on the side, only decent road, the guns of 21th and 33th DI Japan.

British mortars pounding the Japanese to Cox’s Bazar. It will take more to stop the army of the Mikado.

Surrounded on all sides Commonwealth troops have no solutions other than capitulation. This is a huge disaster for the British and Australians who lose 8 units with 13,000 men, 250 guns and 560 tanks and vehicles.(121)
September 4, 1942



The night is almost moon when Japanese bombers come to Chittagong now become the object of attention in Japan. Cohesion squadrons dissolved during the flight with almost no mark. Bombers come in small packages. The result of the raid, given the scale of the resources involved is zero except for the destruction of a P38.

With the intervention of the 14th regiment of the Guard and the 11th Indian Brigade 63rd the RI is expelled from the position it occupied straddling the line of railway between Myitkyina and Shwebo losing 1,000 men.

In Cox’s Bazar is the British realize that their position is suddenly compromised. It is likely that the Japanese are already routing the troops come to take Cox’s Bazar to strengthen the positions of the 21th and 33th DI Japan. These two divisions face increasing British forces. The British 70th Division and the 6th Australian Cavalry Regiment have been strengthened since August 26 by the 17th Australian Brigade, the 23rd Indian Division, the 88th Indian Brigade and 3 new cavalry regiments. These 21,000 men supported by 630 tanks went on the offensive in the hope out of their positions 2 DI Japan.

The attack bogged down very quickly and does not lead. 700 Japanese were knocked out against a thousand British and allies.


September 5, 1942

Air War in Burma

The British and American night raids punctuate the nights of Mandalay. Hunters assigned to the defense of the base, not only is not effective but suffer losses in the face of heavy bombers allies. The only merit of their interventions is somewhat scratch offenders and divert bombs trails and shelters where planes are parked Engagements for daytime.

In the afternoon the Japanese bombers pounded the basis of Imphal, at the border between India and Burma, which houses had technically obsolete: Hudsons and Wirraway. Two aircraft were destroyed on the ground.

September 6, 1942

Air War in Burma

The basis of Imphal is again attacked by the squadron of Hurricanes Japonais.Un intervenes but lost four aircraft against an Oscar.


September 7, 1942:



Imphal suffered another bombing resulting in the destruction of Hurricane ground and a Wirraway.

To the west of the British Cox’sBazar go on the attack in the morning. The arrival on the front of the 23rd Indian Division and any fresh artillery regiment of the 11th Australian urges Britons to believe that they have acquired superiority over the two Japanese divisions that adorn the front. To the misfortune of the British simultaneously with the arrival of their reinforcements, the Japanese troops were up 7 armored regiments of the armored division of the Guard and two artillery regiments. The staff of the 16th Japanese Army coordinates the defense. From the outset the British offensive shambles, nailed by shooting pests tank guns and artillery. Dense jungle and impenetrable place limits on some wet roads increase by monsoon rains favoring the defense. After a morning waive the British had lost 2,000 men. Japanese losses are insignificant.
The Japanese artillery nailed up on the British offensive in the direction of Cox’s Bazar.(121)

Top of Form

September 8, 1942


Airbase Imphal receives once again visit Sallys and Helens. 6 British and Australian bombers were destroyed on the ground.(121)

September 9, 1942

Front Burma and Southeast Asia:

The Dutch submarine O21 given 3 times as sunk by the Japanese Navy appears again trying to attack a convoy up the Strait Malacca.L escort exceptionally reinforced surprise and is not effectively thwarts the wiles of the sub- sailor who is probably damaged by two depth charges.

To the east of Cox’s Bazar after the failed British offensive of the day it is the turn of the Japanese attack. The troops of the 16th Army now totaling 53,000 men and 1,200 tanks supported by 880 artillery pieces trying to force 3 or 4 passages leading to Chittagong. Numerical superiority was clearly in favor of the Japanese. The British and their Allies line that 21,000 men and 400 tanks but 750 guns. For the same reasons as before the Japanese attack bogged down in a series of skirmishes uncoordinated leading to a fragmentation of the attack. The offensive was a failure, the 16th army lost 1000 men and 140 tanks, the British and their allies but also 1000 men 260 tanks. Worse one of their units decays within the scope of Japanese target.(121)

September 10, 1942


The 52,000 men of the 16th Army renewed their assault against the next British positions blocking the road to Chittagong. Despite overwhelming numerical superiority the Japanese do not open. They lost 2700 men and 24 tanks. The British lost 500 men and 45 tanks. Two units thereof reduced to the skeletons evaporate. The main defense is provided by the very cool DI 23rd Indian.

(121 by Micke; )




. It is a parcel that was handed over to the Naval Aviation Kirishima warship from the show.

It is also 16 sen paste parcel of submissions 12 September ’10 Yokosuka, Taisho.
(Affix stamp perforation Navy)

> Kirishima warship
This is one ship of the battleship Kongo type. For more explanation, ♪ I will do when I introduce military postal Kirishima

It is an example that I like a nice example of the use of parcel size and shape as well.
♪ would be interesting if there is also characteristic writing destination(124)

Top of Form

September 12, 1942


The focal point of the war in Burma focuses Surun front 60 km east of Cox’s Bazar. Tracks leading to Chittagong are locked by the British army in its ranks including large contingents of Indian and Australian. Opposite the 15th Japanese Army tries to force the passage. Takes place over a fierce air war. On the morning of September 12, 12 bombers Mitchells trying to pound the Japanese. 32 Oscar fighters swoop down on them, destroy 4, forcing the others to withdraw. 16 other bombers arise. There are more than 22 Oscars shoot 3 Mitchells in damaging 10 others. 3 bombers drop their bombs intact but quite accurately the guise of jungle minimizes the effects of 500-pound bombs.(121)

September 13, 1942

September 14, 1942

Canton Atoll:

After several interludes who hijacked the aircraft carrier Japanese naval air raids resumed on Canton. The air base is still 100% destroyed planes attack ships at anchor where several were identified despite their camouflage. The big ship Medusa workshop, including one wonders what he’s doing at this point is reached by a 250 kg bomb.


The Japanese tried again to force lepassage leading to Chittagong. The lack of punch and attack bogged down very quickly. The British brought in reinforcements 23rd and 24th the regiments of mountain artillery that make the difference. The Japanese lost 800 men, the British 600 but 90 of their tanks are decommissioned.

September 15, 1942



The 3rd squadron of Japanese heavy cruisers appeared before Chittagong to bomb installations. The Dutch submarine KXVII tries to intervene, but in vain. It is ruthlessly Grenada destroyers escorting cruisers 5 Wing. The next day it seemed submarine still afloat.

Pilonnagede the airbase is devastating. Y parking a collection of everything that can fly in the British Empire are a total of 7 different models. 6 aircraft were destroyed, some thirty others damaged.

In the day of skirmishes between British bombers and air Japanese whalers cause loss of four bombers. In the morning a fight Oscars opposes new dive bombers British, Revenge. As usual, the commissioning of the new model goes wrong. 2 devices are slaughtered.(121)

September 15th, 1942


Kempetei group

The Japanese Military Police (Kempeitai)

At 8.30 am  telp from





  about the situation/wealthy ‘s list of  Hai Kyu Kumiai Ima P.P.R.D and after that I do until 1.00 am night (jam satu malam) and send to The village Police(stadtpolitie)  Djoerangkoeda for deposited(dititipkan) at  morning  september 16th to the  Police agent who will go to Bondowoso with Spoer(train) at 7.00 am.(119 MB)


Other kempetei images






The Kempeitai Office in the Semeru Street at Malang

Read more info about Kempetei


Kempeitai soldier Corporal Kawata,

 he participated in the evacuation of civilians from Iwo Jima in 1944. He decided to stay in the Iwo Jima after the evacuation of the civilians and died during the battle for the island

Is it the same kempeitai guy from Letters from Iwo Jima????

No, totally different.

This guy decided to stay and fight, while Shimizu was dishonorably dischgarged and sent to an island garrison.


Japanese Kempeitai officer, secret police.


Leden van de kempeitai verbinden een krijgsgevangene.

by mid-September1942,

the battle for Guadalcanal




lists to starboard

, 15 September 1942,


September 16, 1942


The Japanese have managed to achieve three important Rangoon convoys are being unloaded tens of thousands of tons of supplies, ammunition, spare parts for aircraft, air defense battalions. The army and the Japanese aviation requinquées by this massive influx benefit to rebuild their strike force. Thus squadrons stationed in Burma find a full staff that they had not reached depuislongtemps.

Taking advantage of the bombing yesterday by the cruisers Chittagong Air Base, the Air Force launched a massive offensive on this unfortunate city. According to a well-oiled scenario first squadron Tojos appears to reduce air defense. 4 squadrons of Hurricanes, one of the 12 Seafire expect Tojos sent éclaireurs.4 Japanese fighters were killed in exchange of two Hurricanes. This is only a prelude. 42 Oscars are grouped. They sweep 19 British fighters losing four of them.

The British are not far behind. 65 heavy bomber bases Indian parties are raining bombs of 500 pounds of Cox’s Bazar. Losses are sensitive ground with 16 vehicles destroyed and 50 men knocked out.

The Japanese response arrives in the afternoon with 96 bombers. Chittagong is visée.Les Allies lost four aircraft on the ground crushed by bombs.

To the west of Cox’s Bazar the 16th army received some reinforcements but also supplies, ammunition and shells. This aligns army 48,000 men, 875 guns and more than 1,000 vehicles and tanks. In Facel’re British were unable to bring in reinforcements in time. The 23rd Indian DI after 8 days of battle is already worn out. The 70 th UK DI is only a shadow of itself. The tank regiments have disappeared. Opposite the infantry division and armored division Guard are spearheading the offensive on a front of 40 km. The British resisted beautifully but they are understaffed everywhere. They must resolve to retire but leaving 2 units in rear. If losses are modest men (1400 men) pay a heavy armor with 170 vehicles knocked out of which 120 are permanently abandoned. Japanese suspend their lead at nightfall, decided to resume at dawn the next day.(121)

September 18th, 1942





18 September 1942.



September 28th, 1942

Info from New Guinea(now west Papua)



near Doborlurn, New Cuinea. The enemy fell back in weight of attack

 28 September 1942


Dai Nippon warfare which it put to good use in the Owen Stanley Range in Papua.


Japanese advances force the Australians back over the Owen Stanley Range



From Port Moresby and back over the Owen Stanley Mountain range


a fighting retreat over the Owen Stanley Ranges for the next two months,


30 Squadron RAAF in flight over the Owen Stanley range, New Guinea,


the Owen Stanley Mountain range. (AP Photo) 21. November 5, 1942


Australian forces in the Owen Stanley Range of Papua New Guinea


jungle-enclosed pathway across the Owen Stanley Range

 Australians laboriously made their way over steep mountain trails ol

the Owen Stanley Range


The spectacular, rugged and relentless Owen Stanley Ranges


The main body of troops during the withdrawal across the Owen Stanley Range.



Owen Stanley Ranges, New Guinea. C. 1942


situated beneath Mt Yule along the Owen Stanley Range.


North of the Goldie River / Owen Stanley Mountains



Australian  were forced to fight while withdrawing over the Owen Stanley Range.

Read the complete info

at CD-ROM :”The dai Nippon Occupation eastern area Indonesia in 1942”

10.October 1942

in October 1942




 in October 1942

firing a 75-mm. pack howitzer MlAI mounted on carriage M8. Although this weapon was primarily used for operations in mountainous terrain, it was capable of engaging antitank targets.



 over Japanese installations on Gizo Island in October 1942. Smoke from bomb strikes can be seen in the background. This ram was part of a series of air attacks on the enemy during the fight for Guadalcanal. Most of the B-17′s came from Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides. (Boeing Hying Fortress heavy bomber B-I7.)




 October 1942.


1st October 1942


The recovery of the ground offensive on Chittagong must wait the end of the monsoon season (15 October) to get a better supply. The country can maintain its own ways large armies stationed on its territory. The regular arrival of convoys from Singapore keeps aviation and military units operating, where the importance of preventing the allied submarines to act in the Strait of Malacca. Maintaining air superiority in this sector is very costly in planes and pilots. Replacing lost aircraft is difficult.

The Allies launched diversionary actions on the border of India against the Japanese forward bases which demonstrates the growing numbers of enemies in this area.(121)

6, 7 and 8 October 1942


The Allied air offensive on troops blocked east of Chittagong resumes. Once again, the Oscars and carve Tojos in compact formations of Allied squadrons. 3 days after the Allies had lost fifty had to forego.(121)




 the to Penang-3-11-42

—> Rangoon(now Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42—>

 Moulmein Camp , where he and his friend work to build yhe brige on the river Kwai 1n 1942. May be he met the other prosioner of war from Plaju Mr Romein, his POW card wassend in 1943 to Batavia(Jakrta) for his wife in Surahaya.

THIS THE ONLY MEMORABLE COLLECTIONS HAD EVER REPORT , please donnot copy, this illustration belong to Dr Iwan suwandy private collctions@copyright 2010.


Backside of Mr Coegen POW Moulmein Dai nippon camp Burma tobaccobox@copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2010




KGV1 Censored Commercial usage 2c Perak stationery postcard overprinted for Japanese occupation Boxed “MALAYA/ 2 cts / POSTAGE” alongside tied “MALACCA” c.d.s. ’12 10 2602′

. October 11, 1942


The air war continues to rage between hunters around Chittagong where the front is static for several weeks due to lack of supplies. Japanese regularly take the advantage of the Canes and Lightnings. But a new version of the P-40 Warhawks K was commissioned by the Americans. It seems more efficient. Japanese losses always lower than those of the Allies nevertheless reach 2-3 units per day against double or triple for the Allies.

The Warhawks P40K begin to arrive on the Burma front. Their superior firepower can not compensate for the lack of experience of the pilots.

A bomber hit by Tojo attempts to reach its base. Having crashed on landing will be counted later in operational losses.(121)


October ,21th .2602(1942)

YH Ir Sigoeki from Rikuyu jimmishu (highway traffic unit chief),  came with Mr Suzuki for learn to know.

 Due to Mr Sie Jien Oan thre or four days  Mrs Formosa will find 50 tin coconut oil  from Hok Hien Rambipoedji on ther order of YH Matsuda.(119 MB)




Postmark, October 21, 27 years in the constabulary / Haiki.
The address is 64th regimental headquarters company constabulary, Hario garrison

I wrote an interesting article also details registered this cash, m let me Ikansen omitted, because it is in lazy mode today (_) m.

Postmark, October 21, 27 years in the constabulary / Haiki.
The address is 64th regimental headquarters company constabulary, Hario garrison.(124)

20 and 21 October 1942

Front of Burma:

The front stalled over 5 weeks. The Japanese command stationed in Burma knows that if nothing happens for some time Tokyo will crack and replace the heads. Before restarting the offensive is launched a major raid on the British lines established 60km east of Chittagong.

Preparing a raid on the base of Mandalay, Burma’s most important.

220 bombers escorted by Sallys Helens and an equivalent number of hunters Oscars Tojos and dropping bombs of 250 kg. Alas, the density of the vegetation of the jungle mask everything. Bombs scatter and are ultimately very little damage. For good measure the British artillery opened fire immediately taken advantage by shooting against battery. The day ends with a hundred deaths on each side.

The Japanese have accumulated Chittagong to more than 800 pieces of artillery. Limited by the lack of ammunition they can take once a week.

The next day Japanese planes back. They are expected by 50 hunters and Hurricanes Warkawks K P40 apparently parked on the basis of Chittagong which has been put back into service by the British genius.

The hunter became the P40K Warkawks spearhead Allied squadrons operating in Burma. Only the virtuosity of Japanese pilots may compensate for the firepower of the aircraft

It is a tour de force as the base was destroyed at 100% there was still a week. In fighting the Japanese lost three aircraft plus 5 or 6 crashing return. The British lost 4 avions.Dans the same time the British decided to attack the root of evil namely Japanese air bases in Burma. The most important is the center of Mandalay in Burma. Constantly expanded by an army of auxiliaries supervised by Burmese troops engineering base level 8 houses 300 aircraft. Mandalay is defended by 9 units of DCA and houses the headquarters of the 5th Air Division. The fighter squadrons provide a permanent rotation to protect the airspace above the base. In this day of October 21, a squadron of 36 fighters Nick Kaia is monitoring. This squadron formed in February 1942 shortly after arrival in Burma. Its pilots from the reserve and hastily trained had no experience. In October 1942 the average experience of the pilots reached 62 with veteran totaling 218 missions and 78 experience points but no victory approved. The squadron was engaged in a relatively short first line, but it has already lost 52 aircraft and 25 pilots out of 36 riders at the start while not claiming that 22 wins.

Several successive waves of bombers Mandalay with Blenheims, Wellingtons, Mitchells. The squadron Nick covered himself with glory by shooting four bombers damaging 11. DCA kills two bombers. 2 Sallys placed in reserve are destroyed on the ground. Japanese learn later that twenty bombers are not returned to their base probably because of excessive fatigue of drivers and damage inflicted by the DCA and Nick.
The bomber will be off again if maintenance services are not based bombed by the Japanese.

Sally for the war is over. However, the carcass will reserve parts. Carcasses with the Japanese back four aircraft operational.(121)



22 Oct 1942:

2500 POWs depart Tanjeong Priok (Port of Batavia) on Yoshida Maru.

. October 25, 1942


A major air offensive was launched by the British on Mandalay. The first 2 waves of bombers before the break Tojos Nick and Oscars guard. A dozen Mitchells and Blenheim are slaughtered. A 3rd wave arrives 21 Mitchells. CAP starts to run but kills five bombers, fire damage 11. The rest goes. The 500-pound bombs kill 5 devices on the slopes. The Japanese raid mirror this in the afternoon Chittagong. Bombs rained creating major damage on the base. Warhawk is a P40K destroyed.

October ,25th .2602(1942)

25 Oct 1942:

POW Arrive Singapore- many depart for Thailand-Burma Railway (Death Railway)


Some small groups of men escaped and made their way back from Ambon  to Australia but almost 800 surviving Australians became prisoners of war.

The Australians together with about 300 Dutch prisoners of war were put back into their barracks at Tan Tui, north of Ambon town.

On 25 October 1942,

with the Dutch and also where the Japanese kept them as POWs.










26 October 1942



This transport struck an Allied mine in Pallikula Bay. Espiritu Santo Island, 26 October 1942. Of the 4,000 troops aboard, only two men were lost; however, vitally needed equipment and stores went to the bottom with the ship.





 October 29, 1942


After a general overhaul of its vessels the 3rd Cruiser Squadron reappeared in the Bay of Bengal. The basis of Chittagong is covered by 4 cruisers Myoko, Mogami, and Suzuya Furutaka. The torpedo boat MTB 10 British stand guard in front of the port does not try to fight and walks away. The naval bombardment once again pays off the airbase.

Japanese troops blocked east of Chittagong are finally receive enough supplies to launch an offensive against the British. In the morning 65 000 Japanese and 900 tanks out to attack. The land was prepared by 950 guns of all calibres. An air raid was planned but the planes were not presented due to bad weather.
On paper, the Japanese have the advantage. The Allies against the 28,000 men and half the guns but have almost the same number of tanks that the troops of the Emperor. Units who fought to Cox’s Bazar were replaced by divisions and brigades Indian. Facing the Japanese kept online for months in the same units without reinforcement and without coming to full fill the losses. For the same reasons as in the previous months of jungle terrain favors defense. The attack does not lead. 1800 men were lost on both sides. An Allied unit disintegrates.

Movement of the armored division of the Guard before an attack on the Burmese front

Towed artillery movement in Burma. Unfortunately, these important resources will not be sufficient to penetrate. 

The borders of Burma, on the borders India in the province of Assam, Station Katha again coveted by the Allies. The 7th British regiment of hussars with his hundred light armored Katha launches an assault on the way to cut the railway linking Yangon in the far west of the country. A battalion of Marines not very comfortable on this heavily wooded terrain and without anti-tank weapons resists attack by losing a hundred men. Reinforcements are on the way. They arrive on time?

The 7th British regiment of hussars with Stuarts give a hard time to Japanese, bordering Burma, lack of capacity tank.

To enhance the effect tanks Australians launch October 30 Wirraways their old fighter-bombers in the battle. 3 Hurricanes escorting them are killed by Ki 43 Oscar IIa, versatile fighter-bomber became the flagship of the Japanese army unit fighting in Burma and China.
In the morning a battalion and a cavalry regiment arrived as reinforcements but against the Japanese tanks must simply take the field undergoing further losses amounting to one hundred men.(121)






30 Oct 1942:

Dainichi Maru with POW  departs for Moji



“The ever growing plot of mounds of freshly dug soil”
Funeral of RAMC captain in Changi camp cemetery (October 1942)


British POWs at Changi
Men of the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment (October 1942)

October 31, 1942

Southern China near the border of Indochina

The Chinese Nationalist army besieged the citadel for several days of Lang Son, which once housed the French garrisons guarding the north of the colony and the border with China. This is the 2nd seat in two years sustained by the fortress. September 22, 1940 the Japanese attacked the city defended by the French colonial army. 800 French soldiers were killed before the establishment of a ceasefire. Since the Japanese and French troops loyal to Vichy regime coexist in Indochina, the French were responsible for maintaining order and administering the country. The Japanese have fleeced the economy by exploiting coal mining of Haiphong and commodities produced or extracted in the south.

Arrival of the Japanese in September 1941 in Haiphong

(In August 1945, 1,400 men of the French garrison at Lang Son will be slaughtered by the Japanese. During the Indochina war the road from Lang Son Cao Bang, RC4, will be the subject of intense battles. Disaster The Cao Bang in 1950 cutting the RC4 definitely weaken Lang Son.’s French paratroopers in 1953 launched a raid to destroy the Viet Cong deposits settled in the region. March 1979 Lang Son was again attacked by the People’s Republic of China in its war against Viet Nam)

Meanwhile, driven by the Japanese, the French auxiliaries mobilize four divisions to counter the Indochina Chinese invasion. With a very low military value of these divisions have no mobility and remain static. (Some of these men join the ranks of the Viet Minh controlled by Ho Chi Minh in 1945)

Lang Son to defend the Japanese rely on militia stationed initially in Hanoi. They are sent to the front. To stop the invasion Japanese aircraft at low altitude pounded the Chinese who actually does move more.

A few 300 km south of Lang Son 3 Chinese units isolated for months to reach forward to the besiegers. Two infantry regiments and an artillery group are started in pursuit. Japanese bombers flying at low altitude pounding these columns daily. The 38th Chinese body left rear reduced to less than a hundred men is destroyed. Two more bodies totaling barely a thousand men to capture benefit by hand the coastal town of Pakhoi not defended. 5 Japanese units operating in the South China Pakhoï head immediately to retake the city.
 by Micke; 07/07/2012 (121).

November 1942

November 1, 1942

Analysis of the strategic situation exposed by the various Chiefs of Staff in the presence of Emperor Hirohito and Prime Minister Tojo:

The Allied side in October was relatively quiet with a clear desire to avoid combat and limit losses if they had continued on the pace of previous months have forced the Allies to surrender. Reach the daily intelligence Japanese advertisements by American admiralty recognizing the loss of ships, some dating back to May 1942. In fact the only allied battle fleet is more, apart from a few destroyers and escorts. According to information Japanese aircraft carriers and 2 or 3 British cruisers have finally survived the fighting in September around Baker. One or two battleships at Pearl Harbor survivors should be operational again. A new modern battleship had to be put into service by the Americans.




Zhou 埼級 refueling ship, the ship made for the transportation of light oil (gasoline), mainly was ordered to Mitsubishi Heavy Industries shipyard in Yokohama as No. 103 of the ship ship refueling plan () rich navy arms 1939.
September 25, 2005, and named Saitama
ship probe

11.November 2602

Central Pacific:

Reports patrols conducted on November 12 and the previous days seaplanes onboard submarines as well as those from seaplanes stationed at Baker Maevis Canton or converge. All indicate the movement of a large naval force left Palmyra and goes right heading south west on Canton Atoll. Obviously the Americans wanted to take over the island. Seaplanes have been several aircraft carriers, battleships, cruisers, transports. The Admiralty American probably believes it can launch the operation believing that the Japanese aircraft carriers are in the South Pacific. In fact the decoy aircraft carrier escort confused with the main force seems to have worked.


MALAYA: 1942 (ca.), Perak 5c brown ‘Sultan Iskandar’ handstamped with japanese characters and surcharged ’2′ in a horizontal strip/4 on reverse of cover from Kedah to Kulim, scarce usage but roughly opened at right!


Mr Goegen arrived at Penang during taken by the Japanese to the Burma camp as written on the cover of the Tobacco box

the to Penang-3-11-42

—> Rangoon(now Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42—>

 Moulmein Camp , where he and his friend work to build yhe brige on the river Kwai 1n 1942. May be he met the other prosioner of war from Plaju Mr Romein, his POW card wassend in 1943 to Batavia(Jakrta) for his wife in Surahaya.

November,4th 2602

about 500 of the Australian and Dutch prisoners were sent to Hainan, an island in the South China Sea off the coast of mainland China. Led by Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, they left Ambon in


the Taiko Maru and arrived in


the Bay of Sama on Hainan Island




on 4 November.

The next day they sailed up the coast to


a camp at Bakli Bay.




The Japanese government had recognised Hainan Island’s potential and planned to use the POWs to build roads and viaducts in order to develop agriculture and industry on the island. The prisoners were forced to do hard manual labour under difficult and brutal conditions with a completely inadequate diet.


November,7th 2602

The address of Volunteer employee Moh Dahlan


 Boeboetan No 203 Soerabaia tilpon home 8583 and ,

Rikuyu (highway truck transport ) Tar ief 6 -7 sen per 100 kg including

 lift rate of the goods train to any place in town Djoerangsapi paid 6 cents, because of HK’s  location near the Djoerangsapi train  station Soepaia

November,9th 2602.


Mr Goegen arrived at Penang during taken by the Japanese to the Burma camp as written on the cover of the Tobacco box

Backside of Mr Coegen POW Moulmein Dai nippon camp Burma

From Batavia the to Penang-3-11-42 and to

—> Rangoon(now Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42—>

 Moulmein Camp , where he and his friend work to build The brige on the river Kwai 1n 1942. May be he met the other prosioner of war from Plaju Mr Romein, his POW card wassend in 1943 to Batavia(Jakrta) for his wife in Suraha


12 Nov 1942:

Dainichi Maru with POW Arrive Takao on Formosa; remain for 3 days


15 November 1942



 off the coast of Guadalcanal, 15 November 1942.A group of eleven transports proceeding to Guadalcanal were intercepted by aircraft from Henderson Field. Seven ships were sunk or gutted by fire. Four were damaged and were later destroyed near Tassafaronga Point where they had been beached




 15 November.





in Rrisbaine, Australia,

 for New Guinea on 15 November.

 The Papua Campaign and the almost simultaneous action on Guadalcanal were the first victorious operations of US ground forces against the Japanese.

November,18th 2602


Construction of airstrips near Dobodura and Popondetta,

underway by 18 November, was assigned the highest priority because of the lack of a harbor in the area. Some supplies were flown to the airstrips and some arrived by sea through reef-studded coastal waters near Ora Bay. The last vital transport linkwas formed by a few jeeps and native carriers who delivered the supplies to dumps just beyond the range of enemy small arms fire



CONSTRUCTING A CORDUROY ROAD with the help of the natives in New Guinea. Constant work was maintained to make routes passable for jeeps.


the Dai Nippon Imperial General Headquarters order of

18 November 1942,

 this directive required the Dai Nippon  17th Army to recapture Guadalcanal

November,19th 2602
have often been warned that Yoe Liong scented soaps should not be made ​​from existing and made ​​the calculation costs * cost) serfta Bondowoso cultivated on the sale price and date and sent eg 19/11




 On activation late in November,

 the air division had fifty-four light bombers, eighty-four fighters, and some reconnaissance planes, but it did not begin active operations until a month later.

After a hasty journey by air from Tokyo via Truk, where he conferred with Admiral Yamamoto, General Imamura reached Rabaul

on 22 November 1942,

just a few days before Adachi, the 18th Army commander, arrived from China. On the 26th, Imamura formally assumed command of the 8th Area Army, established his headquarters, and issued his first directive governing operations of the two armies under him.

 Based on the Imperial General Headquarters order of

18 November 1942,

 this directive required the 17th Army to recapture Guadalcanal and the 18th, in cooperation with naval forces, to hold and consolidate its position at Buna while preparing for future operations, presumably against Port Moresby.


24 Nov 1942:

Dainichi Maru with POW Arrive and anchors off Moji

26 Nov 1942:

 POWS depart Dainichi in summer clothes

27 Nov 1942-

100 British POWS arrive from Singapore on Dainichi Maru. Established as YAHATA Provisional Fukuoka POW CAMP MUKAIJIMA Branch Camp 14 (Fukuoka-14B)

November,30th 2602

All the books, pictures and swords taken by MR Yaku and Kaneko of kempetei office(119 MB)










Top of Form

. November 1942

Central Pacific:

Reports patrols conducted on November 12 and the previous days seaplanes onboard submarines as well as those from seaplanes stationed at Baker Maevis Canton or converge. All indicate the movement of a large naval force left Palmyra and goes right heading south west on Canton Atoll. Obviously the Americans wanted to take over the island. Seaplanes have been several aircraft carriers, battleships, cruisers, transports. The Admiralty American probably believes it can launch the operation believing that the Japanese aircraft carriers are in the South Pacific. In fact the decoy aircraft carrier escort confused with the main force seems to have worked.

The battleship USS Washington was torpedoed by I-26 in his first confrontation in the Pacific.(121)

  1. The aircraft carrierescort Nassau is left behind after the formation of the impact of three bombs and a torpedo.The aircraft carrier Nassau is transformed into fire after several impacts.
    The Illustrious is the victim of a torpedo but it will take longer to sink the ship solidly built. Kane is the destroyer hit by a torpedo. Battleships Maryland and West Virginia were spared.A new wave of bombers arrived. The Illustrious was hit by a bomb that ricochets off the armored deck.


  2. Unlike aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious escorts is able to withstand the shock of bombs of 250 kg.

    door escort Prince William and Nassau are hit by several bombs that turn the ship into a torch. Fuel tanks Prince William explode, throwing debris everywhere around



702 × 578 - Le porte-avions Nassau

  1. 3.     South Pacific:The squadron aircraft carrier escort part Noumea few days earlier to intercept traffic between New Zealand and Fiji Islands ally falls on a convoy in the vicinity of Raoul Island. 4 freighters and a destroyer are achieved by the bombs dropped by the Vals. One of the ships carrying ammunition probably is shaken by a chain of explosions. (121)


December  1942



Portuguese Timor December 1942






A transport plane of the India-China Wing stands by to fly a group of Chinese soldiers to the eastern front.

In December 1942, the Hump ferry route was made a part of the globe-circling route of the Air Transport Command. It was renamed the India-China Wing and put under Col. E.C. Alexander. Several C-46s and C-87s arrived to supplement the DC-3s. Their larger freight capacity immediately boosted Hump tonnage totals.

The C-46s were shipped to India before they had been fully tested in the States, and they soon developed several “bugs.” That threw increased pressure on the overworked mechanics.

A shortage of transport pilots threatened to offset the increased number of planes assigned to the route. The ATC set up its own transition school in India where several single-engine pilots were trained and pressed into ferry service.



under the command of Brig. Gen. Earl S. Hoag,


BREX GUN CARRIERS, disabled in an attack on 5 New Guinea

These full-track, high-speed cargo carriers, designed to transport personnel, ammunition, and accessories, were produced for the British only. The presence of several Bren-gun carriers proved a surprise to the enemy. However, enemy soldiers picked off the exposed crews and tossed grenades over the sides of the carriers. In a short time they were all immobilized and infantry following behind them met with intense fire from the enemy’s defenses



BREX GUN CARRIERS, disabled in an attack on 5 December.


acquainted with Mr  Moebargio junior high school principals

December 7th,(126)

 twelve Japanese destroyers move down the slot with supplies. Our planes hit the force before dark and damage one destroyer which must be towed from the area by another destroyer. The remaining destroyers press on but are met by American PT boats. These boats, (Patrol Torpedo), which include  PT 109, with future president John F. Kennedy (shown at left and at right in second picture) in command are able to turn back the Japanese without allowing them to land their supplies. “This action represents probably the greatest success of the PT boats during the war as the young upstart PT sailors achieve the considerable feat of rebuffing the redoubtable Reinforcement Unit without loss, whereas only a week earlier eleven major warships had suffered severely and accomplished no more.” 



December 8th, (126)

the Japanese Imperial Navy announces at a conference with the officers of the combined fleet that unacceptable destroyer losses force the end of the destroyer transportation runs.

December 9th, without fanfare, the command of the American forces on Guadalcanal shifts from General Vandegrift and the U.S. Marines to Major General Patch of the U.S. Army. Lean, dirty and malaria ridden and with a third unfit for further combat, the Marines proudly march out after almost six months of combat. Many were too weak to climb aboard the transports and had to be pulled aboard by willing hands.

December 18th, diaries of Japanese officers state that “the troops are at the very bottom of the human condition. The entire army is composed of pale wisps of men, with ulcerous skin draped with filthy, sopping clothes. Vast numbers are wracked with fevers, for which there is no medicine. Army headquarters reports they are eating tree shoots, coconuts, and grass growing in the rivers.” (14)   The Japanese Army has been reduced from approximately 30,000 troops in November to 20,000 troops in December.


Mr King Poa Wie (Tayo china “Middle Village”) would like to buy a nail 1 1/2 inch at a price of f 31, – per ton for the friend with the risk for buyers, but in a written order receipt (mentioned) the price of 20, guilders,

I said if you want to speak should come in the IMA – and demand to be filed by mail so that I can respond with a letter, too, Though willing to pay f 1000, and written dikwitansi-f 10, – I could not.
Wie Poa Mr. King came to the house early in the morning, I told about this at the IMA office to Mr Oesman,


1)Meeting with Mr Guntyo Mayong in the office of IMA on a variety of things, no complaints from Guntyo anything.
Mr Tahir from Rambipoedji come face to another job and I told him to look forward to hearing if any other purposes.(118 MB)


December 1942

on 15 December,

 when work was begun on a new airstrip at Vila on nearby




Other bases further up the Solomons ladder, in the Shortlands, on Bougainville, and on Buka, were strengthened and additional




Read more about Kolombangara island Battle in July 1943

Click Images to view large

World War 2|Battles

In July 1943

the ‘Tokyo Express’ was still trying to reinforce Kolombangara. The force was led by

Rear Admiral Izaki, though the five destroyers were led by


Admiral Raizo Tanaka

in his flagship Jintsu.


Rear Admiral Ainhworth’s Task Force 18 was sent to intercept it

on the night of 12 July 1943.

Ainsworth soon found on his radar that the Japanese were heading for


Kula Gulf,

but lzaki also knew the whereabouts of the US slips. Both sides maneuvered into a favorable position and opened fire at the same time. A few minutes Inter Ainsworth ordered his radar-controlled guns to open fire and then devastated the Jintsu.

Only one of the Japanese torpedoes found its mark and hit the Leander, which withdrew escorted by two destroyers.


 The destroyer Mikazuki lost touch with the other four Japanese destroyers which continued to fire torpedoes.

The US ships were confused and could not see the Japanese ships except by starshell fire.


Then the St Louie,








 were hit by torpedoes but only the Gwin sank. This battle showed the superb night-fighting skill of the Japanese but did not break Japan’s outer defense perimeter.



Admiral Yamamoto

General Imamura

troops brought in to replace the decimated units evacuated from Guadalcanal. On Bougainville, where General Hyakutake had his 17th Army headquarters, was the 6th Division, and on New Britain was the 38th, reorganized after its experience on Guadalcanal.

Top of Form



Soekaboemi 16 december 1942


December 18th, (126)

the U.S. Army starts advancing to drive the Japanese from their the high ground overlooking Henderson Field. This strong point is known as Gifu and is the location with the strongest and best troops of the Japanese. These troops fight without any indication of retreat or surrender. Our advance is slow. “After twenty-two days the American Army’s 132d Infantry Regiment has such losses from killed, wounded, missing and ineffective from disease that it is incapable of further offensive action.” (15)

December 19th, the Japanese complete an airstrip on the island of Munda 170 miles from Guadalcanal in hopes of giving them an airfield close to Henderson Field. It is built under a canopy of palm trees that are woven together with steel cables to leave the tops in place while the trunks are carried away. This hides the field from view while the work is in progress. The tree tops are removed as the field is finished.




AMERICAN LIGHT TANKS MS, mounting 37-mm. guns, near the Duropa Plantation on 21 December 1942. During the latter part of December, tanks arrived by boat. Only one 105-mm. howitzer was used in the campaign and it was brought to the front by plane. After many set-backs, Buna Village was captured on 14 December. Although Allied attacks at various points were often unsuccessful, the Japanese, suffering from lack of supplies and reinforcements, finally capitulated on 2 January 1943 at Buna Mission

December 22th 1942

On the night of 22/12 the 2nd squadron PA (Ryujo, Zuiho, Hosho) rises on the northern cape with a port where it can refuel. Ammunition bunkers AP are almost empty and there is not a single torpedo.

Off Kendari destroyers Shirayuki Tatsukaze and sound the alarm. Through the route featured 11 launches torpedoes MTB is identified. The destroyers are to screen aircraft carriers opened fire but the little building managed to escape.


For the foreseeable future (for beyond) Key warehouses and so on are held by Mr Soengkono(119)

On 23 December,

two days after they had received Marshall’s memorandum, the Navy planners had the draft of a reply ready. They accepted the principle of unified command without argument but expressed doubts about the advisability of turning over to MacArthur the direction of operations in the Solomons at that time.

24 December 1942
First Lieutenant Okajima:
Wakuda Noboru died of illness. In the end, those [who are] of weak will [will] die. He was always most eager to drink water.

Unknown soldier: Since the 14th, two officers of the 2d Company have been going insane. They probably have become pessimistic about the war situation. There is no other change in condition. We passed the day as usual.

Japanese soldiers had taken to calling Guadalcanal “Starvation Island,” a pun derived from the first phoneme in the Japanese name for the island. “Ga” means “hunger” in one Japanese inflection.








SOLDIERS CARRYING RATIONS ALONG A TRAIL for the troops at the front, 24 December. Only a few trails led from Allied positions to the enemy’s fortified areas at Buna and Sanananda. Food was so short during November and the early part of December that troops sometimes received only a small portion of a C ration each day. The rain, alternating with stifling jungle heat, and the insects seemed more determined than the enemy; disease inflicted more casualties than the Japanese.


FIRING A 60-MM. MORTAR M2 into the enemy lines at Buna Mission. Because of transportation difficulties which lasted until the end of November, only about one third of the mortars were brought with the troops- Allied attacks were made on both Sanananda and Buna with no material gains.


U.S. SOLDIERS FIRING A 37-MM. GUN M3A1 into enemy positions. The 37-mm. gun was the lightest weapon of the field-gun type used by the U.S. Army. Japanese tactics during the Buna campaign were strictly defensive; for the most part the enemy dug himself in and waited for Allied troops to cross his final protective line.


A NATIVE DRAWING A MAP to show the positions of the enemy forces. In general, the islanders were very friendly to the Allies, their work throughout campaign, in moving supples over the treacherous trails and in rescuing Allied survivors of downed aircraft, was excellent.



INFANTRYMEN READY TO FIRE .30-CALIBER M1 RIFLES into an enemy dugout before entering it for inspection (top) ; looking at a captured Japanese antiaircraft gun found in a bombproof shelter in the Buna area (bottom). Enemy fortifications covered all the approaches to his bases except by sea, and were not easily discerned because of fast growing tropical vegetation which gave them a natural camouflage.


25 December 1942

Okajima: Sawada and Uchida died of illness. That may be because they were unreasonably overworked.

Transport of supplies and equipment was left entirely to the bent backs of soldiers trudging single file for up to 16 hours a day along the narrow jungle paths. No cooking fires were permitted, so the soldiers subsisted on a half ration of cold rice.

Unknown soldier: Today is Christmas Day. Therefore we had many presents from the enemy such as intense bombardment by artillery and naval guns. On the other hand, not one of our planes came from new airfield which was completed on the 15th. Even the soldiers in the front lines have become very disgusted, and do not even talk about our planes anymore. The 1st and 3d Battalions (strength of 90 men) . . . are looking forward to New Year’s Day in hope of getting supplies.

NCO: Today is Christmas, a very important day for the enemy. Artillery bombardment is a terrible thing. Again I became sick with malaria and my temperature began to rise, so I fell asleep in the trench. I prayed for a complete recovery, because this is the third time that I had this fever.

26 December 1942
: Asaba Kazuo also died of illness. Malaria fever affected his mind and he acted peculiarly. After eating his meal, he died suddenly. This death increased the large total of those killed in action and from the disease to 13 men. This makes approximately the total losses we received in the occupation of Hong Kong and Java. Even in the face of the enemy, the men’s minds were entirely occupied with thoughts of eating. We are waiting for the spring sprouts to come out, and we dream of the joy of reducing Guadalcanal. Moreover the airfield is finished, and friendly planes will come in large numbers.

Okajima’s unit must have been involved in the fall of Hong Kong, which was attacked on 7 December 1941, and Java, which was conquered on 9 March 1942.

NCO: Corporal Abe found some sweets on a dead enemy and divided them among them this evening.

Unknown soldier: There are lice here, and whenever we have time these days we hunt for them. My strength is exhausted, and my ordinary pulse is around 95, which surprises me very much.

27 December 1942
: Oba Fumio died from illness. It was not that he lacked energy, but he was drenched by the rains which come regularly every afternoon in this life in the jungle.

The 2,500 square miles of Guadalcanal are dominated by the Kavo Mountains, which reach a maximum height of 8,000 feet. The island is heavily forested. Rains came often, and the nights were chilly, forcing men in rotting clothing to huddle together for warmth.

NCO: I went with Corporal Abe to get some more meat, because it was so good yesterday. It was to be eaten by the company. It was buried in the company cemetery to keep it secret. However, maggots had started to develop in it.

28 December 1942
: First Lieutenant Amai died [of a wound suffered the day before]. Now, without seeing the fall of Guadalcanal, his spirit sleeps eternally in the jungle. My tears overflow.

NCO: First Lieutenant Miyoshi returned with captured enemy rifles and ammunition. The enemy has plenty of these, so they can afford to leave them behind. Because of my dysentery, I stopped eating meat. Health comes first.

Unknown soldier: My body is so extremely exhausted, that one “GO” of rice is all that I can eat, and walking is very difficult. No relief comes for this unit. The army doctor will not even send us to the rear. At present, we are all very sick men. Even if we were relieved, not even one of us may recover. In fact, we are left to die from total exhaustion and malnutrition rather than from bullets.

The Japanese 17th Army took the view that, as long as it had access to seemingly unlimited human resources, no effort would be made to rehabilitate units that were shattered in combat or through the privations brought about by inadequate logistics administration.

29 December 1942
: Yamamoto Kyoichi died from a wound. Such young soldiers with weak wills are no good, for they die from slight wounds. His wound was trifling with hardly any bleeding. Now the casualties are 25 men.

NCO: Bandages, rifle ammunition, and lots of canned goods of the enemy were found. We are having difficulty in selecting men to go out on patrol on account of our rundown condition.

30 December 1942

Okajima: By the 15th of next month, transportation of supplies and troops will be carried out, and we shall gain air superiority. After the 16th, units from the rear will pass us and, after preparatory bombardment by planes and artillery, will carry out a general attack.

In 2 months, all of Guadalcanal will return to our hands. Then the enemy will not be able to hold Tulagi area.

Then our combined fleet will concentrate in the Tulagi area. I believe that the decisive battle between U.S. and Japan will end in a complete victory for the Japanese forces in the bright spring of 1943, and will be an everlasting light in military history.


-By the start of 1943,

the Japanese were defeated on the island and withdrew their troops. In Burma, Commonwealth forces mounted two operations.

The first, an offensive into the Arakan region in late 1942,

went disastrously, forcing a retreat back to India by May 1943. The second was the insertion of irregular forces behind Japanese front-lines in February which, by the end of April, had achieved dubious results.

The 55th M.L. Flotilla arrived in Chittagong in December 1942 ready to support the land operations along the Arakan. Operational duties began on the night of 24 January, when the Flotilla began to operate a double patrol, one into the Mayu river, and one between Oyster Island and Akyab Harbour. The aim was to assist the Fourteenth Indian Division and to interrupt Japanese sea-borne communications. On the first patrol, M.L. 477 speedily came into action when she met two Japanese armed launches full of troops. A short and spirited engagement followed in which one Japanese launch was sunk and the other forced ashore.

The Flotilla carried out two other short operations before the close of January. In one of these, landing parties were put ashore without opposition on Oyster Island, and in the other, two motor launches carried out a raid on Kyaukpyu harbour. M.L. 439 entered the harbour but was unable to find more worthy targets than two small fishing craft, which were sunk.

February began with a series of anti-shipping sweeps in which H.D.M.L. 1102 of the Burma Navy co-operated. On 13 January

1943 during a patrol in the Mayu river, M.Ls 438 and 476 were engaged by a battery of Japanese 57-mm guns. During the duel which ensued the launch escaped damage, but a small Japanese fishing vessel which had been ill-advised enough to put in an appearance, was sunk.

On the 26th, a small but highly successful raid was carried out in Hunter’s Bay. M.Ls 439, 440, 441 and 476 sailed from Teknaaf with a platoon of the Durham Light Infantry embarked, and at 2300 entered Myebon Creek. As the jetty was closed, figures were seen running towards the boats. Lt. Commander St. J. H. Heather, D.S.C., R.I.N.V.R., in M.L. 439 shouted to these men to secure the boat lines which they proceeded to do. They appeared to realise suddenly that something was wrong and turned to run away but immediately all machine guns which could be brought to bear opened(126)



In January of 1943

 the head of government in Japan, General Hideki Tojo announced that soon Burma would become an independent nation.


[Burma / Myanmar, (formerly British)


The Dai Nippon Occupation Burma Postal history





ThIs Card from the camp Morumen (Mawlamyaing) or Moulnei Burma(Myanmar),

was offered to women of Sumatra Medan destined place of internment

under the Japanese military occupation of Burma under Japanese occupation also.

1943, during World War II, the Japanese military

was built connecting the 415 kilometers between

Taimentetsudo (Burma) (Thailand) = Tanbyuzaya Nonpuradokku.

Prisoner of war of the coalition forces to mobilize in this construction,

the Japanese army is provided with a “concentration camp Tai”,

where the camp at six minutes have been installed across the two regions of Thailand and Burma.

This postcard, in one such camp prisoners were held out,

to the back side, the basic wording has been printed in advance,

you may have worked in the description of 10 cents per day.

In addition, images (click to enlarge) was scanned directly from

the works exhibited in the exhibition of stamps that <JAPEX> in 2004. As a result, if you use a color copy,

in order to clarify the distinction between actual and copy,

copy that according to the rules of the Stamp Exhibition to shrink,

making it shrink back is not a copy of the original size.

Now, Please pay attention to signs of pre-censorship was pressed on the surface of the postcard.

Date has been written into it, has become a January 22, 1943.

In addition, the sign of the person in charge is included censorship firm also named Naito.

Although a product of chance,

exactly, for Yosuke Naito was born in January 22 is attached to and feel very material.

I’ve heard and that he had said has attracted the mail collector prominent there, for fun at all,

postmarked on my birthday of up to now from the 19th century has been pressed,

at one time or another There there may not look so bad in the form of philately enjoy such


original info in Japanese language























February 1943




Japanese Occupation of Burma, 1943 (Feb. 11) postcard franked with 2c on ½a on 2 sen Showa (Scott 2N15), and Unoverprinted Japan 1s Showa tied by ‘Rangoon PO Sorting’ cds. Censor’s purple boxed cachet with oval chop in orange.






Japanese Occupation of Burma, 1943 (ca.) cover franked with 3c on 3 sen Showa with blue surcharge, also 1c Elephant block of four (Scott 2N23a, 51) tied by ‘Kominko Chin Road’ postmarks. The 3c surcharge is rare on cover.



March 1943


In March of 1943

Aung San was promoted to the rank of bogyoke (major general), a title he was known by for the rest of his life. He, Ba Maw and other Burmese leaders were brought to Tokyo to be decorated by Emperor Hirohito of Japan.

March 1943
Promoted to become Major-General Aung San of BDA.

Invited to Japan and decorated by the Emperor with “Order of the Rising Sun”.





July 1943





Japanese Occupation of Burma, 1943 (July 12) cover to Japan,

franked with ¼a on 1s Showa single, two ½a on 2s singles, and 15c on 4a on 4s single (Scott 2N4-5, 19) tied by ‘Experimental PO’ postmarks. Censor’s purple boxed cachet with oval chop in orange. Rare mixed-currency usage to Japan.







This is the letter sheet after the Second World War, the former Japanese soldiers held out from Mingaladon of Burma

“to disarm under military post.”

I think it named former postal Japanese soldiers appeared in the “Harp of Burma” was addressed to the Japanese held out, roughly,

with what may be the image of things like this.

Mingaladon submissions was ground cover is in the suburbs north of Yangon (Rangoon) Rangoon,

is the international airport and industrial park area there is a Rangoon.

Incidentally, Mudon was the stage of “Harp of Burma”, 30 kilometers to the south, is 13 hours by bus from Rangoon,

located further from the point of 8 hours by rail (Mawlamyaing) Morumen in southern Burma.

By signing the surrender document of September 1945,

to disarm the Japanese army stationed in Burma is made, the Imperial Japanese Army officers

and soldiers was sent to the camp as a prisoner of war.

Was held prisoner of war mail them to target these is the “disarm under military post.”

Rates are free from so-called prisoners of war is a kind of postal, stamps are not affixed material introduced here also.

Many of the military post has been left under the current disarmament is a postcard, etc.

and how to display the “disarm military post under” is mixed by region.

If the material introduced here, but has been pressed the “post military disarmament under”

in red stamp at the top of the cover, because at the time of arrival in Japan,

had been affixed to tape censorship from above that, is it hard to see a little is regrettable.

According to the writing of the sender, this cover is the submissions of October 5, 1946, “after the war,

We will be rude without hearing even once also on the relationship between the paper”

on the inside of the letter sheet is a sentence with the Because there,

for the sender, seems to have been first letter to Japan Sashidase become prisoners of war this is.

“In our on Gil, I think that it is a good way if you Dzu Kaerere until around 3 Once you have within this year and go home”

There is a sentence with the letter sheet In addition to this.

“The Burmese Harp” Initially, because had been serialized in the “Red Dragonfly” magazine until

February 1948 from March 1947, of timing, you may have set eyes on the series of magazines From this I. However, in reality,

in the Theravada Buddhism in Burma that monks play the music I have also pointed out a story of “Harp of Burma”,

so that is prohibited by precepts that impossible established fundamentally, actual “Aaron camp,”

“It is true that if you ask people with experience in prisoner of war in Burma,” Burmese Harp “is like that” I’m just talking …


origonal info in Japanese language












1st August 1943
Burma was declared an independent nation and Major-General Aung San became the War Minister.

BDA was renamed as Burma National Army (BNA).


 The Burmese delegation was given a document that stated that Burma would become a sovereign nation in the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere

on August 1, 1943.


 Ba Maw was to be the head of state


 and Aung san the minister of war in the new government. Aung San’s army, the Burma Defense Army, was renamed the Burma National Army (BNA).

Read more about Ba maw

About Dr. Ba Maw



Dr. & Mrs. Ba Maw, Prime Minister of Burma (Myanmar), in formal court dress, May 1937 in England for the coronation of King George VI

Dr. Ba Maw was born in Ma-u-bin on February 8, 1893. After his studies, he was attracted to politics, and for the next 40 years, was a leading politician and statesman in Burma (Myanmar). In 1937, Dr. Ba Maw became the first Burmese (Myanmar) ever, under British rule, to assume the post of Prime Minister of Burma (Myanmar). He held the premiership until 1939. In 1943, he was again elected as Head of State of Burma (Myanmar). He then led the nationalist movement which culminated in the country’s declaration of independence on August 1, 1943.

U Kye, Dr. Ba Maw’s father, had been an official in the courts of the former Kings of Burma (Myanmar) – Kings Mindon and Thibaw. A staunch supporter of the monarchy of Burma (Myanmar), he actively opposed the establishment of British Colonial rule. He refused to serve under the British despite his fluency in English, and later fought in open rebellion against them.

Dr. Ba Maw’s mother sacrificed in many ways to send her son to the prestigious St. Paul’s Boys School in Rangoon (Yangon). Her selflessness inspired Ba Maw to persevere in his studies, and follow in his father’s footsteps. Through hard work, he earned scholarships at the Rangoon College and at the University of Calcutta. He went on to study law at Cambridge University in England and received his Barrister-at-law degree from Gray’s Inn, London, in 1924. He received a PhD from the University of Bordeaux in France.


The first Burmese delegation to Japan before their audience with the Emperor, Tokyo, March 1943.
Left to right: Dr. Ba Maw, Thakin Mya, Dr. Thein Maung, Bo Aung San.

November 1943
The British troops hiding in hills of Burma received Aung San’s plan to turn his forces against the Japanese.






January,27th 1944




Japanese Occupation of Brunei, 1944 (Jan. 27) Official registered cover to Sarawak, franked with Japanese Occupation of Brunei 30c River Scene with violet straightline overprint (Scott N15) and unoverprinted Japan 1 sen Showa tied by purple ‘Brunei Central’ cds with two boxed registration handstamps alongside. Censor’s purple cachet with orange chop. ‘Miri’ backstamp (Jan. 28). Stamps with some creasing due to wear but a very rare franking.


1st August 1944
Declared Burma’s independence status as fake in independence day anniversary speech.

August 1944
Founded Anti-Fascist Organization (AFO) and became the military leader of the organization.
















National Congress (Myanmar), yesterday (3 days), adopted the basic principles of the new constitution,

finally after a year and a half 14 from the opening of

the 1993 Burma has been deliberate on a new constitution for transition to civilian rule from military was closed.

So, I tried to bring such a thing been entwined in that the “military” with Burma. (The images are click to enlarge)

This is the end of July 1945 the Second World War,

with a stamp on the envelope addressed to India proffered from Yangon (Rangoon) Rangoon under British military administration,

which means “British military” in the upper left corner of the “BRITISH MILY ADMN”

Display of two signs that contain characters and new face Anna has been pressed.

In addition, the term “military”, is not that “military regime”

such as current, means “government by the military occupation.” Just in case.

In Burma during World War II, Japan was under military occupation,

the administration (Bamoo) has declared its independence Bhamo of pro-Japanese in August 1943.

However, seen as dense Haishoku Ya Japanese tactics such as repeated failure in Imphal,

Burma National Army General Aung San (Suu Kyi’s not your father is)

to the conductor, March 1945, Burma in the country under the leadership of Japan

and its The British turned over to a coup against the government, on May 1, will arrive in Rangoon.

British military administration in the region underwent re-occupied. With respect to postal,

we used the surcharge issue and what the characters that indicate the “British military”

in the prewar and stamps of “BRITISH MILY ADMN”.

These stamp surcharge, since September 1945 the Japanese army surrendered, but will be used throughout Burma,

the cover of this time, the previous July 1945 the Japanese surrender,

the Japanese occupied territory still some example of the use of that time it was left is an excellent point.

Of course, the people of Burma was getting the “independent” (whether formal),

the opposition to the war, British rule was revived under the Japanese occupation.

The United Kingdom in 1946 was also the transition to civilian rule,

the independence movement did not fit, and finally, after a transitional government of independent preparation,

January 1948, Burma was officially independent. Therefore,

the period of British military rule for half a year I did not only substantially,

that comparatively, the cover of Sri military force is reasonably apparent.

Well, the basic principles which was adopted yesterday, to guarantee the leading role of the military in national management ,

army be appointed by 25 percent each of the seats in the hospital representative

and the National Academy of regional representatives ,

of the three presidential and vice

such as a person, to elect the military, to ensure the provision of military power have been incorporated.

Also, “a person who is under the influence of foreigners”

is the president and vice are not familiar, bit San Suu Kyi was married to (and already dead) husband of the British

to become president and vice has been closed virtually. In addition,

the prospect does not also been shown time

and the start of the work of drafting the Constitution was drafted on the basis of this fundamental principle.

And it this minute, to migrate to (civilian government) is,

I will still take time for the time being is pure civilian rule (military government) current military government in Burma.

Nevertheless, the current military government of Burma, but has considerably extends the long term, to divide it,

nifty cover is quite difficult to obtain.

It is also easy to get that much better under the cover of

the British military administration ended in a short period of time, it is kind of weird story.


Original info in japanese language

 これは、第二次大戦末期の1945年7月、イギリス軍政下のラングーン(ヤンゴン)からインド宛に差し出された切手つき封筒で、左上に“イギリス軍政”を意味する“BRITISH MILY ADMN”の文字と新額面2アンナの表示が入った印が押されています。なお、ここでいう“軍政”は、現在のような“軍事政権”ということではなくて、“軍隊による占領行政”という意味です。念のため。


 イギリスは再占領した地域で軍政を施行。郵便に関しては、戦前の切手などに“イギリス軍政”を示す“BRITISH MILY ADMN”の文字を加刷したものを発行・使用しました。こうした加刷切手は、日本軍が降伏した1945年9月以降はビルマ全土で使われることになりますが、今回のカバーは、日本降伏以前の1945年7月、まだ一部に日本の占領地が残っていた時期の使用例というのがミソです。





27th March 1945
Burmese troops throughout the country rose up against the Japanese.

15th May 1945
Met with William Slim of the Fourteenth Army.

15th June 1945
Victory parade was held in Rangoon. The Burmese forces participated alongside the British and Allied forces.

August 1945
The Japanese forces surrendered.

August 1945
AFO was expanded and renamed as Anti-Fascist People’s Freedom League (AFPFL).

BNA was renamed as Patriotic Burmese Forces (PBF).

September 1945
Signed an agreement to merge PBF with Burma Army under British command during a meeting in Kandy, Ceylon.

October 1945
Civil government was restored with Dorman-Smith as the governor of Burma.

1943, during World War II,

the Japanese military has built a tie Taimentetsudo connecting the 415 km between the non-Puradokku Tanbyuzaya

and Burma in Thailand.

The construction work this has been mobilized in large quantities such as prisoner of war of the Allies,

that from such as lack of schedule construction, pharmaceutical, food,

excessive weather conditions and harsh, which killed many widely known You.

After the war, the people who survived of them gathered to Tanbyuzaya, but made a memorial of the victims,

to the ceremony venue is also provided with branch office of the bureau Tanbyuzaya,

has also been used stamp commemoration such as those shown here.

After the war, the old Taimentetsudo there be too costly maintenance,

rail of some two-thirds of the border will be removed from the Thai side of the Burmese side and the whole line,

and now, Namutoku line of State Railway of Thailand, only during the non-Puradokku = Namutoku has been inherited. In addition,

in the heart of the construction of the past,

some of Kanchanaburi cemetery and war memorial of the prisoners of the Allies

is located in the point of a little over an hour by train from the non-Puradokku.

Taimentetsudo is, in itself, but if the target is intriguing human history have an interest in Showa like me,

six months where the camp was established across the two regions of Thailand and Burma

where the minutes ( In), if you have different types of postcards are used,

is very attractive for collection. In fact, the postal cult “concentration camp Tae”

I also may have collected piece by piece, previously exhibited in an exhibition mini-collection.

That is why, from people before, so once I wanted to experience the journey of Taimentetsudo, also on this trip,

go to Kanchanaburi was very looking forward to it.

Well, this time I do not worship the only part of the local Thai side, eventually, Tanbyuzaya


Original info in Japanese language















This postcard, August 1, 1943,

which was issued

to commemorate the “independent”

Burma under Japanese occupation,


ship Callaway has been drawn during the Pacific War.

Bird of imagination that is it that caraway, and are in paradise in the narrative Buddhism local, i

n October each year, votive candle to migration of the lake Inre put the Buddha statues (ship Callaway)

ship to imitate the bird The festival is also performed.

Incidentally, the back is like this in the (↓)



























Today is an example of using a letter addressed to the American Airlines submissions Rangoon in Burma.

Letter submissions is

December 31 to 16 1943

 Rangoon, to London, to the United States has been using the path Teiso plane is canceled and air treatment in London to use the British Imperial Airways is in Rangoon censorship.
Rangoon occupation of Japan was on

March 8, 2003.









BURMA: 1942, seven different definitives 3p violet to 4a bluegreen with peacock opt.,

scarce set mint hinged with pencil notations on some stamps,


いくつかの切手、スコット$ 1,286.00カタログ価格350.00鉛筆の表記法を使用して設定





Burma, 1943,

independence 5 C. rose rouletted canc. „

THATON 28 JUN 43” on reverse of small cover (bottom some soiling) Rangoon-Thaton and canc. on arrival

ビルマ、1943年独立、5 C.rouletted CANCローズ。小さなカバー(下部の一部汚れ)やタトン、ラングーン-CANCの逆のタトン628日、43″。到着カタログ




Burma, 1943, independence 9 P. purple, a horizontal pair, tied to reverse of cover „SYRIAM 16-2-45” used domestic

ビルマ、1943年、9 P独立紫、水平方向のペアは、 “Syriam 16-2-45″を使用して国内のカタログ·




BURMA: 1944 (ca.),

Burma definitive 10c blue ‘Shan woman’ opt. ‘Burma State’ two singles on ‘On His Majesty’s Service’ cover

locally used within Burma, scarce usage!

ビルマ:1944(税込)、ビルマ決定的な10Cブルーシャン女性のOPT。ローカルビルマ内で使用されるカバー陛下のサービスでは ‘on’のビルマ国家” 2枚のシングル、




BURMA: 1944 (ca.),

Burma definitive 5c ultramarine ‘Buffalo Cart’ opt. ‘Burma State’ horizontal pair on reverse of cover locally

used in Rangoon with nice advertisement on front!

ビルマ:1944(税込)、ビルマ決定的な5C群青バッファローカートに入れる” OPT。カバーの裏面にビルマ国家水平方向のペアは、




The Dai Nippon War In Burma 1943 

History Collections


125Flotilas M.S,. Burma Operation(1942-1945)

operation BY Coastal Forces(125)


Here they will stamp has been affixed to three cents a scene that sculpture the character of “independent”

of the independence commemorative postage stamp.

That during World War II,


the Japanese army was allowed to “independent”

to pro-Japanese in Burma is widely known.

For administration Bhamo pro Although this is strong also the view that was just a puppet government of Japan,

administration officials Bhamo had been fighting for the independence of Burma

sincerely mean that sold the country for self-interest is rather,

it would simply as “puppet” simply from the perspective of the current

I think also for the somewhat harsh.


Under the international environment at the time,

even those of only form, or to steps and one for independent full-fledged operations

in the former colonial power took the name of the “independent”

was held out of Japan it is Why continue to settle in the occupied territories, the standpoint of making a colony,

when it was faced with either of them, The choice is clearly better than they see the fire.

Of course, it gave the “independent” to them Japan, there is provided because it is in line with Japan’s national interest,

in the self-sacrifice is not impossible for Burma.

That continued until the end of the war the Japanese army stationed in Burma

in 1945 that should have been “independent” are clearly the real intention of Japan to speak for themselves such.

February began with a series of anti-shipping sweeps

 in which H.D.M.L. 1102 of the Burma Navy co-operated. On 13 January

1943 during a patrol in the Mayu river, M.Ls 438 and 476 were engaged by a battery of Japanese 57-mm guns. During the duel which ensued the launch escaped damage, but a small Japanese fishing vessel which had been ill-advised enough to put in an appearance, was sunk.

On the 26th, a small but highly successful raid was carried out in Hunter’s Bay. M.Ls 439, 440, 441 and 476 sailed from Teknaaf with a platoon of the Durham