The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-rom Edition”The Papua Nugini History Collections”


The Papua Nugini history



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Houses, Frederick Willhelmshafen, Madang Province, PNG
© Courtesy of The Australian Museum

The majority of the 152 images were created by unknown photographers, and show portraits, ceremonies, village scenes and activities as well as trading stations. Some have informative captions, including local names and personal names of traders and settlers. Many of the Solomon Island images are identical to those in another album held by the Australian Museum (see Capell Collection) but the captions are sometimes different. Research suggests that the Beran album images were taken from the original negatives as the captions are at times more detailed. Also included are a few prints of images taken in Vanuatu by John Watt Beattie, Charles Morris Woodford and John William Lindt.

Harry Beran

Harry Beran is a scholar, author and collector specialising in the Massim culture of Milne Bay Province, PNG. He was working in the Philosophy Department, University of Wollongong, when he acquired the album and donated it to the Australian Museum.

Related images

Mioko Village, Duke of York Islands, East New Britain Province, PNGMioko Village, Duke of York Islands, East New Britain Province, PNG View full size
© Courtesy of the Australian Museum
Women and children, fishing village, Blanche Bay, East New Britain, PNGWomen and children, fishing village, Blanche Bay, East New Britain, PNG View full size
© Courtesy of the Australian Museum
Reef Island canoes, Solomon IslandsReef Island canoes, Solomon Islands View full size
© Courtesy of The Australian Museum
Panna, a chief of Simbo, Western Solomon IslandsPanna, a chief of Simbo, Western Solomon Islands View full size
© Courtesy of The Australian Museum
Hurricane proof house, Port Vila, Efate, Vanuatu

Hurricane proof house, Port Vila, Efate, Vanuatu View full size
© Courtesy of The Australian Museum


Heinrich  Zahn, the Missioner Of Papaua New  Guinea  letter in 1915
Sent from New Guinea to Holland
and then forwarded to Germany. It seems like it was using an official system to tranmit mail. It still has the original note with a translation. There were several letters enclosed. Australian stamps used in New Guinea are very rare.(source Tim)
Read more about Missioner Henrich Zahn


FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany.from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars.

New Guinea and Its Islands

 Religion, the worship of the supernatural, goes hand in hand with music in the societies of Oceania, whose peoples practice it by intoning texts, sounding musical instruments, and making bodily movements.

In indigenous Oceanic societies, the supernatural ranged from spirits of land and sea, to personifications of nature, to gods of war and peace.

Worship varied from appeasing spirits and asking supernatural help in warfare, to blessing or harming crops and people, to invoking charms for calming the sea (figure 1).

The processes of ritual

Religion is often associated with what is called ritual (though ritual is not always religious), and outsiders often conflate these concepts.

Nevertheless, important concepts identified with ritual are useful for analyzing music and religion. Roy A. Rappaport, an anthropologist working in New Guinea, defined ritual as “the performance of more or less invariant sequences of formal acts and utterances not encoded by the performers” (1979:175).

These acts and utterances are learned or memorized (or read) from ancestors’ teachings, and are not generated by performers. According to this view, a ritual is “a form or structure” having “features or characteristics in a more or less fixed relationship to one another,” and can exist only in performance. “The medium [the performance] is part of the message; more precisely, it is a metamessage about whatever is encoded in the ritual.”

Likewise, while worshiping, performers may not fully understand what they are doing; they may know only that doing it is necessary.

Thus, the process of performing is primary, while the product and its aesthetic evaluation are secondary. Religion is often part of a total cultural system, in which participation in religious activity is a social necessity.

In another sense, religious performance can be viewed as a kind of theater—the enactment of myths received from ancient times, or the reenactment of events in the history of spirits or gods.

Aboriginal Australians believe that by ritually combining words, music, movements, and designs to reenact the events of the Dreaming, they make old powers work anew.

Early anthropologists, like E. B. Tylor and James G. Frazer, interpreted some rituals

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FIGURE 1 An Ifalik navigator sings and performs movements to ensure the safety of his voyage, 1975. Printed from a videocopy of a film made by Scott Williams for the Smithsonian magic. Evolutionary views of human social progress led them to link their concept of magic with “primitive” societies and their concept of religion to “advanced” societies. Many anthropologists have discarded social evolutionism, but some older publications, including those of Bronislaw Malinowski (1922, 1955), are useful for their information about indigenous religion and “magic,”

a specific power, essentially human, autonomous and independent in its action. This power is an inherent property of certain words, uttered with the performance of certain actions by the man entitled to do it through his social traditions and through certain observances which he has to keep, The words and acts have this power in their own right, and their action is direct and not mediated by any other agency. … The belief in the power of words and rites as a fundamental and irreducible force is the ultimate, basic dogma of their magical creed. Hence we find established the ideas that one never can tamper with, change or improve spells; that tradition is the only source from which they can be derived; that it has brought them down from times lying beyond the speculation of man, that there can be no spontaneous generation of magic. (1922:427)

The use of charms and spells, usually involving musical recitation, remains important in Oceania. A typical example is magic in Man us, which includes words and sometimes music: “It is recited aloud. It cannot be stolen by another. Its power is dependent on its having been rightfully obtained in marriage exchanges, peace-making exchanges or by more outright payment. After it is handed over it cannot be used by its former owner” (Fortune 1935:121). 

The wake of Christianity

The introduction of Christianity brought new supernatural and musical concepts, which have been adopted and adapted in myriad ways (figure 2). Across Oceania, Christianity has become a religious veneer, covering—and in some places irretrievably obliterating—indigenous religious systems.

The introduction of Christian music helped gain the widespread acceptance of

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FIGURE 2 In a church in Rarotonga, the congregation sings. Photo by Adrienne L. Kaeppler, 1992.Christian beliefs. New musical genres combined precontact and introduced musical concepts into popular forms, such as hīmene in East Polynesia peroveta in Papua New Guinea. In other areas, including Hawai’i and Aotearoa, poetic compositions were added to hymns. Still popular is “Hawai’i Aloha,” an unofficial national anthem, composed by the Reverend Lorenzo Lyons and set to the melody of “I Left It All with Jesus.” One of the most popular pieces of music in parts of Oceania is the Hallelujah Chorus, sung in local languages, not only at Christmas and Easter, but at any time of the year. 

One trait carries over into the new orthodoxy: performers still worship because they feel they must, and they may harbor only the vaguest understanding of the theology that underlies their beliefs. In the apostolic sects (Anglicanism, Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism), the language of the liturgy is simple and direct, but until the late twentieth century, Anglicans usually heard it in a sixteenth-century English version, and Roman Catholics always heard it in a medieval Latin one.

A widespread result of the introduction of Christianity has been the development of syncretic religious forms, in which Christian and indigenous ideas have blended. As part of this process, introduced Christian music has undergone reinterpretation (Barker 1990; Boutilier, Hughes, and Tiffany 1978). In some Oceanic societies, mainly those of Polynesia, Christianity has been the standard public religion for so long—about two hundred years in Tahiti—that old and now-secularized religious forms have without controversy been reintroduced into modern-day worship.



Aboriginal cultures show basic similarities in myths about the Dreaming, the era of the creation, when great ancestral beings walked a featureless world, experiencing life and procreating. Every event that occurred to each of them resulted in the creation of geographic features, and so they sculpted the Australian landscape, creating

the plants, animals, and peoples of the known world. They also founded the religious ceremonies, marriage rules, food taboos, and other laws of human society.

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… The Dreaming is … the generative principle of the present, the logically prior dimension of the now. (Sutton 1989:15) 

The ancestral beings created songs of their journeys, commonly known by Central Australian performers as history songs, embodying laws for the maintenance of society, land, and totems. Since the beginning of time, performers claim, these songs have passed unchanged from generation to generation. 

History songs often cross linguistic boundaries, mapping places in ancestors’ journeys. The ancestral beings, when they created features or landmarks, left embedded in the earth inseminating, supernatural powers, which, through the correct ritualized performance of the ancestors’ songs, knowledgeable people can tap. The Dreaming is understood as morally neutral, and the power of the songs can serve positive or negative ends (Strehlow 1971:262; Wild 1975:139).

Religious resonance is an important aspect of Aboriginal singing. Many extraordinary sonic experiences occur within the heightened emotional state of profound performances. These experiences are hard to describe. They are not measurable by electronic equipment, which deals only with the physical aspects of sound. Some Aboriginal sounds are totally disorienting. They seem to disconnect participants from the everyday world. Aboriginal society has mechanisms for introducing new songs, especially through dreamed ancestral gifts. These songs are less sacred than history songs, and appear to be more susceptible to change over time.



In New Guinea, the drama or music inspired and received enhancement from sensation and emotion. Collective ritual and musical performances often had a climactic, and even traumatic, character. Moments of intense social drama, especially of bereavement or physical pain (typically in initiations), they stimulated senses and feelings, often as part of the workings of revelation. Actions, rather than words, or at least not freely articulating speech, triggered experiences and meanings.

Some of this past remains. Participants in religious rituals still reach an understanding of ritual events by decoding the symbolism of performances. Baktaman novices learn to appreciate the mystical connection between dew (rubbed on the skin) and physical growth, because dew forms on leaves as if from nowhere (Barth 1987:32-35). At Wahgi feasts, men build a sacred structure on posts representing subclans. For periods between festivals, they inter these posts in swampy ground. The tenet that the posts never decay and may serve in later festivals reconceptualizes the clan’s immortality (O’Hanlon 1989:78).

For intensely moving, revealing, and mainly nonverbal experiences, music often provides an important stimulus. Its communicative aspects sometimes lie in the analogic principle of codification, as with Sepik flutes, tuned to mimic sacred species of birds, whose behavioral and physical peculiarities bring into focus various cosmological mysteries. The Kaluli believe fruitdove calls convey sadness: when Kaluli songs mimic their cries, the singer “becomes the bird,” passing from life to death (Feld 1990:218-219). The Yonggom believe the hum of a swung slat resembles the noise of engines, providing a musical vehicle for religious ideas about the origins of European goods (Kirsch 1992).

Where lyrics are the means of religious communication, they are often ungrammatical, and the words themselves may be archaic or secret (Barth 1975:70). The language may be foreign, as in Karavar ritual songs (Errington 1974:177). In some cases, ritual actions and materials suggest verbal meanings; in others, participants may interpret the meanings of strange sounds on the basis of subtle connotations with real or modern words (Lewis 1980:59-60).

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Music thus bolsters the cultivation of mysterious and multivocal symbols, but it is also emotionally arousing and expressive. Chambri music achieves poignancy in its beauty (Allen 1967:68; Mead 1935:245). When a conch accompanies singing, it may be discordant and awe-full (Williams 1928:38). Music can even be defiant, like cargo cultists’ nocturnal drumming, expressing opposition to Christian missionizing (Trompf 1990:76). Emotion abounds in the Kaluli gisalo: the sadness of music so moves guests, they singe the skin of their hosts, who stoically endure the pain.

Indigenous music and ritual

The grandness of musical performance may stimulate “collective effervescence,” by which a community of people “assemble and become conscious of their moral unity” (Durkheim 1964 [1915]:387). In societies dispersed in hamlets or nuclear families for much of the time, the experience of large ritual gatherings is impressive. The concerted efforts of dancers, singers, and instrumentalists reinforce a sense of largeness; synchronized movements, voices, and rhythms produce intense solidarity. Baining men unite their voices in large choirs, accompanied by the beating of many bamboos: the force of their playing makes the earth vibrate; struck by feelings of common identity and collective strength, participants sometimes weep. In small, boundary-conscious societies, religious experience often inheres in an appreciation of the solidarity and immortality of clans or communities. In keeping with a Durkheimian vision of the throng as god, religious music integrates, represents, and sacralizes society.

In New Guinea, music has important mnemonic value (Lewis 1980:64-65). Its use with other sensory and emotional stimulation and an emphasis on concrete metaphors relate to performative infrequency. Where societies perform rituals rarely, ideas and feelings evoked by rituals must impress on memory a character strong enough to survive long periods of abeyance (Whitehouse 1992). In the highly elaborate and systematized ideas of routinized religions, language—liturgies, scriptural readings, sermons—codifies revelation. Unlike these, many New Guinean religious matters must persist in people’s minds for years without transmissive contexts. Under these conditions, musical performance binds simple symbolic processes and potent emotional states. How the metaphors of Kaluli songs compel guests to weep “dominates both the aftermath and the remembrance” (Feld 1990:215).

Infrequency of transmission also affects the material form of instruments. When elaborate instruments, whose manufacture requires skilled labor, are not in use, people keep them strictly separate from the social world. In many areas of New Guinea, garamuts and other instruments remain within ceremonial houses. The Chimbu carefully preserve flutes in leaf coverings within men’s houses (P. Brown 1978:223). A safer method of ensuring that exposure to instruments occurs only on appropriate ritual occasions is to develop a disposable musical technology. When Sambia initiations end, the participants discard the sacred flutes (Herdt 1981:230). Within a few minutes, the Mali Baining can fashion and tune simple reed instruments (kelarega), which, immediately after use, they deliberately destroy.


An indigenous context: Asmat

A legend of creation anchors Asmat religious beliefs and arts. According to the legend, the people’s full name is Asmat Ow Kaenak Anakat (Asmat People Who Are Real Humans), that is, Asmat people who are not carvings. Real Asmat people descended long ago from their creator, Fumiripits, who one day landed unconscious on the shore. When he awoke, birds rescued him; henceforth, he saw birds as symbols of the ancestors. He gathered timber and rattan to build himself a longhouse, and spent his days carving wooden figures. Eventually, he filled his house with carved likenesses of humans and birds, yet he felt lonely.

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One day, Fumiripits made a drum (em). He hollowed out a log, used his blood and some white lime to attach the skin of a lizard over one end, and secured the skin with a rattan band. He started to play, and the carvings began to move, jerkily at first. He beat the drum faster, and the figures moved less stiffly. They turned into living, dancing humans.

Fumiripits then moved to a succession of sites, where he similarly created the populations of villages. The people he created were called Asmat. People who inherited his skills at carving, wowipits, learned to carve ancestral figures, some of which were attached to drums, houses, boats, and so forth. Only Fumiripits can create human beings, but wowipits are important people, because ancestral souls (bis) can inhabit carved figures. Unlike other craftsmen, who create useful implements and other objects and services for consumption, wowipits create drums and other artworks for use in religious rites.

Ceremonial performances

Some ceremonial Asmat dance-movements are based on avian movements, emphasizing the legendary link between human beings and ancestral symbols. Songs and stories say the soul of a newly deceased person travels in a boat along rivers, building a house at various places until it reaches the ancestors’ land.

After a sago or coconut harvest or a successful wild-pig hunt, the Asmat hold ceremonies to invite ancestral spirits to meet the living and strengthen them. Whenever customary leaders decide to hold a ceremony—to honor the ancestors, to listen to their demands for revenge from wrongdoers, for initiations, to launch canoes, when an important decision needs to be reached—men gather in the communal longhouse for days and nights. Women periodically bring them meals. In the longhouse, men stand to sing and dance, or sit to rest or listen to speeches, each with a spear and a shield.

A ceremony witnessed in a longhouse in Agats

In a ceremony held to request ancestral advice about a division of land, all participants were males. They wore mainly red, white, and black clothes, with belts and monkey-fur headbands, shell necklaces, rattan armlets, white feathers, and bone nose ornaments. Ocher-red symbolized strength, shell-white signified human skin, and charcoal-black symbolized relief from pain. Participants clustered around fireplaces situated every few meters along the floor. Periodically they stood up, sang in chorus, and engaged in dancing (bis pok mbui ‘ancestral spirit-dancing’). They stepped right and left, or simply swayed their bodies while standing or sitting. The floors rippled and swayed.

The tempo of the singing (whose melodies mainly used two or three tones) and drumming kept changing. After a vocalist began to sing, everyone stood to join in, each man dancing in place. Some of the men shouted out comments, whereupon the tempo of the music and dancing increased, only to stop altogether some time later. While resting, participants smoked or ate a snack of sago, and at mealtimes they ate fish or pork, with rice. They then resumed the next bout of music and dancing, repeating the process all day and all night for as long as they believed the ancestors required. The movements, based on those of birds, emphasized the mythological link between human beings and birds.

Carving ritual drums

Asmat ritual art is largely men’s business. Women are not allowed to be present while a wowipits is carving a ritual object or design, or to be in the longhouse on the most sacred occasions, while male musicians play and sing, though they are expected to

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bring meals. Some ceremonies, however, are for women only; men and women may participate in warfare-related ceremonies. 

The main Asmat instrument is a single-headed hourglass drum with a wide waist and a handle attached to one side. Drums from the east and Brazza-northeastern areas are usually plain; drums from the coastal-central and northwestern areas are often decorated with carvings representing ancestral spirits. The handles of the latter drums have carvings of animal, bird, and geometric designs on their bodies; on their handles they bear elaborately carved ancestral figures facing two directions, often combining human and avian faces. In some cases, white and black feathers and beads hang from the body and the handle.

The drums vary in size, depending on their area of origin, with large ones being about 80 to 100 centimeters long, and small ones about 50 centimeters. The drumhead, about 14 to 18 centimeters in diameter, has lizardskin stretched across it, kept firmly in place by a plaited rattan band just below the rim. To keep drums dry and insect-free, the Asmat usually store them on a rack above a fireplace. Before playing, they tauten the skin by holding it over a fire. Normally, they play only one drum at once. The player holds it in his left hand, beating the head with his right hand.

For a carver-artist to make a ritual drum takes about a month. On its handle and body he may carve designs of spirits’ hands and ears, fruitbats’ feet, hornbills’ heads, monkeys’ tails, wriggling snakes, and human figures. For his labor, he and his family receive gifts of cooked meals.

Insiders and outsiders

Partly as a result of Dutch military presence from 1904 to 1913, the world began to find artistic value in Asmat ancestral carvings (including musical instruments) and masks, and such items are found in the world’s major museums. In 1953, after the Dutch had defeated local fighters, the Roman Catholic mission in Agats became influential. Its leverage increased after 1963, when the Indonesian government invaded and took control. This government tried to stop local warfare and cannibalism, yet ancestral rituals were still commonly held. The mission’s museum in Agats has collected Asmat carvings, musical instruments, and other artifacts. In 1988, it became known as the Asmat Museum of Culture and Progress, and received financial assistance from by the government’s Department of Education and Culture. The mission and the government encourage Asmat carvers and performers to resist being swamped by tourists’ demands for cheap artifacts.

Promoting trade and enhancing Indonesia’s image, the government has sent Asmat performers to the United States, Britain, and elsewhere. To some Asmat participants and foreign observers, the presentations—of rural sacred arts to urban secular audiences—have seemed incongruous. Such presentations bring to the fore the conflicting perceptions of “insider” Asmat performers and “outsider” foreign audiences.


A syncretic context: Mali Baining

Among the Mali Baining in the early 1970s, a millenarian religious movement, Pomio Kivung, spread widely (Whitehouse 1995). Its main goal was to prepare for and expedite a miracle—in which ancestors would return to life, bringing material wealth. According to the movement’s Christian-syncretic doctrines, those who invested this wealth wisely would merit salvation.

In 1987, mainly in two villages, a splinter party emerged and claimed it could work the miracle on its own. Renouncing its allegiance to the overall movement, it vowed loyalty to local leaders. These acts did more than assert a new and modified religious dogma: they confirmed the autonomy and unity of a small political unit,

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upholding its leaders’ authority. The splinter party relied heavily on new forms of collective ritual, in which music played a prominent role. 

The model for leadership in the splinter party came from a myth relating the adventures of the ancestor Aringawuk, who experienced a mystical journey to the world of the dead. Returning home, he brought news of a new morality, similar to the Ten Commandments. He urged his people to accept this morality, but they did not, and in protest, he hanged himself.

The details of this story appeared in a song partly remembered by elders. As the splinter party coalesced, they pieced the song together, rehearsing in secret. They finally performed it in public, celebrating one man’s dream—that the ancestors had chosen a new leader, Tanotka, to complete Aringawuk’s task. Tanotka was a young man with little communal influence, but in the light of dreams and other sources of revelation, the community elected him to a position of authority and likened him to the central post of a house: as that post supported the rafters, people expected him to carry the community in its quest for the miracle. These ideas found expression in musical performance.

Celebrating the dream

The climax of the celebration of the dream about Tanotka occurred in a meetinghouse. Men occupied about one-third of it, crammed together on a wooden platform. They handled lengths of bamboo, with which they beat rhythms on the planks beneath them. Contrasting with the complexity of their neighbors’ rhythms, which the Mali often copy, “authentic” Mali rhythms are simple. In the song about Aringawuk, an even beat alternated with a polka-like rhythm, three beats followed by a rest.

The accompanying melody had the character of a dirge. It began on a low note (the pitch varying by verse), slid up to a rapid succession of high notes, and fell to the original one. The oscillation between a low register and a high one corresponded to changes of volume: the low note was quiet and somber; the high notes, loud and stirring. While the choir remained strong, melodies and lyrics repeated; but when several of the men’s voices became weak or fell silent, somebody (usually an elder) would begin a new verse, cueing others to unite behind him and sing with gusto. The same technique introduced songs, often selected according to the mood of the man introducing them, or his perceptions of the mood of the assembly. Sometimes few in the choir knew the new song, and another person might introduce a change. The main criterion for a successful rendition was that it be moving or evocative, and this feeling rose and fell with the energy invested in performing.

Fervent singing inspired the women and girls to dance. When the choir sang the song of Aringawuk, men raised a post, symbolizing the leader Tanotka; women danced around it, in a tight, shuffling crowd. Every couple of hours, on average, all rested for up to fifteen minutes. The singing and dancing lasted until dawn:

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Syncretic music and ritual

The musical rendition of the story of Aringawuk inspired perceptions that ordinary speech, or even the most practiced and persuasive oratory, could not have animated. The story itself recounted the failure of the ancestors to unite behind an inspired leader, with tragic results. It recognized the arrival of a new leader and the opportunity for redemption; this time, it asserted, the community would, in the prevalent metaphor, “stand as one person.”

Unified thought and action achieved its most dramatic display in synchronized drumming and singing, the result of careful and strenuous rehearsal. A solid relationship linked the synchrony of musical performance and the unity of the community. The women’s dancing around the housepost affirmed communal allegiance to Tanotka, around whom everyone symbolically gathered. A series of individual declarations of solidarity, however impassioned, could not adequately have conveyed a similar impression.

The advantage of music was that it could communicate the idea of a body of people greater than the individuals of which it was composed—and within that collectivity, it could cultivate strong emotions. The juxtaposition of differing melodies, intensities, and rhythms created ever-shifting moods, from lamentation in grief to affirmation of allegiance. These moods were meanwhile enhanced by the participants’ movements, heat, and odors.


Christian contexts

In 1871, the London Missionary Society (LMS) ventured into New Guinea. At first, it represented all Protestant religious denominations; later, it became increasingly a society of independent or congregationalist churches. British missionaries saw themselves as leaders in spreading civilization. For many, imperial expansion was a providential means for making converts to Christianity. Some foreign critics concluded that British colonialists were extending their political control under the cloak of Bibles, prayers, sermons, and hymns.

Political events in 1868 and 1869 required the missionaries to withdraw from French territories in Oceania (Prendergast 1968:69). The French government allowed only islanders under its administration to work as religious teachers in French Polynesian territories. Polynesians played important roles as missionaries in New Guinea, where they first arrived in 1872.

The tools of conversion included hymns. The missionaries began with texts in English and German, but soon added local languages. Kate, once spoken by about six hundred people in a handful of villages, spread through the peninsula into upland areas as far west as Mt. Hagen; by the 1950s, about seventy-five thousand persons understood it. In the same way in northeast New Guinea, the Lutheran mission used Gedaged and Jabêm. Between 1898 and 1984, it printed nearly forty hymnals containing texts of hymns, most of which were Western hymns with indigenous texts (Wagner and Reiner 1986:445). Other missions and their languages are Wesleyan (Dobu, Kuaua), Anglican (Binandere, Wedau), Kwati (Suau), LMS (Hiri Motu, Kiwai, Toaripi), and Unevangelized Fields Mission (Gogodala). After the late 1950s, when English became the national language of education, the religious importance of these languages declined.

The 188Os and after

In 1886, Roman Catholic priests founded a mission on Yule Island. Rivalry with Protestants erupted, but with less dissension than in other areas of the Pacific. By 1887, five organizations were working in New Guinea: the LMS; the Order of the Sacred Heart (Roman Catholic); Wesleyan Methodists; and Lutherans from

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Neuendettelsau, Bavaria, who in 1886 had established a mission at Simbang, near Finschhafen. These missions were on coastal strips or in the islands. 

In 1890, the leaders of the Protestant missions divided British New Guinea (Papua) into spheres of influence. The Methodists took responsibility for the islands off the eastern coast. The LMS, the largest mission, took responsibility for the southern coast. The Church of England agreed to evangelize the northeastern coast, where its missionaries first arrived in 1891.

The missions recognized the importance of getting to know the people to whom they were preaching. Roman Catholics demanded obedience on questions of doctrine, but in other matters allowed converts to continue their old ways. Methodists emphasized an ethical, rather than a doctrinal, manner of life, which did not tolerate “heathen” customs. As late as 1925, one LMS missionary, Charles Abel (at Kwato), condemned indigenous drumming and dancing. Anglican missionaries never fully believed that without their intervention the peoples of the Pacific would die out. They seesawed between demanding the eradication of indigenous culture and tolerating some indigenous activities; but they always condemned dancing because they thought its sexual connotations sinful.

New Guineans learned hymns quickly. Communal singing in church paralleled their experience, since indigenous religious rites involved music. The Anglican Church offered pieces by Handel, Keble, Sankey, and Wesley. Nonconformist works, especially those in gospel-song hymnals, were popular at Dogura in 1894, but Anglican clergymen tried to replace them with plainsong. The gospel-song style gained and held popularity. Certain musical influences at Dogura came from the Kwato mission, where children learned sol-fa singing.

Wherever the music came from, each mission stamped it with unique intonation and rhythms. Wesleyan hymns were “bright rousing choruses, while Anglican singing was always slow and lugubrious” (Wetherall 1977:179). Hymns presented Papua New Guineans with particular problems: the music followed a diatonic scale, with a functionally tonal syntax, in Western structures. Indigenous peoples could not understand the words. Their own songs were repetitive, with only a few notes (often only three to five), sung from memory. Western hymns—in books, with many words and long stanzas—required literacy.

The indigenization of hymns

For missionaries in New Guinea, the choice of music for Christian worship was never straightforward. New Guineans sang the Christian message in local languages before they could read. Is a German chorale sung in a vernacular language not wholly indigenous? If an indigenous Christian composes a hymn in imitation of Western examples, is the new composition indigenous? If a text is a translation of an English or German text, but the melody is indigenous, is the new piece indigenous? The permutations of these variables illustrate the complexity of service music in New Guinea. Identified and listed, they illuminate the word indigenous when applied to hymns.

These are the main kinds of MUSICAL indigenization in New Guinea: A.

Existing Western music, printed in hymnals



Music composed in a Western style by an indigenous person



Music using indigenous musical material, adapted by an indigenous person



As C, but adapted by a Westerner



Music composed by a Polynesian, as in peroveta



Music composed by an indigenous person in a traditional style



“Popular” Western style, as in gospel songs


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H.Traditional percussion: kundus, garamuts, or kundus with garamuts



Conch trumpets



Rattles, or other traditional instruments



Western instruments, as an organ



Guitars, ukuleles

These are the main kinds of TEXTUAL indigenization in New Guinea: M.

Existing Western texts, printed in hymnals



Western texts (as M), but translated into an indigenous language



Composed by an indigenous person in English or German, based on Western theology



Composed by an indigenous person in an indigenous language, based on Western theology



Composed by an indigenous person in an indigenous language, based on New Guinean theology



Western (as M), but translated into Tok Pisin



Composed in Tok Pisin by an indigenous person



Composed in Tok Pisin by a Polynesian

These are the main kinds of local indigenization in DANCE: U.

Movement and costume from indigenous traditions



Movement and costume from Polynesia

In some missionaries’ minds, any permutation except A + M marked a hymn as indigenous, even if only one of the other variables were present. There could therefore be shades of indigenization: A + N, A + O, B + N, B + O, and so on. The most common pattern, in all religions throughout Papua New Guinea, is A + R, a Western hymn with words translated into Tok Pisin.



In Central, Gulf, and Western provinces, one unique influence remains: peroveta ‘prophet’, Polynesian music brought by Polynesian LMS missionaries. The people of those provinces believe this influence came from Fiji, Tonga, Sāmoa, or Rarotonga. To learn to sing and dance peroveta, delegations from Western Province annually visit Rarotonga.

The singing of peroveta falls mainly to a mixed choir in two parts. The texts tell of biblical prophets. Dance, an essential element of the genre, illustrates the narratives (figure 3). The songs, often responsorial, frequently use percussive vocalizations typical of certain Polynesian male singing. Though some local people consider peroveta to be thoroughly indigenous, its phrases are longer than those of local songs, and many of its pieces are in a language unknown to the singers.

Conch bands

From 1902 to 1932, the Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn served in New Guinea as a Lutheran missionary. To accompany singing in Christian contexts, he formed bands whose instruments were shells of gastropods of genera Cassis, Fusus, Strombus, and Triton (figure 4). Through holes drilled through the apex or the side, players buzzed their lips. Instruments were of graded sizes: the larger the shell, the lower the pitch.

In 1920, Zahn saw the chance of using these trumpets in four-part harmony—an effect that occurred in precontact music only as the result of accidental melodic overlapping. Zahn’s first band, in 1925, consisted of nineteen conchs. Each shell produced one note, tuned to the diatonic scale. Zahn’s bands gave intonational support

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FIGURE 3 During the Hiri Moale Festival, a choir performs in a perovetacompetition. Photo by Don Niles, New Guinean Christians who had difficulty singing in tune. Another solution might have been to import a harmonium, but the Lutherans took pride in using locally available materials. These bands were unique in Oceania. Their heyday lasted three years (1925-1927). One band played at Hocpoi, one in the middle school at Watsutieng-Logaweng, and one in the church at Malalo. 

Before Zahn could form the band, he had to overcome two problems: to obtain conchs and devise a method by which the players could read music. He introduced a notation using the numerals 1 to 7, with 1 representing the tonic (figure 5). He marked lower and upper octaves with dots below or above the numerals respectively. Two (or more) dots below (or above) indicate two (or more) octaves down (or up). Zero denotes a rest. A dot after a figure doubles a duration. Lines above numerals show rhythm: one line marks an eighth; two lines, a sixteenth. An asterisk indicates a flat.

The Conchshell-Hymnal (Zahn 1959) contains eighty-three hymns, some with multiple titles in English, German, and Jabêm. Some hymns have up to five titles. The disposition of the languages hints at the popularity of a particular hymn or the suitability of a text to a language area. Having each person play one tone imposes restrictions on the music, since the coordination of fast notes would be difficult. Zahn responded to this concern by choosing hymns in block chords with simple harmonies, mostly triads in root position.

Around 1927, trumpets, tubas, a baritone, and a trombone—a gift from the Evangelical Trumpet Band Association of Bavaria—arrived at Hocpoi. Zahn taught young people to play these instruments. He then amalgamated his bands: for a few months, ten brasses and twenty-five conchs accompanied hymns in Hocpoi.

Several conch-band revivals have occurred. At Lac around 1955, an expatriate teacher formed a band at Bumayong High School, near the Lutheran headquarters. Revivals occurred briefly at Asaroka Lutheran High School in the 1960s; Bukawa in 1964 and 1983; Logaweng Seminary, Finschhafen, in 1982; and Germany in 1953 and 1972 (Muhlenhard 1983).

Later trends

After Papua New Guinean independence, the missions formulated a policy of indigenizing the liturgy, music, language, and clergy. This policy changed the emphasis

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FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany.from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars. 

In rural performances of the 1990s, the distribution of musical styles might be 10 percent hymns (English and translated versions), 10 percent choruses (with guitar), and 80 percent indigenized music (with kundus). The proportions in urban parishes are possibly 45 percent, 45 percent, and 10 percent, respectively.

Papua New Guinean Anglicans have their own hymnal, with 280 hymns. Many of its texts come from standard British hymnals (Hymns Ancient and Modern Revised 1947; Vaughan Williams, Shaw, and Dearmer 1925), but churches use many modern hymns, often with a repeated chorus. The Lutheran Hymnbook, reflecting its origins, features German chorales. The United Reform Church uses Wesleyan hymns, whose texts expound the strict morality of nineteenth-century Nonconformism. Evangelical churches favor the musical simplicity of gospel songs, encouraging congregations to clap and dance as they sing. —ANNE M. GEE


FIGURE 5 Conch-band notation: the beginning of “Onward Christian Soldiers” (Zahn 1959). The symbol ∗5 is a flat fifth, though the functional tonality of the note is a sharp fourth. By permission of Kristen Pres Incorporated, Madang, Papua New Guinea.MELANESIA: VANUATU

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In Vanuatu, where notions of the secular are importations, all music bears the influence of religious experience. The ni-Vanuatu (indigenous peoples) distinguish between animistic practices and Christian sects, often nominal, in that elements of old beliefs permeate them. The national motto is We Stand With God (Long God Yumi Stanup), but savvy pagans—15 percent of the population, living mainly on Espiritu Santo, Pentecost, and Malakula—ask which god politicians and clerics have in mind. The resulting conflicts have overt musical implications.

On many northern islands, neighboring villages compete in sawagoro-like dance-songs. In numbers, vigor, volume, and choice of music, one side tries to surpass another. Historical interpretation is a field for combat, on which villagers define their local identities by mobilizing myths and metaphors. To show sophistication, performers select pieces illustrating heroic or even antiheroic stances. One side waits for the other to finish, and fills pauses between items with smartly apposite items. On Ambae in the early 1990s, an Adventist village might have sung popular “Christian choruses” from the European-American campfire ecumenical tradition, advocating puritan virtues. Other villages might have answered it with a sawagoro about a hero who achieved renown by apparent transgressions: lies, adulteries, murders, wars. Comprehensive and subtle, the irony may elude missionaries’ ken. Villages that have renounced custom because of sectarian dictates (Seventh-Day Adventists, Apostolic Church, Church of Christ) often appreciate most sharply the importance of indigenous music. To keep up the interface between custom and importation, they maintain links with laxer Christian sects (Anglicans, Roman Catholics).

Despite rejuvenating events, musical variety often gives way to imported uniformity. By the 1990s, Vanuatu’s 105 languages of the 1970s (each with music related to specific terrains) had dwindled. Conscious of loss, peoples looked inward to cultural specificities in their languages, and produced songs in a mixture of dialect and neo-Melanesian—in what outsiders sometimes thought to be innocuous string-band music, a pan-Pacific style, in which, typically, performers recount boy-meets-girl situations. Though some of the music builds false happiness, some is social commentary in disguise. Apt subjects are adultery, incest, rape, murder, treason. The pretty mask of innocence cozens missionaries and ni-Vanuatu politicians, struggling to homogenize their peoples. Once pierced, the surface of much pan-Pacific pop never looks the same. The ubiquitous string band, Vanuatu’s vigorous, cutting-edge form, where “you have to know the words,” has a deadly, religious-political side.

The content of string-band lyrics comes directly from indigenous song. The government bans some old forms, such as the East Ambae tanumwe, which musicians no longer compose because they deal with technical incest (intramoiety cohabitation), a matter religious people do not tolerate, though they know it persists. Whenever someone sings one of these songs, a crowd gathers and weeps.

Songs and dances join religious forms in marking notable public events. The completion of a building, a well, a windmill—all demand rituals of consecration. In 1977, the Nagriamel Party celebrated with a ceremony the opening of a new road. A suicide eased the question of who should inherit the land, resident colonial commissioners unknowingly ate forbidden pigeons (which they had put on a protected list), and people from the hinterland danced na polo counterclockwise and killed hermaphrodite pigs. At the other end of the road, performers did double-line dances to the accompaniment of an accordion, instead of double raft panpipes; they said the accordion played “much the same sounds.” At any point in such ceremonies, people may break out into nineteenth-century evangelical hymns, such as “Shall We Gather by the River?”

In church-run schools, students typically learn music from a blackboard display

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of sol-fa notation, taken from hymnals published in England. They ignore end-line and mid-line pauses or prolongations, and the sung result is irregular tempo, often with novel rhythmic effects. Neither in hymns nor in string-band songs, their popular offspring, are phrases equal in duration. The aesthetically admired manner of singing requires volume as loud as possible, and no vibrato. 

In 1977, a religious performance used inaudible music. For tribute at a bishop’s consecration, all communities of the diocese presented dances. People from Mota, Motalava, and Maewo displayed elaborate headgear and dress. In perfect synchrony, they danced silently, to music heard only in their heads. Conclusively, punctiliously, they then destroyed their garb. None in the audience knew what religious sentiments they had been expressing.

In the 1970s, high-church Anglicans encouraged a fusion of indigenous and Christian cultures, and local composers set the text of the Anglican Mass to Mota melodies. Fundamentalist Christian sects have pushed ritual music to elementary levels, but more complex religious music might arise from inspiration by international contact on occasions such as the Pacific Festival of Arts. —PETER RUSSELL CROWE


To Yap in 1886 Spanish Capuchin missionaries brought Gregorian chants, the music of the Roman Catholic Church. Distributed among the sections of the Mass, and proper to the day and time, these pieces display various monophonic styles and structures.

In 1903, German missionaries brought another language and different customs. Hymns performed on Yap in the mid-1990s show that the linguistic legacy of German missionaries exceeded that of Spanish ones. German words have made their way into Yapese, most likely as a result of being in religious music. An example is the text of the Agnus Dei, “Saaf ku Goof” (‘Lamb of God’, figure 6). The Yapese word saaf comes from the German word Schaf’sheep'; and Got, from the German Gott ‘God’ (Jensen 1977).

Most hymns performed on Yap have been adapted from conventional hymns or carols. “Felfelan’dad” (‘Let’s Be Joyful’) is widely known beyond Yap as “Joy to the World,” and “Nep ni Zozup” (‘Holy Night’) is based on “Silent Night.” Not all such melodies, however, come from international classics; often, though, the texts are literal translations from English into Yapese.

Yapese hymns have been collected and printed in Ngadatanggad ku Samol (Songs of the Savior), which sorts them by their role in the Mass, their seasonal use, or their topic, such as songs of Mary (tang ku Maria), songs of the dead (tang ko yam), songs


FIGURE 6 The Agnus Dei as performed on Yap in the mid-1990s. Transcription by Deirdre Marshall-Dean.

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of the Mass (tang ko Misa). At the beginning of the book is a collection of general hymns, not all of which conform with the melodies of standard Roman Catholic hymns. 

Taking melodies from international pop, local composers have created hymns. The most notable of these is the Christmas song “Ke Yib Fare Raen” (‘The Light Has Come’), based on Simon and Garfunkel’s melody “The Sound of Silence.”

Yapese sing hymns outside religious services—at parties and village celebrations, usually unaccompanied and in unison. One such piece is the communion hymn “Kammagar Samol” (‘Thank You, Lord’), based on the song “Kumbaya.” A possible reason for using that music with Yapese words is the phonetic similarity between kumbaya and kammagar. —DEIRDRE MARSHALL-DEAN


Important religious concepts of Polynesia included the origin of the universe and connections among gods, ancestors, and humans. These connections were ritually maintained through music and dance, systems of knowledge that hereditary experts held in memory. Gods and people formed a continuum of the sacred and the profane. As gods were sacred and people profane, so were chiefs sacred and commoners profane. This axiom underlay Polynesians’ sociocultural organization, justifying ranked social and kinship structures. It still underlies many Polynesian interpersonal relationships.

The details of Polynesian cosmogony remain to be worked out, but the Proto-Polynesian universe probably began with a primary void. From it came heaven and earth, personified as a sky-father and an earth-mother, who clung in a warm embrace until they were pushed apart by one of the four great Polynesian gods—Tāne, Tangaroa, Tū, and Rongo—or sometimes by a lesser god (or demigod), Maui. In Hawai’i, rather than rending heaven and earth, the sky-father and earth-mother, with various partners, gave birth to the individual islands of the Hawaiian chain.

These gods took various forms throughout Polynesia. They concerned themselves with the creation of the universe, most elements of nature, the other gods, and human beings. They displayed human dispositions, and had to be honored, worshiped, and appeased. Each island or cluster of islands had a unique cast of lesser deities, emphasizing locally salient plants, animals, and natural phenomena. Special gods—like Pele, the goddess of volcanos in Hawai’i—met the requirements of special natural environments (figure 7).

The underlying set of principles through which Polynesians interpreted their world and organized their social lives included mana and taboo (tapu), concepts intertwined with ideas of rank based on divine descent. Mana, possibly best glossed ‘supernatural power’, was a generative force, often linked with genealogical rank, fertility, and protocol. It was protected by taboos, some of which had musical significance because they were charms, activated by the recitation of verbal formulas. As

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FIGURE 7 Near the edge of Hale Ma’uma’u Crater, Hawai’i, Hālau o Kekuhi perform a hulain honor of Pele, the volcano goddess. The teachers of this school, the Kanaka’ole sisters Nalani and Pualani, received a National Heritage Fellowship in 1993. Photo by Adrienne L. Kaeppler, 1982.restrictions on behavior, some taboos were made visible by signs, like a bent branch, or a specially plaited frond attached to a tree to protect its wood, its leaves, or its fruit. Other taboos were conceptual, supported by myths and other intangible tokens of morality (Handy 1927).


West Polynesia

In West Polynesia, Tangaloa (East Polynesian Tangaroa) and Maui were the important male god and demigod, respectively, and Hikule’o (Tonga) or Saveasi’uleo (Samoa) governed Pulotu, the underworld. In Tonga, Maui pushed up the skies, ordered in ten layers. Tangaloa was the sole creator, whose universe was the ocean and a many-tiered sky. In Sāmoa, he threw a rock into the ocean, and it became the island of Manu’a. (Alternate myths exist.) The Tongan islands were said to have been created when the gods threw down chips of wood from their workshops. Maui or Tangaloa used special fishhooks to fish up certain islands from the sea.

The origin of the universe

The organization of the universe and important events in the lives of gods or chiefs were embodied in songs and dances that became chronicles of history and geography. The following excerpt, from Tonga, describes the role of Maui and the layers of the heavens (after Kaeppler 1976:202-203).

Na’e fakatupu hotau fonua, Our land was created,
‘O fakapulonga mei ‘olunga, Shrouded from above,
Pea tau totolo hangē ha unga. And we crawled like crabs.
Langi tu’o taha, langi tu’o ua, The first and second skies
Tala ange kia Maui Motu’a Tell to Maui Motu’a
Ke ne teketeke ke ma’olunga To push them high
Ke havilivili he ‘oku pupuha, So the breeze can come in, for it is hot,
Pea fakamaama e fanua. And bring light to the land.
Pea tau tu’u hake ki ‘olunga, And then we stood up,
‘O ‘eve’eva fakamafutofuta. And walked about proudly.
Langi tu’o taha, langi tu’o ua, The first and second skies
Ko e langi pe ‘a Maui Motu’a. Are the skies of Maui Motu’a.
Langi tu’o tolu, langi tu’o fā, The third and fourth skies,

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Nofo ai ‘a ‘Ūfia mo Latā: Are the living places of ‘Ūfia and Latā:
Ko e langi kehe, langi ‘uha, These are separate skies, the rainy sky,
Na ‘ufia e langi ma’a, That covers the cloudless sky,
Pea lilo ai Tapukitea. Where Tapukitea is hidden.

Tapukitea is Venus, the morning and evening star. Later verses mention the origin of the Milky Way and certain climatological features.


West Polynesian myths also recount the origin of chiefly titles and kava rituals, linking political structures with other beliefs, and making political and religious concepts suitable topics for the poetry performed at kava ceremonies. In Sāmoa, Tagaloa (Tangaloa) had kava brought from heaven to slake his thirst (Pratt 1891:164). In Futuna, a man obtained kava from spirits in a trance (Burrows 1945:59). A Tongan and Sāmoan myth says kava first grew from the buried body of a chief’s leprous daughter.

The maintenance of order

Taboo contrasted with permitted behavior. The contrast was sometimes explicit, as in Samoa, where notions of the bound (sā) and the free (fua) affected many aspects of life. In Sāmoa since missionization, the Christian day of restricted behavior has been Sunday (aso Sā ‘bound day’), and the people’s first day free of its restrictions has been Monday (aso Gafua ‘free day’). Hence a song of Savai’i, current around 1900:

‘O le tulī ma le ve’a fiafia aso Gafua. The tern and the rail enjoy Mondays.
Kilekuā aso Sā, kilekuā! Kilekuā Sundays, kilekuā!

As with many Polynesian lyrics, even in children’s songs, this text is metaphorical: by saying a seabird (the tern) and a landbird (the rail) enjoy Mondays, it means that all birds—all people—do.


Belief in gods and spirits occasioned the performance of several kinds of music. Recitations of prayers were common, by heads of households on behalf of families, and village priests on behalf of communities. In old Sāmoa, annual offerings of food to gods were “associated with games, sham-fights, night-dances” (Turner 1884:20), and a conch served as the emblem of certain gods of war (Stair 1897:221). In the West Polynesian outlier Tikopia, a cycle of seasonal rituals, the Work of the Gods, occasioned the performance of kava, reciting, singing, and dancing (Firth 1967).

Religious beliefs also underlay funeral customs. Laments were a standard feature of indigenous music; some were performed with conventionally intoned sighing, wailing, and sobbing (Kaeppler 1993b; Mayer and Nau 1976), but others were not always somber, weepy, or lugubrious. In old S̄moa, survivors let a dead chief’s body decompose; they eventually severed the head and interred it, but did so with feasting and dancing (Brown 1972 [1910]:405). After the Western missionaries’ arrival, funerals became Christian events, which followed Christian liturgies. In Sāmoa, Protestant funerals end with a performance of the hymn “‘Ia Fa’atasi Pea Iesū ma ‘Oe,” a version of the nineteenth-century evangelical hymn “God Be with You.”

Today, most West Polynesians are Christians. Elaborate churches are familiar aspects of the landscape. In addition to furnishing music for worship, choirs compete in festivals, in their home countries and abroad.


Christian music in Tonga

In 1822, Wesleyan missionaries arrived in Tonga and immediately saw how important music was in Tongan life. On 2 December 1827, a simple hymn of two stanzas,

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composed by the missionary Nathaniel Turner, was sung at a religious service—the first time a Christian hymn was sung in the Tongan language. During the first thirty years of Christianity in Tonga, Methodist missionaries translated many hymns composed by Charles Wesley (1707-1788). The Te Deum was sung in Tongan as early as 1839, at the marriage of Sālote, daughter of Taufa’āhau (later King Tupou I), to a high-ranking chief, the Tu’i Pelehake. The first Tongan hymnal (1849) contained 189 hymns. Missionary Walter Lawry, in a visit in 1850, observed the worship in Nuku’alofa: “The beautiful harmony with which they went through the responses in the Morning Service was very affecting, in tones like the sound of many waters” (Wood 1975:1:91). 

James Egan Moulton and his numerical notation

In 1865, the Rev. (later Dr.) James Egan Moulton (1841-1909) came from England as a missionary and teacher. In 1866, he founded Tupou College, now the biggest boys’ secondary boarding school in the South Pacific. His brilliance as a theologian, linguist, and musician is still recognized. Words and phrases from his hymns have become proverbial in the Tongan language, quoted in public in various settings. Moulton retranslated hymns and the liturgy into stately Tongan, replacing what the early missionaries, with a less fluent knowledge of the language, had produced.

Though the Roman Catholic and Methodist churches shared the pioneering of Christianity in Tonga, it is Moulton’s contribution that is musically outstanding. Composing hymns for the students of Tupou College, he began to introduce music written in sol-fa, but when he started to teach, he learned that certain combinations of syllables were indelicate words in Tongan. He then devised a numerical notation, which Tongan churches and schools still use, even for eight-part anthems and music for bands.

By introducing a system of notation, Moulton brought to Tonga the European oratorio tradition. Handel’s Messiah, Haydn’s Creation, and Mendelssohn’s Elijah soon became familiar. Moulton’s Tongan translations of favorites such as “Abide with Me,” “Jesus, Lover of My Soul,” “Nearer, My God, to Thee,” and “When I Survey the Wondrous Cross” have become part of the cultural heritage of the Tongan people.

Moulton’s techniques of translating

Moulton used his linguistic and theological skills to weave meaningful illustrations into his interpretations of hymns. In the Tongan version of Joseph Scriven’s text “What a Friend We Have in Jesus,” especially the lines “Are we weak and heavyladen, / Cumbered with a load of care,” Moulton used the idea of a father and son going to the garden to get food for the family. The food was carried in a coconut-leaf basket hung on a long stick, the father resting one end of the stick on his shoulder, and the son taking the other end. When the father would draw the basket closer to his end, he would take more of the weight of the load, lightening it for his son. Reinterpreting the hymn, Moulton wrote:

Ka ne ‘ave ki he ‘Eiki, si’o ngaahi fu’u mo’ua,

Te ne ala pe ‘o hiki, hilifaki hono uma:

Te ne toho pe ke ofi ‘au pe hono ma’ama’a.

Tu’u totonu ‘o malohi, faingofua ‘a e faingata’a.

If you take your burdens to the Lord,

He will lift them on to his shoulder:

He will pull the burden closer to make your load lighter.

Stand tall and be strong, and the burden will be easy.

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For Frances Havergal’s hymn “Master, Speak! Thy Servant Heareth,” Moulton began with the idea of a master-servant relationship. He added the story of the calling of Samuel, to produce what has become a favorite Tongan children’s hymn, “‘Amusia ‘a Samiuela hono ui ‘e he ‘Eiki” (‘Oh that I were Samuel to be called by the Lord’).

Some favorite hymns are Moulton’s own lyrics, set to widely known tunes. “‘E ‘Eiki, ke ke me’a mai ‘a e anga ‘eku nofo” (‘See, Lord, the way I live’) illustrates his skill in evoking culturally important imagery. His lyrics meditate on the temptations that surround our lives, trying to trap us:

‘Omi ha konisenisi hange ha tama’imata,

Ke u kalo ‘oka lave si’i ha me’i angahala.

Give me a conscience as sensitive as the pupil of the eye,

So that I will turn away if a speck of sin touches it.

In other texts, Moulton used illustrations from the sea, deeply familiar to an ocean-bound people. In Tongan minds, his hymns evoke important meanings and values associated with outriggers, sails, masts, harbors, storms, and anchors. Noted Tongan scholars have said that no Tongan has equaled his use of the Tongan language.


Moulton’s followers

Moulton imbued his students with his love of hymns. When they graduated and returned to their villages, they formed choirs and taught their congregations music they had learned at the college. In 1935, Dr. A. Harold Wood (1896-1989, another musician, also principal of the college) introduced choral competitions, which became so popular that choirs of a hundred or more voices now travel from all over the islands to participate.

Over the years, outstanding Tongan musicians have worked in Christian musical idioms. Tevita Tu’ipulotu Taumoefolau (1915-1981) and Feleti Sitoa Siale (1912-1996) of the Free Wesleyan Church, and Sofele Kakala (1916-1991) of the Roman Catholic Church, were exceptional Tongan choirmasters. Kakala composed Tongan-language masses that incorporated indigenous Tongan melodic contours, and the Vatican honored him for his music. —HELEN TALIAI, SIUPELI TALIAI

Christian music in Sāmoa

In 1830, LMS missionaries arrived in Sāpapāli’i, Savai’i, and King Mālietoa Vaiinupō accepted them. At first, Tahitian and Rarotongan teachers conducted hymns and services in their own languages (Faleto’ese 1961:85); later, missionaries composed Sāmoan texts, for which they borrowed simple melodies from various sources. After the 1840s, when the missionaries established seminaries (Mālua and Pīula), Sāmoans learned English hymns. Graduates from these institutions, as pastors throughout the islands, took these hymns to villages, where they can still be heard in churches and family prayers.

Musical traits of hymns

In modern arrangements, the melody can occur in the soprano or the tenor, or be distributed among four parts; or its melodic line may be hidden and carried by one or two voices. Descants, mostly in the major mode, sometimes decorate hymns. The crossing of voices is uncommon.

Harmonic structure resembles that of English hymns. The diminished chord, a foreign trademark, is popular; it appeared early in Sāmoan hymnals, and later in songs by local composers. Parallel fourths rarely occur. Vocal duets and trios have

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become popular in late-twentieth-century sacred music. A feature of sacred music original to local composers is a parallel movement of inner voices (alto and tenor) in a final cadence or final chord that, in an amen gesture, restates the last line or words of a verse or refrain. 

Harmonic modulation between stanzas came from abroad. In the 1980s, modulation a semitone upward became a favorite way to connect stanzas and hymns, and to end the last section of a song. As a result of repeated upward modulations, sopranos sometimes approach final cadences straining to reach the pitch. The singing of high notes results in straining and nasality, named by several Sāmoan terms: fa’ataiō, fa’aumu, and pese i le isu ‘sing through the nose’.

Rhythms, whether fast or slow, usually derive from textual pronunciation. Short vowels tend to have notes of shorter duration than long vowels. Directors or organists usually start with the music before adding words. Using a text improperly in borrowed music may violate the relationship of vowel length and rhythm, making certain words sound awkward, and even changing their meaning.

In the treatment of tempos, pace reflects mood: texts about tragic events are slow, and texts about joyful events are fast. To specify tempo in written music, local composers write a Sāmoan word that describes the tempo they prefer; for example, the term laulausiva (in other contexts the name of an introductory item with gestures and claps) prescribes a lively, fast tempo.

Strophic form, a trait of many indigenous songs, occurs in Sāmoan hymns. Anthems based on biblical texts are through-composed, with or without repeated sections. Large works called psalms (salamo) have three movements—fast, slow, fast—with an introduction and interludes. Other religious compositions have a development and a coda. Strophic and through-composed hymns have a tendency to repeat each stanza, the refrain after the last stanza, and the last lines of the refrain.

Variations in dynamics are uncommon in Sāmoan religious performances. A piece is sung loudly until the last refrain, which the choir first sings softly and then loudly; the soft singing signals that the hymn will soon end.

The singing of hymns once had a nasal timbre, especially in soprano and tenor voices, which, by carrying the melody in alternation or doubling, stood out from other parts; but in the late 1990s, this nasality is diminishing. Most Sāmoan choral directors do not like it, and try to change it during warm-up exercises (figure 8). Directors also try to control vibrato, three kinds of which are becoming popular in sacred choirs: a fast tremolo, as if quivering (tete pei e ma’alili ‘tremble as if shivering’); a yelling vibrato, with the mouth widely open (tete fa’aumu, or tete fa’ataiō); and a slow, hollow vibrato, resulting from lowering the jaw (leo tete fa’a’ō’ō).

The texts of Sāmoan religious music use the formal register, with the phoneme /t/ pronounced [t]; this register also serves for reciting religious verses, saying prayers, and giving sermons. A controversial textual practice in religious music of the 1980s and 1990s has been to use secular terms, like proverbs and legendary allusions—phrases typically spoken by orators and chiefs in settings outside the church.

Typical plans of worship

Each denomination follows its own order of worship, with slight variations. In Protestant churches, this plan is typical: 1.

Organ prelude, optional



Invocation (tatalo ‘āmata), said by the pastor or catechist (ta’ita’i)



Hymn (pese fa’afetai or Agāga Pa’ia), sung by the choir and the congregation



Long prayer (tatalo ‘umi), said by the pastor or the catechist


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FIGURE 8 In Pago Pago, the choir of the Congregational Church of Jesus in Samoa rehearses. Photo by Leua Frost, 1995.5.The Lord’s Prayer, sung by everyone present in a musical version standard throughout Sāmoa. In the Mass, many Roman Catholic congregations also sing this version of the music



Hymn, sung by the choir and congregation



Skits, optionally inserted by Sunday-school students; especially in Methodist churches in Tutuila, the idea of skits was introduced by the late Rev. Fa’atauva’a Tapua’i, pastor of Susana Uesile Methodist Church in Tafuna and chairman of the National Council of Churches in American Sāmoa



Sermon (lāuga), by the pastor or the catechist



Hymn, sung by the choir and congregation; at special services, like the anniversary of the founding of the local parish, the choir may at this point present an anthem, or the congregation may sing a psalm to a European psalmodic formula



Organ postlude, optional

Solo singing is popular in weddings, funerals, and sections of some anthems and psalms.


Protestant congregational singing includes hymns from Britain and the United States, especially Sunday-school songs, some in versions maintained orally from the 1800s. Their texts are usually Sāmoan translations by LMS missionaries (whose churches now form the ‘Ekālesia Fa’apotopotoga Kerisiano i Sāmoa) and Methodist missionaries. Protestant services may feature solo, duet, trio, or other small-ensemble performances of gospel or pop adaptations, accompanied by synthesizers or other musical instruments.

Roman Catholic churches follow the order of worship specified in standard liturgical books, but Sāmoan priests make minor adjustments for special services. Many congregations sing hymns—music and text—borrowed from Protestant hymnals. Musical traits particular to Roman Catholic services include responsorial singing between a cantor or a priest and the congregation; the singing of Latin texts, or of Sāmoan texts translated from Latin; and the adaptation of Sāmoan texts and music.

Much music is felt equally appropriate for Roman Catholic and Protestant churches. The main reason is that Roman Catholic churches hire Protestant choir directors. The major forces behind this trend were two composers from the Congregational Church of Jesus in Samoa, Mata’utia Pene Solomona and Elder Mr.

[p. 207 | Page Image]

Ioselani Pouesi, who taught many of today’s choir directors, and composed music for Roman Catholic and Protestant hymnals. 

Musical philosophy

Protestant pastors believe musicians play an important part in religious services. A common phrase they use when thanking musicians is E mafai e le pese ona lāuga, ‘ae lē mafai e le lāuga ona pese ‘A song can preach, but a sermon can’t sing’. Pastors who graduated from theological colleges are said to have been the first choristers (faipese) in village choirs; in some areas, this tradition continues. Some congregations accept that pastors must control the choir; others reject this relationship. Disgruntled members of the church voice their disagreement to pastors by quoting a common phrase: “The job for which we brought you here to our village is your Bible, not music.”

Before the mid-1900s, pastors allowed organists and choirs to select songs for Sundays because the organists could play only by ear (tā fa’alogo) or by fluke (tā fuluka): they needed time to learn to play new hymns and teach them to the choir. By the 1990s, however, most village choirs included one or more persons who could read musical notation, and pastors exercised more choice in selecting hymns.

Conservative pastors prefer to maintain older styles of performing: singing accompanied by an organ (pump or electric), or unaccompanied. They believe the use of keyboards with small log idiophones (pātē) distracts congregations; they disparage the use of pop tunes. But some choristers quote biblical phrases to support the idea that the use of drums and other instruments to praise the deity is theologically acceptable. Some pastors allow drumming, clapping, and dancing in Sunday school and during special services, like White Sunday (Lotu a Tamaiti), the second Sunday in October, when children regale the congregation with religious recitations, songs, and skits.

In the western islands, some Methodist churches put the organ aside and employ sets of pātē, each instrument with a unique pitch; some Roman Catholic churches also allow pātē. Other churches use brasses, woodwinds, and an electric organ. The Assembly of God has begun using electric guitars. Portable keyboards with built-in percussion are fashionable in several denominations. Innovation comes from musicians influenced by popular music, and from American popular or gospel artists, including Michael Jackson and Gloria and William J. Gaither.

—Paul Vaiinupō Pouesi


FIGURE 9 Pushing up the sky with the feet is a recurring theme in Polynesian religious texts, here featured in sculpture as part of the stand of a Hawaiian pūniu. Photo by Bishop Museum.East Polynesia

Religious experience in East Polynesia underwent dramatic transformations when, largely by the mid-1800s, Polynesians devalued indigenous religious practices to embrace Christianity. Within each society, the role of music has remained central, albeit in different ways. The continuity of certain structural concepts from indigenous spirituality suggests uniquely Polynesian configurations in religious experience, many of which manifest themselves in musical performances (Forman 1982; Garrett 1982) (figure 9), including those in secular contexts.

Several core concepts mark spirituality throughout East Polynesia. The central concept is mana, a dynamic force, regulated through interdictions (tapu, Hawaiian kapu), which keep the sacred separate from the secular. Regulating the flow of mana in and through people and objects was an objective of religious and spiritual practices on at least two levels. First, elaborate state rituals of invocation to major deities, performed on stone temple platforms, legitimized ruling chiefs and maintained stratified social orders, especially in Hawai’i (figure 10) and Tahiti; an elite class of priests closely guarded knowledge of these rituals (Kaeppler 1993a). Second, lesser rituals of supplication to minor deities and animistic spirits permeated daily life; these were

[p. 208 | Page Image]


FIGURE 10 Religious architecture in East Polynesia: center, a reconstructed Hawaiian temple (heiau) at Kailua-Kona, Hawai’i; right, the spire of Mokuaikaua Church, on the site where, in 1820, missionaries from Boston established the first Christian church in the Hawaiian archipelago. Photo by Adrienne L. Kaeppler, 1996.performed in front of altars whose purposes and locations varied from domestic to occupation-specific concerns. 

Central to rituals on all levels were prayers. Uttered in various styles of declaimed speech, these were rendered conceptually distinct from speech by generic classifications, simultaneously in three domains: subject, rhetoric, and declamation. Prayers were believed to effect desired ends because of sanctity inherent in the formulaic statements, as is illustrated in the Hawaiian proverb I ka ‘ōlelo ke ola, i ka ‘ōlelo ka make ‘In the word is life, in the word is death’, and in a belief in dire consequences for prayers incorrectly uttered (Tatar 1982; Valeri 1985).

In the earliest postcontact decades, East Polynesians saw outsiders transgress tapu without retribution, and experienced the compromised effectiveness of tapu in the face of new technologies of production and warfare. They widely considered Christianity a means for obtaining prestige-associated foreign goods. On missionization, they had already renounced the tapu system, or were on the verge of doing so.

Effects of Christianity

Locale-specific configurations of historical circumstances accounted for important differences in denomination and colonization, affecting musical practices. LMS missionaries began evangelical work in the Society Islands in 1797. Helped by Tahitian catechists, they expanded westward to the Austral and Cook islands in the 1820s. American Congregationalists of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions began a mission in the Hawaiian Islands in 1820.

Roman Catholic priests, regarded as a religious arm of French colonial aspirations, faced initial resistance in areas where substantial populations had converted to Protestantism and Protestant missions enjoyed ranking chiefs’ support; the priests had their greatest successes in the Gambier, Marquesas, and Tuamotu archipelagoes, which have remained predominantly Roman Catholic. Among the Maori in Aotearoa, denominational diversity prevailed, as Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Wesleyan Methodist missionaries competed for converts, beginning in the 1820s and 1830s.

Musical ramifications of conversion to Christianity vary throughout East Polynesia. In Protestant areas, missionaries vigorously worked to suppress indigenous practices; those that survived decades of censure did so underground. In Roman Catholic areas, priests tolerated some indigenous activities as resources that could be developed for devotional purposes: hence the emergence of Mangarevan

[p. 209 | Page Image]

‘akamagareva, devotional hymns in the format of kapa, and Marquesan ru’u, chants with devotional texts. American missionaries in Hawai’i taught musical literacy and the use of Western musical notation (Stillman 1993); in contrast, LMS missionaries in the Society, Austral, and Cook islands relied on oral instruction and transmission (Babadzan 1982).


Indigenous practices, resurfacing with vigor in the 1830s and 1840s, began to coexist with the singing of Christian hymns. Out of that coexistence emerged new musical styles, which fused aspects of Western melody and harmony with indigenous vocal styles and textures, chief among them the multipart choral tradition of central East Polynesia, known as hīmene in the Society and Austral islands, and ‘īmene in the Cook Islands. (These are vernacular forms of the English term hymn.) These styles emerged largely within Christian worship and devotional contexts, where they have strengthened and enhanced the expression of Christian faith. Many of them, taken into secular contexts and infused with secular subjects, coexist alongside their models (Stillman 1991).

Survivals and revivals

Christianity in East Polynesia accommodates beliefs and practices stemming from indigenous spirituality. Notions of mana continue to inform Christian supplications, as do notions of rank, status, and prestige in the social organizations of village parishes; this is especially notable in village pastors’ and priests’ oratory. Such hierarchies are leveled, however, in congregational singing, which requires cooperative participation. Belief in, and respect for, ancestral spirits persists.

Though Christian hymns continue to play a major role in islanders’ daily lives, indigenous spirituality has been reawakening in the 1980s and 1990s. This trend has especially characterized colonized areas, where political activism is aimed at restoring self-determination. Struggles to regain access to lands and redress environmental imbalances (formerly regulated by tapu) have focused on lands identified as having precontact religious significance.

Since the mid-1970s, a resurgence of voyaging, through the revival of Polynesian navigation, has stimulated a revival of corresponding rituals, ceremonies, oratory, invocations, and styles of performance required for their presentation. In 1995, the convergence of sailing canoes from various East Polynesian areas at the sacred site of Taputapuatea (Ra’iatea, leeward Society Islands) marked a formal reestablishing of ancestral relationships among Polynesian peoples.



Allen, Michael R. 1967. Male Cults and Secret Initiations in Melanesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Babadzan, Alain. 1982. Naissance d’une tradition: Changement culturel et syncrétisme religieux aux Iles Australes (PolynÉsie française). Travaux et Documents de I’ORSTOM, 154. Paris: ORSTOM.

Barker, John, ed. 1990. Christianity in Oceania: Ethnographic Perspectives. ASAO monograph 12. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.

Barth, Frederick. 1975. Ritual and Knowledge among the Baktaman of Papua New Guinea. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

——-. 1987. Cosmologies in the Making: A Generative Approach to Cultural Variation in Inner New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boutilier, James A., Daniel T. Hughes, and Sharon W. Tiffany, eds. 1978. Mission, Church, and Sect in Oceania. ASAO monograph 6. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Brown, George. 1972 [1910]. Melanesians and Polynesians. London: Macmillan.

Brown, Paula. 1978. Highland Peoples of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burrows, Edwin G. 1945. Songs of Uvea and Futuna. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. Bulletin 183.

Durkheim, Emile. 1964 [1915]. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Translated by Joseph Ward Swain. London: Allen & Unwin.

Errington, Frederick Karl. 1974. Karavar: Masks and Power in a Melanesian Ritual. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press.

Faleto’ese, K. T. 1961. A History of the Samoan Church (L.M.S.). Malua: Malua Printing Press.

Feld, Steven. 1990. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression. 2nd ed. Publications of the American Folklore Society, New Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Firth, Raymond. 1967. The Work of the Gods in Tikopia. 2nd ed. New York: Humanities Press.

Forman, Charles. 1982. Island Churches of the

[p. 210 | Page Image]

South Pacific: Emergence in the Twentieth Century. American Society of Missiology Series, 5. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. 

Fortune, Reo. 1935. Manus Religion. Memoir 3. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Garrett, John. 1982. To Live Among the Stars: Christian Origins in Oceania. Geneva and Suva:

World Council of Churches, with the Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific.

Handy, E. S. Craighill. 1927. Polynesian Religion. Bulletin 34. Honolulu: Bishop Museum.

Herdt, Gilbert H. 1981. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hymns Ancient and Modern Revised. 1947. London: William Clowes.

Jensen, John Thayer. 1977. Yapese-English Dictionary. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai’i.

Kaeppler, Adrienne L. 1976. “Dance and the Interpretation of Pacific Traditional Literature.” In Directions in Pacific Traditional Literature, ed. Adrienne L. Kaeppler and H. Arlo Nimmo, 195-216. Special Publication 62. Honolulu: Bishop Museum.

——–. 1993a. Hula Pahu: Hawaiian Drum Dances: Volume 1: Ha’a and Hula Pahu: Sacred Movements. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Anthropology 3. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.

——–. 1993b. “Poetics and Politics of Tongan Laments and Eulogies.” American Ethnologist 20(3):474-501.

Kirsch, Stuart. 1992. “Myth as History-in-the-Making: Cult and Cargo along the New Guinea Border.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania, New Orleans, 8 February 1992.

Lewis, Gilbert. 1980. Day of Shining Red: An Essay on Understanding Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1922. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: Dutton.

——–. 1955 [1925]. Magic, Science and Religion. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

Mayer, Raymond, and Malino Nau. 1976. “Chants funèbres de l’île Wallis.” Journal de la Société des Océanistes 32(51-53):141-184, 271-279.

Mead, Margaret. 1935. Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. London: George Routledge and Sons.

Muhlenhard, E. 1983. “Local Music Should Be Promoted.” Weekend Nius (Port Moresby), 4 September.

O’Hanlon, Michael. 1989. Reading the Skin: Adornment, Display and Society Among the Wahgi. London: British Museum Publications.

Pratt, George, trans. 1891. “Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,” ed. John Fraser. Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales 25:70-86, 97-146, 241-286.

Prendergast, P. A. 1968. “The History of the London Missionary Society in British New Guinea 1971-1901.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai’i.

Rappaport, Roy A. 1979. “The Obvious Aspects of Ritual.” Ecology, Meaning, and Religion, 173-221. Richmond, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.

Stair, John B. 1897. Old Samoa: Or Flotsam and Jetsam from the Pacific Ocean. London: Religious Tract Society.

Stillman, Amy Ku’uleialoha. 1991. “Hīmene Tahiti: Ethnoscientific and Ethnohistorical Perspectives on Protestant Hymnody and Choral Singing in the Society Islands, French Polynesia.” Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.

——–. 1993. “Prelude to a Comparative Investigation of Protestant Hymnody in Polynesia.” Yearbook for Traditional Music 25:89-99.

Strehlow, T. G. H. 1971. Songs of Central Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Sutton, Peter, ed. 1989. Dreamings: The Art of Aboriginal Australia. Ringwood, Australia, and London: Viking Penguin.

Tatar, Elizabeth. 1982. Nineteenth Century Hawaiian Chant. Pacific Anthropological Records, 33. Honolulu: Department of Anthropology, Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Trompf, Gary W. 1990. “Keeping the Lo Under a Melanesian Messiah: An Analysis of the Pomio Kivung, East New Britain.” In Christianity in Oceania: Ethnographic Perspectives, ed. John Barker, 59-80. ASAO Monograph 12. Lanham: University Press of America.

Turner, George. 1884. Samoa a Hundred Years Ago and Long Before. London: Macmillan.

Valeri, Valerio. 1985. Kingship and Sacrifice: Ritual and Society in Ancient Hawaii. Translated by Paula Wissing. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Vaughan Williams, Ralph, Martin Shaw, and Percy Dearmer. 1925. Songs of Praise. London: Oxford University Press.

Wagner, Herwig, and Harmann Reiner, eds. 1986. The Lutheran Church in Papua New Guinea: The First Hundred Years 1886-1986. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House.

Wetherall, David. 1977. The Reluctant Mission: The Anglican Church in Papua New Guinea: 1891-1942. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press.

Whitehouse, Harvey. 1992. “Memorable Religions: Transmission, Codification, and Change in Divergent Melanesian Contexts.” Man 27(4):777-797.

——–. 1995. Inside the Cult: Religious Innovation and Transmission in Papua New Guinea. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wild, Stephen A. 1975. “Warlbiri Music and Dance in Their Social and Cultural Nexus.” Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University.

Williams, F. E. 1928. Orokaiva Magic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wood, A. Harold. 1975. Overseas Missions of the Australian Methodist Church. 2 vols. Melbourne: Aldersgate.

Yayii, Filip Lamasisi. 1983. “Some Aspects of Traditional Dance within the Malanggan Culture of Northern New Ireland.” Bikmaus 4(3):33- 48.

Zahn, Heinrich. 1959 [1934]. The Conchshell-Hymnal. Edited by H. Wolfrum. Madang: Lutheran Mission Press.

The end @ copyright 2012

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-rom”The World War I sencored cover Postal history”



The WW I Sencored Cover Postal History


Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Sewnior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012


Sent from New Guinea to Holland and then forwarded to Germany. It seems like it was using an official system to tranmit mail. It still has the original note with a translation. There were several letters enclosed. Australian stamps used in New Guinea are very rare.(source Tim)Image

Heinrich  Zahn, the Missioner Of Papaua New  Guinea  letter in 1915

Read more about Missioner Henrich Zahn



FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany.from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars.





The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914


The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914

 German stamp Paper

info about War News

Pro Patria

The Belgian charity Stamps

War Mark still They Come !!

Censor Mark number

Swiss Field mark

Red Cross Stamps


Censor Mark numbers INFO FROM sTAMP mAGAZINE 1914 


The Sample of Dr Iwan e-book In CD-ROM “The Dai Nippon Occupation Java 1942″

The Dai Nippon Occupation Java Part One 1942 history collection


The Dai Nippon Occupation Java 

Part one


 Based On Dr Iwan’s Postal and Archives History Collections


Created By


Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-BOOK IN CD-ROM Edition

Special For Serious Collectors and Premium Member

 one of the best Dr Iwan Dai nippon archives collections is the Diary of Mr martooadmojo during he work at Djoerangsapi city east Java from august 1942 until 1844, and at the cover of the diary there were the list of Dai nippon officer who work there

119.MB,Martoadmodjo B. handwritten Diary about his work at Japanese logistic stations at Djoerang Koeda Village ‘


Basoeki Ressort  east Java

which thrown away after his pass away in 1990 ,faound and became Dr Iwan collections, never publish)

At the cover of diary had written the name of Dai Nippon officer at Nippon Djoerangsapi ken

(I hove the family of this DN officer will glad to know their family there,please send comment and more info about them)

1. The city post office dai nippon djoerangsapi Inoue and Shiroga
2. Egami Djoerangsapi telephone office and Gado.
3. Tela factory Semboda Yasuda and Yamamoto
4.Tanaman cotton Kentjong M.Nishin
KK Djoerangsapi 5.Takashinaya sida: Mori
6.agen Genpi Djoerangsapi KK: Mori and Futama
Chokin 7.Yokohama Ginko (bank) Fujimoto, Fujii, and Hayashida
8.Osaka Seima KK: Nishiike
SH 9.CO Wadoeng: Maeda
10.CO landed: H.Takari
11.Kapas Sampelan: Mitsui and Mura
12.Rikuyu Jimusho Djoerangsapi: Nakashi, Oguri, Sitsuka, Ari Izumi (Suzuki), Kogo, Yamamoto, Fujimora, Tsubakibaru, Nakaki, Matsuyama, Mayama, Satoh and Matsuda
13.PETA: Saito Mataan

 Pendudkan  Dai Nippon Di Tanah  Jawa

Bagian Pertama


 Berdasarkan Dr Iwan Pos dan Koleksi Arsip Sejarah

Dibuat Oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

Edisi Pribadi  E-BOOK Terbatas DI CD-ROM

Khusus Untuk Kolektor Serius dan Anggota Premium

 salah satu yang terbaik Iwan Dr Dai nippon koleksi arsip adalah Diary of Mr martooadmojo selama ia bekerja di Djoerangsapi kota Jawa Timur dari Agustus 1942 sampai 1844, dan pada sampul buku harian itu ada daftar petugas nippon Dai yang bekerja di sana

119.MB, Martoadmodjo B. Harian tulisan tangan tentang pekerjaannya di stasiun logistik Jepang di Djoerang Koeda Desa ‘


Basoeki Ressort Jawa Timur

yang dibuang setelah umpannya pergi pada tahun 1990, dan menjadi faound Dr Iwan koleksi, tidak pernah mempublikasikan)

Pada sampul buku harian itu tertulis nama petugas Nippon Dai Nippon di Djoerangsapi ken

(Saya hove keluarga ini petugas DN akan senang mengetahui keluarga mereka di sana, silakan kirim komentar dan info lebih lanjut tentang mereka)

1. Pos Kota kantor dai nippon djoerangsapi Inoue dan Shiroga
2. Egami Djoerangsapi telepon kantor dan Gado.
3. Tela pabrik Semboda Yasuda dan Yamamoto
4.Tanaman kapas Kentjong M.Nishin
KK Djoerangsapi 5.Takashinaya sida: Mori
6.agen Genpi Djoerangsapi KK: Mori dan Futama
Chokin 7.Yokohama Ginko (bank) Fujimoto, Fujii, dan Hayashida
8.Osaka Seima KK: Nishiike
SH 9.CO Wadoeng: Maeda
10.CO mendarat: H.Takari
11.Kapas Sampelan: Mitsui dan Mura
12.Rikuyu Jimusho Djoerangsapi: nakashi, Oguri, Sitsuka, Ari Izumi (Suzuki), Kogo, Yamamoto, Fujimora, Tsubakibaru, Nakaki, Matsuyama, Mayama, Satoh dan Matsuda
13.PETA: Saito Mataan

1.January 1.942


ditangkap di Bataan, yang dipimpin ditutup matanya ke markas untuk diinterogasi. sampai dengan 10 Januari

General Yamashita berdiri di gerbang Kuala Lumpur, di pantai barat Malaya, yang Divisi 5 nya ditangkap keesokan harinya. 

sangat disamarkan Toyota Truck KB dan tankette 97 jenis bergerak di jalan buruk pavemented dari malaya (1942) 

karya seni menunjukkan tank tentara dari Resimen Tank japanese 6 diperintahkan oleh komandan tank Kolonel Kawamura menyerang Inggris di malaya 1.942

Januari, 11th.1942

oleh Laksamana Stark,

yang, pada tanggal 11 Januari, sehari setelah
General Wavell tiba di Batavia dengan Jenderal Ter Poorten
 tapi sebelum ia memegang komando, meninjau situasi kritis di Timur Jauh dan mengangkat pertanyaan tentang pengalihan kapal dari rute Atlantik kurang kritis Utara ke Pasifik.

Dalam hal ini ia mendapat dukungan dari Jenderal Marshall dan Laksamana Raja, tapi Inggris, dengan keyakinan bahwa Singapura akan terus dan cemas bagi Amerika untuk menghilangkan kemudian di Islandia dan Irlandia, mencari cara lain untuk menemukan kapal.

Pendaratan dAI nIPPON  di wilayah Inggris di


 Pasukan  dan Kemenangan Dai Nippon

8 Desember 1941 – 15 Februari 1942:

Letnan Jenderal Percival dan partainya membawa Union Jack dalam perjalanan mereka untuk menyerahkan Singapura kepada Jepang. 

Pendaratan Jepang di lepas pantai barat British North Borneo(sekarang Sabah malaysia(, 1942

Februari 19th.1942

 lapangan terbang Semplak Bogor dibombardir Jepang  dan di siang serangan Bandung Andir lapangan terbang

Gubernor Jenderal Tjarda VSN Stoukerborough dengan Kepala Staf nya Ter Porten pindah dari Batavia ke Bandung dan mereka tinggal di Villa Mei Ling yang dimiliki oleh Volkraad Tionghoa (rumah perwakilan) ‘s anggota HH Kan

Februari, 19th.1942

Dalam keterlibatan utama di atas Semplak pada tanggal 19 Februari 1942, delapan Belanda Brewster pejuang dicegat pembentukan sekitar 35 pembom Jepang dengan pengawalan sekitar 20 Zero. Para pilot Brewster menghancurkan 11 pesawat Jepang dan kehilangan empat Brewsters, dua pilot tewas Belanda [33].


Februari 20th.1942.

Hal ini menempatkan Surabaya dalam jangkauan pembom musuh. Dari Kendari,

Jumat, 20 Februari





Kapal Sekutu berada di dua kelompok. Yang pertama adalah kapal penjelajah Belanda De Ruyter, JAVA, Belanda Piet Hein perusak dan Amerika JOHN D FORD, dan Paus. Belanda perusak BANCKERT adalah bagian dari gaya, namun kandas di mulut Tjilatjap pelabuhan dan tidak bisa melanjutkan.


Kelompok kedua adalah Belanda cruiser Tromp dari Surabaya dan Amerika perusak STEWART, PARROTT, JOHN D EDWARDS dan Pillsbury dari Ratai Bay.


STEWART rusak oleh tembakan Jepang, dengan satu orang tamtama tewas dan pejabat eksekutif LT CB Smiley dan satu orang tamtama terluka. JOHN D EDWARDS memiliki satu orang terdaftar terluka. Piet Hein (Lt Cdr JMLI Chompff) hilang dengan semua tapi 33 awak dan Tromp rusak parah.




Konvoi SM.3 berangkat Batavia unescorted dengan kapal uap Inggris ADRASTUS (7905grt), KOTA MANCHESTER (8917grt), Marella (7475grt), Dutch PHRONTIS (6181grt) dan Norwegia menonjol (2282grt). Steamers KOTA MANCHESTER dan menonjol terus Tjilatjap dan sisanya dari konvoi ke Fremantle.



Konvoi SJ.5 berangkat Batavia dengan kapal uap Inggris Angby (786grt), Filleigh (4856grt), JALAKRISHNA (4991grt), Lulworth HILL (7628grt), SILVERLARCH (5064grt), Yoma (8131grt) dan Norwegia HAI LEE (3616grt). Escort di awal adalah dengan EXETER cruiser berat, STRONGHOLD perusak dan Jumna sloop India. Kapal-kapal melanjutkan ke Kolombo, tiba independen antara 28 Februari dan 6 Maret.



Battleship WARSPITE tiba di Sydney, NSW, setelah refitting di Amerika Serikat.




Destroyer NIZAM berangkat Colombo untuk pantai barat Sumatera untuk mengevakuasi personel. Patroli kapal Pangkor dari Angkatan China juga dikirim untuk mengevakuasi personel. NIZAM dipanggil kembali pada tanggal 21 untuk tugas pengawalan.



Ballarat minesweeper Australia dievakuasi toko penting dan menyelesaikan penghancuran fasilitas pelabuhan dan ditinggalkan peralatan di Oosthaven pada tanggal 20.



I.65 kapal selam Jepang tenggelam steamer Bhima (5280grt) dalam 7-47N, 73-31e. Awak 68, dua penumpang, semuanya diselamatkan.



Steamer KOOLAMA (4068grt) tenggelam oleh bom Jepang off Wyndham, Australia Barat.



Belanda steamer Tobelo (983grt) tenggelam oleh bom Jepang di Kupang.



Steamer JALAKRISHNA (4991grt) rusak akibat pemboman Jepang di Hindia Belanda.



Sabtu, 21 Februari



Konvoi SJ.6 berangkat Tandjong Priok dengan kapal uap MANGOLA dan THEPASTRIN Nawa (3260grt) untuk Fremantle dan Kiang (1451grt), Jalavihar, ELSA, Straat Soenda (6439grt) dan Generaal VAN DE HEYDEN (1213grt) untuk Colombo.



Konvoi SJ.7 berangkat Priok Tandjong dengan Orcades kapal pengangkut tentara (23.456 GRT), membawa 3768 tentara dan pengungsi, dikawal oleh kapal perusak ELECTRA ke cahaya cruiser 22 dan Australia HOBART ke 23, ketika konvoi tersebar dan pendamping terpisah. Orcades tiba di Kolombo pada tanggal 27.


Amerika memberikan bantuan untuk Australia.46

Washington setuju dengan perkiraan Wavell tentang hilangnya kemungkinan Jawa. Penguatan itu jelas sia-sia dan tentu saja paling bijaksana, Kepala Gabungan berpikir, akan mengirim setidaknya salah satu divisi Australia ke Burma dan lainnya ke Australia. Sudah jelas juga bahwa jatuhnya Jawa akan membagi wilayah ABDA dan membuat pertahanan terkoordinasi dari ekstremitas timur dan barat tidak mungkin. The British karena itu disarankan bahwa Burma dibawa keluar dari ABDACOM dan ditransfer ke komando mereka di India, proposal bahwa Chiefs AS dan General Wavell, yang selalu percaya Burma adalah bagian integral dari perintah India, mudah diterima. Hal ini dilakukan secara resmi

pada 21 February.47


Minggu 22 Februari



LANGLEY dan WITCH SEA, membawa pesawat crated, yang terpisah ke Jawa. LANGLEY hilang dan WITCH SEA berhasil melarikan diri setelah memberikan kargo nya di Tjilatjap.


LANGLEY tenggelam oleh bom Jepang. Hanya enam belas awak dan penumpang yang hilang. Para korban dijemput oleh Whipple dan EDSALL. Whipple kemudian bergegas LANGLEY.


Konvoi tiba di Kolombo pada tanggal 5 Maret.



Patroli kapal Pangkor berangkat Batavia untuk mengevakuasi personil dari Sibolga dan Ongha, kemudian melanjutkan ke Kolombo.



Boom pertahanan kapal BARRIER, BARLANE dan BARRICADE berangkat Batavia untuk Colombo dan patroli kapal Excellent lokasi dan MEDUSA untuk Fremantle, melalui Tjilatjap.



Konvoi SJ.8 berangkat lebih Tandjong Priok dengan Edendale (1659grt) untuk Fremantle dan FU Kwang (1559grt), Tinombo (872grt) dan ROOSEBOOM (1035grt) untuk Colombo.



Kapal selam Jepang I.58 tenggelam kapal Belanda Pijnacker HORDIKJ (2982grt) selatan Tjilatjap.



Senin, 23 Februari



Norwegia kapal Belita dan Norwegia collier Woolgar berangkat Colombo untuk Batavia, dikawal sampai 25 oleh perusak NIZAM dan minesweeper Bathurst. Merchantmen tersebut berlangsung secara independen untuk Batavia sampai ingat.



Konvoi SM.4 berangkat Priok Tandjong dengan kapal Springdale (1579grt) untuk Fremantle dan SEIRSTAD dan PERAK (1188grt) untuk Colombo. Kapal-kapal berjalan secara independen setelah Selat Sunda.


Rencana untuk mengirimkan divisi Australia untuk Burma, bagaimanapun, datang ke sia-sia. Prihatin atas pertahanan negara mereka sendiri, yang terus-menerus menolak Australia, meskipun permohonan kuat dari Churchill dan Roosevelt, untuk mengizinkan pengalihan divisi tersebut ke Burma, dan akhirnya,

pada tanggal 23 Februari, mereka diperintahkan home.48

Meskipun hilangnya Jawa kebobolan oleh semua kecuali Belanda, ada keengganan untuk bertindak atas asumsi ini. Untuk melakukannya akan menciptakan kesan bahwa Amerika dan Inggris yang desersi sekutu Belanda mereka. Pada tanggal 20, oleh karena itu, Kepala Gabungan, menyatakan bahwa “setiap hari diperoleh sangat penting,” diarahkan Wavell untuk membela Jawa “dengan resolusi maksimal” dan tidak menarik atau menyerahkan salah satu pasukan di sana. Untuk meminimalkan hilangnya pasukan Sekutu di Jawa, Kepala khusus dilarang Wavell dari memperkuat pulau yang lebih lanjut, tetapi memberinya keleluasaan untuk menggunakan kekuatan angkatan laut dan pesawat Amerika di Australia saat ia berpikir best.49

Bahkan saat ini petunjuk segar sedang diterima di ABDACOM, Jepang sedang membuat eksekusi mereka mustahil. Pada tanggal 19, mereka mendarat di ujung selatan Bali, segera ke timur Jawa. Keesokan harinya mereka mendarat di Timor, setengah dari yang setengah Belanda dan Portugis. Pengendalian pulau-pulau, terletak di antara Jawa dan barat laut Australia, menyelesaikan isolasi Jawa, ditempatkan Jepang darat pejuang dalam jangkauan pemboman pangkalan Belanda di Surabaya, dan membuat bala bantuan lebih lanjut dari Australia mustahil.





. pada tanggal 23 Februari

telah diperintahkan untuk Tjilatjap, di pantai selatan Jawa,


dengan muatannya dari tiga puluh dua dirakit P-40 dan pilot mereka. Pada tanggal 27, hampir dalam pandangan Jawa, itu ditemukan oleh pesawat patroli Jepang dan tenggelam. The SeaWitch kargo dengan 27 P-40 dalam memegang nya telah meninggalkan Fremantle pada saat yang sama, tetapi berlayar secara terpisah dan membuat jalan berhasil ke Jawa. Ini tiba di sana pada malam invasi dan P-40, masih crated, yang dibuang ke laut untuk mencegah mereka capture.55

Sementara itu Jepang telah menyelesaikan persiapan mereka untuk invasi Jawa. D-hari ditetapkan untuk

 udara pengintai menegaskan bahwa lapangan udara tidak layak untuk digunakan. Markas Air kemudian membuat pengaturan untuk persediaan akan turun dan hari berikutnya tiga Blenheims dari Singapura, dimodifikasi untuk membawa kontainer, berhasil menjatuhkan £ 900 persediaan di lapangan terbang.

yang 23 Februari

 di Kenamboi, di mana mereka kembali bersatu dengan C dan Perusahaan D.



Februari, 24 1942

Filght Jepang menyerang dan bombardement Kemajoran Batavia, Buitenzorg Semplak dan Kalijati lapangan terbang.

Selasa, 24 Februari



Steamers Indragiri (592grt), NAM YONG (1345grt), dan BOERO (7135grt) berangkat Tandjong Priok untuk Colombo.



Belanda steamer KOTA RADJA (7117grt) tenggelam oleh bom Jepang di Surabaya.

Belanda light cruiser Heemskerk berangkat Colombo untuk Trincomalee untuk memulai amunisi dan melanjutkan ke Hindia Belanda. Dia kemudian meninggalkan Trincomalee hari berikutnya untuk Selat Sunda dengan pengiriman semua, tapi dialihkan ke Tjilatjap pada tanggal 26. Pada tanggal 1 Maret, dia dan perusak ISAAC Sweers diperintahkan untuk kembali ke Kolombo.



Rabu, 25 Februari


British heavy cruiser EXETER, Australia light cruiser PERTH dan British perusak ENCOUNTER, ELECTRA dan JUPITER berangkat Tanjong Priok untuk bergabung kekuatan Laksamana Petugas Belanda di Surabaya. Australia light cruiser HOBART juga diperintahkan untuk berlayar, tetapi tidak selesai pengisian bahan bakar. Sebaliknya ia bergabung dengan Angkatan mencolok Barat dengan kapal penjelajah ringan Danae, DRAGON dan perusak Tenedos dan SCOUT. Kelompok EXETER tiba di Surabaya pada 0330/26th dan berlayar di 1900 hari itu.



Kapal selam Jepang I.58 tenggelam kapal Belanda BOERO (7135grt) selatan Selat Sunda. Awak 70, dengan tidak ada korban.




. Dengan pembuatan Jepang siap untuk serangan terakhir di Jawa,

Jenderal Wavell berpaling kepada atasannya untuk instruksi baru. Perintah mereka untuk mentransfer komando Jawa kepada Belanda dan menarik, tetapi untuk mempertahankan ABDACOM dan menjaga markasnya utuh. Kapan dan di mana ia akan pergi ditinggalkan kepadanya. Pasukan darat “untuk siapa ada lengan” adalah untuk tetap dan terus melawan, namun angkatan udara yang bisa beroperasi dari pangkalan-pangkalan di luar Jawa dan pasukan lain “yang tidak bisa berkontribusi untuk pertahanan” itu harus ditarik, Amerika dan Australia untuk pergi ke Australia . Jenderal Brett adalah untuk kembali ke Australia, ketika dirilis oleh Wavell, untuk memimpin pasukan AS there.50

Komandan ABDA tidak setuju dengan program ini. Yang dia inginkan adalah pembubaran ABDACOM, semua alasan untuk keberadaannya telah menghilang. Burma, ia menunjuk keluar, sudah dipisahkan dari teater ABDA dan pertahanan Jawa adalah masalah lokal, terbaik ditangani oleh Belanda sendiri. Jika Filipina, yang telah pernah benar-benar berada di bawah kekuasaannya, diambil alih oleh Amerika lagi dan barat laut Australia oleh Australia, katanya kepada Chiefs, ia bisa menyerahkan pasukannya yang tersisa ke Belanda dan meninggalkan daerah dengan

25 February.51

Rekomendasi ini sejalan dengan solusi yang diusulkan oleh Kepala Staf Inggris untuk pembentukan dua daerah di Timur Jauh, yang berada di bawah kendali Amerika dan memasukkan Australia, wilayah yang lain meliputi British India dan Samudera Hindia. Belanda menentang seperti solusi karena takut akan berarti akhir dari bantuan Sekutu di Hindia Belanda. “Demi Tuhan,” tulis Belanda Gubernur Jenderal untuk Marshall, “mengambil keputusan yang kuat dan aktif dan tidak berhenti mengirim bahan dan laki-laki.” 52

Masih ingin menghindari munculnya meninggalkan sekutu mereka, AS Chiefs terus menentang pembubaran ABDACOM. Namun dalam pengakuan atas fakta bahwa Wavell telah kehilangan kepercayaan dari Belanda dan jelas ingin menarik keluar, mereka sepakat untuk pembubaran markas besarnya dan transfer ke India, meninggalkan kontrol daerah ABDA kepada Belanda. Dan agar Belanda harus berpikir bahwa Amerika telah membuat pengaturan ini untuk syirik komitmen mereka, Marshall meyakinkan gubernur Belanda bahwa pasukan kemudian perakitan di Australia yang “mencari kesempatan untuk masuk ke pertempuran ABDA” dan akan “melanjutkan dukungan penuh dari Belanda komandan dalam perjuangan mereka megah “53.

Pada tanggal 25

General Wavell menyerahkan komando kepada Belanda dan meninggalkan untuk India di mana Jenderal Brereton sudah pergi untuk mengatur kekuatan udara Amerika. Langkah ini ditempatkan MacArthur teknis di bawah Belanda, tapi ia sudah diberitahu bahwa “karena situasi khusus Anda semua prosedur dalam kasus Anda tetap sebagai sebelum ini.” 54 Beban membela Jawa kini tepat di Belanda. Kekuatan mereka, dengan pengecualian unit tanah minor (termasuk batalion artileri Amerika), unit angkatan laut Amerika dan Inggris, dan kekuatan AS-Australia tempur kecil, terdiri seluruh perintah.

Masih ada kemungkinan bahwa pejuang bisa dibawa melalui laut, meskipun rute feri udara telah ditutup oleh kejang Jepang Timor. Untuk tugas ini ditugaskan pesawat Langley tender,





Kamis, 26 Februari



Konvoi MR.5 berangkat Madras dengan kapal uap ERINPURA (5143grt), ETHIOPIA (5574grt), KAROA (7009grt) dan VARSOVA (4701grt) dikawal oleh Dorsetshire cruiser berat, yang berangkat Trincomalee pada tanggal 26. Konvoi dan pengawalan tiba di Rangoon pada tanggal 3 Maret.



Steamer Ashridge adalah kapal terakhir yang berangkat Tandjong Priok, dikawal melalui Selat Sunda oleh STRONGHOLD penghancur

Kembali di Balikpapan, Jepang mengumpulkan warga sipil dan tahanan yang baru ditangkap perang. Mereka menunda dendam dijanjikan mereka sampai


Pada tanggal 27 Februari 1942,

Dan kemudian ada Pertempuran Laut Jawa dari 27 Februari-1 Maret 1942. Belanda Ruyter kapal perang dan Jawa terkena torpedo Jepang, mereka tenggelam dengan kerugian besar kehidupan. Sekutu kehilangan pertempuran ini.



japanese perusak Inazuma meluncurkan 93 torpedo jenis tombak panjang terhadap kapal-kapal sekutu dalam Pertempuran Kedua Laut Jawa


Frank tampak keluar dari Fort Menari untuk melihat armada kecil kapal penjelajah Sekutu dan perusak – Amerika, Inggris, Belanda, dan Australia – mengepul melalui Fairway Barat:

… Teropong mengambil garis ramping abu-abu kamuflase, mencuri melalui kabut fajar keluar ke laut terbuka. Kami gagah Angkatan Laut berlayar ke keterlibatan terakhir mereka dengan musuh, untuk menanggung beban serangan besar. [11]

Di Laut Jawa armada ABDA berani menyerang kapal perang Jepang yang lebih kuat mengawal pasukan invasi Jawa Timur, berharap untuk menerobos dan menenggelamkan kapal angkut pasukan.

Orang Jepang, dengan senjata berat mereka dan maju “Panjang Lance” torpedo, mengusir mereka pergi setelah menimbulkan kerugian yang parah.

Di antara kapal tenggelam adalah

 andalan Belanda, kapal penjelajah ringan De Ruyter.

Dia turun dengan 345 dari krunya, termasuk Waran Officer Frans Anton Boerman, Frank ayah mertua.

Baca selengkapnya


Belanda cruiser De Ruyter
Ditetapkan: 1933. Diluncurkan: 1935. Ditugaskan: 1936
Tujuh 150-mm senjata pada perpindahan 6442-ton
Crew: 435

Dalam Pertempuran Laut Jawa pada tanggal 27 Februari 1942, De Ruyter adalah unggulan dari Petugas belakang-laksamana Belanda Karel, dengan bendera nya kapten Eugène Lacomblé (yang sebelumnya bertugas di kapal sebagai letnan). Di lepas pantai utara Jawa dari armada ABDA terkejut pada malam hari oleh skuadron Jepang yang terdiri dari kapal penjelajah Nachi berat dan Haguro didukung oleh 14 kapal perusak.

De Ruyter diduga dihantam torpedo Jepang tunggal Lance panjang pada sekitar 23:30 dan tenggelam pada 02:30 hari berikutnya dengan hilangnya 345 orang, termasuk Petugas Laksamana dan Kapten Lacomblé. Kecelakaan nya ditemukan setelah perang dan menyatakan kuburan perang, dengan hanya lonceng kapal (sekarang di Kloosterkerk di Den Haag) sedang pulih.


Pertempuran Laut Jawa

Pada bulan Februari 1942, Sekutu membentuk “Angkatan Menyerang Gabungan” angkatan laut untuk perlindungan Jawa.

 The “Angkatan Menyerang Timur”, yang terdiri dari kapal penjelajah Belanda dan Jawa De Ruyter, AS heavy cruiser Houston, kapal Inggris Exeter, dan kapal penjelajah Australia Perth, ditempatkan di bawah komando Laksamana Karel Doorman Belanda Belakang. “Angkatan Timur mencolok” juga termasuk perusak Witte de With dan Kortenaer (RNN), JD Edwards, Alden, John Ford dan Paul Jones (USN), dan Jupiter, Electra dan Encounter (RN).

Pada tanggal 27 Februari,

 Kekuatan penjaga pintu itu berlayar dari Surabaya untuk mencegat Jepang “Timur Angkatan Invasion”, yang terdiri dari empat kapal penjelajah dan kapal perusak 14, mengawal 41 kapal transportasi. Pada sekitar 4 pm, dua kekuatan bertemu dalam pertempuran yang berlangsung lebih dari malam. Outgunned, kekuatan Petugas itu dapat melibatkan armada invasi, yang melarikan diri ke utara sementara kapal escort yang menekan serangan mereka.

Korban Sekutu berat.


Laksamana Petugas

hilang bersama kedua kapal penjelajah Belanda dan hampir semua awak mereka.

The Exeter rusak parah oleh shell-api, dan tenggelam bersama dengan Encounter perusak mengawal nya dua hari kemudian. Di antara kapal lain yang bergerak, Kortenaer, Jupiter dan Electra semuanya tenggelam, dengan banyak kehilangan kehidupan. Armada invasi Jepang ditunda, tetapi tidak dicegah dari membuat mendarat di Jawa pada tanggal 28 Februari. Para penjelajah hidup, Houston dan Perth, tenggelam pada malam hari yang sama ketika mereka mencoba untuk mundur ke Ceylon, setelah bertemu dengan “Angkatan Invasi Barat” Jepang di Selat Sunda.


Laksamana Petugas andalan De Ruyter di jangkar sesaat sebelum pertempuran di Laut Jawa.

Baca lebih lanjut tentang Laksamana Karel dorman

Rear-Admiral K.W.F.M. Petugas, RNN


Karel Willem Frederik Marie Petugas

Lahir Utrecht April 23, 1889 – Meninggal di papan light cruiser De Ruyter, 28 Februari 1942


Meskipun Karel Doorman adalah anak dari seorang perwira tentara, ia bergabung dengan kursus petugas di Institut Angkatan Laut pada tahun 1906, yang ia selesai dengan sukses empat tahun kemudian. Setelah beberapa tahun di Hindia Belanda, ia kembali ke Belanda untuk menjadi salah satu pelopor dalam penerbangan angkatan laut Belanda. Meraih sayapnya pada tahun 1915, dan apa yang diikuti merupakan periode yang bergejolak di lapangan udara angkatan laut De Kooy sampai 1921, di mana ia selamat 33 pendaratan darurat. Lalu, ia pergi ke Akademi Angkatan Laut Tinggi untuk mempelajari seni perang angkatan laut. Ia dikirim ke NEI untuk terakhir kalinya pada tahun 1937, di mana ia menjadi Komandan Dinas Naval Air selama tahun sebelum perang terakhir. Menjadi seorang penerbang sendiri, dia mengerti nilai dari Air Service terlatih dan dilengkapi dengan Naval (istilah Belanda yang benar adalah Luchtvaartdienst Kelautan, atau MLD) dan di bawah komandonya, yang MLD menjadi hanya itu.

Pada Juni 1940, ia diberi perintah dari Skuadron Hindia Belanda berlayar di laut, yang biasanya mencakup sebagian besar armada permukaan Belanda. Meskipun disentri diabaikan mulai bermain tak lama sebelum dimulainya Perang Pasifik, ia mempertahankan perintah dan juga diberi komando Angkatan Menyerang Gabungan pada tanggal 3 Februari 1942. Idenya adalah untuk menggunakan ini awal-koleksi Belanda, Amerika, kapal perang Inggris dan Australia untuk menyerang dan menghancurkan konvoi invasi Jepang. Selama bulan Februari, pasukan itu membuat sejumlah sorties, yang biasanya tidak berhasil karena intervensi udara Jepang. Itu hanya datang ke pukulan selama Pertempuran Selat Badung, ketika Angkatan Sekutu menyerang angka unggul empat kapal perusak Jepang dan transportasi, sayangnya tanpa banyak keberhasilan. Sebagai imbalannya, Jepang berhasil menenggelamkan kapal Piet Hein dan merusak kapal lainnya.

Setelah pertempuran ini, sudah jelas bahwa langkah berikutnya akan invasi pulau Jawa. Sesuai dengan perintah Laksamana Helfrich, Petugas terus menyapu laut Jawa dengan kekuatan-Nya, sampai armada invasi Jepang akhirnya terlihat pada tanggal 27 Februari. Meskipun dua kekuatan itu kurang lebih sama dalam hal kekuatan, Sekutu terhambat oleh kurangnya sistem komunikasi yang baik, pengintaian udara dan sisanya selama beberapa bulan terakhir. Kedua kapal penjelajah ringan Jawa dan unggulan Petugas itu, De Ruyter terkena dan tenggelam oleh torpedo, mengambil korban berat di antara kru kelelahan. Hal ini diyakini Petugas, staf dan komandan De Ruyter itu, Komandan EEB Lacomblé memilih untuk tetap di papan sebagai kapal itu tenggelam.

Untuk menghormati Petugas Laksamana, hanya dua kapal induk Belanda dan terakhir, sebuah kapal baru yang dinamai menurut namanya. Selain itu, ia adalah salah satu dari orang-satunya yang dibuat di Knights Orde Militer kelas 3 William. [1]

Taruna kelas 1 [2] 24 Agustus 1910
Letnan 24 Agustus 1912
Letnan Komandan-November 1, 1920
Komandan 1 Februari 1933
Kapten September 6, 1937
Rear-Admiral 16 Mei 1940
Postingan [3]
Pesisir pertahanan kapal Hr.Ms. Tromp dan Hr.Ms. De Ruyter 1910 – 1913
Cahaya cruiser Hr.Ms. Noord Brabant April, 1914 – 1915
Instruktur Pilot 1916 – 1917
Komandan Petugas, Naval Airbase De Mok 18 Agustus 1917 -
Perwira Pertama, Naval Airfield De Kooy – 1920
Komandan Officer, Naval Airfield De Kooy 1920 – 1921
Mahasiswa Belanda Naval War College November 2, 1921 – 1923
Staf Officer, Departemen Angkatan Laut, Weltevreden (Java) 1923-1926
Gunnery Officer, pesisir pertahanan kapal Hr.Ms. Zeven Provincien 14 Mei 1926 – Januari 1928
Kepala MLD Departemen Teknis, The Hague March 12, 1928 – 14 Juli 1928
Perwira Pertama, Naval Airfield De Kooy 14 Juli 1928 – November 2, 1931
Komandan Officer, minelayer Hr.Ms. Prins van Oranje 1932 – 1932
Komandan Officer, perusak Hr.Ms. Witte de With 1933 – 1933
Komandan Officer, perusak Hr.Ms. Evertsen dan Kelompok Destroyers 1 1934 – 1934
Kepala Staf, Den Helder angkatan laut basis Juni, 1934 – September 4, 1937
Komandan Officer, kapal penjelajah ringan Hr.Ms. Sumatra 25 Oktober 1937 – 15 Juni 1938
Komandan Officer, kapal penjelajah ringan Hr.Ms. Java 15 Juni 1938 – 13 Agustus 1938
Komandan Officer, Naval Air Service NEI 17 Agustus 1938 – 5 Mei 1940
Komandan Officer, NEI Skuadron 17 Juni 1940 – 27 Februari 1942
Komandan Officer, Angkatan Menyerang Gabungan 3 Februari 1942 – 27 Februari 1942

Belanda Knight di Orde Militer William (MWO.3)
Knight dalam Ordo Singa Belanda (NL)
Petugas di Orde Orange Nassau (ON.4)
Service Medal untuk perwira angkatan laut, selama 30 tahun pelayanan (XXX)
Mobilisasi Palang 1914-1918 (Mk)
Perak asing 5th Palang kelas, Orde Virtuti Militairi (Polandia)

————————————————– ——————————

[1]: Yang lainnya adalah Kapten JP van Helsdingen, pilot pesawat tempur angkatan udara dari KNIL. Dia tewas dalam aksi pada tanggal 5 Maret 1942.
[2]: The pangkat letnan muda belum diperkenalkan saat ini.
[3]: Untuk lebih menyeluruh, meskipun romantis, deskripsi karir Petugas itu, buku “Ik val aan, volg Mij” oleh Anthony van Kampen (Diterbitkan oleh CV UITGEVERIJ, Amsterdam, 1947), dianjurkan membaca.


 De Ruyter hilang dalam pertempuran bersama dengan Petugas dan 344 dari awaknya.

Java Belanda cruiser mendapat serangan dari pesawat Jepang pada bulan Februari 1942.

Baca info lebih lanjut

Nasib misterius Cornelius Blaak dan PK-AFZ
Beberapa bulan yang lalu kami menerima permintaan dari seorang kerabat pilot Belanda KNILM Cornelius Blaak. Putra satu-satunya sekarang 80 tahun dan tahu sedikit tentang kematian ayahnya pada bulan Februari 1942.

 Blaak adalah pilot KNILM DC-3 PK-AFZ, yang mendarat di Sumatera setelah tersesat di akhir penerbangan dari Broome ke Batavia. Meskipun mereka selamat dari pendaratan, Blaak dan tiga anggota awak tewas segera setelah itu. Keluarga telah menerima beberapa informasi dari Wrecks Pasifik sangat baik organisasi secara per:

Maskapai sejarah Belanda spesialis Richard Pflug ditanya apakah ia bisa menumpahkan cahaya apa pun lebih lanjut mengenai insiden ini. Dia menjawab dengan berikut pada bulan November 2011:

Menurut apa yang saya baca,

di malam 26/27th dari Februari 1942

 PK-ALT, PK-ALO dan PK-AFZ meninggalkan Broome dengan tujuan Bandung.

Malam itu ada angin yang sangat kuat membuat pesawat melayang. Hanya PK-ALO berhasil sampai ke Bandung. PK-ALT dan melayang-AFZ tentu saja.

Operator radio on board PK-ALT ingat teknik dari pelatihan yang disebut “dorongan bantalan” untuk mendapatkan garis dasi di Bandung. Meskipun statis berat ia bisa mendapatkan beberapa bantalan pada Bandung, namun tidak dapat menentukan apakah itu NE atau SW Bandung.

Mereka memutuskan untuk terbang 15 menit karena Selatan. Dengan tidak ada tanah di mata berbalik 180 derajat dan menemukan Prinsen Island dan Krakatau. Operator radio PK-ALT mencoba untuk mengirimkan informasi ini kepada koleganya Pieter Pronk pada PK-AFZ.

Meskipun mekanik dari PK-ALT dimuat 400 liter bahan bakar di atas berat take-off diijinkan dari DC-3, hasil hanyut dan mencari tanah adalah bahwa mereka memiliki bahan bakar yang cukup untuk membuat ke Andir dan sekitar 2:00, 9 beberapa setengah jam setelah Broome kiri, mereka mendarat di Kamajoran dengan tangki hampir kosong.

PK-AFZ pernah tiba …..

Setelah perang nasib PK-AFZ dan awaknya diselidiki oleh pemerintah Belanda. Bagian ekor ditemukan di dekat Tandjung Batoe. Menurut wawancara dengan penduduk setempat kru selamat mendarat darurat hampir tanpa cedera. Pada sebuah desa terdekat mereka mencoba untuk mengatur sebuah perahu untuk sampai ke Palembang. Mereka mengkhianati kepada pasukan Jepang dan pada 1 Maret tentara menyerang tempat persembunyian mereka. Dalam berikut tembak-menembak dua anggota awak tewas. Seorang anggota awak ketiga dipukul di bahu, melarikan diri ke sungai dan tenggelam mungkin. Operator radio Pieter Pronk berhasil melarikan diri dan berhasil kembali ke desa, namun kemudian disampaikan ke patroli Jepang lewat dan dipenggal kepalanya pada tanggal 4 Maret.

Tampaknya ada salinan penyelidikan penuh dalam arsip Belanda. Dokumen ini mungkin sangat berguna, jika anda tertarik saya akan mencoba untuk mendapatkan memegang salinan dokumen ini.

Richard adalah jenis cukup untuk mengunjungi arsip Belanda, dan menjawab dengan ini pada tanggal 23 Desember 2011:

Senin lalu saya mengunjungi Institut Belanda untuk Dokumentasi Perang (NIOD) dan menyalin file mereka pada PK-AFZ, berisi surat kepada Plesman (CEO KLM), De Bruijn (Manajer Operasional KNILM) janda pilot Nieuwdorp, sertifikat kematian dari anggota awak, dll Salah satu surat sebagian besar ditulis dalam bahasa Inggris.

Menurut laporan awak bisa mendapatkan pesawat di tanah utuh. Sebuah lokal menawarkan jasanya untuk membantu mereka, melainkan terorganisir massa untuk merampok mereka karena mereka berada dalam kepemilikan uang. Diduga dua anggota awak tewas, satu terluka namun tenggelam di rawa ketika mencoba melarikan diri. Pronk itu ditangkap terluka dan dirawat dengan baik oleh menangkap Jepang-nya. Tapi batalion harus pindah, mereka memutuskan ia adalah beban dan memenggal kepalanya. Jadi itu adalah cerita yang cukup dramatis dan menyedihkan!

Keluarga Blaak sangat senang untuk menerima dokumen. Mereka tidak tahu surat-surat dan dokumen yang ada.

Seperti Richard menyebutkan, keluarga Blaak sangat senang menerima informasi ini. Berikut adalah kata-kata dari bahasa Inggris bagian dari laporan dalam arsip Belanda, yang disebut di atas:

Amsterdam, 7 November 1946

Tanggal 26 Februari 1942, pesawat PK-AFZ melaksanakan transportasi amunisi reguler dari Broome, Australia ke Batavia sebagai titik tujuan. Karena itu, tidak ada pertanyaan tentang pengalihan ke lapangan terbang lain. Kondisi atmosfer yang buruk. Ada angin sakal monsoon biasa dari (yang) arah Barat. Badai di wilayah Batavia melakukan kontak radio dengan tanah mungkin, baik dari Bandoeng atau Batavia.

Selain itu, total black-out membuat mustahil untuk membuat keluar Batavia, lampu hanya dapat dinyalakan saat tepat di atas lapangan terbang, sehingga kapten te Roller, melakukan penerbangan yang sama di bawah kondisi atmosfer yang sama, juga melewati lapangan udara Batavia, tetapi oleh Insiden mampu memeriksa posisinya (di lingkungan Isle of Krakatou dan – memiliki bahan bakar 1200L lebih onboard – bisa kembali dengan selamat pesawat Mr Blaak yang tidak memiliki tank kabin sebagai Mr te Roller memiliki dan tampaknya telah membuat pendaratan darurat di. South East pantai Sumatera, dekat Palembang Kajoe Agoung, ternyata di muara sungai.

Operator nirkabel Batavia tampaknya telah mendengar SOS lemah sinyal yang dikirim oleh Pronk operator nirkabel di papan pesawat dan kemudian dilaporkan bahwa kru mendarat dengan selamat. Saran untuk penerbangan penyelamatan dengan pesawat amfibi bisa pada waktu itu tidak ditindaklanjuti. Nasib buruk dari awak menjadi terkenal setelah itu dan apa-apa tentang pesawat itu sendiri telah mendengar sejak itu. Tidak ada puing-puing yang ditemukan kemudian atau dilaporkan telah ditemukan.

Ini adalah tanggal 1946. Para sertifikat kematian adalah tanggal September 1947, jadi mungkin beberapa informasi lebih lanjut akhirnya diterima, seperti yang dirangkum oleh Richard di atas

February.28th, 1942

Pertempuran di laut Jawa,


kapal perang “de Ruyter”,






HMS Electra



perusak HMS “Jupiter” dibakar dan

HMS “Evertsen” dari Angkatan Laut Belanda rusak selama naik ke Australia pada Sunda selat.

Pada malam hari para dai Nippon tentara mendarat di Pulau Jawa dengan 18 ribu dengan 100 pantser ringan dengan dasar di Merak.XVI th divisi tentara

Baca info lebih lanjut pertempuran laut java


27TH Februari 1942




IJN Haguro April 1936
(Courtesy of Irootoko Warna Foto Digital)


PERTH meninggalkan Batavia pada tanggal 24 untuk Surabaya untuk bergabung dengan armada Amerika-Inggris-Belanda-Australia gabungan (ABDA) di bawah komando Laksamana Belanda Karel Doorman. Kapal-kapal itu tidak dilakukan bersama-sama sebelum dan komunikasi dan sinyal antara kapal sangat canggung. Armada meninggalkan Surabaya pada malam tanggal 26 Februari untuk mencari Armada Invasi Jepang tetapi tidak dapat menemukan mereka.

Keesokan harinya kapal Jepang dilaporkan ke utara dan pada kontak 16:12 adalah made.The pertempuran telah berjuang dalam dua tahap

                             Untuk bagian awal dari pertempuran Jepang berada di luar jangkauan senjata PERTH, tetapi pada 4:25 dia menembaki kapal perusak Jap off busur starboad nya. Pada 04:37 dia datang di bawah api intens dan akurat dari 8 Jepang “kapal penjelajah NACHI dan Haguro.

 HMS Exeter

dipukul di 17:14 dan segera kehilangan kecepatan dan PERTH terpaksa berbelok dengan cepat untuk menghindari tabrakan.

  PERTH segera berputar EXETER meletakkan tabir asap pelindung.

 Pada 17:40 HMS ELECTRA

terkena tembakan dan tenggelam segera setelah. Pada 17:45 pada NACHI dan Haguro muncul melalui tabir asap tersebut. The kapal penjelajah ringan Naka dan perusak bahkan lebih dekat.

 Dalam baku tembak, PERTH tampaknya telah mencetak hits di Haguro

1.January 1942




captured on Bataan, being led blindfolded to headquarters for questioning.



until by 10 January

General Yamashita  stood at the gates of Kuala Lumpur, on the west coast of Malaya, which his 5th Division captured the next day.


heavily camouflaged Toyota KB Truck and a type 97 tankette moving on a poorly pavemented road of malaya (1942)


art work showing tanks of the japanese army 6th Tank Regiment commanded by tank commander Colonel Kawamura attacking the british in malaya 1942




by Admiral Stark,

who, on 11 January, a day after


General Wavell arrived in Batavia with General Ter Poorten


 but before he assumed command, reviewed the critical situation in the Far East and raised the question of diverting ships from the less critical North Atlantic route to the Pacific.

In this he had the support of General Marshall and Admiral King, but the British, in the belief that Singapore would hold and anxious for the Americans to relieve then in Iceland and Ireland, sought other ways to find the ships.





Japanese  landings in British territory at



The Japanese Campaign and Victory 8 December 1941 – 15 February 1942: Lieutenant-General Percival and his party carry the Union Jack on their way to surrender Singapore to the Japanese.





The Japanese landing off the west coast of British North Borneo, 1942



February 19th.1942

The Japanense boombardement Buitenzorg(Bogor) semplak  airfield and in the midday attack  Bandung Andir airfield

Gubernor General Tjarda vsn Stoukerborough with his  Chief of Staf Ter Porten moved from Batavia to Bandung and they stayed at Mei Ling Villa which owned by  the Tionghoa Volkraad (house of representative)’s member H.H. Kan


February ,19th.1942

In a major engagement above Semplak on 19 February 1942, eight Dutch Brewster fighters intercepted a formation of about 35 Japanese bombers with an escort of about 20 Zeros. The Brewster pilots destroyed 11 Japanese aircraft and lost four Brewsters; two Dutch pilots died.[33]


February 20th.1942.

This put Surabaya within range of enemy bombers. From Kendari,

Friday, 20 February





Allied ships were in two groups. The first were Dutch cruisers DE RUYTER, JAVA, Dutch destroyers PIET HEIN and the American JOHN D FORD, and POPE. Dutch destroyer BANCKERT was part of the force, but ran aground at the mouth of Tjilatjap harbour and could not proceed.


The second group was Dutch cruiser TROMP from Surabaya and American destroyers STEWART, PARROTT, JOHN D EDWARDS and PILLSBURY from Ratai Bay.


STEWART was damaged by Japanese gunfire, with one enlisted man killed and the executive officer LT C B Smiley and one enlisted man wounded. JOHN D EDWARDS had one enlisted man wounded. PIET HEIN (Lt Cdr J M L I Chompff) was lost with all but 33 of her crew and TROMP was badly damaged.




Convoy SM.3 departed Batavia unescorted with British steamers ADRASTUS (7905grt), CITY OF MANCHESTER (8917grt), MARELLA (7475grt), Dutch PHRONTIS (6181grt) and Norwegian PROMINENT (2282grt). Steamers CITY OF MANCHESTER and PROMINENT proceeded to Tjilatjap and the rest of the convoy to Fremantle.



Convoy SJ.5 departed Batavia with British steamers ANGBY (786grt), FILLEIGH (4856grt), JALAKRISHNA (4991grt), LULWORTH HILL (7628grt), SILVERLARCH (5064grt), YOMA (8131grt) and Norwegian HAI LEE (3616grt). Escort at the start was by heavy cruiser EXETER, destroyer STRONGHOLD and Indian sloop JUMNA. The ships proceeded to Colombo, arriving independently between 28 February and 6 March.



Battleship WARSPITE arrived at Sydney, NSW, after refitting in the United States.




Destroyer NIZAM departed Colombo for the west coast of Sumatra to evacuate personnel. Patrol vessel PANGKOR of the China Force was also sent to evacuate personnel. NIZAM was recalled on the 21st for escort duties.



Australian minesweeper BALLARAT evacuated important stores and completed the destruction of port facilities and abandoned equipment at Oosthaven on the 20th.



Japanese submarine I.65 sank steamer BHIMA (5280grt) in 7-47N, 73-31E. Crew of 68, two passengers, all rescued.



Steamer KOOLAMA (4068grt) was sunk by Japanese bombing off Wyndham, West Australia.



Dutch steamer TOBELO (983grt) was sunk by Japanese bombing at Kupang.



Steamer JALAKRISHNA (4991grt) was damaged by Japanese bombing in the Dutch East Indies.



Saturday, 21 February



Convoy SJ.6 departed Tandjong PrioK with steamers MANGOLA and THEPASTRIN NAWA (3260grt) for Fremantle and KIANG (1451grt), JALAVIHAR, ELSA, STRAAT SOENDA (6439grt) and GENERAAL VAN DE HEYDEN (1213grt) for Colombo.



Convoy SJ.7 departed Tandjong Priok with troopship ORCADES (23,456grt), carrying 3768 troops and refugees, escorted by destroyer ELECTRA to the 22nd and Australian light cruiser HOBART to the 23rd, when the convoy dispersed and the escorts detached. ORCADES arrived at Colombo on the 27th.


Americans providing reinforcements for Australia.46

Washington agreed with Wavell’s estimate of the probable loss of Java. Reinforcement was evidently futile and the wisest course, the Combined Chiefs thought, would be to send at least one of the Australian divisions to Burma and the other to Australia. It was clear also that the fall of Java would split the ABDA area and make a co-ordinated defense of its eastern and western extremities impossible. The British therefore suggested that Burma be taken out of ABDACOM and transferred to their command in India, a proposal that the U.S. Chiefs and General Wavell, who had always believed Burma was an integral part of the Indian command, readily accepted. This was accomplished formally

on 21 February.47


Sunday 22, February



LANGLEY and SEA WITCH, carrying crated aircraft, were detached to Java. LANGLEY was lost and SEA WITCH was able to escape after delivering her cargo at Tjilatjap.


LANGLEY was sunk by Japanese bombing. Only sixteen crew and passengers were lost. The survivors were picked up by WHIPPLE and EDSALL. WHIPPLE then scuttled LANGLEY.


The convoy arrived at Colombo on 5 March.



Patrol vessel PANGKOR departed Batavia to evacuate personnel from Sibolga and Ongha, then proceeded to Colombo.



Boom defence vessels BARRIER, BARLANE and BARRICADE departed Batavia for Colombo and patrol vessels CIRCE and MEDUSA for Fremantle, via Tjilatjap.



Convoy SJ.8 departed Tandjong Priok with EDENDALE (1659grt) for Fremantle and FU KWANG (1559grt), TINOMBO (872grt) and ROOSEBOOM (1035grt) for Colombo.



Japanese submarine I.58 sank Dutch steamer PIJNACKER HORDIKJ (2982grt) south of Tjilatjap.



Monday, 23 February



Norwegian steamer BELITA and Norwegian collier WOOLGAR departed Colombo for Batavia, escorted until the 25th by destroyer NIZAM and minesweeper BATHURST. The merchantmen proceeded independently for Batavia until recalled.



Convoy SM.4 departed Tandjong Priok with steamer SPRINGDALE (1579grt) for Fremantle and SEIRSTAD and PERAK (1188grt) for Colombo. The ships proceeded independently after Sunda Strait.


The plan for sending the Australian divisions to Burma, however, came to naught. Concerned over the defense of their own country, the Australians persistently refused, despite strong appeals from Churchill and Roosevelt, to permit the diversion of these divisions to Burma, and finally,

on 23 February, they were ordered home.48

Though the loss of Java was conceded by all except the Dutch, there was a reluctance to act on this assumption. To do so would create the impression that the Americans and British were deserting their Dutch allies. On the 20th, therefore, the Combined Chiefs, asserting that “every day gained is of importance,” directed Wavell to defend Java “with the utmost resolution” and not to withdraw or surrender any of the troops there. To minimize the loss of Allied troops in Java, the Chiefs specifically prohibited Wavell from reinforcing that island further, but did give him discretion to use his naval forces and American planes in Australia as he thought best.49

Even as these fresh instructions were being received at ABDACOM, the Japanese were making their execution impossible. On the 19th, they landed on the southern tip of Bali, immediately to the east of Java. Next day they landed on Timor, half of which was Dutch and half Portuguese. Control of these islands, lying between Java and northwest Australia, completed the isolation of Java, placed Japanese land-based fighters within bombing range of the Dutch base at Surabaya, and made further reinforcements from Australia impossible.





. on 23 February

had been ordered to Tjilatjap, on the south coast of Java,


with its cargo of thirty-two assembled P-40′s and their pilots. On the 27th, almost within sight of Java, it was spotted by Japanese patrol planes and sunk. The freighter Seawitch with 27 P-40′s in her hold had left Fremantle at the same time, but sailed separately and made its way successfully to Java. It arrived there on the eve of invasion and the P-40′s, still crated, were dumped into the sea to prevent their capture.55

Meanwhile the Japanese had completed their preparations for the invasion of Java. D-day was set for

 air reconnaissance confirmed that the airfield was unfit for use. Thereupon Air Headquarters made arrangements for supplies to be dropped and the following day three Blenheims from Singapore, modified to carry containers, successfully dropped 900 pounds of supplies on the airfield.

the 23rd February

 at Kenamboi, where they were re-united with C and D Company.




Japanese filght attacked and bombardement Kemajoran Batavia, Semplak Buitenzorg and Kalijati airfield.

Tuesday, 24 February



Steamers INDRAGIRI (592grt), NAM YONG (1345grt), and BOERO (7135grt) departed Tandjong Priok for Colombo.



Dutch steamer KOTA RADJA (7117grt) was sunk by Japanese bombing at Surabaya.

Dutch light cruiser HEEMSKERK departed Colombo for Trincomalee to embark ammunition and proceed to the Dutch East Indies. She then left Trincomalee the next day for Sunda Strait with all despatch, but was diverted to Tjilatjap on the 26th. On 1 March, both she and destroyer ISAAC SWEERS were ordered to return to Colombo.



Wednesday, 25 February


British heavy cruiser EXETER, Australian light cruiser PERTH and British destroyers ENCOUNTER, ELECTRA and JUPITER departed Tanjong Priok to join Dutch Admiral Doorman’s force at Surabaya. Australian light cruiser HOBART was also ordered to sail, but had not completed refuelling. Instead she joined a Western Striking Force with light cruisers DANAE, DRAGON and destroyers TENEDOS and SCOUT. The EXETER group arrived at Surabaya at 0330/26th and sailed at 1900 that day.



Japanese submarine I.58 sank Dutch steamer BOERO (7135grt) south of Sunda Strait. Crew of 70, with no casualties.




. With the Japanese making ready for the final assault on Java,

General Wavell turned to his superiors for new instructions. Their orders were to transfer command of Java to the Dutch and withdraw, but to maintain ABDACOM and keep his headquarters intact. When and where he would go was left to him. Ground forces “for whom there are arms” were to remain and continue the fight, but air forces that could operate from bases outside Java and other troops “who cannot contribute to defense” were to be withdrawn, the Americans and Australians to go to Australia. General Brett was to return to Australia, when released by Wavell, to command the U.S. forces there.50

The ABDA commander did not agree with the program. What he wanted was the dissolution of ABDACOM, all reason for its existence having disappeared. Burma, he pointed out, had already been separated from the ABDA theater and Java’s defense was a local problem, best handled by the Dutch themselves. If the Philippines, which had never really been under his control, were taken over by the Americans again and northwest Australia by the Australians, he told the Chiefs, he could turn over his remaining forces to the Dutch and leave the area by

25 February.51

This recommendation was in line with the solution being proposed by the British Chiefs of Staff for the establishment of two areas in the Far East, one to be under American control and to include Australia; the other a British area encompassing India and the Indian Ocean. The Dutch opposed such a solution for fear it would mean the end of Allied assistance in the Netherlands Indies. ‘For God’s sake,’ wrote the Dutch governor-general to Marshall, “take the strong and active decisions and don’t stop sending materials and men.”52

Still anxious to avoid the appearance of abandoning their allies, the U.S. Chiefs continued to oppose the dissolution of ABDACOM. But in recognition of the fact that Wavell had lost the confidence of the Dutch and obviously wanted to pull out, they agreed to the dissolution of his headquarters and his transfer to India, leaving control of the ABDA area to the Dutch. And lest the Dutch should think that the Americans had made this arrangement to shirk their commitments, Marshall assured the Dutch governor that the forces then assembling in Australia were “seeking opportunity to enter the ABDA battle” and would “continue their full support of the Dutch commanders in their magnificent fight.”53

On the 25th

General Wavell turned over command to the Dutch and left for India where General Brereton had already gone to organize an American air force. This move placed MacArthur technically under the Dutch, but he had already been told that “because of your special situation all procedures in your case remain as heretofore.”54 The burden of defending Java was now squarely on the Dutch. Their forces, with the exception of minor ground units (including an American artillery battalion), American and British naval units, and a small U.S.-Australian fighter force, composed the entire command.

There was still a chance that fighters could be brought in by sea, though the air ferry route had been closed by the Japanese seizure of Timor. To this task was assigned the aircraft tender Langley,





Thursday, 26 February



Convoy MR.5 departed Madras with steamers ERINPURA (5143grt), ETHIOPIA (5574grt), KAROA (7009grt) and VARSOVA (4701grt) escorted by heavy cruiser DORSETSHIRE, which departed Trincomalee on the 26th. The convoy and escort arrived at Rangoon on 3 March.



Steamer ASHRIDGE was the last steamer to departed Tandjong Priok, escorted through the Sunda Strait by destroyer STRONGHOLD

Back in Balikpapan, the Japanese rounded up civilians and the newly captured prisoners of war. They delayed their promised vengeance until


On February 27th,1942,

And then there was the Battle of the Java Sea from 27 February to 1 March 1942. The Dutch warships Ruyter and Java were hit by Japanese torpedoes; they sunk with a huge loss of life. The Allies lost this battle.



japanese destroyer Inazuma launching a type 93 long lance torpedo against allied ships in the Second Battle of the Java Sea


Frank looked out from Fort Menari to see a small fleet of Allied cruisers and destroyers – American, British, Dutch, and Australian – steaming through the Western Fairway:

…the binoculars pick up the sleek outlines in camouflage grey, stealing through the mist of dawn out into the open sea. Our gallant Navy sailing to their last engagement with the enemy, to bear the brunt of the great onslaught. [11]

In the Java Sea the ABDA fleet boldly attacked the more powerful Japanese warships escorting the East Java invasion force, hoping to break through and sink the troop transports.

The Japanese, with their heavier guns and advanced “Long Lance” torpedoes, drove them off after inflicting severe losses.

Among the vessels sunk was

 the Dutch flagship, the light cruiser De Ruyter.

She went down with 345 of her crew, including Warrant Officer Frans Anton Boerman, Frank’s father-in-law.

Read more


Dutch cruiser De Ruyter
Laid down: 1933. Launched: 1935. Commissioned: 1936
Seven 150-mm guns on a 6442-ton displacement
Crew: 435

In the Battle of the Java Sea on 27 February 1942, De Ruyter was the flagship of the Dutch rear-admiral Karel Doorman, with his flag captain Eugène Lacomblé (who had previously served on board the ship as a lieutenant). Off the north coast off Java the ABDA fleet was surprised at night by a Japanese squadron consisting of the heavy cruisers Nachi and Haguro supported by 14 destroyers.

De Ruyter was supposedly hit by a single Japanese Long Lance torpedo at about 23:30 and sank at 02:30 the next day with the loss of 345 men, including Admiral Doorman and Captain Lacomblé. Her wreck was found after the war and declared a war grave, with only the ship’s bell (now in the Kloosterkerk in the Hague) being recovered.


Battle of the Java Sea

In February 1942, the Allies established a naval “Combined Striking Force” for the protection of Java.

 The “Eastern Striking Force”, comprising the Dutch cruisers Java and De Ruyter, the US heavy cruiser Houston, the British cruiser Exeter, and the Australian cruiser Perth , was placed under the command of Dutch Rear Admiral Karel Doorman. “Eastern Striking Force” also included the destroyers Witte de With and Kortenaer (RNN), J.D. Edwards, Alden, John Ford and Paul Jones (USN), and Jupiter, Electra and Encounter (RN).

On February 27,

 Doorman’s force sailed from Surabaya to intercept the Japanese “Eastern Invasion Force”, which comprised four cruisers and 14 destroyers, escorting 41 transport vessels. At about 4 pm, the two forces met in a battle which lasted much of the night. Outgunned, Doorman’s force was unable to engage the invasion fleet, which escaped to the north while the escort vessels were pressing their attack.

Allied casualties were heavy.


Admiral Doorman

was lost along with both of the Dutch cruisers and almost all of their crews.

The Exeter was badly damaged by shell-fire, and was sunk along with its escorting destroyer Encounter two days later. Among the other destroyers engaged, Kortenaer, Jupiter and Electra were all sunk, with considerable loss of life. The Japanese invasion fleet was delayed, but not prevented from making a landing on Java on 28 February. The surviving cruisers, Houston and Perth, were sunk on the evening of the same day as they attempted to withdraw to Ceylon, having encountered the Japanese “Western Invasion Force” in the Sunda Strait.


Admiral Doorman’s flagship De Ruyter at anchor shortly before the battle of the Java Sea.

Read more about Admiral Karel dorman

Rear-Admiral K.W.F.M. Doorman, RNN


Karel Willem Frederik Marie Doorman

Born Utrecht April 23, 1889 – Died on board light cruiser De Ruyter February 28, 1942


Although Karel Doorman was the son of an army officer, he joined the officer’s course at the Naval Institute in 1906, which he completed successfully four years later. After some years in the Netherlands East Indies, he returned to Holland to become one of the pioneers in Dutch naval aviation. He earned his wings in 1915, and what followed was a turbulent period at the naval airfield De Kooy until 1921, during which he survived 33 emergency landings. Then, he went to the High Naval Academy to study the art of naval warfare. He was sent out to the NEI for the last time in 1937, where he became the Commanding Officer of the Naval Air Service during the last prewar years. Being an aviator himself, he understood the value of a well-trained and well-equipped Naval Air Service (the correct Dutch term is Marine Luchtvaartdienst, or MLD) and under his command, the MLD became just that.

In June 1940, he was given command of the Netherlands East Indies Seagoing Squadron, which normally included the bulk of the Dutch surface fleet. Although a neglected dysentery started to play up shortly before the start of the Pacific War, he retained command and was also given command of the Combined Striking Force on February 3, 1942. The idea was to use this scratch-collection of Dutch, American, British and Australian warships to attack and destroy Japanese invasion convoys. During the month of February, the force made a number of sorties, which were usually unsuccessful due to Japanese aerial intervention. It only came to blows during the Battle of Badung Strait, when a numerically superior Allied Force attacked four Japanese destroyers and a transport, unfortunately without much success. In return, the Japanese managed to sink the destroyer Piet Hein and damage several other ships.

After this battle, it was clear that the next step would be the invasion of Java island. In compliance with Admiral Helfrich’s orders, Doorman continued to sweep the Java sea with his force, until the Japanese invasion fleet was finally sighted on February 27. Although the two forces were more or less equal in terms of strength, the Allied were handicapped by the lack of a good communication system, aerial reconnaissance and rest during the past few months. Both the light cruisers Java and Doorman’s flagship, De Ruyter were hit and sunk by torpedoes, taking a heavy toll among the exhausted crews. It is believed Doorman, his staff and De Ruyter’s commanding officer, Commander E.E.B. Lacomblé chose to remain on board as the cruiser sank.

In honor of Admiral Doorman, the only two Dutch aircraft carriers and lastly, a new frigate were named after him. In addition, he was one of only persons who were made Knights in the Military Order of William 3rd class. [1]

Midshipman 1st class [2] August 24, 1910
Lieutenant August 24, 1912
Lieutenant-Commander November 1, 1920
Commander February 1, 1933
Captain September 6, 1937
Rear-Admiral May 16, 1940
Postings [3]
Coastal defence ship Hr.Ms. Tromp and Hr.Ms. De Ruyter 1910 - 1913
Light cruiser Hr.Ms. Noord Brabant April, 1914 - 1915
Pilot Instructor 1916 - 1917
Commanding Officer, Naval Airbase De Mok August 18, 1917 -  
First Officer, Naval Airfield De Kooy   - 1920
Commanding Officer, Naval Airfield De Kooy 1920 - 1921
Student Netherlands Naval War College November 2, 1921 - 1923
Staff Officer, Ministry of Navy, Weltevreden (Java) 1923 - 1926
Gunnery Officer, coastal defence ship Hr.Ms. Zeven Provinciën May 14, 1926 - January, 1928
Head MLD Technical Department, The Hague March 12, 1928 - July 14, 1928
First Officer, Naval Airfield De Kooy July 14, 1928 - November 2, 1931
Commanding Officer, minelayer Hr.Ms. Prins van Oranje 1932 - 1932
Commanding Officer, destroyer Hr.Ms. Witte de With 1933 - 1933
Commanding Officer, destroyer Hr.Ms. Evertsen and Group Destroyers 1 1934 - 1934
Chief of Staff, Den Helder naval base June, 1934 - September 4, 1937
Commanding Officer, light cruiser Hr.Ms. Sumatra October 25, 1937 - June 15, 1938
Commanding Officer, light cruiser Hr.Ms. Java June 15, 1938 - August 13, 1938
Commanding Officer, Naval Air Service NEI August 17 1938 - May 5, 1940
Commanding Officer, NEI Squadron June 17, 1940 - February 27, 1942
Commanding Officer, Combined Striking Force February 3, 1942 - February 27, 1942
Dutch Knight in the Military Order of William (MWO.3)
Knight in the Order of the Dutch Lion (NL)
Officer in the Order of Orange Nassau (ON.4)
Service Medal for naval officers, for 30 years’ of service (XXX)
Mobilization Cross 1914-1918 (Mk)
Foreign Silver Cross 5th class, Order Virtuti Militairi (Poland)

[1]: The other was Captain J.P. van Helsdingen, a fighter pilot of the KNIL airforce. He was killed in action on March 5, 1942.
[2]: The rank of sublieutenant had not yet been introduced at this time.
[3]: For a more thorough, albeit romanticized, description of Doorman’s career, the book “Ik val aan, volg mij”  by Anthony van Kampen (Published by C.V. Uitgeverij, Amsterdam, 1947), is recommended reading.


 De Ruyter was lost in the battle along with Doorman and 344 of its crew.

The Dutch cruiser Java under attack from Japanese aircraft in February 1942.

Read more info

The mysterious fate of Cornelius Blaak and PK-AFZ

Some months ago we received a query from a relative of Dutch KNILM pilot Cornelius Blaak. His only son is now 80 years old and knew very little about his father’s death in February 1942.

 Blaak was the pilot of KNILM DC-3 PK-AFZ, which crash-landed in Sumatra after getting lost at the end of a flight from Broome to Batavia. Although they survived the crash landing, Blaak and three crew members were killed soon afterwards. The family had received some information from the excellent Pacific Wrecks organisation as per:

Dutch airline history specialist Richard Pflug was asked if he could shed any further light on this incident. He replied with the following in November 2011:

According to what I read,

in the night of 26/27th of February 1942

 PK-ALT, PK-ALO and PK-AFZ left Broome with destination Bandung.

That night there were very strong winds making the planes drift. Only PK-ALO made it to Bandung. PK-ALT and -AFZ drifted of course.

The radio operator on board PK-ALT remembered a technique from training called “impulse bearing” to get a tie line on Bandung. Despite heavy static he was able to get some bearing on Bandung, but was unable to determine if the were NE or SW of Bandung.

They decided to fly 15 minutes due South. With no land in sight the turned 180 degrees and found Prinsen Island and Krakatau. The radio operator of PK-ALT tried to transmit this information to his colleague Pieter Pronk on PK-AFZ.

Although the mechanic of PK-ALT loaded 400 litres of fuel over the allowed take-off weight of the DC-3, the result of the drifting and searching for land is that they have insufficient fuel to make it to Andir and around 2.00 AM, some 9 and a half hours after the left Broome, they touch down at Kamajoran with almost empty tanks.

PK-AFZ never arrived…..

After the war the fate of PK-AFZ and its crew was investigated by the Dutch government. The tail section was found near Tandjung Batoe. According to interviews with locals the crew survived the emergency landing almost unscathed. At a nearby village they tried to organise a boat to get to Palembang. They were betrayed to Japanese forces and on March 1st soldiers attacked their hideout. In the following shoot-out two crew members were killed. A third crew member was hit in the shoulder, escaped to the river and presumably drowned. Radio operator Pieter Pronk managed to escape and made it back to the village, but later was delivered to a passing Japanese patrol and beheaded on March 4th.

There seems to be a copy of the full investigation in a Dutch archive. This document might be very useful; if you are interested I will try to get hold of a copy of this document.

Richard was kind enough to visit the Dutch archives, and replied with this on 23rd December 2011:

Last Monday I visited the Dutch Institute for War Documentation (NIOD) and copied their file on PK-AFZ, containing letters to Plesman (CEO of KLM), De Bruijn (Manager Operations of KNILM) the widow of pilot Nieuwdorp, the death certificates of the crew members, etc. One letter is largely written in English.

According to the reports the crew was able to get the plane on the ground largely intact. A local offered his services to help them, but instead organized a mob to rob them as they were in possession of money. Allegedly two crew members were killed; one was wounded but drowned in a swamp while trying to flee. Pronk was captured wounded and treated well by his Japanese captures. But the battalion had to move on, they decided he was a burden and beheaded him. So it’s a pretty dramatic and sad story!

The family of Blaak was very happy to receive the documents. They didn’t know these letters and documents existed.

As Richard mentions, the Blaak family was very happy to receive this information. Here is the wording of the English section of the report in the Dutch archives, referred to above:

Amsterdam, 7th November 1946

On February 26th, 1942, the aircraft PK-AFZ carried out a regular ammunition transport from Broome, Australia to Batavia as its point of destination. There was therefore no question of a diversion to another airfield. Atmospheric conditions were bad. There was the ordinary monsoon headwind from (the) Western direction. Thunderstorms in the Batavia region made radio contact with the ground impossible, either from Bandoeng or Batavia.

Besides, total black-out made it impossible to make out Batavia, lights could only be turned on when immediately above the airfield, so that captain te Roller, doing the same flight under the same atmospheric conditions, also passed the Batavia airfield, but by incident was able to check his position (in the neighbourhood of the Isle of Krakatou and – having 1200L more fuel onboard – could return safely. Mr Blaak’s aircraft had no cabin tanks as Mr te Roller had and seems to have made a forced landing on the South East coast of Sumatra, near Palembang at Kajoe Agoung, apparently in the estuary of the river.

Batavia’s wireless operator seems to have heard weak S.O.S. signals sent by wireless operator Pronk on board of the aircraft and later it was reported that the crew landed safely. Suggestions for a rescue flight with an amphibious aircraft could at that time not be followed up. The ill fate of the crew became known afterwards and nothing about the aircraft itself has been heard ever since. No debris were found afterwards or reported to have been found.

This was dated 1946. The death certificates were dated September 1947, so presumably some further information was eventually received, as summarised by Richard above


The battle in Java sea, 


the battle ship “de Ruyter”,






HMS Electra



destroyer HMS “Jupiter” were burned  and

HMS “Evertsen” from Dutch Navy  broken during boarding to Australia at Sunda straits.

At the night the dai Nippon  army landing at Java Island with 18 thousand of  with 100 light pantser with basic at Merak.XVI th army division

Read more info the battle of java sea




IJN Haguro April 1936
(Courtesy of Irootoko Digital Color Photos)


PERTH left Batavia on the 24th for Surabaya to join the combined American-British-Dutch -Australian fleet ( ABDA ) under the command of Dutch Admiral Karel Doorman.   The ships had not exercised together before and communications and signalling between ships was very awkward.   The fleet left Surabaya on the night of 26th February to search for the Japanese Invasion Fleet but were unable to locate them.

The next day Japanese ships were reported  to the north and at 4.12pm contact was made.The battle was fought in two stages

                             For the early part of the battle the Japanese were out of range of PERTH’s guns  but at 4.25pm she opened fire on Jap destroyers off her starboad bow.  At 4.37pm she came under intense and accurate fire from the Japanese 8″ cruisers NACHI and HAGURO.   


was hit at 5.14pm and immediately lost speed and  PERTH was forced to swerve quickly to avoid a collision.

  PERTH immediately circled EXETER laying a protective smokescreen.

 At 5.40pm HMS ELECTRA

was hit by gunfire and sank soon after. At 5.45pm the NACHI and HAGURO appeared through the smokescreen.  The light  cruiser NAKA and destroyers  were even closer.  

 In the exchange of fire, PERTH  appeared to have scored hits on HAGURO

but this was incorrect.  At 6.30pm the Japanese retired and were lost from view.



IJN Nachi


                  At 7.15pm

a Japanese aircraft dropped flares illuminating PERTH

and the other ships and fifteen minutes later PERTH

opened fire on destroyers delivering a torpedo attack on her port side. 

 The destroyerHMS JUPITER hit

what was thought to have been a Dutch mine and exploded and sank at 9.25pm. 

 PERTH passed by survivors from HMS ELECTRA at 10.15pm

 but was under orders not to stop and attempt rescue. 

 At 10.30pm

 PERTH and HOUSTON once again began an exchange of fire


 NACHI and HAGURO and at the same time the IJN destroyers delivered another torpedo attack.

The allied cruisers were steaming in line ahead led by De RUYTER,



Just after 11pm

 NACHI and HAGURO fired torpedoes hitting both JAVA and De RUYTER.

  JAVA blew up

an with appalling explosion. Her stern broke off and she sank in fifteen minutes with

 the loss of of over 500 men.

 PERTH had to swerve violently to avoid colliding with De RUYTER. De RUYTER stayed afloat

for nearly another two hours before sinking.

Admiral Doorman and 344 of his crew were lost in the sinking.

PERTH and HOUSTON now broke off the action and headed for Tanjong Priok, the port of Batavia.



IJN Naka 1942




De Ruyter











WWII Cruiser HMS Exeter Found

The Heavy Cruiser that fought like a Lion in World War Two


The HMS Exeter – public domain

The Royal Navy’s Heavy cruiser HMS Exeter had a brief but legendary war service. In her 18-months of War she helped kill the Graf Spee and fought the Japanese.

It can be argued Battleships really started World War One. The Anglo-German naval arms race was the kindling to the fire that erupted all of the Europe in that Great War. At Versailles, Germany, vanquished in combat, was to rid herself of most of her Great High Seas Fleet, keeping only a few old tubs. In the inter-war period she was allowed to build a class of 16,000-ton ‘pocket-battleships’ -essentially very large cruisers with a battleship’s guns. The pocket battleships were to be the scourge of the sea in the event of war, ranging the globe sinking merchantmen by the dozens. One of these, the Admiral Graf Spee, engaged in the legendary Battle of the River Plate with three British cruisers and eventually scuttled herself on a bluff. In this battle the cruiser HMS Exeter, with her 8-inch guns, was the only ship that could make effective hits on the German battleship’s armor. One of these hits by the Exeter effectively wrecked the Graf Spee’s boiler room and caused her to withdraw and seek repairs.

These cruisers, the Ajax, Exeter and Achilles earned everlasting naval fame in this running battle in 1939.

All went onto very different fates. The HMS Ajax, a 7000-ton Leander class light cruiser, went on to fight in the Pacific and then in the Battle of Normandy before being broken up and scrapped in 1949. The HMS Achilles, a sister ship of the Ajax also finished the war and, in the service of the Royal New Zealand Navy, was eventually scrapped in 1976 after decades of peacetime service. The HMS Exeter, a 10,000-ton heavy cruiser of the York class, was severely damaged in the battle with the Graf Spee but was repaired in time to see combat in the Pacific.

As a member of the ABDA “Fleet that God Forgot” that fought the Imperial Japanese Navy under impossible odds in 1942, HMS Exeter was lost. She was heavily damaged in the Battle of the Java Sea and was ordered away to limp home. Finding herself just days later in combat with four Japanese cruisers and five destroyers and only supported by a pair of destroyers herself she was sunk 90 miles off Bawean Island in what is now Indonesia on March 1st, 1942 after a terrific gunfight. She has just been found after being lost at sea for over sixty years. Her wreck shows signs of the battle and it remains as a final testament to her short wartime service. Her last commander, RN Captain Oliver Loudon Gordon MVO, survived the war in a Japanese POW camp in published a memoir entitled “Fight It Out” published in 1957



Battle of the Java Sea

In February 1942, the Allies established a naval “Combined Striking Force” for the protection of Java. The “Eastern Striking Force”, comprising the Dutch cruisers Java and De Ruyter, the US heavy cruiser Houston, the British cruiser Exeter, and the Australian cruiser Perth , was placed under the command of Dutch Rear Admiral Karel Doorman. “Eastern Striking Force” also included the destroyers Witte de With and Kortenaer (RNN), J.D. Edwards, Alden, John Ford and Paul Jones (USN), and Jupiter, Electra and Encounter (RN).

On February 27, Doorman’s force sailed from Surabaya to intercept the Japanese “Eastern Invasion Force”, which comprised four cruisers and 14 destroyers, escorting 41 transport vessels. At about 4 pm, the two forces met in a battle which lasted much of the night. Outgunned, Doorman’s force was unable to engage the invasion fleet, which escaped to the north while the escort vessels were pressing their attack.

Allied casualties were heavy. Admiral Doorman was lost along with both of the Dutch cruisers and almost all of their crews. The Exeter was badly damaged by shell-fire, and was sunk along with its escorting destroyer Encounter two days later. Among the other destroyers engaged, Kortenaer, Jupiter and Electra were all sunk, with considerable loss of life. The Japanese invasion fleet was delayed, but not prevented from making a landing on Java on 28 February. The surviving cruisers, Houston and Perth, were sunk on the evening of the same day as they attempted to withdraw to Ceylon, having encountered the Japanese “Western Invasion Force” in the Sunda Strait.


Admiral Doorman’s flagship De Ruyter at anchor shortly before the battle of the Java Sea. De Ruyter was lost in the battle along with Doorman and 344 of its crew. 305837


The Dutch cruiser Java under attack from Japanese aircraft in February 1942. 305183







Friday 27, February

 Pertempuran Laut Jawa

Pada bulan Februari 1942, Sekutu membentuk “Angkatan Menyerang Gabungan” angkatan laut untuk perlindungan Jawa. The “Angkatan Menyerang Timur”, yang terdiri dari kapal penjelajah Belanda dan Jawa De Ruyter, AS heavy cruiser Houston, kapal Inggris Exeter, dan kapal penjelajah Australia Perth, ditempatkan di bawah komando Laksamana Karel Doorman Belanda Belakang. “Angkatan Timur mencolok” juga termasuk perusak Witte de With dan Kortenaer (RNN), JD Edwards, Alden, John Ford dan Paul Jones (USN), dan Jupiter, Electra dan Encounter (RN).

Pada tanggal 27 Februari, kekuatan Petugas itu berlayar dari Surabaya untuk mencegat Jepang “Timur Angkatan Invasion”, yang terdiri dari empat kapal penjelajah dan kapal perusak 14, mengawal 41 kapal transportasi. Pada sekitar 4 pm, dua kekuatan bertemu dalam pertempuran yang berlangsung lebih dari malam. Outgunned, kekuatan Petugas itu dapat melibatkan armada invasi, yang melarikan diri ke utara sementara kapal escort yang menekan serangan mereka.

Korban Sekutu berat. Petugas Laksamana hilang bersama kedua kapal penjelajah Belanda dan hampir semua awak mereka. The Exeter rusak parah oleh shell-api, dan tenggelam bersama dengan Encounter perusak mengawal nya dua hari kemudian. Di antara kapal lain yang bergerak, Kortenaer, Jupiter dan Electra semuanya tenggelam, dengan banyak kehilangan kehidupan. Armada invasi Jepang ditunda, tetapi tidak dicegah dari membuat mendarat di Jawa pada tanggal 28 Februari. Para penjelajah hidup, Houston dan Perth, tenggelam pada malam hari yang sama ketika mereka mencoba untuk mundur ke Ceylon, setelah bertemu dengan “Angkatan Invasi Barat” Jepang di Selat Sunda.

Laksamana Petugas andalan De Ruyter di jangkar sesaat sebelum pertempuran di Laut Jawa. De Ruyter hilang dalam pertempuran bersama dengan Petugas dan 344 dari awaknya. 305837

Java Belanda cruiser mendapat serangan dari pesawat Jepang pada bulan Februari 1942. 305183



Friday 27 Februari


Destroyer JUPITER (Lt Cdr NVJT Thew) tenggelam oleh kapal perusak Jepang. Lima peringkat tewas dan satu meninggal dari luka sementara Sementara S / Lt AL Cato RNZNVR, Lt (E) VD Hodge OBE, Taruna MG Rivington RNR, Lt JWR Spedding DSC dan delapan puluh enam peringkat yang hilang. Cdr Thew, Gunner (T) ED Furneaux dan 45 peringkat selamat, namun 27 dari peringkat meninggal ketika tawanan perang.

Destroyer ELECTRA (Cdr CW Mei) tenggelam oleh kapal perusak Jepang. Cdr Mei, Lt R Jenner-Fust OBE, Lt EA Coale, Lt (E) F McLeod, S / R Lt Harga RNR, sementara Lt HW Davies RNVR dan 102 peringkat hilang. Yang selamat, S / Lt SH Cruden RNVR dan empat peringkat yang ditawan oleh Jepang dari air, dan Gunner (T) TJ Cain, Surgeon Lt WRD Seymour dan empat puluh tiga peringkat dijemput oleh kapal selam Amerika S.38 pada 0315 / 28. Saat tiba di tempat kejadian, S.38 diserang oleh ENCOUNTER perusak, tapi tidak rusak. Satu Peringkat meninggal karena luka setelah tiba di Jawa, dan 10 peringkat terluka ditinggalkan di Surabaya dan kemudian ditangkap. Tujuh tewas saat tawanan perang.

Empat puluh selamat dari JUPITER dan 42 dari ELECTRA berangkat Tjilatjap pada awal Maret VERSPECK kapal Belanda dan tiba di Australia pada 10 Maret.

Belanda perusak Kortenaer tenggelam oleh kapal perang Jepang. ENCOUNTER mengambil 113 korban dan membawa mereka ke Surabaya.

Belanda cahaya kapal penjelajah De Ruyter dan JAWA tenggelam oleh kapal perang Jepang. British Sementara Lt W A. Jackson dan RNVR Sementara Acting S / Lt WG Jenkins RNVR, di kapal De Ruyter berhasil diselamatkan dan membuat tawanan perang.


Australia light cruiser HOBART, British cahaya kapal penjelajah Danae dan DRAGON, British perusak Tenedos, SCOUT dan Evertsen Belanda berangkat Priok Tanjong pada 2330, dengan perintah bahwa jika tidak ada musuh yang terlihat, mereka akan pensiun melalui Selat Sunda ke Ceylon. Awal pada tanggal 28, Evertsen menjadi terpisah dan kembali ke Tanjong Priok. Pada tanggal 1 Maret, pasukan tiba di Padang untuk memulai evacuatees, dengan HOBART dan Danae mengambil di papan 648 dan 319 pengungsi, masing-masing. Kapal-kapal, DRAGON kurang, tiba di Kolombo pada tanggal 5 Maret. DRAGON tiba pada 6.


Belanda light cruiser Tromp, setelah kerusakan oleh kapal-kapal Jepang pada 20th/21st tersebut, berangkat Surabaya untuk perbaikan di Fremantle.


Seaplane lembut Amerika LANGLEY (CDR RP McConnell) tenggelam oleh bom Jepang 75miles SSE dari Tjilatjap. Enam belas awak dan penumpang yang hilang – LT WC Bailey, Waran R Officer. Curtis, lima prajurit dan sembilan penumpang, dan 11 tamtama terluka. The 308 korban dijemput oleh AS perusak Whipple dan EDSALL, setelah Whipple bergegas LANGLEY.



Kapal selam Jepang I.53 tenggelam kapal Belanda MOESIE (913grt) 25 mil dari Banjoewangi.


Steamer NAM YONG (1345grt) tenggelam oleh kapal selam Jepang di Samudera Hindia pada 15-55s, 108-05E. Guru dan empat awak membuat tawanan perang.

28 Februari, Sabtu

Lt Cdr AH Terry DSC, perintah diketahui dan Bertindak Bedah Cdr T. Stevenson OBE, MB, BCH, mantan SULTAN II, hilang pada tanggal 28 (posted April 1946).


Kapal selam Jepang I.53 tenggelam CITY OF MANCHESTER steamer (8917grt) di 8-16S, 108-52E. Awak 115, 21 penembak dan satu penumpang, dengan tiga awak hilang dan enam diduga ditangkap. I.53 juga tenggelam steamer PARIGI Belanda (1172grt) dalam 8s, 109E.


Jepang kapal selam I.58 rusak tanker BRITISH HAKIM (6735grt) sepuluh km sebelah selatan dari Pulau Putri, Selat Sunda, dan mengawal Jumna sloop dan minesweeper WOOLLONGONG serangan balik. Kapal tangki WAR SIRDAR, juga dengan konvoi ini, dibom dan dibakar. Dia terdampar di Pulau Agenielien, sebelah barat laut dari Batavia dalam 5-31, 106-36E, dan menyatakan total kerugian pada tanggal 1 Maret.


Kapal selam Jepang I.4 tenggelam kapal BAN Belanda HO GUAN (1693grt), yang sedang dalam perjalanan dari Padang ke Tjilatjap, selatan Bali.


Steamer Tomohon Belanda (983grt) tenggelam oleh kerajinan permukaan Jepang off Tjilatjap. Awak 30 diselamatkan.

Pada 28 Februari 1942

Belanda yang dipimpin pasukan, didukung oleh sekitar 5500 Inggris, Australia 3000 (yang Blackforce ringan dilengkapi brigade infanteri), dan 750 orang Amerika (a Texas National Guard unit yang melekat pada Blackforce), bertemu invasi Jepang pulau di Teluk Banten / Merak dan Eretan Wetan (Jawa Barat) dan di Kragan (Jawa Timur).

Hari itu dua terakhir Qantas terbang perahu ditambatkan di Chilacap (Jawa Tengah) melakukan penerbangan terakhir mereka, penuh dengan pengungsi sipil, ke Broome di Australia Barat.

Di Bandung, Peterson mengunjungi wanita Australia yang telah memutuskan untuk tetap dengan keluarga mereka dan memberikan bantuan dana bagi mereka yang membutuhkannya. Staf lokal Austrade ini menyembunyikan Trade Commission dokumen, menutup kantor dan dicairkan sampai akhir pendudukan Jepang

Diperkirakan bahwa konvoi akan mencapai perairan Jawa awal

pada tanggal 27.

Buru-buru ia membuat rencananya untuk memenuhi serangan dengan kekuatan angkatan laut menyedihkan rendah dipimpin oleh

Laksamana K. W. F. M. Petugas.

 Petugas Semua telah adalah 2 kapal penjelajah berat, salah satunya Houston USS, 3 kapal penjelajah ringan, dan 11 kapal perusak.

Kontak antara kekuatan yang berlawanan datang tak lama setelah 1500 dari tanggal 27, dan perjuangan yang dimulai kemudian berkobar sepanjang siang dan malam. Pada saat pertempuran Laut Jawa selama Sekutu telah kehilangan setengah kapal mereka, termasuk unggulan dan Petugas Laksamana. Orang Jepang tidak kehilangan vessel.56 tunggal

28 Februari.

 Mendukung invasi adalah kekuatan terbesar dari kapal perang Jepang yang belum dirakit untuk operasi amfibi. Di dalamnya ada empat kapal perang, yang dipimpin oleh

Laksamana Nobutake Kondo,

sebuah kelompok yang dipimpin oleh pembawa Laksamana Nagumo Pearl Harbor ketenaran, dan dua kekuatan serangan, masing-masing saat ini jauh diperkuat.

Pendekatan Jepang hati-hati ditelusuri oleh Sekutu, dan

 Laksamana Helfrich, pengganti Hart sebagai komandan angkatan laut Sekutu,

Selama beberapa hari berikutnya

 Jepang menyelesaikan kontrol mereka terhadap pendekatan udara dan laut ke Jawa. Dari lingkaran mereka basis mengelilingi pesawat patroli pulau terus mengawasi konstan sementara pembom menyelesaikan penghancuran lapangan udara Sekutu dan instalasi militer.

Pada saat yang sama

 armada perang yang kuat berkisar perairan Laut Jawa untuk memburu sisa-sisa dari armada Sekutu yang dibagi antara Surabaya dan Batavia, mencari beberapa cara untuk membuat mereka melarikan diri ke Samudera Hindia.

Pertarungan terakhir dimulai pada malam 28 Februari


 yang berat kapal penjelajah USS Houston


H.M.S. Exeter,

disertai dengan

 kapal penjelajah ringan H.M.A.S. Perth

dan dua kapal perusak,

 mencoba menyelinap melalui Selat Sunda, antara Jawa dan Sumatera.

 Orang Jepang telah menutup selat dan kapal-kapal perang Sekutu berlayar ke dalam perangkap.

Malam itu, dalam pertempuran yang kuat yang berlangsung lewat tengah malam,





Pada 28 Feb 1942

Belanda yang dipimpin pasukan, didukung oleh sekitar 5500 Inggris, Australia 3000 (yang Blackforce ringan dilengkapi brigade infanteri), dan 750 orang Amerika (a Texas National Guard unit yang melekat pada Blackforce), bertemu

invasi Jepang pulau di Bantam Bay /


dan Eretan Wetan (Jawa Barat) dan di Kragan (Jawa Timur).

Selama Pertempuran Laut Jawa pada 28 Februari 1942

Pertempuran di Pasifik diangkat oleh Amerika, dan Sekutu, yang terdiri dari pasukan dari NZ, Australia dan Inggris. Juga militer KNIL yang melarikan diri dari Jepang ke Australia berperan. Dalam perjuangan yang menyakitkan yang biaya banyak nyawa, tiap pulau ditaklukkan. Hindia Belanda namun itu diabaikan karena target adalah Jepang

Sedikit perahu yang digunakan dalam Pertempuran Laut Jawa

Hari itu dua terakhir Qantas terbang perahu ditambatkan di Chilacap (Jawa Tengah) melakukan penerbangan terakhir mereka, penuh dengan pengungsi sipil, ke Broome di Australia Barat.

Meskipun Belanda telah terkonsentrasi pasukan yang tersisa tanah di Jawa, terutama di bagian barat pulau, masalah itu tidak pernah diragukan. Orang Jepang bergerak cepat pedalaman, membelah Tentara Belanda di pulau dan mengisolasi para pembela menjadi kelompok-kelompok kecil.

Untuk Sekutu jatuhnya Jawa ditandai hilangnya Barrier Melayu,

 “Posisi defensif dasar”

 di Timur Jauh. Makna strategis kehilangan ini sangat besar. Tidak hanya Sekutu kehilangan sumber daya Hindia dan garis mereka komunikasi utara, tetapi mereka menemukan diri mereka dalam posisi berbahaya, dibagi menjadi dua daerah dan diancam oleh invasi.

Pintu gerbang ke Samudera Hindia dan Australia mengungkapkan dan India berada dalam bahaya yang mengerikan. Dan Sekutu sakit mampu kehilangan kapal, pesawat, dan laki-laki yang turun dalam pertahanan heroik Malaya, Singapura, dan India.

Kekalahan ABDACOM adalah, dalam arti,

 hasil tak terelakkan dari kelemahan Sekutu.

Tidak ada waktu untuk berkumpul di daerah sangat terpencil dari sumber pesawat pasokan yang cukup untuk mengikuti dominasi Jepang udara.

Meskipun bala bantuan yang memadai untuk tugas ini dialokasikan oleh Kepala Gabungan Staf, hanya menetes, hampir tidak cukup untuk mengganti kerugian, mencapai tujuan.

Kapal perang yang mungkin telah menantang penjajah terlibat dalam tugas-tugas lain, dan ketika mereka akhirnya disusun menjadi sebuah kekuatan mencolok gabungan itu sudah terlambat.

 Dalam enam minggu keberadaannya

ABDACOM pernah memiliki kesempatan untuk menguji validitas pertentangan Jenderal Marshall bahwa perintah terpadu akan “menyelesaikan sembilan-persepuluh dari kesulitan kita.”

Tapi pelajaran penting tentang perintah Sekutu dapat dipelajari dari perbedaan pendapat dan perbedaan yang menandai keberadaan singkat ABDACOM dan ini tidak hilang ketika tiba saatnya untuk membangun perintah lainnya di kemudian perang.

Sementara kampanye Java sedang berlangsung,

 Jepang telah mendorong untuk mengambil Sumatra Utara dan Burma pusat, sehingga mengkonsolidasikan kendali mereka dari wilayah selatan dan memotong China off dari sekutunya.

 Dari Singapura, sepuluh hari setelah benteng jatuh,

 datang pasukan untuk mengambil Sumatra Utara.

Dengan kedatangan mereka pembela pulau melarikan diri ke Jawa pada waktunya untuk bergabung melawan sana, dan akhirnya menyerah.


Baca selengkapnya

Menakjubkan Australia: Beryl Stevenson (nee Beryl Spiers dan kemudian Beryl Daley) adalah seorang penulis steno muda dari New South Wales yang menjabat sebagai sekretaris jenderal dua Inggris di Singapura dan Jawa dan kemudian bekerja untuk Jenderal George Brett di Melbourne dan Jenderal George Kenney di Brisbane , Port Moresby, Hollandia dan Filipina. Dia ditugaskan sebagai letnan di Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat dan naik ke pangkat mayor

Kereta Api pahlawan burma Mayor James ‘Jake’ Jacobs dari AIF 2nd, Letnan-Komandan Mackenzie Gregory dari RAN (yang berada di jembatan HMAS Canberra ketika ia diserang oleh Jepang dalam Pertempuran Savo Island), dan Letnan Penerbang Rex T. Barber dari USAAF (pilot yang membunuh Laksamana Yamamoto di udara) … hanya tiga dari puluhan cerita hidup diceritakan dalam Fury Pacific

Hari berikutnya, Maret,

 Exeter tenggelam di lepas pantai Kalimantan.

Sementara itu konvoi Jepang telah datang untuk pendaratan. Dalam perjalanan konvoi diserang oleh tiga kapal selam dan pesawat yang tersisa dari angkatan udara Sekutu, sekitar sepuluh pembom cahaya dan lima belas pejuang, dan mengalami beberapa kerusakan. Namun pendaratan itu dilakukan tanpa kesulitan yang serius, dan pagi dari 1 orang Jepang yang mengkonsolidasikan posisi mereka dan dengan cepat memperluas beachheads

Sementara itu C dan D Perusahaan dibagi menjadi tiga kelompok marching. Perusahaan Staf tiba sebagai pertama di Sampit pada 1 Maret 1942.

 Pada Maret 1942

 komandan Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat Angkatan di Timur Jauh diperintahkan untuk pindah ke Australia oleh Presiden Amerika Serikat. Pasukan dari Amerika Serikat mulai tiba di Australia

————————————————– ——————————


Invasi Jawa





Destroyer JUPITER (Lt Cdr N V J T Thew) was sunk by Japanese destroyers. Five ratings were killed and one died of wounds while Temporary S/Lt A L Cato RNZNVR, Lt (E) V D Hodge OBE, Midshipman M G Rivington RNR, Lt J W R Spedding DSC and eighty six ratings were missing. Cdr Thew, Gunner (T) E D Furneaux and 45 ratings survived, but 27 of the ratings died while prisoners of war.


Destroyer ELECTRA (Cdr C W May) was sunk by Japanese destroyers. Cdr May, Lt R Jenner-Fust OBE, Lt E A Coale, Lt (E) F McLeod, S/Lt R Price RNR, Temporary Lt H W Davies RNVR and 102 ratings were lost. Of the survivors, S/Lt S H Cruden RNVR and four ratings were taken prisoner by the Japanese from the water, and Gunner (T) T J Cain, Surgeon Lt W R D Seymour and forty three ratings were picked up by American submarine S.38 at 0315/28th. On arriving on the scene, S.38 was attacked by destroyer ENCOUNTER, but not damaged. One rating died of wounds after arriving in Java, and 10 wounded ratings were left at Surabaya and later captured. Seven died while prisoners of war.


Forty survivors from JUPITER and 42 from ELECTRA departed Tjilatjap in early March on Dutch steamer VERSPECK and arrived in Australia on 10 March.


Dutch destroyer KORTENAER was sunk by Japanese warships. ENCOUNTER picked up 113 survivors and took them to Surabaya.


Dutch light cruisers DE RUYTER and JAVA were sunk by Japanese warships. British Temporary Lt W A. Jackson RNVR and Temporary Acting S/Lt W G Jenkins RNVR, on board DE RUYTER were rescued and made prisoners of war.



Australian light cruiser HOBART, British light cruisers DANAE and DRAGON, British destroyers TENEDOS, SCOUT and the Dutch EVERTSEN departed Tanjong Priok at 2330, with the orders that if no enemy were sighted, they would retire through the Sunda Strait to Ceylon. Early on the 28th, EVERTSEN became separated and returned to Tanjong Priok. On 1 March, the force arrived at Padang to embark evacuatees, with HOBART and DANAE taking on board 648 and 319 evacuees, respectively. These ships, less DRAGON, arrived at Colombo on 5 March. DRAGON arrived on the 6th.



Dutch light cruiser TROMP, after being damages by Japanese ships on the 20th/21st, departed Surabaya for repairs at Fremantle.



American seaplane tender LANGLEY (CDR R P McConnell) was sunk by Japanese bombing 75miles SSE of Tjilatjap. Sixteen crew and passengers were lost – LT W C Bailey, Warrant Officer R . Curtis, five enlisted men and nine passengers, and 11 enlisted men wounded. The 308 survivors were picked up by US destroyers WHIPPLE and EDSALL, after which WHIPPLE scuttled LANGLEY.





Japanese submarine I.53 sank Dutch steamer MOESIE (913grt) 25 miles from Banjoewangi.



Steamer NAM YONG (1345grt) was sunk by Japanese submarine in the Indian Ocean in 15-55S, 108-05E. Master and four crew made prisoners of war.



28 February, Saturday



Lt Cdr A H Terry DSC, command unknown and Acting Surgeon Cdr T . Stevenson OBE, MB, BCH, formerly of SULTAN II, were lost on the 28th (posted April 1946).




Japanese submarine I.53 sank steamer CITY OF MANCHESTER (8917grt) in 8-16S, 108-52E. Crew of 115, 21 gunners and one passenger, with three crew lost and six presumed captured. I.53 also sank Dutch steamer PARIGI (1172grt) in 8S, 109E.



Japanese submarine I.58 damaged tanker BRITISH JUDGE (6735grt) ten miles south of Princess Island, Sunda Strait, and escorting sloop JUMNA and minesweeper WOOLLONGONG counter-attacked. Oiler WAR SIRDAR, also with this convoy, was bombed and set afire. She was beached on Agenielien Island, northwest of Batavia in 5-31S, 106-36E, and declared a total loss on 1 March.



Japanese submarine I.4 sank Dutch steamer BAN HO GUAN (1693grt), which was en route from Padang to Tjilatjap, south of Bali.



Dutch steamer TOMOHON (983grt) was sunk by Japanese surface craft off Tjilatjap. Crew of 30 rescued.

On 28 February ,1942

Dutch-led forces, supported by about 5500 British, 3000 Australians (the lightly equipped Blackforce infantry brigade), and 750 Americans (a Texas National Guard unit attached to Blackforce), met the Japanese invasion of the island at Bantam Bay/Merak and Eretan Wetan (West Java) and at Kragan (East Java).


That day the last two Qantas flying boats moored at Chilacap (Central Java) made their final flight, full of civilian refugees, to Broome in Western Australia.

In Bandung, Peterson visited Australian women who had decided to remain with their families and distributed cash to those who needed it. Austrade’s local staff hid Trade Commission documents, closed the office and disbursed until the end of the Japanese occupation

estimated that the convoys would reach Javanese waters early

on the 27th.

Hurriedly he made his plans to meet the attack with a woefully inferior naval force led by


Rear Adm. K. W. F. M. Doorman.

 All Doorman had were 2 heavy cruisers, one of them the USS Houston, 3 light cruisers, and 11 destroyers.

Contact between the opposing forces came shortly after 1500 of the 27th, and the fight that began then raged throughout the afternoon and into the night. By the time the battle of the Java Sea was over the Allies had lost half their ships, including the flagship and Admiral Doorman. The Japanese had not lost a single vessel.56

28 February.

 Supporting the invasion was the largest force of warships the Japanese had yet assembled for an amphibious operation. In it were four battleships, led by


Admiral Nobutake Kondo,

a carrier group led by Admiral Nagumo of Pearl Harbor fame, and the two attack forces, each now considerably reinforced.

The approach of the Japanese was carefully traced by the Allies, and


 Admiral Helfrich, Hart’s successor as Allied naval commander,


During the next few days

 the Japanese completed their control of the air and sea approaches to Java. From their circle of bases surrounding the island patrol planes kept constant watch while bombers completed the destruction of Allied airfields and military installations.

At the same time

 the powerful battle fleet ranged the waters of the Java Sea to hunt down the remnants of the Allied fleet which were split between Surabaya and Batavia, seeking some way to make their escape into the Indian Ocean.

The last fight began on the night of 28 February



 the heavy cruisers USS Houston



H.M.S. Exeter,


accompanied by


 the light cruisers H.M.A.S. Perth

and two destroyers,

 tried to slip through Sunda Strait, between Java and Sumatra.

 The Japanese had already closed the strait and the Allied warships sailed into a trap.

That night, in a vigorous battle which lasted past midnight,



the Houston





went down.

On 28 Feb 1942

Dutch-led forces, supported by about 5500 British, 3000 Australians (the lightly equipped Blackforce infantry brigade), and 750 Americans (a Texas National Guard unit attached to Blackforce), met


the Japanese invasion of the island at Bantam Bay/



and Eretan Wetan (West Java) and at Kragan (East Java).


During the Battle of the Java Sea on 28 February 1942

The battle in the Pacific was taken up by the Americans, and the Allies, consisting of troops from NZ, Australia and Great Britain. Also the KNIL military who escaped from the Japanese to Australia played a part. In a painful struggle which cost many lives, island by island was conquered. The Dutch East Indies however was skipped because the target was Japan


Little boats used in the Battle of the Java Sea

That day the last two Qantas flying boats moored at Chilacap (Central Java) made their final flight, full of civilian refugees, to Broome in Western Australia.


Though the Dutch had concentrated their remaining ground forces in Java, mostly in the western portion of the island, the issue was never in doubt. The Japanese moved inland rapidly, splitting the Dutch Army on the island and isolating the defenders into small groups.

For the Allies the fall of Java marked the loss of the Malay Barrier,

 ”the basic defensive position”

 in the Far East. The strategic significance of this loss was enormous. Not only did the Allies lose the resources of the Indies and their lines of communications northward, but they found themselves in a perilous position, split into two areas and threatened by invasion.

The gateway to the Indian Ocean lay open and Australia and India were in dire danger. And the Allies could ill afford to lose the ships, planes, and men that went down in the heroic defense of Malaya, Singapore, and the Indies.

The defeat of ABDACOM was, in a sense,

 the inevitable outcome of Allied weakness.

There was no time to assemble in an area so remote from the sources of supply sufficient aircraft to contest Japanese domination of the air.

Although reinforcements adequate for this task were allocated by the Combined Chiefs of Staff, only a trickle, barely enough to replace losses, reached its destination.

The warships that might have challenged the invaders were engaged in other tasks, and when they were finally organized into a combined striking force it was already too late.

 In the six weeks of its existence

ABDACOM never had a chance to test the validity of General Marshall’s contention that a unified command would “solve nine-tenths of our troubles.”

But important lessons about Allied command could be learned from the disagreements and differences which marked the brief existence of ABDACOM and these were not lost when the time came to establish other commands later in the war.

While the campaign for Java was in progress,

 the Japanese had pushed on to take northern Sumatra and central Burma, thus consolidating their control of the southern area and cutting China off from its Allies.

 From Singapore, ten days after that fortress had fallen,

 came the troops to take northern Sumatra.

With their arrival the defenders of the island fled to Java in time to join the fight there, and eventually to surrender.





Read more

Amazing Australian: Beryl Stevenson (nee Beryl Spiers and later Beryl Daley) was a young shorthand writer from New South Wales who served as secretary to two British generals in Singapore and Java and later worked for General George Brett in Melbourne and General George Kenney in Brisbane, Port Moresby, Hollandia and the Philippines. She was commissioned as a lieutenant in the United States Army and rose to the rank of major


Burma Railway hero Major James ‘Jake’ Jacobs of the 2nd AIF; Lieutenant-Commander Mackenzie Gregory of the RAN (who was on the bridge of HMAS Canberra when she was attacked by the Japanese in the Battle of Savo Island), and Flight Lieutenant Rex T. Barber of the USAAF (the pilot who killed Admiral Yamamoto in mid-air)… just three of the dozens of vivid stories told in Pacific Fury

Next day, March,

 the Exeter was sunk off the coast of Borneo.

Meanwhile the Japanese convoys had come in for the landing. On the way the convoy was attacked by three submarines and the remaining planes of the Allied air force, about ten light bombers and fifteen fighters, and suffered some damage. But the landing was accomplished without serious difficulty, and by morning of the 1st the Japanese were consolidating their positions and rapidly expanding the beachheads

In the meantime were C and D Company split into three marching groups. The Staff Company arrived as first in Sampit on 1st March 1942.

 In March 1942

 the commander of the United States Army Forces in the Far East was ordered to move to Australia by the President of the United States. Troops from the United States began arriving in Australia




The invasion of Java
(Click map to enlarge)


On March 1st,1942

the Japanese landed at four points on the north coast of Java: Merak, Bantam Bay, Eretenwetan, and Kragan.

The invaders encountered occasionally heavy resistance as they advanced across the island, but wherever the Allies stood, the enemy smashed them, drove them back, or simply outflanked them. The colonial government fled the capital, Batavia, for the relative safety of Bandung. On March 8 the Dutch leadership, demoralized and fearful of possible Japanese reprisals against civilians, ordered the military forces to surrender. [12]


Soldiers of the Japanese 2nd Division celebrate their landing at Merak

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign


48th Division landing trucks at Kragan

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign


The Japanese Army enters Surabaya

Photo Source: Netherlands Institute for War Documentation


Dutch soldiers surrender on Java

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign


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The Battle of Java (Invasion of Java, Operation J)

 was a battle of the Pacific theatre of World War II. It occurred on the island of Java from 28 February-12 March 1942.

It involved forces from the Empire of Japan, which invaded on 28 February 1942, and Allied personnel. Allied commanders signed a formal surrender at Japanese headquarters at Bandung on 12 March.

ABDA Order of battle

Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (KNIL Army): Lieutenant-General Hein Ter Poorten

  • 1st KNIL Infantry Division: Major-General Wijbrandus Schilling[2]
  • 2nd KNIL Infantry Division: Major-General Pierre A. Cox
  • 3rd KNIL Infantry Division: Major-General Gustav A. Ilgen
  • British troops (ca. 5,500 men): Major-General Sir Hervey D.W. Sitwell[3]
  • US troops (ca. 750 men:) Major-General J.F. Barnes
  • Australian troops (ca. 3000 men): Brigadier Arthur S. Blackburn.[4]


The Japanese forces were split into two groups:

 the Eastern Force,

with its headquarters at Jolo Island in the Sulu Archipelago, included the 48th Division and the 56th Regimental Group.

The Western Force,

 based at Cam Ranh Bay, French Indochina included the 2nd Division and the 230th Regiment (detached from the 38th Division).

The Allied forces were commanded by the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) commander, General Hein ter Poorten.[5]

Although the KNIL forces had, on paper, 25,000 (mostly Indonesian) well-armed troops, many were poorly trained. The KNIL forces were deployed in four sub-commands: Batavia (Jakarta) area (two regiments); north central Java (one regiment); south Java (one regiment) and; east Java, one regiment.

The British, Australian and United States units were commanded by British Major GeneralH. D. W. Sitwell.[3]

The British forces were predominantly anti-aircraft units: the 77th Heavy AA Regiment, 21st Light AA Regiment and 48th Light AA Regiment. The only British armoured unit on Java was a squadron of light tanks from the British 3rd Hussars.[6] Two British AA regiments without guns, the 6th Heavy AA Regt and the 35th Light AA Regiment were equipped as infantry to defend airfields. The British also had transport and administrative units.

The Australian formation — named “Blackforce” after its commander, Brigadier Arthur BlackburnV.C.[7]

 included the Australian 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion, the Australian 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion, a company from the Royal Australian Engineers, a platoon from the 2/1st Headquarters Guard Battalion,[8]

about 100 reinforcements diverted on route to Singapore, a handful of soldiers who had escaped from Singapore following its fall to the Japanese, two transport companies, a casualty clearing station, and a company headquarters unit. Blackburn decided to re-organise his troops as an infantry brigade. They were well-equipped in terms of Bren guns, light armoured cars, and trucks, but they had few rifles, submachineguns, anti-tank rifles, mortars, grenades, radio equipment or Bren gun carriers. Blackburn managed to assemble an HQ staff and three infantry battalions based on the 2/3rd Machine Gun, the 2/2nd Pioneers, and a mixed “Reserve Group”. The only U.S. ground forces in Java, the 2nd Battalion of the 131st Field Artillery (a TexasNational Guard unit) was also attached to Black Force.[9]


West Java Campaign

West Java Campaign from Merak and Bantam Bay

After discussing the war preparation on 21 January with the commander of the 3rd Fleet and inspected the 48th Division at Manila, Lieutenant General Hitoshi Imamura received an order to attack Java on 30 January.

The convoy consisted of 56 transport ships with troops aboard from 16th Army Headquarters, 2nd Division and 230th Infantry Regiment. The convoy left Cam Ranh Bay at 10:00 on 18 February, and the commander-in-chief Lieutenant General Hitoshi Imamura was aboard on the transport ship Ryujo Maru. The convoy escort was under the command of Rear Admiral Kenzaburo Hara.[12]

At 23:20 on 28 February, the transport ships carrying the Nasu and Fukushima detachments commenced landing operations at Merak. Ten minutes later they were joined by the other transport ships; the one carrying the Sato detachment dropped anchor at Bantam Bay. By 02:00 on 1 March, all ships had reached their designated positions. The KNIL Merak Coastal Detachment, made up of a section from the Captain F.A.M. Harterink’s 12th KNIL Infantry Battalion, machine-gunned the invaders but was quickly defeated.

On 1 March, the invaders set up new headquarters at Serang. The troops of the 2nd Division led by Lieutenant-General Masao Maruyama were divided into the following detachments:

  • Nasu Detachment: Major-General Yumio Nasu
  • Fukushima Detachment: Colonel Kyusaku Fukushima
  • Sato Detachment: Colonel Hanshichi Sato

The Nasu detachment was ordered to capture Buitenzorg to cut the escape route from Batavia to Bandoeng. The Fukushima and Sato Detachments would in the meanwhile head for Batavia through Balaradja and Tangerang.

On 2 March, the Nasu detachment arrived at Rangkasbitung and continued to Leuwiliang, 15 mi (24 km) west of Buitenzorg. The Australian 2/2nd Pioneer and 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalions were positioned along a riverbank at Leuwiliang and put up a vigorous defence. Highly accurate volleys from “D” Battery, U.S. 2/131st Field Artillery, destroyed many Japanese tanks and trucks. Blackforce managed to hold up the Japanese advance for two full days before being forced to withdraw to Soekabumi, lest it become trapped by Japanese flanking manoeuvres, and was ordered to retreat to Soekabumi. Around the same time, the Fukushima and Sato units headed westwards to Madja (Maja) and Balaradja (Balaraja). They found many of the bridges already destroyed by the retreating Dutch and were forced to find other routes; some units took the opportunity to make for Buitenzorg.

On 4 March, Ter Poorten decided to withdraw his forces from Batavia and Buitenzorg to reinforce the defence of Bandoeng. The following evening Dutch troops in Batavia surrendered to the Sato Detachment. By dawn of 6 March, the Japanese troops had attacked Buitenzorg, which was guarded by the 10th Company, KNIL 2nd Infantry Regiment; 10th Company, 1st Infantry Regiment; Landstorm troops and a howitzer unit. In the morning Buitenzorg was occupied, while a large number of Allied soldiers had retreated to Bandoeng. The Nasu Detachment pursued them through Tjiandjoer and (Tjimahi), entering the city on 9 March. The Shoji Detachment also entered Bandoeng on the same day, arriving from the north, having travelled via Lembang.

West Java Campaign from Eretan Wetan

On 27 February, the unit 230th Infantry Regiment, led by Colonel Toshishige Shoji, separated from the main convoy and landed on 1 March, at Eretan Wetan, near Soebang on the northern coast of West Java. The unit’s objectives were to capture the important Kalidjati airfield and weaken the Allied air arm, while the 2nd Division attacked Batavia.

At dawn on 1 March, nine Brewster and three Glenn Martins from the KNIL Air Force, together with 12 Hurricanes from the 242nd and 605th RAF Squadrons, carried out attacks on Japanese troops at Eretan Wetan. Using motor vehicles, the Japanese rapidly advanced to Soebang. At noon, the Kalidjati airfield was finally occupied following a tenacious defence carried out by 350 British troops. Meanwhile, other Japanese units led by Major Masaru Egashira bypassed Allied defences and headed for Pamanoekan (Pamanukan), and from then on to (Tjikampek), where they were able to cut the road link between Batavia and Kalidjati.

The fall of Kalidjati airfield greatly alarmed the Dutch, who set about planning hasty and ill-prepared counterattacks. On 2 March, a KNIL armoured unit (the Mobiele Eenheid), commanded by Captain G.J. Wulfhorst with approximately 20 tanks, and supported by the 250 men of Major C.G.J. Teerink’s 5th KNIL Infantry Battalion, launched a counterattack against the Shoji unit outside Soebang. The attempt initially went well, but in the afternoon the attack was repulsed. Afterwards, the main force of the Japanese 3rd Air Brigade arrived at Kalidjati airfield.

By the night of 7 March, Japanese troops had arrived at the plateau of Lembang, which is only 5 mi (8.0 km) north from Bandoeng. At 10:00 on 8 March, Major-General Jacob J. Pesman, the commander of Stafgroep Bandoeng,[13] met Colonel Toshishige Shoji at the Isola Hotel in Lembang and surrendered.

Japenese Order of battle

2nd Division: Lt. Gen. Masao Maruyama[14]

  • Nasu Detachment: Maj. Gen. Yumio Nasu
    • 16th Infantry Regiment
    • 1st Battalion of 2nd Field Artillery Regiment
    • 1st Company of 2nd Engineer Regiment
    • Two motor transport companies
  • Fukushima Detachment: Col. Kyusaku Fukushima
    • 4th Infantry Regiment
    • 2nd Battalion of 2nd Field Artillery Regiment
    • 5th Anti-Tank Battalion
    • 2nd Company of 2nd Engineer Regiment
  • Sato Detachment: Col. Hanshichi Sato
    • 29th Infantry Regiment
    • 2nd Tank Regiment
    • 1st Company of 2nd Field Artillery Regiment
    • 2nd Engineer Regiment
  • Shoji Detachment: Col. Toshishige Shoji[15]
    • 230th Infantry Regiment
    • One mountain artillery battalion
    • One engineer company
    • One anti-tank battalion
    • One light tank company
    • One anti-aircraft battery
    • Two independent engineer companies
    • One platoon of the Bridge Material Company
    • One motor Transport Company
    • Part of the 40th Anchorage Headquarters
    • Part of the Airfield Battalion

East Java Campaign

Moving eastward

The East Java campaign was composed of the 48th Division from the Philippines. On 8 February, the 48th Division departed from Lingayen Gulf, Luzon Island (Philippines) protected by the 4th Destroyer Squadron. On 22 February, the convoy arrived at Balikpapan and the Sakaguchi Detachment joined the 48th Division aboard the ships.

On 25 February, the convoy left Balikpapan, and sailed southward to Java. On 27 February, the ABDA fleet under command of Rear-Admiral Karel Doorman was detected and attacked by the 5th Destroyer Squadron and other units of the 3rd Fleet in the Battle of the Java Sea. The Japanese won the battle and at 00:15 on 1 March, the fleet landed in Kragan, a small village in East Java, approximately 100 mi (160 km) west of Surabaya.

The 3rd (Motorised) Cavalry Squadron of the 1st Dutch KNIL Cavalry Regiment, under the command of Ritmeester C.W. de Iongh, resisted the landing force but was quickly subdued.[16]

Meanwhile, the flying boat Dornier X-28 of the 6th GVT (Groep Vliegtuigen or Aircraft Group) from MLD, B-17 bombers of the U.S. 7th Bomber Group, A-24 dive bombers of the U.S. 27th Bomb Group and Vildebeest torpedo-bombers from the 36th RAF Squadron worked round the clock to harass the invaders.

After landing, the 48th Division was divided into:

  • Imai Unit (Right Wing): Colonel Hifumi Imai
  • Abe Unit (Left Wing): Major-General Koichi Abe
  • Tanaka Unit (Tjepoe Raiding Unit): Colonel Tohru Tanaka
  • Kitamura Unit (Bodjonegoro Raiding Unit): Lieutenant Colonel Kuro Kitamura

Moving southward

The Sakaguchi Detachment from Balikpapan joined the East Java Invasion fleet as well. After landing, they were divided into three units with one battalion each: Kaneuji Unit, Major Kaneuji commanding; Yamamoto Unit: Colonel Yamamoto commanding; and Matsumoto Unit, Lieutenant Colonel Matsumoto commanding; these units moved south with the objective to occupy Tjilatjap in order to capture the harbour and block the retreat to Australia. In one week, they advanced rapidly and overcame all Dutch army defence found in Blora, Soerakarta, Bojolali, Jogjakarta, Magelang, Salatiga, Ambarawa and Poerworedjo. The Kaneuji and Matsumoto Detachments moved through the mainland, captured Keboemen and Purwokerto, north of Tjilatjap on 8 March. The Yamamoto Unit fanned out along the beach and mounted a two-pronged attack, entering Tjilatjap on 8 March. By then, however, the Dutch had withdrawn to Wangon, a small town located between Purwokerto and Tjilatjap. On the following day, Major-General Pierre A. Cox — the Dutch Central Army District commander — surrendered his troops to the Japanese.

Any expectation of reinforcement from America was dashed

 on March 1

 by the news of Japanese landings on Java.

Japanese Order of battle

48th Division: Major-General Yuitsu Tsuchihashi[17]

  • Imai Unit (Right Wing): Colonel Hifumi Imai, commander of the 1st Formosan Infantry Regiment
    • 1st Formosan Infantry Regiment
    • One mountain artillery battalion
    • One engineer company
  • Abe Unit (Left Wing): Major-General Koichi Abe
    • 48th Infantry Group Headquarters
    • 47th Infantry Regiment
    • One mountain artillery battalion
    • One engineer company
  • Tanaka Unit (Tjepoe Raiding Unit): Colonel Tohru Tanaka
    • 2nd Formosan Infantry Regiment
    • One mountain artillery battalion
    • One engineer company
  • Kitamura Unit (Bodjonegoro Raiding Unit): Lieutenant Colonel Kuro Kitamura
    • 48th Reconnaissance Regiment

Sakaguchi Detachment: Major-General Shizuo Sakaguchi[18]

  • Yamamoto Unit: Colonel Yamamoto
    • 1st Battalion of the 124th Infantry Regiment
  • Kaneuji Unit: Major Kaneuji
    • 2nd Battalion of the 124th Infantry Regiment
  • Matsumoto Unit: Lieutenant Colonel Matsumoto
    • 3rd Battalion of the 124th Infantry Regim

 MARET.. 1st, 1942

(1) Pagi-pagi hari ini,

Dai Nippon pasukan mendarat di Jawa dan berhasil tanpa perjuangan oleh pasukan DEI (KNIL) dan orang-orang Indonesia asli diterima Frces DN sampai dengan bendera nasional DN dan Indnesian karena propaganda Nippon Dai sebelum perang bahwa Indonesia akan Independen ketika mereka menduduki Indonesia,

Tentara dari Divisi 2 Jepang merayakan pendaratan mereka di Merak

Sumber Foto: The Hindia Belanda Kampanye

Pada saat yang sama, Tiga Dai Nippon Angkatan wilayah Landing di Jawa:

perusak Jepang membombardir pasukan sekutu selama invasi dari Hindia Belanda.

(A) Banten Beach at Merak

Tipe 96 awak Gun 25mm mengamati pemboman angkatan laut di pantai selama invasi Belanda timur indies

kapal pendarat daihatsu mengangkut tentara dari pasukan arahan khusus angkatan laut selama invasi Ducht timur indies

Pasukan angkatan laut Jepang menembak di dalam kapal pendarat melawan pasukan Belanda selama invasi od belanda makan indies

Tipe 95 ha-go light tank di Merak

dengan rute

Peta Serangan Banten  1.942

Merak-Serang-Rangkasbitung-daerah Leuwiliang-Buitenzorg (Bogor)-Kragilan-Tanggerang-Batavia

khusus angkatan laut mendarat marching infanteri kekuatan (Belanda timur indies, Desember 1941)

prajurit mendarat SNLF di Belanda timur indies (1942) 
Pasukan Jepang melintasi jembatan selama
mereka maju menuju Batavia Maret 1942

di bawah pimpinan

komandan-in-chief 16 Dai Nippon pasukan Lt.Gen.Hitoshi Immamura,


Divisi 2 di bawah Komandan May.Gen. Maruyama,


Divisi ke-49 di bawah Komandan May.Gen Tsuchi Hashi,

 Brigade juga di bawah komandan

May. gen.Sakaguchi

dan satu Resiment bawah komandan

Col, Shoji.

Let.Col. Noguchi

komandan tank

komandan tank Letnan Kolonel Noguchi dari Resimen Recon 2 dilengkapi dengan 16 Type 97 Tankettes selama Kampanye Pulau Jawa Maret 1942

tangki awak

Tangki Jepang kru dengan 94 tankette jenis mereka


seorang komandan tank Jepang menerima tipenya 94 tankettes (Belanda timur indies 1942)

Komandan marinir pasukan payung Jepang kolonel Toyoaki Horiuchi (Belanda timur indies, 1942)

japanese perwira militer Genjirou Inui, ia berjuang di java, phillipines dan Guadalcanal, kemudian dia kembali ke Jepang untuk sisa perang

tyep 94 tankette melewati sungai

(B) Eretan Wetan dekat Indramajoe

Catatan Dr Iwan  

Dr Iwan hanya mengunjungi pantai dekat Eretan sekat desa  Losarang  dan Indramjoe di Minggu 21 September 2012, Eretan beacch sekarang menjadi

Tourist bwach (Pantai wisata ), tidak ada yang tahu bahwa pada 1 maret 1942 tentara dai nippon mendarat disana,sehingga tak ada turis dari jepang berkunjung disana,dengan info ini diharap turis dari jepang akan berdoa disana untuk parea leluhurnya yang mendarat di panati eretan. dan dari villiage ini mengunjungi rute ke Subang dan Kalidjati.

(Sakit 4) The Dutch Peta Vintage dari Indramjoe daerah pendaratan Dai Nippon 1942, caption Indramajoe peta 1.942

bca info lebih lanjut

 invasi Eretan Kulon

Para editor dari Perang mengunjungi situs dari invasi Jepang Jawa dua kali, sekali untuk meneliti pada tahun 2008 dan sekali untuk film pada tahun 2009. Di bawah dua fragmen daripadanya dari Blog of War.
Jakarta, 20 Desember 2008

[Penelitian] pagi dengan mobil dari Bandung ke utara. Perjalanan melalui pegunungan dan perkebunan teh. Tujuannya adalah pantai di mana Jepang mendarat pada akhir Februari 1942. Itu terjadi di berbagai tempat di pantai utara Jawa.

Saya memilih Eretan Wetan. Ini adalah sebuah desa nelayan, maka dalam setiap pemandu wisata dan ada cerita yang bagus tentang pejabat Van der Plas Belanda.

Saya berharap itu sedikit seperti ketika, dengan pantai berpasir yang indah datar dan pohon-pohon palem. Sehingga terlihat setidaknya pada newsreel Jepang dari tahun 1942. Ketika kami mendekati pantai, awan menggantung rendah. Sebuah hujan tropis saat makan siang, menghadap tempat penampungan.

Eretan Wetan adalah berlumpur setelah semua hujan. Mencari orang-orang tua. Sebaiknya di atas 70 tahun – invasi 64 tahun yang lalu. Kami akan pergi ke Pak Agus Salim, kemudian 6 tahun, sekarang hampir buta dan agak tuli.

Dia ingat orang Jepang sangat baik. Mereka datang di tengah malam. Ketika pagi dia berani pergi ke luar, ia melihat aliran tentara Jepang dengan pedang. Mereka hanya turun datang ke darat.

Tidak, bukan di Eretan Wetan, namun di desa tetangga. Ini disebut Eretan Kulon. Hal ini dikonfirmasi oleh orang lain. Mengapa dalam standar Lou de Jong adalah salah, tidak tahu. Biasanya, ini semacam fakta dengan dia sepenuhnya benar.

Eretan Kulon adalah kumpulan rumah tersebar. Sementara kita di samping mobil untuk keraguan, adalah Ms Wan Li mendekati. Ado, suara melengking, tapi sangat membantu. Dia menuntun kita di sepanjang jalan tanah ke laut.

 Dari kejauhan saya melihat semua yang ada bekerja pada tanggul. Pekerja berbaring batu basalt, laut berombak dan menghemat hampir berakhir. Saya sangat ingin tahu tentang pantai tropis mimpi saya.

Pak Karsam datang menghampiri, memperkenalkan dirinya sebagai wakil lingkungan. Dia terus pengawasan yang ketat pada tanggul. Dia adalah 65 dan ya, ketika ia masih muda, masih pantai yang luas. Dia menunjuk Atik, “Sampai ketemu di sana nanti rig? Pantai itu setengah. Dan Jepang datang ke darat. “

Rig ini terletak sekitar 5 km dari pantai. Kali ini adalah tempat bersejarah ditelan laut. Oh, yang mungkin lebih baik dari pantai berpasir. Aku datang kembali ke sini, dengan Trip Rob.

Jakarta, 19 Maret 2009

[Syuting] Dari Linggarjati kita berkendara utara untuk menangkap mana kekuatan invasi Jepang mendarat di Jawa. Hal ini dekat desa Eretan Kulon.

Terakhir kali saya berbicara dengan Mr Atik dan Karsam, ketua dewan desa. Kemudian itu adalah pembicara antusias. Sekarang dia agak gugup oleh kamera dan semua tanggapan resmi terhadap pertanyaan dari Rob.

Setelah berbicara sementara sedikit longgar. Untungnya, karena lingkungan di sini masih indah. Jacko film kecuali laut desa. Sertakan tukang cukur keliling.

Teks: Gerda Jansen Hendriks



invasie Eretan Kulon

De redactie van De Oorlog bezocht de plaats van de Japanse invasie op Java twee maal, één keer om te researchen in 2008 en één keer om te filmen in 2009. Hieronder twee fragmenten daarover uit het Weblog van De Oorlog.

Jakarta, 20 december 2008

[Research] Vanmorgen met de auto vanuit Bandung recht naar het noorden. Tocht door bergen en theeplantages. Doel is het strand waar de Japanners zijn geland, eind februari 1942. Dat gebeurde op verschillende plekken aan de noordkust van Java.

Ik heb gekozen voor Eretan Wetan. Het is een vissersdorpje, het komt in geen enkele toeristengids voor en er is een mooi verhaal over van de Nederlandse ambtenaar Van der Plas.

Ik hoop dat het nog een beetje is als toen, met fraai vlak zandstrand en palmbomen. Zo ziet het er tenminste op het Japanse bioscoopjournaal van 1942 uit. Naarmate we de kust naderen komen de wolken lager te hangen. Een tropische stortbui tijdens de lunch, met uitzicht op een schuilhokje.

Eretan Wetan is modderig na alle regen. Op zoek naar oude mensen. Het liefst boven de 70 jaar – de invasie is 64 jaar geleden. We komen terecht bij meneer Agus Salim, toen 6 jaar, nu bijna blind en een beetje doof.

Hij herinnert zich de Japanners heel goed. Ze kwamen midden in de nacht. Toen hij ’s morgens naar buiten durfde, zag hij een stroom van Japanse soldaten, met zwaarden. Ze waren iets verderop aan land gekomen.

Nee, niet in Eretan Wetan, maar in het aangrenzende dorp. Dat heet Eretan Kulon. Het wordt door anderen bevestigd. Waarom het in het standaardwerk van Lou de Jong verkeerd staat, geen idee. Meestal zijn dit soort feitelijkheden bij hem geheel juist.

Eretan Kulon is een verzameling verspreid staande huizen. Terwijl wij naast de auto staan te twijfelen, komt mevrouw Wan Li aangelopen. Veel drukte, een schelle stem, maar zeer behulpzaam. Ze loodst ons langs modderpaden naar de zee.

Vanuit de verte zie ik al dat er daar wordt gewerkt aan een dijk. Arbeiders leggen basaltblokken, de zee is woelig en slaat er bijna overheen. Ik vraag me vertwijfeld af hoe het zit met mijn gedroomde tropische zandstrand.

Meneer Karsam komt aanlopen, stelt zich voor als de buurtvertegenwoordiger. Hij houdt een oogje in het zeil bij de dijk. Hij is 65 en ja hoor, toen hij jong was, was hier nog een breed strand. Hij wijst aan Atik: ‘Zie je daar verderop dat booreiland? Het strand liep tot halverwege. En daar kwamen de Japanners aan land.’

Het booreiland ligt zo’n 5 kilometer uit de kust. Deze keer is de historische plek door de zee verzwolgen. Ach, dat is misschien nog wel mooier dan een zandstrand. Ik kom hier weer terug, met Rob Trip.

Jakarta, 19 maart 2009

[Filmen] Vanaf Linggadjati rijden we naar het noorden om vast te leggen waar de Japanse invasiemacht in Java aan land kwam. Het is bij het dorpje Eretan Kulon.

Vorige keer hebben Atik en ik gesproken met meneer Karsam, de voorzitter van de dorpsraad. Toen was het een enthousiaste prater. Nu wordt hij toch wat zenuwachtig door de camera en geeft hele formele antwoorden op de vragen van Rob.

Na een tijdje praten wordt het wat losser. Gelukkig maar, want de omgeving hier blijft prachtig. Jacko filmt behalve de zee ook het dorp. Onder meer de rondtrekkende kapper.

Tekst: Gerda Jansen Hendriks

(C) Krangan Rembang Jawa tengah,

48 mendarat truk Divisi Kragan

Sumber Foto: The Hindia Belanda Kampanye

Armada Dai Nippon Naval Forces mencapai pantai Krangan, sebuah desa antara Rembang dan Lasem, sekitar 160 km sebelah barat dari Soerabaja.
Detasemen Sakaguchi dari Balikpapan bergabung dengan armada invasi. Setelah mendarat dibagi menjadi 3 unit dengan 1 batalyon Resimen Infanteri 124th:
(C.1) Col.Yamamoto, 1 Unit Batalyon.
(C.2) Walikota Kaneuji, unit Batalion 2.
(C.3) Let.Col.Matsimoto, unit batalion 3.
Dalam satu minggu, mereka maju pesat dan mengatasi semua tentara Belanda membela di Blora, Solo, Boyolali-Yogja, Magelang dan Ambarawa
Peta tersebut akan digambarkan

Unit Tanaka diperintahkan untuk menduduki Tjepoe (Cepu) untuk mengamankan ladang minyak di sana dan Unit Kitamura untuk menduduki Bodjonegoro, dekat Tjepoe. Seluruh unit merencanakan serangan dua cabang di Surabaya dari barat melalui Lamongan dan dari selatan melalui Jombang dan Mojokerto.

Unit Tanaka menduduki Tjepoe pada tanggal 2 Maret,

yang 2 Maret 1942






officer of the special naval landing force, Major Uroku Hashimoto using his binoculars during the invasion of the dutch east indies (january 1942)


Japanese landings


The Japanese 2d Division celebrates landing at Merak, Java, 1 March 1942. (Sectie Militaire Geschiedenes Landmachstaf)

Japanese troops move through Java. (Sectie Militaire Geschiedenes Landmachstaf)


The Japanese 2nd Division landed at Merak, 1 March 1942



Japanese bicycle infantry moving through Java.

The Japanese troops landed at three points on Java on 1 March. The West Java invasion convoy landed on Bantam Bay near Merak and Eretan Wetan. The West Java convoy had previously fought in the Battle of Sunda Strait, a few hours prior to the landings.[10]

Meanwhile, the East Java invasion convoy landed on Kragan after having successfully defeated the ABDA fleet in the Battle of the Java Sea.[11]


March 1st’1942 :”Dai Nippon Occupation Indonesia This Day”


1.MARCH. 1st, 1942

(1) Early in the morning this day,

Dai Nippon forces landing in Java and succeeded without any struggle by DEI forces(KNIL) and Indonesia Native people accepted DN Frces with up the DN and Indnesian national flag because Dai Nippon propaganda before the war that Indonesia will Independent when they occupied Indonesia, 

Soldiers of the Japanese 2nd Division celebrate their landing at Merak

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 

At the same time, Three Dai Nippon Forces Landing  area in Java:

japanese destroyer bombarding allied forces during the invasion of the Dutch East Indies.

(a) Banten Beach at Merak

Type 96 25mm Gun crew observing the naval bombardment on the beach during the invasion of the dutch east indies

daihatsu landing craft transporting soldiers of the special naval landing force during the invasion of the ducht east indies

japanese navy troops firing inside a landing craft against dutch troops during the invasion od the dutch eats indies 

type 95 ha-go light tanks in Merak

with route

Banten attack Map 1942


special naval landing force infantryman marching (dutch east indies, december 1941) 

soldiers of the SNLF landing in the dutch east indies (1942)



Japanese troops crossing a bridge during
their advance towards Batavia, March 1942

under the command of

the commander-in-chief 16th Dai Nippon forces Lt.Gen.Hitoshi Immamura,


the 2nd Division under Commander May.Gen. Maruyama,


the 49th Division under Commander May.Gen Tsuchi Hashi ,

 also Brigade under commander

May. gen.Sakaguchi

and one Resiment under commander

Col, Shoji.

Let.Col. Noguchi

tank commander


tank commander Lieutenant Colonel Noguchi of the 2nd Recon Regiment equipped with 16 Type 97 Tankettes during the Java Island Campaign, March 1942

tank crew


japanese tank crew with their type 94 tankette


a japanese tank commander receiving his type 94 tankettes (dutch east indies 1942)

Commander of the japanese marines paratroopers colonel Toyoaki Horiuchi (dutch east indies, 1942)

japanese army officer Genjirou Inui, he fought in java, phillipines and guadalcanal, then he returned to japan for the rest of the war


tyep 94 tankette passing through river

(b) Eretan Wetan near Indramajoe

Dr Iwan Note

Dr Iwan just visit Eretan beach near Losarang village and Indramjoe at Sunday 21 september 2012, eretan beacch now became

the Tourist bwach(Pantai wisata), no obe know that in march 1st 1942 The Dai Nippon forces landed there and one day the Japanese will praying for their ancestor who ever landing there, and from these villiage visit the route to Subang and Kalidjati.

 read more info from dutch researches

invasion Eretan Kulon

The editors of The War visited the site of the Japanese invasion of Java twice, once to researching in 2008 and once to film in 2009. Below two fragments thereof from the Blog of War.
Jakarta, December 20, 2008

[Research] morning by car from Bandung straight north. Journey through mountains and tea plantations. The aim is the beach where the Japanese landed in late February 1942. That happened in various places on the north coast of Java.

I chose Eretan Wetan. It is a fishing village, it is in any tourist guide and there is a nice story about the Dutch official Van der Plas.

I hope it’s a bit like when, with beautiful flat sandy beach and palm trees. So it looks at least on the Japanese newsreel from 1942. As we approached the shore, the clouds hang lower. A tropical downpour during lunch, overlooking a shelter.

Eretan Wetan is muddy after all the rain. Looking for old people. Preferably above 70 years – the invasion 64 years ago. We’ll go to Mr. Agus Salim, then 6 years, now almost blind and a bit deaf.

He remembers the Japanese very well. They came in the middle of the night. When morning he dared go outside, he saw a stream of Japanese soldiers with swords. They were just down come ashore.

No, not in Eretan Wetan, but in the neighboring village. It’s called Eretan Kulon. It is confirmed by others. Why in the standard of Lou de Jong is wrong, no idea. Usually, this kind of facts with him entirely correct.

Eretan Kulon is a collection of scattered houses. While we beside the car to doubt, is Ms. Wan Li approached. Ado, a shrill voice, but very helpful. She guides us along dirt paths to the sea.

 From afar I see all that there is working on a dike. Workers lay basalt boulders, the sea is choppy and saves almost over. I’m desperately wondering about my dream tropical beach.

Mr. Karsam comes over, introduces himself as the neighborhood representative. He keeps a watchful eye on the dike. He is 65 and yes, when he was young, was still a wide beach. He points to Atik, “See you there later that rig? The beach was halfway. And the Japanese came ashore. “

The rig is located about 5 km from the coast. This time is the historical place swallowed by the sea. Oh, that is perhaps better than a sandy beach. I come back here, with Rob Trip.

Jakarta, March 19, 2009

[Filming] From Linggadjati we drive north to capture where the Japanese invasion force landed in Java. It is near the village Eretan Kulon.

Last time I talked with Mr. Atik and Karsam, the chairman of the village council. Then it was an enthusiastic talker. Now he is somewhat nervous by the camera and all formal responses to the questions of Rob.

After a while talk is a little looser. Fortunately, because the environment here remains beautiful. Jacko films except the sea the village. Include the itinerant barber.

Text: Gerda Jansen Hendriks

(C) Krangan Rembang Jawa Tengah,

48 mendarat trick

(ill 4) The Vintage Dutch Map of Indramjoe Dai Nippon landing area 1942,caption Indramajoe map 1942

(c) Krangan Rembang middle Java,

48th Division landing trucks at Kragan

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign

The fleet of Dai Nippon Naval Forces reach the Krangan coast ,a village between Rembang and Lasem, about 160 km west of Soerabaja.
The Sakaguchi detachment from Balikpapan joined this invasion fleet. After landing divided into 3 units with 1 battalion of 124th Infantry Regiment :
(c.1) Col.Yamamoto,1st Battalion unit.
(c.2) Mayor Kaneuji, 2nd Battalion unit.
(c.3) Let.Col.Matsimoto,3rd battalion unit.
In one week ,they advanced rapidly and overcome all Dutch army defended in Blora ,Solo ,Bojolali-Yogja ,Magelang and Ambarawa
the Map will illustrated

The Tanaka Unit was ordered to occupy Tjepoe (Cepu) to secure the oilfields there and the Kitamura Unit was to occupy Bodjonegoro, near Tjepoe. The whole unit planned a two-pronged attack on Surabaya from the west through Lamongan and from south through Djombang and Modjokerto.

The Tanaka Unit occupied Tjepoe on 2 March,

the 2nd March 1942

Information on KNILM evacuation flights via Broome & Derby from Richard Pflug

The following was sent some months ago by Richard Pflug, summarising information in Dutch language sources.

There is some good detail on the KNILM evacuation flights which took place

around 2nd March 1942.

This was at the peak of the USAAF evacuation and the Broome aerodrome was crowded to capacity, mainly with huge B-17s.

Some of the Dutch aircraft arrived right at this time, and were directed north to the small field at Derby. This was the only known use of Derby during the evacuations.

According to what I read the KNILM/KLM management was well prepared for the evacuation. For instance they asked Shell to direct an oil tanker with aviation fuel to the port of Broome.

They also ordered spare parts to be delivered in Australia (but these were impounded by the US Army).

Although the government was in charge of making the passenger lists some crew members were able to “smuggle” colleagues on board.

Captain Evert van Dijk for instance took KLM chief radio engineering C.R. Klooster on his second round trip with him as his “co-pilot”, while the man was not on the official evacuation list.

On the second group of planes, radio operator Hans Pool gets his friend Dick Sweitser (who got wounded when DC-3 PK-AFW was shot down over East Borneo on January 24th) on board DC-5 PK-ADC.

When Captain Van Messel arrives in Broome on March 2nd 1942 with DC-5 PK-ADB he asks if Japanese reconnaissance planes have been sighted over Broome recently.

 It is confirmed that an unidentified plane has passed at high altitude.

Based on earlier experiences with airfields on Java, he is pretty sure this means a Japanese attack is eminent within 48 hours and decides to leave Broome as soon as possible.

 B17s from the 7th and 19th group however get priority with refuelling. With much persuasion Van Messel and his colleague Reyers with the L14 PK- AFP manage to get refuelled and leave.

Captain Deenik with DC-5 PK-ADD has less luck. He is advised to go on to Derby and get refuelled there for the further flight to Daly Waters.

According to the book “De Douglas DC-5 – een kort maar bewogen bestaan” (translation: The Douglas DC-5 – a short but moving history) by Pieter C. Kok, Captain Dirk Rab with DC-5 PK-ADC, nearing the Australian coast heads for a course just few degrees more south of Broome, just after dawn on the morning of March 2nd he locates the small coral reefs “Rowley Shoals” and turns east to Broome.

When he arrives he also gets the advice to go on to Derby for refuelling for the flight to Daly Waters.

 Flying time will be some 40 to 45 minutes. The tanks of the DC-5 are nearly empty, but fearing a Japanese attack they decide to take the risk. About 30 minutes out, with Derby in sight, both engines begin to sputter and eventually stop.

Captain Rab manages to land the plane safely in a field with long alang-alang grass. They are stranded without fuel, water and food. And without power from the generators from the engines they are also unable to send an S.O.S.

According to the story mechanic John Gijzemijter thinks up a creative way to get out an S.O.S.

When they get the tail of DC-5 down, the last bit of remaining fuel flows to the lowest point in the tank. And with this they might be able to start up an engine for a few seconds, power up the radio equipment and send an S.O.S. The passengers and crew manage to carefully pull down the tail with their weight and muscle power. Gijzemijter manages to get an engine running and radio operator Lambrechtsen sends the S.O.S. and position of the plane. The signal is picked up in Broome.

DC-2 PK-AFL with Gerrit Jan Schippers arrives in Broome at about 10.00 AM, after a flying time of 7 hours 5 minutes.

They hear PK-ADC is missing but the radio transmission has been received. It takes 2 and half hours to get the plane checked and refuelled. With food and an open drum of water held in place by an American soldier, PK-AFL takes off to look for the stranded DC-5.

Seeing a DC-5 at Derby Schippers thinks PK-ADC managed to reach the destination and touches down at 13.35. He learns that the DC-5 is PK-ADD. 8 minutes later he is back in the air, sees a flare and then is able to spot the camouflaged PK-ADC.

He touches down gently not to spill the water in the open drum, but while taxiing he makes a sharp turn, the soldier loses his balance and the drum tips over.

After transferring fuel both planes head back to Broome. PK-AFL reaches Broome at 15.40 and the crew is instructed to go on to Port Hedland.

Schippers takes off again at 18.00 hours. PK-ADC stays at Broome for the night.



(2) All of the West Java Postal office were closed not opretated inculding Tjiandjoer.


Front Capitulation cover 1942



Back Capitulation cover 1942

(1ll.5) Postally free postally used Geadvisers (Registered) cover with Commander of the forces and the Departmen of War’s chief (Commandant Leger en hoofd departement van Oorlog ) official Headquaters Stamped send from The Dutch East Indie Forces Head Quaters Bandoeng CDS Bandoeng Riaow Str 27.2.42, arrival Cds Tjiandjoer 28.2.42 and after that the post office closed, open after capitulaition CDS Tjiandjoer 4.4.42 Onafgeh. and ret.afzd handwritten postmark (Cann’t delivered and return to sender) , arrived back CDS Bandoeng 6.4.42 (during dai nippon occupation0 to Dai Nippon Forces Headquaters in java .(The very rare Dai Nippon capitulation Postal History collection from the DEI forces headquaters back to Dai nippon forces Bandoeng Headquaters only one ever seen, if the collecters have the same collectins please send information via comment-Dr iwan S.)
Caption : capitulation cover 1942


Dai Nippon Army Landed at Merak, and other area


The latest used of DEI Imprint revenue 1942 on the document of money storting 2500 guiler at DEI Bank Wscompto Buitenzorg(now bogor), the owner told that after storting the money he left his house and all his belonging nothing left when he back in  May 1942 ,all his belonging were robbery . In the document there written at may ,5th 1942 the money get back from the vabk and keep in his house, Same with postal service in May 1942 did not operated,sarting agai at May 1942. This collections belonging to my friend Mr Gunawan from Bogor,thank you Mr Gunawa for your informations

The same imprint DEI revenue 1942 used  in september 1942 used by the Japanese school look below.



the Kitamura Unit occupied Bodjonegoro on 3 March.

 The Japanese proceeded further and overwhelmed the Dutch defences at the Ngawi Regency, Tjaroeban (Caruban), Ngandjoek, Kertosono, Kediri and Djombang.

At Porong, near Surabaya, the Dutch infantry from 8th, 13th Battalion, 3rd Cavalry Unit and the American 131st (Texas) “E” Field Artillery Regiment gave fierce resistance to the incoming Japanese.

 Eventually the Allied troops under Major-General Gustav A. Ilgen had to retreat to the island of Madura upon the completion of demolition of the city’s infrastructure.



Wyndham raid photo received via WA historian Kevin Gomm

WA author / historian Kevin Gomm sent this fascinating photo of the burnt out DH-84 Dragon at Wyndham aerodrome.


 The damaged civil hangar is visible in the background.

This was all a result of the 3rd March strafing by a squadron of Zeroes, mirroring the attack on Broome.

Indeed a more well known series of photos was taken of the Broome raid wreckage and can be viewed via the Australian War Memorial online collection.

However this particular photo is not from that same series, although it must have been taken at a similar time, very soon after the raid and before the wreckage was cleared up. It actually appeared in a Sydney newspaper (The Daily Telegraph), just after Wyndham was raided for a second time, on 24th March 1942. Strangely the photo never featured in the West Australian newspaper, which would seem the obvious candidate.

Kevin Gomm has extensively researched all of the WWII attacks on WA, as well as maritime events.

He has visited all of the attack sites and has a detailed knowledge of anything surviving from the wartime years.

 His book Red Sun on the Kangaroo Paw documents each of the Japanese raids and attacks on WA during WWII.

 It is currently being re-released as a 70th Anniversary 1942-2012 Commemorative Edition.

The book is available from – indeed the site is well worth a visit, concentrating solely on WA military history.



At midnight March 3rd

the positions of the planes of the second group are:

  • Lockheed L14 – PK-AFP – Captain A. Reyers – Alice Springs
  • Douglas DC-5 PK-ADB – Captain G. van Messel – Alice Springs
  • Douglas DC-5 PK-ADC – Captain M.S. Rab – Broome
  • Douglas DC-5 PK-ADD – Captain P.A. Deenik – Daly Waters
  • Douglas DC-2 PK-AFL – Captain G.J. Schippers – Port Hedland
  • Douglas DC-2 PK-AFK – Captain F. van Breemen – emergency strip near Daly Waters (he can’t find Daly Waters after sunset. Using his landing lights and finds this strip with two crossed “runways” of mowed grass some 600 metres long. And after three attempts manages to make a precautionary landing)

In the early morning of March 3rd the crew and passengers of PK-ADC have breakfast on the airfield (where according to the story there are no more non-alcoholic drinks available. Just beer). Just before the attack begins PK-ADC is the first plane of the day to get take-off clearance. As they receive the air raid warning on the radio, they go down to treetop level, to escape attention



On 4 March,

 MacArthur split this command and created a separate Visayan Force under Brig. Gen. Bradford C. Chynoweth.


japanese soldiers observing smoke coming from a american position during the battle of bataan


 Sharp remained in command of Mindanao, the only island south of Luzon on which a major Japanese force had landed.53 This move was probably designed to permit General Sharp to devote all his energies to the defense of Mindanao, the base from which MacArthur still hoped to mount a counteroffensive against the Japanese.

But careful as he had been in making

these arrangements (to go into effect the day after his departure), and briefing the force commanders and new deputy chief of staff, MacArthur neglected one thing — to inform the War Department. Whatever the reasons, the result was utter confusion.


type 95 ha-go tank of the japanese army 7th tank regiment using fouliage for camouflage (phillipines 1942)


 The War Department assumed that Wainwright, the senior officer in the islands, was in command of all forces in the Philippines as MacArthur had been, and addressed him as such.


japanese tank crew man posing with a knock out american tank (phillipines 1942)


But the messages, intended for Wainwright and marked for the commander in the Philippines came to Beebe who had no recourse but to refer them to MacArthur, then en route to Australia. Beebe’s position was an embarrassing one and he urged his chief repeatedly to clear up the matter with Washington. But to no avail. MacArthur remained silent and the War Department uninformed.54.

Batavia have declared as the open city

The Dutch government at London ordered DEI Governor Tjarda military handed over power to General ter  Porten and DEI Govenor General Dr van Mook domiciled in Australia


Batavia(Jakarta) occupied by dai Nippon Army

lead by Let.General Immamura


A Japanese soldier outside oil tanks near Jakarta destroyed by Dutch forces in March,5th. 1942


Dai Nippon tanl entering Batavia(Jakarta) march.5th.1942


Japanese tanks with infantry entering Batavia, March 1942

The other was Captain J.P. van Helsdingen, a fighter pilot of the KNIL airforce. He was killed in action on March 5, 1942

Batavia fell on the March,5th 1942

without a struggle, after the government moved inland to Bandoeng. It was not safe even there, for the Japanese closed in on this mountain retreat and by the 8th were in position to attack the remnants of the Dutch Army defending it. The next morning the Dutch surrendered and the fight for Java was over.57

For the Japanese, the conquest of the Indies was the crowning achievement of the war. It realized their long-cherished dream of empire. The rich resources of Southeast Asia, the oil, rubber, and manganese needed for war and for the control of Asia, were now in their possession. And all this had been won in three months.

On this day Ciater and the north area of Subang occupied by the Dai Nippon military army.


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The Last day Of Batavia

(Setyawati Soelaiman,the private notes during Dai nippon Occupation)


We will be very sorry if he would fall, he was a young adept, I still see it last time when batavia  would have been invaded by the armies of Dai Nippon d I still to  RH building (hoogeschool Recht, High School of Law)


 I saw some friends who are still busy studying, in a room that has been a faculty library literature “How Optimik” I thought, when I see my future keruang Prof.Soepomo dressed in cloth and blankon . He was assigned to lead the Faculty of Law and is to be received stamps of the Japanese at the time the building was occupied,

On the road a truck stop, look Prof Kemperts Bernet, Professor Werthiem and several other professors. they are held hands up has regards . Jakarta City Fall afternoon (8-3.42 not right, the right day 5-3.48).

All of the Netherlands, Britain and Australia are uniformed prison. The first days are still a lot of unrest so that we do not dare go home kerumahkarena we heard that when the army occupied Shanghai dai nippon been many robberies and rapes,


 in Batavia was not so.
When some soldiers looted warehouses Dai nippon act strongly against the leader of a robbery. Rape does not sound happen but the hosts dai nippon bring the Korean people as the troops advanced, they were assigned to take the vehicles to the invasion of Bandung.Mobil of my  father was also taken.

When the situation had died down, I dare to ride bicycles to visit Ida ross who lived not far from the factory Salemba Amfiun near the college of Medicine.


We talked about the situation at that time and we asked what would happen next before the surrender by the Japanese army, the head of the family have bought and keeping  rice at home, because there is no yangtahu whether the father will still be retained in office and whether his family and still be able to eat later .
On another day I saw a long line of white people. There is already a beard and did not seem clean. The legend says that the prisoners were told to walk away from Glodok  prison to prison struiswijk  (now Salemba prison)
I think that the professor and professor Bernet Kempers = other professors in the row.

Women of Europe and Australia was soon taken prisoner j8uga and finally put into special camps for their camp.
They are still able to prove themselves that they were Indo, so the descent was a native ditangkap.Karena not overrun the state archives of people who find evidence of it.
Mrs. Bernet Kempert and two sons captured as well, with the other ladies, they stay away from her husband.
Professor Bernet Kempert living in camps in Java, but there are some other scholars anaara Bok van de Casparis Neckeren and taken to Burma and Thailand to work to make a fire road Railway
. Thankfully they survived in captivity so that Prof. Bernet Kempert can gather with his family. They are still embedded in the Lord and perhaps prof Bernet Kampert, Bob van de Casparis Heekeren and retained this earth to be a teacher kita.karena archaeologists have not time for them to go and they who teach us how to protect and have our own cultural heritage.

We are very disappointed that the Government of Japan’s occupation would not hold the school to humanoris. Which may be passed is the school of law, medicine and dentistry and engineering,
At the Museum held courses in Javanese and Sanskrit and several other lectures by Professor Poerbatjeraka and some other figures. I heard from friends that read the room museum that is not a nice thing because it is often heard cries of people being tortured by Professor Kempetei dibekas room because of the high School of Law has become the headquarters Kenpetei.
I heard that when the building was occupied by some Japanese soldiers throwing a book from our library kempert prof sought out the window.
Mrs Dr de Jong our lecturers in Dutch seventeenth century to the present menyelamatkannya.Pak Prijono also said: “Lady, lady’s life remembered”

Original info

Kami akan sangat menyesal kalau ia akan gugur , ia masih muda cakap, Saya masih melihatnya terakhir kali m ketika batavia sudah akan diserbu oleh Balatentara dai Nippon . saya masih kegedung R.H(Recht hoogeschool,Sekolah tinggi Hukum) saya melihat beberapa  teman yang masih sibuk belajar , dalam ruangan yang telah menjadi Perpustakaan Fakultas sastra”Betapa Optimik”  pikir saya, ketika saya keruang depan saya melihat Prof.Soepomo  yang berpakaian  kain dan blankon.  Ia ditugaskan untuk memimpin Fakultas Hukum dan ialah yang akan menerima prang-orang Jepang pada saat gedung tersebut diduduki,

Di jalan sebuah truk berhenti ,nampak Prof Bernet Kemperts,Professor Werthiem  dan beberapa professor lainnya . mereka mengacungkan tanggan  sebagai salam . Sore itu Kota Jakarta Jatuh(8-3.42 not right,the right day 5-3.48) .

Semua orang belanda ,Inggris dan australia yang berseragam dipenjarakan. Hari-hari pertama masih banyak kerusuhan sehingga kami tidak berani pulang kerumahkarena kami dengar bahwa ketika Shanghai diduduki tentara dai nippon  terjadi banyak perampokan  dan perkosaan, ternyata di Batavia tidak begitu.

Ketika beberapa gudang dirampok tentara Dai nippon bertindak dengan keras terhadap pemimpin perampokan .Perkosaan tidak terdengar terjadi/ tetapi Balatentara dai nippon membawa orang Korea sebagai  pasukan terdepan , mereka ditugaskan mengambil kendaraan-kendaraan untuk penyerbuan ke Bandung.Mobil ayah juga dibawa.

Ketika keadaan sudah mereda , saya berani naik sepeda untuk mengunjungi Ida nasution yang tinggal di salemba tidak jauh dari pabrik  Amfiun dekat perguruan tinggi Kedokteran. Kami mengobrol tentang keadaan pada saat itu dan  kami bertanya apakah yang akan terjadi  nanti sebelum penyerahan oleh tentara Jepang , para kepala keluarga sudah membeli  dan menyoimpan  beras dirumah,karena tidak ada  yangtahu apakah  Ayah masih akan dipertahankan dalam jabatannya dan  dan apakah keluarganya masih dapat makan nanti.

Pada hari yang lain saya melihat suatu barisan panjang orang kulit putih,. Ada yang sudah berjenggot dan kelihatannya tidak bersih. Konon kabarnya  para tahanan  disuruh berjalan kaki dari penjara Glodok ke penjara struiswijk(sekarang Penjara salemba)

Saya pikir bahwa professor Bernet Kempers dan profesor=profesor lain berada dalam barisan itu.

Wanita-wanita eropa dan Australia tidak lama kemudian ditawan j8uga dan akhirnya dimasukkan kedalam Kamp kamp khusus untuk mereka .

Mereka yang masih dapat membuktikan dirinya  bahwa mereka orang Indo, jadi keturunan seorang pribumi tidak ditangkap.Karena itu arsip negara  diserbu orang-orang yang mencari bukti itu.

Nyonya Bernet Kempert  dan kedua putranya ditawan juga, dengan nyonya-nyonya lainnya ,mereka tinggal jauh dari suaminya.

Prof Bernet Kempert tinggal dalam kamp di Jawa tetapi ada beberapa orang sarjana  anaara lain Bok van Neckeren  dan de Casparis yang dibawa ke Burma dan Thailand untuk bekerja membuat jalan Kerata api

.Syukurlah mereka bertahan  dalam tawanan sehingga Prof Bernet Kempert dapat berkumpul lagi dengan keluarganya. Mereka masih dipayungi oleh Tuhan  dan mungkin prof Bernet Kampert, Bob van heekeren dan de Casparis  masih dipertahankan dibumi  ini untuk menjadi guru para arkeolog kita.karena belum waktunya mereka pergi dan merekalah yang mengajar kita bagaimana melindungi dan memiliki warisan budaya kita sendiri.

Kami sangat kecewa bahwa Pemerintah Pendudukan Jepang  tidak mau mengadakan sekolah untuk humanoris. Yang boleh diteruskan adalah sekolah hokum,Kedokteran dan kedokteran gigi serta tehnik,

Di Museum diadakan kursus-kursus dalam bahasa Jawa dan sansekerta dan beberapa kuliah lain oleh Profesor Poerbatjeraka dan beberapa tokoh lainnya. Saya dengar dari teman-teman bahwa bahwa membaca diruangan Museum bukan merupakan hal yang menyenangkan karena seringkali terdengar  teriakan orang yang sedang disiksa  oleh Kempetei dibekas ruangan Profesor karena Gedung Sekolah tinggi Hukum sudah menjadi  markas Kenpetei.

Saya dengar ketika gedung itu diduduki beberapa serdadu jepang melempar-lemparkan buku  dari perpustakaan kami  yang diusahakan prof kempert keluar jendela.

Ny Dr de Jong dosen kami dalam bahasa Belanda abad ke XVII ingin menyelamatkannya.Pak Prijono yang hadir juga mengatakan;”Nyonya, ingat nyawa nyonya”.




Netherlands East Indies



Lt. August Deibel of 2-VLG-V with his Buffalo (serial B-3110) at RAF Kallang, early 1942. He shot down two Nakajima Ki-27 fighters on 12 January before being wounded and having to bail out himself.[N 8][23]

The Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger (“Military Air Service of the Royal Netherlands East Indian Army”, ML-KNIL) had ordered 144 Brewster B-339C and 339D models, the former with rebuilt Wright G-105 engines supplied by the Dutch and the latter with new 1,200 hp (895 kW) Wright R-1820-40 engines Brewster purchased from Wright. At the outbreak of war, only 71 had arrived in the Dutch East Indies, and not all were in service. A small number served briefly at Singapore before being withdrawn for the defense of Java.

As the Brewster B-339 aircraft used by the ML-KNIL were lighter than the modified B-339E Brewster Mark Is used by British, Australian, and New Zealand air forces, they were able at times to successfully engage the Japanese Army Ki-43 “Oscar”, although both the “Oscar” and the Japanese Navy’s A6M Zero still out-climbed and out-turned the B-339 at combat altitudes (the Zero was faster as well).[32]



Brewster Buffalos of the ML-KNIL

Apart from their role as fighters, the Brewster fighters were also used as dive bombers against Japanese troopships. Although reinforced by British Commonwealth Brewster Mk I (B-339E) aircraft retreating from Malaya, the Dutch squadrons faced superior numbers in the air, and were too few in number to stem the advance of Japanese ground forces.

In a major engagement above Semplak on 19 February 1942, eight Dutch Brewster fighters intercepted a formation of about 35 Japanese bombers with an escort of about 20 Zeros. The Brewster pilots destroyed 11 Japanese aircraft and lost four Brewsters; two Dutch pilots died.[33]

The Brewsters flew their last sortie on 7 March. Altogether, 17 ML-KNIL pilots were killed, and 30 aircraft shot down; 15 were destroyed on the ground, and several were lost to misadventure. Dutch pilots claimed 55 enemy aircraft destroyed.[30] Two Dutch pilots, Jacob van Helsdingen and August Deibel, scored highest with the Buffalo with three victories each.

Following the surrender of the Netherlands East Indies on 8 March 1942, 17 ML-KNIL Buffalos were transferred to the USAAF and RAAF in Australia (








The Fall of Java Island, March 1942




Bombardment of Soerabaja by the Japanese planes.
The naval establishment is seen on the left of the canalised
River Mas on the right is the Royal Dutch Naval Air Station Perak

Destruction of ammo stacks in Soerabaja, March 1942


Batavia(Djakarta) Occupied by Dai Miltary Army


Japanese bicycle troops entering Batavia, March 1942


Enemy troops reached Surabaya

 on the March, 6th.1942 ,

(hans semethini)

fighting their way into the suburbs in the Wonokromo district and advancing along the Surabaya River towards the Gunungsari golf course.

The Samethinis must have heard the artillery fire from American defensive positions, but this ceased on the 7th as Allied resistance crumbled.

 From the direction of the port and naval base came the sound of heavy explosions. Black smoke clouds billowed from burning oil stocks and war material, set ablaze to deny them to the invaders.



Japanese enter surabaya


From Sampit boats were sent to pick up C Company, while D Company was ordered to halt at Kotabesi. C and Staff Company marched from Sampit south but on March 7th 1942

they got word that the Japanese troops had landed 14 km south of them. A platoon of C Company was sent on a reconaissance mission but very soon they came under fire. As the British soldiers had very little ammunition, they broke off contact and returned back to Sampit.

On March,7th.1942

Thhe Dai Nippon Miltary Order no 1 

Undang-undang balatentara Dai Nippon tentang Menjalankan Pemerintahan  di tetapkan di Djakarta (Alamsjah,1987)

On this day, the Dai Nippon army occupied Lembang and at this city there were a meeting between Dai Nippon army led by Shoji with the DEI army




at Isola Hotel(three photos)

The JDai Nippon ultimate Dutch east Indie Army, If they don’t surrender without condition ,in 24 housr, Bandung will attacked to dawn.


Cadets and instructors of the ML-KNIL at Andir, Java Island

At the same time, the last filght from Andir flight Field Buah Batu North Bandung city  to Australia by KNIL flight DC 3 Widevaal  DEI Governor General



Dr van Mook ,

Dr van der Plass  and commandant KNIL Maj.Gen.l.H.van Oyen.

the first Kalidjati Capitulations’s  meeting in 7th at night night

 was also attended by


Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer

 the Governor-General Tjarda van Starkenborg , the official starting date of March 4, 1942 no longer served as the highest pamnglima Armed Forces (also has awarded the Dutch East Indie  General governorship


 Dr. van Mook to

 and gave the position


 General Hein ter Poorten

the commander of the Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger

at that meeting were considered by the Dutch as a mere military surrender,

It is increasingly becoming important due to  so many people think and believe that the events of the Dutch capitulation to the Japanese surrender were total military both civil and after March 8th, 1942 that is no longer the Government of the Netherlands East Indies and indeed  the fact like that

History thus shows that there is  Dutch East Indies government  in exile 



Capitulation Dai nippon at Kalidjati military airport, The Dutch Armed Forces surrender

(1) The House of capitulation’s Meeting now




(a) Interior still same meubeleur




(2)The Position of the capitulations meeting participant.

Painted by DR R.Hoesein,given to Dr Iwan.


Photographs from different angles on the Dutch capitulation to the Japanese in the House Kalidjati dated March 8, 1942 at 15,99-16.00 this picture without the governor present Tjarda9Tjarda General dated March 7, 1942 evening, no pictures, no paintings of the Japanese officer who looks light light-DrIwan notes)

A. Army Gen. Dai Nippon Edo
B. Jenderasl Immamura

C. Chief of staff Seikagura Okazari
D. Translator one
E. Translator  two
F. Army Chief of Staff of the Netherlands bekkers

G. Gen. H.T er Poorten
H. Colonel P.C.Manel
X Japan’s officers





  1. Army Gen. Dai Nippon Edo
    B. Jenderasl Immamura

C. Chief of staff Seikagura Okazari
D. Translator one
E. Translator  two

X Japan’s officers


Original info

Foto dari sudut yang berbeda tentang kapitulasi Belanda kepada jepang  di Gedung Kalidjati  tanggal 8 Maret 1942 jam 15,99-16.00 gambar ini tanpa gubernur Jendral Tjarda9Tjarda hadir tanggal 7 Maret 1942 malam,tak ada foto,yang ada lukisan dari opsir Jepang yang kelihatan lampu yang menyala-DrIwan notes)

  1. B.  Jenderal Edo Angkatan darat Dai Nippon
  2. C.  Jenderasl Immamura
  3. D.   Kepala staf  Seikagura Okazari
  4. E.  Penterjemah satu
  5. F.   Pertejemah dua
  6. G.  Kepala Staf Tentara Belanda bekkers
  7. H.  Jenderal H.Ter Poorten
  8. I.     Colonel P.C.Manel

X Perwira-perwira Jepang

(c)The Original Photos

Let General Hitoshi Immamura the command of Dai nippon Army



had the cpitulation Meeting at kalidjati army port March 7th at night ,Immamura didnot want to meet with the ex DEI Govenorgeneral Tjarda


But the meeting was cancancelled because Gen. Yamashita did not want to tolk with ex Governor General who did not have the Military  power anymore. Let Gen Ter Poorten surrender without notice to Dai Nippon Army at Kalijati in first meeting 7th 1942 and they went back and Let Gen Immamura asked Ter Poorten to announce about surrender in the morning 8th 1942 and will back at 10.00 am to Kalidjati with bring the list of DEI army power.

On the March, 8th 1942

(hans semethini),

 at 9:00 a.m.,

 General Ter Poorten, commander-in-chief of Dutch forces, surrendered all of Java to the Japanese.

(correction this info not true,please more info below-Driwan note)

At 11:00 p.m.,

(this was in surabaya and  in bandung 6.30 am Driwan note )

 NIROM, the radio network of the Netherlands East Indies, concluded its final broadcast:

“We are closing now. Farewell until better times. Long live the Queen!”

The night deepened and Surabaya passed into a shadow that was to prevail, even under the brightest noonday sun, for the next three and a half years.


Oil stocks torched by retreating Dutch forces in Surabaya
Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign

Read the study about this situation by DR Ong Hok Ham below.

DEI Army surrender which announced at the newpaper morning




AT 09:00 ON 8 MAR,

THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF of the Allied forces,


Ter Poorten, announced the surrender of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army in Java. In news paper and radio.


the second meeting at Kalidjati 10,00 am

 with bring the list of DEI army powers. Immamura write in his memoir that they have sign the capitulation acta which never seen anymore (lost),

and at March 8th 1941 at 13.00 am at Kalidjati airfield there was the second meeting t only with the command od DEI Army General Ter Porten and Kastaf Col Bakkers



after meeting they made a photo in the front of the meeting house which still exist now with the same meubelueur. look the photos below.

(c1) Interior





Recording of the signing of the capitulation agreement.
On the left is Lt-General H. Ter Poorten.
The man scratching his nose is Lt-Col P.G. Mantel
Java, March 1942




Situation now






(c2) exterior




After the signing of the capitulation.
In the centre Lt-General Imamura,
right Major-General Bakker and Lt-General Ter Poorten.


very difficult to find the original clear photos of the kalidjati capitulation meeting, all the pictures were taken by Dr Huesein at the location now which given to me not so clear, who have the original clear photos please show us. I just found more clear picture above


situation now




Read more about Kalidjati Capitulation

(DR,Dr  Roesdy Hoesein, and DR Ong Hok Ham,thesis,)

8 March 1942 is the day of the Dutch East Indies government nai gray because it was the day the determination of the fate of who will rule later in Indonesia.
Housed in a non-commissioned at one home environment Kalidjati airfield (near the West Java Earring) has held a historic meeting between the Netherlands and Japan where it was agreed that the Dutch royal army led by Lieutenant General Hein ter Poorten Surrender unconditionally to the Dai Nippon army 16th  under the leadership



 Let. Gen. Hitoshi Immamura.

March 8 meeting

(corrections the first meeting in 7th night-Dr iwan notes)

 was also attended by


Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer

 the Governor-General Tjarda van Starkenborg , the official starting date of March 4, 1942 no longer served as the highest pamnglima Armed Forces (also has awarded the Dutch East Indie  General governorship


 Dr. van Mook to-note Dr. Iwan)

 and gave the position


 General Hein ter Poorten

the commander of the Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger

at that meeting were considered by the Dutch as a mere military surrender,

It is increasingly becoming important menginggat so many people think and believe that the events of the Dutch capitulation to the Japanese surrender adlah total meliter both civil and after March 6, 1942 that is no longer the Government of the Netherlands East Indies and indeed  the fact like that

History thus shows that there is  Dutch East Indies government  in exile  .

 (Dr Iwan has a collection of letters, documents KNIL troops from Java flee  to Australia through the following Hollandia, now Jayapura in Papua west to Brisbane Australia and settled in camp Casino, is one the evidence of the Dutch East Indies government in exile and also the commander of the KNIL also be in Australia when the military hand over power, notes Dr. Iwan)

How to actually sit up the issue of events, many experts who studied up to now but still can not answer completely, the problem is the lack of documents about the events ini.Berbeda owned by British capitulation to the Japanese in Singapore, where there are documents and photographs complete.

Events do not get caught missing Kalijati rimbanya documents and photographs of these events is very little left.

Many authors have revealed this incident from both the Dutch and the Japanese. For example, General Immamura never written much in the memory of this event. Of the Netherlands has recently written a book called “tot Vaarwel Tijden Battery” by JE Bijkerk, then the book “Indie Onder Japanasche” by WHdEllias Indonesia as well as from the DR Ong Hok Ham write a dissertation for the degree requirements of the 1968 literature, ie a book titled “The collapse of the Dutch East Indies”

However the summary it remains to clarify whether the event was just a military penuerahan or delivery of the Dutch East Indies government both de facto and de Jure.

This becomes important because one of the reasons why the Dutch are still felt to stay in power and returned by the Allies to re-colonize Indonesia.
From the writings of the chroniclers as an example of such can be described as follows:
Dr Ong Hok Ham Thesi
Page 264


Capitulasi meeting room now still same

General Imamura


Commander (Immamura) addressed: “What Toean surrender unconditionally”

Governor-General mengelengkan head to answer: “No.”

Immamura: “If the Lord does not speak as the Supreme Commander of the master dating why here”

(Since negotiations stalled Immamura considered leaving the Netherlands for 10 minutes)


(page 266)
After 10 minutes of finished Immamura told the governor General (EX) Tjarda: “I do not want to talk about civil government, the host did not seem to have the ultimate power to answer (my claims), I now forbid the master speak a word of the moment and I just speaking to  the Commander of the army “

When Immamura repeated his demand once again,


Ter Poorten

 accept to give up on behalf of all the Dutch East Indies.

Governor-General (ex) and then said: “Because of this decision (which is the submission Army), not including my power, then I will leave the room and go” and he stood

J.E. Bijkers
(The bridge has been translated by the publishers see page 316)

Ten minutes had passed, when Immamura with his entourage had to go back once more spatial GB (Governor General) tries to give the city of Bandung, but now looks at all the Japanese generals had lost his temper, although he remains respectful: ‘It seems the better I do not spoke again with diplomats and legal experts, but the next will deal with the military masters “.
(This is the fault of General Immamura, he just wanted to talk and seek military matters and submission of the Armed Forces. So he has achieved what he wanted. Immamura sejogyanya must survive on the surrender of the Indian total belanda.Jadi including “Country”, yet perhaps the time he did not realize, this is not de facto mean a lot, but in so doing the Governor General has received what the government desired in London / Prime Minister Gerbrandy)

Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy
(Ex governor general) Tjada van Stockenborogh feel so yugasmya has ended. She calmly said: “Because here will be dealt with purely military matters, I want to leave this chair. But if you still want to talk about the interests of Mr. People, I am willing for it “

Told later that, in principle, Ter Poorten took delivery of the Dutch East Indies Army unconditionally to Japan and will be broadcast via Nirom (Nederlansch Omroep Maatschapij Indie Radio) Radio Dutch East Indies on the news about the date of delivery of the next day 9 (correction dated 8) in March 1942. And then at 13:30 Ter Poorten have to come back to bring dafter Kalidjati Dutch East Indies Army forces, after which he signed a statement.

The next day’s broadcast at 6:30 Nirom what prompted the Japanese and at (h) one afternoon Ter Poorten and his staff were in Kalidjati back.

Recording of the signing of the capitulation agreement.
On the left is Lt-General H. Ter Poorten.
The man scratching his nose is Lt-Col P.G. Mantle
Java, March 8th 1942

In his memoirs General Immamura states that both parties signed the surrender documents are composed of two g-one in Japanese and Dutch about 13:20 hours time Java, from the Dutch Present-General and Chief of Staff H.Ter Poorten Maj.Jen. Bakkers, Let.Kol. Mantle and Captain JDThijn as an interpreter. Still not clear whether the date of 9 (correction  8) in March 1942 in Kalidjati dditanda indeed have such a protocol signed surrender of the Dutch to the Japanese?


A source of scientific history in the Netherlands believe that it never happened. Immamura own generals later (later) insisted that the document existed. Maybe when the recapitulation of Japan to the Netherlands in 1946, many documents were destroyed and burned so that the Japanese side can not prove it now.
(See photo outside the building after  th the signing of the capitulation agreement  from the Netherlands to Japan during the day, Dr Iwan Notes)

After the signing of the capitulation.
In the center Lt-General Imamura,
Major-General right Bakker and Lt-General Ter Poorten.


The historic building (in Kalidjati) still stand tall, well groomed with a neat (and tidy). This building was once used but now the Air Force Air Force and local government initiatives (local government) as a museum of local dimnfaatkan Dutch capitulation to the Japanese.

According to the Base Commander (Air) Mat. Let.Kol aviator Sadjad Hasan, now has many visitors who come there especially foreigners, especially the Japanese Veteran Kalidjati every year each perinagtan Kai Japanese invasion of Java ang bring their children and grandchildren. Merka will reminisce and tell to the generation of the event below. It seems that the Netherlands is less use of it.

There is a local government’s plans for more mengalang Local tourism potential of this sort of warning about the Second World War as Santosa Island of Singapore (English to Japanese capitulation of Bataan and Corregidor or in the Philippines)




Dr. Iwan’s Note
In the Books “Bandoeng”, I read that the incident was on March 7, 1942 night, Immamura ban photo taken, fortunately there is a painting made by a Japanese officer where the evening meeting looks a lamp lighting

Thank You Dr Roesjdi Hasan for your amazing Info of Kalidjati Capitu;lation and I hope the more info will informed you,also for another collectors and scholar historian please comment and send more info

Original info

8 maret 1942

adalah  hari kelabu bagi pemerintah Hindia belanda karena hari itu adalah hari penentuan tentang nasib siapa yang akan berkuasa kemudian di Indonesia.

Bertempat disebuah rumah bintara dalam lingkungan lapangan terbang Kalidjati(dekat subang Jawa barat)  telah diadakan pertemuan bersejarah antara pihak Belanda dan Jepang dimana telah disepakati bahwa tentara kerajaan belanda yang dipimpin oleh Letnan Jendral Hein ter Poorten Menyerah tanpa syarat kepada Balatentara dai Nippon ke 16 dibawah pimpinan Letenan Jenderal Hitoshi Immamura.


Tjarda van Starkenborgh Stachouwer

Pertemuan tanggal 8 Maret ini juga dihadiri oleh gubernur Jenderal Tjarda van starkenborgh yang resminya terhitung tanggal 4 Maret 1942 tidak lagi menjabat sebagai pamnglima tertinggi Angkatan Perang(juga telah menyerahkan jabatan gubernur Jenderal Hindia bdelanda kepada Dr van Mook-catatan dr Iwan)  dan telah menyerahkan jabatan tersebut pada Jendral ter Poorten  sehingga pertemuan ini dianggap oleh pihak belanda sebagai penyerahan militer semata,

Hal ini semakin menjadi begitu penting menginggat banyak orang menganggap  dan meyakini bahwa peristiwa kapitulasi belanda kepada jepang adlah penyerahan total baik meliter maupun sipil artinya setelah 6 Maret 1942 tidak ada lagi Pemerintah Hindia Belanda (di Indonesia yang ada pemerintahan pengasingan di australia)dan memang  kenyataannya.demikian.

Sejarah kemudian menunjukkan yang ada adalah Pemerintihan hindia belanda dalam pengansinga dibawan gubernur General Dr van Mook di Australia.(Dr Iwan memiliki koleksi dokumen surat jalan tentara KNIL menuju Brisbane Australia liwat Hollandia,sekarang Jayapura Papua barat menuju Australia dan bermukim di camp Casino, ini salah satu bukti adanya pemerintahan Hindia belanda dalam pengasingan dan juga komandan KNIl juga berada di Australia saat penyerah kekuasaan militer ini-catatan Dr Iwan)

Bagaimana sebenarnya duduk pesoalan kejadian, banyak ahli yang meneliti sampai sekarang namun tetap tidak dapat menjawab  dengan tuntas, masalahnya adalah kurangnya dokumen-dokumen dimiliki tentang peristiwa ini.Berbeda dengan kapitulasi Inggris kepada jepang di singapura ,dimana ada dokumen dan foto-foto lengkap .

Peristiwa kalijati dokumennya hilang tidak ketahuan rimbanya dan foto-foto peristiwa tersebut sangat sedikit yang tersisa.

Banyak penulis telah membeberkan peristiwa ini baik dari pihak Belanda maupun pihak Jepang. Misalnya Jenderal Immamura pernah menulis memorinya  dan banyak menyebut peristiwa ini . Dari pihak Belanda  baru-baru ini ditulis sebuah buku berjudul “Vaarwel tot Batere Tijden” oleh J.E. Bijkerk , kemudian buku “Indie Onder Japanasche” oleh W.H.d.Ellias demikian juga dari pihak Indonesia DR Ong Hok Ham menulis sebagai disertasinya untuk persyaratan gelar sarjana sastra tahun 1968, Yaitu buku berjudul “Runtuhnya Hindia Belanda”

Namum semuanya tetap sumir untuk menjelaskan apakah  peristiwa itu hanya sekedar penuerahan militer  atau penyerahan Pemerintah hindia Belanda baik de fakto dan de Jure.

Hal ini menjadi menjadi penting karena menjadi salah satu alas an kenapa pihak Belanda masih merasa tetap berkuasa dan kembali dengan pihak sekutu untuk menjajah kembali Indonesia.

Dari tulisan para penulis  sejarah sebagai contoh misalnya dapat diuraikan sebagai berikut :

Thesi DR Ong Hok Ham

Halaman 264

General Imamura

Panglima(Immamura) menyapa:”Apa toean menyerah tanpa syarat”

Gubernur Jenderal mengelengkan kepala untuk menjawab:”Tidak”

Immamura:”Jika Tuan tidak bicara selaku Panglima tertinggi mengapa tuan datang kesini”

(Karena perundingan dianggap macet Immamura meninggalkan pihak Belanda selama 10 menit)

(halaman 266)

Setelah 10 menit selesai Immamura mengatakan kepada gubernur Jendral(EX) Tjarda :” Saya tidak mau berbicara tentang pemerintahan sipil ,tuan rupanya tidak memiliki kekuasaan tertinggi untuk menjawab(tuntutan saya), Saya sekarang melarang tuan berbicara satu katapun dari saat ini dan saya hanya berbicara dengan Panglima tentara”

Ketika Immamura mengulangi tuntutannya sekali lagi, Ter Poorten menerima untuk menyerah atas nama seluruh Hindia Belanda.

Gubernur Jenderal(ex)  lalu mengatakan :” Karena pengambilan keputusan demikian(yang dimaksud penyerahan Tentara), tidak termasuk kekuasaan saya,maka saya akan meninggalkan ruangan dan pergi” lalu ia berdiri


J.E. Bijkers

(sudah diterjemahkan oleh penerbit Jembatan lihat halaman 316)

Sepuluh menit baru saja berlalu ,ketika Immamura dengan para pengiringnya telah masuk lagi keruangan  sekali lagi GB(Gubernur General)  mencoba untuk menyerahkan kota Bandung , tetapi sekarang tampak sekali jendral Jepang  itu telah kehilangan kesabarannya, walaupun ia tetap hormat:’ Tampaknya lebih baik saya tidak  berbicara  lagi dengan diplomat dan ahli hokum, tetapi selanjutnya akan berhubungan dengan pihak militer tuan-tuan”.

(ini merupakan kesalahan  dari Jenderal Immamura , dia hanya mau berbicara  dan mengusahakan soal –soal militer  dan penyerahan Angkatan Perang. Jadi dia telah mencapai apa yang diinginkannya . Immamura sejogyanya harus bertahan pada penyerahan total Hindia belanda.Jadi termasuk”Negeri” , namum mungkin pada saat itu dia tidak menyadari , Defacto hal ini tidak berarti banyak,tetapi dengan demikian Gubernur General telah mendapatkan apa yang dikehendaki pemerintah di London/Perdana Menteri Gerbrandy)


Pieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy

(Ex Gubernur general)Tjada van Stockenborogh  merasa dengan demikian yugasmya telah berakhir .Dengan tenang ia berkata:” Karena disini akan ditangani soal-soal militer murni , saya ingin meninggalkan  Kursi ini,. Namun jika Tuan masih ingin membicarakan kepentingan Penduduk , saya bersedia untuk itu”


Diceritakan kemudian  bahwa pada prinsipnya  Ter Poorten menerima penyerahan Tentara Hindia belanda tanpa syarat  kepada Jepang  dan akan menyiarkannya melalui NIROM(  Nederlansch Indie Radio Omroep Maatschapij) Radio hindia belanda tentang  berita tentang Penyerahan tersebut besok hari tanggal 9 (koreksi tanggal 8)  Maret 1942. Dan selanjutnya  pada pukul 13.30  Ter Poorten harus datang kembali  ke Kalidjati membawa dafter kekuatan Tentara Hindia Belanda , setelah itu ia menanda tangani  suatu keterangan.


Esok harinya  NIROM jam 6.30  memang menyiarkan  apa yang diminta  pihak Jepang dan pukul(jam) satu  siang Ter Poorten  beserta staf  sudah berada di Kalidjati kembali.


Recording of the signing of the capitulation agreement.
On the left is Lt-General H. Ter Poorten.
The man scratching his nose is Lt-Col P.G. Mantel
Java, March 8th  1942


Dalam memoirnya Jenderal Immamura menyatakan bahwa kedua pihak menanda tangani dua dokumen  penyerahan yang disusun g-masing  dalam bahasa Jepang dan Belanda kurang lebih jam 13.20  waktu Jawa, Dari pihak Belanda Hadir  Jenderal H.Ter Poorten dan  Kepala Staf Maj.Jen. Bakkers, Let.Kol. Mantle  dan Kapten  J.D.Thijn  selaku penterjemah . Masih tidak  dapat dipastikan  apakah tanggal 9 (koresksi 8)  Maret 1942  di Kalidjati memang  benar telah dditanda tangani semacam protocol  penyerahan dari  Belanda kepada jepang ?

Suatu  sumber sejarah Ilmiah  di Negeri Belanda  yakin bahwa hal itu tidak pernah terjadi . Jenderal Immamura sendiri  belakangan (kemudian) bersikeras bahwa  dokumen itu pernah ada . Mungkin ketika  rekapitulasi Jepang  kepada belanda  pada tahun 1946  banyak dokumen  yang dihancurkan  dan dibakar  sehingga pihak  Jepang tidak  dapat membuktikannya sekarang.

( Lihat foto di luar gedung setelah enanda tanganan kalitulasi dari Belanda kepada jepang disiang hari-Dr Iwan Notes)


After the signing of the capitulation.
In the centre Lt-General Imamura,
right Major-General Bakker and Lt-General Ter Poorten.


Gedung bersejarah tersebut( di Kalidjati) masih berdiri tegak, terawat  dengan apik(baik dan rapi) . Gedung ini pernah dipakai  AURI  tetapi sekarang atas prakarsa AURI dan PEMDA(pemerintah daerah)  setempat dimnfaatkan sebagai museum kapitulasi belanda kepada Jepang.




Menurut komandan Pangkalan (Udara) Kalijati .Let.Kol penerbang Hasan Sadjad, sekarang sudah banyak pengunjung  yang dating kesana terutama orang asing , pihak Veteran Jepang  terutama Kalidjati Kai setiap tahun  tiap perinagtan invasi Jepang  ke Jawa ang membawa anak  dan cucu mereka . Merka akan bernostalgia  dan bercerita  pada generasi dibawahnya  tentang peristiwa tersebut .Nampaknya pihak Belanda kurang memanfaatkannya.

Ada rencana  pihak Pemerintah daerah Setempat  untuk lebih  mengalang potensi turisme ini kurang lebih  semacam tempat peringatan Perang dunia Kedua seperti dipulau santosa Singapore (kapitulasi Inggris  kepada jepang atau Bataan  dan Corregidor di Filipina)


Catatan dr Iwan

Dari Buku Bandung, saya membaca bahwa kejadian ini pada tanggal 7 Maret 1942 malam hari,Immamura melarang diambil photo, untung ada sebuah lukisan yang dibuat oleh opsir Jepang dimana rapat malam hari terlihat adanya penerangan  lampu









Dai Nippon Bicycle army troops  entering Batavia(now Jakarta)

Japanese bicycle troops entering Batavia, Java Island, Dutch East Indies, March 8th 1942


Japanese bicycle troops entering Batavia, March.8th, 1942

Bandung and Surabaya and all Java occupied by Dai Nippon army



After capitulation Kalijati, General h.Ter Porten became POW

Look his Identity Card below


The 9th of March,

when we were in the recreation-room from our boarding-school while all the girls were looking through the windows into the streets,

the Japanese entered Malang.

Henny and I stood there together.

They came on bicycles or were just walking. They looked terrible, all with some cloth attached at the back of their caps, they looked very strange to us. This was a type of Japanese we had never seen before. Much later I learnt that many Koreans also served as shock-troops in the Japanese Army.

The nuns went to the chapel to pray for all those living in the Dutch East Indies.  But the Dutch East Indies is lost forever.

Dutch a forbidden language

My father found it too dangerous for my mother and youngest sister Jansje to stay with him at Sumber Sewu, because there were still small groups of Australian, English and Dutch military fighting in the mountains in East Java against the Japanese troops, notwithstanding the fact that the Dutch East Indies government and Army had surrendered.

My mother and Jansje came to stay at our boarding school [at Malang], where there were small guest rooms. We all stayed inside the building, only the Indonesians working for the nuns went outside to do the shopping.

A few days later we received the order that all Dutch schools had to be closed down, so several parents came to take their daughters. The school looked empty and abandoned. We all felt very sad, our happy schooldays were over.

Dutch became a strictly forbidden language. Luckily we had a huge library at school so I had lots of books to read in those days.

A few weeks later my father phoned my mother and said that the four of us should return to Sumber Sewu as he had heard that Malang was no longer a safe place for us to stay.

I was really very happy to be back home. Rasmina, our cook, and Pa Min, our gardener, were happy to have my mother back again. There was absolutely nothing to fear on the plantation, the “Indonesians” (actually Javanese and Madurese) on the plantation were nice as ever and we didn’t see any Japanese soldiers around.

Indeed we were safer at Sumber Sewu. Life began to feel like a vacation,

I started walking with my father again and visited the local kampung (village) and since we had no more newspapers to read, I started reading several of my parent’s books.

We received a Japanese flag, together with the order that the flag had to be respected and had to hang in the garden in front of our house.

My father no longer received his salary, just like all the other Dutch, British, Americans and Australians, living in Indonesia. All our bank accounts were blocked; no one was even allowed to touch their own money.

We still had rabbits and eggs to eat, and several vegetables my mother and Pa Min had planted long before the war in the kitchen garden, and we had many fruit trees.

The thought that we might have to leave Sumber Sewu made me feel very sad. To me this plantation was a real paradise on earth, with its pond in front of the house with the two proud banyan trees, the lovely garden my mother and Pa Min had made, the kitchen where Rasmina made so many delicious meals. The sounds early in the morning, and the sounds in the evening were also very special, I can still remember them so well.

Of course we hoped that this Japanese occupation would soon be over. My father had broken the seal of the radio, hoping that he could get some more news from outside Java.


My mother and her three daughters.

The 8th of March 1942, the Dutch Army on Java surrendered to the Japanese Army

(info from Elizabeth Van Kampen)

Destination Railroad


Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign 1941-1942

Shortly afterwards the downtrodden, defeated and humiliated remnants of the Royal Netherlands Indies Army and Allied Forces are bundled off to Batavia, for all we know to work in a large camp. A hastily scribbled note to Lisa, telling her of our moving and not to worry, is taken by a friendly Indonesian, bless him, who promises to deliver it. How am I to know that shortly after our departure, Lisa too will put put into a concentration camp with our little baby Mary-Em!

After arrival at Batavia, our heads are shaved and a number pinned on our uniforms. Sonei, the Jap commander, is confronted with a man who has refused to be shaved. Calmly he takes this man by the hand and leads him to a chair under a glaring electric globe. Guards pin the arms down. Then Sonei himself winds some hair locks round and between the scissor blades, their points resting on the scalp, and forcibly jerks them up. A scream of pain from the wriggling victim, a bloody patch where a bunch of hair is torn out by the roots. The operation is repeated until the head turns into a red pulp and the unconscious man is carried away. Naturally we all have to witness it. A creature like Sonei must have an audience watching, as a final touch to heighten the pleasure of inflicting pain. The most horrifying part of the ghastly performance is that Sonei’s face had not for a moment lost its expression of loving care while manipulating the instrument. How sweet it would be to slowly kill this gentleman, with similar meticulous care. But would we? Would we lower ourselves to his level?


Capt. Kenichi Sonei (postwar photo)

Photo Source: Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

After everyone is shaven we fall in for roll-call. It is then that we finally hear what our lot is to be: transport to Singapore, then to Thailand to work on the construction of a railroad from Bangkok right through the jungle of Thailand to Moulmein in Burma. As work-slaves no doubt. The fall down the hill has truly begun.

We may have lost our hair, dignity, self-respect, but there is one thing we stubbornly hang on to – a firm belief in the ultimate superiority of the Allied Forces. They will win in the end, come what may. The Jap knows, feels this, and how he hates it. How he loathes this undefeatable belief which he reads in our eyes looking down on him. Most of us are taller than him, whatever his rank in the Imperial Army. Standing upright, we have to lower our eyes to look at the enemy when addressed by him. It stirs up an inferiority complex than can manifest itself only in a frenzy of kicking and punching. But all the time those eyes keep looking down on him, until they become glazed with pain and the victim of the day is brought down. To break that hated spirit, shatter that incredible, white man’s morale, is their daily aim. Very little is left untried by the cowards to achieve that end. Yes, cowards, no matter what has been said about the high fighting morale of the Japanese forces. Anyone among them who is capable of doing this to defenseless people is of the same base quality of which cowards are made. False rumours about landings or victorious operations by the Americans are spread among our men by the Japs themselves, by dropping a hint or casual remark. The object, of course, is to stimulate optimism, only to cut it down again by contrary evidence. A system adopted from the German Gestapo to drive us to frustration.


Image Source:

There is the black day when two escapees, mere boys, are captured and brought before the closed ranks to die. Tied up to the barbed wire fence, they are blindfolded and then butchered with bayonets. Their pitiful groans are blotted out by the hoarse shrieks from the thrusting, lunging robots who do their work according to some weird ritual: two thrusts in the throat, two in the belly and finally two in the heart. At another time a captured soldier is tied to a post, condemned to perish at the hand of a one-man firing squad. The bespectacled Nip is unable to do his job properly whilst the doomed man possesses a horrifyingly strong constitution. Time after time the shots ring out, sending wood splinters flying through the air from the post he is strapped to. All the time the victim remains standing on his feet, crying for water, until suddenly his legs fold and he sags forward in the ropes, into merciful death.

Two days later, in the middle of the night, there is the sound of a rifle being fired. A shouting of men, lights are switched on and doors flung open. From the barbed wire fence between two sheds hangs a prisoner, dead, shot between the eyes. Nearby stands a Nip guard, rifle in the crook of his arm. He explains that he found the prisoner trying to escape over the wire, ignoring an order to stand back. We do not believe that. We think that the man, on his way to the latrines, had been forced at gunpoint to step close to the fence on the pretext of something or other, and then shot in cold blood. But who is to know? Even Sonei seems to have doubts, for he orders the guard to disarm himself and step into the office. Sonei closes the door with one hand, unbuckling his belt with the other. The sound of leather on skin and the moans are music to our ears. Sonei seems a man of principles. One may torture or kill a prisoner of war for a little or big thing he is guilty of, but first there must be legal proof of his “crime.”


The C.I.C.
Photo of Lt. General Hein ter Poorten in Japanese captivity
Image Source: Tropenmuseum Collection, via Wikipedia

On the day of departure to Singapore our former Governor-General and also our Chief-in-Command of the Dutch Forces, both with heads shaven, are placed on top of our gear piled in the lorry. The message of this reads, that’s all they are good for, only to look after the rank-and-files’ baggage. But we know that these top-ranking men had been offered a place in the last airplane to Australia, and that both had declined. That is good enough for us to regard them still as G.G. and C.I.C. [1]


Image Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon

Like cattle for the meat market, we are loaded into the ‘ tween decks and the lower holds of a former Dutch freighter moored alongside the customs wharf of Batavia’s harbour. Packed like peas in a pod, with hardly room to turn around. The odour of sweating bodies is sickening. Fortunately when we are out on the open sea a number of our men are sent to the upper deck, bringing some relief to the others down below. The situation worsens when the vessel starts to roll and many become seasick, splattering vomit on their fellow prisoners.

Then, look, a man gets out an old, battered accordion and begins to play. Holy cow, can he play! Many turn to look at him and listen to evergreen tunes and airs known all over the world. First a few start to sing, faltering at the beginning. But then they catch on and others join in. The voices take on the beat of the accordion, feeling one another out. More follow, and more, into a massive choir of prisoners singing with heart and soul. Angry orders are yelled down from the bridge but for once they are ignored. To the men this is the one way to fight the fear of the unknown future, to hit back at the enemy. Hundreds of voices sing in praise of the green hills of England and Ireland, the white beaches of Australia, the fair dunes of Holland and the bonnie lads of Scotland. And this choir, this multiplied scream of hope and longing, this prayer rises from the bottom of the cattle ship, soaring upwards, high above the upper deck where bullet-heads gaze down in amazement. Rising higher yet, above the masts and gliding seagulls and the drifting clouds, into the blue sky. Is there Someone to hear us?

After two days we disembark at Singapore and are taken to the A.I.F. and Changi camps. Our group is assigned to the A.I.F. sector, mainly populated by Australian prisoners of war, in whose hands the entire management rests. The only time a Nip is seen is on a work detail outside the camp’s perimeter. Food, of course, is scarce but at least orders in hated Japanese are not being screamed at us. Instead there is the calm, friendly Australian tongue telling us the rules and do-nots of the camp. One may even ask questions. There is also a clean place to eat and sleep. There are benches under palm trees on the lawn where one may watch a game of cricket. A man strolls up to me, offering his hand to shake, a man wiry and deeply tanned, in his middle thirties with firm features and blue eyes. Jack, of the Australian Engineers Corps, welcomes me into the workshop to become a carpenter’s hand. No experience in the trade is required. Cutting axe-handles is all there is to be done. On the first day I am observed and assessed. The verdict seems favourable and, in typical Australian manner, I am taken into their midst with good humoured profanity. One of Jack’s mates is a short man with big hands, hands enormously strong, they say. In the months that follow Jack becomes a close friend. Evenings after supper we play cards in the workshop compound or listen to stories, tall and short, about the Outback, the fishing, the drinking and of course the horse races. It’s good to be with them, hearing them talk of their great love, Australia.

Christmas Eve, 1942. The garrison church, a weather-beaten shed with holes in the roof, is packed. The small, well-kept lawn in front is crowded with listeners. Visible through the open windows is the tree, adorned with tin stars and a few candles. “Silent Night, Holy Night” brings a knife through my heart. I want to run away from it all.

The name “Lisa” tattooed on my right arm brings me fully awake early on Christmas morning. What happened? I remember that we had a little celebration with my Aussie mates in the workshop after church, that each of us got a pint of fair dinkum Amontilado sherry, well matured all these months hidden in the soil under the flooring. I must have got drunk. Jack confirms it, adding that they felt that each of the guests should have a little memento of the gathering. Anyway I didn’t seem to have objections; I had already passed out when they started on me.

My brother Han is reported seen in the hospital area of Changi. On my way there, good care is taken to salute the Sikh guards in the correct manner. Calling themselves “Free Indians,” they have gone over to the enemy. A mean lot they are, worse than the Japs when it comes to finding an excuse for bashing us up. A chapel stands further down the road, its door open. Inside, an Aussie on a step ladder repairing the stained-glass window says “Howdy” without looking up from his work. On an impulse, I take a seat before the small altar and bow my head. But words will not come. Do I still believe? Then it all wells up, gushing forth into violent prayer. A moment later I am outside again, feeling much relieved. Han is not in the hospital and, thanks to the Lord, not in the ever growing plot of mounds of freshly dug soil. Back in my camp Han runs to meet me at the gate, and all is well.


“The wizard on the accordion”
Han Samethini (circa 1941)

Photo Source: Han Samethini Collection

Han, the wizard on the accordion as he is known, is craving to try his hand again on the keyboard of a piano. He hasn’t touched one in donkey years. We find the officer in charge of entertainment, sporting a fierce martial moustache, supervising a Shakespeare play performed in the open air theatre. First he attempts to ignore us, but we plant ourselves right in front of him.

“Yes?” with contempt in his eyes for the two foreigners who dare to interrupt his listening. We tell him.

“Yes, of course that’s a piano there on the stage – but not for amateurs, thank you. However, there’s another one in the church which could be made available at some time or other. But mind, none of this swing music. We do not permit jazz in church.”

The chappie is pathetic. Not wishing to waste another word on the empire builder, we return to our section, which happens to border on the entertainment grounds. Han takes the old “squeeze box” from the hook, accepting a tailor-made cigarette from one of the boys who anticipates what is coming. Bonnie Banks of Loch Lomond is followed by When Irish Eyes Are Smiling and Beautiful Dreamer. When he gets to Tipperary, everyone in the open air theatre has walked out on the Bard to join us in the great sing-song, led by the amateur.

A few days later Han is gone again, up north. Then, at bed time, the news is circulated about an American landing on Java, with not only the exact date also the details of the number of warships and aircraft. Could this be the real thing? The boys of the work shop have access to certain channels. A clandestine radio has been mentioned in a very roundabout way by Jack himself. Let’s check with him. It is pitch dark now, but I know the way blindfolded.

First, down the steps leading to the rear of the barracks. Here is the foot path to the latrines – yes, here they are, no need to see, they smell fitfully. And here now are the clotheslines. Careful, don’t bump your head on the posts (ouch! – here’s one). A few more strides, now turn sharply to the right to get by the garbage incinerators (a feeble glow of burning cinders, that’s it). Circle and up the hill path screened by a bamboo hedge. Yes, that’s the foliage, more darkly outlined in the night. From the summit of the hillock the silhouette of the workshop is easily made out in the distance against the brighter night sky. Going down, one is quickly absorbed in the blanket of darkness. Here is the foot of the hill. Now across the “little meadow”, as it’s called by the boys, where bullfrogs have their domain. Quickly sliding down, I step carefully through wet grass – goodness, what a racket the frogs are making tonight. Another hundred yards or so and the plank over the ditch should be reached, right in front of the workshop. Good grief, the grass in the darkness is so slippery….Blast it! A soft, clammy thing moves under my foot sole – damn frogs. My breathing goes too fast. Calm down. Wait, that plank must be here, or here. Let me feel with my foot. The ditch is pretty deep, Jack had said. Nothing. Must have gone in the wrong direction. Damn it, how to get back in such darkness?

A hand is pressed with great force on my mouth, the other pinning my arms down. My heart skips a beat or two before enough senses are recovered to throw my body weight over on one leg, kicking high with the other, backwards and upwards. A whispered four-letter word, and the hand is taken away from my hurting lips. Quickly I call his name, recognizing the big, strong hands. There is a pause. Then, bringing his mouth to my ear, he whispers, “Get the hell out of here. Go back to the Dutch sector as fast and as quiet as possible. Forget what happened tonight. Piss off, but for cripesake, don’t let anyone see you!” Without a sound he is swallowed up in the night. The frogs are clanging like gongs.

It is late when finally, after sneaking back to my sector, I slip under the blanket. For Pete’s sake, what has happened?

The following morning the Dutch section is put into trucks and we are on our way to Singapore. Passing Changi gaol, we notice numerous handkerchiefs waving through the barred window slots. They are white women and children. Women whose lot will be more hazardous because of their sex, but who still can find the time to bid us farewell and good luck.

After several hours waiting at the railway station in Singapore we are loaded, no, pressed, with force and rifle butt into a steel cargo van. So many that I feel every bone and knuckle of bodies pressed hard on my chest, face and back. Unbelief and then fear is taking possession of my mind. In a matter of seconds I am boxed in a great mass of damp, hot flesh. Perspiration bursting from all my pores trickles down my back and stomach in long rivulets. Beneath my feet the wheels start to roll: ding-dong, ding-dong, then faster, ding-dang, ding-dang, ding-dang. It is pitch dark save for a pinpoint of light through a nail hole in the roof. A am completely drenched in my own sweat and theirs. Pressed like sardines a can, it is utterly impossible to move an inch away from wide open mouths blowing stale air into my face. Oh my God, we’ll suffocate. My throat is parched and burning. All about me the stertorous breathing of men fighting for air. And the wheels clang and hammer their ding-dang, ding-dang. Somebody yells, “Open the door, you bloody bastards, murderers!”, his scream vibrating against the hot tin roof. It sets off a general pushing, twisting and kicking. My shoulder is bitten. Howling, loud cursing, blasphemous and foul. Beasts, beset with all the possessive drive to get out at any cost. But nobody can move an inch. The compressed mass of our bodies is our own straight-jacket, keeping us pinned down on the spot where we are. Ding-dang, ding-dang. At last the uncontrolled screaming wears itself out into a hoarse groaning and gasping. The sharp odour of urine and dung of stark fear fills the air. Instinct for self-preservation has silenced us while we try to breathe slowly and sparingly in an attempt to stay alive as long as possible.

Oh God, Lisa, is this the end? With my heart pumping like mad, a cold anger is rising inside me against the rancid smelling, tacky skin of others glued on my face and back. Ding-dang, ding-dang. A little later the pounding of the wheels seems to become slower, and then the train pulls to a halt. An eternity later the bolts rattle and the doors of our oven are pushed aside.

Out we tumble and fall, throwing ourselves into a wonderful wide world filled with sweet, delicious air, as much as we want, in long drawn, panting gulps. A Jap officer has us fall in for numbering. Afterwards he expresses his regrets for the hardship suffered by our group as a result of a misinterpretation of his instructions to use three vans for our group, not just one. He is oh so sorry, but from now on there will be enough room for us and, in the same breath – will four men step forward for a burial? One of our men has been found dead, probably through suffocation or heart failure, take your pick. He must have died standing, shored up by the men jammed in the van. His could have been the body pressed against mine. After the burial our group is divided into three wagon loads with buckets of food and water. First class treatment we call that, putting us in better spirits in spite of what has passed. We have grown hard. Death has become an everyday occurrence, and has lost its awe. The cynical thought crosses my mind that the dead man has followed up on that slogan of the courageous days before the invasion, that one about “better to die standing on our feet than to live further on our knees.”

For days more, all that we hear is the pounding of the wheels, blotting out conversation and even the mind. Only at night the wheels grow silent for an hour or so, while we step down for exercise and victualling. Most of the time is passed in sleeping, which is just as well, with a view of what is in store for us.

We awake to a loud silence. The train is stationary. A moment later the order to alight is given, then we are counted over and over again without giving us any reason for it. The word circulates among us that one of our men has jumped the train. Good luck to him, whoever he may be. He’ll need every bit of that


On 8 March,

 after the battle of Sittang Bridge where the Japanese destroyed two Indian brigades, they captured Rangoon, southern terminus of the supply line to China and the port of entry for lend-lease supplies.

Pushing on to the north, they had by mid-March reached the Toungoo-Prome line in central Burma, and though they did not finally gain victory there until early in May they had effectively blockaded China by the time the Indies had fallen.58)

1-VLG-IV flying the Curtiss Hawk 75A and 2-VLG-IV flying the Curtiss CW21 (originally)

Now i don´t know if VLG IV just had a surplus of pilots and added the hurricanes and were the only ones flying them (which i guess would make these two squadrons 4-VLG-IV and 5-VGL-IV as 3-VLG-IV was flying the buffallo 339D), or if they drew surplus pilots from wherever available and these 6 names all being from VLG IV is just a coincidence. After all it´s only 6 out of 24, but it´s a start.

Btw: Hamming and Hermans are both mentioned for crashing their Hurricanes during training (presumably between uncrating them and becomming operational on feb 16th) and as 1-VLG- IV and 2-VLG-IV still seem to be flying with their original aircraft at that time these 2 hurricane groups seem to be ´new´ groups… either that or everyone switched planes (which I hardly believe at that stage of the conflict).

These are the two original squadrons of the 4th Fighter Group. They are already in the game and, as you say, Dutch units can not upgrade until way too late. I don’t see a reasonable way to work them into the OOB

One way to upgrade to more modern aircraft is to disband some air units into others. The squadron returns with upgraded aircraft if the original aircraft assigned to it are no longer available in the pool. Hav e a number of



Dutch East Indie ‘s Beaufort



PBY squadrons training in May 42.

Need lots of training though…mid to high 20s for exp.

In order to get Hurricanes (and early in 42), the unit needs to have Hurricane as it’s upgrade (think they all upgrade to Kittyhawk…not sure) and no more of the original fighter (339D, Hawk or Demon) in the pool

I am shocked!!

I started up the game just to check… and the whole dutch airforce is a mess!! Actually the whole VLG-IV isn´t even it it!!… there´s VLG-III acting as a fighter group that VLG-IV should be… VLG-I has to many bomber groups… VLG-II has to many bomber groups… and I guess those would be the bombers of what VLG-III should be. And on a first glance I am sure the numbers are wrong too… dear oh dear how ever did I miss that for so long. *sigh* Starting to think a few missing hurricanes is peanuts now.

I am shocked!! I started up the game just to check… and the whole dutch airforce is a mess!!

 Actually the whole VLG-IV isn´t even it it!!… there´s VLG-III acting as a fighter group that VLG-IV should be… VLG-I has to many bomber groups… VLG-II has to many bomber groups… and i guess those would be the bombers of what VLG-III should be. And on a first glance I am sure the numbers are wrong too… dear oh dear how ever did I miss that for so long. *sigh* Starting to think a few missing hurricanes is peanuts now.

Our business in the field of fight, Is not to question, but to prove our might.

Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (ML-KNIL)
["Military Aviation of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army"]


ML-KNIL Martin 166 bombers over Malaya in January 1942

ML-KNIL Headquarters at Soerabaja – Java
Commander of ML-KNIL  was Colonel E.T. Kengen, later replaced by Lt-General L. H. van Oyen


Air Vice-Marshal Conway Pulford

greeting pilots of the ML-KNIL in Singapore, January 1942.

• Ie Vliegtuiggroep (VLG-I) at Andir airfield, Bandoeng – Java
- 1e Afdeling (1-VLG-I) with 9 Martin 139 WH-3/3A (+2 reserve)
[Patrouille Butner deployed to Tarakan - Dutch Borneo]
- 2e Afdeling (2-VLG-I) with 9 Martin 139 WH-3/3A (+2 reserve)
[Patrouille Cooke deployed to Samarinda II - Dutch Borneo]

• IIe Vliegtuiggroep (VLG-II) at Singosari airfield, Malang – Java
- 1e Afdeling (1-VLG-II) [four patrouille]
with 3 Martin 139 WH-2 and 9 Martin 139 WH-3/3A (+3 reserve)
attached: WH-1 Patrouille with 3 Martin 139 WH-1 (+1 reserve)
[mobilized at Kalidjati airfield from flight school personnel on 10 December 1941 - under command of MLD]

• IIIe Vliegtuiggroep (VLG-III) at Tjililitan airfield, Batavia – Java
- 1e Afdeling (1-VLG-III) with 9 Martin 139 WH-3/3A (+2 reserve)
- 2e Afdeling (2-VLG-III) with 9 Martin 139 WH-2 (+2 reserve)
- 3e Afdeling (3-VLG-III) with 9 Martin 139 WH-3/3A (+2 reserve)
[formed 1 September 1939 by redesignation of 2-VLG-II]
attached: – 7e Afdeling Horizontale Bommenwerpers
with 1 Martin 139 WH-2, 2 Martin 139 WH-3, 6 Martin 139 WH-3A
[formed 1 August 1940 - mobilized 15 December 1941]

• IVe Vliegtuiggroep (VLG-IV) at Maospati airfield, Madioen – Java
- 1e Afdeling (1-VLG-IV) at Maospati airfield, Madioen – Java with 12 Hawk 75A-7
- 2e Afdeling (2-VLG-IV) at Maospati airfield, Madioen – Java with 16 CB-21B
[with four Patrouilles]
- 3e Afdeling (3-VLG-IV) at Maospati airfield, Madioen – Java
[formed upon mobilization with Brewster 339D from school personnel]

• Ve Vliegtuiggroep (VLG-V) based at Semplak airfield, Buitenzorg – Java
- 1e Afdeling (1-VLG-V) with Brewster 339D
- 1 and 2 Patrouilles at Samarinda II – Dutch Borneo
- 3 Patrouille at Singkawang II – Dutch Borneo
- 2e Afdeling (2-VLG-V) with Brewster 339D
- 3e Afdeling (3-VLG-V) with Brewster 339D

• Ambon Patrouille with Brewster 339D (4)
[formed upon mobilization at Maospati airfield, Madieon - Java designated as 4e Patrouille, 2-VLG IV? considered as a detachment from 1-VLG IV? transferred to Laha airfield, Ambon on 3 December 1941]

- Verkenningsafdeling 1 (VkA-1) at Tjikembar airfield – Java
with 12 CW-22 and 1 C.X assigned to ML-KNIL headquarters
- Verkenningsafdeling 2 (VkA-2) at [Djokjakarta - Java]
with 11 CW-22 and 2 C.X assigned to ML-KNIL headquarters
- Verkenningsafdeling 3 (VkA-3) at Kalidjati airfield – Java
with 12 FK-51 attached to First Military Department – formed on mobilization
- Verkenningsafdeling 4 (VkA-4) at Kalidjati airfield – Java
with 12 Lockheed 212 attached to Second Military Department – formed on mobilization
- Verkenningsafdeling 5 (VkA-5) at Kalidjati airfield – Java
with 12 FK-51 attached to Third Military Department – activated on mobilization

• ML-KNIL Depot at Maospati airfield, Madioen – Java
• ML-KNIL Technical Training School at Andir airfield, Bandoeng – Java
• ML-KNIL Flight School at Kalidjati airfield, near Soebang – Java
• ML-KNIL Flight School at Singosari airfield, Malang – Java (Martin 139)

Marine Luchtvaartdienst (MLD)
["Royal Netherlands East Indies Naval Air Force"]

Headquarters at Soerabaja – Java
• Do24K-2 (1) assigned to Commander MLD

Groepen Vliegtuigen ["Aircraft Groups"]

• GVT-1 with 3 Do24K-1 in Pontianak – West Borneo
• GVT-2 with 3 Do24K-1 in Sorong – New Guinea
• GVT-3 with 3 Do24K-1 in Soerabaja – Java
• GVT-4 with 3 Do24K-1 in Sambas – West Borneo
• GVT-5 with 3 Do24K-1 in Ternate – Moluccas
• GVT-6 with 3 Do24K-1 in Morokrembangan – Java
• GVT-7 with 3 Do24K-1 in Tarakan – East Borneo
• GVT-8 with 3 Do24K-1 in Paeloe Samboe – Sumatra
• GVT-11 with 4 C-XIW – (shipboard – cruisers)
• GVT-12 with 6 T-IVa in Morokrembangan – Java
• GVT-13 with 4 C-XIW – (shipboard – destroyers)
• GVT-14 with 5 T-IVa in Morokrembangan – Java
• GVT-16 with 3 Catalina in Tanjong Priok – Java
• GVT-17 with 3 Catalina in Halong – Ambon

• MLD flying school at Soerabaja – Java
[includes aircraft in reserve or in transit]
- 6 Dornier Wal planes
- 10 Do 24K-1 planes
- 1 Fokker T-IVa plane
- 6 Fokker C-XIVW planes
- 40 Ryan STM planes
- 30 PBY Catalina planes
[includes aircraft in transit]

This is a little OT, but I’m 2/3rd of the way done with 1/72nd scale model of a Hurricane and am now intrigured by this and I am now contemplating finishing the model as an NEIAF example. Does anyone know if they were Mk Is or Mk IIAs or Bs, did they have the trop filter and did they have the orange triangle or tricolor national markings?

BTW, in my mod to Scen 15, and prior to reading this thread, I had already tweaked the data base editor and changed the upgrade path for a couple of the NEIAF Buffalo Squadrons to convert to Hurricanes, if they survive until 07/42.

WAR IN THE PACIFIC: Admiral’s Edition – Air Team Lead



I think alot of this has been addressed in the CHS. When I have time tomorrow I’ll check

I see Mogami already came up with en extensive list closer to reality then is in the game now, but anyway… here´s my 5 cents worth:

As it is now:

B1-VIG-I 10 martin 139 (12) Batavia (Java)
B1-VIG-I 10 martin 139 (12) Batavia (Java)
B3-VIG-I 9 martin 139 (12) Batavia (Java)

B1-VIG-II 9 martin 139 (12) Singkawang (Borneo)
B2-VIG-II 6 martin 139 (12) Samarinda (Borneo)
B3-VIG-II 6 martin 139 (12) Madioen (Java)
B4-VIG-II 4 martin 139 (12) Tarakan (Borneo)
B5-VIG-II 4 martin 139 (12) Malang (Java)

F1-VIG-III 12 75A Hawk (12) Tjilitjap (Java)
F2-VIG-III 6 75A Hawk (8) Bandoeng (Java)
F3-VIG-III 12 CW-21B Demon (16) Bandoeng (Java)
F4-VIG-III 6 CW-21B Demon (8) Soerabaja (Java)
F5-VIG-III 6 Brewster 339D (16) Amboina (Ambon)

VIG-IV does not exist!!

F1-VIG-V 6 Brewster 339D (16) Batavia (Java)
F2-VIG-V 6 Brewster 339D (8) Singkawang (Borneo)
F3-VIG-V 6 Brewster 339D (8) Samarinda (Borneo)
F4-VIG-V 6 Brewster 339D (8) Tarakan (Borneo)

F1-VIG-V 6 Brewster 339D (16) Batavia (Java)
F2-VIG-V 6 Brewster 339D (8) Sinkawang (Borneo)
F3-VIG-V 6 Brewster 339D (8) Samarinda (Borneo)
F4-VIG-V 6 Brewster 339D (8) Tarakan (Borneo)

R1-VIG-VI 9 CW-22 (12) Bandoeng (Java)
R2-VIG-VI 9 CW-22 (12) Djokjakarta (Java)
R3-VIG-VI 10 FK-51 (12) Bandoeng (Java)
R4-VIG-VI 5 FK-51 (8) Tjilitjap (Java)
R5-VIG-VI 8 FK-51 (8) Malang (Java)
R6-VIG-VI 4 FK-51 (8) Djokjakarta (Java)
T7-VIG-VI 8 Locheed 212 (8) Malang (Java)
T8-VIG-VI 8 C60 Loadstar (8) Djokjakarta (Java)

Should be:

B1-VLG-I 11 martin 139 (12) Samarinda (Borneo)
B2-VLG-I 11 martin 139 (12) Singkawan (Borneo)

B1-VLG-II 19 martin 139 (12?) Malang (Java) *7 older models so 12 would be ok
B2-VLG-II 11 martin 139 (8?) Malang (Java) *3 older models so 8 would be ok
B3-VLG-II does not exist
B4-VLG-II does not exist
B5-VLG-II does not exist

B1-VLG-III 11 martin 139 (12?) Singapore (Malay)
B2-VLG-III 11 martin 139 (12?) Bandoeng (Java)
B3-VLG-III 11 martin 139 (12?) Singapore (Malay)
B7(attached)-VLG-III 9 martin 139 (8) Madioeng (Java) *1 older model so 8 would be ok

F1-VLG-IV 12 75A Hawk (12) Batavia (Java)
F2-VLG-IV 16 CW-21B Demon (16?) Bandoeng (Java)
F3-VLG-IV 4 Brewster 339D (8?) Amboina (Ambon)

F1-VLG-V 12 Brewster 339D (12) Samarinda (Borneo)
F2-VLG-V 5 Brewster 339D (8?) Sinkawang (Borneo)
F3-VLG-V 12 Brewster 339D (12) Singapore (Malay)

R1-VLG-VI should be VKA-1 12 CW-22 (12) Djokjakarta (Java)
R2-VLG-VI should be VKA-2 11 CW-22 (12) Djokjakarta (Java)
R3-VLG-VI should be VKA-3 12 FK-51 (12) Bandoeng (Java)
R4-VLG-VI should be VKA-4 12 Lockheed 212 (12) Bandoeng (Java) (Transport in the game)
R5-VLG-VI should be VKA-5 10 FK-51 (12) Bandoeng (Java)
R6-VLG-VI does not exist

T7-VLG-VI should be D-VI-A 19 Lockheed L18-40 (18?) Madioen (Java)
T8-VLG-VI does not exist

Oh.. and might as well add the original point that started this:

F4-VLG-IV (??) 12 Hawker Hurricane II (12) Bandoeng (Java) … arriving 16 Feb. 1942
F5-VLG-IV (??) 12 Hawker Hurricane II (12) Bandoeng (Java) … arriving 16 Feb. 1942

I can see now why the pilots came from VLG-IV, All other fighter pilots were either in Borneo or Malay so it stands to reason these planes were attached to this flightgroup.

(I am assuming they put the ´experienced´ pilots in these planes and gave any other relacement pilots from flightschool or hanging around for whatever other reasons a seat in planes they might actually be fermilliar with)

Mk IIb´s without radio and oxygen equipment. No pictures seem to have been taken, but according to discriptions they were left painted in their original RAf colours, RAF markings painted over with camouflage paint and a handpainted Dutch (red, white, blue) flag added on the tail. Might have been numbered 1 to 24 on the fuselage but thats not completely clear.

Our business in the field of fight, Is not to question, but to prove our might.

Oh and to make it all really nice and confusing… here´s one for the MLD that doesn´t really square up with Mogami´s one:

Dec 1941-Jan 1942:

GVT 1 with 3 Do24 at Pontianak
GVT 2 with 3 Do24 at Sorong
GVT 3 with 3 Do24 at Ambon (later Soerabaja)
GVT 4 with 3 Do24 at Ambon (later Sambas)
GVT 5 with 3 Do24 at Tandjong Priok (later Tondano)
GVT 6 with 3 Do24 at Sedanau (later Morokrembangan)
GVT 7 with 3 Do24 at Morokrembangan
GVT 8 with 3 Do24 at Morokrembangan
GVT 11 with 3 Fokker T.IVa at Kwam (later Morokrembangan)
GVT 12 with 3 Fokker T.IVa at Tarakan (later Morokrembangan)
GVT 13 with 4 Fokker C.XI at Morokrembangan and ships
GVT 14 with 4 Fokker C.XI at Morokrembangan and ships
GVT 16 with 3 PBY at Tandjong Priok
GVT 17 with 3 PBY at Ambon
GVT 18 with 3 PBY at Soerabaja

Flying School at Soerabaja with 10 Dornier Wal, 1 Fokker T.IV, 6 Fokker C.VII-W, 10 Fokker C.XIV-W, 40 Ryan ST, 5 Tiger Moth.
Yes it has been addressed by CHS. We have one more squadron (of transports). We also considered but decided against the MLD Recon Flight with three WH-1.

Also the Flying schools closed on mobilization – personnel used to form the additional squadrons (3rd fighter squadron of each group, 7e Afdeling, some others).

There is a post in the OOB issues thread with the CHS Dutch Air OOB

Forgive me for questioning this – as I do not speak Dutch (and have more than my share of problems with English).

I have noted the two different abbreviations for “Vliegtuiggroep” (Airplane Group):
VIG is used by several references, including Dr. Niehorster’s site and the “Bloody Shambles” series of books
VLG is used by The Dutch East Indies Campaign Website.

I used VIG simply because it was used in the original Scenario 15 OOB.

Please do see the post in Scenario Design / Game Editor, 1.40 OOB Issues, Page 4

Thanks, must have missed that.

To answer the question. Originally the abbreviation would be Vl.G. (Capital V small l for Vliegtuig and G for Group. I think the plroblem arrises because in some print Vl.G (Capital v, small l) looks the same as VI.G (Capital V, capital I).

There is no rule in the Dutch language that would ever abbreviate vliegtuig as vig. instead of vlg.

Not completely true:

There was only one official Transport group (D-VL-A) with the Lockheed L18-40.
The Lockheed 212 was classified as reckon (and as a secundary task transport) and made up VKA-4, am I to understand now that there will be yet another Tranpost group making it 3 while there only was 1 or did I misuderstand?.

VLG I (bomber) and II (bomber) had 2 groups.
VLG III (bomber) had 4 groups of which only the 4th (7th attached) was an additional ad-hoc squadron formed from flightschool personell. (Because 2 groups were send to Singapore making it 2 available groups for Java again)
VLG-IV (fighter) had 3 groups, the 3rd in the proces of being formed as planned but not up to strenght, different then being added ad-hoc.
VLG-V (fighter) had 3 groups, the 3rd in the proces of being formed as planned, not added ad-hoc.

So these 3rd groups were not ´formed from personell from the flying schools when they closed´, these groups were already planned official groups with planes ordered and personell attached in the organisational charts. They were brought up to strenght by adding extra personell (and in the case of VLG-V stripping other brewster squadrons of their spare planes to fill up to strenght because their own ordered planes hadn´t all arrived yet).

Only bringing this up because I would hate to fly groups just formed as a stop gap measure for the next 4 years of the war without them ever being disbanded. (just as I would hate to fly seperate 4 plane ´flights´ for 4 years while irl they would have reunited with their parent squadrons.

I have seen a number of contradictory sources on the squadrons of 2 and 3 Group. Several specifically mention the movement of one of 2nd Group’s squadrons to 3rd Group for the purpose of building a three-squadron group for use in Singapore.

I note that the extra squadron formed at the outbreak of the war is named “7th Squadron” and have decided to go with a total of seven squadrons:
2 in 1st Group
1 in 2nd Group
3 in 3rd Group
7th Squadron

In addition to the Lockheed 212s of VkAfdeling-4 the Dutch operated a number of Lockheed Lodestar L18-40 pure transports. I do not know the source of these aircraft but they are in addition to the force of DC-3s taken over from the civilian air company (KNLM?). These are usually listed as being in “Depot Vliegtuig Afdeling of the ML-KNIL” but I have seen at least one reference placing them in a “6th” squadron and have used VkAfdeling-6 in our OOB. I would appreciate any suggestions for a better name for this unit. The Depot Vliegtuig Afdeling transferred to Australia in February, 1942 and many of these Lodestars ended up with US or Australian forces in Australia:

LT9-07 (c/n 18-2102), radio call sign VHCAA, went to the USAAF as 42-68347 and was operated by Qantas. It served in Australia and New Zealand after the war before going to the USA where it was current in 2004 as N796G.

LT9-08 (c/n 18-2103), radio call sign VHCAB, went to the USAAF as 42-68348 and was operated by Qantas. It was written off on 26 November 1943 at Port Moresby.

LT9-09 (c/n 18-2104), radio call sign VHCAC, went to the USAAF as 42-68349 and was operated by Guinea Airways. It served in Australia and New Zealand after the war and was written off on 10 February 1947 at Palmerston, New Zealand.

LT9-14 (c/n 18-2109), radio call sign VHCAD, went to the USAAF as 42-68350. It was written off either on 14 July 1942 or in January 1944 at Tennant Creek.

LT9-15 (c/n 18-2110) was withdrawn from use in Darwin in March 1942 whilst still in ML-KNIL service.

LT9-16 (c/n 18-2120), radio call sign VHCAE, went to the USAAF as 42-68351 and was operated by Ansett. It was written off on 11 October 1942 at Archerfield.

LT9-17 (c/n 18-2121), radio call sign VHCAF, went to the USAAF as 42-68352 and was operated by ANA. It was written off on 23 February 1944 at Archerfield.

LT9-18 (c/n 18-2122) was written off on 3 March 1942 at Broome whilst still in ML-KNIL service.

LT9-19 (c/n 18-2123), radio call sign VHCAG, went to the USAAF as 42-68353 and was operated by ANA (?). It was written off on 18 August 1942 at Maple.

LT9-21 (c/n 18-2125), radio call sign VHCAH, went to the USAAF as 42-68354 and was operated by ANA. It was written off on 30 November 1942 at Dobodura, New Guinea.

LT9-22 (c/n 18-2126) was written off on 15 February 1942 at Brisbane whilst still in ML-KNIL service.

LT9-23 (c/n 18-2127), radio call sign VHCAI, went to USAAF as 42-68355. It was written off on 18 August 1942 at Maple. Sometimes reported as current as N7001 but that aircraft is c/n 2427.

LT9-24 (c/n 18-2128), radio call sign VHCAJ, went to the USAAF as 42-68356 and was operated by ANA. It was written off on 26 February 1943 at Garbutt.

LT9-25 (c/n 18-2129), radio call sign VHCAK, went to the USAAF as 42-68357 and was operated by Qantas. It was written off on 15 May 1944 at Bundaberg.

Also, the 212s are usually listed as “light transport – used for recon” and Matrix has listed them as transports (with an upgrade to Dakotas). I feel this is appropriate.

So yes, there were three transport groups in the NEI:
Light Transport/Recon 212s of VkAfdeling-4
Lockheed Lodestars of Depot Vliegtuig Afdeling
Impressed DC-3 Civilian aircraft (assignment not known).

Only the first two are included in our OOB.

There is no method to split groups in the scenario editor so the options are:
several small flights
ignore history and only use full squadrons

Matrix has chosen the former and I agree.

Although you did not mention it in your reply, I assume from the data in your post that I should rename the squadrons “VLG” without a period (NOT VL.G) – and I will do so.

I have seen a number of contradictory sources on the squadrons of 2 and 3 Group. Several specifically mention the movement of one of 2nd Group’s squadrons to 3rd Group for the purpose of building a three-squadron group for use in Singapore.

As far as I know there were indeed 3 squadrons send to Singapore: 1-VLG-III (bombers), 3-VLG-III (bombers) and 3-VLG-V (fighters).

3-VLG-III was originally the tranfered and renamed 2-VLG-II but that happened way before and had nothing to do with singapore, 2-VLG-II being rebuilt in the meantime to fill VLG-II as a 2 suadron group again.

I note that the extra squadron formed at the outbreak of the war is named “7th Squadron” and have decided to go with a total of seven squadrons:
2 in 1st Group
1 in 2nd Group
3 in 3rd Group
7th Squadron

In my opinion (but i might be wrong here) I, II and II were bombers, IV and V were fighters, VI was your later mentioned transport and that´s why the newly formed bomber ´squadron´ was named 7th (VII) before it was attached/merged with VLG-III to make up a 2 squadron group again.

In addition to the Lockheed 212s of VkAfdeling-4 the Dutch operated a number of Lockheed Lodestar L18-40 pure transports. I do not know the source of these aircraft but they are in addition to the force of DC-3s taken over from the civilian air company (KNLM?). These are usually listed as being in “Depot Vliegtuig Afdeling of the ML-KNIL” but I have seen at least one reference placing them in a “6th” squadron and have used VkAfdeling-6 in our OOB. I would appreciate any suggestions for a better name for this unit. The Depot Vliegtuig Afdeling transferred to Australia in February, 1942 and many of these Lodestars ended up with US or Australian forces in Australia:

The Lockheed L18-40´s were formed in D-VL-A (Depot Vliegtuig Afdeling), my guess would be the DC-3´s were added to these and thats why the number is sometimes given as 12 till as high as 19. According to ´official´ listings there were only 12 L18-40´s in depot and maybe another 2 pure training/flightschool which would leave some Dc-3´s to make up the numbers)

LT9-07 (c/n 18-2102), radio call sign VHCAA, went to the USAAF as 42-68347 and was operated by Qantas. It served in Australia and New Zealand after the war before going to the USA where it was current in 2004 as N796G.

LT9-08 (c/n 18-2103), radio call sign VHCAB, went to the USAAF as 42-68348 and was operated by Qantas. It was written off on 26 November 1943 at Port Moresby.

LT9-09 (c/n 18-2104), radio call sign VHCAC, went to the USAAF as 42-68349 and was operated by Guinea Airways. It served in Australia and New Zealand after the war and was written off on 10 February 1947 at Palmerston, New Zealand.

LT9-14 (c/n 18-2109), radio call sign VHCAD, went to the USAAF as 42-68350. It was written off either on 14 July 1942 or in January 1944 at Tennant Creek.

LT9-15 (c/n 18-2110) was withdrawn from use in Darwin in March 1942 whilst still in ML-KNIL service.

LT9-16 (c/n 18-2120), radio call sign VHCAE, went to the USAAF as 42-68351 and was operated by Ansett. It was written off on 11 October 1942 at Archerfield.

LT9-17 (c/n 18-2121), radio call sign VHCAF, went to the USAAF as 42-68352 and was operated by ANA. It was written off on 23 February 1944 at Archerfield.

LT9-18 (c/n 18-2122) was written off on 3 March 1942 at Broome whilst still in ML-KNIL service.

LT9-19 (c/n 18-2123), radio call sign VHCAG, went to the USAAF as 42-68353 and was operated by ANA (?). It was written off on 18 August 1942 at Maple.

LT9-21 (c/n 18-2125), radio call sign VHCAH, went to the USAAF as 42-68354 and was operated by ANA. It was written off on 30 November 1942 at Dobodura, New Guinea.

LT9-22 (c/n 18-2126) was written off on 15 February 1942 at Brisbane whilst still in ML-KNIL service.

LT9-23 (c/n 18-2127), radio call sign VHCAI, went to USAAF as 42-68355. It was written off on 18 August 1942 at Maple. Sometimes reported as current as N7001 but that aircraft is c/n 2427.

LT9-24 (c/n 18-2128), radio call sign VHCAJ, went to the USAAF as 42-68356 and was operated by ANA. It was written off on 26 February 1943 at Garbutt.

LT9-25 (c/n 18-2129), radio call sign VHCAK, went to the USAAF as 42-68357 and was operated by Qantas. It was written off on 15 May 1944 at Bundaberg.

Also, the 212s are usually listed as “light transport – used for recon” and Matrix has listed them as transports (with an upgrade to Dakotas). I feel this is appropriate.

Well in my Dutch sources they are usually listed as recon flight (VKA-4) but i aggree with their designation as transports and eventual upgrade.

So yes, there were three transport groups in the NEI:
Light Transport/Recon 212s of VkAfdeling-4
Lockheed Lodestars of Depot Vliegtuig Afdeling
Impressed DC-3 Civilian aircraft (assignment not known).

Well that´s a matter of symantics, officially VKA-4 is a recon flight and I still assume the DC-3´s and L18-40 together form D-VL-A so that would make it one transport group in name total.

Only the first two are included in our OOB.

There is no method to split groups in the scenario editor so the options are:
several small flights
ignore history and only use full squadrons

Matrix has chosen the former and I agree.

We will have to aggree to dissagree on this one then, the only detached flights I know of were meanth as a ´token´ resistance (show of force) and assumed to return to their squadrons as soon as hostillities broke out. So just for that we now have to fly useless 4 plane groups till 1945 while irl they would have returned to their parent squadrons and made up 12 plane groups again. (And don´t tell me people don´t bunch them together again anyway instead of leaving out 4 plane groups out in the cold alone). So as they were only inteneded to show token resistance, run and reform I would much prefer full strenght squadrons for the rest of the war (come on.. it´s 12 full strenght planes at most!)

Btw, technical question, why can´t they start out as /a /b parts that just reform later?

Although you did not mention it in your reply, I assume from the data in your post that I should rename the squadrons “VLG” without a period (NOT VL.G) – and I will do so.

Yes I think that might be most clear 1-VLG-IV for examle looks better to me then 1.Vl.G IV. which is still confusing as it looks like VI or a Roman numeral.



oops.. forgot my usual whine and the reason this tread here we go again:


Oh.. and might as well add the original point that started this:

F4-VLG-IV (??) 12 Hawker Hurricane II (12) Bandoeng (Java) … arriving 16 Feb. 1942
F5-VLG-IV (??) 12 Hawker Hurricane II (12) Bandoeng (Java) … arriving 16 Feb. 1942

I can see now why the pilots came from VLG-IV, All other fighter pilots were either in Borneo or Malay so it stands to reason these planes were attached to this flightgroup.

If we have those squadrons we can hold the DEI at last

B.t.w. I think in patch 1.5 the update path for the Dutch should include the Hurricanes. Somehow I think this is already the case.

Oh yeah, they will really really really (not!) make the difference! lol, will add some flavour though. In aircombat reports instead of own losses 100%, Japanese losses nil, I might actually see, own losses 99%, Japanese losses: 1 damaged (lightly)

True about the updates, I am sure they would have gotten some… eventually… if we held on to some more of the DEI, if we had a few more escaped pilots, if we weren´t incorporated into the RAF or RAAF, and if we had beggedddddd for it long enough.. lol.. if… if… if. (hmm… we might even have gotten 320th squadron transfereed to the pacific… should i ask if they can……. naww… better not

Well then here is my wish list..

Fokker G1
Fokker Fokker DXXI

With these two we can start making plans to invade Japan

 I believe that a total of four squadrons were sent to Singapore/Malaya. An agreement had been reached pre-war between the Dutch and the British in Singapore under which Dutch units were to reinforce the defenses of Singapore (and Malaya). This agreement provided for the assignment of three squadrons of bombers and 1 squadron of fighters to British command, as well as the deployment of Dutch submarines along the coast of Malaya. The Dutch air units sent to Singapore/Malaya included all three squadrons of III-Group and the Brewster Fighters of 2-VLG-V. However, 2-VLG-III (with Martins) was withdrawn quite early for additional training in night bombing (about the 15th of December) and was not present when the remaining air units were withdrawn from the Malayan peninsula to Singapore.

Your statement on 2-VLG-II is very interesting. I have seen several comments on the conversion of 2-VLG-II into 3-VLG-III and also a few references to a 2-VLG-II during the war. This is the first direct statement that I have seen to a rebuilding of 2-VLG-II. Somewhat intrigued I decided to approach the question from a different angle.

The total “WH” strength of the ML-KNIL at the outbreak of the war was:
11 WH-1
16 WH-2
28 WH-3
40 WH-3A
Total: 95. I have no data for the operational status of these aircraft and some were undoubtably out of service.

In reviewing the initial strengths of our new scenario, I find:
1-VLG-I – 11 aircraft (9 operational and 2 damaged) in 2 formations
2-VLG-I – 11 aircraft (9 and 2) in 2 formations
1-VLG-II – 15 aircraft (12 and 3) in 1 formation
1-VLG-III – 11 aircraft (10 and 1) in 1 formation
2-VLG-III – 11 aircraft (10 and 1) in 1 formation
3-VLG-III – 11 aircraft (9 and 2) in 1 formation
7e Afdeling – 9 aircraft (all damaged) in 1 formation
Aircraft pool for aircraft Martin-139: 22
Total 92 aircraft

We previously had the WH-1 Patrouille with 3 additional WH-1 but removed it as “too small”. This accounts for the three missing aircraft and I will adjust the pool to 25 to compensate.

The total aircraft allocation in the scenario is correct and the remaining question is the existance of an additiion squadron (2-VLG-II). I have no conclusive data to support the existance or non-existance of this unit as of December 8, 1941. I can find statements that make me suspect that it is, including your reference above, but I can also find statements that make me think it is not. The one source I have that specifically states that it is in existance is Dr. Niehorster’s site at: – which places it at Malang with 1-VLG-II.

This leaves me with two options and no conclusive evidence to select between them:
1: Include 2-VLG-II with 11 aircraft and reduce the pool to 14.
2: Exclude 2-VLG-II and leave the pool at 25.

Speaking purely from the perspective of game mechanics – losses will very quickly use up the aircraft in the pool and I doubt the value of an additional squadron. Squadrons will very soon have to be combined in order to maintain reasonable strength on surviving units.

This combination of conflicting data sources and questionable game mechanics leads me to leave out 2-VLG-II. I would welcome any additional data that would cause me to reconsider this decision.


In my opinion (but i might be wrong here) I, II and II were bombers, IV and V were fighters, VI was your later mentioned transport and that´s why the newly formed bomber ´squadron´ was named 7th (VII) before it was attached/merged with VLG-III to make up a 2 squadron group again.

I think there is some confusion between squadrons and groups. The ML-KNIL had five combat GROUPS:
I, II, and III were bomber groups
IV, and V were fighter groups.

Within the three bomber groups there were (I believe) six squadrons:

Thus, I believe, when an additional squadron was formed from reserve aircraft it was named 7th Squadron.

Agreed, I was going a bit quick around the bend I guess but that´s what i meanth. 3 in Singapore and 2-VLG-III back with the added 7th.

Interesting, several Dutch sources mention a number between 116 and 120, the best break up I can give is:
13 WH-1
26 WH-2
39 WH-3
39 WH-3A
Making it a total of 117, which seems exactly the difference to make up a second ´squadron´ for II group

I find it confusing that a 3 plane bomber patrol is to small, but in your previous posts you do aggree with independent 4 plane fighter patrols.

Dissagree (see above) that that is a correct total, think it should be 117 (Casius & Postma-40 jaar luchtvaart in Indie / P.C. Boer-De Luchtstrijd om Indie: Operaties van de Militaire Luchtvaart KNIL in de periode Dec. 1941-Mar. 1942 / J.W.T. Bosch-De Militaire Luchtvaart van het Koninklijk Nederlands-Indisch Leger in oorlog 8 Dec. 1941-10 Mar. 1942 etc. etc.)

As I also come across different accounts I find it hard to believe all of them would be mistaken and mention a non existing unit.

I don´t really see the problem with withdrawing/combining, pretty much the same result as taking from the pool and much closer to what happened irl. (and atleast with the advantage that later in the war you might get the unit back upgraded and up to strenght.
The way it is now 25 planes will appear out of nowhere, it´s not like they had a bunch of them standing ready to fill up loses. And if they had, there would definately be a 2-VLG-II thereby avouding this whole discussion)

Well yes, that always gives some reason for confusion because of the differnce in language and oranisation. But in this case I think the confusion lies with you (if you don´t mind me saying). Aggree with your statement above, but then we get into the misunderstanding part. The basic unit in the KNIL (as opposed to in the MLD) was the GROEP, not the afdeling/squadron (notice the recon ´adelingen are all especially mentioned as ´ independent c.q. ´not belonging to a group´, something ya wouldn´t need to add if it was the basic unit) Now I aggree you can name the parts (afdelingen) of the group squadrons for clarity. This indeed means 3 bomber with you say 6 (I say 7) squadrons and 2 fighter groups with 6 squadrons. But then it get´s interesting… there is D-VI-A, what you call the (independent) transport squadron. But in Dutch sources it is the transportGROEP making it the 6th GROEP (Depot-Vliegtuiggroep VI-Adeling). However because this group is made up of one afdeling/squadron the names groep and afdeling are interchangeable. Now we come to the 7th ´afdeling´. As this is a ´thrown together´ bomber formation of one afdeling not attached to anything else, again the names are interchangable. So what in english you could call 7th squadron in Dutch would be the 7th afdeling/groep, making it GROEP VIII.
Now what has happened I summise however is that because it had no administrative organisation, and Groep III was only one afdeling, VII was atached to III making up a group with 2 afdelingen again. This however did not mean that a unit called 7th ´squadron´was added to goup III, but that VII was attached to II to form one unit.

lol… Iknow I made a mess of that explenation, so in short.. yes you are right, there were 5 COMBAT groups, but then add the 6th TRANSPORT group, which makes the 7th added bomber ´squadron´ actually the 7th GROUP seeing that it was unattached to any other group and the GROEP is the basic unit (notice it says it was attached to III group, not incorporated into it).

Wish i could explain it better but in Dutch there are different words for different situations which in English I only know how to discribe with one and the same word.


Just an adition about the B-10 Series “Martin Bombers”:

´The Dutch were the best customers, buying 120 planes in four different versions for the defense of their rich Indonesian colonie´s.´

*The Glenn L. Martin Maryland Aviation Museum*

< Message edited by Dutchgy2000 — 3/7/2005 4:52:38 AM >

The total Dutch purchase of Martin Model-139 was 120 units (in 4 sub-models). Of these 95 are reported operational as of December 8, 1942. You are very correct that my total of the operational units and the pool is incorrect. The difference is the 9 aircraft of 7e Afdeling that are apparently still in the “pool” at this time. I will reduce the pool to 16.

Yes, I do feel the 4-aircraft detachments on Borneo are worth including and I do not feel the 3 aircraft WH-1 Patrouille is worth including.

There are many good points in this discussion but I am not convinced that another bomber squadron named 2-VLG-II should be added. I remain convinced by  2-VLG-II was redesignated 3-VLG-III.


Matrix Games Forums

Dutch hurricanes


 (4) Japanese Capitulation Java Postal history Cover

Sent  from Bandung February 17th, 1942 to Tjiandjoer arrived in february,28th cannot bring to the address because situation one month this cover still in Tjiandjoer  and send to sender but cannot found  and the letter send back to sender April, 4th 1942 . this  very rare potal history cover , postally used cover from DEI Armed forces Headquater Bandung official free stamp covers and return back to Dai Nippon Occupation Military Headquater Bandung

In this month all the post office in Java not operational the letter send from Bandung February 17 1942 to Tjiandjoer arrived in february,28th, but cannot bring to sender because of the Dai nippon landed at Merak and marching to Jakarta (batavia) March,5th and capitulation Kalidjati Armyport March,8th 1942. this letter send to sender but cannot found  and the sletter send back to sender April, 4th 1942 .

Please look carefully this  very rare historic postal used cover from DEI Armed forces Headquater Bandung official free stamp covers and return back to Dai Nippon Occupation Military Headquater Bandung below





March 9th,1942

At Fort Menari,

Frank Samethini and his comrades obeyed the command with heavy hearts:

In bitter silence they come, from the firing positions, from the big guns so perfectly camouflaged against air attack.


They come to pile arms and ammunition in one big heap before the commander’s bunker.


This has been ordered by the Imperial Japanese Army, which will arrive to take over tomorrow.


 We all go to the canteen to drink, and drink. “Here’s to victory, blast the Japs!” sounding hollow and desperate. [13]

Han heard the report of capitulation at a hospital in Malang.

By this time he’d recovered sufficiently from the malaria to get back on his feet.

He surrendered to the local Japanese occupation troops on March 9.

In his own words, “I marched straight from the hospital to the POW camp.”


Reflecting on the lopsided struggle that was the NEI Campaign over 40 years later, he commented sadly, “We had rifles, some machine guns, some artillery, and a few tanks.

They gave us a little bit of training. But we were not really an army. We were just a police force.” [14]

After more than three centuries of proud mastery in the East Indies, the Dutch had been overthrown in just three months

(ibid Elizabeth Van Kampen)

On 12 March 1942

 the senior British, Australian and American commanders were summoned to Bandung where the formal instrument of surrender was signed in the presence of the Japanese commander in the area,

 Lieutenant-General Masao Maruyama,

 who promised them the rights of the Geneva Convention for the protection of prisoners of war.


Other Australians captured on Timor (from 2/40th Infantry Battalion, a component of Sparrow Force) were transferred to Java and Singapore, and then to Thailand, Japan and elsewhere. Australian troops were imprisoned in several camps in Java, particularly Bandung camp, under Lieutenant Colonel E. E. “Weary” Dunlop. In October 1942 this group and others were moved to Makasura, near Batavia. In January 1943, as part of the 900-strong Dunlop Force (under Lieutenant Colonel Dunlop) the prisoners were transported from Java to Konyu, Thailand


Beyond Wallacia

Wallacia denotes the overlapping of Asian and Australian bio-geographical areas. This ensures an interesting mix of species.

ANZAC Day in Indonesia 70 years after the Battle of Java



 this year to inform Australian residents in Indonesia of commemorations marking ANZAC Day –

 the memorial day shared by Australia and New Zealand. In Jakarta, the capital city, the Dawn Service is traditionally held in the picturesque Allied War Cemetery in Menteng Pulo.

Unlike Dawn Services in Australia conducted by the RSL, Jakarta’s for some reason continues a specific Christian reference; perhaps this is due to the sharing of management with the New Zealand Embassy. Regardless, as in the cities and towns in Australia and New Zealand, the event continues to grow in numbers, including, over recent years, a delegation from the Indonesian Legion. 

In East Kalimantan on Borneo island, the Indonesia Australia Business Council is publicising the Balikpapan Dawn Service alongside its special networking event the evening before.



This year’s commemoration should have special significance to Australians; it marking the 70th anniversary of the Japanese Army’s occupation of Malaya and Singapore (and capture of six Australian battalions), their invasion of the Netherlands East Indies (Indonesia), their bombing of northern Australia and the Australian militia’s resistance to their attack along the Kokoda Track in New Guinea until relieved by regular army units.



relied on British embassies and missions for its diplomatic representation – the first two embassies only being opened in Tokyo and Washington in 1940 – and when the Australian government’s only independent sources of economic and military intelligence in the region was from private business executives and the thin network of federal and state trade commissioners.


One such contributor was Gordon Bowden, an experienced Shanghai-based trader, who was recruited to establish an Australian Trade Office in that city in 1935, just 18 months before Japan’s declaration of war on China.

 Japan’s invasion caused the closure of the office in 1940 and Bowden was relocated to Singapore as Australian Commissioner. From there he warned the Australian government of the worsening military situation and the inadequacy of Singapore’s defences.

On 9 Feb 1942,

the day before the Japanese entered the island, he reported he could leave immediately on a cargo ship; however he was instructed to stay at his post as Australia’s most senior civilian official otherwise Canberra “would be deprived of independent information and effect on morale would be bad’. 


On 15 Feb,

after the British surrender, he and two colleagues escaped on a small boat to Sumatra where they were intercepted and forced to land on Bangka island.  At Muntock, Bowden tried to explain his diplomatic status but was then beaten by Japanese guards and taken outside. According to later reports, was shot after being forced to dig his own grave.


MEANTIME ON JAVA, AUSTRALIA’S TRADE COMMISSIONER to the Dutch-controlled East Indies, Herbert Anton Peterson, moved his office from Batavia (now Jakarta) to Bandung as the Japanese navy won sea battles in the Sunda Straits and Java Sea.

His wife was safely back in Australia but he had already lost one son in airborne operations and another was a POW in Italy.

In Bandung, Peterson visited Australian women who had decided to remain with their families and distributed cash to those who needed it. Austrade’s local staff hid Trade Commission documents, closed the office and disbursed until the end of the Japanese occupation.  

On 3 Mar,

 Paterson drove all-night from Bandung to Chilacap where he boarded a small, 1,200 t Dutch freighter with other diplomats (including the British Consul-General, staff and families) and 2,000 others. HMAS Ballarat was the very last vessel to leave Chilacap that day.



AT 09:00 ON 8 MAR,

 THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF of the Allied forces, Ter Poorten, announced the surrender of the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army in Java. On 12 Mar, the senior British, Australian and American commanders were summoned to Bandung where the formal instrument of surrender was signed in the presence of the Japanese commander in the area, Lieutenant-General Masao Maruyama, who promised them the rights of the Geneva Convention for the protection of prisoners of war.


Other Australians captured on Timor (from 2/40th Infantry Battalion, a component of Sparrow Force) were transferred to Java and Singapore, and then to Thailand, Japan and elsewhere. Australian troops were imprisoned in several camps in Java, particularly Bandung camp, under Lieutenant Colonel E. E. “Weary” Dunlop. In October 1942 this group and others were moved to Makasura, near Batavia. In January 1943, as part of the 900-strong Dunlop Force (under Lieutenant Colonel Dunlop) the prisoners were transported from Java to Konyu, Thailand.





By the end of March,

the vast area of sea and land from New Guinea and northwest Australia to central Burma, which had formed ABDACOM, was under Japanese control. Only to the north, in the Philippines, where American and Filipino troops still stood fast, had the Japanese failed to meet their timetable of conquest.

On 31st March 1942

a Japanese ship arrived at Pangkalanboen (or Koemai).

Retreat into the jungle-covered mountains was considered, but the bitter experience of the past few weeks had made it clear that troops could not long survive the trying climatic conditions. The order to surrender was therefore given

2.April 1942

1) April,1st 1942

a) on 1st April 1942

all arms were surrendered. At Kotawaringin airfield was stationed a small Dutch force (ca. 250 men).

This garrison was never engaged in any fighting and they probably laid down their arms on the same day the British did.

In the ten weeks since leaving Kuching 2/15th Punjab had fought many actions, inflicting heavy casualties on the enemy, and had traveled under most adverse conditions over 800 miles through extremely difficult country.

They had carried with them their light automatics, rifles and ammunition. As


 General Percival

 has said, it was ‘a feat of endurance which assuredly will rank high in the annals of warfare. It says much for the morale of this fine battalion that it remained a formed and disciplined body to the end.’

Read more

General Arthur Percival, ill-fated British commanding officer in Singapore, Olga and Maisie Prout, the brave sisters who defied the Japanese during the occupation of the island colony and Captain William ‘Bill’ Drower, the man the Japanese couldn’t kill. Their dramatic stories are told in The Battle for Singapore

b) April,1st 1942

DEI Marine Defendwork Offive Letter during DN landing at west and Central Java.

DEI Marines 1942

Very rare Letter from Marine Defensiewerk (Defense Worl office) sign by the chief van Schooninveld.

the conduete latter of B Kasiman who work as opzichert (civilian official) at the Soerabaya Marine office from August 1941 to March 1942,

the letter date April 1st 1942.
(Ill.6) The DEI Marine Soerabaya letter during DN landing west java, caption DEI Marine letter 1942

except Surabaya the DEI Govement still operation :

(a)The DEI marine still issued the recomendations letter


(b)the PTT  still issued the telephone  bill for april 1942.look below at April collections

Soerabaia April.1st 1942 .(Surabaja.)

Ned.indie. 15 cent Revenue stamp .PTT Phone Bill.



b. back

At back handwittten

The man had gone,later he pay himself

Original info

orangnya masih pergi nanti dibayar sendiri


(2) Soerabaia .April,3rd.1942,

The Chinese overseas shop  Oei Khong Hwa Surabaya Recieved Of Buying Breadpaper, DEI 15 cent Revenue stamped

(3) Malang April,14th 1942,

the DEI overtoon document (Surat hutang) handwritten surcharge to Indonesia Language ,the DEI change to Pemerintah Balatentara Dai Nippon(DN army Government) with DEI Revenue 15 cent

(4) Bandung,27 april 1942

.source Dai Nippon club netherland

Off cover DEI Koninjnenberg 10 cent used CDS 27.4,42

Unusual used because the DEI Queen stamp forbidden to used in Java and never seen this stamps with Dai Nippon overprint(different from simatra and eastern area all the qoueeen stamps were overprint with different type of every area,looki e-book The Dai Nippon occupation Sumatra and eastre area)

All the Japanese second phase operations were to be completed by

the end of April,

 in time to meet possible attack from the Soviet Union, which, the Japanese believed, would come in the spring, if it came at all that year 

5.May 1942(1942)

(1) Koedeos May,3th.1942,

Koedoes,Recieved of Dai Nippon Postal saving bank(Chokin kyoku ) with the chokin  label and book

(2) Situbondo May,14th 1942 ,

Sitoebondo,Legalization of Radio Permit of DEI 1941 document with DEI revenue that time,no Dai Nippon special revenue (all the radio band were closed only open for Dai nippon channel only)





Legalized DEI C7 Adress card with Kon stamp 10 cent issued at Batoe Malang east java ,by Dai nippon Dutch char change to  Indonesian language with handwritten

Beside the road in jakarta,dai nippon put their  propaganda radio on the pole,look the book illustration from magazine july 2602


6. June 2602

(1) June 11th 2602

DEI Postal stationer CDS Bandoeng send to Semarang.(all DEI postal issued without Queen Wilhelmina picture permit to used without overprint in Java.This is the earliest postal stationer card used during Dai Nippon Occupation Java.

7.July 2602

Beside the road in jakarta,dai nippon put their  propaganda radio on the pole,look the book illustration from magazine july 2602

(1)  Soerakarta(solo) july,7th 2602


billing recieved, DEI Revenue,and Dai nippon Calender date 4 Juli 2602(1942)

(2)July,11th 2602,

The Dai nippon Liscence to print a book at the front page




Lieutenant Colonel Hatsuo Tsukamoto leading his infantryman to assault Kokoda village and airfield (New Guinea july 1942)








8.August 2602

info from other area



RESULTS OF AIR AND NAVAL BOMBARDMENT on Tanambogo, which the Marines requested in order to halt enemy fire hindering their progress on Gavutu. Gavutu Island, on left, is connected with Tanambogo by a stone causeway and is about a mile and three quarters to the east of Tulagi Island. These islands form the western side of Gavutu Harbour where the Japanese had developed a seaplane base. On 7 August 1942, concurrent with landings on Guadalcanal, marines landed on Tulagi, Gavutu, and Florida Islands.


TROOPS LANDING ON FLORIDA ISLAND. Occupation of the island group, Tulagi and its satellites, was accomplished in three days- The enemy garrisons were wiped out except for about 70 survivors who made their way to Florida Island. Mopping-up operations on Florida continued for a few weeks.


MORTAR CREW IN ACTION on Guadalcanal. The mortar is an 81-mm. Ml on mount Ml. On the evening of 8 August, the airfield on Guadalcanal was in U.S. hands. During the following weeks enemy attempts to retake the airfield were repulsed. On 7 October six Marine battalions attacked westward to prevent the enemy from establishing positions on the east bank of the Matanikau River.



info from Java

In august

Japanese news agency formed with the motto A Three Movements Nippon Light of Asia, Asia and Nippon Nippon Chief Patron Asia for determination to implement  residents to stand fully behind the government army Dai Nippon, because established officials supported Civil m Military did not   supporting.

Original info

Kantor berita  Jepang membentuk  Gerakan Tiga A dengan semboyan  Nippon Cahaya Asia, Nippon Pelindung Asia dan Nippon Pemimpin Asia untuk menanamkan tekad penduduk agar berdiri sepenuhnya dibelakang Pemerintah Balatentara Dai Nippon , karena didirikan pejabat Sipil tidak didukung Militer (Alamsyah,87)





This route can be reached from Bondowoso






The green, terraced hills of Bondowoso Photo


The Samethini home at Bondowoso on the sugar plantation (circa 1920)

(119.MB,Martoadmodjo B. handwritten Diary about his work at Japanese logistic stations at Djoerang Koeda Village Bondowoso east Java which thrown away after his pass away in 1990 ,faound and became Dr Iwan collections, never publish)

a.Send to Soetedjo Pasoeroean  17 bags(karung) Rice Toeton( double type) ,the price  f 5,90(  discount f 4 per kwintal)

b.(Meeting with)Kentyo Djoerangsapi village(cow valley DS)about the gudang(store) near Djoerangsapi, Wates, Mogli and Rawatamioe

look the picture of East Java’s Map Below

c, Remboek(meeting) with Mr Kayama about Kacang Kedele(soya beans) and Rice Toeton  for “Balatentara Dai Nippon”(The Dai Nippon Army)

d. Telephone from Mr Kafrawi that “Tempe” (javanese native food which made from soya beans)not yet exist





Telephone from Mr Soerjadi that M.J. Formosa must sell”enceran” (grocier) and about Coconut oil  and soap he obey to received from another grocier(Pengencer).(118 MBthe edn @ copyright 2012

The Complete CD exist But on;ly for prmium member

Please subscribed via Comment


The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book The Vietnam during Indochine Franch :rare Cover

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwab E-Book In Cd-Rom edition




Vietnam During French Indochine 1862-1940













Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter


              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Vietnam Cybermuseum) 

the delegation is sent to Saigon by Emperor Tu Duc to negotiate the peace treaty of 1862

the first vietnam indochine stamp

Vietnamese wooden cannon captured at the Vinh Long citadel by the French on 23 March 1862.jpg




File:Vietnamese wooden cannon captured at the Vinh Long citadel by the French on 23 March 1862.jpg



Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri, Mandarins who participated in the peace treaty

Hue (Annam) April 16, 1863,

Albumen print, 24 x 28 cm.

A photograph of Disdéri (catalog No. 104, albumen print, 24 x 28 cm, Disderi stamp on the carton, estimate € 1000/1200)  It represents a group portrait, “Mandarins who participated in the peace treaty in Hue (Annam) April 16, 1863,” the delegation is sent to Saigon by Emperor Tu Duc to negotiate the peace treaty of 1862.

By the treaty signed June 5, 1862 and ratified on 16 April 1863 Hue, Vietnam cedes to France the three eastern provinces (Gia Dinh, Bien Hoa and My Tho) and the islands of Con Dao (Pulo Condor) opens three ports (including Da Nang) to trade between France and Spain, will pay a war indemnity of four million dollars and finally tolerate the freedom of Christian worship. The two principal ambassadors were then Phan Thanh Gian Lam Duy and Tiep. We know that during their stay in Saigon, Vice-Admiral Bonard had been photographed and the photographs had been the model for the engravings published in L’Illustration of November 29, 1862 bearing the words “from the photographs provided by M. Rigault, corresponding Vice-Admiral Bonard. “

Detail. Signatures of ambassadors

Disdéri of photography.

Three inscriptions in Chinese characters found on the carton assembly, between photography and Disderi stamp, bearing the names of three ambassadors:

Center: 正 使 潘清 简 Phan Thanh Gian chanh knew, “the first ambassador, HE Phan Thanh Gian (1796-1867)”

Right: 副使 笵 富庶 Pho Phu Pham Thu knew “Vice-Ambassador Pham Phu Thu”

Left: 陪 使 魏克 袒 boi knew Nguỵ Khac Djan, “Deputy Ambassador Nguy Khac Dan.”

Thus, it is not coming from the embassy in Saigon negotiate the Treaty of 1862 (ratified in Hue in April 1863), but the embassy that was from the Emperor Tu Duc in July 1863, under the pretext of thanking the gifts sent by Napoleon III, to negotiate the purchase of the three eastern provinces.

The delegation left Saigon on July 4, 1863 a French warship to reach Suez August 17th where she embarked on the Labrador to win Toulon on September 10. She arrived in Paris on September 13 and was received by the Minister of Foreign Affairs, M. Feuillet de Conches on the 18th September, on behalf of the emperor who was on holiday in Biarritz.

At the request of the Emperor Napoleon III, Jacques-Philippe Potteau (1807-1876), who was the successor of Louis Rousseau at the Natural History Museum and devoted himself to scientific and ethnographic photography, was designated to capture the photographic portrait the ambassador and his entourage. At the first meeting (September 20, 1863), he made two portraits of Ambassador Phan Thanh Gian, one sitting, the other foot (currently kept at the Laboratory of Anthropology of the Museum of Natural History in Paris, No. 10,608 and No. 10,610), one of Pham Phu Thu, one of Nguy Khac Dan and a group. These portraits were presented at the meeting of December 15, 1863.

Jacques-Philippe Potteau, Portrait of HE Phan Thanh Gian.

Laboratory of Anthropology Museum of Natural History, Paris.

In the Journal of the embassy, ​​Pham Phu Thu noted:

“At ngo (noon), the sky became a little calm. Dressed in the costume of the court, one by one we went to the floor of the hotel which is covered with glass, and we shoot we did. Here is the essence of photography: first we take a glass plate covered with a combination of liquids: it is placed behind a glass tube, before which stands the person who looks inside of the opposite tube, under the action of sunlight coming through the tube, the glass plate receives the impression of an image, there is not even a hair of difference. The Europeans used to do this operation with great desire. All those with whom we just want to know talk to you a portrait of the upper and lower are all the same, saying they see is the testimony of a memory reciprocal.

In the following, under the conduct of the staff, photographers often came with their camera to the hotel and invited us to shoot us, they gave us each a copy of these portraits. After the draw, each of the small amounts to a huge portraits, price of labor, those who are slightly larger cost 4 or 5 francs “(Pham Phu Thu, (trans. Tran Xuan Toan),” The Embassy of Phan Than Gian (1863-1864) “BAVH, 1921, p. 156.)

Thus, after Jacques-Philippe Potteau, Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri (1819-1889) was one of the photographers who were invited to capture the features of the Ambassador and the delegation. The photograph will be on sale May 7, 2011 Chartres was performed on this occasion.

In 1854, Disdéri invented a new camera which lets you play six shots on the same glass plate and patented the format of the card whose paternity of the invention is to be attributed either to Marseille Dodero Aguado. The fashion for portraits-cost cards spread rapidly in France.

In the Journal of the Embassy, ​​Pham Phu Thu noted that: “The 20th Day (1 November 1863) it rained. At vi (from 1 to 3 pm), Mr. Cam-ba-xa-the GIO, French Minister of Rites [Author's note: This is the Grand Master of Ceremonies], we did bring in an official letter which stated that “At vi (from 1 to 3 pm) the 24th day, he would take us, and in the middle of the same vi hours, we came to the Royal Court of France. “Soon after, Mr. Ha-ba-ly [Author's note: this is Mr. Aubaret, Commander, Officer of Foreign Affairs, who served as interpreter during the stay of the mission in France.] Brought us three cards and said that the Minister of Rites did convey his compliments to the three of us. At nightfall, he returned and took us three cards in response to the compliments of the Minister “(Pham Phu Thu (trans. Tran Xuan Toan),” The Embassy of Phan Thanh Gian, 1863-1864, “Bulletin Friends of Old Hue, 1921, No. 1-4, pp. 266-267).

Document signed by Phan Thanh Gian

Personal collection.

In October 2007, a document dated 01st November 1863, was sold on ebay. This is a certificate signed by the hand of Phan Thanh Gian confirming the receipt of a letter from the Grand Master of Ceremonies of the Emperor.

Phan Thanh Gian signatures

Left: on the document to the head of the Cabinet of the Emperor

Right: the photograph of Disdéri.

By comparing this signature with that appearing in the photograph of Disdéri, it is undeniable that this is the manual signature of Phan Thanh Gian. This photograph had to be carried out between November and December 1863.

The reception of the ambassadors of Annam was held November 7 at a public hearing at the Palais des Tuileries, after the return of the Empress Eugenie of Spain, where she was visiting her family. The emperor was not opposed to negotiations. He relied on the payment of 85 million promised by the king of Annam to offset the deficit of 972 million francs. After the reception, the negotiations began, and November 12, Le Moniteur Universal announced that the peace treaty of June 5, 1862 would be amended. Once his mission is completed, Phan Thanh Gian left France carrying with him his photographic portraits by Jacques-Philippe Potteau (01st November 1863) and Adolphe Eugene Disdéri (November-December 1863) and by other photographers.

Details: Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri, Mandarins who participated in the treated

Peace in Hue (Annam) April 16, 1863,

Albumen print










Diplôme de Chevalier de l’Ordre du Dragon d’Annam (1875)


L’Ordre du Dragon d’Annam

The Order of the Dragon of Annam: founded by Emperor Dong Khanh on 14th March 1886. Awarded in five classes (1. Grand Cordon, 2. Grand Officer, 3. Commander, 4. Officer, and 5. Knight) with two ribbons (red with gold border stripes by the Emperor, and green with gold border stripes by the French President).


The Order of the Dragon – Grand Cordon, breast star


The Order of the Dragon – Officer, breast badge with “colonial ribbon”


Croix de chevalier de l’Ordre du Dragon d’Annam (fac

e et dos)



Croix de chevalier de l’Ordre du Dragon d’Annama

Croix de chevalier (au dos : ovale alu collé : La Gerbe d’Or, CHAPUS 86 rue de Rivoli Paris)


Restoration of the oldest communal house of Vietnam in Ha Tay
The province of Ha Tay (North) has recently begun the restoration of the oldest town hall in the country. Built in the 16th century, Thuy Communal House Phieu, in the town of Thuy An, Ba Vi district, will be renewed for one year. Cost: $ 7 billion VND. The town hall is dedicated to the worship of Tan Vien, one of the most powerful four geniuses of Vietnamese mythology. (CVN) Cathedral of Phat Diem or what acculturation?

The Cathedral of Phat Diem, Ninh Binh province (North), 121 km south of Hanoi, was at the time of French colonization a center of Catholicism in the North. But even more, this is one of the earliest architectural examples of acculturation that took place during this period.
A few weeks ago now, Alain J. Lemaitre, PhD in anthropology, history and literature, lecturer in Modern History at the University of Haute Alsace, gave the occasion of International Day of Francophonie conference on acculturation. This term was born in the field of ethnology describes “all the phenomena resulting from continuous contact between two different cultural groups causing changes in the 2 groups.”

In the colonial perspective, these phenomena were seen as unidirectional as the dominant idea was that of supremacy of European culture. Thus, only the indigenous culture change is in contact with the culture of the colonizers, merely reproduced as is the customs of the latter. However, following decolonization and independence of peoples, ethnology has adjusted this concept by incorporating the idea of ​​two-dimensionality cultural exchange, an idea that is now consensus within the scientific community. In a continuous contact between two groups, there is not only integration of a new culture but also maintaining the original culture that produces an impact on how acculturation and is its outcome.

The situation in Asia at the time of colonization was more specific. Indeed, while Europe meets the ancient civilizations who know the writing (even longer for it) and, therefore, have a written memory. This was a major difference with, for example, the civilizations of South America. Predominantly oral culture, they showed much less resistant to contact with another culture, and this especially since it was imposed by force. Thus, if some countries in South America such as Peru, part of Mexico and Guatemala, retain strong traits of their original culture, most of the other present only very few indigenous elements as is the case for example in Chile. Another difference is so special to Asia at this time lies in the way contacts between cultures were performed. Colonies in Asia were not settlements. Europeans proceeded through the establishment of trading posts that left side of the vast territories and large populations. Contact with Western culture and were indirect and allowed greater flexibility to the natives, could more freely assimilate the elements of the dominant culture.

During the French colonization in Vietnam, there was actually acculturation. However, this has not only led to the integration of European culture but also, fortunately, the maintenance of indigenous culture. The architecture of the Cathedral of Phat Diem is one of the first manifestations of this cultural phenomenon.

An architectural example of acculturation
Mecca of Catholicism in the North at the time of French colonization, the country’s division in 1954 led to the departure en masse to the south of Catholics and the closure of the sanctuary. This is called “Cathedral of Phat Diem” actually consists of many buildings whose construction was completed in 1891. The ensemble was founded by a Vietnamese priest named Six, whose tomb is on the front of the cathedral, the main building. All around stand several kinds of chapels, each dedicated to a saint. However, if visiting this place of Catholic worship, you expect to find the towers that are characteristic of these buildings, you will leave disappointed. All stone, curved roofs similar to those of a pagoda, the architecture of this place is largely based on the Buddhist temples. The mixture of two cultures is undeniable here.

The priest saw to Six represent the main elements of the Vietnamese village, including the town hall, the pond and the tree while a bell feeder, which is indispensable to any place of Catholic worship stands at the back of the cathedral. However, the first floor of this tower, there is a large size drum, an instrument used to strike the hour in the Buddhist religion. On the second floor hangs a bell, however, forged on the model oriental. It has 4 contact points to sound the hours, one per season. Each is identified by a sinogram while a song of prayer is inscribed on it in Latin. Four small towers stand at each corner of the building, each surmounted by a representation of a saint. However, while they traditionally represented standing here, they sit in the way of the Buddha.

Leaving the cathedral to enter one of the many chapels surrounding it. The traces of the influence of European culture mingling with the Sino-Vietnamese remain. At the back of the chapel stands a stone altar surmounted by a statue of the Virgin Mary. The bas-reliefs on the front of this altar are the Western symbols of purity: a garden and a well closed. The side faces in turn, are engraved with lotus flowers, representing the same idea of ​​purity in the oriental imagination.

The importance of cultural policy
The Sino-Vietnamese architecture of European inspiration of this building is one of many examples of the impact of European culture on Vietnamese culture during colonization. It shows however, that in the case of Vietnam, the indigenous culture was not destroyed but kept. This is due in large part by its tradition of written culture, which has forged a strong collective identity, that is to say a set of characters that unite men and women of the same group but the also differ from other groups.

Thus, whatever the force of acculturation on an economic and even social, that there is a written culture to forge a strong collective identity, allows an exchange between cultures (incidentally still unequal exchange) and a non-destruction thereof. However, today, perhaps more than ever, culture is intimately linked to the economic field, especially facilitating the destruction of cultural systems.

Hence the need for each country to defend it by a cultural policy that can meet the challenges of globalization. This is the objective of the Convention for the Protection and Promotion of Cultural Diversity, established by UNESCO in October 2005. The importance of the issues raised by this treaty is widely recognized internationally as since then it has been signed and ratified by 56 countries and the European Union (regional as a unit). The fact that the United States, including the cultural sector plays a major role in the U.S. economy, is opposed to its adoption in the vote to UNESCO, only confirms this idea. (Anaïs Chavanne / CVN



Restauration de la plus vieille maison communale du Vietnam à Hà Tây

La province de Hà Tây (Nord) a récemment commencé la restauration de la plus ancienne maison communale du pays. Construite au 16e siècle, la maison communale de Thuy Phiêu, dans la commune de Thuy An, district de Ba Vi, sera rénovée pendant un an. Coût des travaux: 7 milliards de dôngs. Cette maison communale est dédiée au culte de Tan Viên, un des 4 génies les plus puissants de la mythologie vietnamienne. (CVN)La cathédrale de Phat Diêm ou qu’est-ce que l’acculturation ?


“Received a letter from her? The Grand Master of Ceremonies of the Emperor” – “The first Ambassador of HM the King of Annam” – Signature of Phan Thanh Giang calligraphy.
(Grade: strong horizontal fold edges and dusty) -



“Reçu une lettre de son ? le Grand Maître de Cérémonie de l’Empereur” – “Le 1er ambassadeur de S.M. le roi d’Annam” – Signature calligraphique de Phan Thanh Giang.
(Etat: pli horizontal marqué et bords poussiéreux) -



Đúng 120 năm trước, Thái tử nước Nga viếng thăm Sài Gòn ngày 21-3-1891

Le Voyage du Tsarévitch – Fêtes données en l’honneur de Son Altesse à Saïgon, 21-3-1891 – Đúng 120 năm trước đây, vào ngày 21-3-1891, Thái tử nước Nga Oukhtomsky mà sau này là Sa hoàng Nikôlai Đệ nhị, đã ghé thăm Sài Gòn trong chuyến thăm viếng vùng Viễn Đông. (Năm đó Thái tử 23 tuổi, và 3 năm sau, vào năm 1894 ông lên ngôi Sa hoàng, kế vị Sa hoàng Alexandre III cha ông vừa mất vì bịnh).


The rare Postally used cover  posted from Bangkok, to. Saigon  It cancelled CCH (Cochinchine)!


It is also addressed to Saigon, Cochinchine, so surely that is an arrival mark? My Ceres catalogue does not identify the postmark on the French Colonies stamp, but CH would seem to be appropriate.


The cover ended, not surprisingly, at US$ 2,638.88. The highest bidder has 552 feedbacks, so it should be for real.

Covers cancelled in Vietnam in this period are fairly rare, with only some French dealers/collectors having enough materials for quality exhibits

. As far as I know, only one Vietnamese philatelist, Mr Ta Phi Long, has managed to compile an exhibit of French colonies used in Vietnam, which won him a gold medal (?) at an Asian show, which I unfortunately have no knowledge of.

The lozenge cancel reads CCH, as noted by Robert G. Stone, A Key to the Lozenge Obliterators of French Colonies 1860-1892, The France and Colonies Philatelic Society, New York 1977

Image Image Image




Saigon 1882 – Le Cercle des Officiers (47 bd Le Duan)

CLB Sĩ quan Pháp, nay là UBND Q1. Cạnh bên là công trường xây dựng nhà thờ Đức Bà, với mái ngói xuống thật thấp, che phần nền móng đang thi công

L’escadre russe dans le port de Saigon – Hạm đội Nga trong cảng SG



                                                       Indochina native vietnam army


( Compile by Dr iwan s from his own collections added from internet google exploration.)


(1) April.3rd. 1901
The Bank Of Indochina issued in saigon and Haipong four kind of note with nominalonly in Frech language (1,5,20 and 100 piastres).

The notes in Tonkin (haipong) was not allowed to excahnge for Cochinchinese (Saigon) notes and cochinchinese notes had to spent in Cochinchina(Saigon).
(The Haiphong notes very rare difficult to found, I have seen one in the auction, and I have the Saigon notes found in Hanoi – auth)


(2)august.6th 1901
Off cover of postally used stamp on two type regular definitives Indochine RF stamp type I standard navigation and commerce orange 4 cent and red 6 cent, CDS Dalat-A(nam) 6.8.01, was found in Indonesia.
(Dalat a historic city for Indonesian people because Sukarno, Hatta and Radjiman meet Field Markal Tarauci to have an authority to Indonesia Independent in August.14th 1945, read the complete story in this block and look “Indonesia Independent War” and look the vintage picture postcard-and vintahe photo/picture in 1964 Vietnam Unique collections- auth)

2) 1902

Vintage Dr Sun Yat Sen visit vietnam pictures

Tập tin:Sun Yat Sen in Vietnam 1902.png

(2) Old Vintage Saigon Picture Postcard with indochine overprint bold big 05  red on 15 cent red stamp and indochine definitive  1 cent stamps, CDS not clear.


SAIGON – Entrée de la Rue Catinat 1902

3. 1903

Art du Champa : Site de My Son


Site de My Son. Fouilles de Henri Parmentier et de Charles Carpeaux en 1903-1904, mise en place d’un palan (photothèque EFEO, PAR01584, cliché H. Parmen

old Vietnam pictures in 1903

Woman at work being fanned by her servant, Vietnam, ca. 1903
Location Depicted  
Subjects (LCTGM)  
Digital Collection  
Repository Collection  
Object Type  

Indochina postcard 1904

 1)In this year Bank of IndoChina issued 5 Piasters Paper Money


2) October.14th 1905
Off cover Indochine first regular deffinitive stamps ,brown,15 cent, postally used cds Dien Bien (phu) 14 Oct 05 ,was found in Indonesia
( The famous city Dien Bien Phu where the Vietminh win the war against Franch, very popular city-unique CDS-auth)

6. 1906
Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign were issued 1 phan cash coins thwo types , machinal struck and traditional struck.(Traditional struch more rare that the macinal struck)



Saîgon. Cochinchine. Pousse pousse.

1906. Postal used anamese tribes picture postcard with Indochina stamps cds saigon


SAIGON – Types Anamites 1906

7. 1907

(1)Than-Thai vietnam emperor throught out from vietnam to Reunion island by Franch (P)

(2) The attractive native woman design regular stamps were issued in 1907.(PH)

8) 1908


Annam. University Bachelor Students, 1908

9) 1909


Passerelle à Cholon – 1909


Saïgon vers 1909 – La Rue Catinat


Saïgon 1909 – Les réjouissances Publiques du 14 Juillet – L’invention de la Grande Roue


Saïgon 1909 – La Rue Catinat

Annam, Huê. Vue sur la Pagode des Cantonais


Annam, Huê. Vue sur la Pagode des Cantonais

 Annam, Huê. Eléphants royaux à l’entrée du Palais.


Annam, Huê. Eléphants royaux à l’entrée du Palais.

 Annam. Montagnes de marbre près Tourane – Chef ou Pape des bonzes


Annam. Montagnes de marbre près Tourane – Chef ou Pape des bonzes

Annam, Huê. Gardiennes et servantes chargées des Cérémonies rituelles au tombeau de Thiêu Tri.


Annam, Huê. Gardiennes et servantes chargées des Cérémonies rituelles au tombeau de Thiêu Tri.Annam. Mandarin rendant la justice.


Annam. Mandarin rendant la justice__KGrHqJ__lQE5YyoCm0wBOdid_wY____60_12

Annam, Huê. le Président du Conseil dela famille royale en costume de cour.


Deux nouvelles photos de l”Empereur Khai Dinh

Visite de l’Empereur Khai Dinh au Palais


Arrivée de l’Empereur Khai Dinh au Palais Kien Trung



Annam, Huê. Les musiciens du Roi jouant sous le soleil du Portique Radieux


Annam, Huê. Elephant caparaçonné contenant la foule pendant les fêtes


Huê (Annam). Porte monumentale, dite Hien Dhon(?)


Annam, Huê. Tombeau de l’empereur Dông Khanh


Annam, Huê. Chef des Makouis et ses satellites. Scène diabolique jouée au Palais


Annam, Huê. Les deux Reines par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Thiên Tri (Temple de la Lumière)


Annam, Huê. Porte d’entrée du Co Mât


Annam, Huê. Tibunes Cavalier du Roi, vue des jardins


Annam, Huê. Tombeau de Minh Mang (Temple de la Lumière)


Annam, Huê. Tombeau de Tu Duc (Temple de la Stèle)


Annam, Huê. Annam, Huê. Porte du Palais Co Mât par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Temple des Edits


Annam, Huê. Eléphants traversant une rivière.


Annam, Huê. Rotissage d’un boeuf


Annam, Huê. Allée des Portiques de droite conduisant au tombeau de Thiêu Tri par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Les Corbeilles de Fleurs


Annam, Huê. Groupe de femmes annamites par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Le tombeau de Gia Long (la triple enceinte) par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Ensemble des cours et pagodes du tombeau de Minh Mang par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Cours et pagodes au tombeau de Minh Mang


Annam, Huê. Pagode où se font les cérémonies rituelles au tombeau de Minh Mang


Annam, Huê. Porte de l’enceinte extérieure au tombeau de Minh Mang


Annam, Huê. Groupe d’ennuques par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Palais du Prince Tuyên Hoà, frère du Roi par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Cours et pagode au tombeau de Thiêu Tri par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Une colonne commémorative au tombeau de Thiêu Tri par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. La Montagne du Roi et le Cercle de la Rive Droite par Dieulefils


Annam, Huê. Le Cavalier du roi, vu de la Trbune


Annam, Huê. Palais de l’Empereur. Le Trône


Annam, Huê. Tombeau de Tu Duc

11) 1911
(1) Ho leave Vietnam(D)
(2) October,4th .1911
Off piece Two Blue definitives native women Indochine 1 Piastre ,1000A2000 revenue , used with handwritten 4/10/11 .were found in Indonesia
(the unique earliest 20th century high nominal revenue, because in this time many used in low nominal,because in this year recetion and tax revenue became high, -auth)

12) 1912
(1) January,31.1912
The early off cover postally used CDS Lao Bao –Anam 31.Jan.12 on orange first type definitif Indochine Stamp 10 cent. Found in Indonesia (what the new name of the citry Lao Bao ? rare village postal stamp ?,because didn’t found in later vietnam name, please comment for information-auth)

Early twentieth century Indochine Justice Francaise Extract “Extrait du casier judiciare concernant” Tribunal Cantho. Droit de timbre a o$15 en compte avec le Tresor.
Extrait du casier judiciare concernant
Name (nomne) : Nguyen Huee Tam
Fils de Nguyen Huee Vien
Et de Ha thi-Thu
Ne le 21 Fevrier 1925 a Tan quoi (Cantho)
Domicilee au dit lien
Etat civil et de familie Celibataire
Profession ……………………………….
Nationalite Sujet francais de Cochinchine
Pour extrait conforme:

Cantho le 1er December 1913
Le Greffier
Vu au Parquet Signed Lie
De procureui de la Republique Round Stamped
“Procureur De La Republique

Tribunal De cantho”
14) 1914
Some hundred thousand Viet-namese go to French in Labor battalions during WW I.(D)


SAIGON – Place du Théâtre et la Rue Catinat 1914


16) 1916
Emperor Khai Dinh ascended the throne as the emperor of Annam, during his reign issued two kind of 1 phan cash coind “Khai Dinh Thong Bao” Traditinal and mechanical struck. (The mechanical struck more comon coins-auth)

17) 1917
Not yet info

Ho arrives in Paris during Russian revolution and remains there for the next seven years.(D)

19) 1919
(1)Ho tries to petition for self determination in Vietnam against President Woodrow Wilson , at the Versailles Peace Conference
(2) A surcharged set of 1919 reccestated by the changeover from centimes to piastres in the present years. And a reprinted set staring 1/10 cent denominated.(PH)

20) 1920

(1)Ho joins newly formed French Communist Party .(D) and the photo of Saigon in this year.(P)

Vietnam was at this time part of French Indochina, with communist and nationalist political activity targeted by the Sûreté, or French national police.

(2) In 1920 the Banknoted issues from Haipong and Saigon could circulated all over Indochinese territory In this year also issued low nominal banknote 10 ,20 and 50 cents.(Haipong issued more difficult to found-auth)

(3) September. 2nd 1920
(1)The earliest Reciept of House land tax Paid sign by Nguoi thau of Cantho, Village du thoi thanh, with red stamped. Franch Liberty Indochina with chine character.(D)( I have the best collection of this land tax reciept from Village Tan –Buoi from 1920-1922, 1930-1934, 1939, 1940-1943, 1946, 1949. This unique document were the factual information that during 1923-1929, 1935-1938, 1944-145, 1947-1948 something happen that the land tax did,t paid and the authority also change by name , may be the conflict and war situations, let we proof that fact with historic informations, let the Historian made the study of this historic collections, let ‘s study together-auth)

(4) old Charmer Hotel saigon picture postcard


SAIGON – Bd Charner et l’Hôtel de Ville 1920



(1) June.29th1921
The receipt of land house tax paid ?(so hien bien lai ) , nhan lauh cua hua i ngsat, nguoin thau signed Nguoi than and red Franch Liberty stamped Cantho- Village du tan-Buoi

34) 1922
(1)Khai Dinh(1916-1925) Annam’s emperor visit Paris (P)
(2) July.10th 1922
The reciept of Land Tax paid, signed Nguoi Than, redbrown French liberty stamped Cantho, Village du Tan Buoi.
(the last signed Ngoui Than-auth)
And anpther same document but with first signed Vien chuoc thou nhem (new title-auth)

(4) December,17th,1922
The blue paper reciept of Land tax paid, signed by Vien Chuoc thou nhem and lFrench liberty stamped Catho ,Village du Tan Buoi. (D)


(1)January 25th 1923
Republique Francaise Indochine 36 cent Revenue Sheet, used added Indochine Dimanston revenue 24 cent USED WITH stamped Annuale , This was the the Francaise Indchine revenue’s letter sheet contract “To ban Chuoc vuon ruong” adress “Nguoi ban le van thiet 45 luoi vo la Nguyen thi Khue 42 tuoi Saigon , for “Gia ban chuoc ban lon Mot Ngan Dong(1000$00)”, between ngoi ban ming and nguoi mua ming , “zoi-giao : Trong bon nam chuoc thi bac co loi nam ba phan ngoai bon nam chuoc lai thi bac nad loi con von J ngay to”( please native Vietnamese t translate this historic revenue sheet-auth)

(2)April ,5th.1923
Bo Dai was born in hue the capital of Vietnam Kingdom ( He was the last emperor of Vietnam-auth)

(3) April 13th 1923
Francaise Indochine 24 cent Revenue letter’s sheet was used to write the information in Franch & Vietnamese characters :
a) Lang cap duc nam 1866
S-o-160-50 2 Ha 20.00-Rg 2ecl VC-Thong Minh –dao ,S-Re chle , E.-Re .Nguyen Do , O.-Re.Nguyen tac-Yen.
b) 9 Jiullet 1905
212-243-88bNgai-v-Thoi -2.26a.00-Vuon .
NG .-reg Chu , S-Reach hu-Tri , E-V-Vg-Tai-Vang , O.-Re.Le-v-Thanh.
Ngua cua con Hbh-Phai la Hbh van Tbao trans NG0 2908 du 9 Juillet 1905.

c) 17 Aout 1909.
Vendu deft par les heritiers de Thuan Wbai’;t;Do ewught Ngo 2809 du 17 aout 1909. signe Eudel.
d)Emperor Khai dinh at His Palace

d1)5 September 1917
(1)Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi survant partage a l’anuable intervenu entre les heririers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt Ngo -2773 du 5 September 1917. Po L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard,
(2) Part attribuee Ngai-v-Thoi suivant partage a’ l’annuale inteerheum entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Do euregt ngo 277e eu 5 September 1917 .P.o L’ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.
d) Extrait de Diao du Village de3 Thanh Thien, canton de Mhinh-puc
(1)Lang cap duc nam 1866
49-24-49 Diavo actuel -2.000 Ha-Reg 2e-cl : N-Reg chu,S-V-chu,E.-Re Ngai –v-Do, O-Re.Nguyen tacc yen.
Veneu deft per Pham-v-quan ,sanh,Thien,Ngai, Duong, bay, Than,Hoa,Dieu,Thuong, Nham,Cuac, Dat, Chou et Gian, heritiers de Thuan, ai Ngai-v-Do enregt No 2809 du i7 Aout 1909 P.o.eur Sign Eudel.
Part attribuee Ngai –v-Thoi suivant partage a l’annuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai-v-Lo enregt-Ngo 2773 du 5 September 1917. P.o.Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(2) 71-34-71 Ngai-van-Thoi
2 Ha Reg 1er cl : Ng –reg-Chu, SW.- Vuon chu, E. R-Ng-tac-vang, O-r-Le-v;Thanh,
Ngua duc cua Hbuynh-v-Phai va vo la Nbg Ru Phuong cau chung no 2369ndu 17/7-1901.
Part attribute a Ngai-v-Thoi sui vanpartage l’anuable intervenu entre les heritiers de Ngai van-Do enregtno.2773 du 5 Septembre 1917 Le l’Ad’teur Signe Huchard.
(3) 72-170 -72 Ngai –v-Thoi 280.00 : Thong Minh Dao, S.- reg chu, E.- rg Ng-tac-Vang , O.- reg Le-van-Thanh.
Ngua euc cua thj Phuong la vo Phai cau chung so 2367 du 17 September 1901.
Ngeme partage que le Ngo-3H du bo. P.g.l’Ad’teur adjt Signe Huchard.

P.E. G.
Droit percu : 5 $ 00.-
Quittance No.5511
Bentre, le 13 Avril 1923
P.L’administrateur etfro
Sign by Huchard & Red Bentre Stamped. ( interesting information about ? from 1866 to 1917 and officially sign by Bentre Administrators with offcial stamped. On 12 April 1923, may be this official information about land owner ? from the Bentre Admninistration in 1923. )

24) 1924

(1)Ho leaves Paris for Moscow , becomes full-time Communist agent . Later went to Canton as assistant to Mikhail Borodin , Soviet represen-tative in China.(D)

Ho leave Paris because his communist and nationalist political activity targeted by the Sûreté, or French national police.

(2)In November 1924 Hồ arrived in Guangzhou(canton)  on a boat from Vladivostok.[4] He posed as a Chinese citizen named Lý Thụy (Li Shui) and worked as a translator for Comintern agent and Soviet arms dealer Mikhail Borodin.
(3)Saigon Catinat Road Postal Pictured postcard Used CDS Saigon

Rue Catinat 1924

(4) December.8.1924
Off cover brown definitive Indochine RF stamp , 12 cent in double circle type -2 stamp, Postally used CDS Hanoi (To)nkin 8.12.24.


37) 1925

 ANNAM. Obséques de SM KHAI DINH. Acteurs, 1925


Annam. Obséques de SM Khai Dinh. Acteurs, 1925
(a)Emperor Khai Dinh was died, he was burried at imperial ‘s tombs, near the purfurmed river. His tomb very best and artistic, like miniature city, with many artistic statue of dragon,gourd and civillian, elephant, horse .

 and interior very artistic

Theorically Bao Dai his elder son became the emperor Of Vietnam, and The young emperor came back from France to ascended the throne under france tottulage.

( I have some original vintage photo of Khai dinh Tomb fro 1930 , 1949, and 1955, the old photo, the childrens were riding the horse and elephant ‘s statues
In the modern times we hav the informations about that Tomb – auth)
Khai Dinh ‘s elder sons was the last empror of Annam 1926-1945, but he always at Paris, and under Japanese protectorate he came back to Vietnam stayed at Dalat,
( by referendum the last emperor was thrown out by Ngho Dinh Diem in 1955, read another subchapter-auth)

(b)In May 1925, Hồ participated in the founding of Thanh Niên, or Vietnamese Revolutionary Youth Association. This group was a forerunner of today’s Vietnamese Communist Party.

26.  1926

Emperor Bo dai Ascended The throne

Emperor Bao Dai

Born Prince Nguyen Vinh Thuy on Oct. 22, 1913, he was given the imperial name Bao Dai (which is pronounced bah-oh dye and means or “Protector of Grandeur” or “Keeper of Greatness” “Preserver of Greatness”) on his succession as Emperor in 1926. Boa Dai ascended the throne in 1925 at the age of 12 on the death of his father, Emperor Khai Dinh, but did not return to Viet Nam until 1932 after he had completed his education in France. He returned home to the imperial city of Hue in 1932, assuming the ceremonial duties of the 13th Emperor of the Nguyen dynasty.

 “Intronisation de S.M. Bao Dai dernier Empereur d’ANNAM – Musique traditionnelle au Palais Thai Hoà” le 08 janvier 1926


“Intronisation de S.M. Bao Dai  dernier Empereur d’ANNAM –  Musique traditionnelle au Palais Thai Hoà” le 08 janvier 1926 

Some Vietnamese attempted to advance the cause of national liberation through reforms from above. They looked to the young Emperor Boa Dai as their best hope. Bao Dai was greeted with enthusiasm by the Vietnamese, who expected that he would be able to persuade the French to install a more liberal regime. Boa Dai attempted to reign as a constitutional monarch, according to the terms oithe treaty of 1884 establishing the protectorate, and he strove to modernizethe ancient imperial administration at Hue. Among his young collaborators was Ngo Dinh Diem, governor of the Phan Thietarea in Binh Thuan Province, who was given the portfolio of minister of the interior and appointed head of the secretariat of a Vietnemese-French commission which was charged with the responsibility of implementing Bao Dai’s reform proposals. When it became obvious that the French had no intention of granting real power to the Vietnamese administration and would make noconcessions toward unification of the country, the youthful emperor appeared to lose interest, and Ngo Dinh Diem resigned his official position.

Portrait de l’Empereur Bao Dai par le Studio Harcourt


Portrait de l’Empereur Bao Dai par le Studio Harcourt

Cette photo, en tirage argentiquen de format 18 x 24 cm, a été proposée à 100 € + 5 € d’envoi et n’a pas trouvé preneur ce jour.

The Japanese coup of 09 March 1945 caught the Viet Minh by surprise. But if the Japanese thought the removal of the French would win over the Viet Minh, they were soon disabused of that notion. The Viet Minh publicly objected to the Japanese coup, seeing it as a substitution of one colonial master for another. The Japanese viewed the Viet Minh dissatisfaction as sour grapes at being left out of the action. The investiture of Bao Dai in Hue and the cabinet under Pham Quynh was greeted by opposition, public meetings, and demonstrations in Hanoi organized partly by the Viet Minh. So serious was this opposition that Bao Dai dissolved his cabinet on 19 March 1945 and installed a new one under Tran Trong Kim, an academic of modest nationalist tendencies with no stomach for thesnakepit of Indochinese politics.

Within two days of the Japanese acceptance of the Potsdam declaration, the Viet Minh began to take power in the cities of Indochina. In Hanoi, a Political Action Committee was formed to facilitate cooperationwith Bao Dai’s government.” By 23 August 1945, Hue was solidly Viet Minh, as was Saigon, where the Executive Committee of the South Vietnam Republic was established. The Viet Minh seized the government buildings in Hanoi on the 19th.

Bao Dai, apparently convinced that a united and independent nation offered the only possibility of preventing the return of French control, decided to abdicate. Recogniting only the nationalist character of the Viet Minh movement and assuming that it had Allied support, he abdicated. in its favor on August 25, 1945 ; and handed over his imperial seal and others ymbols of office to representatives of the newly proclaimed Provisional Government of the Republic of Vietnam.

Pleas by Ho Chi Minh and Emperor Bao Dai to Truman, Charles De Gaulle, Stalin, and British prime minister Atlee to forestall the French return went unanswered. French forces were permitted to land in the North. Bao Dai, who had been acting as high counselor to Ho Chi Minh, was sent on a “good will” mission to China where he remained in exile, thus eliminating the possibility that he might provide a rallying point for groups not thoroughly aligned with the Viet Minh.

Negotiations with France continued for two years, but by June 1949 France finally approved of limited independence for “the State of Vietnam” within the French Union. Bao Dai was coaxed home by the French, who saw him as a possible alterative to Ho Chi Minh, whose guerrillas were then at war with the French colonial army. In February 1950, Great Britain and the United States recognized the State of Vietnam headed by the ex-emperor Bao Dai as the legitimate government. France concluded agreements with Laos and Cambodia simiiar to that with Viet Nam, the three countries became the Associate States of Indochina and were accorded diplomatic recognition by more than 30 other nations.

Bao Dai assumed the role of chief of state, and returned to Vietnam with the titles of Premier and — again — Emperor. In its efforts to win popular support, the Bao Dai regime was unsuccesstul. Bao Dai left major decisions to his French-backed advisers, preferring to spend time with his many mistresses at his hunting lodge in the highlands of central Vietnam. His administration was marked by the institutionalization of corruption, prostitution, smuggling, racketeering, and drug trafficking through his association with the Binh Xuyen gang in Saigon.

The principal nationlists (including Ngo Dinh Diem) failed to unite behind him, since they claimed that the French did not offer real independence. Confronted with a choice between French colonialism and the Communist-led nationalist movement, many Vietnamese, attracted by its appeal for independence and unity, tended to side with the Viet Minh organization. In the meantime; Ho Chi Minh rid his coalition government of the moderates and nationalists whom he had accepted earlier and showed himself to be completely Communist. In March 1951 the Indochinese Communists Party (dissolved in 1945) was revived as the Workers Party (Dang Lao Dong).

Cessation of the Indochina War in 1954 left the Associated States of Indochina divided into four countries: Cambodia, Laos, North Viet Nam and South Viet Nam. The Chief of State, Bao Dai, called on Ngo Dinh Diem, to form a government, but although in office, he lacked control, especially over the army. After a time, Diem brought the army under control. Diem turned his attention to his own status and called for a referendum to al1ow Vietnamese to choose between Diem and Emperor Bao Dai. A referendum was ordered for October 23, 1955. Diem’s bid to replace Bao Dai was successful. Official Vietnamese government records showed that 91.8 percent of the voting population participated and that 98.2 percent of the voters chose to replace Bao Dai with Diem.

Bao Dai played almost no role in his homeland thereafter, choosing instead a life in Paris and along the Riviera that centered around golf, bridge tournaments and women. Bao Dai, the last Emperor in a line that held the throne in Vietnam for a century and a half, died on August 2, 1997 in France,

38) 1927

(1) June .13th.1927
Mytho Indentity Card,certifies exaste les reneignaments et-dessus(issue by) Mytho le 13 Juin 1927 Le Directeur, form was printed by Photo-Nadal,120 rue cayinat,saigon. (Nadal-photo have produced many vintage picture postcard-auth)
No. Maticule 372
Nom (name) : Ly Thi Nega
Ne l e(born ) : 13 Juillet(july) 1913
A’ (at) Phu Lun (Sadec)
Eleve de L’Ecole des : Sacuro
Nom,profession : Ly dai Con
Adresse des parents : Proprieclaire a Phu Lun (Sadec). (Sadec an native traibes near the border with ex annam area-auth)

(2) August 18th 1927
Republique Francaise Indochine 12 cent revenue sheet, used at Bentre,by Tong Minh-hue Lang Thanh –thoi,
Bentre Village square official stamped with chinese char. Also thumb –finger print sign.

(3) August,1st 1927
Rare Indochine 40 cent Revenue 300$ A4000$ , used on Document “To Han Mai dat” Bentre le 1er Aout 1927 , handfinger thumb signed of seven persons , legalised by the chief of Bentre Village with square stamped Bentre Village Thanthoi and Province De Bentre Administrateure stamped at 3 Aout 1927.

(4) October.24.1927
The rare and unique Carte D’Indentite (I.D.) Changenebes de Domicile (Change the domicillies) from”D’Outremer Service de Laison avec les originares aries Territoires Francais d’Outra-Mer” (The Service’s laisson of Foreign France teritory area) with the round stamped on blue Republique Francaise Timbre tax d’outra-mer ,very rare Revenue for France Colony, pity the ID card quality poor but useable for historic archived and must restored–auth)
Nom (name) : Luong hoc San
Nationalite: Citayen Union Frnacasie (Cochinchine).
Profession : Efecidiant (not clear ?)
Ne le : 24 octobre 1927
Long Binh Ranch..Cochinchine.(The rare used Franch colony revenue in cochine china, pity the revenue in bad condition,but the photo and card good condition, still interesting Cochine chine ID card during that colonial era-auth)



Rare Album artisanal d’un recueil de 20 photographies couvrant le couronnement de l’empereur Bao-Dai le 8 janvier 1928


Rare Album artisanal d’un recueil de 20 photographies couvrant le couronnement de l’empereur Bao-Dai le 8 janvier 1928

the rare album of 20 photograpies emperor Bodai January,8th.1928


This work was carried out by the school in Hue, Vinh Tang rue Paul Bert. Black and white prints in the format 11.8 x 17cm. The legends made ​​on a paper strip added below. The 20 photographs are:
1 Arrive in Hue S.A Prince Vinh Thuy-
2 Arriving at the palace of Prince
3 Reception of the Prince by the court
4 ceremony of prostration
5 s.m Bao Dai went to the palace
6 Arrival at the Palace
7 Arrival of the Governor Mr. Varenne
8 European Assistance
9 Position of the mandarins before making Thai Hoa Lays Deaver
10 Lays of the 2nd phase
11 The mandarins of lower rank to its knees
12 After the enthronement SM Bao Dai returned to the palace
13 Out of HM Bao Dai in a litter by the Golden Gate
14 Bao Dai wins walk Mieu Pagoda Tea
15 SM in position for Lays in the Pagoda Tea Mieu
SM 16 out of the pagoda, hailed the Regent vparr SE
17 Return of the pagoda





(1)Nguyen Ai –Quoc more knwon Ho Chi Minh have builded Vietnam Communist Party (D&P)

(2)Nearly Mint Picture Postcard Hanoi-Le Jardin Botonique.printed by Grands Magasines Reunie Hanoi(OP)

(3)Republique Francaise Indochina 10 Cent Revenue sheet overprinted Indochine 3 Cent used in chinese char about …. with six square stamped “ “P.Binhoh-h.Phu-Cai”in center chinese char…….(PH)

41) 1930,the economic crisis and rebellion year.

(1)in 1930 the economic crisis added the social economic conflict between the poor farmer and labourmens ,in Indochine they have made rebellion the same situation in China.

(2)The second type Banknote issued by The bank of Indochina, this notes different from the first type, the name of the issuing bank, which “Banque de I’Indochine (Indochine written jointly without dash, the first type “ Indo-Chine”), while in the transitional period of the two typical categoriethe one-piaster notes bore the bank name of “banque de I’Indo-Chine”, and there was on their back side trilinual letters of Chinese,Vietnamese,cambodian and note emblem.
For these second catagory of notes, on their back side there were lines of Chinese Characters and a legal warning (in French) which have been all writen nratly and lightly. The note values have been written clearly in three letters of chinese,Vietnamese and Cambodian.
The following five-piaster notes were called very popularly by our compatriots as “Con Cong ”(Peacock) papers. On the back side of the twenty piaster notes there was the four-faces statue found at bayon temple (Cambodia). They were called populary as “Giay Qanh”( “Vingt Papers) which come from the french number “Vingt”(twenty).
For one hundred-piaster note, there was rather special thing. The Vietnamese figures (The single vase,The Imperial Temple Gate of Hue,capital city) were shown on the front side, while on their back side was seen the bust of Joseph-Francois Dupleix, a well-kown french colonialist official. ( I have this notes in fine condition, but very difficult to find the veryfine or unc condition, this note were found in Russian market Phonphen Cambodia, in Ho Chi Minh city difficult to find the Indochine papermoney, alway verybad condition maybe because the Liberation ‘s war and many Saigon ntaive vietnamese flea away after the fall of saigon, the only place still found was Cholon area, but the chinese there very carefully to change this high nominal value after the French leave that area, please comment-auth)

The Doc Luc, Giay Qanh and Con Cong(Single vase, twenty piaster pape and peacock) have constituted a triad of big notes which have been used for a rather long time under the French rule.After this three bankonote, issued the same banknote disign but the Baque De I’Indochine and nominal value in Red Colour , the rare banknote was the highest nominal 1000 piastres, the first type in yellow colour ( That is way very rare the very fine conditions , many poor conditions have found –auth).
After this Banque De I’Indochine issued several design cammon banknote, une,cinq,cent,cinq cent with native design.

(3)January,13th .1930
Rare chinese calligraphy bring by chinese immigrant (hoa Kiao or Chinese overseas) to Cholon-Saigon, about Chinese homeland traditional ritual from Tjiang Shi (Quanshi?) , the best time to pray at 10.15 pm , position up above, also about Chinese zodiac good fortune.
(I have found several document ,revenue and postal history written in chinese char during ancient time, francaise Indochine, Bodai’s,diem ‘s and liberation war from the Vienama’s chinese overseas area at Haiphng near Hanoi and Cholon- Saigon. I will write a special book about Vietnam’s Chinese Overseas unique collections- auth)

(4) November,13th 1930
The reciept of Land House tax with Indochine Francaise liberty armour ‘s Cantho Village violet stamped , signed by Ngui Thau, before by Vien Chuc Thau Nhan. (fiscal history-auth)

42) 1931

(1)August,7th 1931.
The reciept of Land House tax paid ,signed Vien Chu thau Nham with Violet French Liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan Buoi (D)
( the change again of official govern-ment system in the village four times from 1920-1939, from Nguoi Thu(1922) – Vien Chuc Thau Nham(1923)- Nguoi Thau(1930)- Vien Chuc thau Nham(1931)-Nguoi thanh(1932)- Vien thau Nhan(1939 )-Nguoi Thau (1939,May)- Vien chuc thau nhan (1940)-Nguoi thau(1941)-Thue (1946)-Nguoi thau (1949), very best informatif set collection So Hien Bien lai , especially the year 1941-1942-1943 – 1946-1nd 1949 as the collection for showed-please comment-auth)

43) 1932

The Reciept of Land house tax paid, signed Vien Chuc thau nham, with red-brown franch liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi (D)



Annam, Huê. La fête du Nam Giao en 1933

(1) December, 17th 1933
The Pink paper reciept of Land House tax, signed Nguoi Than, with Red French liberty stamped Canth, village du Tan Buoi (D)

34) 1934



(1)May 20th 1934
Emperor Bo Dai merried Jeannete Marie (?) at the imperial city of Hue.
And his wife became “Hong Hau Nhan Phuong” or empress of the South.
( I ever stayed at the “Nhan Phuong” Hotel at Hanoi near Hoat kiem lake in 2007-auth)

(2)October, 15.1934
The White paper reciept of Land house tax pai, signed Ngui Thou with red chinese character of the Frech liberty stamped Cantho village du Tan buoi (D)

46) 1935

(1)December.30th 1935
Off cover emperor Bo Dai official stamps send from the capital of Vienam administration office , 5 cent orange Indochine definitive stamps overprint Service, postally used CDS HUE –A(NAM) 30.12.35
(Hue was the capital of the state of Anam . The Service stamps
for official latter of the Annam kingdom adminsitration during the last emperor Bo Dai-auth)

(2) Blue Matches label withe elephant design,”Societe Indochinese des alldmetes-Benthuy-Hanoi” with chinese char.
(Very rare Matches label from Indochine Francaise in the Tonkin village Benthuy –Hanoi found in Indonesia before the World war II , because many collections burns during Vietminth war against Franc in 1952-1955, this is the first reported of that kind collections, were someone had the same collection please comment –auth)


(1)In 1936

(a) stamps issue depecting the various native emperor and king in variety of commemorative honouring notable figures.

(b) Old styled chinese char about Chinese School information (difficult to translate, my be someone will help me -auth)

(2)August.21th .1936
The Vaccination card, “ Ville De Cholon” Etat-Civil Indigne(Bo doi Bon Quoc), Bulletin De Naissance (To Bien Lai khai Sanh)
Identification :
Nome et prenom : Law Ngoc
Sexe de l’infant ; Hau um
Ne le (born) :18.8.36
Address :A Cholon Rue Thu Gia De Lam Thong Et de Hua Teich .

Ephemera of The Variolla vaccination ’s law in Vietnamnese and Chinese char:
“ Every newborn child must have variolla vaccination, ifn’t done the parent will have sactions”
Behind the card stamped :
Vaccine contre La variola 21-8-36, Succin 24-8-36, Vaccine per BCG 22-8-36.

(Rare Histroric health vacinnation record collection during Francaise Indochine at Cholon-Saigon Cochinchine in 1936 –auth)

No collection and information, why? Please comment -auth

No collections and information Why snf what happened ? please comment-auth.


(1)29th April 1939
Two vintage document used as the covers of Hand written vintage book:

(a)The Reciept of personal Tax from Village Da ban-Huyen de Yen Binh, paid (Paye) 129$81 , “import personnel and Toncier of” nguyen Quang ,hand sign by “Administrtaeur-Resident”at 29 april 1939 with official stamped
Pour L’annee 1939
Village de Da Ban
Canton de….. Huyen de Yen Binh
1.-Impo’t personnel
. …contribuables a’ 250$00
…..contribuables a’ 200.00
….. contribuables a’150.00
……contribuables a’ 125.00
……contribuqbles a’ 105.00
…..contribuables a’ 80.00
…..contribuables a’ 55.00
…..contribuables a’ 40.00
…..contribuables a’ 25.00
…..contribuables a’ 15.00
…..contribuables a’ 7.00
…..contribuables a’ 5.00
..32contribuables a’ 2.50 80,00
….6contribuables a’ 1.00 6,00—— 86.00
Centimes additionales a’impot personnel 17.20
Total de l.impot personnel et des centiemes additionnales 103.20

2.-Impot Toncter
Riziores de 1’ classe—— Mau a’1$90
- 2’ classe…… Mau a’1,50
- 3’classe……. 11 Mau a1,00…..11,00
Terrains de 1’classe…… Mau a’2$30…
— 2’classe…. Mau a’1.00
— 3’ classe…. 12 Mau a’0,50…..6.00
— 4’classe….. 30 Mau a’0.17……5,10
— 5’classe….. Mau a’0,02…..
Total de L’impot foncier 22,10
3.centiemes additionnels au principal de l’impot
Au profit du Badget provincial…………….. 4,42
4.4/1000 additionels au principal de L’impot foncier
Au profit deLa’Chambre d’Agriculture….0,09——– 26.61
Total de lo’impot a’ verser par le village———- 129.81
Arrete a La somme de Cent vingt reuf pistres ,quatre vingt et un cente.
Nguyen Quang te ………..29 april 1939
Administateur Resident
(b) Versaments Printed Document, The Rice field class no 1 & 2 and Land Tax in chinese char.
Nu du carnet d’enregistre ment ……….831
DATE de versements …………………….3739
En Toutes latters….toen trrs piatres cents
En Piastres ……………………………………….103,20
Hand sign and not clear official handstsaped :

d) Vintage Handwritten Book in Chinese charcter and many Coding pictures about the confucian prayed

(This Unique Imporst Fiscal “ Nguyen or Tunyen(?) Quan ‘s “ Import personnel and Toncier from village Da Ban ,huyen Yen Binh was the first report Fiscal revenue historic collections from Vietnam, I am very lucky to find this very rare document with another documen were used as the cover of an handwritten chinese char vintage books in antique shop near Hoat Kiem lake Hanoi in 2007. auth)

(2) October,30-1939
Off Cover brown native stamp Indochine RF 50 cent, postally used CDS Haipong 30.10.39 (Haiphong was the older capital of Tonkin, the chinese marchant harbor, the rare Haiphong’s picture and ID Card look at the next page, chronologic year 1947 and 1955. auth)

29) 1938
(1)September.4th 1938
This postally covers was sent from Hanoi Tongkin to Het Postzegelhuis (Post Office) Djogja Indes Neerlandaises (Ned.Indie, now Indonesia) WITH FIVE Rhodes STAMPS , 3 x 5 cent , 6 cent and 18 cent Indochina stamps(rate 39 cent) Par avion WITH INDOCHINA MAP, with ROUND Postmark HANOI P.O.-TONKIN WITHOUT DATE , SENT VIA BANGKOK G.PO.c 4.9.38 , VIA BATAVIA (HANDWRITTEN IN BLUE PARKER INK “HAUR BATAVIA”(NOW JAKARTA) AND ARRIVING POSTMARK DJOKJAKARTA 7.9.38 WITH HANDWRITTEN f 1.- ADDED PORTO ONE GULDEN. (UNSUAL PORTO)
(the photo of this Wessel’s cover will show in this blog. Please comment if anyone have the same collection-auth)

(2)Near mint Indochine Pictured Postcard with the Native village Tonkin Womens sold the flower and fruit “Paysannes Tonkinese revenant du Marche.
This card base on “Cliche No-Nhu_Hoan,MY-Hao Ban-Yen-Nham-Tonkin, pritted by Edition photo NADAL ,Saigon-Imp.Braun(P)

(1)March.23th 1939
The blue paper receipt of land House tax paid, signed Vien Chuc Than Nham with red French liberty stamped Cantho Village du Tan Buoi , 23 mars 1939. (D)

(1) March.29,1940
The Police D’Abonnement A L’Eau Porable , Cochine Chine polish insurance (?) With very rare overprint 36 on Indochine Francaise 25 cent Timbre fiscal revenue , le abonemen Cathedral De Saigon .RP Eugene Scullard ,Place Pigneu de Boheine.
secteur de saigon, Services Technique, control de Eaux et De Electricite, This contract sign at Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Vue et propose L’Ingenuer Charge du Controle, L’Abonne, Vue et soumis a L’apprebation de M.L’Administrateur Le chef de services technique sign R.Lachamp, and Vu et accepted Saigon 29 Mars 1940 by Le chef de Service Administratifs with Cholon Region Station Services Technique Stamped.(Very Rare Cathedral de Saigon abbonnement certificate with very rare overprint Yellow-36 on 25 cent Indochine francaise timbre fiscal revenue, only found one pieces this emergencies revenue-auth)

(b)The Republique Francaise Indochine 15 cent Requete revenue sheet
(a) added “Tonkin -handstamped” R.F.Indochine 3 cent revenue , used with village stamped with chinese character “H.Phu-Cat V.Dai-Hac”, this revenue sheet was the house and land transaction , the house located at the highsociety area, north the village, south Phan Tiu, West Phan Yen, East Kwang chung .
( This revenue sheet found at Hanoi Hoat Kiem area” and the best showed collection to compare between the Tonkin ‘s Phu-Cai Hand-stamped 3 cent, with The Cochinchina’s Mytho- Mechanical overprint 3 cent, wonderful two historic revenue sheet from Tonkin-phut Cai (north) and Cochinchina-Mytho (south) found by Indonesian , especially if showed in USA or French , please comment-auth)

(b)added “ Cochinchina-mechanical overprint” R.F.Indochine 3 cent, used at “Tinh Mytho,Tong Phong vu ,” at Tang Hoa Log. To Ban Dut Dat Ruong”ontract betweeen “Vhu Phua and Chu Ben” date (ngay) 22 Mai 1940, (found at Ho Chi Minh city from Cholon area.-auth)

(3) July.17th.1940
Gouvernement General De L’Indochine, Residence de Thai Binh
(Family’s book, inside the book Nguyen Van Tan write in red ink the name and birth date of their family from the first generation born Hanoi,Nguyen van Tan 25.12.1893, 2nd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi.3rd Le thi Mau birth date 22.8.1898 at Hanoi 4th Nguyen van Kiem birth date 5.10.1922 at Thai Binh , 5th Le thiMInh,10-10-1930 at Ha Dong, 5) Nguyen van Toan 4.12.1954 at Saigon.Nguyen van Thinh 3.12.1956 at saigon and Nguyen Van Tring ,1-12-1957 at Da Nang etc another 11 persons.
(Unique Family birth date book of Governement General the Indochine, rare document from the official France colony administration, better shwed with another Gouvernur General Indchine document-auth)

(4) October,18th 1940
The best chinese overseas in Vietnam peom art calligraphy, as the remambrance for the best freands.
Including in small book more than fifteen poem and phraese about : (a)struggle for Independent
(b) you can have high vision, but must look at the true situations.
(c) Younger people don’t have the thought like a poet writers about old days situations , the Youngerman must made action to pass the threads in futures times.
(d)The Enemy were someone against us, the people were the battles.

(5)October .19th.1940
The Kuomintang flag with Sun Yat Sen photo as the head of Chinese overseas Middle school “Ijazah” , was authentication by Embassy of the republic of China .Saigon. double circle official kuomintang symbol stamped ,with big red squared official choped .
(The rare chinese overseas school document with China kuomintang –cholon ‘s embassy stamped.
I have another collection with the Kuomintang embassy stamped from Haipong and cholon- rare showed item and will list detailed in my another book title “The Unique Vietnam’s Chinese overseas document.revenue and postal history collections” –auth)

(6) December,19th 1940
The Police de’abbonent of General Immobiliere de Saigonm104.Bd Charner sretificate with very rare overprint 36 on 30 cent’s Indochine Francaise Timbre Fiscal (the other one 25 cent) on the Police D’Ambnnemen a L’eau Potable, sign by Directeur de la du Generale Immobiliere de Saigon,

( two very rare revenue onerprint 36 on indochine Francaise Timbre fiscal 25 cent and 30 cent very intersting collection for showed, the abnnement polish of the famous Saigon’s Cathedral and Saigon’s General Immobiliere building.-auth)

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012


Padang West Sumatra My Beloving Birthcity Part:Minangkabau Poem

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan e-bbok in CD-ROM Edition






Part Poem


Created by


Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition In CD_ROM

Copyright@DR Iwan Suwandy 2012




.As the opening of the writings that I collated as a sign of my love for thebirth land , his wife and entire family, hoping to be nostalgic for the old and add insight for future generations so that the root  origins can be traced.

Writing with illustrations image collections, postal history and other persembahakan I told my son Albert and Anton Jimmi, and the grandson of Sesa, Celin and Antoni, and also all my extended family and wife.
These literary works are still many shortcomings so that corrections and additional information and advice legendary from all my friends so I would expect.
Thank you kep there are many people who have helped me to  complete this paper


West Sumatra called Sphere minang or Land Minangkabau was the birthplace and the land where the author was raised until the age of 45 years (1945-1989).

Various ups and downs have been experienced on Earth Minang by name Hotel-ever besides the residence of the last author of the years 1950-1989, the author was born in Padang Small Road, behind the Land Market Kongsi from 1945 until 1950.
During their stay in Padang authors have kept memoriable  objects or memorabilia collection which is a love filling to  homeland and is able to evoke memories of the realm Minang Beautiful, peaceful and full of such intimacy.

Old Padang hospital




Information from The book also discusses information collection dzari choice and displayed in such a way that can satisfy the longing  Minang people  In Overseas wherever it is located on a remote village in the eyes of beloved pages, such as the song always sung the nomads as follows:

Rumah gadang nan sambilan ruang,Pusako bundo sajak dulunyo. Bilo den kanang hatinya ta ibo ta ibo Ta bayang-bayang diruang mato..

In the Indonesian language as follows:
A  Big House with nine-room, Heritage from nowadays .If I remember my heart recalls sedih. Memory  shadows (village) in the eyelid

Indonesia version:

Sumatera barat yang disebut Ranah minang atau Tanah minangkabau adalah tempat kelahiran dan tanah dimana penulis dibesarkan sampai berumur 45 tahun( 1945-1989). Berbagai suka duka telah dialami di Bumo Minang sesuai nama Hotel yang pernah ada disamping rumah kediaman penulis terakhir dari tahun 1950-1989,penulis dilahirkan di Jalan Kali Kecil Padang ,dibelakang Pasar Tanah Kongsi dari tahun 1945 sampai 1950.

Selama berada di Padang penulis telah menyimpan benda-benda koleksi kenagan atau memorabilia yang merupakan laupan rasa cinta terhapa tanah kelahiran dan mampu membangkitkan ingatan kepada ranah Minang yang Indah, damai dan penuh keakraban tersebut.

Informasi dari Buku juga membahas informasi dzari koleksi pilihan dan ditampilkan sedemikian rupa agar dapat memuaskan kerinduan urang Atau Orang Miang Di Rantau dimanapun dia berada terhadap kampong halaman tercinta yang jauh dimata, seperti lagu yang selalu dinyanyikan para perantau sebagai berikut:

Rumah Gadang Nan Sambilan Ruang, Pusako Bundo Sajak dulu dulunyo. Bilo den kanang hati den ta ibo .Tabayang bayang di ruang mato.


Dalam bahasa Indonesia sebagai berikut:

Rumah Besar yang sembilan ruang,Pusaka Ibu sejak dulunya.Bila saya kenang hati saya sedih.terbayang-bayang (kampung) di pelupuk mata.

Sebagai pembukaan dari tulisan yang saya susun sebagai tanda cinta kepada tanah kelaiharan saya ,isteri dan seluruh keluarga, dengan harapan dapat dijadikan nostalgia bagi yang tua dan menambah wawasan bagi generasi yang akan datang sehingga akar asal usulnya dapat diketahui.Tulisan dengan ilustrasi koleksi gambar,postal history dan lainnya ini.

Pada kunjungan terakhir 5 Maret 2012 ke Sumatra Barat saya memperoleh tambahan informasi tentang mayor Tionghoa Li Say(Li Ma Say)

Lihat foto kami di restaurant anaknya Yoek Tjoe saat inilah saya mendapatkan info Lie say DARI ANAKNYA Lie Tjoe Yang (Lie Khian Goan,center back with red T-shirt -photo send by Mariawita wijyja)



dan menemukan koin perak era The Holy Roman Empire dari German tahun 1541 dan beberapa temuan baru.

Karya tulis ini masih banyak kekurangannya sehingga koreksi dan tambahan informasi serta saran dari seluruh teman-teman sangat saya harapkan.Terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu saya untuk dapat menyelesaikan karya tulis ini.

Jakarta April 2012

Dr iwan suwandy,MHA









Karya tulis ini saya persembahkan kepada Isteri tercinta Lily Widjaja,Putra and Mantu Albert –Alice,Anto-Grace

Isteri tercinta Lily Widjaja,

Putra and Mantu

Albert Suwandy –Alice,

 Anton jimmi suwandy-Grace  look below

serta para cucu cesa,celin dan Antoni


I was borned in Padang city February,9th.1948 at the old wooden house which belonging to the sister of My grandfather IpoTjoa Bun Tak and Ntiokong Lie Seng Tok (  Sinyo),this house located behind the Chinese camp Market called Tanah Kongsi(Joint Land).

I had found the pictures of this house  were taken by my father in 1948,three pictures black and white,my profile and with mother Anna Tjoa Giok Land with my brother Gho Bian Hoat(Dr Edhie Johan),Sister Elina(Gho soe Kim) and younger sister Gho soei Lian (Dr Erlita Lianny Djohan),

We lived there until 1950 and move to latest House at Gereja Street near Ambacang Market and now became Bundo Kandung Street,the old Dutch house which built into wooden house,and then we built three stair house,until sold to my nice Gho Bian An(Ir Andri Virgo) ,he built Fried Chieckinen and Ambacang Plaza ,later became Ambacang Hotel which broken during earfrthquake 2008,now re built again with new name Elena hotel in 2012. 

The famous old Padang City are Padang Beach, Muara Sungai Arau , Chinese Camp(Kampung Tionghoa),Pondok,Hilligoo –Pasar ambacang,complex Rooe catholic one church Theresia, two chapel Agnes ,basic School(Sekolah Rakyat-Dasar )Zuster  Hollanse Indisce School then Theresia and Agnes, Frater fransiscus and andreas,Middle School MULO Frater ,later SMP Zuster Maria, Frater,and Hig School (SMA) Don Bosco

My teacher in memoriam Frater Servaas (A.J.M de beer) sugest to me to collect all kind of information because in 1959 the communication system via internet will growth after the Satelite have send to the outer space.

All the informations now I put in my web blog in 2009


And after thatin 2011  I am starting made the special informations in CD_ROM,pravited limited editions special for my web blog premium member.

This Padang west Sumatra is one of the CD_ROM pravite edition.

In 20010 I have found  A best Manuscript written by  Native Minangkabau Moehammad Zakaria  title Padoeko Mantsri at Boekit Tinggi  1 -8-2603(1843) dedicated to his children consist about Minang Food Receipt, Minang Traditional medicine receipt ,archived and  Minang Poem.

In this part special I write the poem which many types, and other info will written in another part.

I Hope every Minangkabau people inclufing Tionghoa Pada can red this poem  with illustrated with Miangkabau vintage picture, and they will be always remember their homeland Mianangkabau Nan den Cinto(My Loving Mianagkabau Iand). I ALSO FOUND ANOTHER Miang Poem and put together with this Boekittinngi poem.

I hope all my family and another friend from Padang west Sumatra will help me to add the informations about their family and relative informations which made this CD_ROM more complete for the next generations.

This CD-ROM became tsverela  part,the part one contain the general informations,  part two special for Chinese oversees or Tionghoa informations and other par Padangwestsumatra Poem,Padangwestsumatra antique collections,padangwestsumatra batik etc.only.

Jakarta September 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA



Starting The Minangkabau Poem with the very famous poem which made wea always remember Our Beloved minangkabau Homeland

Rumah gadang nan sambilan ruang,Pusako bundo sajak dulunyo. Bilo den kanang hatinya ta ibo ta ibo Ta bayang-bayang diruang mato..

A  Big House with nine-room, Heritage from nowadays .If I remember my heart recalls sedih. Memory  shadows (village) in the eyelid

Wakatu den Ketek Banamo Goan dek Pamarintah disuruh ganti jadi Iwan la gadang bagala Bagindo ,doto dan MHA

When younger named Goan due to government asking changed to Iwan and when became man had title Bagina(yourhighness) a, doctor and MHA(Master Hospital administration(

This related with Minang Poem

Ketek Banamo Gadang Bagala

Small have named bigger have title

Every minangkabau man when small have named like Soewil and when merried he got the tittle Soeten Bandaro(Bendahara)

I always remember thid Minang Poem

Pulau Pandan Jauh Ditangah

Dibalik Pulau Angsa Duo Bilo mati badan dikanduang tanah

Budi baik selau dikanang juo

Pandan island far in the middle(of the ocean)

Behind the second duck island

When passed away the body buried in the land

Favor (which have been made will) always be well remembered



(ejaan sudah disesuaikan,goerindam were Minangkabau  phillosophy )



Mengangkat diri dalam berkata

Tandanya bodoh hatipun buta

Selalu mengaku kaya dan pandai

 Tandanya  bodoh seperti kuda


Lifting themselves in the said
The sign pf  stupid  and blind heart
Always claiming rich and clever
  Sign is stupid like a horse





Pantun  Dato Siamang Gagap

ProverbDato(progenitor) Stuttering Siamang(ape)

Kalau kamu pergi kelapau(kedai)

Yu(ayo)  Beli (ikan) belanak Beli

Ikan Panjang Beli Dahulu

Kalau kamu sampai dirantau

Ibu cari, dunsanak(keluarga)  cari

Kasih saying orang cari dahulu

If you go kelapau (tavern)
Yu (let) Buy (fish) mullet Buy
Fish length Buy Once

If you get dirantau (place to wander)
Mother looking for, dunsanak (family) find
People’s Affection  looking for first




Yang kurik(belang) itu adalah kundi

Yang Merah itu adalah sago

Yang Baik itu adalah budi

Yang Indah itu adalah baso


Setali beli tali

Sekupang(sekepeng)  beli papaya

Sekali kehilangan budi

Selama hidup orang tidak percaya

A pock (striped) is Kundi
Which Red is sago (fruit)
Whether it is a moral
Beautiful it is meatball

Buy quarter strap
Sekupang (sekepeng) buy papaya
Once lost favor
Over the life of an unbeliever

Ditengah umum mengato(mengatakan) baajuo(bagaimana juga)

 Tanda tak ada budi

Marah-marah ditempat (yang) ramai

Tanda tak punya hati yang damai

Amid st the general place mengato (say) baajuo (how well)

  sign of No gratitude

Grumpy place (a) crowded

Signs do not have a peaceful heart


Bicara dengan jernih muka

Tanda punya hati yang suka

Men jauh-jauh indak(bila)  ditanya


Speak with clear face
The sign has a heart like
Men far Indak (when) asked
SHOWING PEOPLE THAT stupid (Which Shows the stupidity)


ProverbDato(progenitor) Stuttering Siamang(ape)

Kalau kamu pergi kelapau(kedai)

Yu(ayo)  Beli (ikan) belanak Beli

Ikan Panjang Beli Dahulu

Kalau kamu sampai dirantau

Ibu cari, dunsanak(keluarga)  cari

Kasih saying orang cari dahulu

If you go kelapau (tavern)
Yu (let) Buy (fish) mullet Buy
Fish length Buy Once

If you get dirantau (place to wander)
Mother looking for, dunsanak (family) find
People’s Affection  looking for first




Yang kurik(belang) itu adalah kundi

Yang Merah itu adalah sago

Yang Baik itu adalah budi

Yang Indah itu adalah baso


Setali beli tali

Sekupang(sekepeng)  beli papaya

Sekali kehilangan budi

Selama hidup orang tidak percaya

A pock (striped) is Kundi
Which Red is sago (fruit)
Whether it is a moral
Beautiful it is meatball

Buy quarter strap
Sekupang (sekepeng) buy papaya
Once lost favor
Over the life of an unbeliever


Bicara dengan jernih muka

Tanda punya hati yang suka

Men jauh-jauh indak(bila)  ditanya


Speak with clear face
The sign has a heart like
Men far Indak (when) asked
SHOWING PEOPLE THAT stupid (Which Shows the stupidity)


Pantun Minangkabau




Dulu kata bermisal adalah keniscayaan dalam pergaulan sehari-hari masyarakat Minangkabau. Dalam setiap diri orang Minangkabau dewasa, khususnya kaum prianya, tertanam prinsip ‘bakato baumpamo, barundiang bakiasan’.

 Dengan prinsip itu, emosi yang muncul dalam komunikasi lisan dipindahkan dari badan ke dalam tuturan. Marah Nada tidak tampak lewat mata yang memerah dan membelalak, tapi lewat idiom-idiom metaforis dalam kalimat setajam siraut dan sembilu. Pantun Minangkabau adalah salah satu pengejawantahan dari prinsip itu, sebagaimana dapat dikesan lagi


Do tadulang-trays (panned) Sajo,

Rice dimano ditugakan?

Do bapulang-home Sajo,

We dimano ditinggakan? (Left)


Tiku Antaro jo (dasn) Pariaman,

There ditugakan rice,

Between the door jo page,

There Adiak den tinggakan. (My sister leave it there)


Previously pandan babungo, (flowering)

Now bingkuang anyo lai,

Previously baguno agency, (useful)

Now tabuang anyo lai. (Now wasted any more)


Many pakaro awning awning,

Our awning awning tabuang, (tube)

Many trade pakaro trade,

Our trade trade tabuang. (Tube)


Trays Island Tarika Island,

Katigo island bantuak spurs, (third island shaped spurs)

Jawek regards nan tingga Tolan, (friends who live answer greeting)

We balayia bisuak morning. (Us tomorrow to batavia)


High Bukik Gunuang Sitoli, (high hill Gunungsitoli-nias)

Bukik bapaga palo fruit, (hill fence nutmeg)

Not sadikik Arok us, (we were not a little wine)

Sabanyak rambuik in kapalo. (As idkepala hair)


Ka Rimbo baolah tuduang, (how protective to Rimbo)

Katuduang in the hands of the day, (a hood / protector middle day))

How tacinto look at gunuang,

In baliak gunuang (behind the mountains) our bodies.


Panuah Marimbo Jambi rice, (rice jambi full merimba)

Sipuluik do ditugakan, (rice pulut do not scatter)

Jauah Taibo our hearts (our hearts much pleading)

Diunjuak not dibarikan. (Showing not supplied)


Do not like it tarah board, (do not like it put the board)

Jauah Marimbo rice Jambi (Jambi PADI MERIMBA FAR)

Do not like it kato Tolan, (DO NOT SAY SUCH friends)

Jauah Taibo our hearts. (FAR pleading OUR HEART)



Jangan tadulang-dulang(di dulang) sajo,

Padi dimano ditugakan?

Jangan bapulang-pulang sajo,

Kami dimano ditinggakan?(ditinggalkan)


Antaro Tiku jo (dasn)Pariaman,

Di situ padi ditugakan,

Antara pintu jo halaman,

Di situ Adiak den tinggakan.(disitu adik saya tinggalkan)


Dahulu pandan babungo,(berbunga)

Kini bingkuang anyo lai,

Dahulu badan baguno,(berguna)

Kini tabuang anyo lai.(sekarang terbuang saja lagI)


Banyak kajang pakaro kajang,

Kajang kami kajang tabuang,(tabung)

Banyak dagang pakaro dagang,

Dagang  kami dagang tabuang.(tabung)


Pulau Talam Pulau Tarika,

Katigo pulau bantuak taji,(ketiga pulau berbentuk taji)

Jawek salam tolan nan tingga,(teman yang tinggal jawab salam)

Kami balayia bisuak pagi.(kami besok ke batavia)


Tinggi bukik Gunuang Sitoli,(tinggi bukit gunungsitoli-nias)

Bukik bapaga buah palo,(bukit dipagar buah pala)

Bukan sadikik arok kami,(bukan sedikit arak kami)

Sabanyak rambuik di kapalo.(sebanyak rambut idkepala)


Ka rimbo baolah tuduang,(bagaimana  pelindung ke rimbo)

Katuduang di tangah hari,(menjadi tudung/pelindung ditengah hari))

Kok tacinto pandanglah gunuang,

Di baliak gunuang (dibalik gunung) badan kami.


Panuah marimbo padi Jambi,(padi jambi penuh merimba)

Sipuluik jangan ditugakan,(beras pulut jangan diserakkan)

Jauah taibo hati kami,(jauh hati kami menghiba)

Diunjuak tidak dibarikan.(Diperlihatkan tidak diberikan)


Jangan bak itu tarah papan,(jangan seperti itu menaruh papan)

Jauah marimbo padi Jambi,(JAUH MERIMBA PADI Jambi)

Jangan bak itu kato tolan,(JANGAN BERKATA SEPERTI ITU KAWAN)

Jauah taibo hati kami.(JAUH MENGHIBA HATI KAMI)

Pantun Minangkabau # 88 –



‘Khazanah Pantun Minangkabau’ menyambung cerita yang  lalu. Bait-bait pantun yang kami sajikan ini masih berkisah tentang keunikan kurenah masyarakat dan pemimpin nagari-nagari di daerah


Pantun-pantun tersebut berbentuk pantun berkait. Ini tentu dapat menjadi jalan bagi warga Kabupaten Solok dan sekitarnya untuk menapaktilasi aspek politik, sosial dan budaya masa lampau daerah mereka. Selamat menikmati.


Bakasua daun katari,

Takalanduang si daun anau,

Rajo Mansyur di Kinari,

Nan laduang di Koto Anau.


Takalanduang si daun anau,

Takalapak si daun birah,

Nan laduang di Kota Anau,

Nan lambuak di Tanah Sirah.


Takalapak si daun birah,

Palapah di kandang banyak,

Nak lambuak di Tanah Sirah,


Tunggang gagah di Batu Banyak.


Palapah di kandang banyak,

Pangali di Indopuro,

Tunggang gagah di Batu Banyak,

Tuan Kali di Limau Lunggo.


Pangali di Indopuro,

Daun silodang laweh-laweh,

Tuan Kali di Limau Lunggo,

Nan gadang di Koto Laweh.


Daun silodang laweh-laweh,

Daun katari mudo-mudo,

Nan gadang di Koto Laweh,

Babaua jo Tujuah Koto.


Daun katari mudo-mudo,

Daun marunggai laweh-laweh,

Kok lah babaua nan Tujuah Koto,

Padamaian di Koto Laweh.


Badia sadaga duo dantun,

Badia nak urang Banda Puruih,

Kok dipikia kato ibaraik pantun,

Bak maminun aia tak auih.

machinal translate



Bakasua (mattresses) katari leaves,

Takalanduang (lay) the leaf anau,

Rajo (King) Mansyur in Kinari,

Nan (a (laduang (lying) in Koto Anau.


Takalanduang (lay) the leaf anau,

Takalapak (falling to the ground) the leaf birah,

Nan (a) laduang (lying) in the city of Anau,

Nan (a) lambuak (softened) in the Land of Sirah.


Takalapak (falling to the ground) the leaf birah,

Palapah (midrib) at home a lot,

Nak lambuak (softened) in the Land of Sirah,

Many riding proudly in Stone.


Palapah (midrib) at home a lot,

Pangali (multiply) in Indopuro,

Many riding proudly in Stone,

Mr Kadi (indigenous teachers) in Limau Lunggo.


Pangali (multiply) in Indopuro,

Leaves silodang laweh-laweh (wide),

Mr. Kali (traditional teachers) in Limau Lunggo,

Nan gadang (growing up), Koto Laweh. (City Wide)


Leaves silodang laweh-laweh, (wide)

Katari leaf-Mudo Mudo, (very young)

Nan gadang (growing up) in Koto Laweh,

Babaua jo Tujuah Koto. (Mingled with seven cities)


Katari leaf-Mudo Mudo,

Leaves marunggai laweh-laweh,

Why is babaua nan Tujuah Koto,

Padamaian (Peace), Koto Laweh. (City wide)


Badia sadaga duo dantun, (two guns boom merchant)

Badia son urang Banda Puruih, (rifles for the banda)

How dipikia kato ibaraik poem, (When you think about

Bak maminun aia not auih(like drink water alouth not thirsty)

 In the above verses recorded traitsleaders of several villages again in Solok and surrounding areas, as well as characteristics of children nagarinya, and relations with neighboring villages-villages.Some of the villages mentioned in the seven strands stanza poem above is: Kinari, Koto Anau, Land Sirah, Stone Many, Lemons Lunggo, Koto Laweh, and Tujuah Koto.If in Kinari Rajo Mansyur tasabuik nan, then known as Koto Anau curve (laduang). Look at the context, perhaps this leads laduang said physical features people Koto Anau (could have been referring to the women). Such reflection verse 680.Physical characteristics (which is also the possibility of referring to women) Land Another Sirah: lambuak. In this context it means rather gendutan lambuak, plump (verse 681). While children Batu Many villages renowned for prowess or good looks (verse 682). Well, Stone Many people nowadays so-so little pride. Apparently their ancestors used many handsome, perhaps crazy by many women from the surrounding villages-villages.

Next two villages called, the Lemons Lunggo and Koto Laweh, also have their respective advantages. Lemons Lunggo Nagari famous because Mr. Kali comes from there (verse 683). Thus, the Lemons Lunggo famous for religious aspects. While Koto Laweh famous because apparently a lot of great people (urang sieve) derived from these villages (verse 684). Nagari is apparently having a competitive relationship (babaua) also with Tujuah Nagari Koto (verse 685). As has been noted in many anthropological studies of the Minangkabau, the relationship between villages could reach the stage of physical conflict, but more rivalry manifested in art and culture.

If we refer to the next verse (686) seems in the past that might be rivalry between the villages with Tujuah Laweh Koto Koto. If any dispute arises, it seems Laweh Koto could be a mediator or conciliator.

This number is close to the metaphorical nature of language rhymes about how Minangkabau. Explained that the essence as people who are not thirsty given water. That is, he palamak speech, a tool to strengthen relationships and to increase the wisdom in speaking. It is not something that can not make the dead. In other words, berpantun not a compulsion. He must be conducted in a happy mood, not when the stomach is not yet satisfied


Dalam bait-bait di atas terekam ciri

pemimpin beberapa nagari lagi di daerah Solok dan sekitarnya, juga karakteristik anak nagarinya, serta hubungan dengan nagari-nagari tetangganya.

Beberapa nagari yang disebut dalam tujuh untaian bait pantun di atas adalah: Kinari, Koto Anau, Tanah Sirah, Batu Banyak, Limau Lunggo, Koto Laweh, dan Tujuah Koto.

Kalau di Kinari Rajo Mansyur nan tasabuik, maka Koto Anau terkenal karena lekukannya (laduang). Melihat konteksnya, barangkali kata laduang ini mengarah pada ciri fisik orang Koto Anau (bisa saja merujuk kepada kaum wanitanya). Demikian refleksi bait 680.

Ciri fisik (yang juga kemungkinan merujuk ke kaum wanita) Tanah Sirah lain lagi: lambuak. Dalam konteks ini lambuak berarti agak gendutan, sintal (bait 681). Sedangkan anak nagari Batu Banyak terkenal karena kegagahan atau ketampanannya (bait 682). Wah, warga Batu Banyak sekarang ini bolehlah sedikit berbangga diri. Rupanya nenek moyang mereka dulu banyak yang jombang, yang mungkin digilai oleh banyak perempuan dari nagari-nagari sekitarnya.

Dua nagari berikutnya yang disebut, yaitu Limau Lunggo dan Koto Laweh, juga memiliki keunggulan masing-masing. Nagari Limau Lunggo terkenal karena Tuan Kali berasal dari sana (bait 683). Jadi, orang Limau Lunggo terkenal karena aspek keagamaannya. Sedangkan Koto Laweh terkenal karena rupanya banyak orang-orang besar (urang gadang) berasal dari nagari tersebut (bait 684). Nagari ini rupanya mempunyai hubungan yang kompetitif (babaua) juga dengan Nagari Tujuah Koto (bait 685). Seperti sudah dicatat dalam banyak kajian antropologis mengenai Minangkabau, hubungan antar nagari bisa sampai tahap konflik fisik, tapi lebih banyak diwujudkan dalam rivalitas seni-budaya.

Jika kita merujuk ke bait berikutnya (686) tampaknya di masa lalu mungkin rivalitas itu di antara nagari Koto Laweh dengan Tujuah Koto. Kalau muncul konflik, tampaknya Koto Laweh bisa menjadi penengah atau pendamai.

Nomor ini ditutup dengan kiasan mengenai bagaimana hakekat bahasa pantun Minangkabau. Dijelaskan bahwa hakekatnya seperti orang yang tidak haus diberi air. Artinya, ia palamak bicara, alat untuk mempererat pergaulan dan juga untuk menambah kearifan dalam berbicara. Ia bukan sesuatu yang kalau tidak ada bisa bikin orang mati. Dengan kata lain, berpantun bukan merupakan suatu paksaan. Ia mestinya dilakukan dalam suasana hati yang senang, bukan ketika perut belum lagi kenyang.

Pada saat saya bertugas di solok tahun 1973-1979 saya teringat beberapa pantun

Singkarak koto nan (yang) Tinggi

Simanuk Mandulang-dulung

Adaik(Adat) Solok   Budi Selayo

aapakah anda mengerti artinya

Are you know the meaning

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Padang west sumatra CD-ROM new Informations Tionghoa lived at Padang in 1944-1955





Kampong Tionghoa (Chinese Camp)

Chine camp(kampong tionghoa) Street starting from the Kinol Aphotek corner until the Chinese temple.The left one,with staircase where my grandfather printing office(later My Ftaher and Uncle) Express.also seen Eng Djoe Bie and at the right the house Mie Yap Kie(noodle restautrant),Lena Khoe my teacher house(his father the brother of My Wife Grandmother at Padang Panjang Mrs Tjan Tjie Seng),no car this time only Bendi(delman ,horse carriage) and pedati.

In 1945 live at Kampoeng tionghoa street(now Pondok street) based to dr Iwan collections Road tax registration Book

kampoeng tionghoa,now Pondok street (  Tjan Hoei Nio ,no 21,  Tjoa eng Keng   gold marchant shop at kampoeng Tionghoa  and he had also house  at tepi Bandar Olo where dr Italian and Dr Khamardi thalut practse, Tjoa  tjong Thay, Sho Sien Hien, ) 

At theright side apotik sehat (owner Mak kim seng then sold to the new owner), some house,small gang two small shop, dentist Kwee Tjeng Tang,the father Dr Kwee Hoa Yong, then Barber sop,some house, then The Andalan Medical Faculty ,now became healh school(may be Nursing), the corner tionghoa kedai kopi(coffee sho) now closed  the kampong sebelah, some house, gho kobg liang Tempo Medical distributor(now I donn’t know), Auyong Tjoe Pong house the owner of Lam kiauw coconut oil fabric, Lay him house now took kaca mata owne Drg Lie Yaou Hoei  and the  daughter of Lay hin ,and hisher siter merried my thirs uncle hardi Firgo(gho Bian Jan), after that Ghan Keng soan , the corner Apotik kinol the owner the family of Liem Bian Djang Mother and the owner of Dexa Medica Palembang, after that Sungai bong street, at the corner Lape salero restaurant(not exist anymore)


At the leftside of kampong (village)  Tionghoa street were the house of gho fmali(father of dr Gho Tjeng hoen) the fist leader of Gho Famili(marha) Kongsi Padang, then small gang tanah Kongsi, then the house of the mother of dr Lie Po Tjoe(maria), then the house of Khoe family(mfather of Lena Khoe my teacher at SD Fransikus(low s basic school or Sekolah Dasar),her sister merried Thio Tjoe Liong, after that I donn’t know, the one gang to Kali Kecil street, the took(shop) Julia  father of dr Itje Juliani, then Toko(shop) Romeo (later became wasserij,now painting Shop Tjia Eng Wan and his his wife mu second uncucle  ,my father brother Gho Ie Keng- name Gho soei Hong, then Hidangan Kita,then the shoe shop, then Nam Yang  restaurant(father of Bo liong) the corner now became the car shop then  Kampung sebelah street then  Khoun  Chan foto studio,Hen seng hotel, Toko Murah owner Oei Soei Ho, from his first wife they did not had children and  get step children Oei Djie san and Oei Bok sioe(meeried with my thirs  brother of My Father Gho Ie Hauw(Hardi Firgo), after that the new house before burned, many years this building not finish. I remember only few oner like the father of Eng Liang and Eng Liep and Mak Kim Lian (son of Mak Pak soei) merried  aunt Tjoe she ever played lawn tennis with me their children  Mak Ying Fa,Mak yoek Fa and son Mak Wan Wie.


klenteng te Padang 

Chinese Captain Lie Say 

Chinese Major  Li say was the first padang Major,

Info from Lie swan hauw

Lie Saaij or Lie Ma Saaij must be spelled in Dutch colonial spelling, as this was his name as entered in official legal documents.
\Furthermore he was not the first chinese captain ( 1860) , but the first chinese Major ( Majoor der chinezen ), which appointment was done after he contributed more than 25.000 old dutch guilders to the Krakatau relief fund in 1883.
Before Lie Saaij there were among others Lie Piet as captain of the chinese with Lie Kee as lieutenant. ( ±1855 )

Sya akan menghubungi perhimpunan (kongsi) marga Lie untuk mendapatkan informasi dari Lie Ma sai.

the  Chinese temple beside his house,


 he did not like the HTT Kongsi which built this temple and in the front of his house there a small street to the Arau River, there were Pasar Borong Market and many small Chinese citizen, turn to right the Padang spaarbank or Bank Tabungan Negara(now closed), I just have new info that  the this Padang spaarbank was built by Gho chong ,grand grand pa of Nila Go who just send me the info .read the original info below:

Pak Iwan, beberapa hari yang lalu saya baca sekilas cerita tentang keluarga gho cong yang membangun gedung spaarebank di depan kelenteng see hin kiong…saya sangat tertarik, karena saya pernah dengar diberitahu bahwa kakek buyut saya bernama Gho Cong……..apakah pak iwan tahu mengenai keluarga gho itu? Terima kasih sebelumnya pak

Saya akan menghubungi konsi she Gho untuk mendapatkan informasi tetntang Gho Chong tersebut. 

Lie say died buried in the Padang Hill not in the Chinese tomb which belonged to HTT members.

Beside the temple there were Tjia wie hien house,who work at Semen Indarung Fabric,his son my friend Dr Tjia Boen liong merried with Sian,the sister of Ang Tjeng Liang(Wirako),and The HO TEK chinese social brotherhood organization, the house of Thio Tjoe liong-wife the sister oleh my teacher Lena Khoe(her father the brother of my wife grandma Khoe Kim lian),also my friend  house of Lim Pie Ho  with his sister Lim Giok Tjin with her husband Thio Tjoe Ban, dr Lim giok Lin Sp.P anak with her huband in memoriam dr Djohan Teddy their father Lim sim hong which falily with the wife of brother of my son anto ‘s wife Greece shanty which ever stay at Padang beside of percetakan Express kampong tionghoa ,and Siong Hwa are threre too.


Sumatra’s first Malay newspaper in Padang. Akhbar pertama

One of my father’s favorite stories was how in 1905 he was talked into buying a printing press by a representative of a printing press firm when he had one too many at his club. He forgot all about it but one day the press arrived. He had no idea as to what to do and interested a few people into starting a first malay newspaper on Sumatra in 1905. It became a succes. In 1929 a commemorative isse was printed. I have no idea whether it survived the Japanese occupation.



Oranje Hotel (Hotel Muara)



Oranye hotel,kenudian diganti tek Muara , saya pernah lihat didalam gedung ini tegel bergambar lambing seluruh keresiden(saat ini propinsi) daris eluruh hindai belanda(saying tak tahu kemana perginya)Hotel ini runtuh pada saat gempa besar tahun 2008,dan tahun 2012 sudah dibangun hotel baru dengan nama yang sama.

Kerah kiri(to the left The Goeoren street ever live there Heng (monkey), Phoa yan sam , salon Grate Djelita) and in 1045 based on dr Iwan Collections Roat tax registration book in March 31th 1945 live at the Goeroen street some tionghoa

Goeroen street no 7(Lie Oen Hok)  no 9(Lie Oen Hok) No 25(Kam hong Oei) no 19(Lie Hong Lie) no 17(Injo tek sioe),no 29( Injo Thay sao)

The Rooseboom was steaming west of Sumatra  

On 1 March 1942 at 11.35pm

the Rooseboom was steaming west of Sumatra


On 1 March 1942 at 11.35pm

when it was spotted by the Japanese submarine I-59 and torpedoed. It capsized and sank rapidly leaving one life boat (designed to hold 28) and 135 people in the water. 80 people were in the lifeboat the rest clung to flotsam or floated in the sea. Two of these survivors, one of whom was a Corporal Walter Gibson, were picked up nine days later by the Dutch freighter Palopo. Until the end of the Second World War they were assumed to be the only survivors. Sadly, Robert Kingshott did not survive and his body was never recovered. The reason that I mention Walter Gibson, is that he wrote an account of his survival which demonstrates the conditions he, and others, endured in the days following the sinking.


According to Gibson in and around the lifeboat were an estimated 135 survivors, many with injuries, including Gibson himself who was in the lifeboat due to those injuries. By the time the boat had drifted for more than 1,000 miles, to ground on a coral reef, less than 100 miles from Padang, Rooseboom’s starting point, only five of its 80 passengers remained alive, and one of those drowned in the surf while trying to land.


In Gibson’s account the ordeal that followed the sinking showed the worst of human nature under some of the most extreme conditions. On the first night many of those in the water drowned or gave up. S


ome twenty men built a raft from flotsam and towed it behind the boat. The raft slowly sank and all twenty perished three days later. In the first few days discipline collapsed men and women went mad with thirst, some drinking sea water which sent them into hallucinations. Many threw themselves overboard rather than face further suffering, and a gang of five renegade soldiers positioned themselves in the bows and at night systematically pushed the weaker survivors overboard to make the meagre rations go further.


 Gibson claims to have organized an attack on the renegades with a group of others who rushed them and pushed them en masse into the sea. Brigadier Paris died, hallucinating before he fell into his final coma. The Dutch captain was killed by one of his own engineers.


Towards the end Gibson realized that all who remained alive were himself, another white man, a Chinese girl named Doris Lin (who turned out to be a secret agent for the British) and four Javanese seamen.  That night the Javanese attacked the other white man and started to eat him alive. Later the oldest Javanese died.


The lifeboat eventually landed on Sipora,


 an island off Sumatra and only 100 miles from Padang, where the Rooseboom started its journey 30 days earlier. One of the Javanese seaman drowned in the surf whilst the other two disappeared into the jungle and have never been found.


After a period of being treated by some of the local population Doris Lin and Gibson were discovered by a Japanese patrol. Gibson was returned to Padang as a prisoner of war while Lin was shot as a spy soon afterwards. 


It is not clear at what point Robert died, but I would hope that his death was quick and as painless as possible.


Robert was my 5th cousin once removed

Source:Jan Brian Kingshot


The reaction of the Japanese took a day to set up but it is up to the challenges. It is indeed out of the question to leave the British foothold on an island of vital importance to the Japanese war economy. Early in the morning the dreaded torpedo bombers Nells appear on Padang. Private air support British ships have no chance of escape. The largest ship is the first target. The ship Dunera cash two torpedoes, then come Vals led by student pilots who did not believe to be launched in the fight so quickly. All bombs fell except water dropped by their instructor, a veteran of Pearl Harbor. The cargo Trevilley is touched.

A new raid occurs. Japanese airmen begin to collect dividends from their attacks. They run with their torpedoes and the Dunera Madras City and reach once more leTrevilley. This is a disaster for the British lose 87canons, 20 vehicles and 400 men.

Madras City torpedoed transport flows with its load

The ship HMT Dunera flows to Padang. Sinking cancels the hand British Sumatra.

(The ship had Dunera headlines. On 10 July 1940 the ship left Liverpool with 2,500 passengers, double its capacity. “Passengers” are in fact prisoners of war and German or Italian people suspected by the authorities British sympathies Nazis. actually 2,000 of them are Jews escaped from Germany. Some of them are survivors of a torpedoed ship. Travel to Sydney last two months in appalling sanitary conditions. A arrival in Sydney énorme.Churchill the scandal was arrested in the House of Commons. Passengers are sent to a camp where Australian authorities are trying to forget the abuse. Upon entry into Japan war refugees are released and join the ranks of the allied camp)



The island was conquered in two weeks by the Japanese in February 1942 has not seen any military action since. The few Japanese garrisons live in a torpor punctuated by Equatorial rain and shake the earth’s crust.

The only question which concerns the Japanese on the island are the statistics of production of oil wells and refineries, as well as ores, rubber, rice. In short, the country is being fleeced.

 At night comes a message on the office of Admiral Kondo Nobukate, commanding the IInd fleet. It comes from a marine commando unit of the 91st regiment of the Guard stationed in Padang on the west coast of Sumatra.

 It signals the arrival of a British landing force escorted by destroyers Arrow and Foxhound. The big troop transport Dunera is identified. The first elements of the 6th British brigade arrive. Apparently there is a hand operation as Canadians attempt an equivalent four days later at Dieppe.

End of the day the British landed 1600 men. This is insufficient to dislodge the 1500 Japanese elite soldiers sheltered in their fortifications and bunkers.


After the huge losses the day before the British ships depart from Padang

during the night leaving the 6th Brigade to its fate. The landing force was divided into British deux.Malheureusement for them they did not go fast enough and are still in the range bombers destroyers.

The two trains met at the morning sailing northwest toward Ceylon. Therefore the planes come wave after wave and again it is a massacre. 3 freighters escorted by HMS Decoy are cast shot torpedoes. Fritillary corvette escorting the 2nd section of the convoy was torpedoed. Then the bombers are attacking the escort destroyers first section.

Throughout the morning the destroyers HMS Decoy Arrow and manage to avoid the thirty torpedoes intended for them. DCA of these two small vessels, dense and accurate damage several bombers. However during the afternoon bombers back.

 A short ammunition anti-aircraft destroyers become easy prey. The Decoy attacked by 18 Nells can not avoid a torpedo, then Arrow impacted by Long Lance explodes and sinks. The Decoy torpedoed again tilts and capsizes. HMS Foxhound 2nd part of the convoy escaped the pack of the aircraft continues.

A British ship is in serious trouble after the passage of Bettys.
Japanese airlift continues throughout the day. A 2nd para regiment is dropped to reinforce Japanese positions.

 A 3rd Regiment, 15th Marine commando Guard is deposited on land beaten by British artillery. 3700 Japanese are now hard at work in 2500 against the British. The Japanese did not attack. They expect tanks that are long in coming, wading on the slopes soggy Sumatra.

Japanese paratroopers about to embark for Padang.(121)


The Japanese continue to strengthen their defense Padang with an airlift. Their numbers reach 4,000 men against the British in 2500. 4 units with two parachute regiments were brought reinforcements entirely by aircraft.(121)


The assault led to Padang to force the 3000 British 6th Brigade to surrender failed despite the 9200 Japanese soldiers arrived on the scene backed by hundreds of tanks. Jungle promotes the defense of British hiding under the canopy for protection from daily aerial bombardment.




Postally used registerd cover send from CDS solok 18.9.27(27.9.1943)  to  CDS Pariaman 18.9.1943 shift to padang with Sumatra west coast sai nippon cross overprint on DEI Kriesler 40 cent(provenance dr iwan 1985)

Kreisler 40 cent met opdruk DNY en kruis in zwart op R-brief Solok 18.9.27 naar Priaman 18.9.29 en doorgestuurd naar Padang 18.9.30, rechterzijde zie


Dai Nippon military homeland postcard with added  11/2 sen surcharged  postally used send from CDS Solok(west sumatra)  18.6.25(25.5.1943) to Bandoeng

With info

Oleh sebab gampo(gempa) itoe(itu)  dan lagi djalan2(jalan-jalan) habis  roesak(rusak) .Adik akan datang ke Padang kedua hari Djum’a(juma;at) tanggal 24  dengan si Oepik(upik) tertoempang(tertumpang) salam adinda dan oeni(kakak) nurhani dan lakinya(suaminya) rifai

Dari adinda

Siti marlian

Simpang Toeah Boeah Koebang solok


001-012 zonder 3 1/2 cent op R-brief Padang met 1e-dagstempel, vrijwel pracht

CDS dai nippon pa=da-n(g) 18.8.1(august,1st.1943) original first day first day cover od Dai nippon sumatra definitive stamps

Made by Mr The Tjeng Jan

Dr Iwan Ever met this in memoriam man at his home Terusan Djawa dalam now  Rohama Kudus Street and found one kon 35 cent over print cross dai Nippon from him,his son The Se Ham merried Dr Iwan wife nice in memoriam  Tjan sioe Kim.the daughter of his Mother In Law elder Brother. Tjan Tjeng Hay


Dai Nippon Interneering Camp Padang





 The postally used money order send from CDS dai Nippon padan(n) pandjan(g) 18.11.30(novemebr,30th.1943) to Ramlah Koto tanngai soengai batang Manindjau(lake) used Japanese homeland stamp and overprint bigger Dai nippon yubin od DEI def 5 cent



Road Tac regristrion Book Of Padang City(Dr Iwan collections found at Lapak ex paper from Padang city Hall Archived wgich sold out in 1980) ,inside were found the name of Tionghoa People who paid the tax with rthe name of street where there lived, this iformations very important for the fsmily who want to trace their older grandpa.(who want to have the scan of this original document please contact dr Iwan via comment in Driwancybermuseum blog’s comment)

Goeroen (Desert)street(the still exist until this day)

Handel Goan Hoat jl goeroen no 49

Lie Hong Lie jl Goeroen 19

Kampoeng(village) Tionghoa(now Pondok street)

Ong Hong Kiat, Oh Tjong Thong(no 25),

Tugu A.T. Raff  di Lapangan Imam Bonjol Sekarang 1938

.Alang Lawat no 9(Kam  Hien Oei),

belakang Poeroes( Liem Tjeng Yong),  Kampoeng Baharoe IV no  12(Oei Tjoei seng), Simpang haroe(Lim eng tjiang), Djati street no 71(Oei Goan beng),Alai street no 7(Tjoei Lan),Tepi Bandar belakang gerdja (Lie Tek boe, may be the grandpa of my friend Lie sin Nio ,she lived there in 1970)

Kampoeng Nias street(Liem Eng Tjiang)

Many native Minangkabau  will up load in part Minangkabau like Sjarif Gani Jalan Poeloaoe karam 22.



I was born this day at Kali ketjil street behind Tanah Kongsi Patang City,look the picture of the house  with me in 1948


Road Tac regristrion Book Of Padang City(Dr Iwan collections found at Lapak ex paper from Padang city Hall Archived wgich sold out in 1980) ,inside were found the name of Tionghoa People who paid the tax with rthe name of street where there lived, this iformations very important for the fsmily who want to trace their older grandpa.(who want to have the scan of this original document please contact dr Iwan via comment in Driwancybermuseum blog’s comment)

Kampoeng (villige) Nias(Oei Boe) , 

kampoeng tionghoa,now Pondok street (  Tjan Hoei Nio ,no 21,  Tjoa eng Keng later he lived at tepi Bandar Olo where dr Italian and Dr Khamardi thalut practse, Tjoa  tjong Thay, Sho Sien Hien, ) 

Pasar Moedik before  named Psaar gadang, then  changed name as Batipoeh street untik now

Batiporh street( Kongsi Yan leng tong she gho,Gho soen tong major Chinese house,still until now lived his son with wife Kiam), Injo tek Lok no  7, )

Goeroen street no 7(Lie Oen Hok)  no 9(Lie Oen Hok) No 25(Kam hong Oei) no 19(Lie Hong Lie) no 17(Injo tek sioe),no 29( Injo Thay sao)

 Jalan sawahan(  Tjan Khay  &hok sioe),  Jalan andalas (lim eng tjiang),jalan Poeroes(So Lai yang).

Jalan palingam no 9(Injo tek soan)no 8(Be siok Lian),

Jalan nipah(stiil exist now no 72(Liem Eng Tjoe). Near the house  of TIKI Lie hap kiang and Lie Hap boe

Jalan Belakang Olo Januari 1988

 Jalan  Tepi Bandar Olo

no 25( Liang eng Lim)no 8(lIm Bian Lian)

Belantung Kecil(now A Yani street

( no. 18a(Pek siauw Thay).,So tong beng, liem thiuw Bhe<Siauw hong Seng, Lim Ham Bie (the owner of took Bie? He still lived there in 1970)

Pasar Borong (lim tiauw Sioe)

Dr Iwan notes



The Story Behind The Nice Letter collections Mourning Letter from Jamnu To Srinagar

THIS Is  The Sample Of  Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-ROM

The Nice Letter Collectections, the complete Cd exist but onlty for premium member

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a nice mourning cover (Mourning covers were black-edged envelopes used to send bereavement notices.)

It has several points of interest:

– It was sent from


Jammu is located in the state of Jammu and Kashmir, which is in the country of India.According to the latest stats, Jammu has a population of 465,600. It is located in the Asia/Calcutta timezone.

Here are some photographs from this beautiful city:

Jammu image
Jammu Jammu and Kashmir
Compiled from a list of old routes to Srinagar given in ‘The Happy Valley: Sketches of Kashmir and the Kashmiris’ by W. Wakefield (1879).

Travellers in Kashmir.  By  Miss G. Hadenfeld  
Route 1
The Gujerat and Pir Panjal Route (or the Mugal route)
The Banihal Route from Jammu was off limits for visitors and for the longest time was only meant for personal use of the royal Dogra family based in Jammu.*
The route began at Railway terminal at Jammu Tawi. Involved crossing Banihal Pass (at 9,200 feet) and you arrived in Srinagar via Verinag. 
* From: ‘A guide for visitors to Kashmir’ (1898) by W. Newman, Updated by A. Mitra.
Route 6
via The Hindustan and Tibet Road. Given in ‘Travels in Ladâk, Tartary, and Kashmir’ (1862) by Lieut.- Colonel Torrens 
You could arrive into Srinagar (and still can) via Leh. But to reach Leh you had to take the The Hindustan and Tibet Road road (for sometime the British did think about road linking Delhi and China). Shimla to Shikpi Pass.  Crossing Chandra Bhaga (Chenab) at Koksar on dead inflated buffalo skin.   

Map of the Kashmir Valley and Jehlum Valley. From ‘The Panjab, North-West Frontier Province, and Kashmir’ (1916) by Sir James McCrone Douie.




Srinagar in Jammu & Kashmir State in India, a few years after the Jammu & Kashmir State Post Office closed.

– It was sent to the wife of

Sir Francis Younghusband, who led the 1904 British Expedition to Tibet

– The cover was sent during Winter in Kashmir, when the State administration normally moved down from Srinagar, which could be cut off by snow, to Jammu.


Why did Lady Younghusband remain in Srinagar?

– The distance between Jammu and Srinagar is about 160 km – as the crow flies.


 The runners carrying this letter took 3 days to cover the distance, having to make a wide detour to the West to reach Srinagar because the passes would have been blocked by snow.

Sad to say, the Edward VII Indian Half Anna stamp is effectively worthless.

Read More Info

Retired doctor’s family to meet Dalai Lama

Retired doctor’s family to meet

The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso,

Dalai Lama

In 1903,

fearful that the Chinese were on the verge of granting Tibet to Russia  and endangering their Raj in India, the British sent a military expedition into Tibet to prevent the rumor from becoming a reality.

The commander of the expedition, Sir Francis Younghusband, brought along British civil servant and photographer John Claude White to document the campaign.

White took a series of seventy photographs which were collected in an album c. 1905.

Amongst the platinum prints and two folding panoramas is

 this striking image of Tibetan nuns.

Considering that Buddhist nuns are required to keep their hair cropped short it is unclear why this group allowed their hair to grow to such impious length. As recently as 2002, the Chinese were imprisoning Tibetan nuns and forcing them to let their hair grow out, the least offensive of their many humiliating punishments.

The Tibetans were none too happy with the British incursion, the Chinese even less so, and the British were none too kind to the Tibetans.



Brigadier-General James Ronald Leslie Macdonald,


leading a military force of over 3,000, including Nepalese Gurkhas, faced off against 3,000 Tibetan troops armed with muskets at

the Battle of Guru, and a very short battle it was.

 After  negotiations to head things off failed, confusion ensued and the shooting began. The British, armed with Maxim machine guns, mowed down between 600-700 Tibetan troops.

The rest were allowed to peacefully retreat. Younghusband, who now assumed command of the British army, marched into Lhasa and negotiated a treaty with the Regent, who declared, “When one has known the scorpion [China] the frog [Britain] is divine.”

The British military mission ended in 1904, unpopular at home and everywhere else.

This album was recently at Bonhams for auction. It sold for £38,400 ($61,592), inclusive of buyer’s premium.

[WHITE, JOHN CLAUDE]. An album of important images taken by John Claude White during Sir Francis Younghusband’s Tibet Mission of 1903-1904. 70 platinum prints and 2 folding panoramas, images approximately 160 x 210mm., captioned on the mounts, contemporary half green morocco, lettered ‘TIBET’ on the upper cover, sailcloth chemise, oblong folio, [c.1905]


Some works of John Claude White

Extracted between 5 works in the catalog of Arcadja

John Claude White - Tibet And Lhasa

John Claude White – Tibet And Lhasa


Back to catalogue Place Bid or Track Lot Lot No: 528 � WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) Tibet and Lhasa, 53 photogravure plates, including a folding map, autograph letter signed (“John White”) and postmarked envelope from Lhasa pasted down to verso of upper cover, occasional light soiling, contemporary red cloth gilt, spine sunned, oblong 4to (200 x 265mm.), Johnston and Hoffman, [1908] Estimate: �7,000 – 9,000, � 7,900 – 10,000 Request Condition Report Footnote: A RARE SERIES OF IMAGES FROM YOUNGHUSBAND’S TIBET MISSION OF 1903-1904. Johnston and Hoffman’s promotional catalogue of 1905 mentions that the images were initially issued individually or in albums, as half-tone or carbon prints. They were later issued in a two volume set with letterpress descriptions by C.B. Bayley, dated 1907-08. These were almost immediately withdrawn from circulation for fear that the information contained would reveal classified details to the Chinese. Consequently, very few copies remain and are exceptionally rare. Hardly less rare is the volume offered here was published a few months later. For example, there is no copy of this edition in the British Library. When the 1903 expediton was formed White had already been in Sikkim for at least fifteen years. Together with the thrusting Younghusband, and supported by two hundred Indian troops, under the military command of General Macdonald, the expedition was to force the Tibetans to trade with British India, and to investigate concerns that Russia was gaining influence in Lhasa. Although Kurt and Pamela Meyer state in In the Shadow of the Himalayas: A Photographic Record of John Claude White 1883-1908 , that “[White's] incomparable photographs have thus turned out to be the only lasting legacy of the ill-fated adventure of the Imperial Raj into Tibet”, the expedition succeeded, and was followed by many years of Anglo-Tibetan friendship and trade. White’s fascinating letter, on Tibet Frontier Commission headed paper, is dated 6.8.04 and addressed from Lhasa to R.H. Morton at a tea estate in Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. In it White mentions a letter written by Morton which he has forwarded to “the Chief Supply and Transport Officer” regarding a “very large order”, presumed to be for White’s photographs. As he goes on to state: “You can obtain copies of my plates later. At present I have not seen proofs.” Images in this volume include: two views of Khambajong, the fort that was the first place visited by the Mission and where initial negotiations took place; the Abbot at Khambajong (illustrated); Gyantze Jong; Debung monastery; a group of lamas of Debung monastery; four views at Nejung monastery; a group portrait of the two stewards and senior lamas of Sera monastery; the entrance to Lhasa; eight views of the Potola, the palace of the Dalai Lama; a portrait of Ti Rimpochi, the Regent of Tibet with whom “the Dalai Lama left the ecclesiastical seal when he fled, and it was he who affixed the seal, and his own, to the Treaty signed in the Potola on 7th September 1904″; “The Shapes”, or the Executive Council of Four and a group portrait of Tongsa Penlop and his retinue. Contact the Specialist to discuss this lot or selling in a future sale Email: Francesca Spickernell Tel: +44 20 7468 8350 To subscribe to or order a Printed Catalogue quote ref: 18942 Tel: +44 (0) 1666 502 200
John Claude White - The Mission Post At Gyantze

John Claude White – The Mission Post At Gyantze



TIBET WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) ‘The Mission Post at Gyantze’, carbon print on Whatman paper, with printed text leaf giving title and description, image 235 x 285mm., 1904, published 1906 John Claude White was an amateur photographer, who accompanied Younghusband on his mission to Tibet in 1903-4, having previously served in the Indian Public Works Department from 1876. While on the mission, White took a series of mainly landscape views. Some of these were issued in two photogravure volumes by Johnston and Hoffman of Calcutta in 1906. However, they were soon withdrawn due to the politically sensitive nature of the text and are now very scarce. Through extant Johnston and Hoffman adverts we know that single prints on ‘print-out paper’ were availabe at 2 ruppees each, whereas platinum prints were available at 3 ruppees each. The carbon prints offered here come from “edition de luxe”, which contained one hundred carbon prints made from the original negatives onto plate-sunk Whatman mounts, bound in two albums with soft-padded morocco covers for 300 ruppees. There are only four or five of these deluxe editions extant, and individual carbon prints are extremely rarely found. The accompanying caption reads: “The Mission Post at Gyantze. This is where the Mission sustained what may almost be called a state of siege for several months. They were under constant fire from the Jong, and on the occasion of the first fight at Karola, when many of the garrison were away with that force, a large body of the enemy attempted to rush the Mission Post, and one man actually got over the wall.”
John Claude White - Views Of Tibet

John Claude White – Views Of Tibet


platinum prints. 13,5 x 20 cm and 13,4 x 20,6 cm. Both annotated in pencil on the verso. The prints offered here are images. There are only six known copies of the complete Tibet album by White. The images were taken during the last ‘Tibet Mission’, an attempt by the British to force the Tibetans to cooperate on a mapping survey. – Fine strong prints in very good condition.
John Claude White - Tibet

John Claude White – Tibet


John Claude White ‘tibet’. an album of seventy-six photographs of tibet and lhasa, and a rare further series of studies including panoramas by an unidentified hand, circa 1900 and 1904 comprising seventy-five mounted studies, including one four-part panorama of Lhasa, Platinum Prints, one mounted three-part panorama of the Tsang Po Valley, Silver Prints, twenty-three mounted studies documenting the progress of the Younghusband Expedition and twelve loose studies including one three-part and one two-part panorama, Printing-out-Paper Prints (the majority in a panoramic format), the platinum prints approx. 133 by 203mm or the reverse, the panoramic prints approx. 63 by 185mm, the other printing-out-paper prints from 53 by 176mm to 143 by 208mm, the platinum prints and panorama of Tsang Po Valley titled in ink on album page, the majority of mounted panoramic prints numbered in pencil on album page, the majority of loose prints numbered in pencil on the reverse, full green leather, green cloth boards gilt-titled ‘Tibet’, oblong 4to In 1903 John Claude White, a political officer in Sikkim, was asked to join as Joint-Commissioner the ‘Tibet Frontier Commission’ under the command of Francis (later Sir Francis) Younghusband. They were joined by Captain Frederick O’Conner, who acted as interpreter, and an escort of two hundred Indian troops under the command of Brigadier-General J.R.L. Macdonald. The British officers’ secret and politically sensitive mission was to negotiate in favour of British interests in Asia in the face of the rumours that the Chinese were about to hand over Tibet to the Russians. White photographed extensively in the border regions of Tibet during his twenty years as political officer in Sikkim. However by far his most highly prized works are these, one of the earliest and most extensive photographic records of the interior and peoples of Tibet. In 1905 Messrs. Johnston & Hoffmann of Calcutta issued a promotional catalogue of the photographs taken by White. The photographs were available individually as platinum or printing-out-paper prints, in a single album of eighty prints printed in half-tone or a luxury edition of one hundred carbon prints. Johnston & Hoffmann later published the photographs as a two volume album, with letterpress descriptions by C.B. Baylay, dated 1907-8, and a smaller format one volume album of photogravures was issued in the following year. Copies of the 1907-8 publication are extremely rare (only a handful copies are known). Even rarer are albums such as this with ink manuscript titles. This album, which belonged to Lt. Col. James Arthur Prendergast Manson, officer in charge of supply and transport on the Younghusband expedition, is mounted with seventy-eight photographs by White, the titles of which appear in the Johnston & Hoffmann catalogue. Significantly, it also contains thirty-five additional mounted and loose photographs, the majority in panoramic format. More informal than the platinum prints, the photographs (which may be by White or another member of the expedition) provide a rare and fascinating record of the progress of the British officers and their Indian troops. Compare with the album sold at Christie’s, London, 30 April 1997, lot 127. Compare the additional silver prints with those attributed to Major MacCarthy Reagh Emmet Ray (1867-1906) in the collection of the National Army Museum, London. The 1907-8 publication: Sotheby’s, New York, 6 April 2000, lot 77 (previously sold Sotheby Parke Bernet, 2 November 1979, lot 258). Sotheby’s, London, 13 May 1994, lot 20. Sotheby’s, New York, 10 & 11 May 1983, lot 531. Provenance: Lt. Col. James Arthur Predergast Manson. Thence by descent.
John Claude White - Tibet

John Claude White – Tibet



TIBET WHITE (JOHN CLAUDE) Two views of the Chaksam Ferry, carbon prints on Whatman paper, images 185 x 310mm., 1904, published 1906 (2) The expedition under Younghusband reached the Chaksam Ferry on the 25th July, 1904. It took seven days for all the troops and equipment to cross the Tsangpo, and tragically on their first day, Major G.H. Bretherton, D.S.O., the chief supply and transport officer drowned

Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment.

Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment. Objects gathered by him in Tibet as “souvenirs” in the course of the Sir Francis Younghusband “expedition” to Tibet in 1903-4, are to be returned to Tibet, as represented by His Holiness the Dalai Lama, during the Dalai Lama’s visit to Edinburgh later this month. Photographer unknown


EDINBURGH, Scotland, 12 June 2012

The sound they make is said to be an eerie, haunting kind of wail, the kind of bone-chilling howl that some might suggest is enough to wake the dead.

Perhaps that is not entirely surprising, given that the bizarre whistle, or kangling, is made from the thigh bone of a long-dead Tibetan monk.

Retrieved from a battleground, bound with carefully plaited leather, adorned with human skin and silver thread, the curious instrument was brought to Edinburgh more than 100 years ago, a keepsake from a time which, with hindsight, was hardly Britain’s finest hour.

Now, as the visit to Scotland by Tibet’s spiritual leader the Dalai Lama, approaches, it is to be finally returned home.

The foot-long bone whistle was among a collection of souvenirs from the roof of the world gathered by Edinburgh-born Colonel Bruce Turnbull of the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment.

He was involved when the regiment took part in the infamous Sir Francis Younghusband expedition to Tibet in 1903-4, a venture into what was then a closed and deeply private nation where outsiders rarely ventured, which would end in violence, mayhem and bloodshed.

The religious artefact — along with a collection of other Tibetan objects — was eventually brought to Edinburgh and later ended up with a family member in London.

But now Col Turnbull’s grandson, Dr Michael Turnbull, has decided the Dalai Lama’s visit to Edinburgh later this month means the time has come to return it into Tibetan possession.

“It is an act of reconciliation,” says Dr Turnbull, 71, of Longniddry. “I think my grandfather probably did not understand quite what he was doing. It was a long time ago.

“Certainly, this is an item that has no real place in my home. It is time for it to go back to its own home.”

It was late March 1904 when his grandfather, the Merchiston Castle-educated son of a Scot who had gone on to become major surgeon general in Bombay, India, found himself at the heart of what has been called “one of the most shameful acts of British history.”

A formidable army, led by Colonel Sir Francis Edward Younghusband, had been formed to march on the closed country of Tibet, on the shaky premise that the Russians planned to expand their empire into that strategic part of Asia.

Around 3000 troops from the 23rd Sikh Pioneers Regiment, armed with machine-guns and accompanied by a further 7000 camp followers, poured into the Himalayan country to be met by locals, rich in religious spirit but armed with a rusty collection of 18th century flintlock rifles.

Who shot first is one of history’s great mysteries. Regardless, the result was bloodshed and carnage.

Some 700 lightly-armed Tibetan monks were killed in the village of Guru alone.

Overall, around 3000 Tibetans — some reports suggest 5000 — were slaughtered by Younghusband’s forces in an action sanctioned during what became known as the Great Game — the desperate race for influence in central Asia, at the heart of which sat the tiny mountainous nation.

By contrast, it’s said the British casualties amounted to five.

The hope had been to force the tiny country bordering colonial India to engage in trade and diplomacy with the British Empire, keeping any aspirations of the Russian Tsar firmly in check.

While it may have brought Tibet to its knees, the strategy was effective. In the capital, Lhasa, in August 1904, a treaty was signed effectively turning Tibet into a British protectorate.

Yet the British claims that the action had simply been intended to settle disputes over the Sikkim-Tibet border were derided by others as an invasion of Tibet.

Col Turnbull was, says his grandson, a young officer at the time without, of course, the benefits of hindsight.

“He was nominated for the Victoria Cross,” he adds. “There are illustrations in a magazine which show him dragging a wounded comrade to safety. So while it wasn’t perhaps the finest moment in British history, it wasn’t completely one-way traffic.”

Dr Turnbull, who was looked after by Col Turnbull and his wife, Jessie, after his mother died in a car accident when he was a child, has only vague recollections of his grandfather. “He died in 1952, I hardly knew him. But I do remember him as a stern and distant figure. At one point, he became deputy lord provost for Edinburgh Town Council.

“He adopted me, so to speak. I remember them taking me to St Peter’s Church for mass, even though they weren’t Catholic, but they respected the promise my father had given to my mother to raise me that way. I went on to do my PhD at New College, so they couldn’t have been too bad.”

Other items from Col Turnbull’s Tibetan collection had already been given to the National Museum by the family, including a striking three-feet -high, 17th century silver goddess and dozens of photographic slides taken during the expedition.

But the whistle — which is regarded by Tibetans to have special and magical qualities — had been kept at a London-based relative’s home.

He made the offer to return the relic to Tibet through the Edinburgh Inter-Faith Association which has helped organise the Dalai Lama’s three-day tour.

He has been granted an early morning audience with the spiritual leader on June 22, during which he will return the item.

Traditionally, a kangling is made from a hollowed-out thigh bone. Holes are made in the knee area to create a kind of trumpet while a mouthpiece is created at the other end.

Beeswax is often poured in to keep it dry and free from micro-organisms.

A kangling is used in various Himalayan Buddhist rituals.

“It might sound quite gruesome to have an instrument made from bone, but it’s not really,” said Dr Turnbull.

“To play this flute would have been a sacred thing to do. It is a precious church object and I’m very pleased that it is finally going home.”

source:Johnston Publishing Ltd

A practical, though lethal, gift for the Dalai Lama


The Thirteenth Dalai Lama, Thupten Gyatso,
Excerpt from Chapter 17 of The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds published in the Ottawa Citizen.  

“The Chinese authorities seem to guard the Dalai Lama closely,” Baron Gustaf Mannerheim wrote in his diary in July 1908. The Russian colonel, who was on a secret intelligence-gathering mission in China, had just arrived at Wutai Shan, the most sacred of four Buddhist mountains in China. One of its mountaintop temples was, he wrote, “the present abode, not to say prison, of the Buddhists’ pope, the Dalai Lama.”

A Chinese army captain named Wang told Mannerheim that “a cordon of soldiers” guarded the approaches to Wutai Shan in northeast Shanxi province. In the event of an attempt to escape, Wang explained, the Dalai Lama “would be stopped, by armed force if necessary.” But in his wanderings around Wutai Shan, Mannerheim saw no such cordon. “I could not help noticing, however, that [Wang] watched my movements with the greatest interest.”

Pusading Temple was the "prison" of the Dalai Lama in 1908.

Wang urged Mannerheim to take him as his interpreter during his audience with the Thirteenth Dalai Lama. But a Tibetan prince had already secretly informed Mannerheim that Wang was not welcome. The Tibetans despised Wang, whom they considered a spy, and prohibited him and his troops from the inner precincts of the temple.

Wutai Shan was more podium than prison for the Dalai Lama. Upon arriving here in the spring of 1908, His Holiness sent messages to the Peking Legations inviting envoys to visit. William Woodville Rockhill, the American ambassador to China, was the first. He pulled on his walking boots and set out for Wutai Shan on foot, a five-day trek from Peking. Rockhill was a scholar and diplomat who had explored Inner Asia in the 1890s and spoke Tibetan. He had left Wutai Shan only a day before Mannerheim’s arrival.

“The Talé Lama seems to me a man of undoubted intelligence, open-minded… a very agreeable, kindly, thoughtful host, and a personage of great dignity,” Rockhill reported back to President Theodore Roosevelt. The Dalai Lama told Rockhill about his struggles against the Chinese and how his country’s remoteness meant Tibet had “no friends abroad.” Rockhill assured His Holiness that he was mistaken: Tibet had many foreign well-wishers who hoped to see Tibetans “prosper and happy.” Later, during the Dalai Lama’s visit to Peking, Rockhill became a confidant to the Tibetan leader, quietly pushing a rapprochement with the Chinese.

In the summer of 1908, the Dalai Lama received a parade of envoys: a German doctor from the Peking Legation; an English explorer named Christopher Irving; R.F. Johnson, a British diplomat from the Colonial Service; and Henri D’Ollone, a French army major and viscount. The Dalai Lama hoped to patch up his relations with Britain after its invasion of Lhasa in 1904 and bolster his international standing. These first audiences with the mysterious Buddhist pontiff were much anticipated.

On his second day in Wutai Shan, a messenger ran into Mannerheim’s room in the Tayuan Temple and gestured that the Dalai Lama was ready to receive him. Mannerheim duly prepared himself. While he was shaving and changing his clothes, another frantic messenger arrived to express the Dalai Lama’s impatience. “I was just as impatient,” he wrote, “but could not possibly dress any faster.” A few minutes later, an anxious Tibetan prince appeared to ask what Mannerheim meant by keeping His Holiness waiting. At a swift pace, the Baron and prince climbed the steep staircase to Pusading Temple.

Staircase to the Pusading Temple in Wutai Shan

Wang, in full dress uniform, was waiting at the top with a Chinese honour guard. The Chinese had reason to worry about Mannerheim’s visit. Chinese authorities had just arrested two Russian military officers who were inciting the Mongols to break from China and become a Russian protectorate. During his stay in Urga (now Ulan Baatar), the Dalai Lama sent messages to the Tsar through various envoys. His Holiness told one Russian military intelligence officer that both Tibet and Mongolia should “irrevocably secede from China to form an independent allied state, accomplishing this operation with Russia’s patronage and support, avoiding bloodshed.” If Russia wouldn’t help, the Dalai Lama insisted, he would even ask Britain—his former foe—for help. After his visit with the Dalai Lama, Mannerheim, in fact, trekked to Inner Mongolia to gauge the rebellious mood of the Mongols.

Wang could barely hide his wrath when Mannerheim told him that he could not attend his audience with the Tibetan pontiff. The Chinese captain argued with two of the Dalai Lama’s assistants. As the Baron slipped into a small reception hall, he caught sight of Wang “making vain efforts to force his way in behind me.”

The Dalai Lama sat on a gilded armchair placed on a dais along the back wall of the small room. Two old Tibetans, unarmed, with beards and hair speckled with grey stood behind him. The Dalai Lama was frocked in “imperial yellow with light-blue linings” and a “traditional red toga.” The thirty-three-year-old pontiff had a dark brown face, shaved head, moustache and a tuft of hair under his lower lip. His eyes were large and his teeth gleamed. Mannerheim noticed “slight hollows in the skin of his face, which are supposed to be pockmarks.” He appeared a bit nervous, “which he seems anxious to hide.” Otherwise, Mannerheim thought he was “a lively man in full possession of his mental and physical faculties.”

Mannerheim made a “profound bow,” which the Dalai Lama acknowledged with a slight nod. They exchanged silk scarves. His Holiness began with small talk, asking Mannerheim about his nationality, age and journey. The Dalai Lama then paused and, twitching nervously, asked if the Tsar had sent a secret message for him. “He awaited the translation of my reply with obvious interest,” wrote Mannerheim, who informed him that he hadn’t the opportunity to personally speak with Tsar Nicholas II before his departure. The Dalai Lama then gestured, and a beautiful piece of white silk with Tibetan letters was brought out. It was a gift that Mannerheim was to deliver personally to Nicholas II.

The Dalai Lama told Mannerheim he had been enjoying his journeys in Mongolia and China, but “his heart was in Tibet.” Many Tibetans were urging him to return. His officials claimed up to twenty thousand pilgrims visited the Dalai Lama each month, but Mannerheim thought it was “an undoubted exaggeration.” The Tibetan pontiff was in the midst of a showdown with Empress Dowager Cixi, who wanted him to come to Peking to perform the kowtow. The Dalai Lama, Mannerheim wrote, “does not look like a man resigned to play the part the Chinese Government wishes him to, but rather like one who is only waiting for an opportunity of confusing his adversary.” The wily Tibetan pontiff had postponed his journey so many times that a joke was circulating in Peking referring to him as the “Delay Lama.”

Mannerheim spoke encouragingly about Russia’s sympathies for Tibet’s struggles against the Chinese. Russia’s troubles were over, the Baron assured him, and “the Russian Army was stronger than ever.” Now, all Russians watched His Holiness’s footsteps with great interest, he added. The Dalai Lama, Mannerheim recalled, “listened to my polite speeches with unconcealed satisfaction.”

Twice the Dalai Lama ordered his bodyguards to check if Wang was eavesdropping on their conversation. It was a dangerous time for the Dalai Lama, who knew his life may be in danger if he returned to Lhasa. The Chinese were tightening their grip on Tibet. Lamas were being assassinated, monasteries plundered and Tibetans evicted from their nomadic pastures. Peking needed the Dalai Lama to be a compliant vassal who could calm his restless followers and ease Tibet’s incorporation into the Chinese Empire.

But the Dalai Lama proved defiant. He visited Peking that September and immediately fell out with the Imperial Court, which issued a decree demoting him to “a loyal and submissive Vicegerent bound by the laws of the sovereign state.” A prominent Imperial censor also openly denounced him as “a proud and ignorant man.” Rumours spread in Tibet that he had been assassinated. Outraged at various reforms, lamas threatened a “holy war” against the Chinese. By the end of 1908, a rebellion broke out, leading to the defeat of Chinese troops. The Dalai Lama eventually returned to Lhasa in 1909 and sent telegrams to Britain and all European countries attacking Peking’s claim over Tibet.

In February 1910, Chinese troops invaded Lhasa. The Dalai Lama fled to India. An Imperial decree denounced His Holiness as “an ungrateful, irreligious obstreperous profligate who is tyrannical and so unacceptable to the Tibetans, and accordingly an unsuitable leader of Lamas.” After the fall of the Qing Dynasty, His Holiness returned to Tibet in 1913, declaring the country independent. He died in 1933, leaving a prophetic last testament for the next Dalai Lama:

We must guard ourselves against the barbaric red communists… the worst of the worst. It will not be long before we find the red onslaught at our own front door… and when it happens we must be ready to defend ourselves. Otherwise our spiritual and cultural traditions will be completely eradicated… and the days and nights will pass slowly and with great suffering and terror. 

Recognizing the clear and present danger, Mannerheim offered the Dalai Lama an unusual, though practical, gift: a Browning revolver. The Baron apologized that he didn’t have a better offering, but explained that after two years’ journey he had no other items of value. The Dalai Lama laughed, “showing all his teeth,” as Mannerheim showed His Holiness how to quickly reload seven cartridges into the revolver. The Dalai Lama relished the demonstration. “The times were such,” Mannerheim wrote, “that a revolver might at times be of greater use, even to a holy man like himself, than a praying mill.”




From The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China by Eric Enno Tamm. Copyright © 2010 by Eric Enno Tamm. Published by arrangement with Douglas & McIntyre.

Ladakh and Kashmir, 1908

33 photographs from ‘An eastern voyage: A journal of the travels of Count Fritz Hochberg through the British empire in the East and Japan (1910) by Hochberg, Friedrich Maximilian, Graf von, (1868-1921) ,Volume: 1. Year 1908. With that the total number of photographs uploaded to this blog comes around to about 3000. And my hard-disk is still cluttered with hundreds more!

Ladakhi Woman and Chid, showing the sheepskin headgear.
Ladakhi woman at Leh
Canal between Floating Garden, Dal Lake, Srinagar 

Uri Road
Harrowing in Ladakh
Old Hindu Monuments near Dras
Indus Valley near Leh
Kashmiri Women Pounding Rice. 
Ladakhi women Harvesting
Ladakhi women weaving
Lamayuroo Convent
main Street Leh
Nimoo Resthouse
Shah Jehan’s Summer House . (Probably Nishat Bagh. This structure was apparently pulled down in relatively recent time)
Tibetans travelling
Wooden Bridge on way to Leh

ight @ 2012