Via Dolorosa Of Jerusalem, Jalan Kesengsaraan Jesus Kristus

Via Dolorosa Of Jerusalem

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

Introduction

sumeber

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/via-dolorosa-of-jerusalem-jalan-kesengsaraan-jesus-kristus/

 

Bagi Yang belum pernah ke Jerusalewm, khusus saya tampilkan kisah jalan kesengsaraan Jesus Kristus yang dikenal sebagai jalan dolorosa, Ikutilah kisah ini dengan khidtmat untuk merasakan bagaimana Sang Penebus berkorban untuk kita manusia

For Which had never been to Jerusalewm, my particular story show the sufferings of Jesus Christ, known as a dolorosa, khidtmat Take this story with a feel for how the Messiah’s sacrifice for us humans

 

Jerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (June 1900)
[Church of the Holy Sepulchre] in 1892

Yerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (Juni 1900)
[Gereja Makam Kudus] tahun 1902

Gereja tersebut  Sekarang

Gereja Makam Suci

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church Now

//

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher is located in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, and is known as the Church of the Resurrection to Eastern Orthodox Christians.

It is revered as the site of Golgotha or Calvary, the spot where Christ was crucified. It is also widely believed to be the site of his burial (sepulcher).

Gereja Makam Kudus terletak di kuartal Christian dari Kota Tua Yerusalem, dan dikenal sebagai Gereja Kebangkitan ke Timur Kristen Ortodoks.

Hal ini dihormati sebagai situs Golgota atau Kalvari, tempat di mana Kristus disalibkan. Hal ini juga diyakini sebagai tempat pemakaman-Nya (kubur).

Ini adalah suci dari situs Kristen, dan telah menjadi tujuan ziarah sejak abad keempat. Ini Apakah terletak kurang dari 2.000 meter dari

It is the holiest of Christian sites, and has been a pilgrimage destination since the fourth century. It Is located less than 2,000 feet from

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, Israel Photo
Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) dengan Kubah Batu dan El Aqsa, Yerusalem

Kubah Batu dan Temple Mount, yang merupakan situs tersuci dalam agama Yahudi dan ketiga paling suci dalam Islam.

Seperti Golgota adalah akhir dari perjalanan terakhir Kristus,

Gereja Makam Kudus ditetapkan pada penghentian

Via Dolorosa,

rute dia berjalan dari ia divonis oleh Pontius Pilatus dan penjara untuk penyaliban dan penguburan.

.

the Dome of the Rock and Temple Mount, which are the holiest sites in Judaism and the third holiest in Islam.

As Golgotha is the end of Christ’s last journey,

the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is set at the termination of

the Via Dolorosa,

the route he walked from his condemnation by Pontius Pilate and imprisonment to his crucifixion and burial.

The Via Dolorosa begins at

the Lion’s Gate (the first Station of the Cross)

in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, and contains the 14 Stations of the Cross.

Via Dolorosa dimulai pada

singa Gate (Stasiun pertama dari Salib)

dalam kuartal Muslim di Kota Tua, dan berisi 14 Salib.

stasi 9 (stasiun 9)

Stasiun 10 sampai 14 Salib adalah semua dalam gereja.

Stations 10 to 14 of the Cross are all within the church.

Station 10 is where Jesus was stripped,

and is just outside the entrance to the church. Station 11 is just inside the entrance, marking the spot where he was nailed to the cross. The Rock of Golgotha marks the spot where he died.

Stasiun 10 adalah di mana Yesus dilucuti,

dan hanya di luar pintu masuk gereja. Stasiun 11 hanya di pintu masuk, menandai tempat di mana ia dipaku di salib. The Rock dari Golgota menandai tempat di mana ia meninggal.

Ini adalah Station 12,

This is Station 12,

and here is the church’s lovely Medici altar from Florence, Italy.

dan di sini indah gereja Medici altar dari Florence, Italia.

Stasiun 13

Station 13

is where he was taken down from the cross,

 

and is where there is a statue of Our Lady of Sorrows.

adalah di mana IA dibawa turun dari salib,

 

dan di mana ada patung Our Lady of Sorrows.

Stasiun 14

Station 14

is the tomb and place of resurrection, and is inside the chapel.

The actual Rock of the Calvary, around which the Church of the Resurrection was built, is here and visible under glass on either side of the main altar.

Most scholars believe in the historic accuracy of the geography involved in the location of this Christian site. It appears that early Christians held religious rites on this site beginning with the resurrection.

adalah makam dan tempat kebangkitan, dan di dalam kapel.

The Rock sebenarnya dari Kalvari, sekitar yang Gereja Kebangkitan dibangun, di sini dan terlihat di bawah kaca di kedua sisi altar utama.

Kebanyakan sarjana percaya pada akurasi bersejarah geografi yang terlibat dalam lokasi ini situs Kristen. Tampaknya orang-orang Kristen awal diadakan ritual keagamaan pada awal situs dengan kebangkitan.

Setelah kota ini diduduki oleh Romawi, Kaisar Hadrian membangun kuil Aphrodite di sini di 66 AD.

After the city was occupied by Romans, the Emperor Hadrian built a temple to Aphrodite here in 66 AD.

When Constantine converted to Christianity in 312 AD, he began construction on the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgotha was reputedly uncovered by the builders. His mother, St. Helena, is said to have found three crosses, one of which was supposedly the True Cross.

The church was almost completely destroyed in 1009, and it was subsequently partially rebuilt. It was this Church of the Resurrection where the knights of the First Crusade prayed.

Their leader, Godfrey of Bouillon, became the first Christian King of Jerusalem and “Defender of the Holy Sepulcher.”

The history of the church can be seen in the mixtures of various architecture, which is a mixture of Byzantine, medieval, Crusader, and modern elements. Additionally, the church is jointly administered by orthodox and apostolic Christians from Greece, Armenia, and Ethiopia—in addition to the Roman Catholic Church. Their artistic and architectural influences are also evident.

Ketika Konstantin menjadi Kristen pada tahun 312, ia mulai konstruksi pada Gereja Makam Kudus di 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgota konon ditemukan oleh para pembangun. Ibunya, St Helena, dikatakan telah menemukan tiga salib, salah satunya adalah seharusnya Salib Sejati.

Gereja hampir sepenuhnya hancur pada 1009, dan kemudian dibangun kembali sebagian. Inilah Gereja Kebangkitan di mana para ksatria Perang Salib Pertama berdoa.

Pemimpin mereka, Godfrey dari Bouillon, menjadi Kristen pertama Raja Yerusalem dan “Pembela Makam Kudus.”

Sejarah gereja dapat dilihat dalam campuran arsitektur berbagai, yang merupakan campuran dari elemen Byzantium, Abad Pertengahan, Tentara Salib, dan modern.

Selain itu, gereja secara bersama-sama dikelola oleh orang-orang Kristen ortodoks dan apostolik dari Yunani, Armenia, dan Ethiopia-di samping Gereja Katolik Roma. Pengaruh mereka artistik dan arsitektur juga jelas

look more pictures related with Via  dolorosa’

Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers, 1865, by Manet

Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers, 1865, by Manet

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Read More

The History Of Via Dolorosa

Via Dolorosa

 

 

 
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Il Spasimo, Jesus carrying the cross, by Raphael, 1516

The Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem.ogv
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The Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem

The Via Dolorosa (Latin,”Way of Grief” or “Way of Suffering”) is a street, in two parts, within the Old City of Jerusalem, held to be the path that Jesus walked, carrying his cross, on the way to his crucifixion. The winding route from the Antonia Fortress west to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre — a distance of about 600 metres (2,000 feet) — is a celebrated place of Christian pilgrimage. The current route has been established since the 18th century, replacing various earlier versions.[1] It is today marked by nine Stations of the Cross; there have been fourteen stations since the late 15th century,[1] with the remaining five stations being inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

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[edit] History

The main roads – the cardines (north-south) and decumani (east-west) – in Aelia Capitolina. The Via Dolorosa is the northern decumanus

The Via Dolorosa is the modern remnant of one of the two main east-west routes (Decumanus Maximus) through Aelia Capitolina, as built by Hadrian. Standard Roman city design places the main east-west road through the middle of the city, but the presence of the Temple Mount in the middle of this position required Hadrian’s planners to add an extra east-west road at its north. In addition to the usual central north-south road (cardo), which in Jerusalem headed straight up the western hill, a second major north-south road was added down the line of the Tyropoeon Valley; these two cardines converge near the Damascus Gate, close to the Via Dolorosa. If the Via Dolorosa had continued west in a straight line across the two routes, it would have formed a triangular block too narrow to construct standard buildings; the decumanus (now the Via Dolorosa) west of the Cardo was constructed south of its eastern portion, creating the discontinuity in the road still present today.

The first reports of a pilgrimage route corresponding to the Biblical events dates from the Byzantine era; during that time, a Holy Thursday procession started from the top of the Mount of Olives, stopped in Gethsemane, entered the Old City at the Lions’ Gate, and followed approximately the current route to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre;[2] however, there were no actual stops during the route along the Via Dolorosa itself.[1] By the 8th century, however, the route went via the western hill instead; starting at Gethsemene, it continued to the alleged House of Caiaphas on Mount Zion, then to Hagia Sophia (viewed as the site of the Praetorium), and finally to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[1]

Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholics of Jerusalem split into two factions, one controlling the churches on the western hill, the other the churches on the eastern hill; they each supported the route which took pilgrims past the churches the faction in question controlled,[1] one arguing that the Roman Governor’s mansion (Praetorium) was on Mount Zion (where they had churches), the other that it was near the Antonia Fortress (where they had churches).

In fourteenth century, Pope Clement VI achieved some consistency in route with the Bull, “Nuper Carissimae,” establishing the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land, and charging the friars with “the guidance, instruction, and care of Latin pilgrims as well as with the guardianship, maintenance, defense and rituals of the Catholic shrines of the Holy Land.”[3] Beginning around 1350, Franciscan friars conducted official tours of the Via Dolorosa, from the Holy Sepulchre to the House of Pilate—opposite the direction traveled by Christ in Bible.[4] The route was not reversed until c. 1517 when the Franciscans began to follow the events of Christ’s Passion chronologically-setting out from the House of Pilate and ending with the crucifixion at Golgotha.[5]

From the onset of Franciscan administration, the development of the Via Dolorosa was intimately linked to devotional practices in Europe. The Friars Minor were ardent proponents of devotional meditation as a means to access and understand the Passion. The hours and guides they produced, such as Meditaciones vite Christi (MVC), were widely circulated in Europe.

Necessarily, such devotional literature expanded on the terse accounts of the Via Dolorosa in the Bible; the period of time between Christ’s condemnation by Pilate and his resurrection receives no more than one or two lines in all four gospels. Throughout the fourteenth century, a number of events, marked by stations on the Via Dolorosa, emerged in devotional literature and on the physical site in Jerusalem.

The first stations to appear in pilgrimage accounts were the Encounter with Simon of Cyrene and the Daughters of Jerusalem. These were followed by a host of other, more or less ephemeral, stations, such as the House of Veronica, the House of Simon the Pharisee, the House of the Evil Rich Man Who Would Not Give Alms to the Poor, and the House of Herod.[6] In his book, The Stations of the Cross, Herbert Thurston notes: “…Whether we look to the sites which, according to the testimony of travelers, were held in honor in Jerusalem itself, or whether we look to the imitation pilgrimages which were carved in stone or set down in books for the devotion of the faithful at home, we must recognize that there was a complete want of any sort of uniformity in the enumeration of the Stations.”[7]

This negotiation of stations, between the European imagination and the physical site would continue for the next six centuries. Only in the 19th century was there general accord on the position of the first, fourth, fifth, and eighth stations. Ironically, archaeological discoveries in the 20th century now indicate that the early route of the Via Dolorosa on the Western hill was actually a more realistic path.[8]

The equation of the present Via Dolorosa with the biblical route is based on the assumption that the Praetorium was adjacent to the Antonia Fortress. However, like Philo, the late-first-century writer Josephus testifies that the Roman governors of Roman Judaea, who governed from Caesarea Maritima on the coast, stayed in Herod’s palace while they were in Jerusalem,[9] carried out their judgements on the pavement immediately outside it, and had those found guilty flogged there;[10] Josephus indicates that Herod’s palace is on the western hill,[11] and it has recently (2001) been rediscovered under a corner of the Jaffa Gate citadel. Furthermore, it is now confirmed by archaeology that prior to Hadrian‘s 2nd-century alterations (see Aelia Capitolina), the area adjacent to the Antonia Fortress was a large open-air pool of water.[8]

In 2009, Israeli archaeologist Shimon Gibson found the remains of a large paved courtyard south of the Jaffa Gate between two fortification walls with an outer gate and an inner one leading to a barracks. The courtyard contained a raised platform of around 2 square metres (22 sq ft). A survey of the ruins of the Praetorium, long thought to be the Roman barracks, indicated it was no more than a watchtower. These findings together “correspond perfectly” with the route as described in the Gospels and matched details found in other ancient writings.

The route traced by Gibson begins in a parking lot in the Armenian Quarter, then passes the Ottoman walls of the Old City next to the Tower of David near the Jaffa Gate before turning towards the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The new research also indicates the crucifixion site is around 20 metres (66 ft) from the traditionally accepted site.[12][13]

Shop on the Via Dolorosa near Eece Homo Arch, Jerusalem, 1891

[edit] Current traditional stations

Sign along Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

The traditional route starts just inside the Lions’ Gate (St. Stephen’s Gate), at the Umariya Elementary School, near the location of the former Antonia Fortress, and makes its way westward through the Old City to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The current enumeration is partly based on a circular devotional walk, organised by the Franciscans in the 14th century; their devotional route, heading east along the Via Dolorosa (the opposite direction to the usual westward pilgrimage), began and ended at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, also passing through both Gethsemene and Mount Zion during its course.

Whereas the names of many roads in Jerusalem are translated into English, Hebrew, and Arabic for their signs, the name Via Dolorosa is used in all three languages.

[edit] Trial by Pilate: stations one and two

The Monastery of the Flagellation

The first and second stations commemorate the events of Jesus’ encounter with Pontius Pilate, the former in memorial of the biblical account of the trial and Jesus’ subsequent scourging,[14] and the latter in memorial of the Ecce Homo speech, attributed by the Gospel of John to Pilate.[15] On the site are three early 19th-century Roman Catholic churches, taking their names from these events; the Church of the Condemnation and Imposition of the Cross, Church of the Flagellation, and Church of Ecce Homo; a large area of Roman paving, beneath these structures, was traditionally regarded as the pavement (Greek: lithostratos) described by the Bible as the location of Pilate’s judgment of Jesus.[16]

However, as mentioned above, scholars are now fairly certain that Pilate carried out his judgements at Herod’s Palace at the southwest side of the city, rather than at this point in the city’s northeast corner.[8] Archaeological studies have confirmed that the Roman pavement, at these two traditional stations, was built by Hadrian as the flooring of the eastern of two Forums.[8] Prior to Hadrian’s changes, the area had been a large open-air pool of water, the Strouthion Pool mentioned by Josephus;[8] the pool still survives, under vaulting added by Hadrian so that the Forum could be built over it, and can be accessed from the portion of Roman paving under the Convent of the Sisters of Zion, and from the Western Wall Tunnel.

The Ecce Homo Arch. Originally triple-arched, it is now mostly hidden in the surrounding fabric.

Adjacent to the Church of Ecce Homo is an arch, running across the Via Dolorosa; this arch was originally the central arch of a triple-arched gateway, built by Hadrian as the main entrance to the aforementioned Forum.[8] When later building works narrowed the Via Dolorosa, the two arches on either side of the central arch became incorporated into a succession of buildings; on the northern side, the Church of Ecce Homo now preserves the north arch; on the southern side, in the 16th century the south arch.

The three northern churches were gradually built after the site was partially acquired in 1857 by Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne, a Jesuit who intended to use it as a base for proselytism against Judaism.[17] The most recent church of the three – the Church of the Flagellation – was built during the 1920s; above the high altar, under the central dome, is a mosaic on a golden ground showing The Crown of Thorns Pierced by Stars, and the church also contains modern stained-glass windows depicting Christ Scourged at the Pillar, Pilate Washing his Hands, and the Freeing of Barabbas. The Convent, which includes the Church of Ecce Homo, was the first part of the complex to be built, and contains the most extensive archaeological remains. Prior to Ratisbonne’s purchase, the site had lain in ruins for many centuries; the Crusaders had previously constructed a set of buildings here, but they were later abandoned[clarification needed].

 

[edit] The three Falls: stations three, seven, and nine

The exterior of the Polish Catholic Chapel at the third station

Although no such thing is recounted by the canonical Gospels, and no official Christian tenet makes these claims, popular tradition has it that Jesus stumbled three times during his walk along the route; this belief is currently manifested in the identification of the three stations at which these falls occurred. The tradition of the three falls appears to be a faded memory of an earlier belief in The Seven Falls;[18] these were not necessarily literal falls, but rather depictions of Jesus coincidentally being prostrate, or nearly so, during performance of some other activity. In the (then) famous late-15th-century depiction of the Seven Falls, by Adam Krafft, there is only one of the Falls that is actually on the subject of Jesus stumbling under the weight of the cross, the remaining Falls being either encounters with people on the journey, the crucifixion itself, or the removal of the dead body from the cross.

The ninth station, signified by the black disc on the wall. The alley is parallel to the Via Dolorosa, but some way to its south

The first fall is represented by the current third station, located at the west end of the eastern fraction of the Via Dolorosa, adjacent to the 19th-century Polish Catholic Chapel; this chapel was constructed by the Armenian Catholics, who though ethnically Armenian, are actually based in Poland. The 1947–48 renovations, to the 19th-century chapel, were carried out with the aid of a large financial grant from the Polish army. The site was previously one of the city’s Turkish baths.

The second fall is represented by the current seventh station, located at a major crossroad junction, adjacent to a Franciscan chapel, built in 1875. In Hadrian’s era, this was the junction of the main cardo (north-south road), with the decumanus (east-west road) which became the Via Dolorosa; the remains of a tetrapylon, which marked this Roman junction, can be seen in the lower level of the Franciscan chapel. Prior to the 16th century, this location was the 8th and last station.[1]

The third fall is represented by the current ninth station, which is not actually located on the Via Dolorosa, instead being located at the entrance to the Ethiopian Orthodox Monastery and the Coptic Orthodox Monastery of Saint Anthony, which together form the roof structure of the subterranean Chapel of Saint Helena in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; the Coptic and Ethiopian Orthodox churches split in 1959, and prior to that time the monastic buildings were considered a single Monastery. However, in the early 16th century, the third fall was located at the entrance courtyard to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and an engraved stone cross signifying this still remains in situ. Prior to the 15th century, the final station occurred before this point would even have been reached.[1]

[edit] The Encounters

The Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem – empty by night

Four stations commemorate encounters between Jesus and other people, in the city streets; one encounter is mentioned in all the Synoptic Gospels, one is mentioned only in the Gospel of Luke, and the remaining two encounters only exist in popular tradition.

[edit] With Mary, Jesus’ mother: fourth station

The New Testament makes no mention of a meeting between Jesus and his mother, during the walk to his crucifixion, but popular tradition introduces one. The fourth station, the location of a 19th-century Armenian Orthodox oratory, commemorates the events of this tradition; a lunette, over the entrance to the chapel, references these events by means of a bas-relief carved by the Polish artist Zieliensky. The oratory, named Our Lady of the Spasm, was built in 1881, but its crypt preserves some archaeological remains from former Byzantine buildings on the site, including a mosaic floor.

[edit] With Simon of Cyrene: fifth station

The exterior of the Chapel of Simon of Cyrene, at the fifth station

The fifth station refers to the biblical episode in which Simon of Cyrene takes Jesus’ cross, and carries it for him.[19] Although this narrative is included in the three Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John does not mention Simon of Cyrene[20] but instead emphasizes the portion of the journey during which Jesus carried the cross himself.[21] The current traditional site for the station is located at the east end of the western fraction of the Via Dolorosa, adjacent to the Chapel of Simon of Cyrene, a Franciscan construction built in 1895. An inscription, in the architrave of one of the Chapel doors, references the Synoptic events.

Prior to the 15th century, this location was instead considered to be the House of the Poor Man, and honoured as the fifth station for that reason;[22] the name refers to the Lukan tale of Lazarus and Dives,[23] this Lazarus being a beggar, and Dives being the Latin word for [one who is] Rich. Adjacent to the alleged House of the Poor Man is an arch over the road; the house on the arch was thought to be the corresponding House of the Rich Man.[22] The houses in question, however, only date to the Middle Ages,[24] and the narrative of Lazarus and Dives is now widely held to be a parable.[25][26][27]

[edit] With Veronica: sixth station

A medieval Roman Catholic legend viewed a specific piece of cloth, known as the Veil of Veronica, as having been supernaturally imprinted with Jesus’ image, by physical contact with Jesus’ face. By metathesis of the Latin words vera icon (meaning true image) into Veronica,[28] it came to be said that the Veil of Veronica had gained its image when a Saint Veronica encountered Jesus, and wiped the sweat from his face with the cloth; no element of this legend is present in the bible, although the similar Image of Edessa is mentioned in The Epistles of Jesus Christ and Abgarus King of Edessa, a late piece of New Testament apocrypha. The Veil of Veronica relates to a pre-Crucifixion image, and is distinct from the post-Crucifixion Holy Face image, often related to the Shroud of Turin.

The current sixth station of the Via Dolorosa commemorates this legendary encounter between Jesus and Veronica. The location was identified as the site of the encounter in the 19th century; in 1883, Greek Roman Catholics purchased the 12th-century ruins at the location, and built the Church of the Holy Face and Saint Veronica on them, claiming that Veronica had encountered Jesus outside her own house, and that the house had formerly been positioned at this spot. The church includes some of the remains of the 12th-century buildings which had formerly been on the site, including arches from the Crusader-built Monastery of Saint Cosmas. The present building is administered by the Little Sisters of Jesus, and is not generally open to the public.

[edit] With Pious Women: eighth station

Pietro Lorenzetti‘s fresco of women following Jesus on Via Dolorosa, Assisi, 1320

The Eighth station commemorates an episode described by the Gospel of Luke, alone among the canonical gospels, in which Jesus encounters pious women on his journey, and is able to stop and give a sermon.[29] However, prior to the 15th century the final station in Jesus’ walk was believed to occur at a point earlier on the Via Dolorosa, before this location would have been reached. The present eighth station is adjacent to the Greek Orthodox Monastery of Saint Charalampus; it is marked by the word Nika (a Greek word meaning Victory) carved into the wall, and an embossed cross.

[edit] Modern re-enactments and processions

Reenacting the Stations of the Cross on Via Dolorosa

Each Friday, a Roman Catholic procession walks the Via Dolorosa route, starting out at the monastic complex by the first station; the procession is organized by the Franciscans of this monastery, who also lead the procession. Acted re-enactments also regularly take place on the route, ranging from amateur productions with, for example, soldiers wearing plastic helmets and vivid red polyester wraps, to more professional drama with historically accurate clothing and props.[30][31][32]

read more about Jesus

How did Jesus and the Hebrews become WHITE?

 

 

How did the Hebrews turn White? Of course they didn’t really; just in the imaginations, and then the histories of White people. Who for probably practical reasons, decided that Hebrews, and also the Blacks who originally lived in the Country’s that they took over, should all become White for posterity’s sake.

Seeing as how it only takes three generations to turn a Black person into a White person (and visa versa). No doubt there came a time when as Europe’s formerly bi-racial populations, became more homogeneously White, White people decided that they could no longer acknowledge that all that they knew and had, was derived from the minds and labors of Black people – even down to their religious beliefs. The logic no doubt being that Whites could not progress to their full potential, if they were always looking up to Blacks, as the personification of knowledge and wisdom. So a change had to be made, and at some point, by somebody, that change began.

Of course, we have no way of knowing when this process of Whitinizing Blacks began, or who did it, or where it was first done. But we do have some materials by which we can track the process, somewhat.

But first, let us go back to see what Hebrews REALLY looked like. The earliest authentic pictures of real Hebrews that we have, date back to before Christ. They are Assyrian relief’s showing Hebrews, and others that they conquered, in pictorial scenes detailing the battles fought, with associated text. These relief’s decorated Assyrian palaces, and were no doubt used to gloat over their conquest of the Hebrews and others. Here we are using pictures of: Assyrian King Shalmaneser IIIs “Black Obelisk” (858 B.C.). Assyrian king Tiglath-pilesar III’s relief’s of his conquest of a city near the Sea of Galilee (730 B.C.). Assyrian King Sennacherib’s relief’s of the conquest of the Judean City of Lachish (701 B.C.). The four pictures below, are from those Assyrian relief’s. (These relief’s are stored in the British Museum, London England).

 

 

 

 

It is worth mentioning, that the Hebrews were just as literate, and just as artistic as the other Black civilizations around them. The reason that we have to depend on outside sources for pictures of them, is because Whites destroyed all that the Hebrews ever created. Even down to the very religious writings that they claim to worship by. That fact is that ALL Hebrew writings, even the SEPTUAGINT {the original Bible}, which was only roughly Hebrew (it was made for the Greek King of Egypt, Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) in 282-246 B.C.), has been destroyed. Everything except for the “Dead Sea Scrolls” which were found in 1947, in Qumran, a village situated about twenty miles east of Jerusalem. The Scrolls are under the joint custody of the Catholic Church and the Israelis. The translated contents of those Scrolls has never been made public, and probably never will be – no doubt the differences in teachings and facts would be irreconcilable.  (A few inconsequential snippets have been made public – the entire Scrolls is a huge work, which contains the entire old Testament plus many other works).

Why wasn’t the material in these pages destroyed? Because after it’s fall, Assyria came under the control of the Persian Empire, which was itself a Black Empire. It then came under the control of Greeks, who were at that time, seeking to merge with the Black Persians, not in denying that they were Black people. Then Assyria again came under Persian control, and then finally under the control of the original Black Arabs. So at the time when Whites were destroying vestiges of Black history, they had no access to the Assyrian artifacts.

But at those times when Whites did have control of an area, they seem to have been very through in destroying all vestiges of the former Black inhabitants; there is nothing left to suggest that Carthage was a Black city, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilizations are some of the oldest known, yet very little is left – next to nothing in the Indus valley. Ancient Anatolia (Turkey), was home to many great and famous civilizations, but very little has been found there. The Egyptian artifacts, of which there are many, were mostly recovered in modern times, when Whites rather than simply destroy, instead modify artifacts; sometimes just by breaking the noses off, in order to make them look like White people, and then proudly display them as proof of the White mans greatness.

The Khazars, a Turkish tribe who had established a Kingdom in the Caucasus region, and converted to Judaism in the 8th century A.D. Must have seen the doings of the Romans and Greeks, and seen it as an opportunity for them to take over the Hebrew identity, and thus control of the orthodox branch of the Hebrew religion – which indeed they did. They logically thinking that if Jesus can be White, why not then, the entire Hebrew nation – which was by then a diaspora anyway. The Islamist side-stepped the entire issue by forbidding imagery of any kind.

 

Let us proceed then, with our pictorial essay of how Jesus, and thus, the Hebrews TURNED WHITE!

Thanks to Religion Facts.com (Link)

 

The Alexamanos Graffito, dating from c.200 AD or earlier, is an interesting early parody of Christianity. This early graffito (wall-scratching; singular of graffiti) was discovered in 1857 in a guardroom on Palatine Hill near the Circus Maximus in Rome, and is now in the Palatine Antiquarian Museum.

The drawing shows a man with an ass’s head being crucified, to which a youth is raising his hand as if in prayer. The text in Greek reads: ALE, XAMENOS, SEBETE, THEON. which means, “Alexamenos worships his god.” Before Christianity, the Hebrews had already been charged with worshipping an ass; this was probably the basis of this accusation being directed at Christianity.

 

 

This wall painting, depicting the Healing of the Paralytic, is the earliest known representation of Jesus, dating from about 235 AD. The painting was found in 1921 on the left-hand wall of the baptismal chamber of the house-church at Dura-Europos on the Euphrates River in modern Syria. It is now part of the Dura Europos collection at the Yale University Gallery of Fine Arts.
 

 

 

This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century, but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco.

The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. It was based on several biblical passages, including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus, and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image.

 

 

 

This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century, but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco.

The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. It was based in several biblical passages, including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus, and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image.

 

 

This fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Domitilla in Rome. The Catacombs of Domitilla date from the 2nd through 4th centuries. According to W.F. Volbach, “The extent to which the type of the apostolic group as been developed suggests a 4th-century origin” for this particular fresco.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christ at the Second Coming, In the center of the apse mosaic is Christ standing on red clouds (representing the dawn), dressed in golden robes labeled with the monogram I. He holds the scroll of the Law in his left hand.

The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is one of the ancient churches of Rome called tituli, of which cardinals are patrons as deacons: the Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus Ss. Cosmae et Damiani is Giovanni Cheli. The basilica, devoted to the two Greek brothers, doctors, martyrs and saints Cosmas and Damian, is located in the Forum of Vespasian, also known as the Forum of Peace. The Temple of Romulus was dedicated by Emperor Maxentius to his son Valerius Romulus, who died in 309 and was rendered divine honours. It is possible that the temple was in origin the temple of “Iovis Stator” or the one dedicated to Penates, and that Maxentius restored it before the re-dedication.

The ancient Roman fabric was Christianized and dedicated to Sancti Cosma et Damiano in 527, when Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, and his daughter Amalasuntha donated the library of the Forum of Peace (Bibliotheca Pacis) and a portion of the Temple of Romulus to Pope Felix IV. The pope united the two buildings to create a basilica devoted to two Greek brothers and saints, Cosmas and Damian, in contrast with the ancient pagan cult of the two brothers Castor and Pollux, who had been worshipped in the nearby Temple of Castor and Pollux. The apse was decorated with a Roman-Byzantine mosaic, representing a parousia, the Second Coming of Christ at the end of time. The bodies of Saints Mark and Marcellian were translated, perhaps in the ninth century, to this church, where they were rediscovered in 1583 during the reign of Pope Gregory XIII.

In 1632, Pope Urban VIII ordered the restoration of the basilica. The works, projected by Orazio Torriani and directed by Luigi Arrigucci, raised the floor level seven metres, bringing it equal with the Campo Vaccino, thus avoiding the infiltration of water. Also, a cloister was added. The old floor of the basilica is still visible in the lower church, which is actually the lower part of the first church. In 1947, the restorations of the Imperial Forums gave a new structure to the church. The old entrance, through the Temple of Romulus, was closed, and the temple restored to its original forms; with the Pantheon, the Temple of Romulus is the best preserved pagan temple in Rome. A new entrance was opened on the opposite side (on via dei Fori Imperiali), whose arch gives access to the cloister, and through this to the side of the basilica.

 

 

Jesus’ appearance from behind locked doors, by Duccio-di-Buoninsegna – 1308 A.D.

 

 

The Duccio-di-Buoninsegna above, which still has a “somewhat” Black looking Jesus, and some likewise “Black looking” Apostles, seems to mark the end of Black Jesus, and the beginnings of the total lie. No non-White depiction of Jesus is known to have been made after this time – by White people.

 

 

The last judgment by Pietro Cavallini – 1293 A.D. St Cecilia Trastevere, Rome.

 

 

Another fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Domitilla in Rome. Probably from a later time than the first fresco.  Is this the beginning of the Whitinization of Black People?

It may be that later artists felt that since this fresco didn’t cause the artist to immediately burn in Hell, it might be okay to paint Jesus as White.

 

 

Santa Costanza mosiac – Santa Costanza is a church in Rome, built under Emperor Constantine I and place of burial (mausoleum) of his daughters Constantina and Helena. Later, Constantina was venerated as saint, with the Italian name of Costanza, and the church was dedicated to her. The church was built under Constantine, probably by Constantinia, next to the cemetery of Sant’Agnese fuori le mura, where Saint Agnes, who allegedly had healed Constantina, was buried.

After their deaths, Constantine’s daughters Constantina and Helena were buried here. Since Consantina was venerated as saint, the mausoleum was consecrated as a church in 1254 by Pope Alexander IV. After the church was restored in 1620 by Cardinal Fabrizio Veralli, Constantina’s magnificent porphyry sarcophagus was moved to the Vatican Museums. The Church was originally a mausoleum.

 

 

 

Dead Christ – Giovanni Bellini, 1460 A.D. Museum Poldi Pezzoli, Milan

 

 

The Modern Jesus

 

 

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

 

Tacitus: History Book 5

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian’s. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy’s territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine’s flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

 

 

But before the modern era of pathetic White racism, with it’s White fright of all things Black, and Black identity theft. Where Khazar Turks are the new Hebrews, and Osman Turks are the new Berbers, Egyptians, Arabs, and Middle-Easterners. Before every ancient Black figure encountered in a museum or book was explained away as a Nubian-Ethiopian, a Slave, or a servant: All people knew Hebrews to be Black people, and depicted them as Black people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Click here for big blow-up of picture

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Black Popes

According to the Albinos and their pronouncements from the Liber Pontificalis, three popes-Pope St Victor I (c. 186-198), Pope St Miltiades (311-14), and Pope St Gelasius (492-496)-were Africans. The Liber Pontificalis is composed of a series of biographical entries, which record the dates and important facts for each pope. It is the oldest and most detailed chronicle dating from the Early Church. The Liber Pontificalis is dated from the sixth century. The record of names begins with St Peter. As the work progressed the entries became longer and more detailed. The Liber Pontificalis continued to be written until 1431. So then, is the Liber Pontificalis deception by word play, differentiating between African and Black? Which is actually okay, if people know what you are doing. But somehow I doubt the criminals in the Vatican would let on to that.

 

It is likely that all Popes prior to the fall of the Black Holy Roman Empire (circa 1658) were Black.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For histories and images of some of the first Christians: Click Here >>>

 

 

 

 

Selected historical quotes regarding the Hebrews

 

Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (155 A.D. to circa after 229), was a Roman consul and a noted historian writing in Greek.

Cassius Dio
Roman History
Book XXXVII

14 – 3: After the death of Mithridates all portions of his dominion except a few were subjugated. A few garrisons which at that time were still holding forts outside of Bosporus, did not immediately come to terms, not so much because they were minded to resist Pompey as because they were afraid that others might seize the money which they were guarding and lay the blame upon them; hence they waited, wishing to show everything to Pompey himself. When, then, the regions in that quarter had been subdued, and Phraates remained quiet, while Syria and Phoenicia had become tranquil, Pompey turned against Aretas. The latter was king of the Arabians, now subjects of the Romans, as far as the Red Sea. Previously he had done the greatest injury to Syria and had on this account become involved in a battle with the Romans who were defending it; he was defeated by them, but nevertheless continued the war at that time. Pompey accordingly marched against him and his neighbours, and, overcoming them without effort, left them in charge of a garrison.

Thence he proceeded against Syria Palaestina, because its inhabitants had ravaged Phoenicia. Their rulers were two brothers, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were quarrelling themselves, as it chanced, and were creating factions in the cities on account of the priesthood (for so they called their kingdom) of their god, whoever he is. Pompey immediately won over Hyrcanus without a battle, since the latter had no force worthy of note; and by shutting up Aristobulus in a certain place he compelled him to come to terms, and when he would surrender neither the money nor the garrison, he threw him into chains. After this he more easily overcame the rest, but had trouble in besieging Jerusalem. 16 Most of the city, to be sure, he took without any trouble, as he was received by the party of Hyrcanus; but the temple itself, which the other party had occupied, he captured only with difficulty. For it was on high ground and was fortified by a wall of its own, and if they had continued defending it on all days alike, he could not have got possession of it. As it was, they made an excavation of what are called the days of Saturn, and by doing no work at all on those days afforded the Romans an opportunity in this interval to batter down the wall. The latter, on learning of this superstitious awe of theirs, made no serious attempts the rest of the time, but on those days, when they came round in succession, assaulted most vigorously. Thus the defenders were captured on the day of Saturn, without making any defence, and all the wealth was plundered. The kingdom was given to Hyrcanus, and Aristobulus was carried away.

This was the course of events at that time in Palestine; for this is the name that has been given from of old to the whole country extending from Phoenicia to Egypt along the inner sea. They have also another name that they have acquired: the country has been named Judaea, and the people themselves Jews. I do not know how this title came to be given to them, but it applies also to all the rest of mankind, although of alien race, who affect their customs. This class exists even among the Romans, and though often repressed has increased to a very great extent and has won its way to the right of freedom in its observances. They are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life, and especially by the fact that they do not honour any of the usual gods, but show extreme reverence for one particular divinity. They never had any statue of him even in Jerusalem itself, but believing him to be unnamable and invisible, they worship him in the most extravagant fashion on earth. They built to him a temple that was extremely large and beautiful, except in so far as it was open and roofless, and likewise dedicated to him the day called the day of Saturn, on which, among many other most peculiar observances, they undertake no serious occupation.

Now as for him, who he is and why he has been so honoured, and how they got their superstitious awe of him, accounts have been given by many, and moreover these matters have naught to do with this history. The custom, however, of referring the days to the seven stars called planets was instituted by the Egyptians, but is now found among all mankind, though its adoption has been comparatively recent; at any rate the ancient Greeks never understood it, so far as I am aware. But since it is now quite the fashion with mankind generally and even with the Romans themselves, I wish to write briefly of it, telling how and in what way it has been so arranged. I have heard two explanations, which are not difficult of comprehension, it is true, though they involve certain theories. For if you apply the so-called “principle of the tetrachord” (which is believed to constitute the basis of music) to these stars, by which the whole universe of heaven is divided into regular intervals, in the order in which each of them revolves, and beginning at the outer orbit assigned to Saturn, then omitting the next two name the lord of the fourth, and after this passing over two others reach the seventh, and you then go back and repeat the process with the orbits and their presiding divinities in this same manner, assigning them to the several days, you will find all the days to be in a kind of musical connection with the arrangement of the heavens. This is one of the explanations given; the other is as follows. If you begin at the first hour to count the hours of the day and of the night, assigning the first to Saturn, the next to Jupiter, the third to Mars, the fourth to the Sun, the fifth to Venus, the sixth to Mercury, and the seventh to the Moon, according to the order of the cycles which the Egyptians observe, and if you repeat the process, you will find that the first hour of the following day comes to the Sun. And if you carry on the operation throughout the next twenty-four hours in the same manner as with the others, you will dedicate the first hour of the third day to the Moon, and if you proceed similarly through the rest, each day will receive its appropriate god. This, then, is the tradition.

 

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

Tacitus: History Book 5 [1]

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian’s. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy’s territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine’s flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

 

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer is an aggadic-midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers, ascribed to R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (80-118 C.E.), a disciple of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai and teacher of Rabbi Akiva. It comprises fifty four chapters. Some parts appear to be written as late as the 8th century CE, although there are older elements. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer comprises ethical guidelines, legends and folklore, as well as astronomical discussions related to the story of the Creation. Many ancient customs that are not found in other sources are described in this work.

The Pirke appears, according to Zunz, to be incomplete, and to be merely a fragment of a larger work. S. Sachs, on the other hand, thinks that it was compiled from two previous works by the same author, the relation of the two productions to each other being that of text and commentary, the text giving merely the story of the Bible, which was interrupted by the commentary in the form of the Aggadah, and the commentary being intended for reading during the ten days of penitence. Meir ha-Levi Horwitz thinks that the author developed those Bible stories which bore relation to the entire nation, dealing lightly with those that concerned only individuals.

Jost was the first to point out that in the 30th chapter, in which at the end the author distinctly alludes to the three stages of the Muslim conquest, that of Arabia, of Spain, and of Rome (830 C.E.), the names of Fatima and Ayesha occur beside that of Ishmael, leading to the conclusion that the book originated in a time when Islam was predominant in Asia Minor. As in ch. xxxvi. two brothers reigning simultaneously are mentioned, after whose reign the Messiah shall come, the work might be ascribed to the beginning of the 9th century, for about that time the two sons of Harun al-Rashid, El-Amin and El-Mamun, were ruling over the Islamic realm. If a statement in ch. xxviii. did not point to an even earlier date, approximately the same date might be inferred from the enumeration of the four powerful kingdoms and the substitution of Ishmael for one of the four which are enumerated in the Talmud and the Mekilta.

The author seems to have been a rabbi of the Land of Israel; this appears not only from the fact that some of the customs to which he refers (in ch. xiii. and xx.) are known only as customs of the Land of Israel, but also from the fact that nearly all the authorities he quotes are from the Land of Israel, the exceptions being Rav Mesharshia and Rav Shemaiah, who are from Babylonia. The work is ascribed to R. Eliezer (80-118 C.E.), although he was a tanna, while the book itself the Pirḳe Abot is quoted. Late Talmudic authorities belonging to the 3rd century C.E., like Shemaiah (ch. xxiii.), Ze’era (ch. xxi., xxix.), and Shila (ch. xlii., xliv.), are also quoted, indicating that the work was edited or additions were made to it after the time of R. Eliezar.

The work is divided into 54 chapters, which may be divided into seven groups.

Supposedly a 10th century Palestinian Jewish author gives
the word of Roman era Ribbi Eli`ezer Hyrkanus that
“[God] blessed Shem and his sons, black and beautiful,
giving them the habitable earth.”, his Pirqe, daf 28a.
This blackness was not as dark as Ham’s raven similied
black skin.
Amos 9: (King James Version)
7: Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?

Isaiah 43: (King James Version)
3: For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.

2 Kings 5 (King James Version)

1Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Syria, was a great man with his master, and honourable, because by him the LORD had given deliverance unto Syria: he was also a mighty man in valour, but he was a leper.

2And the Syrians had gone out by companies, and had brought away captive out of the land of Israel a little maid; and she waited on Naaman’s wife.

3And she said unto her mistress, Would God my lord were with the prophet that is in Samaria! for he would recover him of his leprosy.

4And one went in, and told his lord, saying, Thus and thus said the maid that is of the land of Israel.

5And the king of Syria said, Go to, go, and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel. And he departed, and took with him ten talents of silver, and six thousand pieces of gold, and ten changes of raiment.

6And he brought the letter to the king of Israel, saying, Now when this letter is come unto thee, behold, I have therewith sent Naaman my servant to thee, that thou mayest recover him of his leprosy.

7And it came to pass, when the king of Israel had read the letter, that he rent his clothes, and said, Am I God, to kill and to make alive, that this man doth send unto me to recover a man of his leprosy? wherefore consider, I pray you, and see how he seeketh a quarrel against me.

8And it was so, when Elisha the man of God had heard that the king of Israel had rent his clothes, that he sent to the king, saying, Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes? let him come now to me, and he shall know that there is a prophet in Israel.

9So Naaman came with his horses and with his chariot, and stood at the door of the house of Elisha.

10And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, saying, Go and wash in Jordan seven times, and thy flesh shall come again to thee, and thou shalt be clean.

11But Naaman was wroth, and went away, and said, Behold, I thought, He will surely come out to me, and stand, and call on the name of the LORD his God, and strike his hand over the place, and recover the leper.

12Are not Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel? may I not wash in them, and be clean? So he turned and went away in a rage.

13And his servants came near, and spake unto him, and said, My father, if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not have done it? how much rather then, when he saith to thee, Wash, and be clean?

14Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God: and his flesh came again like unto the flesh of a little child, and he was clean.

15And he returned to the man of God, he and all his company, and came, and stood before him: and he said, Behold, now I know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel: now therefore, I pray thee, take a blessing of thy servant.

16But he said, As the LORD liveth, before whom I stand, I will receive none. And he urged him to take it; but he refused.

17And Naaman said, Shall there not then, I pray thee, be given to thy servant two mules’ burden of earth? for thy servant will henceforth offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other gods, but unto the LORD.

18In this thing the LORD pardon thy servant, that when my master goeth into the house of Rimmon to worship there, and he leaneth on my hand, and I bow myself in the house of Rimmon: when I bow down myself in the house of Rimmon, the LORD pardon thy servant in this thing.

19And he said unto him, Go in peace. So he departed from him a little way.

20But Gehazi, the servant of Elisha the man of God, said, Behold, my master hath spared Naaman this Syrian, in not receiving at his hands that which he brought: but, as the LORD liveth, I will run after him, and take somewhat of him.

21So Gehazi followed after Naaman. And when Naaman saw him running after him, he lighted down from the chariot to meet him, and said, Is all well?

22And he said, All is well. My master hath sent me, saying, Behold, even now there be come to me from mount Ephraim two young men of the sons of the prophets: give them, I pray thee, a talent of silver, and two changes of garments.

23And Naaman said, Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silver in two bags, with two changes of garments, and laid them upon two of his servants; and they bare them before him.

24And when he came to the tower, he took them from their hand, and bestowed them in the house: and he let the men go, and they departed.

25But he went in, and stood before his master. And Elisha said unto him, Whence comest thou, Gehazi? And he said, Thy servant went no whither.

26And he said unto him, Went not mine heart with thee, when the man turned again from his chariot to meet thee? Is it a time to receive money, and to receive garments, and oliveyards, and vineyards, and sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and maidservants?

27The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever. And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow.

 

On differentiating between White people and Lepers.

 

Leviticus 13 (King James Version)

1And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron, saying,

2When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests:

3And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague is turned white, and the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean.

4If the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh, and in sight be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days:

5And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague in his sight be at a stay, and the plague spread not in the skin; then the priest shall shut him up seven days more:

6And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague be somewhat dark, and the plague spread not in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: it is but a scab: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

7But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin, after that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest again.

8And if the priest see that, behold, the scab spreadeth in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a leprosy.

9When the plague of leprosy is in a man, then he shall be brought unto the priest;

10And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the rising be white in the skin, and it have turned the hair white, and there be quick raw flesh in the rising;

11It is an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean, and shall not shut him up: for he is unclean.

12And if a leprosy break out abroad in the skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of him that hath the plague from his head even to his foot, wheresoever the priest looketh;

13Then the priest shall consider: and, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: it is all turned white: he is clean.

14But when raw flesh appeareth in him, he shall be unclean.

15And the priest shall see the raw flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean: for the raw flesh is unclean: it is a leprosy.

16Or if the raw flesh turn again, and be changed unto white, he shall come unto the priest;

17And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the plague be turned into white; then the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: he is clean.

18The flesh also, in which, even in the skin thereof, was a boil, and is healed,

19And in the place of the boil there be a white rising, or a bright spot, white, and somewhat reddish, and it be shewed to the priest;

20And if, when the priest seeth it, behold, it be in sight lower than the skin, and the hair thereof be turned white; the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague of leprosy broken out of the boil.

21But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hairs therein, and if it be not lower than the skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:

22And if it spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague.

23But if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not, it is a burning boil; and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

24Or if there be any flesh, in the skin whereof there is a hot burning, and the quick flesh that burneth have a white bright spot, somewhat reddish, or white;

25Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the hair in the bright spot be turned white, and it be in sight deeper than the skin; it is a leprosy broken out of the burning: wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

26But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hair in the bright spot, and it be no lower than the other skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:

27And the priest shall look upon him the seventh day: and if it be spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

28And if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not in the skin, but it be somewhat dark; it is a rising of the burning, and the priest shall pronounce him clean: for it is an inflammation of the burning.

29If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard;

30Then the priest shall see the plague: and, behold, if it be in sight deeper than the skin; and there be in it a yellow thin hair; then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a dry scall, even a leprosy upon the head or beard.

31And if the priest look on the plague of the scall, and, behold, it be not in sight deeper than the skin, and that there is no black hair in it; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days:

32And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the plague: and, behold, if the scall spread not, and there be in it no yellow hair, and the scall be not in sight deeper than the skin;

33He shall be shaven, but the scall shall he not shave; and the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more:

34And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the scall: and, behold, if the scall be not spread in the skin, nor be in sight deeper than the skin; then the priest shall pronounce him clean: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

35But if the scall spread much in the skin after his cleansing;

36Then the priest shall look on him: and, behold, if the scall be spread in the skin, the priest shall not seek for yellow hair; he is unclean.

37But if the scall be in his sight at a stay, and that there is black hair grown up therein; the scall is healed, he is clean: and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

38If a man also or a woman have in the skin of their flesh bright spots, even white bright spots;

39Then the priest shall look: and, behold, if the bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white; it is a freckled spot that groweth in the skin; he is clean.

40And the man whose hair is fallen off his head, he is bald; yet is he clean.

41And he that hath his hair fallen off from the part of his head toward his face, he is forehead bald: yet is he clean.

42And if there be in the bald head, or bald forehead, a white reddish sore; it is a leprosy sprung up in his bald head, or his bald forehead.

43Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the rising of the sore be white reddish in his bald head, or in his bald forehead, as the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh;

44He is a leprous man, he is unclean: the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean; his plague is in his head.

45And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean.

46All the days wherein the plague shall be in him he shall be defiled; he is unclean: he shall dwell alone; without the camp shall his habitation be.

47The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in, whether it be a woollen garment, or a linen garment;

48Whether it be in the warp, or woof; of linen, or of woollen; whether in a skin, or in any thing made of skin;

49And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a plague of leprosy, and shall be shewed unto the priest:

50And the priest shall look upon the plague, and shut up it that hath the plague seven days:

51And he shall look on the plague on the seventh day: if the plague be spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in a skin, or in any work that is made of skin; the plague is a fretting leprosy; it is unclean.

52He shall therefore burn that garment, whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or any thing of skin, wherein the plague is: for it is a fretting leprosy; it shall be burnt in the fire.

53And if the priest shall look, and, behold, the plague be not spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin;

54Then the priest shall command that they wash the thing wherein the plague is, and he shall shut it up seven days more:

55And the priest shall look on the plague, after that it is washed: and, behold, if the plague have not changed his colour, and the plague be not spread; it is unclean; thou shalt burn it in the fire; it is fret inward, whether it be bare within or without.

56And if the priest look, and, behold, the plague be somewhat dark after the washing of it; then he shall rend it out of the garment, or out of the skin, or out of the warp, or out of the woof:

57And if it appear still in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a spreading plague: thou shalt burn that wherein the plague is with fire.

58And the garment, either warp, or woof, or whatsoever thing of skin it be, which thou shalt wash, if the plague be departed from them, then it shall be washed the second time, and shall be clean.

59This is the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of woollen or linen, either in the warp, or woof, or any thing of skins, to pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean.

 

 

References

 
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, The Holy Land, (2008), page 37
  2. ^ Oxford Archaeological Guide: The Holy Land (paperback, 4th edition, 1998), pages 34–36
  3. ^ Wharton, Annabel Jane. Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. p. 109.
  4. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.34.
  5. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.55.
  6. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p. 21.
  7. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.50.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Pierre Benoit, The Archaeological Reconstruction of the Antonia Fortress, in Jerusalem Revealed (edited by Yigael Yadin), (1976)
  9. ^ Pierre Benoit, The Archaeological Reconstruction of the Antonia Fortress, page 87, in Jerusalem Revealed (edited by Yigael Yadin), (1976)
  10. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars, 2:14:8
  11. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars, 5:2
  12. ^ Study shines light on final steps of Christ The Courier-Mail April 11, 2009
  13. ^ Archaeologist: Jesus took a different path 4VF News April 10, 2009
  14. ^ John 19:1–3
  15. ^ John 19.5
  16. ^ John 19:13
  17. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Ratisbonne Brothers, Volume 13, pp.1570–1571, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
  18. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, entry on Way of the Cross
  19. ^ Mark 15:21
  20. ^ John 19:17
  21. ^ Simon of Cyrene – Bible Study
  22. ^ a b Dave Winter, Israel handbook, page 126
  23. ^ Luke 16:19–31
  24. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, entry for Dives
  25. ^ The IVP Bible Background Commentary
  26. ^ N. T. Wright, Luke for Everyone
  27. ^ Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus
  28. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Veronica
  29. ^ Luke 23:27–31
  30. ^ Jerusalem of the heavens: the Eternal City in bird’s eye view by Yehuda Salomon, Mosheh Milner 1993 ISBN 965-474-000-1 page 187
  31. ^ Frommer’s Jerusalem Day by Day by Buzzy Gordon 2010 ISBN 0-470-67636-1 page 12
  32. ^ Frommer’s Israel by Robert Ullian 2010 ISBN 0-470-61820-5 page 179

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The World War I

 History Collections

 

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Copyright @ 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

World War I (abbreviated as WW-I, WWI, or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, the World War (prior to the outbreak of the Second World War), and the War to End All Wars, was a global military conflict which involved most of the world’s great powers,[1] assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies of World War I centred around the Triple Entente and the Central Powers, centred around the Triple Alliance.[2] More than 70 million military personnel were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history.[3] More than 15 million people were killed, making it one of the deadliest conflicts in history.[4] During the conflict, the industrial and scientific capabilities of the main combatants were entirely devoted to the war effort.

The assassination, on 28 June 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, is seen as the immediate trigger of the war, though long-term causes, such as imperialistic foreign policy, played a major role. The archduke’s assassination at the hands of Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip resulted in demands against the Kingdom of Serbia.[5] Several alliances that had been formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; with all having colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.

By the war’s end in 1918, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires—had been militarily and politically defeated, with the last two ceasing to exist as autonomous entities.[6] The revolutionized Soviet Union emerged from the Russian Empire, while the map of central Europe was completely redrawn into numerous smaller states.[7] The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war, the repercussions of Germany’s defeat, and the Treaty of Versailles would eventually lead to the beginning of World War II in 1939.[

Causes of World War I

In the 19th century, the major European powers had gone to great lengths to maintain a “balance of power” throughout Europe, resulting by 1900 in a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent.[2] These had started in 1815 with the Holy Alliance between Germany (then Prussia), Russia, and Austria–Hungary. Then, in October, 1873, German Chancellor Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria–Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria–Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria–Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of combating Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken.[2] In 1882, this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.[9]

After 1870 European conflict was averted largely due to a carefully planned network of treaties between the German Empire and the remainder of Europe—orchestrated by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. He especially worked to hold Russia at Germany’s side to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. With the ascension of Kaiser Wilhelm II as emperor, Bismarck’s system of alliances was gradually de-emphasized. For example, the Kaiser refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1890. Two years later the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1907, the British Empire joined France and Russia, signaling the beginning of the Triple Entente.[2]

 

 

HMS Dreadnought. A naval arms race existed between the United Kingdom and Germany.

German industrial and economic power had grown greatly after unification and the foundation of the empire in 1870. From the mid-1890s on the government of Kaiser Wilhelm II used this base to devote significant economic resources to building up the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine), established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, in rivalry with the British Royal Navy for world naval supremacy.[10] As a result, both nations strove to out-build each other in terms of capital ships. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, the British Empire expanded on its significant advantage over their German rivals.[10] The arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe, with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to the production of the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict.[11] Between 1908 and 1913, the military spending of the European powers increased by 50%.[12]

Austria–Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908-1909 by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which they had occupied since 1878. This greatly angered the Pan-Slavic and thus pro-Serbian Romanov Dynasty who ruled Russia and the Kingdom of Serbia, because Bosnia-Herzegovina contained a significant Slavic Serbian population.[13] Russian political maneuvering in the region destabilized peace accords that were already fracturing in what was known as “the Powder keg of Europe“.[13]

In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked both Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913 it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33-day Second Balkan War, further destabilizing the region.[14]

On 28 June 1914,

Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia.[15] This began a period of diplomatic manoeuvering between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to end Serbian interference in Bosnia conclusively, Austria–Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands which were deliberately unacceptable, made with the intention of deliberately initiating a war with Serbia.[16] When Serbia acceded to only eight of the ten demands levied against it in the ultimatum, Austria–Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Strachan argues “Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary’s behaviour must be doubtful. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity, and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning”.[17]

The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb proteges, ordered a partial mobilization one day later.[9] When the German Empire began to mobilize on 30 July 1914, France—sporting significant animosity over the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the Franco-Prussian War—ordered French mobilization on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day.[18]

 

THE CHRONOLOGY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

On 28 June 1914,

Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia.[15]

This began a period of diplomatic manoeuvering between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to end Serbian interference in Bosnia conclusively, Austria–Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands which were deliberately unacceptable, made with the intention of deliberately initiating a war with Serbia.[16] \

When Serbia acceded to only eight of the ten demands levied against it in the ultimatum, Austria–Hungary declared war on Serbia

on 28 July 1914.

Strachan argues

“Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary’s behaviour must be doubtful. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity, and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning“.[17]

The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb proteges, ordered a partial mobilization one day later.[9]

When the German Empire began to mobilize on 30 July 1914,

 France—sporting significant animosity over the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the Franco-Prussian War—ordered French mobilization on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day.[18]

 

 

 

 

Russian infantry.

 

 

Russian forest trench

While the Western Front had reached stalemate, the war continued in East Europe. Initial Russian plans called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and German East Prussia. Although Russia’s initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, they were driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September 1914.[65][66][67] Russia’s less developed industrial base and ineffective military leadership was instrumental in the events that unfolded. By the spring of 1915, the Russians had retreated into Galicia, and in May the Central Powers achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Poland’s southern frontiers. On 5 August they captured Warsaw and forced the Russians to withdraw from Poland.

 

 

August 1914

 

The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in the war, the secret Ottoman-German Alliance having been signed in August 1914.[49] It threatened Russia’s Caucasian territories and Britain’s communications with India via the Suez Canal

August,7th.1914

: African theatre of World War I

Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French and German colonial forces in Africa. On 7 August, French and British troops invaded the German protectorate of Togoland.

On 10 August 1914

German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the remainder of the war. The German colonial forces in German East Africa, led by Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, fought a guerilla warfare campaign for the duration of World War I and surrendered only two weeks after the armistice took effect in Europe.[20]

August,12th.1914

Serbian Campaign (World War I)

The Serbian army fought the Battle of Cer against the invading Austrians, beginning on 12 August, occupying defensive positions on the south side of the Drina and Sava rivers. Over the next two weeks Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victory of the war and dashed Austrian hopes of a swift victory.

 As a result, Austria had to keep sizable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia.

German soldiers in a railway goods van on the way to the front in 1914. A message on the car spells out “Trip to Paris”; early in the war all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.

In Belgium, German troops, in fear of French and Belgian guerrilla fighters, or francs-tireurs, massacred townspeople in Andenne (211 dead), Tamines (384 dead), and Dinant (612 dead). On 25 August 1914, the Germans set fire to the town of Leuven, burned the library containing about 230,000 books, killed 209 civilians and forced 42,000 to evacuate. These actions brought worldwide condemnation.[152]

 

August,14th.1914

German forces In Belgium And France

: Western Front (World War I)

At the outbreak of the First World War, the German army (consisting in the West of Seven Field Armies) executed a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan, designed to quickly attack France through neutral Belgium before turning southwards to encircle the French army on the German border.[5] The plan called for the right flank of the German advance to converge on Paris and initially, the Germans were very successful, particularly in

 the Battle of the Frontiers

 (14 August–24 August).

August,30th.1942

Asian and Pacific theatre of World War I

New Zealand occupied German Samoa (later Western Samoa) on 30 August

On September 9, 1914

the Septemberprogramm, a plan which detailed Germany’s specific war aims and the conditions that Germany sought to force upon the Allied Powers, was outlined by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg.

 The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria–Hungary’s invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in 1914, but never tested in exercises.

Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia.[19] Germany, however, envisioned Austria–Hungary directing the majority of its troops against Russia, while Germany dealt with France. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts

September,11th.1942

On 11 September the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern (later New Britain), which formed part of German New Guinea. Japan seized Germany’s Micronesian colonies and after the Battle of Tsingtao the German coaling port of Qingdao in the Chinese Shandong peninsula. Within a few months, the Allied forces had seized all the German territories in the Pacific, only isolated commerce raiders and a few holdouts in New Guinea remained.[21][22]

 

By 12 September 1914 ,

 the French with assistance from the British forces halted the German advance east of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (5 September–12 September). The last days of this battle signified the end of mobile warfare in the west.[5]

In the east, only one Field Army defended East Prussia and when Russia attacked in this region it diverted German forces intended for the Western Front. Germany defeated Russia in a series of battles collectively known as the First Battle of Tannenberg (17 August – 2 September), but this diversion exacerbated problems of insufficient speed of advance from rail-heads not foreseen by the German General Staff.

The Central Powers were thereby denied a quick victory and forced to fight a war on two fronts. The German army had fought its way into a good defensive position inside France and had permanently incapacitated 230,000 more French and British troops than it had lost itself. Despite this, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of obtaining an early victory.

Here’s an interesting card that illustrates a different kind of censorship in WW1.

The unit stamp at the top says “General Staff Branch, K.u.K 11th Army Command”. The card was sent by then major general Franz von Steinhart to his wife in Innsbruck.

Anyway, the censorship is on the other side of the card:

In the middle it says “i’m healthy and well” in all the languages of the empire. Around the outside is a warning that nothing else must be written on the card.

 

If you read info below , you can learn quite a bit about the general here:

 

Franz Seraphin Edler von Steinhart

SOURCE  Wikipedia,

 

 

von Steinhart als Major im Jahre 1902

Top of Form

, Franz Seraphin Edler von Steinhart

(† 23 October 1949 in Innsbruck March 20, 1865 in Moravian-white churches)

 

 

He was a Lieutenant-General of the Austro-Hungarian army

The father of Franz Steinhart was a captain and artillery instructor, who resigned after the war against Prussia in retirement and with the family first moved to Graz and then to Klagenfurt.

 

 

In

 

Klagenfurt

 

from Steinhart visited the elementary school and the junior high school and then go to the fourth grade of the military-Realschule after Güns.

 

This was followed by the military high school in Moravian-white churches and the genius department of Military Academy of Technology in Vienna.

On 18 August 1885

 

 Steinhart was a lieutenant in K.K. Genie Regiment Kaiser Franz Josef I. No. 1 and the second appointed Battalion assigned in Krakow. After four years of army service he was simultaneously promoted to lieutenant in the fall of 1889 parked at the higher genius course to Vienna and, after his graduation with honors added to the genius Directorate for Bilek. Four years later, a temporary transfer to Komarno and after the carriage was a captain in the genius bar on 1 1895 July, the transfer to the new Directorate to Przemyśl genius.

In the fortress of Przemysl was entrusted to him by the completion of Fort XIIIa and configuring Fort XIII, also it was his responsibility to build a munitions depot field.


On 16 February 1897

 was the transfer of management genius of Trent, while secondment to the fortress of Riva. Here he worked on the planning of permanent fortifications, as well as on the Armierungsstraße Brione and the local agent battery.

On 1 May 1899 admixed Steinhart to the General genius inspection to Vienna, where he was in March 1901 graduated from the Staff Officer exam for the genius bar is successful and in July of the same year secondment as a teacher of the art of fortification and the Fortress War at the genius bar Department of Military University of Technology in Vienna.

On 1 November 1901 he was promoted to Major in the genius bar and the 27th July 1907, the appointment of a genius director in Klagenfurt.

 

 

On 1 May 1908

 

 is promoted to lieutenant colonel of Steinhart while posting a genius director to Riva. Here he was responsible for responsible for the fortification systems in the border region of Vallarsa from Passo di Pian della Fugazza up to Madonna di Campiglio. Under his task was, among other things, the completion of the tank plant Monte Tombio and the supervision of work on a tank factory Carriola. The work Valmorbia in Val d’Arsa was started but could not until the beginning of the war to be completed.

On 1 November 1910

 

he was promoted to colonel in the genius bar and on 25 April 1914 appointed the genius director of Trent.

 

Here he made until the outbreak of war with Italy on 23 May 1915 for the accelerated expansion of the fortress of Trento and the fortifications at the height of Dubuque / Lavarone

 

 

Here he was on 1 November 1914

and promoted to Major General on 27 January 1915 was appointed commandant of Trent.

 

 

: Naval Warfare of World War I

 

 

The British Grand Fleet making steam for Scapa Flow, 1914

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. For example, the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden, part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Tsingtao, seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. However, the bulk of the German East-Asia squadron—consisting of the armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig and two transport ships—did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it encountered elements of the British fleet. The German flotilla, along with Dresden, sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel, but was almost destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping, but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned.[36]

 

 

A battleship squadron of the Hochseeflotte at sea

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain initiated a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated generally accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[37] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships.[38] Since there was limited response to this tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare.[39]

 

Balkans Campaign (World War I), Serbian Campaign (World War I), and Macedonian front (World War I)

Faced with Russia, Austria–Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia. After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counterattack in the battle of Kolubara, however, succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of 1914.

 

 

 

 

: Naval Warfare of World War I

 

 

The British Grand Fleet making steam for Scapa Flow, 1914

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. For example, the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden, part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Tsingtao, seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. However, the bulk of the German East-Asia squadron—consisting of the armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig and two transport ships—did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it encountered elements of the British fleet. The German flotilla, along with Dresden, sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel, but was almost destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping, but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned.[36]

 

 

A battleship squadron of the Hochseeflotte at sea

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain initiated a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated generally accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[37] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships.[38] Since there was limited response to this tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare.[39]

December 1914

 

Russian armies generally had the best of it in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha, supreme commander of the Turkish armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of conquering central Asia. He was, however, a poor commander.[50] He launched an offensive against the Russians in the Caucasus in December 1914 with 100,000 troops; insisting on a frontal attack against mountainous Russian positions in winter, he lost 86% of his force at the Battle of Sarikamis.[51]

December,12th.1914

 

1914

December,12th.1914

 

The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914

 

The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914

 German stamp Paper

info about War News

Pro Patria

The Belgian charity Stamps

War Mark still They Come !!

Censor Mark number

Swiss Field mark

Red Cross Stamps

 

1914


1d. Kangaroo, small OS, to Canada – 1914. PASSED handstamped, posted only a few weeks after teh war began.

 

 

1915

Beginning in 1915,

the Italians under Cadorna mounted eleven offensives on the Isonzo front along the Isonzo River, north-east of Trieste. All eleven offensives were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground.

The Russian commander from 1915 to 1916,

General Yudenich, drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories.[51]

For the first ten months of 1915,

Austria–Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy. German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join in attacking Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian provinces of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia provided troops for Austria–Hungary, invading Serbia as well as fighting Russia and Italy. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia.

The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915) and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Turks successfully repelled the British, French and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs).

 

In Mesopotamia, by contrast, after the disastrous Siege of Kut (1915–16),

 

April 1915

Military tactics before World War I had failed to keep pace with advances in technology. These changes resulted in the building of impressive defence systems, which out-of-date tactics could not break through for most of the war. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances. Artillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground very difficult.[23] The Germans introduced poison gas; it soon became used by both sides, though it never proved decisive in winning a battle. Its effects were brutal, causing slow and painful death, and poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war. Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaching entrenched positions without heavy casualties. In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as the tank.[24] Britain and France were its primary users; the Germans employed captured Allied tanks and small numbers of their own design.

After the First Battle of the Marne, both Entente and German forces began a series of outflanking maneuvers, in the so-called ‘Race to the Sea‘. Britain and France soon found themselves facing entrenched German forces from Lorraine to Belgium’s Flemish coast.[5] Britain and France sought to take the offensive, while Germany defended the occupied territories; consequently, German trenches were generally much better constructed than those of their enemy. Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be ‘temporary’ before their forces broke through German defenses.[25] Both sides attempted to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances.

 

In April 1915

 the Germans used chlorine gas for the first time (in violation of the Hague Convention), opening a six kilometre (four mile) hole in the Allied lines when British and French colonial troops retreated. Canadian soldiers closed the breach at the Second Battle of Ypres. At the Third Battle of Ypres, Canadian and ANZAC troops took the village of Passchendaele.

 

Italian Campaign (World War I)

 

 

Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol

Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882 as part of the Triple Alliance. However, the nation had its own designs on Austrian territory in Trentino, Istria and Dalmatia. Rome had a secret 1902 pact with France, effectively nullifying its alliance.[53] At the start of hostilities, Italy refused to commit troops, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive in nature, and that Austria–Hungary was an aggressor. The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return.

The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Alpine province of South Tyrol and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria–Hungary. This was fomalised by the Treaty of London. Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915

May,1915

Italy joined the Entente and declared war on Austria–Hungary on May 23. Fifteen months later Italy declared war on Germany.

Militarily, the Italians had numerical superiority. This advantage, however, was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed. Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault, had dreams of breaking into the Slovenian plateau, taking Ljubljana and threatening Vienna. It was a Napoleonic plan, which had no realistic chance of success in an age of barbed wire, machine guns, and indirect artillery fire, combined with hilly and mountainous terrain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May,15 th.1915

A beauty. Mailed from Shanghai on May 15, 1915 to Jo/burg.

Recipient not there, so then re-directed TWICE within the UK. With a nice “re-posted Jo-Burg 31 July 15 cds” on back. Censor has opened again somewhere in transit, and sealed with brown plain tape. (Cover opening is on end of pink tape.)

 

 

 

 

.July 1915

censored cover WW1 to Sweden.

 

 

Some comments?
A side question how to detect the WMK on a stamp from a cover?

Faust

Watermark detection is helped by soaking off the cover. DONT on pain of a fateful death of horrors. Censored in Europe, not Australia, watermark???? Have you checked the date of mailing against the issue date….yet; first watermark printed and released 27th January, 1913, 2nd july 1915 and ignore others. Nice cover, single use , early in days of Roo’s, hope it was not the Christmas card, by the dates.


The kangaroo came from the other side of the world, but was placed upside down to feel at home. Do you know if this was a sign of any significance in Europe, at war, at this time? I have seen references (perhaps urban myths) of it being an offence in England to place a stamp of the Monarch upside down, Treason in fact?


this cover, that is was part of a larger lot at an auction 3 years ago. I am collecting for more than 25 years Australian stamps in mint condition and the ones I am missing today are very expensive so I decided to collect also pre-decimal covers and FDC´s and old postcards. This cover is one out of my collection. I can not answer your question in Belgium was this not common

 

In the summer of 1916,

 the Italians captured the town of Gorizia. After this minor victory, the front remained static for over a year, despite several Italian offensives.

October 1915

 

Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month. The attack began in October,

 when the Central Powers launched an offensive from the north; four days later the Bulgarians joined the attack from the east. The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into Albania, halting only once to make a stand against the Bulgarians. The Serbs suffered defeat near modern day Gnjilane in the Battle of Kosovo.[48]

 

 

In late 1915

 a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece, to offer assistance and to pressure the government to declare war against the Central Powers. Unfortunately for the Allies, the pro-German King Constantine I dismissed the pro-Allied government of Eleftherios Venizelos, before the Allied expeditionary force could arrive

 

The United States originally pursued a policy of isolationism,

 

avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. This resulted in increased tensions with Berlin and London. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915,

 

 with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, “America is too proud to fight” and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights.

 

Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as “piracy”.[73]

 

 Wilson’s desire to have a seat at negotiations at war’s end to advance the League of Nations also played a role.[74]

 

Wilson’s Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest at what he felt was the President’s decidedly warmongering diplomacy.

 

Other factors contributing to the U.S. entry into the war include the suspected German sabotage of both Black Tom in Jersey City, New Jersey, and the Kingsland Explosion in what is now Lyndhurst, New Jersey

 

 

Armenian Genocide, Assyrian Genocide, and Greek genocide

The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire’s Christian population, with the most prominent among them being the deportation and massacres of Armenians (similar policies were enacted against the Assyrians and Ottoman Greeks) during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered genocide.[141] The Ottomans saw the entire Armenian population as an enemy[142] that had chosen to side with Russia at the beginning of the war.[143] In early 1915 a number of Armenian nationalist groups such as the Armenakan, Dashnak and Hunchak organizations joined the Russian forces, and the Ottoman government used this as a pretext to issue the Tehcir Law which started the deportation of the Armenians from eastern Anatolia to Syria between 1915 and 1917. The exact number of deaths is unknown, although a range of 250,000 to 1.5 million is given for the deaths of Armenians.[144] The government of Turkey has consistently rejected charges of genocide, arguing that those who died were victims of inter-ethnic fighting, famine or disease during the First World War.[145]

1916

 

the WW1 cover. This cover is a very rare thing. Sent from New Guinea to Holland and then forwarded to Germany. It seems like it was using an official system to tranmit mail. It still has the original note with a translation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There were several letters enclosed. Australian stamps used in New Guinea are very rare.(Tim)
The WWI cover is great- even more so because the transmittal letter re: original contents is still with it to explain what would otherwise look to be a mundane sending- A wonderful piece of history as well as postal history.

On the question of “undercover addresses”, there is a book , now in the third edition, covering WWII authored by Charles Entwistle that was published by Chavril Press. Thanks for sharing it.(dave)
Strange that NWPI o/prints weren’t used with the date being (I think) 1916 Still he used valid Aust. one’s and they are rare indeed from that period.

 

Australian OS stamps used by a German Missionary in 1916 to send mail to Germany, via Holland from New Guinea…….

Does the fact that all contents are still with it mean that it never got there?

What back stamps does it have.?

The mail route it went on would be very different – 90% of P &NG mail then seems to have gone south to Queensland or to Sydney then north again to Europe or where ever.

That censor stamp isnt Australian is it?

How do you think it got to Holland – maybe through Batavia? ( Dutch or Netherland New Guinea now Indonesia)


read more bout heinrich Zahn

FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany. from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars.


2d halfpenny Second WMK to USA with nice 1916 cancel. surprisingly, NO censor markings at all.

 

 

 

Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat toward the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6–7 January 1916, but ultimately the Austrians conquered Montenegro, too. Serbian forces were evacuated by ship to Greece.

 

From 27 January 1916 to 6 March 1916

 Commander of

,

Major General Commandant of the Defense of Steinhart section Rayon I Stelvio

 

February 1916

 

General Franz Seraphin Edler von Steinhart

 When war broke out with Italy was an expansion of its area of ​​responsibility by 26 to February 1916 continued appointment as commander of the Eastern Front of Trento.

the Rayon II Tonale.

 

 

 

In the trenches: Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench on the first day on the Somme,

June 1916

Despite the success of the June 1916 Brusilov offensive in eastern Galicia,[68] dissatisfaction with the Russian government’s conduct of the war grew. The success was undermined by the reluctance of other generals to commit their forces to support the victory.

 

The Arab Revolt (described in Seven Pillars of Wisdom) was a major cause of the Ottoman Empire‘s defeat.

The revolts started with the Battle of Mecca by Sherif Hussain of Mecca with the help of Britain in June 1916, and ended with the Ottoman surrender of Damascus.

 Fakhri Pasha the Ottoman commander of Medina showed stubborn resistance for over two and half years during the Siege of Medina

Along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, the Senussi tribe, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops. According to Martin Gilbert’s The First World War, the British were forced to dispatch 12,000 troops to deal with the Senussi. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid-1916.

 

 1 July 1916.

The British Army endured the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties and 19,240 dead on 1 July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Most of the casualties occurred in the first hour of the attack. The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army almost half a million men.[26]

Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years, though protracted German action at Verdun throughout 1916,[27] combined with the bloodletting at the Somme, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse. Futile attempts at frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French poilu (infantry) and led to widespread mutinies, especially during the Nivelle Offensive.[28]

 

On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen (German wikipedia) engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer. The Austro-Hungarians counter-attacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of 1916 (Strafexpedition), but made little progress.

August,27th.1916

Allied and Russian forces were revived only temporarily with Romania‘s entry into the war on 27 August.

 

With the 1st November 1916

 

 he was appointed commander of the 43rd Landwehr Infantry Brigade (at this time in the association of III. Corps at Monte Interrotto in Valsugana used), already on the 6th November, the order to the commander of the infantry troops Pusteria Division (consisting of the 96th Infantry, 21 mountain and 56 Mountain Brigade) followed. The division was responsible for the defense of the Pusteria of the Carinthian border to the Marmolada over about 100 kilometers frontline.

 

 

 

November,19th.1916

 

The Macedonian Front proved static for the most part. Serbian forces retook part of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November 1916. Only at the end of the conflict were the Entente powers able to break through, after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had withdrawn.

 

December 1916

 

 

German forces came to the aid of embattled Austrian units in Transylvania and Bucharest fell to the Central Powers on 6 December. Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia, as the Tsar remained at the front. Empress Alexandra’s increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin, at the end of 1916.

 

1916 Feldpost PPC sent by a soldier of the light infantry batallion No2 from Landshut in Bavaria to Austria, censored in Linz.

 

 

 

 

Oskar Schilling’s 2008 work “Zivilpost-Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn 1914-1918″ notes that the Austro-Hungarian empire produced over 2500 different mail censorship marks during WW1. This is one of them:

1916 Feldpost PPC sent by a soldier of the light infantry batallion No2 from Landshut in Bavaria to Austria, censored in Linz.

That’s an interesting card. After Familie Buebestinger kk what does it say?


It’s difficult handwriting to decipher. It looks to me that it says “K.K. Finanz Ober Aufseher” which would make the receiver a senior supervisor in the finance ministry

 

 

 

 

!917

 

 

January 1917:

Wilhelm Victory declaration

German poster quotes Wilhelm II, lambasting the Allies for their decision to fight on.

In December 1916, after ten brutal months of the Battle of Verdun, the Germans attempted to negotiate peace with the Allies, declaring themselves the victors. U.S. President Wilson attempted to intervene, asking both sides to state their demands. The Allies, in a weak bargaining position, rebuffed the offer.[69]

 

 

 

 

 

1917

January 1917

In January 1917,

 after the Navy pressured the Kaiser, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. Britain’s secret Royal Navy cryptanalytic group, Room 40, had broken the German diplomatic code. They intercepted a proposal from Berlin (the Zimmermann Telegram) to Mexico to join the war as Germany’s ally against the United States, should the U.S. join. The proposal suggested, if the U.S. were to enter the war, Mexico should declare war against the United States and enlist Japan as an ally. This would prevent the United States from joining the Allies and deploying troops to Europe, and would give Germany more time for their unrestricted submarine warfare program to strangle Britain’s vital war supplies. In return, the Germans would promise Mexico support in reclaiming Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.[75]

 

 

February 1917

 

Entry Of United States

 

 

 

President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917

March 1917

 

 

 

Austrian troops executing captured Serbians in 1917.

After conquest, Serbia was divided between Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria. Bulgarians commenced bulgarization of the Serbian population in their occupation zone, banishing Serbian Cyrillic and the Serbian Orthodox Church.

After forced conscription of the Serbian population into the Bulgarian army in 1917, the Toplica Uprising began. Serbian rebels liberated for a short time the area between the Kopaonik mountains and the South Morava river.

The uprising was crushed by joint efforts of Bulgarian and Austrian forces at the end of March 1917.

 

 

British artillery placements in the Battle of Jerusalem (1917).

. British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March 1917.

 

Middle Eastern theatre of World War I(Ottoman empire)

In 1917,

 Russian Grand Duke Nicholas assumed command of the Caucasus front. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in 1917.

March 1917

However, in March 1917, (February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar), the Czar was overthrown in the February Revolution and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart. In this situation, the army corps of Armenian volunteer units realigned themselves under the command of General Tovmas Nazarbekian, with Dro as a civilian commissioner of the Administration for Western Armenia. The front line had three main divisions: Movses Silikyan, Andranik, and Mikhail Areshian. Another regular unit was under Colonel Korganian. There were Armenian partisan guerrilla detachments (more than 40,000[52]) accompanying these main units.

 

 

 

 

early Red Cross card (1917)(dace)

this is not a Red Cross Card but “Bundesfeier-Postkarte”, 4 different where issued in 1917. The flags are the Swiss flag.
The 5c cards where sold for 20C.
Part of the collected money was donnated to th Red Cross.
The title of the card Wohltätigkeit, La charité, Charity. (Frederik)

 

a fairly grubby Post Card with Censor marks…

 the Multi Ringed Blue Circular mark on the Top Post Card.
if so any info would be nice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russian Revolution of 1917

 

 

Vladimir Illyich Lenin

In March 1917, demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists. This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective.

The war and the government became increasingly unpopular. Discontent led to a rise in popularity of the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin. He promised to pull Russia out of the war and was able to gain power. The triumph of the Bolsheviks in November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany.

At first the Bolsheviks refused the German terms, but when Germany resumed the war and marched across Ukraine with impunity, the new government acceded to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918.

 

It took Russia out of the war and ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces, parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers. The manpower required for German occupation of former Russian territory may have contributed to the failure of the Spring Offensive, however, and secured relatively little food or other war materiel.

With the Bolsheviks’ accession to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources and, to a lesser extent, to support the Whites in the Russian Civil War. Allied troops landed in Archangel and in Vladivostok

Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire

Approximately 200,000 Germans living in Volhynia and about 600,000 Jews were deported by the Russian authorities.[146][147][148] In 1916, an order was issued to deport around 650,000 Volga Germans to the east as well, but the Russian Revolution prevented this from being carried out.[149] Many pogroms accompanied the Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War, 60,000–200,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire.[150][151]

April 1917

After the British revealed the telegram to the United States, President Wilson, who had won reelection on his keeping the country out of the war, released the captured telegram as a way of building support for U.S. entry into the war. He had previously claimed neutrality, while calling for the arming of U.S. merchant ships delivering munitions to combatant Britain and quietly supporting the British blockading of German ports and mining of international waters, preventing the shipment of food from America and elsewhere to combatant Germany. After submarines sank seven U.S. merchant ships and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.[76]

 

 

African-American soldiers marching in France.[77]

Crucial to U.S. participation was the sweeping domestic propaganda campaign executed by the Committee on Public Information overseen by George Creel. The campaign included tens of thousands of government-selected community leaders giving brief carefully scripted pro-war speeches at thousands of public gatherings. Along with other branches of government and private vigilante groups like the American Protective League, it also included the general repression and harassment of people either opposed to American entry into the war or of German heritage. Other forms of propaganda included newsreels, photos, large-print posters (designed by several well-known illustrators of the day, including Louis D. Fancher and Henry Reuterdahl), magazine and newspaper articles, etc.

August 1917

 

 The only previously held by them acting command of the division was the final designation on 23 August 1917, the unit in the 49th Infantry Division was renamed troops.

 

In the autumn of 1917,

thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front, the Austrians received large numbers of reinforcements, including German Stormtroopers and the elite Alpenkorps. The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October 1917, spearheaded by the Germans. They achieved a victory at Caporetto. The Italian army was routed and retreated more than 100 km (60 miles) to reorganise, stabilizing the front at the Piave River. Since in the Battle of Caporetto Italian Army had heavy losses, the Italian Government called to arms the so called ’99 Boys (Ragazzi del ’99), that is, all males who were 18 years old.

On 1 November 1917

 

had been appointed by the Lieutenant-Steinhart.

By the end of the war he commanded the 49th Infantry Division troops in Madonna di Campiglio to Val di Concei.

Western Front (World War I)

 

 

Canadian troops advancing behind a British Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge.

 

 

A French assault on German positions. Champagne, France, 1917.

Throughout 1915–17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, due both to the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides. At the strategic level, while the Germans only mounted a single main offensive at Verdun, the Allies made several attempts to break through German lines. At the tactical level, Ludendorff’s defensive doctrine of “elastic defense” was well suited for trench warfare. This defense had a relatively lightly defended forward position and a more powerful main position farther back beyond artillery range, from which an immediate and powerful counter-offensive could be launched.[29][30]

Ludendorff wrote on the fighting in 1917, “The 25th of August concluded the second phase of the Flanders battle. It had cost us heavily. … The costly August battles in Flanders and at Verdun imposed a heavy strain on the Western troops. In spite of all the concrete protection they seemed more or less powerless under the enormous weight of the enemy’s artillery. At some points they no longer displayed the firmness which I, in common with the local commanders, had hoped for. The enemy managed to adapt himself to our method of employing counter attacks… I myself was being put to a terrible strain. The state of affairs in the West appeared to prevent the execution of our plans elsewhere. Our wastage had been so high as to cause grave misgivings, and had exceeded all expectation.”[31]

On the battle of the Menin Road Ridge Ludendorff wrote: “Another terrific assault was made on our lines on the 20 September…. The enemy’s onslaught on the 20th was successful, which proved the superiority of the attack over the defence. Its strength did not consist in the tanks; we found them inconvenient, but put them out of action all the same. The power of the attack lay in the artillery, and in the fact that ours did not do enough damage to the hostile infantry as they were assembling, and above all, at the actual time of the assault.”[32]

 

 

Officers and senior enlisted men of the Bermuda Militia Artillery‘s Bermuda Contingent, Royal Garrison Artillery, in Europe.

Around 1.1 to 1.2 million soldiers from the British and Dominion armies were on the Western Front at any one time[33] A thousand battalions, occupying sectors of the line from the North Sea to the Orne River, operated on a month-long four-stage rotation system, unless an offensive was underway. The front contained over 9,600 kilometres (5,965 mi) of trenches. Each battalion held its sector for about a week before moving back to support lines and then further back to the reserve lines before a week out-of-line, often in the Poperinge or Amiens areas.

In the 1917 Battle of Arras the only significant British military success was the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps under Sir Arthur Currie and Julian Byng. The assaulting troops were able for the first time to overrun, rapidly reinforce and hold the ridge defending the coal-rich Douai plain.[34][35]

 

 

 

 

December 1917

 

Further to the west, in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, initial British setbacks were overcome when Jerusalem was captured in December 1917

. In 1917,

 the U.S. Congress gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones Act. Germany had miscalculated, believing it would be many more months before they would arrive and that the arrival could be stopped by U-boats.[78]

 

 

M1905 Howitzer used by Allied Forces

The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet, destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland and submarines to help guard convoys. Several regiments of U.S. Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted U.S. units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies. The U.S. rejected the first proposition and accepted the second. General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Force (AEF) commander, refused to break up U.S. units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units. As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments to be used in French divisions. The Harlem Hellfighters fought as part of the French 16th Division, earning a unit Croix de Guerre for their actions at Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood and Sechault.[79] AEF doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults, which had long since been discarded by British Empire and French commanders because of the large loss of life.[80]

 

 

 

Technology during World War I and Weapons of World War I

 

 

Armoured cars

The First World War began as a clash of 20th century technology and 19th century tactics, with inevitably large casualties. By the end of 1917, however, the major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernised and were making use of telephone, wireless communication,[109] armoured cars, tanks,[110] and aircraft. Infantry formations were reorganised, so that 100-man companies were no longer the main unit of maneuver. Instead, squads of 10 or so men, under the command of a junior NCO, were favoured. Artillery also underwent a revolution.

In 1914, cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets. By 1917, indirect fire with guns (as well as mortars and even machine guns) was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and the often overlooked field telephone. Counter-battery missions became commonplace, also, and sound detection was used to locate enemy batteries.

Germany was far ahead of the Allies in utilizing heavy indirect fire. She employed 150 and 210 mm howitzers in 1914 when the typical French and British guns were only 75 and 105 mm. The British had a 6 inch (152 mm) howitzer, but it was so heavy it had to be assembled for firing. Germans also fielded Austrian 305 mm and 420 mm guns, and already by the beginning of the war had inventories of various calibers of Minenwerfer ideally suited for trench warfare.[111]

Much of the combat involved trench warfare, where hundreds often died for each yard gained. Many of the deadliest battles in history occurred during the First World War. Such battles include Ypres, the Marne, Cambrai, the Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli. The Haber process of nitrogen fixation was employed to provide the German forces with a constant supply of gunpowder, in the face of British naval blockade.[112] Artillery was responsible for the largest number of casualties[113] and consumed vast quantities of explosives. The large number of head-wounds caused by exploding shells and fragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet, led by the French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in 1915. It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet, worn by British Imperial and U.S. troops, and in 1916 by the distinctive German Stahlhelm, a design, with improvements, still in use today.

The widespread use of chemical warfare was a distinguishing feature of the conflict. Gases used included chlorine, mustard gas and phosgene. Few war casualties were caused by gas,[114] as effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created, such as gas masks. The use of chemical warfare and small-scale strategic bombing were both outlawed by the 1907 Hague Conventions, and both proved to be of limited effectiveness,[115] though they captured the public imagination.[116]

The most powerful land-based weapons were railway guns weighing hundreds of tons apiece. These were nicknamed Big Berthas, even though the namesake was not a railway gun. Germany developed the Paris Gun, able to bombard Paris from over 100 km (60 mi), though shells were relatively light at 94 kilograms (210 lb). While the Allies had railway guns, German models severely out-ranged and out-classed them.

 

 

RAF Sopwith Camel.

Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya 23 October 1911 during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year. By 1914 the military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed. Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well. Towards the end of the conflict, aircraft carriers were used for the first time, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a raid to destroy the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in 1918.

German U-boats (submarines) were deployed after the war began. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic, they were employed by the Kaiserliche Marine in a strategy to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies. The deaths of British merchant sailors and the seeming invulnerability of U-boats led to the development of depth charges (1916), hydrophones (passive sonar, 1917), blimps, hunter-killer submarines (HMS R-1, 1917), forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons, and dipping hydrophones (the latter two both abandoned in 1918).[117] To extend their operations, the Germans proposed supply submarines (1916). Most of these would be forgotten in the interwar period until World War II revived the need.

 

 

British Army Vickers machine gun.

Trenches, machineguns, air reconnaissance, barbed wire, and modern artillery with fragmentation shells helped bring the battle lines of World War I to a stalemate. The British sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare. The first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September 1916. Mechanical reliability became an issue, but the experiment proved its worth. Within a year, the British were fielding tanks by the hundreds and showed their potential during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, by breaking the Hindenburg Line, while combined arms teams captured 8000 enemy soldiers and 100 guns. Light automatic weapons also were introduced, such as the Lewis Gun and Browning automatic rifle.

Manned observation balloons, floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery. Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes.[118] If there was an enemy air attack, the crew could parachute to safety. At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft (with their marginal power output) and smaller versions would not be developed until the end of the war; they were also opposed by British leadership, who feared they might promote cowardice.[119] Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets of enemy aircraft.

 

 

Johnson’s Nieuport 11 armed with Le Prieur rockets for attacking observation balloons

To defend against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft; to attack them, unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were even tried. Blimps and balloons contributed to air-to-air combat among aircraft, because of their reconnaissance value, and to the trench stalemate, because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected. The Germans conducted air raids on England during 1915 and 1916 with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines. The resulting panic took several squadrons of fighters from France.[119]

Another new weapon, flamethrowers, were first used by the German army and later adopted by other forces. Although not of high tactical value, they were a powerful, demoralizing weapon and caused terror on the battlefield. It was a dangerous weapon to wield, as its heavy weight made operators vulnerable targets.

Trench railways evolved to supply the enormous quantities of food, water, and ammunition required to support large numbers of soldiers in areas where conventional transportation systems had been destroyed. A trench railway system was included in construction of the Maginot Line, but internal combustion engines and improved traction systems for wheeled vehicles rendered trench railways obsolete within a decade.

 

1918

 

.

 

 

Photographic documentation of combat

Events of 1917 proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until 1918. The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany. In response, in February 1917, the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war. Tonnage sunk rose above 500,000 tons per month from February to July. It peaked at 860,000 tons in April. After July, the reintroduced convoy system became extremely effective in neutralizing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation and German industrial output fell.

 

 

Haut-Rhin, France, 1917

On 3 May 1917 during the Nivelle Offensive the weary French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused their orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons. Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. There upon the mutinies afflicted 54 French divisions and saw 20,000 men desert. The other Allied forces attacked but sustained tremendous casualties.[70] However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action.[71] Robert Nivelle was removed from command by 15 May, replaced by General Philippe Pétain, who suspended bloody large-scale attacks.

The victory of Austria–Hungary and Germany at the Battle of Caporetto led the Allies at the Rapallo Conference to form the Supreme War Council to coordinate planning. Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands.

In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia. This released troops for use in the west. Ironically, German troop transfers could have been greater if their territorial acquisitions had not been so dramatic. With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the outcome was to be decided on the Western front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war, but they held high hopes for a quick offensive. Furthermore, the leaders of the Central Powers and the Allies became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.[72]

The Egyptian Expeditionary Force, under Field Marshal Edmund Allenby, broke the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918.

The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled “Associated Power”. The United States had a small army, but it drafted four million men and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day

 

 June 1918

German Spring Spring Offensive of 1918

 

 

For most of World War I, Allied forces were stalled at trenches on the Western Front

German General Erich Ludendorff drew up plans (codenamed Operation Michael) for the 1918 offensive on the Western Front. The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances. The German leadership hoped to strike a decisive blow before significant U.S. forces arrived. The operation commenced on 21 March 1918 with an attack on British forces near Amiens. German forces achieved an unprecedented advance of 60 kilometers (40 miles).[81]

British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics, also named Hutier tactics, after General Oskar von Hutier. Previously, attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults. However, in the Spring Offensive of 1918, Ludendorff used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points. They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions. German success relied greatly on the element of surprise.[82]

The front moved to within 120 kilometers (75 mi) of Paris. Three heavy Krupp railway guns fired 183 shells on the capital, causing many Parisians to flee. The initial offensive was so successful that Kaiser Wilhelm II declared 24 March a national holiday. Many Germans thought victory was near. After heavy fighting, however, the offensive was halted. Lacking tanks or motorised artillery, the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. This situation was not helped by the supply lines now being stretched as a result of their advance.[83] The sudden stop was also a result of the four AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) divisions that were “rushed” down, thus doing what no other army had done and stopping the German advance in its tracks. During that time the first Australian division was hurriedly sent north again to stop the second German breakthrough.

 

 

British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918

American divisions, which Pershing had sought to field as an independent force, were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March. A Supreme War Council of Allied forces was created at the Doullens Conference on 5 November 1917.[84] General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the allied forces. Haig, Petain and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies; Foch assumed a coordinating role, rather than a directing role and the British, French and U.S. commands operated largely independently.[84]

Following Operation Michael, Germany launched Operation Georgette against the northern English channel ports. The Allies halted the drive with limited territorial gains for Germany. The German Army to the south then conducted Operations Blücher and Yorck, broadly towards Paris. Operation Marne was launched on 15 July, attempting to encircle Reims and beginning the Second Battle of the Marne. The resulting counterattack, starting the Hundred Days Offensive, marked their first successful Allied offensive of the war.

By 20 July the Germans were back across the Marne at their Kaiserschlacht starting lines,[85] having achieved nothing. Following this last phase of the war in the West, the German Army never again regained the initiative. German casualties between March and April 1918 were 270,000, including many highly trained stormtroops.

Meanwhile, Germany was falling apart at home. Anti-war marches become frequent and morale in the army fell. Industrial output was 53% of 1913 levels.

In 1918,

the internationally recognized Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Democratic Republic of Armenia and Democratic Republic of Georgia bordering the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire were established, as well as the unrecognized Centrocaspian Dictatorship and South West Caucasian Republic. Later, these unrecognized states were eliminated by Azerbaijan and Turkey.

Further information: [[Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire]]

In 1918, the Dashnaks of the Armenian national liberation movement declared the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) through the Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians (unified form of Armenian National Councils) after the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tovmas Nazarbekian became the first Commander-in-chief of the DRA. Enver Pasha ordered the creation of a new army to be named the Army of Islam. He ordered the Army of Islam into the DRA, with the goal of taking Baku on the Caspian Sea. This new offensive was strongly opposed by the Germans. In early May 1918, the Ottoman army attacked the newly declared DRA. Although the Armenians managed to inflict one defeat on the Ottomans at the Battle of Sardarapat, the Ottoman army won a later battle and scattered the Armenian army. The Republic of Armenia signed the Treaty of Batum in June 1918.[86]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 1918

 

Allied Victory 1918

 Hundred Days Offensive and Weimar Republic

 

 

U.S. engineers returning from the front during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in September 1918

The Allied counteroffensive, known as the Hundred Days Offensive, began on 8 August 1918. The Battle of Amiens developed with III Corps Fourth British Army on the left, the First French Army on the right, and the Australian and Canadian Corps spearheading the offensive in the centre through Harbonnières.[87][88] It involved 414 tanks of the Mark IV and Mark V type, and 120,000 men. They advanced 12 kilometers (7 miles) into German-held territory in just seven hours. Erich Ludendorff referred to this day as the “Black Day of the German army”.[87][89]

The Australian-Canadian spearhead at Amiens, a battle that was the beginning of Germany’s downfall,[90] helped pull the British armies to the north and the French armies to the south forward. While German resistance on the British Fourth Army front at Amiens stiffened, after an advance as far as 14 miles (23 km) and concluded the battle there, the French Third Army lengthened the Amiens front on 10 August, when it was thrown in on the right of the French First Army, and advanced 4 miles (6 km) liberating Lassigny in fighting which lasted until the 16th. South of the French Third Army, General Charles Mangin (The Butcher) drove his French Tenth Army forward at Soissons on 20 August to capture eight thousand prisoners, two hundred guns and the Aisne heights overlooking and menacing the German position north of the Vesle.[91] Another “Black day” as described by Ludendorff.

Meanwhile General Byng of the Third British Army, reporting that the enemy on his front was thinning in a limited withdrawal, was ordered to attack with 200 tanks toward Bapaume, opening what is known as the Battle of Albert with the specific orders of “To break the enemy’s front, in order to outflank the enemies present battle front” (opposite the British Fourth Army at Amiens).[32] Allied leaders had now realized that to continue an attack after resistance had hardened was a waste of lives and it was better to turn a line than to try and roll over it. Attacks were being undertaken in quick order to take advantage of the successful advances on the flanks and then broken off when that attack lost its initial impetus.[91]

The British Third Army’s 15-mile (24 km) front north of Albert progressed after stalling for a day against the main resistance line to which the enemy had withdrawn.[92] Rawlinson’s Fourth British Army was able to battle its left flank forward between Albert and the Somme straightening the line between the advanced positions of the Third Army and the Amiens front which resulted in recapturing Albert at the same time.[91] On 26 August the British First Army on the left of the Third Army was drawn into the battle extending it northward to beyond Arras. The Canadian Corps already being back in the vanguard of the First Army fought their way from Arras eastward 5 miles (8 km) astride the heavily defended Arras-Cambrai before reaching the outer defenses of the Hindenburg line, breaching them on the 28th and 29th. Bapaume fell on the 29th to the New Zealand Division of the Third Army and the Australians, still leading the advance of the Fourth Army, were again able to push forward at Amiens to take Peronne and Mont St. Quentin on August 31. Further south the French First and Third Armies had slowly fought forward while the Tenth Army, who had by now crossed the Ailette and was east of the Chemin des Dames, was now near to the Alberich position of the Hindenburg line.[93] During the last week of August the pressure along a 70-mile (113 km) front against the enemy was heavy and unrelenting. From German accounts, “Each day was spent in bloody fighting against an ever and again on-storming enemy, and nights passed without sleep in retirements to new lines.”[91] Even to the north in Flanders the British Second and Fifth Armies during August and September were able to make progress taking prisoners and positions that were previously denied them.[93]

 

 

Close-up view of an American major in the basket of an observation balloon flying over territory near front lines.

On 2 September the Canadian Corps outflanking of the Hindenburg line, with the breaching of the Wotan Position, made it possible for the Third Army to advance and sent repercussions all along the Western Front. That same day OHL had no choice but to issue orders to six armies for withdrawal back into the Hindenburg line in the south, behind the Canal Du Nord on the Canadian-First Army’s front and back to a line east of the Lys in the north, giving up without a fight the salient seized in the previous April.[94] According to Ludendorff “We had to admit the necessity…to withdraw the entire front from the Scarpe to the Vesle.”[95]

In nearly four weeks of fighting since 8 August over 100,000 German prisoners were taken, 75,000 by the BEF and the rest by the French. Since “The Black Day of the German Army” the German High Command realized the war was lost and made attempts for a satisfactory end. The day after the battle Ludenforff told Colonel Mertz “We cannot win the war any more, but we must not lose it either.” On 11 August he offered his resignation to the Kaiser, who refused it and replied, “I see that we must strike a balance. We have nearly reached the limit of our powers of resistance. The war must be ended.” On 13 August at Spa, Hindenburg, Ludendorff, Chancellor and Foreign minister Hintz agreed that the war could not be ended militarily and on the following day the German Crown Council decided victory in the field was now most improbable. Austria and Hungary warned that they could only continue the war until December and Ludendorff recommended immediate peace negotiations, to which the Kaiser responded by instructing Hintz to seek the Queen of Holland’s mediation. Prince Rupprecht warned Prince Max of Baden “Our military situation has deteriorated so rapidly that I no longer believe we can hold out over the winter; it is even possible that a catastrophe will come earlier.” On 10 September Hindenburg urged peace moves to Emperor Charles of Austria and Germany appealed to Holland for mediation. On the 14th Austria sent a note to all belligerents and neutrals suggesting a meeting for peace talks on neutral soil and on 15 September Germany made a peace offer to Belgium. Both peace offers were rejected and on 24 September OHL informed the leaders in Berlin that armistice talks were inevitable.[93]

September saw the Germans continuing to fight strong rear guard actions and launching numerous counter attacks on lost positions, with only a few succeeding and then only temporarily. Contested towns, villages, heights and trenches in the screening positions and outposts of the Hindenburg Line continued to fall to the Allies as well as thousands of prisoners, with the BEF alone taking 30,441 in the last week of September. Further small advances eastward would follow the Third Army victory at Ivincourt on 12 September, the Fourth Armies at Epheny on the 18th and the French gain of Essigny-le-Grand a day later. On the 24th a final assault by both the British and French on a four mile (6 km) front would come within two miles (3 km) of St. Quentin.[93] With the outposts and preliminary defensive lines of the Siegfried and Alberich Positions eliminated the Germans were now completely back in the Hindenburg line. With the Wotan position of that line already breached and the Siegfried position in danger of being turned from the north the time had now come for an assault on the whole length of the line.

The Allied attack on the Hindenburg Line began on 26 September. A total of 260,000 U.S. soldiers went “over the top”. All initial objectives were captured; the U.S. 79th Infantry Division, which met stiff resistance at Montfaucon, took an extra day to capture its objective. The U.S. Army stalled due to supply problems because its inexperienced headquarters had to cope with large units and a difficult landscape.[96] The following week cooperating French and American units broke through in Champagne at the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge, forcing the Germans off the commanding heights, and closing towards the Belgian frontier.[97] The last Belgian town to be liberated before the armistice was Ghent, which the Germans held as a pivot until Allied artillery was brought up.[98][99] The German army had to shorten its front and use the Dutch frontier as an anchor to fight rear-guard actions.

When Bulgaria signed a separate armistice on 29 September, the Allies gained control of Serbia and Greece. Ludendorff, having been under great stress for months, suffered something similar to a breakdown. It was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defence.[100][101]

Meanwhile, news of Germany’s impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces. The threat of mutiny was rife. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt to restore the “valour” of the German Navy. Knowing the government of Prince Maximilian of Baden would veto any such action, Ludendorff decided not to inform him. Nonetheless, word of the impending assault reached sailors at Kiel. Many rebelled and were arrested, refusing to be part of a naval offensive which they believed to be suicidal. Ludendorff took the blame—the Kaiser dismissed him on 26 October. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food. The reserves had been used up, but U.S. troops kept arriving at the rate of 10,000 per day.[102]

Having suffered over 6 million casualties, Germany moved toward peace. Prince Max von Baden took charge of a new government as Chancellor of Germany to negotiate with the Allies. Telegraphic negotiations with President Wilson began immediately, in the vain hope that better terms would be offered than by the British and French. Instead Wilson demanded the abdication of the Kaiser. There was no resistance when the social democrat Philipp Scheidemann on 9 November declared Germany to be a republic. Imperial Germany was dead; a new Germany had been born: the Weimar Republic.[103]

 

 

September ,29th.1918

 

The Bulgarians suffered their only defeat of the war at the Battle of Dobro Pole but days later, they decisively defeated British and Greek forces at the Battle of Doiran, avoiding occupation. Bulgaria signed an armistice on 29 September 1918.

In 1918,

 the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year. Austria–Hungary surrendered in early November 1918.[54][55][56]

Fighting In India

The war began with an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom from within the mainstream political leadership, contrary to initial British fears of an Indian revolt. India under British rule contributed greatly to the British war effort by providing men and resources. This was done by the Indian Congress in hope of achieving self-government as India was very much under the control of the British. The United Kingdom disappointed the Indians by not providing self-governance, leading to the Gandhian Era in Indian history. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian government and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. In all 140,000 men served on the Western Front and nearly 700,000 in the Middle East. Casualties of Indian soldiers totaled 47,746 killed and 65,126 wounded during World War I.[57]

Bengal and Punjab remained hotbeds of anti-colonial activities. Terrorism in Bengal, increasingly closely linked with the unrests in Punjab, was significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration. Also from the beginning of the war, expatriate Indian population, notably in Germany, United States and Canada, headed by the Indian Independence Committee and the Ghadar Party respectively, attempted to trigger insurrections in India on the lines of the 1857 uprising with Irish Republican, German and Turkish help in a great conspiracy that has since become known as the Hindu German conspiracy. The conspiracy also made attempts to rally the Amir of Afghanistan against British India, starting a political process in that country that culminated three years later in the assassination of Amir Habibullah and precipitation of the Third Anglo-Afghan war. A number of failed attempts at mutiny were made in India, of which the February mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny remain most notable. This movement was suppressed by means of a vast international counterintelligence operation and draconian political acts (including the Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly ten years.[58][59][60]

The Ghadarites also attempted to organise incursions from the western border of India, recruiting Indian prisoners of war from Turkey, Germany, Mesopotamia. Ghadarite rebels, led by Sufi Amba Prasad, fought along with Turkish forces in Iran and in Turkey. Plans were made in Constantinopole to organise a campaign from Persia, through Baluchistan, to Punjab. These forces were involved skirmishes that captured the frontier city of Karman, taking into custody the British consul. Percy Sykes‘s campaign in Persia was directed mostly against these composite forces. It was at this time that the Aga Khan and his brother were recruited into the British War effort. However, the Aga Khan’s brother was captured and shot dead by the rebels, who also successfully harassed British Forces in Sistan in Afghanistan, confining British forces to Karamshir in Baluchistan, later moving towards Karachi. They were able to take control of the coastal towns of Gawador and Dawar. The Baluchi chief of Bampur, having declared his independence from the British rule, also joined the Ghadarite forces. It was not before the war in Europe turned for the worse for Turkey and Baghdad was captured by the British forces that the Ghadarite forces, their supply lines starved, were finally dislodged. They retreated to regroup at Shiraz, where they were finally defeated after a bitter fight. Amba Prasad Sufi was killed in this battle. The Ghadarites carried on guerrilla warfare along with the Iranian partisans till 1919.[61][62][63][64]

Although the conflict in India was not explicitly a part of the First World War, it was part of the wider strategic context. The British attempt to subjugate the rebelling tribal leaders drew away much needed troops from other theaters, in particular, of course, the Western Front, where the real decisive victory would be made.

The reason some Indian and Afghani tribes rose up simply came down to years of discontent which erupted, probably not coincidentally, during the First World War. It is likely that the tribal leaders were aware that Britain would not be able to field the required men, in terms of either number or quality, but underestimated the strategic importance of India to the British. Despite being far from the epicenter of the conflict, India provided a bounty of men for the fronts. Its produce was also needed for the British war effort and many trade routes running to other profitable areas of the Empire ran through India. Therefore, although the British were not able to send the men that they wanted, they were able to send enough to mount a gradual but effective counter-guerrilla war against the tribesmen. The fighting continued into 1919 and in some areas lasted even longer.

 

October 1948

 

 

Armiestices  and Capitulations

 

 

In the forest of Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war, Foch is seen second from the right. The carriage seen in the background, where the armistice was signed, later was chosen as the symbolic setting of Pétain’s June 1940 armistice. It was moved to Berlin as a prize, but due to Allied bombing it was eventually moved to Crawinkel, Thuringia, where it was deliberately destroyed by SS troops in 1945[104].

The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice on 29 September 1918 at Saloniki.[105] On 30 October the Ottoman Empire capitulated at Mudros.[105]

On 24 October the Italians began a push which rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto. This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force. The offensive also triggered the disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague and Zagreb. On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice. But the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine and Trieste. On 3 November Austria–Hungary sent a flag of truce to ask for an Armistice. The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian Commander and accepted. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg monarchy.

Following the outbreak of the German Revolution, a republic was proclaimed on 9 November. The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands. On 11 November an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918—”the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month”—a ceasefire came into effect. Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions. Canadian Private George Lawrence Price is traditionally regarded as the last soldier killed in the Great War: he was shot by a German sniper at 10:57 and died at 10:58.[106]

In November 1918

the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel; continuation of the war would have meant the invasion of Germany. Berlin was almost 900 miles (1,400 km) from the Western Front; no Allied soldier had ever set foot on German soil in anger, and the Kaiser’s armies retreated from the battlefield in good order, though up to a million of them were suffering from the Spanish Flu and unfit to fight. Hindenburgh and other senior German leaders spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated, resulting in the stab-in-the-back legend.[107][108]

A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919. Later treaties with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire were signed. However, the latter treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife (the Turkish Independence War) and a final peace treaty was signed between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey, at Lausanne on 24 July 1923.

Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles treaty was signed in 1919; by contrast, most commemorations of the war’s end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November 1918. Legally the last formal peace treaties were not signed until the Treaty of Lausanne. Under its terms, the Allied forces divested Constantinople on 23 August 1923.

1918

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sgt J Merelie who received the two cards above was my wife’s great grandfather Joe(courtecy peter)

 

: Surviving veterans of World War I,

World War I casualties, Commonwealth War Graves Commission, and American Battle Monuments Commission

 

 

The First Contingent of the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps to the 1 Lincolns, training in Bermuda for the Western Front, Winter 1914-15. One in four survived the war.

The soldiers of the war were initially volunteers, except for Italy, but increasingly were conscripted into service. Britain’s Imperial War Museum has collected more than 2,500 recordings of soldiers’ personal accounts and selected transcripts, edited by military author Max Arthur, have been published. The museum believes that historians have not taken full account of this material and accordingly has made the full archive of recordings available to authors and researchers.[120] Surviving veterans, returning home, often found that they could only discuss their experiences amongst themselves. Grouping together, they formed “veteran’s associations” or “Legions”, as listed at Category:Veterans’ organizations

On 4 -November 1918

 

 Leutenant General Steinhart

 in Italian prisoner of war

 

 

look the POW Postcard from

 

 

The Intalian POW Camp,

 

from the 24th as he Kriegsinvalider on Was released in June 1919th

On 1 September 1919,

 

he was forced to retire.

He was married to Valerie Noble of Steinhart (15 May 1878 to 22 August 1971). His son Franz Edler von Steinhart Hantken fell Major iG as the German Wehrmacht on 29 June 1944 in Russia.

 

 

including the sad fact that he outlived his son, a major in the wehrmacht, who fell in 1944 in Russia.

At the time of writing this card, he commanded the 49th Infantry Division defending the Carinthian border against the italians.

 

Prisoner Of War

 

 

This photograph shows an emaciated Indian Army soldier who survived the Siege of Kut

About 8 million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war. All nations pledged to follow the Hague Convention on fair treatment of prisoners of war. A POW’s rate of survival was generally much higher than their peers at the front.[121] Individual surrenders were uncommon. Large units usually surrendered en masse. At the Battle of Tannenberg 92,000 Russians surrendered. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, 20,000 Russians became prisoners. Over half of Russian losses were prisoners (as a proportion of those captured, wounded or killed); for Austria 32%, for Italy 26%, for France 12%, for Germany 9%; for Britain 7%. Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1.4 million (not including Russia, which lost between 2.5 and 3.5 million men as prisoners.) From the Central Powers about 3.3 million men became prisoners.[122]

Germany held 2.5 million prisoners; Russia held 2.9 million and Britain and France held about 720,000. Most were captured just prior to the Armistice. The U.S. held 48,000. The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down.[123][124] Once prisoners reached a camp, in general, conditions were satisfactory (and much better than in World War II), thanks in part to the efforts of the International Red Cross and inspections by neutral nations. Conditions were terrible in Russia, starvation was common for prisoners and civilians alike; about 15–20% of the prisoners in Russia died. In Germany food was scarce, but only 5% died.[125][126][127]

The Ottoman Empire often treated POWs poorly.[128] Some 11,800 British Empire soldiers, most of them Indians, became prisoners after the Siege of Kut, in Mesopotamia, in April 1916; 4,250 died in captivity.[129] Although many were in very bad condition when captured, Ottoman officers forced them to march 1,100 kilometres (684 mi) to Anatolia. A survivor said: “we were driven along like beasts, to drop out was to die.”[130] The survivors were then forced to build a railway through the Taurus Mountains.

In Russia, where the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in 1917 they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War.

Military attachés and war correspondents in the First World War

Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. Many were able to report on events from a perspective somewhat like what is now termed “embedded” positions within the opposing land and naval forces. These military attachés and other observers prepared voluminous first-hand accounts of the war and analytical papers.

For example, former U.S. Army Captain Granville Fortescue followed the developments of the Gallipoli campaign from an embedded perspective within the ranks of the Turkish defenders; and his report was passed through Turkish censors before being printed in London and New York.[131] However, this observer’s role was abandoned when the U.S. entered the war, as Fortescue immediately re-enlisted, sustaining wounds at Montfaucon d’Argonne in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, September 1918.[132]

In-depth observer narratives of the war and more narrowly focused professional journal articles were written soon after the war; and these post-war reports conclusively illustrated the battlefield destructiveness of this conflict. This was the not first time the tactics of entrenched positions for infantry defended with machine guns and artillery became vitally important. The Russo-Japanese War had been closely observed by Military attachés, war correspondents and other observers; but, from a 21st Century perspective, it is now apparent that a range of tactical lessons were disregarded or not used in the preparations for war in Europe and throughout the Great War.[133]

An early recorded use of the term “World War” is attributed to a well-known journalist for The Times, Colonel Charles Repington, who wrote in his diary on 10 September 1918: “We discussed the right name of the war. I said the we called it now The War, but that this could not last. The Napoleonic War was The Great War. To call it The German War was too much flattery for the Boche. I suggested The World War as a shade better title, and finally we mutually agreed to call it The First World War in order to prevent the millennium folk from forgetting that the history of the world was the history of war.”[134]

 

Opposition to World War I and French Army Mutinies (1917)

 

 

1917 – Execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies

The trade union and socialist movements had long voiced their opposition to a war, which they argued, meant only that workers would kill other workers in the interest of capitalism. Once war was declared, however, many socialists and trade unions backed their governments. Among the exceptions were the Bolsheviks, the Socialist Party of America, and the Italian Socialist Party, and individuals such as Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg and their followers in Germany. There were also small anti-war groups in Britain and France.

Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. These included Eugene Debs in the United States and Bertrand Russell in Britain. In the U.S. the 1917 Espionage Act effectively made free speech illegal and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic. The Sedition Act of 1918 made any statements deemed “disloyal” a federal crime. Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors.[74]

Other opposition came from conscientious objectors – some socialist, some religious – who refused to fight. In Britain 16,000 people asked for conscientious objector status.[135] Many suffered years of prison, including solitary confinement and bread and water diets. Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked “No conscientious objectors need apply”.

The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of 1916, when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.[136]

In 1917, a series of mutinies in the French army led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned.

In September 1917 the Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied.[137] In Russia, opposition to the war led to soldiers also establishing their own revolutionary committees and helped foment the October Revolution of 1917, with the call going up for “bread, land, and peace”. The Bolsheviks agreed a peace treaty with Germany, the peace of Brest-Litovsk, despite its harsh conditions.

In 1917, Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, with his wife’s brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany. When the negotiations failed, his attempt was revealed to Germany, a diplomatic catastrophy. [138][139][140]

: Aftermath of World War I

 

 

American Red Cross nurses tend to Spanish flu patients in temporary wards set up inside Oakland Municipal Auditorium, 1918

No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically—four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and the Russian. Four defunct dynasties, the Hohenzollerns, the Habsburg, Romanovs and the Ottomans together with all their ancillary aristocracies, all fell after the war. Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France with 1.4 million soldiers dead, not counting other casualties. Germany and Russia were similarly affected.

Of the 60 million European soldiers who were mobilized from 1914 – 1918, 8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured. Germany lost 15.1% of its active male population, Austria–Hungary lost 17.1%, and France lost 10.5%.[153] About 750,000 German civilians died from starvation caused by the British blockade during the war.[154] By the end of the war, famine had killed approximately 100,000 people in Lebanon.[155] The war had profound economic consequences. In addition, a major influenza epidemic spread around the world. Overall, the Spanish flu killed at least 50 million people.[156][157] In 1914 alone, epidemic typhus killed 200,000 in Serbia.[158] There were about 25 million infections and 3 million deaths from epidemic typhus in Russia from 1918 to 1922.[159]

Approximately 200,000 Germans living in Volhynia and about 600,000 Jews were deported by the Russian authorities.[160][161][162] In 1916, an order was issued to deport around 650,000 Volga Germans to the east as well, but the Russian Revolution prevented this from being carried out.[163] Many pogroms accompanied the Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War, 60,000–200,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire.[164][165] The best estimates of the death toll from the Russian famine of 1921 run from 5 million to 10 million people.[166] By 1922 there were at least 7 million homeless children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I and the Russian Civil War.[167] Considerable numbers of anti-Soviet Russians fled the country after the Revolution; by the 1930s the northern Chinese city of Harbin had 100,000 Russians.[168]

[edit] Later conflicts

The end of World War I set the stage for other world conflicts, some of which are continuing into the 21st century. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, pushed for socialist revolution. Out of German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles, Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity and power.[169][170] World War II was in part a continuation of the power struggle that was never fully resolved by the First World War; in fact, it was common for Germans in the 1930s and 1940s to justify acts of international aggression because of perceived injustices imposed by the victors of the First World War.[171]

The establishment of the modern state of Israel and the roots of the continuing Israeli-Palestinian Conflict are partially found in the unstable power dynamics of the Middle East which were born at the end of World War I.[172] Previous to the end of fighting in the war, the Ottoman Empire had maintained a modest level of peace and stability throughout the Middle East.[173] With the end of the war and the fall of Ottoman government, power vacuums developed and conflicting claims to land and nationhood began to emerge.[174] Sometimes after only cursory consultation with the local population, the political boundaries drawn by the victors of the First World War were quickly imposed, and in many cases are still problematic in the 21st century struggles for national identity.[175][176] While the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I was a pivotal milestone in the creation of the modern political situation of the Middle East, including especially the Arab-Israeli conflict,[177][178][179] the end of Ottoman rule also spawned lesser known disputes over water and other natural resources.[180]

Further information: Sykes–Picot Agreement

[edit] Peace treaties

After the war, the Allies imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles, which Germany was kept under blockade until she signed, ended the war. It declared Germany responsible for the war and required Germany to pay enormous war reparations and award territory to the victors. Unable to pay them with exports (a result of territorial losses and postwar recession),[181] she did so by borrowing from the United States, until the reparations were suspended in 1931. The “Guilt Thesis” became a controversial explanation of events in Britain and the United States. The Treaty of Versailles caused enormous bitterness in Germany, which nationalist movements, especially the Nazis, exploited with a conspiracy theory they called the Dolchstosslegende. The treaty contributed to the economic collapse of the Weimar Republic by sparking runaway inflation in the 1920s.

The German Empire lost its colonial possessions and was saddled with accepting blame for the war, as well as paying punitive reparations for it. The Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were completely dissolved.

Austria–Hungary was also partitioned, largely along ethnic lines, into several successor states including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, as well as adding Transylvania to the Greater Romania who was allied with the victors. The details were contained in the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon.

The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland were carved from it; Bessarabia was also re-attached to the Greater Romania as it had been a Romanian territory for more than a thousand years.[182]

The Ottoman Empire disintegrated, and much of its non-Anatolian territory was awarded as protectorates of various Allied powers, while the remaining Turkish core was reorganised as the Republic of Turkey. The Ottoman Empire was to be partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920. The treaty, however, was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by the Turkish republican movement. This led to the Turkish Independence War and, ultimately, to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.

[edit] New national identities

Poland reemerged as an independent country, after more than a century. Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were entirely new nations agglomerating previously independent peoples. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East.

In the British Empire, the war unleashed new forms of nationalism. In Australia and New Zealand the Battle of Gallipoli became known as those nations’ “Baptism of Fire”. It was the first major war in which the newly established countries fought and it was one of the first times that Australian troops fought as Australians, not just subjects of the British Crown. Anzac Day, commemorating the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, celebrates this defining moment.[183][184]

After the Battle of Vimy Ridge, where the Canadian divisions fought together for the first time as a single corps, Canadians began to refer to theirs as a nation “forged from fire”.[185] Having succeeded on the same battleground where the “mother countries” had previously faltered, they were for the first time respected internationally for their own accomplishments. Canada entered the war as a Dominion of the British Empire and remained so afterwards, although she emerged with a greater measure of independence.[186][187] While the other Dominions, for example, were represented by Britain, Canada was an independent negotiator and signatory of the Versailles Treaty.

[edit] Social trauma

 

This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (January 2008)

The experiences of the war led to a collective trauma for all participating countries. The optimism of la belle époque was destroyed and those who fought in the war became known as the Lost Generation.[188] For years afterwards, people mourned the dead, the missing, and the many disabled.[189]

 

 

The Beaumont Hamel Newfoundland Memorial in the Somme

Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. The soldiers returning home from World War I suffered greatly from the horrors they had witnessed. Many returning veterans suffered from shell shock.

The social trauma caused by years of mass slaughter manifested itself in different ways. Some people were revolted by nationalism and its results, and so they began to work toward a more internationalist world, supporting organisations such as the League of Nations. Pacifism became increasingly popular. Others had the opposite reaction, feeling that only strength and military might could be relied upon in a chaotic and inhumane world. Anti-modernist views were an outgrowth of the many changes taking place in society. The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. Similarly, the popularity of the Stab-in-the-back legend (German: Dolchstosslegende) was a testament to the psychological state of defeated Germany and was a rejection of responsibility for the conflict. This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common and the German public came to see themselves as victims. The Dolchstosslegende’s popular acceptance in Germany played a significant role in the rise of Nazism. A sense of disillusionment and cynicism became pronounced, with nihilism growing in popularity. This disillusionment for humanity found a cultural climax with the Dadaist artistic movement. Many believed the war heralded the end of the world as they had known it, including the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. Communist and socialist movements around the world drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a level of popularity they had never known before. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war.[190][191]

 

 

Surgeon Lt. Col. John McCrae of Canada, author of “In Flanders Fields“, died in 1918 of pneumonia.

On 3 May 1915, during the Second Battle of Ypres, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer was killed. At his graveside, his friend John McCrae, M.D., of Guelph, Ontario, Canada wrote the memorable poem In Flanders Fields as a salute to those who perished in the Great War. Published in Punch on 8 December 1915, it is still recited today, especially on Remembrance Day and Memorial Day.[192][193]

[edit] Macro- and micro-economic effects

One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire. In order to harness all the power of their societies, new government ministries and powers were created. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort; many of which have lasted to this day. Similarly, the war strained the abilities of the formerly large and bureaucratised governments such as in Austria–Hungary and Germany; however, any analysis of the long-term effects were clouded by the defeat of these governments.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased for three Allies (Britain, Italy, and U.S.), but decreased in France and Russia, in neutral Netherlands, and in the main three Central Powers. The shrinkage in GDP in Austria, Russia, France, and the Ottoman Empire reached 30 to 40%. In Austria, for example, most of the pigs were slaughtered and, at war’s end, there was no meat.

All nations had increases in the government’s share of GDP, surpassing fifty percent in both Germany and France and nearly reaching fifty percent in Britain. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily on Wall Street. President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late 1916, but allowed a great increase in U.S. government lending to the Allies. After 1919, the U.S. demanded repayment of these loans, which, in part, were funded by German reparations, which, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany. This circular system collapsed in 1931 and the loans were never repaid.

Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war. Families were altered by the departure of many men. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost laborers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women.

As the war slowly turned into a war of attrition, conscription was implemented in some countries. This issue was particularly explosive in Canada and Australia. In the former it opened a political gap between French-Canadians—who claimed their true loyalty was to Canada and not the British Empire—and the Anglophone majority who saw the war as a duty to both Britain and Canada. Prime Minister Robert Borden pushed through a Military Service Act, provoking the Conscription Crisis of 1917. In Australia, a sustained pro-conscription campaign by Prime Minister Billy Hughes, caused a split in the Australian Labor Party and Hughes formed the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917 to pursue the matter. Nevertheless, the labour movement, the Catholic Church, and Irish nationalist expatriates successfully opposed Hughes’ push, which was rejected in two plebiscites.

In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early 1918, limited to meat, sugar, and fats (butter and oleo), but not bread. The new system worked smoothly. From 1914 to 1918 trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million. Work stoppages and strikes became frequent in 1917–18 as the unions expressed grievances regarding prices, alcohol control, pay disputes, fatigue from overtime and working on Sundays and inadequate housing. Conscription put into uniform nearly every physically fit man, six of ten million eligible. Of these, about 750,000 lost their lives and 1,700,000 were wounded. Most deaths were to young unmarried men; however, 160,000 wives lost husbands and 300,000 children lost fathers.[194]

Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply had become difficult from traditional sources. Geologists, such as Albert Ernest Kitson, were called upon to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies. Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese, used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast.[195]

[edit] Cognate names for the war

Before World War II, the war was also known as The Great War, The World War, The War to End All Wars, The Kaiser’s War, The War of the Nations and The War in Europe. In France and Belgium it was sometimes referred to as La Guerre du Droit (the War for Justice) or La Guerre Pour la Civilisation / de Oorlog tot de Beschaving (the War to Preserve Civilization), especially on medals and commemorative monuments.

The term used by official histories of the war in Britain and Canada is The First World War, while American histories generally use the term World War I.

The earliest known use of the term First World War appeared during the war. German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel wrote shortly after the start of the war:

There is no doubt that the course and character of the feared ‘European War’ … will become the first world war in the full sense of the word.[196]

Indianapolis Star, September 20, 1914

The term was used again near the end of the war. English journalist Charles A. Repington wrote:

[Diary entry, September 10, 1918]: We discussed the right name of the war. I said that we called it now The War, but that this could not last. The Napoleonic War was The Great War. To call it The German War was too much flattery for the Boche. I suggested The World War as a shade better title, and finally we mutually agreed to call it The First World War in order to prevent the millennium folk from forgetting that the history of the world was the history of war.[196]

The First World War, 1914-1918 (1920)

 The end @ copyright 2012

 

 

 

The Story behind the Nice Letter Collections”The German general letter In WW I”

THIS IS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-rom Edition

THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Censored cover

Postal history collections

 Image

Created By

 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited e-book In CR-rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

INTRODUCTIONS

Most of us, I believe build one country collections, either in the traditional or postal history classifications mainly and there are of course postal stationery, aerophilately, etc.

I have been drawn to censored covers recently and I find them pretty intriguing and exciting in its own way.

Being new in this area, I would like to invite a discussion on how do you collect censored covers? What I mean is how do you develop a theme – by country? mixed censorship? military? POW? etc.

For instance, the prospect of finding all the censor nos. of a type sound possibly do-able but I am not sure what purpose it would serve other than personal satisfaction

 

the German General censored covered during ww i

Here’s an interesting card that illustrates a different kind of censorship in WW1.ImageThe unit stamp at the top says “General Staff Branch, K.u.K 11th Army Command”. The card was sent by then major general Franz von Steinhart to his wife in Innsbruck.If you  read INFO BELOW , you can learn quite a bit about the general here:  , including the sad fact that he outlived his son, a major in the wehrmacht, who fell in 1944 in Russia.
 
 

von Steinhart as Major im  1902

, Franz Seraphin Edler von Steinhart

(† 23 October 1949 in Innsbruck March 20, 1865 in Moravian-white churches)

He was a Lieutenant-General of the Austro-Hungarian army

The father of Franz Steinhart was a captain and artillery instructor, who resigned after the war against Prussia in retirement and with the family first moved to Graz and then to

Klagenfurt.

In Klagenfurt from Steinhart visited the elementary school and the junior high school and then go to the fourth grade of the military-Realschule after Güns.

This was followed by the military high school in Moravian-white churches and the genius department of Military Academy of Technology in Vienna.

On 18 August 1885 Steinhart was a lieutenant in K.K. Genie Regiment Kaiser Franz Josef I. No. 1 and the second appointed Battalion assigned in Krakow.

After four years of army service he was simultaneously promoted to lieutenant in the fall of 1889 parked at the higher genius course to Vienna and, after his graduation with honors added to the genius Directorate for Bilek.

Four years later, a temporary transfer to Komarno and after the carriage was a captain in the genius bar

on 1 1895 July,

the transfer to the new Directorate to Przemyśl genius.

In the fortress of Przemysl was entrusted to him by the completion of Fort XIIIa and configuring Fort XIII, also it was his responsibility to build a munitions depot field.
On 16 February 1897

was the transfer of management genius of Trent, while secondment to the fortress of Riva. Here he worked on the planning of permanent fortifications, as well as on the Armierungsstraße Brione and the local agent battery.

On 1 May 1899

admixed Steinhart to the General genius inspection to Vienna, where he was in March 1901 graduated from the Staff Officer exam for the genius bar is successful and in July of the same year secondment as a teacher of the art of fortification and the Fortress War at the genius bar Department of Military University of Technology in Vienna.

On 1 November 1901

he was promoted to Major in the genius bar

and the 27th July 1907,

the appointment of a genius director in Klagenfurt. On 1 May 1908 is promoted to lieutenant colonel of Steinhart while posting a genius director to Riva.

Here he was responsible for responsible for the fortification systems in the border region of Vallarsa from Passo di Pian della Fugazza up to Madonna di Campiglio.

Under his task was, among other things, the completion of the tank plant Monte Tombio and the supervision of work on a tank factory Carriola.

The work Valmorbia in Val d’Arsa was started but could not until the beginning of the war to be completed.

On 1 November 1910

he was promoted to colonel in the genius bar and on 25 April 1914 appointed the genius director of Trent.

Here he made until the outbreak of war with Italy on 23 May 1915 for the accelerated expansion of the fortress of Trento and the fortifications at the height of Dubuque / Lavarone

Here he was on 1 November 1914 and promoted to Major General on 27 January 1915 was appointed commandant of Trent.

Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol

When war broke out with Italy was an expansion of its area of ​​responsibility by 26 to February 1916

continued appointment as

commander of the Eastern Front of Trento.in 1916

From 27 January 1916,

Major General Commandant of the Defense of Steinhart section Rayon I Stelvio 6 March 1916 Commander of the Rayon II Tonale.

With the 1st November 1916

he was appointed commander of the 43rd Landwehr Infantry Brigade (at this time in the association of III. Corps at Monte Interrotto in Valsugana used), already on the 6th November, the order to the commander of the infantry troops Pusteria Division (consisting of the 96th Infantry, 21 mountain and 56 Mountain Brigade) followed.

The division was responsible for the defense of the Pusteria of the Carinthian border to the Marmolada over about 100 kilometers frontline. The only previously held by them acting command of the division was the final designation on 23 August 1917, the unit in the 49th Infantry Division was renamed troops.

On 1 November 1917 had been appointed by the Lieutenant-Steinhart.

By the end of the war he commanded the 49th Infantry Division troops in Madonna di Campiglio to Val di Concei.

On 4 Lieutenant-November 1918

fell by Steinhart in Italian prisoner of war,

The Italian Prisoner Of War Postcard send via Red Cross

Trentino overprint Austrian stamps in 1918

from the 24th as he Kriegsinvalider on Was released in June 1919th

On 1 September 1919, he was forced to retire.

He was married to Valerie Noble of Steinhart (15 May 1878 to 22 August 1971). His son Franz Edler von Steinhart Hantken fell Major iG as the German Wehrmacht on 29 June 1944 in Russia.At the time of writing this card, he commanded the 49th Infantry Division defending the Carinthian border against the italians.

Anyway, the censorship is on the other side of the card:

Image

In the middle it says “i’m healthy and well” in all the languages of the empire. Around the outside is a warning that nothing else must be written on the card.

Read More Related Info from WW I

  • Background
Main article: Causes of World War I

In the 19th century, the major European powers had gone to great lengths to maintain a “balance of power” throughout Europe, resulting by 1900 in a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent.[2] These had started in 1815 with the Holy Alliance between Germany (then Prussia), Russia, and Austria–Hungary. Then, in October, 1873, German Chancellor Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria–Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria–Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria–Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of combating Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken.[2] In 1882, this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.[9]

After 1870 European conflict was averted largely due to a carefully planned network of treaties between the German Empire and the remainder of Europe—orchestrated by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. He especially worked to hold Russia at Germany’s side to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. With the ascension of Kaiser Wilhelm II as emperor, Bismarck’s system of alliances was gradually de-emphasized. For example, the Kaiser refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1890. Two years later the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1907, the British Empire joined France and Russia, signaling the beginning of the Triple Entente.[2]

HMS Dreadnought. A naval arms race existed between the United Kingdom and Germany.

German industrial and economic power had grown greatly after unification and the foundation of the empire in 1870. From the mid-1890s on the government of Kaiser Wilhelm II used this base to devote significant economic resources to building up the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine), established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, in rivalry with the British Royal Navy for world naval supremacy.[10] As a result, both nations strove to out-build each other in terms of capital ships. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, the British Empire expanded on its significant advantage over their German rivals.[10] The arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe, with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to the production of the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict.[11] Between 1908 and 1913, the military spending of the European powers increased by 50%.[12]

Austria–Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908-1909 by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which they had occupied since 1878. This greatly angered the Pan-Slavic and thus pro-Serbian Romanov Dynasty who ruled Russia and the Kingdom of Serbia, because Bosnia-Herzegovina contained a significant Slavic Serbian population.[13] Russian political maneuvering in the region destabilized peace accords that were already fracturing in what was known as “the Powder keg of Europe“.[13]

In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked both Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913 it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33-day Second Balkan War, further destabilizing the region.[14]

On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia.[15] This began a period of diplomatic manoeuvering between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to end Serbian interference in Bosnia conclusively, Austria–Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands which were deliberately unacceptable, made with the intention of deliberately initiating a war with Serbia.[16] When Serbia acceded to only eight of the ten demands levied against it in the ultimatum, Austria–Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Strachan argues “Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary’s behaviour must be doubtful. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity, and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning”.[17]

The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb proteges, ordered a partial mobilization one day later.[9] When the German Empire began to mobilize on 30 July 1914, France—sporting significant animosity over the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the Franco-Prussian War—ordered French mobilization on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day.[18]

Chronology

Opening hostilities

[edit] Confusion among the Central Powers

The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria–Hungary’s invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in 1914, but never tested in exercises. Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia.[19] Germany, however, envisioned Austria–Hungary directing the majority of its troops against Russia, while Germany dealt with France. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts.

On September 9, 1914 the Septemberprogramm, a plan which detailed Germany’s specific war aims and the conditions that Germany sought to force upon the Allied Powers, was outlined by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg.

[edit] African campaigns

Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French and German colonial forces in Africa. On 7 August, French and British troops invaded the German protectorate of Togoland. On 10 August German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the remainder of the war. The German colonial forces in German East Africa, led by Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, fought a guerilla warfare campaign for the duration of World War I and surrendered only two weeks after the armistice took effect in Europe.[20]

[edit] Serbian campaign

The Serbian army fought the Battle of Cer against the invading Austrians, beginning on 12 August, occupying defensive positions on the south side of the Drina and Sava rivers. Over the next two weeks Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victory of the war and dashed Austrian hopes of a swift victory. As a result, Austria had to keep sizable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia.

[edit] German forces in Belgium and France

German soldiers in a railway goods van on the way to the front in 1914. A message on the car spells out “Trip to Paris”; early in the war all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.

At the outbreak of the First World War, the German army (consisting in the West of Seven Field Armies) executed a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan, designed to quickly attack France through neutral Belgium before turning southwards to encircle the French army on the German border.[5] The plan called for the right flank of the German advance to converge on Paris and initially, the Germans were very successful, particularly in the Battle of the Frontiers (14 August–24 August). By 12 September, the French with assistance from the British forces halted the German advance east of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (5 September–12 September). The last days of this battle signified the end of mobile warfare in the west.[5]

In the east, only one Field Army defended East Prussia and when Russia attacked in this region it diverted German forces intended for the Western Front. Germany defeated Russia in a series of battles collectively known as the First Battle of Tannenberg (17 August – 2 September), but this diversion exacerbated problems of insufficient speed of advance from rail-heads not foreseen by the German General Staff.

The Central Powers were thereby denied a quick victory and forced to fight a war on two fronts. The German army had fought its way into a good defensive position inside France and had permanently incapacitated 230,000 more French and British troops than it had lost itself. Despite this, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of obtaining an early victory.

[edit] Asia and the Pacific

New Zealand occupied German Samoa (later Western Samoa) on 30 August. On 11 September the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern (later New Britain), which formed part of German New Guinea. Japan seized Germany’s Micronesian colonies and after the Battle of Tsingtao the German coaling port of Qingdao in the Chinese Shandong peninsula. Within a few months, the Allied forces had seized all the German territories in the Pacific, only isolated commerce raiders and a few holdouts in New Guinea remained.[21][22]

[edit] Early stages

[edit] Trench warfare begins

Military tactics before World War I had failed to keep pace with advances in technology. These changes resulted in the building of impressive defence systems, which out-of-date tactics could not break through for most of the war. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances. Artillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground very difficult.[23] The Germans introduced poison gas; it soon became used by both sides, though it never proved decisive in winning a battle. Its effects were brutal, causing slow and painful death, and poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war. Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaching entrenched positions without heavy casualties. In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as the tank.[24] Britain and France were its primary users; the Germans employed captured Allied tanks and small numbers of their own design.

After the First Battle of the Marne, both Entente and German forces began a series of outflanking maneuvers, in the so-called ‘Race to the Sea‘. Britain and France soon found themselves facing entrenched German forces from Lorraine to Belgium’s Flemish coast.[5] Britain and France sought to take the offensive, while Germany defended the occupied territories; consequently, German trenches were generally much better constructed than those of their enemy. Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be ‘temporary’ before their forces broke through German defenses.[25] Both sides attempted to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances. In April 1915 the Germans used chlorine gas for the first time (in violation of the Hague Convention), opening a six kilometre (four mile) hole in the Allied lines when British and French colonial troops retreated. Canadian soldiers closed the breach at the Second Battle of Ypres. At the Third Battle of Ypres, Canadian and ANZAC troops took the village of Passchendaele.

In the trenches: Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench on the first day on the Somme, 1 July 1916.

The British Army endured the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties and 19,240 dead on 1 July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Most of the casualties occurred in the first hour of the attack. The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army almost half a million men.[26]

Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years, though protracted German action at Verdun throughout 1916,[27] combined with the bloodletting at the Somme, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse. Futile attempts at frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French poilu (infantry) and led to widespread mutinies, especially during the Nivelle Offensive.[28]

Canadian troops advancing behind a British Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge.

A French assault on German positions. Champagne, France, 1917.

Throughout 1915–17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, due both to the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides. At the strategic level, while the Germans only mounted a single main offensive at Verdun, the Allies made several attempts to break through German lines. At the tactical level, Ludendorff’s defensive doctrine of “elastic defense” was well suited for trench warfare. This defense had a relatively lightly defended forward position and a more powerful main position farther back beyond artillery range, from which an immediate and powerful counter-offensive could be launched.[29][30]

Ludendorff wrote on the fighting in 1917, “The 25th of August concluded the second phase of the Flanders battle. It had cost us heavily. … The costly August battles in Flanders and at Verdun imposed a heavy strain on the Western troops. In spite of all the concrete protection they seemed more or less powerless under the enormous weight of the enemy’s artillery. At some points they no longer displayed the firmness which I, in common with the local commanders, had hoped for. The enemy managed to adapt himself to our method of employing counter attacks… I myself was being put to a terrible strain. The state of affairs in the West appeared to prevent the execution of our plans elsewhere. Our wastage had been so high as to cause grave misgivings, and had exceeded all expectation.”[31]

On the battle of the Menin Road Ridge Ludendorff wrote: “Another terrific assault was made on our lines on the 20 September…. The enemy’s onslaught on the 20th was successful, which proved the superiority of the attack over the defence. Its strength did not consist in the tanks; we found them inconvenient, but put them out of action all the same. The power of the attack lay in the artillery, and in the fact that ours did not do enough damage to the hostile infantry as they were assembling, and above all, at the actual time of the assault.”[32]

Officers and senior enlisted men of the Bermuda Militia Artillery‘s Bermuda Contingent, Royal Garrison Artillery, in Europe.

Around 1.1 to 1.2 million soldiers from the British and Dominion armies were on the Western Front at any one time[33] A thousand battalions, occupying sectors of the line from the North Sea to the Orne River, operated on a month-long four-stage rotation system, unless an offensive was underway. The front contained over 9,600 kilometres (5,965 mi) of trenches. Each battalion held its sector for about a week before moving back to support lines and then further back to the reserve lines before a week out-of-line, often in the Poperinge or Amiens areas.

In the 1917 Battle of Arras the only significant British military success was the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps under Sir Arthur Currie and Julian Byng. The assaulting troops were able for the first time to overrun, rapidly reinforce and hold the ridge defending the coal-rich Douai plain.[34][35]

[edit] Naval war

The British Grand Fleet making steam for Scapa Flow, 1914

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. For example, the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden, part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Tsingtao, seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. However, the bulk of the German East-Asia squadron—consisting of the armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig and two transport ships—did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it encountered elements of the British fleet. The German flotilla, along with Dresden, sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel, but was almost destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping, but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned.[36]

A battleship squadron of the Hochseeflotte at sea

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain initiated a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated generally accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[37] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships.[38] Since there was limited response to this tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare.[39]
The 1916 Battle of Jutland (German: Skagerrakschlacht, or “Battle of the Skagerrak”) developed into the largest naval battle of the war, the only full-scale clash of battleships during the war. It took place on 31 May–1 June 1916, in the North Sea off Jutland. The Kaiserliche Marine’s High Seas Fleet, commanded by Vice Admiral Reinhard Scheer, squared off against the Royal Navy’s Grand Fleet, led by Admiral Sir John Jellicoe. The engagement was a standoff, as the Germans, outmaneuvered by the larger British fleet, managed to escape and inflicted more damage to the British fleet than they received. Strategically, however, the British asserted their control of the sea, and the bulk of the German surface fleet remained confined to port for the duration of the war.

German U-boats attempted to cut the supply lines between North America and Britain.[40] The nature of submarine warfare meant that attacks often came without warning, giving the crews of the merchant ships little hope of survival.[41] The United States launched a protest, and Germany modified its rules of engagement. After the notorious sinking of the passenger ship RMS Lusitania in 1915, Germany promised not to target passenger liners, while Britain armed its merchant ships, placing them beyond the protection of the “cruiser rules” which demanded warning and placing crews in “a place of safety” (a standard which lifeboats did not meet).[42] Finally, in early 1917 Germany adopted a policy of unrestricted submarine warfare, realizing the Americans would eventually enter the war.[43] Germany sought to strangle Allied sea lanes before the U.S. could transport a large army overseas.

First U-boat of the German fleet surrendering near Tower Bridge, London, 1918.

The U-boat threat lessened in 1917, when merchant ships entered convoys escorted by destroyers. This tactic made it difficult for U-boats to find targets, which significantly lessened losses; after the introduction of hydrophone and depth charges, accompanying destroyers might attack a submerged submarine with some hope of success. The convoy system slowed the flow of supplies, since ships had to wait as convoys were assembled. The solution to the delays was an extensive program to build new freighters. Troop ships were too fast for the submarines and did not travel the North Atlantic in convoys.[44][45] The U-boats had sunk almost 5,000 Allied ships, at a cost of 178 submarines.[46]

World War I also saw the first use of aircraft carriers in combat, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a successful raid against the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in July 1918, as well as blimps for antisubmarine patrol.[47]

[edit] Southern theatres

[edit] War in the Balkans

Faced with Russia, Austria–Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia. After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counterattack in the battle of Kolubara, however, succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of 1914. For the first ten months of 1915, Austria–Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy. German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join in attacking Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian provinces of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia provided troops for Austria–Hungary, invading Serbia as well as fighting Russia and Italy. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia.

Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month. The attack began in October, when the Central Powers launched an offensive from the north; four days later the Bulgarians joined the attack from the east. The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into Albania, halting only once to make a stand against the Bulgarians. The Serbs suffered defeat near modern day Gnjilane in the Battle of Kosovo.[48] Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat toward the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6–7 January 1916, but ultimately the Austrians conquered Montenegro, too. Serbian forces were evacuated by ship to Greece.

In late 1915 a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece, to offer assistance and to pressure the government to declare war against the Central Powers. Unfortunately for the Allies, the pro-German King Constantine I dismissed the pro-Allied government of Eleftherios Venizelos, before the Allied expeditionary force could arrive.

Austrian troops executing captured Serbians in 1917.

After conquest, Serbia was divided between Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria. Bulgarians commenced bulgarization of the Serbian population in their occupation zone, banishing Serbian Cyrillic and the Serbian Orthodox Church. After forced conscription of the Serbian population into the Bulgarian army in 1917, the Toplica Uprising began. Serbian rebels liberated for a short time the area between the Kopaonik mountains and the South Morava river. The uprising was crushed by joint efforts of Bulgarian and Austrian forces at the end of March 1917.

The Macedonian Front proved static for the most part. Serbian forces retook part of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November 1916. Only at the end of the conflict were the Entente powers able to break through, after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had withdrawn. The Bulgarians suffered their only defeat of the war at the Battle of Dobro Pole but days later, they decisively defeated British and Greek forces at the Battle of Doiran, avoiding occupation. Bulgaria signed an armistice on 29 September 1918.

[edit] Ottoman Empire

British artillery placements in the Battle of Jerusalem (1917).

The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in the war, the secret Ottoman-German Alliance having been signed in August 1914.[49] It threatened Russia’s Caucasian territories and Britain’s communications with India via the Suez Canal. The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915) and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Turks successfully repelled the British, French and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs). In Mesopotamia, by contrast, after the disastrous Siege of Kut (1915–16), British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March 1917. Further to the west, in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, initial British setbacks were overcome when Jerusalem was captured in December 1917. The Egyptian Expeditionary Force, under Field Marshal Edmund Allenby, broke the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918.

Russian armies generally had the best of it in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha, supreme commander of the Turkish armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of conquering central Asia. He was, however, a poor commander.[50] He launched an offensive against the Russians in the Caucasus in December 1914 with 100,000 troops; insisting on a frontal attack against mountainous Russian positions in winter, he lost 86% of his force at the Battle of Sarikamis.[51]

The Russian commander from 1915 to 1916, General Yudenich, drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories.[51] In 1917, Russian Grand Duke Nicholas assumed command of the Caucasus front. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in 1917. However, in March 1917, (February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar), the Czar was overthrown in the February Revolution and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart. In this situation, the army corps of Armenian volunteer units realigned themselves under the command of General Tovmas Nazarbekian, with Dro as a civilian commissioner of the Administration for Western Armenia. The front line had three main divisions: Movses Silikyan, Andranik, and Mikhail Areshian. Another regular unit was under Colonel Korganian. There were Armenian partisan guerrilla detachments (more than 40,000[52]) accompanying these main units.

The Arab Revolt (described in Seven Pillars of Wisdom) was a major cause of the Ottoman Empire‘s defeat. The revolts started with the Battle of Mecca by Sherif Hussain of Mecca with the help of Britain in June 1916, and ended with the Ottoman surrender of Damascus. Fakhri Pasha the Ottoman commander of Medina showed stubborn resistance for over two and half years during the Siege of Medina.

Along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, the Senussi tribe, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops. According to Martin Gilbert’s The First World War, the British were forced to dispatch 12,000 troops to deal with the Senussi. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid-1916.

[edit] Italian participation

Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol

Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882 as part of the Triple Alliance. However, the nation had its own designs on Austrian territory in Trentino, Istria and Dalmatia. Rome had a secret 1902 pact with France, effectively nullifying its alliance.[53] At the start of hostilities, Italy refused to commit troops, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive in nature, and that Austria–Hungary was an aggressor. The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return. The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Alpine province of South Tyrol and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria–Hungary. This was fomalised by the Treaty of London. Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915, Italy joined the Entente and declared war on Austria–Hungary on May 23. Fifteen months later Italy declared war on Germany.

Militarily, the Italians had numerical superiority. This advantage, however, was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed. Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault, had dreams of breaking into the Slovenian plateau, taking Ljubljana and threatening Vienna. It was a Napoleonic plan, which had no realistic chance of success in an age of barbed wire, machine guns, and indirect artillery fire, combined with hilly and mountainous terrain.

On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen (German wikipedia) engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer. The Austro-Hungarians counter-attacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of 1916 (Strafexpedition), but made little progress.

Beginning in 1915, the Italians under Cadorna mounted eleven offensives on the Isonzo front along the Isonzo River, north-east of Trieste. All eleven offensives were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground. In the summer of 1916, the Italians captured the town of Gorizia. After this minor victory, the front remained static for over a year, despite several Italian offensives. In the autumn of 1917, thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front, the Austrians received large numbers of reinforcements, including German Stormtroopers and the elite Alpenkorps. The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October 1917, spearheaded by the Germans. They achieved a victory at Caporetto. The Italian army was routed and retreated more than 100 km (60 miles) to reorganise, stabilizing the front at the Piave River. Since in the Battle of Caporetto Italian Army had heavy losses, the Italian Government called to arms the so called ’99 Boys (Ragazzi del ’99), that is, all males who were 18 years old. In 1918, the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year. Austria–Hungary surrendered in early November 1918.[54][55][56]

Further information: Battles of the Isonzo

[edit] Fighting in India

The war began with an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom from within the mainstream political leadership, contrary to initial British fears of an Indian revolt. India under British rule contributed greatly to the British war effort by providing men and resources. This was done by the Indian Congress in hope of achieving self-government as India was very much under the control of the British. The United Kingdom disappointed the Indians by not providing self-governance, leading to the Gandhian Era in Indian history. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian government and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. In all 140,000 men served on the Western Front and nearly 700,000 in the Middle East. Casualties of Indian soldiers totaled 47,746 killed and 65,126 wounded during World War I.[57]

[edit] Indian independence movement

Bengal and Punjab remained hotbeds of anti-colonial activities. Terrorism in Bengal, increasingly closely linked with the unrests in Punjab, was significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration. Also from the beginning of the war, expatriate Indian population, notably in Germany, United States and Canada, headed by the Indian Independence Committee and the Ghadar Party respectively, attempted to trigger insurrections in India on the lines of the 1857 uprising with Irish Republican, German and Turkish help in a great conspiracy that has since become known as the Hindu German conspiracy. The conspiracy also made attempts to rally the Amir of Afghanistan against British India, starting a political process in that country that culminated three years later in the assassination of Amir Habibullah and precipitation of the Third Anglo-Afghan war. A number of failed attempts at mutiny were made in India, of which the February mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny remain most notable. This movement was suppressed by means of a vast international counterintelligence operation and draconian political acts (including the Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly ten years.[58][59][60]

The Ghadarites also attempted to organise incursions from the western border of India, recruiting Indian prisoners of war from Turkey, Germany, Mesopotamia. Ghadarite rebels, led by Sufi Amba Prasad, fought along with Turkish forces in Iran and in Turkey. Plans were made in Constantinopole to organise a campaign from Persia, through Baluchistan, to Punjab. These forces were involved skirmishes that captured the frontier city of Karman, taking into custody the British consul. Percy Sykes‘s campaign in Persia was directed mostly against these composite forces. It was at this time that the Aga Khan and his brother were recruited into the British War effort. However, the Aga Khan’s brother was captured and shot dead by the rebels, who also successfully harassed British Forces in Sistan in Afghanistan, confining British forces to Karamshir in Baluchistan, later moving towards Karachi. They were able to take control of the coastal towns of Gawador and Dawar. The Baluchi chief of Bampur, having declared his independence from the British rule, also joined the Ghadarite forces. It was not before the war in Europe turned for the worse for Turkey and Baghdad was captured by the British forces that the Ghadarite forces, their supply lines starved, were finally dislodged. They retreated to regroup at Shiraz, where they were finally defeated after a bitter fight. Amba Prasad Sufi was killed in this battle. The Ghadarites carried on guerrilla warfare along with the Iranian partisans till 1919.[61][62][63][64]

Although the conflict in India was not explicitly a part of the First World War, it was part of the wider strategic context. The British attempt to subjugate the rebelling tribal leaders drew away much needed troops from other theaters, in particular, of course, the Western Front, where the real decisive victory would be made.

The reason some Indian and Afghani tribes rose up simply came down to years of discontent which erupted, probably not coincidentally, during the First World War. It is likely that the tribal leaders were aware that Britain would not be able to field the required men, in terms of either number or quality, but underestimated the strategic importance of India to the British. Despite being far from the epicenter of the conflict, India provided a bounty of men for the fronts. Its produce was also needed for the British war effort and many trade routes running to other profitable areas of the Empire ran through India. Therefore, although the British were not able to send the men that they wanted, they were able to send enough to mount a gradual but effective counter-guerrilla war against the tribesmen. The fighting continued into 1919 and in some areas lasted even longer.

[edit] Eastern Front

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Russian infantry.

Russian forest trench

[edit] Initial actions

While the Western Front had reached stalemate, the war continued in East Europe. Initial Russian plans called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and German East Prussia. Although Russia’s initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, they were driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September 1914.[65][66][67] Russia’s less developed industrial base and ineffective military leadership was instrumental in the events that unfolded. By the spring of 1915, the Russians had retreated into Galicia, and in May the Central Powers achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Poland’s southern frontiers. On 5 August they captured Warsaw and forced the Russians to withdraw from Poland.

[edit] Russian Revolution

Despite the success of the June 1916 Brusilov offensive in eastern Galicia,[68] dissatisfaction with the Russian government’s conduct of the war grew. The success was undermined by the reluctance of other generals to commit their forces to support the victory. Allied and Russian forces were revived only temporarily with Romania‘s entry into the war on 27 August. German forces came to the aid of embattled Austrian units in Transylvania and Bucharest fell to the Central Powers on 6 December. Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia, as the Tsar remained at the front. Empress Alexandra’s increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin, at the end of 1916.

In March 1917, demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists. This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective.

The war and the government became increasingly unpopular. Discontent led to a rise in popularity of the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin. He promised to pull Russia out of the war and was able to gain power. The triumph of the Bolsheviks in November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany. At first the Bolsheviks refused the German terms, but when Germany resumed the war and marched across Ukraine with impunity, the new government acceded to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918. It took Russia out of the war and ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces, parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers. The manpower required for German occupation of former Russian territory may have contributed to the failure of the Spring Offensive, however, and secured relatively little food or other war materiel.

With the Bolsheviks’ accession to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources and, to a lesser extent, to support the Whites in the Russian Civil War. Allied troops landed in Archangel and in Vladivostok.

Further information: North Russia Campaign

[edit] Wilhelm declares victory

January 1917: German poster quotes Wilhelm II, lambasting the Allies for their decision to fight on.

In December 1916, after ten brutal months of the Battle of Verdun, the Germans attempted to negotiate peace with the Allies, declaring themselves the victors. U.S. President Wilson attempted to intervene, asking both sides to state their demands. The Allies, in a weak bargaining position, rebuffed the offer.[69]

[edit] 1917–1918

Photographic documentation of combat

Events of 1917 proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until 1918. The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany. In response, in February 1917, the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war. Tonnage sunk rose above 500,000 tons per month from February to July. It peaked at 860,000 tons in April. After July, the reintroduced convoy system became extremely effective in neutralizing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation and German industrial output fell.

Haut-Rhin, France, 1917

On 3 May 1917 during the Nivelle Offensive the weary French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused their orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons. Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. There upon the mutinies afflicted 54 French divisions and saw 20,000 men desert. The other Allied forces attacked but sustained tremendous casualties.[70] However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action.[71] Robert Nivelle was removed from command by 15 May, replaced by General Philippe Pétain, who suspended bloody large-scale attacks.

The victory of Austria–Hungary and Germany at the Battle of Caporetto led the Allies at the Rapallo Conference to form the Supreme War Council to coordinate planning. Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands.

In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia. This released troops for use in the west. Ironically, German troop transfers could have been greater if their territorial acquisitions had not been so dramatic. With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the outcome was to be decided on the Western front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war, but they held high hopes for a quick offensive. Furthermore, the leaders of the Central Powers and the Allies became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.[72]

[edit] Entry of the United States

President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917

[edit] Isolationism

The United States originally pursued a policy of isolationism, avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. This resulted in increased tensions with Berlin and London. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915, with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, “America is too proud to fight” and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights. Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as “piracy”.[73] Wilson’s desire to have a seat at negotiations at war’s end to advance the League of Nations also played a role.[74] Wilson’s Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest at what he felt was the President’s decidedly warmongering diplomacy. Other factors contributing to the U.S. entry into the war include the suspected German sabotage of both Black Tom in Jersey City, New Jersey, and the Kingsland Explosion in what is now Lyndhurst, New Jersey.

[edit] Making the case

In January 1917, after the Navy pressured the Kaiser, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. Britain’s secret Royal Navy cryptanalytic group, Room 40, had broken the German diplomatic code. They intercepted a proposal from Berlin (the Zimmermann Telegram) to Mexico to join the war as Germany’s ally against the United States, should the U.S. join. The proposal suggested, if the U.S. were to enter the war, Mexico should declare war against the United States and enlist Japan as an ally. This would prevent the United States from joining the Allies and deploying troops to Europe, and would give Germany more time for their unrestricted submarine warfare program to strangle Britain’s vital war supplies. In return, the Germans would promise Mexico support in reclaiming Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.[75]

[edit] U.S. declaration of war on Germany

After the British revealed the telegram to the United States, President Wilson, who had won reelection on his keeping the country out of the war, released the captured telegram as a way of building support for U.S. entry into the war. He had previously claimed neutrality, while calling for the arming of U.S. merchant ships delivering munitions to combatant Britain and quietly supporting the British blockading of German ports and mining of international waters, preventing the shipment of food from America and elsewhere to combatant Germany. After submarines sank seven U.S. merchant ships and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.[76]

African-American soldiers marching in France.[77]

Crucial to U.S. participation was the sweeping domestic propaganda campaign executed by the Committee on Public Information overseen by George Creel. The campaign included tens of thousands of government-selected community leaders giving brief carefully scripted pro-war speeches at thousands of public gatherings. Along with other branches of government and private vigilante groups like the American Protective League, it also included the general repression and harassment of people either opposed to American entry into the war or of German heritage. Other forms of propaganda included newsreels, photos, large-print posters (designed by several well-known illustrators of the day, including Louis D. Fancher and Henry Reuterdahl), magazine and newspaper articles, etc.

[edit] First active U.S. participation

The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled “Associated Power”. The United States had a small army, but it drafted four million men and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day. In 1917, the U.S. Congress gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones Act. Germany had miscalculated, believing it would be many more months before they would arrive and that the arrival could be stopped by U-boats.[78]

M1905 Howitzer used by Allied Forces

The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet, destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland and submarines to help guard convoys. Several regiments of U.S. Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted U.S. units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies. The U.S. rejected the first proposition and accepted the second. General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Force (AEF) commander, refused to break up U.S. units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units. As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments to be used in French divisions. The Harlem Hellfighters fought as part of the French 16th Division, earning a unit Croix de Guerre for their actions at Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood and Sechault.[79] AEF doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults, which had long since been discarded by British Empire and French commanders because of the large loss of life.[80]

[edit] German Spring Offensive of 1918

Main article: Spring Offensive

For most of World War I, Allied forces were stalled at trenches on the Western Front

German General Erich Ludendorff drew up plans (codenamed Operation Michael) for the 1918 offensive on the Western Front. The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances. The German leadership hoped to strike a decisive blow before significant U.S. forces arrived. The operation commenced on 21 March 1918 with an attack on British forces near Amiens. German forces achieved an unprecedented advance of 60 kilometers (40 miles).[81]

British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics, also named Hutier tactics, after General Oskar von Hutier. Previously, attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults. However, in the Spring Offensive of 1918, Ludendorff used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points. They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions. German success relied greatly on the element of surprise.[82]

The front moved to within 120 kilometers (75 mi) of Paris. Three heavy Krupp railway guns fired 183 shells on the capital, causing many Parisians to flee. The initial offensive was so successful that Kaiser Wilhelm II declared 24 March a national holiday. Many Germans thought victory was near. After heavy fighting, however, the offensive was halted. Lacking tanks or motorised artillery, the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. This situation was not helped by the supply lines now being stretched as a result of their advance.[83] The sudden stop was also a result of the four AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) divisions that were “rushed” down, thus doing what no other army had done and stopping the German advance in its tracks. During that time the first Australian division was hurriedly sent north again to stop the second German breakthrough.

British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918

American divisions, which Pershing had sought to field as an independent force, were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March. A Supreme War Council of Allied forces was created at the Doullens Conference on 5 November 1917.[84] General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the allied forces. Haig, Petain and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies; Foch assumed a coordinating role, rather than a directing role and the British, French and U.S. commands operated largely independently.[84]

Following Operation Michael, Germany launched Operation Georgette against the northern English channel ports. The Allies halted the drive with limited territorial gains for Germany. The German Army to the south then conducted Operations Blücher and Yorck, broadly towards Paris. Operation Marne was launched on 15 July, attempting to encircle Reims and beginning the Second Battle of the Marne. The resulting counterattack, starting the Hundred Days Offensive, marked their first successful Allied offensive of the war.

By 20 July the Germans were back across the Marne at their Kaiserschlacht starting lines,[85] having achieved nothing. Following this last phase of the war in the West, the German Army never again regained the initiative. German casualties between March and April 1918 were 270,000, including many highly trained stormtroops.

Meanwhile, Germany was falling apart at home. Anti-war marches become frequent and morale in the army fell. Industrial output was 53% of 1913 levels.

[edit] New states under war zone

In 1918, the internationally recognized Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Democratic Republic of Armenia and Democratic Republic of Georgia bordering the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire were established, as well as the unrecognized Centrocaspian Dictatorship and South West Caucasian Republic. Later, these unrecognized states were eliminated by Azerbaijan and Turkey.

Further information: [[Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire]]

In 1918, the Dashnaks of the Armenian national liberation movement declared the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) through the Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians (unified form of Armenian National Councils) after the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tovmas Nazarbekian became the first Commander-in-chief of the DRA. Enver Pasha ordered the creation of a new army to be named the Army of Islam. He ordered the Army of Islam into the DRA, with the goal of taking Baku on the Caspian Sea. This new offensive was strongly opposed by the Germans. In early May 1918, the Ottoman army attacked the newly declared DRA. Although the Armenians managed to inflict one defeat on the Ottomans at the Battle of Sardarapat, the Ottoman army won a later battle and scattered the Armenian army. The Republic of Armenia signed the Treaty of Batum in June 1918.[86]

[edit] Allied victory: summer and autumn 1918

U.S. engineers returning from the front during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in September 1918

The Allied counteroffensive, known as the Hundred Days Offensive, began on 8 August 1918. The Battle of Amiens developed with III Corps Fourth British Army on the left, the First French Army on the right, and the Australian and Canadian Corps spearheading the offensive in the centre through Harbonnières.[87][88] It involved 414 tanks of the Mark IV and Mark V type, and 120,000 men. They advanced 12 kilometers (7 miles) into German-held territory in just seven hours. Erich Ludendorff referred to this day as the “Black Day of the German army”.[87][89]

The Australian-Canadian spearhead at Amiens, a battle that was the beginning of Germany’s downfall,[90] helped pull the British armies to the north and the French armies to the south forward. While German resistance on the British Fourth Army front at Amiens stiffened, after an advance as far as 14 miles (23 km) and concluded the battle there, the French Third Army lengthened the Amiens front on 10 August, when it was thrown in on the right of the French First Army, and advanced 4 miles (6 km) liberating Lassigny in fighting which lasted until the 16th. South of the French Third Army, General Charles Mangin (The Butcher) drove his French Tenth Army forward at Soissons on 20 August to capture eight thousand prisoners, two hundred guns and the Aisne heights overlooking and menacing the German position north of the Vesle.[91] Another “Black day” as described by Ludendorff.

Meanwhile General Byng of the Third British Army, reporting that the enemy on his front was thinning in a limited withdrawal, was ordered to attack with 200 tanks toward Bapaume, opening what is known as the Battle of Albert with the specific orders of “To break the enemy’s front, in order to outflank the enemies present battle front” (opposite the British Fourth Army at Amiens).[32] Allied leaders had now realized that to continue an attack after resistance had hardened was a waste of lives and it was better to turn a line than to try and roll over it. Attacks were being undertaken in quick order to take advantage of the successful advances on the flanks and then broken off when that attack lost its initial impetus.[91]

The British Third Army’s 15-mile (24 km) front north of Albert progressed after stalling for a day against the main resistance line to which the enemy had withdrawn.[92] Rawlinson’s Fourth British Army was able to battle its left flank forward between Albert and the Somme straightening the line between the advanced positions of the Third Army and the Amiens front which resulted in recapturing Albert at the same time.[91] On 26 August the British First Army on the left of the Third Army was drawn into the battle extending it northward to beyond Arras. The Canadian Corps already being back in the vanguard of the First Army fought their way from Arras eastward 5 miles (8 km) astride the heavily defended Arras-Cambrai before reaching the outer defenses of the Hindenburg line, breaching them on the 28th and 29th. Bapaume fell on the 29th to the New Zealand Division of the Third Army and the Australians, still leading the advance of the Fourth Army, were again able to push forward at Amiens to take Peronne and Mont St. Quentin on August 31. Further south the French First and Third Armies had slowly fought forward while the Tenth Army, who had by now crossed the Ailette and was east of the Chemin des Dames, was now near to the Alberich position of the Hindenburg line.[93] During the last week of August the pressure along a 70-mile (113 km) front against the enemy was heavy and unrelenting. From German accounts, “Each day was spent in bloody fighting against an ever and again on-storming enemy, and nights passed without sleep in retirements to new lines.”[91] Even to the north in Flanders the British Second and Fifth Armies during August and September were able to make progress taking prisoners and positions that were previously denied them.[93]

Close-up view of an American major in the basket of an observation balloon flying over territory near front lines.

On 2 September the Canadian Corps outflanking of the Hindenburg line, with the breaching of the Wotan Position, made it possible for the Third Army to advance and sent repercussions all along the Western Front. That same day OHL had no choice but to issue orders to six armies for withdrawal back into the Hindenburg line in the south, behind the Canal Du Nord on the Canadian-First Army’s front and back to a line east of the Lys in the north, giving up without a fight the salient seized in the previous April.[94] According to Ludendorff “We had to admit the necessity…to withdraw the entire front from the Scarpe to the Vesle.”[95]

In nearly four weeks of fighting since 8 August over 100,000 German prisoners were taken, 75,000 by the BEF and the rest by the French. Since “The Black Day of the German Army” the German High Command realized the war was lost and made attempts for a satisfactory end. The day after the battle Ludenforff told Colonel Mertz “We cannot win the war any more, but we must not lose it either.” On 11 August he offered his resignation to the Kaiser, who refused it and replied, “I see that we must strike a balance. We have nearly reached the limit of our powers of resistance. The war must be ended.” On 13 August at Spa, Hindenburg, Ludendorff, Chancellor and Foreign minister Hintz agreed that the war could not be ended militarily and on the following day the German Crown Council decided victory in the field was now most improbable. Austria and Hungary warned that they could only continue the war until December and Ludendorff recommended immediate peace negotiations, to which the Kaiser responded by instructing Hintz to seek the Queen of Holland’s mediation. Prince Rupprecht warned Prince Max of Baden “Our military situation has deteriorated so rapidly that I no longer believe we can hold out over the winter; it is even possible that a catastrophe will come earlier.” On 10 September Hindenburg urged peace moves to Emperor Charles of Austria and Germany appealed to Holland for mediation. On the 14th Austria sent a note to all belligerents and neutrals suggesting a meeting for peace talks on neutral soil and on 15 September Germany made a peace offer to Belgium. Both peace offers were rejected and on 24 September OHL informed the leaders in Berlin that armistice talks were inevitable.[93]

September saw the Germans continuing to fight strong rear guard actions and launching numerous counter attacks on lost positions, with only a few succeeding and then only temporarily. Contested towns, villages, heights and trenches in the screening positions and outposts of the Hindenburg Line continued to fall to the Allies as well as thousands of prisoners, with the BEF alone taking 30,441 in the last week of September. Further small advances eastward would follow the Third Army victory at Ivincourt on 12 September, the Fourth Armies at Epheny on the 18th and the French gain of Essigny-le-Grand a day later. On the 24th a final assault by both the British and French on a four mile (6 km) front would come within two miles (3 km) of St. Quentin.[93] With the outposts and preliminary defensive lines of the Siegfried and Alberich Positions eliminated the Germans were now completely back in the Hindenburg line. With the Wotan position of that line already breached and the Siegfried position in danger of being turned from the north the time had now come for an assault on the whole length of the line.

The Allied attack on the Hindenburg Line began on 26 September. A total of 260,000 U.S. soldiers went “over the top”. All initial objectives were captured; the U.S. 79th Infantry Division, which met stiff resistance at Montfaucon, took an extra day to capture its objective. The U.S. Army stalled due to supply problems because its inexperienced headquarters had to cope with large units and a difficult landscape.[96] The following week cooperating French and American units broke through in Champagne at the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge, forcing the Germans off the commanding heights, and closing towards the Belgian frontier.[97] The last Belgian town to be liberated before the armistice was Ghent, which the Germans held as a pivot until Allied artillery was brought up.[98][99] The German army had to shorten its front and use the Dutch frontier as an anchor to fight rear-guard actions.

When Bulgaria signed a separate armistice on 29 September, the Allies gained control of Serbia and Greece. Ludendorff, having been under great stress for months, suffered something similar to a breakdown. It was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defence.[100][101]

Meanwhile, news of Germany’s impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces. The threat of mutiny was rife. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt to restore the “valour” of the German Navy. Knowing the government of Prince Maximilian of Baden would veto any such action, Ludendorff decided not to inform him. Nonetheless, word of the impending assault reached sailors at Kiel. Many rebelled and were arrested, refusing to be part of a naval offensive which they believed to be suicidal. Ludendorff took the blame—the Kaiser dismissed him on 26 October. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food. The reserves had been used up, but U.S. troops kept arriving at the rate of 10,000 per day.[102]

Having suffered over 6 million casualties, Germany moved toward peace. Prince Max von Baden took charge of a new government as Chancellor of Germany to negotiate with the Allies. Telegraphic negotiations with President Wilson began immediately, in the vain hope that better terms would be offered than by the British and French. Instead Wilson demanded the abdication of the Kaiser. There was no resistance when the social democrat Philipp Scheidemann on 9 November declared Germany to be a republic. Imperial Germany was dead; a new Germany had been born: the Weimar Republic.[103]

[edit] Armistices and capitulations

In the forest of Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war, Foch is seen second from the right. The carriage seen in the background, where the armistice was signed, later was chosen as the symbolic setting of Pétain’s June 1940 armistice. It was moved to Berlin as a prize, but due to Allied bombing it was eventually moved to Crawinkel, Thuringia, where it was deliberately destroyed by SS troops in 1945[104].

The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice on 29 September 1918 at Saloniki.[105] On 30 October the Ottoman Empire capitulated at Mudros.[105]

On 24 October the Italians began a push which rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto. This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force. The offensive also triggered the disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague and Zagreb. On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice. But the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine and Trieste. On 3 November Austria–Hungary sent a flag of truce to ask for an Armistice. The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian Commander and accepted. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg monarchy.

Following the outbreak of the German Revolution, a republic was proclaimed on 9 November. The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands. On 11 November an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918—”the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month”—a ceasefire came into effect. Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions. Canadian Private George Lawrence Price is traditionally regarded as the last soldier killed in the Great War: he was shot by a German sniper at 10:57 and died at 10:58.[106]

[edit] Allied superiority and the stab-in-the-back legend, November 1918

In November 1918 the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel; continuation of the war would have meant the invasion of Germany. Berlin was almost 900 miles (1,400 km) from the Western Front; no Allied soldier had ever set foot on German soil in anger, and the Kaiser’s armies retreated from the battlefield in good order, though up to a million of them were suffering from the Spanish Flu and unfit to fight. Hindenburgh and other senior German leaders spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated, resulting in the stab-in-the-back legend.[107][108]

A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919. Later treaties with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire were signed. However, the latter treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife (the Turkish Independence War) and a final peace treaty was signed between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey, at Lausanne on 24 July 1923.

Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles treaty was signed in 1919; by contrast, most commemorations of the war’s end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November 1918. Legally the last formal peace treaties were not signed until the Treaty of Lausanne. Under its terms, the Allied forces divested Constantinople on 23 August 1923.

[edit] Technology

Armoured cars

The First World War began as a clash of 20th century technology and 19th century tactics, with inevitably large casualties. By the end of 1917, however, the major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernised and were making use of telephone, wireless communication,[109] armoured cars, tanks,[110] and aircraft. Infantry formations were reorganised, so that 100-man companies were no longer the main unit of maneuver. Instead, squads of 10 or so men, under the command of a junior NCO, were favoured. Artillery also underwent a revolution.

In 1914, cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets. By 1917, indirect fire with guns (as well as mortars and even machine guns) was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and the often overlooked field telephone. Counter-battery missions became commonplace, also, and sound detection was used to locate enemy batteries.

Germany was far ahead of the Allies in utilizing heavy indirect fire. She employed 150 and 210 mm howitzers in 1914 when the typical French and British guns were only 75 and 105 mm. The British had a 6 inch (152 mm) howitzer, but it was so heavy it had to be assembled for firing. Germans also fielded Austrian 305 mm and 420 mm guns, and already by the beginning of the war had inventories of various calibers of Minenwerfer ideally suited for trench warfare.[111]

Much of the combat involved trench warfare, where hundreds often died for each yard gained. Many of the deadliest battles in history occurred during the First World War. Such battles include Ypres, the Marne, Cambrai, the Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli. The Haber process of nitrogen fixation was employed to provide the German forces with a constant supply of gunpowder, in the face of British naval blockade.[112] Artillery was responsible for the largest number of casualties[113] and consumed vast quantities of explosives. The large number of head-wounds caused by exploding shells and fragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet, led by the French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in 1915. It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet, worn by British Imperial and U.S. troops, and in 1916 by the distinctive German Stahlhelm, a design, with improvements, still in use today.

The widespread use of chemical warfare was a distinguishing feature of the conflict. Gases used included chlorine, mustard gas and phosgene. Few war casualties were caused by gas,[114] as effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created, such as gas masks. The use of chemical warfare and small-scale strategic bombing were both outlawed by the 1907 Hague Conventions, and both proved to be of limited effectiveness,[115] though they captured the public imagination.[116]

The most powerful land-based weapons were railway guns weighing hundreds of tons apiece. These were nicknamed Big Berthas, even though the namesake was not a railway gun. Germany developed the Paris Gun, able to bombard Paris from over 100 km (60 mi), though shells were relatively light at 94 kilograms (210 lb). While the Allies had railway guns, German models severely out-ranged and out-classed them.

Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya 23 October 1911 during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year. By 1914 the military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed. Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well. Towards the end of the conflict, aircraft carriers were used for the first time, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a raid to destroy the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in 1918.

German U-boats (submarines) were deployed after the war began. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic, they were employed by the Kaiserliche Marine in a strategy to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies. The deaths of British merchant sailors and the seeming invulnerability of U-boats led to the development of depth charges (1916), hydrophones (passive sonar, 1917), blimps, hunter-killer submarines (HMS R-1, 1917), forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons, and dipping hydrophones (the latter two both abandoned in 1918).[117] To extend their operations, the Germans proposed supply submarines (1916). Most of these would be forgotten in the interwar period until World War II revived the need.

Trenches, machineguns, air reconnaissance, barbed wire, and modern artillery with fragmentation shells helped bring the battle lines of World War I to a stalemate. The British sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare. The first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September 1916. Mechanical reliability became an issue, but the experiment proved its worth. Within a year, the British were fielding tanks by the hundreds and showed their potential during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, by breaking the Hindenburg Line, while combined arms teams captured 8000 enemy soldiers and 100 guns. Light automatic weapons also were introduced, such as the Lewis Gun and Browning automatic rifle.

Manned observation balloons, floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery. Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes.[118] If there was an enemy air attack, the crew could parachute to safety. At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft (with their marginal power output) and smaller versions would not be developed until the end of the war; they were also opposed by British leadership, who feared they might promote cowardice.[119] Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets of enemy aircraft.

Johnson’s Nieuport 11 armed with Le Prieur rockets for attacking observation balloons

To defend against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft; to attack them, unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were even tried. Blimps and balloons contributed to air-to-air combat among aircraft, because of their reconnaissance value, and to the trench stalemate, because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected. The Germans conducted air raids on England during 1915 and 1916 with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines. The resulting panic took several squadrons of fighters from France.[119]

Another new weapon, flamethrowers, were first used by the German army and later adopted by other forces. Although not of high tactical value, they were a powerful, demoralizing weapon and caused terror on the battlefield. It was a dangerous weapon to wield, as its heavy weight made operators vulnerable targets.

Trench railways evolved to supply the enormous quantities of food, water, and ammunition required to support large numbers of soldiers in areas where conventional transportation systems had been destroyed. A trench railway system was included in construction of the Maginot Line, but internal combustion engines and improved traction systems for wheeled vehicles rendered trench railways obsolete within a decade.

[edit] Legacy

The first tentative efforts to comprehend the meaning and consequences of modern warfare began during the initial phases of the war, and this process continued throughout and after the end of hostilities.

[edit] Soldiers’ experiences

The First Contingent of the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps to the 1 Lincolns, training in Bermuda for the Western Front, Winter 1914-15. One in four survived the war.

The soldiers of the war were initially volunteers, except for Italy, but increasingly were conscripted into service. Britain’s Imperial War Museum has collected more than 2,500 recordings of soldiers’ personal accounts and selected transcripts, edited by military author Max Arthur, have been published. The museum believes that historians have not taken full account of this material and accordingly has made the full archive of recordings available to authors and researchers.[120] Surviving veterans, returning home, often found that they could only discuss their experiences amongst themselves. Grouping together, they formed “veteran’s associations” or “Legions”, as listed at Category:Veterans’ organizations.

[edit] Prisoners of war

This photograph shows an emaciated Indian Army soldier who survived the Siege of Kut

About 8 million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war. All nations pledged to follow the Hague Convention on fair treatment of prisoners of war. A POW’s rate of survival was generally much higher than their peers at the front.[121] Individual surrenders were uncommon. Large units usually surrendered en masse. At the Battle of Tannenberg 92,000 Russians surrendered. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, 20,000 Russians became prisoners. Over half of Russian losses were prisoners (as a proportion of those captured, wounded or killed); for Austria 32%, for Italy 26%, for France 12%, for Germany 9%; for Britain 7%. Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1.4 million (not including Russia, which lost between 2.5 and 3.5 million men as prisoners.) From the Central Powers about 3.3 million men became prisoners.[122]

Germany held 2.5 million prisoners; Russia held 2.9 million and Britain and France held about 720,000. Most were captured just prior to the Armistice. The U.S. held 48,000. The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down.[123][124] Once prisoners reached a camp, in general, conditions were satisfactory (and much better than in World War II), thanks in part to the efforts of the International Red Cross and inspections by neutral nations. Conditions were terrible in Russia, starvation was common for prisoners and civilians alike; about 15–20% of the prisoners in Russia died. In Germany food was scarce, but only 5% died.[125][126][127]

The Ottoman Empire often treated POWs poorly.[128] Some 11,800 British Empire soldiers, most of them Indians, became prisoners after the Siege of Kut, in Mesopotamia, in April 1916; 4,250 died in captivity.[129] Although many were in very bad condition when captured, Ottoman officers forced them to march 1,100 kilometres (684 mi) to Anatolia. A survivor said: “we were driven along like beasts, to drop out was to die.”[130] The survivors were then forced to build a railway through the Taurus Mountains.

In Russia, where the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in 1917 they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War.

[edit] Military attachés and war correspondents

Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. Many were able to report on events from a perspective somewhat like what is now termed “embedded” positions within the opposing land and naval forces. These military attachés and other observers prepared voluminous first-hand accounts of the war and analytical papers.

For example, former U.S. Army Captain Granville Fortescue followed the developments of the Gallipoli campaign from an embedded perspective within the ranks of the Turkish defenders; and his report was passed through Turkish censors before being printed in London and New York.[131] However, this observer’s role was abandoned when the U.S. entered the war, as Fortescue immediately re-enlisted, sustaining wounds at Montfaucon d’Argonne in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, September 1918.[132]

In-depth observer narratives of the war and more narrowly focused professional journal articles were written soon after the war; and these post-war reports conclusively illustrated the battlefield destructiveness of this conflict. This was the not first time the tactics of entrenched positions for infantry defended with machine guns and artillery became vitally important. The Russo-Japanese War had been closely observed by Military attachés, war correspondents and other observers; but, from a 21st Century perspective, it is now apparent that a range of tactical lessons were disregarded or not used in the preparations for war in Europe and throughout the Great War.[133]

An early recorded use of the term “World War” is attributed to a well-known journalist for The Times, Colonel Charles Repington, who wrote in his diary on 10 September 1918: “We discussed the right name of the war. I said the we called it now The War, but that this could not last. The Napoleonic War was The Great War. To call it The German War was too much flattery for the Boche. I suggested The World War as a shade better title, and finally we mutually agreed to call it The First World War in order to prevent the millennium folk from forgetting that the history of the world was the history of war.”[134]

[edit] Opposition to the war

1917 – Execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies

The trade union and socialist movements had long voiced their opposition to a war, which they argued, meant only that workers would kill other workers in the interest of capitalism. Once war was declared, however, many socialists and trade unions backed their governments. Among the exceptions were the Bolsheviks, the Socialist Party of America, and the Italian Socialist Party, and individuals such as Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg and their followers in Germany. There were also small anti-war groups in Britain and France.

Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. These included Eugene Debs in the United States and Bertrand Russell in Britain. In the U.S. the 1917 Espionage Act effectively made free speech illegal and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic. The Sedition Act of 1918 made any statements deemed “disloyal” a federal crime. Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors.[74]

Other opposition came from conscientious objectors – some socialist, some religious – who refused to fight. In Britain 16,000 people asked for conscientious objector status.[135] Many suffered years of prison, including solitary confinement and bread and water diets. Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked “No conscientious objectors need apply”.

The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of 1916, when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.[136]

In 1917, a series of mutinies in the French army led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned.

In September 1917 the Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied.[137] In Russia, opposition to the war led to soldiers also establishing their own revolutionary committees and helped foment the October Revolution of 1917, with the call going up for “bread, land, and peace”. The Bolsheviks agreed a peace treaty with Germany, the peace of Brest-Litovsk, despite its harsh conditions.

In 1917, Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, with his wife’s brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany. When the negotiations failed, his attempt was revealed to Germany, a diplomatic catastrophy. [138][139][140]

[edit] War crimes

[edit] Genocide and ethnic cleansing

[edit] Ottoman Empire

The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire’s Christian population, with the most prominent among them being the deportation and massacres of Armenians (similar policies were enacted against the Assyrians and Ottoman Greeks) during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered genocide.[141] The Ottomans saw the entire Armenian population as an enemy[142] that had chosen to side with Russia at the beginning of the war.[143] In early 1915 a number of Armenian nationalist groups such as the Armenakan, Dashnak and Hunchak organizations joined the Russian forces, and the Ottoman government used this as a pretext to issue the Tehcir Law which started the deportation of the Armenians from eastern Anatolia to Syria between 1915 and 1917. The exact number of deaths is unknown, although a range of 250,000 to 1.5 million is given for the deaths of Armenians.[144] The government of Turkey has consistently rejected charges of genocide, arguing that those who died were victims of inter-ethnic fighting, famine or disease during the First World War.[145]

[edit] Russian Empire

Approximately 200,000 Germans living in Volhynia and about 600,000 Jews were deported by the Russian authorities.[146][147][148] In 1916, an order was issued to deport around 650,000 Volga Germans to the east as well, but the Russian Revolution prevented this from being carried out.[149] Many pogroms accompanied the Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War, 60,000–200,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire.[150][151]

[edit] Rape of Belgium

Main article: Rape of Belgium

In Belgium, German troops, in fear of French and Belgian guerrilla fighters, or francs-tireurs, massacred townspeople in Andenne (211 dead), Tamines (384 dead), and Dinant (612 dead). On 25 August 1914, the Germans set fire to the town of Leuven, burned the library containing about 230,000 books, killed 209 civilians and forced 42,000 to evacuate. These actions brought worldwide condemnation.[152]

[edit] Aftermath

American Red Cross nurses tend to Spanish flu patients in temporary wards set up inside Oakland Municipal Auditorium, 1918

No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically—four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and the Russian. Four defunct dynasties, the Hohenzollerns, the Habsburg, Romanovs and the Ottomans together with all their ancillary aristocracies, all fell after the war. Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France with 1.4 million soldiers dead, not counting other casualties. Germany and Russia were similarly affected.

Of the 60 million European soldiers who were mobilized from 1914 – 1918, 8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured. Germany lost 15.1% of its active male population, Austria–Hungary lost 17.1%, and France lost 10.5%.[153] About 750,000 German civilians died from starvation caused by the British blockade during the war.[154] By the end of the war, famine had killed approximately 100,000 people in Lebanon.[155] The war had profound economic consequences. In addition, a major influenza epidemic spread around the world. Overall, the Spanish flu killed at least 50 million people.[156][157] In 1914 alone, epidemic typhus killed 200,000 in Serbia.[158] There were about 25 million infections and 3 million deaths from epidemic typhus in Russia from 1918 to 1922.[159]

Approximately 200,000 Germans living in Volhynia and about 600,000 Jews were deported by the Russian authorities.[160][161][162] In 1916, an order was issued to deport around 650,000 Volga Germans to the east as well, but the Russian Revolution prevented this from being carried out.[163] Many pogroms accompanied the Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War, 60,000–200,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire.[164][165] The best estimates of the death toll from the Russian famine of 1921 run from 5 million to 10 million people.[166] By 1922 there were at least 7 million homeless children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I and the Russian Civil War.[167] Considerable numbers of anti-Soviet Russians fled the country after the Revolution; by the 1930s the northern Chinese city of Harbin had 100,000 Russians.[168]

[edit] Later conflicts

The end of World War I set the stage for other world conflicts, some of which are continuing into the 21st century. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, pushed for socialist revolution. Out of German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles, Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity and power.[169][170] World War II was in part a continuation of the power struggle that was never fully resolved by the First World War; in fact, it was common for Germans in the 1930s and 1940s to justify acts of international aggression because of perceived injustices imposed by the victors of the First World War.[171]

The establishment of the modern state of Israel and the roots of the continuing Israeli-Palestinian Conflict are partially found in the unstable power dynamics of the Middle East which were born at the end of World War I.[172] Previous to the end of fighting in the war, the Ottoman Empire had maintained a modest level of peace and stability throughout the Middle East.[173] With the end of the war and the fall of Ottoman government, power vacuums developed and conflicting claims to land and nationhood began to emerge.[174] Sometimes after only cursory consultation with the local population, the political boundaries drawn by the victors of the First World War were quickly imposed, and in many cases are still problematic in the 21st century struggles for national identity.[175][176] While the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I was a pivotal milestone in the creation of the modern political situation of the Middle East, including especially the Arab-Israeli conflict,[177][178][179] the end of Ottoman rule also spawned lesser known disputes over water and other natural resources.[180]

Further information: Sykes–Picot Agreement

[edit] Peace treaties

After the war, the Allies imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles, which Germany was kept under blockade until she signed, ended the war. It declared Germany responsible for the war and required Germany to pay enormous war reparations and award territory to the victors. Unable to pay them with exports (a result of territorial losses and postwar recession),[181] she did so by borrowing from the United States, until the reparations were suspended in 1931. The “Guilt Thesis” became a controversial explanation of events in Britain and the United States. The Treaty of Versailles caused enormous bitterness in Germany, which nationalist movements, especially the Nazis, exploited with a conspiracy theory they called the Dolchstosslegende. The treaty contributed to the economic collapse of the Weimar Republic by sparking runaway inflation in the 1920s.

The German Empire lost its colonial possessions and was saddled with accepting blame for the war, as well as paying punitive reparations for it. The Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were completely dissolved.

Austria–Hungary was also partitioned, largely along ethnic lines, into several successor states including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, as well as adding Transylvania to the Greater Romania who was allied with the victors. The details were contained in the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon.

The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland were carved from it; Bessarabia was also re-attached to the Greater Romania as it had been a Romanian territory for more than a thousand years.[182]

The Ottoman Empire disintegrated, and much of its non-Anatolian territory was awarded as protectorates of various Allied powers, while the remaining Turkish core was reorganised as the Republic of Turkey. The Ottoman Empire was to be partitioned by the Treaty of Sèvres in 1920. The treaty, however, was never ratified by the Sultan and was rejected by the Turkish republican movement. This led to the Turkish Independence War and, ultimately, to the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne.

[edit] New national identities

Poland reemerged as an independent country, after more than a century. Yugoslavia and Czechoslovakia were entirely new nations agglomerating previously independent peoples. Russia became the Soviet Union and lost Finland, Estonia, Lithuania and Latvia, which became independent countries. The Ottoman Empire was soon replaced by Turkey and several other countries in the Middle East.

In the British Empire, the war unleashed new forms of nationalism. In Australia and New Zealand the Battle of Gallipoli became known as those nations’ “Baptism of Fire”. It was the first major war in which the newly established countries fought and it was one of the first times that Australian troops fought as Australians, not just subjects of the British Crown. Anzac Day, commemorating the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps, celebrates this defining moment.[183][184]

After the Battle of Vimy Ridge, where the Canadian divisions fought together for the first time as a single corps, Canadians began to refer to theirs as a nation “forged from fire”.[185] Having succeeded on the same battleground where the “mother countries” had previously faltered, they were for the first time respected internationally for their own accomplishments. Canada entered the war as a Dominion of the British Empire and remained so afterwards, although she emerged with a greater measure of independence.[186][187] While the other Dominions, for example, were represented by Britain, Canada was an independent negotiator and signatory of the Versailles Treaty.

[edit] Social trauma

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The experiences of the war led to a collective trauma for all participating countries. The optimism of la belle époque was destroyed and those who fought in the war became known as the Lost Generation.[188] For years afterwards, people mourned the dead, the missing, and the many disabled.[189]

Memorials were erected in thousands of villages and towns. The soldiers returning home from World War I suffered greatly from the horrors they had witnessed. Many returning veterans suffered from shell shock.

The social trauma caused by years of mass slaughter manifested itself in different ways. Some people were revolted by nationalism and its results, and so they began to work toward a more internationalist world, supporting organisations such as the League of Nations. Pacifism became increasingly popular. Others had the opposite reaction, feeling that only strength and military might could be relied upon in a chaotic and inhumane world. Anti-modernist views were an outgrowth of the many changes taking place in society. The rise of Nazism and fascism included a revival of the nationalist spirit and a rejection of many post-war changes. Similarly, the popularity of the Stab-in-the-back legend (German: Dolchstosslegende) was a testament to the psychological state of defeated Germany and was a rejection of responsibility for the conflict. This conspiracy theory of betrayal became common and the German public came to see themselves as victims. The Dolchstosslegende’s popular acceptance in Germany played a significant role in the rise of Nazism. A sense of disillusionment and cynicism became pronounced, with nihilism growing in popularity. This disillusionment for humanity found a cultural climax with the Dadaist artistic movement. Many believed the war heralded the end of the world as they had known it, including the collapse of capitalism and imperialism. Communist and socialist movements around the world drew strength from this theory and enjoyed a level of popularity they had never known before. These feelings were most pronounced in areas directly or harshly affected by the war.[190][191]

Surgeon Lt. Col. John McCrae of Canada, author of “In Flanders Fields“, died in 1918 of pneumonia.

On 3 May 1915, during the Second Battle of Ypres, Lieutenant Alexis Helmer was killed. At his graveside, his friend John McCrae, M.D., of Guelph, Ontario, Canada wrote the memorable poem In Flanders Fields as a salute to those who perished in the Great War. Published in Punch on 8 December 1915, it is still recited today, especially on Remembrance Day and Memorial Day.[192][193]

[edit] Macro- and micro-economic effects

One of the most dramatic effects of the war was the expansion of governmental powers and responsibilities in Britain, France, the United States, and the Dominions of the British Empire. In order to harness all the power of their societies, new government ministries and powers were created. New taxes were levied and laws enacted, all designed to bolster the war effort; many of which have lasted to this day. Similarly, the war strained the abilities of the formerly large and bureaucratised governments such as in Austria–Hungary and Germany; however, any analysis of the long-term effects were clouded by the defeat of these governments.

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased for three Allies (Britain, Italy, and U.S.), but decreased in France and Russia, in neutral Netherlands, and in the main three Central Powers. The shrinkage in GDP in Austria, Russia, France, and the Ottoman Empire reached 30 to 40%. In Austria, for example, most of the pigs were slaughtered and, at war’s end, there was no meat.

All nations had increases in the government’s share of GDP, surpassing fifty percent in both Germany and France and nearly reaching fifty percent in Britain. To pay for purchases in the United States, Britain cashed in its extensive investments in American railroads and then began borrowing heavily on Wall Street. President Wilson was on the verge of cutting off the loans in late 1916, but allowed a great increase in U.S. government lending to the Allies. After 1919, the U.S. demanded repayment of these loans, which, in part, were funded by German reparations, which, in turn, were supported by American loans to Germany. This circular system collapsed in 1931 and the loans were never repaid.

Macro- and micro-economic consequences devolved from the war. Families were altered by the departure of many men. With the death or absence of the primary wage earner, women were forced into the workforce in unprecedented numbers. At the same time, industry needed to replace the lost laborers sent to war. This aided the struggle for voting rights for women.

As the war slowly turned into a war of attrition, conscription was implemented in some countries. This issue was particularly explosive in Canada and Australia. In the former it opened a political gap between French-Canadians—who claimed their true loyalty was to Canada and not the British Empire—and the Anglophone majority who saw the war as a duty to both Britain and Canada. Prime Minister Robert Borden pushed through a Military Service Act, provoking the Conscription Crisis of 1917. In Australia, a sustained pro-conscription campaign by Prime Minister Billy Hughes, caused a split in the Australian Labor Party and Hughes formed the Nationalist Party of Australia in 1917 to pursue the matter. Nevertheless, the labour movement, the Catholic Church, and Irish nationalist expatriates successfully opposed Hughes’ push, which was rejected in two plebiscites.

In Britain, rationing was finally imposed in early 1918, limited to meat, sugar, and fats (butter and oleo), but not bread. The new system worked smoothly. From 1914 to 1918 trade union membership doubled, from a little over four million to a little over eight million. Work stoppages and strikes became frequent in 1917–18 as the unions expressed grievances regarding prices, alcohol control, pay disputes, fatigue from overtime and working on Sundays and inadequate housing. Conscription put into uniform nearly every physically fit man, six of ten million eligible. Of these, about 750,000 lost their lives and 1,700,000 were wounded. Most deaths were to young unmarried men; however, 160,000 wives lost husbands and 300,000 children lost fathers.[194]

Britain turned to her colonies for help in obtaining essential war materials whose supply had become difficult from traditional sources. Geologists, such as Albert Ernest Kitson, were called upon to find new resources of precious minerals in the African colonies. Kitson discovered important new deposits of manganese, used in munitions production, in the Gold Coast.[195]

[edit] Cognate names for the war

Before World War II, the war was also known as The Great War, The World War, The War to End All Wars, The Kaiser’s War, The War of the Nations and The War in Europe. In France and Belgium it was sometimes referred to as La Guerre du Droit (the War for Justice) or La Guerre Pour la Civilisation / de Oorlog tot de Beschaving (the War to Preserve Civilization), especially on medals and commemorative monuments.

The term used by official histories of the war in Britain and Canada is The First World War, while American histories generally use the term World War I.

The earliest known use of the term First World War appeared during the war. German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel wrote shortly after the start of the war:

There is no doubt that the course and character of the feared ‘European War’ … will become the first world war in the full sense of the word.[196]
Indianapolis Star, September 20, 1914

The term was used again near the end of the war. English journalist Charles A. Repington wrote:

[Diary entry, September 10, 1918]: We discussed the right name of the war. I said that we called it now The War, but that this could not last. The Napoleonic War was The Great War. To call it The German War was too much flattery for the Boche. I suggested The World War as a shade better title, and finally we mutually agreed to call it The First World War in order to prevent the millennium folk from forgetting that the history of the world was the history of war.[196]
—The First World War, 1914-1918 (1920)

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// //

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-rom Edition”The Papua Nugini History Collections”

THIS THE SAMPLE CD, THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMEBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBE VIA CPMMENT

The Papua Nugini history

Collections

 Image

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E.Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

1890

Houses, Frederick Willhelmshafen, Madang Province, PNG
© Courtesy of The Australian Museum

The majority of the 152 images were created by unknown photographers, and show portraits, ceremonies, village scenes and activities as well as trading stations. Some have informative captions, including local names and personal names of traders and settlers. Many of the Solomon Island images are identical to those in another album held by the Australian Museum (see Capell Collection) but the captions are sometimes different. Research suggests that the Beran album images were taken from the original negatives as the captions are at times more detailed. Also included are a few prints of images taken in Vanuatu by John Watt Beattie, Charles Morris Woodford and John William Lindt.

Harry Beran

Harry Beran is a scholar, author and collector specialising in the Massim culture of Milne Bay Province, PNG. He was working in the Philosophy Department, University of Wollongong, when he acquired the album and donated it to the Australian Museum.

Related images

Mioko Village, Duke of York Islands, East New Britain Province, PNGMioko Village, Duke of York Islands, East New Britain Province, PNG View full size
© Courtesy of the Australian Museum
Women and children, fishing village, Blanche Bay, East New Britain, PNGWomen and children, fishing village, Blanche Bay, East New Britain, PNG View full size
© Courtesy of the Australian Museum
Reef Island canoes, Solomon IslandsReef Island canoes, Solomon Islands View full size
© Courtesy of The Australian Museum
Panna, a chief of Simbo, Western Solomon IslandsPanna, a chief of Simbo, Western Solomon Islands View full size
© Courtesy of The Australian Museum
Hurricane proof house, Port Vila, Efate, Vanuatu

Hurricane proof house, Port Vila, Efate, Vanuatu View full size
© Courtesy of The Australian Museum

1u16

ImageImage
Heinrich  Zahn, the Missioner Of Papaua New  Guinea  letter in 1915
Image
 
Sent from New Guinea to Holland
and then forwarded to Germany. It seems like it was using an official system to tranmit mail. It still has the original note with a translation. There were several letters enclosed. Australian stamps used in New Guinea are very rare.(source Tim)
Read more about Missioner Henrich Zahn

Image
 
 

FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany.from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars.

New Guinea and Its Islands

 Religion, the worship of the supernatural, goes hand in hand with music in the societies of Oceania, whose peoples practice it by intoning texts, sounding musical instruments, and making bodily movements.

In indigenous Oceanic societies, the supernatural ranged from spirits of land and sea, to personifications of nature, to gods of war and peace.

Worship varied from appeasing spirits and asking supernatural help in warfare, to blessing or harming crops and people, to invoking charms for calming the sea (figure 1).

The processes of ritual

Religion is often associated with what is called ritual (though ritual is not always religious), and outsiders often conflate these concepts.

Nevertheless, important concepts identified with ritual are useful for analyzing music and religion. Roy A. Rappaport, an anthropologist working in New Guinea, defined ritual as “the performance of more or less invariant sequences of formal acts and utterances not encoded by the performers” (1979:175).

These acts and utterances are learned or memorized (or read) from ancestors’ teachings, and are not generated by performers. According to this view, a ritual is “a form or structure” having “features or characteristics in a more or less fixed relationship to one another,” and can exist only in performance. “The medium [the performance] is part of the message; more precisely, it is a metamessage about whatever is encoded in the ritual.”

Likewise, while worshiping, performers may not fully understand what they are doing; they may know only that doing it is necessary.

Thus, the process of performing is primary, while the product and its aesthetic evaluation are secondary. Religion is often part of a total cultural system, in which participation in religious activity is a social necessity.

In another sense, religious performance can be viewed as a kind of theater—the enactment of myths received from ancient times, or the reenactment of events in the history of spirits or gods.

Aboriginal Australians believe that by ritually combining words, music, movements, and designs to reenact the events of the Dreaming, they make old powers work anew.

Early anthropologists, like E. B. Tylor and James G. Frazer, interpreted some rituals

[p. 186 | Page Image]

Image

FIGURE 1 An Ifalik navigator sings and performs movements to ensure the safety of his voyage, 1975. Printed from a videocopy of a film made by Scott Williams for the Smithsonian Institution.as magic. Evolutionary views of human social progress led them to link their concept of magic with “primitive” societies and their concept of religion to “advanced” societies. Many anthropologists have discarded social evolutionism, but some older publications, including those of Bronislaw Malinowski (1922, 1955), are useful for their information about indigenous religion and “magic,”

a specific power, essentially human, autonomous and independent in its action. This power is an inherent property of certain words, uttered with the performance of certain actions by the man entitled to do it through his social traditions and through certain observances which he has to keep, The words and acts have this power in their own right, and their action is direct and not mediated by any other agency. … The belief in the power of words and rites as a fundamental and irreducible force is the ultimate, basic dogma of their magical creed. Hence we find established the ideas that one never can tamper with, change or improve spells; that tradition is the only source from which they can be derived; that it has brought them down from times lying beyond the speculation of man, that there can be no spontaneous generation of magic. (1922:427)

The use of charms and spells, usually involving musical recitation, remains important in Oceania. A typical example is magic in Man us, which includes words and sometimes music: “It is recited aloud. It cannot be stolen by another. Its power is dependent on its having been rightfully obtained in marriage exchanges, peace-making exchanges or by more outright payment. After it is handed over it cannot be used by its former owner” (Fortune 1935:121). 

The wake of Christianity

The introduction of Christianity brought new supernatural and musical concepts, which have been adopted and adapted in myriad ways (figure 2). Across Oceania, Christianity has become a religious veneer, covering—and in some places irretrievably obliterating—indigenous religious systems.

The introduction of Christian music helped gain the widespread acceptance of

[p. 187 | Page Image]

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FIGURE 2 In a church in Rarotonga, the congregation sings. Photo by Adrienne L. Kaeppler, 1992.Christian beliefs. New musical genres combined precontact and introduced musical concepts into popular forms, such as hīmene in East Polynesia peroveta in Papua New Guinea. In other areas, including Hawai’i and Aotearoa, poetic compositions were added to hymns. Still popular is “Hawai’i Aloha,” an unofficial national anthem, composed by the Reverend Lorenzo Lyons and set to the melody of “I Left It All with Jesus.” One of the most popular pieces of music in parts of Oceania is the Hallelujah Chorus, sung in local languages, not only at Christmas and Easter, but at any time of the year. 

One trait carries over into the new orthodoxy: performers still worship because they feel they must, and they may harbor only the vaguest understanding of the theology that underlies their beliefs. In the apostolic sects (Anglicanism, Lutheranism, Roman Catholicism), the language of the liturgy is simple and direct, but until the late twentieth century, Anglicans usually heard it in a sixteenth-century English version, and Roman Catholics always heard it in a medieval Latin one.

A widespread result of the introduction of Christianity has been the development of syncretic religious forms, in which Christian and indigenous ideas have blended. As part of this process, introduced Christian music has undergone reinterpretation (Barker 1990; Boutilier, Hughes, and Tiffany 1978). In some Oceanic societies, mainly those of Polynesia, Christianity has been the standard public religion for so long—about two hundred years in Tahiti—that old and now-secularized religious forms have without controversy been reintroduced into modern-day worship.

—ADRIENNE L. KAEPPLER, J. W. LOVE

AUSTRALIA

Aboriginal cultures show basic similarities in myths about the Dreaming, the era of the creation, when great ancestral beings walked a featureless world, experiencing life and procreating. Every event that occurred to each of them resulted in the creation of geographic features, and so they sculpted the Australian landscape, creating

the plants, animals, and peoples of the known world. They also founded the religious ceremonies, marriage rules, food taboos, and other laws of human society.

[p. 188 | Page Image]

… The Dreaming is … the generative principle of the present, the logically prior dimension of the now. (Sutton 1989:15) 

The ancestral beings created songs of their journeys, commonly known by Central Australian performers as history songs, embodying laws for the maintenance of society, land, and totems. Since the beginning of time, performers claim, these songs have passed unchanged from generation to generation. 

History songs often cross linguistic boundaries, mapping places in ancestors’ journeys. The ancestral beings, when they created features or landmarks, left embedded in the earth inseminating, supernatural powers, which, through the correct ritualized performance of the ancestors’ songs, knowledgeable people can tap. The Dreaming is understood as morally neutral, and the power of the songs can serve positive or negative ends (Strehlow 1971:262; Wild 1975:139).

Religious resonance is an important aspect of Aboriginal singing. Many extraordinary sonic experiences occur within the heightened emotional state of profound performances. These experiences are hard to describe. They are not measurable by electronic equipment, which deals only with the physical aspects of sound. Some Aboriginal sounds are totally disorienting. They seem to disconnect participants from the everyday world. Aboriginal society has mechanisms for introducing new songs, especially through dreamed ancestral gifts. These songs are less sacred than history songs, and appear to be more susceptible to change over time.

—CATHERINE J. ELLIS

NEW GUINEA AND ITS ISLANDS

In New Guinea, the drama or music inspired and received enhancement from sensation and emotion. Collective ritual and musical performances often had a climactic, and even traumatic, character. Moments of intense social drama, especially of bereavement or physical pain (typically in initiations), they stimulated senses and feelings, often as part of the workings of revelation. Actions, rather than words, or at least not freely articulating speech, triggered experiences and meanings.

Some of this past remains. Participants in religious rituals still reach an understanding of ritual events by decoding the symbolism of performances. Baktaman novices learn to appreciate the mystical connection between dew (rubbed on the skin) and physical growth, because dew forms on leaves as if from nowhere (Barth 1987:32-35). At Wahgi feasts, men build a sacred structure on posts representing subclans. For periods between festivals, they inter these posts in swampy ground. The tenet that the posts never decay and may serve in later festivals reconceptualizes the clan’s immortality (O’Hanlon 1989:78).

For intensely moving, revealing, and mainly nonverbal experiences, music often provides an important stimulus. Its communicative aspects sometimes lie in the analogic principle of codification, as with Sepik flutes, tuned to mimic sacred species of birds, whose behavioral and physical peculiarities bring into focus various cosmological mysteries. The Kaluli believe fruitdove calls convey sadness: when Kaluli songs mimic their cries, the singer “becomes the bird,” passing from life to death (Feld 1990:218-219). The Yonggom believe the hum of a swung slat resembles the noise of engines, providing a musical vehicle for religious ideas about the origins of European goods (Kirsch 1992).

Where lyrics are the means of religious communication, they are often ungrammatical, and the words themselves may be archaic or secret (Barth 1975:70). The language may be foreign, as in Karavar ritual songs (Errington 1974:177). In some cases, ritual actions and materials suggest verbal meanings; in others, participants may interpret the meanings of strange sounds on the basis of subtle connotations with real or modern words (Lewis 1980:59-60).

[p. 189 | Page Image]

Music thus bolsters the cultivation of mysterious and multivocal symbols, but it is also emotionally arousing and expressive. Chambri music achieves poignancy in its beauty (Allen 1967:68; Mead 1935:245). When a conch accompanies singing, it may be discordant and awe-full (Williams 1928:38). Music can even be defiant, like cargo cultists’ nocturnal drumming, expressing opposition to Christian missionizing (Trompf 1990:76). Emotion abounds in the Kaluli gisalo: the sadness of music so moves guests, they singe the skin of their hosts, who stoically endure the pain.

Indigenous music and ritual

The grandness of musical performance may stimulate “collective effervescence,” by which a community of people “assemble and become conscious of their moral unity” (Durkheim 1964 [1915]:387). In societies dispersed in hamlets or nuclear families for much of the time, the experience of large ritual gatherings is impressive. The concerted efforts of dancers, singers, and instrumentalists reinforce a sense of largeness; synchronized movements, voices, and rhythms produce intense solidarity. Baining men unite their voices in large choirs, accompanied by the beating of many bamboos: the force of their playing makes the earth vibrate; struck by feelings of common identity and collective strength, participants sometimes weep. In small, boundary-conscious societies, religious experience often inheres in an appreciation of the solidarity and immortality of clans or communities. In keeping with a Durkheimian vision of the throng as god, religious music integrates, represents, and sacralizes society.

In New Guinea, music has important mnemonic value (Lewis 1980:64-65). Its use with other sensory and emotional stimulation and an emphasis on concrete metaphors relate to performative infrequency. Where societies perform rituals rarely, ideas and feelings evoked by rituals must impress on memory a character strong enough to survive long periods of abeyance (Whitehouse 1992). In the highly elaborate and systematized ideas of routinized religions, language—liturgies, scriptural readings, sermons—codifies revelation. Unlike these, many New Guinean religious matters must persist in people’s minds for years without transmissive contexts. Under these conditions, musical performance binds simple symbolic processes and potent emotional states. How the metaphors of Kaluli songs compel guests to weep “dominates both the aftermath and the remembrance” (Feld 1990:215).

Infrequency of transmission also affects the material form of instruments. When elaborate instruments, whose manufacture requires skilled labor, are not in use, people keep them strictly separate from the social world. In many areas of New Guinea, garamuts and other instruments remain within ceremonial houses. The Chimbu carefully preserve flutes in leaf coverings within men’s houses (P. Brown 1978:223). A safer method of ensuring that exposure to instruments occurs only on appropriate ritual occasions is to develop a disposable musical technology. When Sambia initiations end, the participants discard the sacred flutes (Herdt 1981:230). Within a few minutes, the Mali Baining can fashion and tune simple reed instruments (kelarega), which, immediately after use, they deliberately destroy.

—HARVEY WHITEHOUSE

An indigenous context: Asmat

A legend of creation anchors Asmat religious beliefs and arts. According to the legend, the people’s full name is Asmat Ow Kaenak Anakat (Asmat People Who Are Real Humans), that is, Asmat people who are not carvings. Real Asmat people descended long ago from their creator, Fumiripits, who one day landed unconscious on the shore. When he awoke, birds rescued him; henceforth, he saw birds as symbols of the ancestors. He gathered timber and rattan to build himself a longhouse, and spent his days carving wooden figures. Eventually, he filled his house with carved likenesses of humans and birds, yet he felt lonely.

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One day, Fumiripits made a drum (em). He hollowed out a log, used his blood and some white lime to attach the skin of a lizard over one end, and secured the skin with a rattan band. He started to play, and the carvings began to move, jerkily at first. He beat the drum faster, and the figures moved less stiffly. They turned into living, dancing humans.

Fumiripits then moved to a succession of sites, where he similarly created the populations of villages. The people he created were called Asmat. People who inherited his skills at carving, wowipits, learned to carve ancestral figures, some of which were attached to drums, houses, boats, and so forth. Only Fumiripits can create human beings, but wowipits are important people, because ancestral souls (bis) can inhabit carved figures. Unlike other craftsmen, who create useful implements and other objects and services for consumption, wowipits create drums and other artworks for use in religious rites.

Ceremonial performances

Some ceremonial Asmat dance-movements are based on avian movements, emphasizing the legendary link between human beings and ancestral symbols. Songs and stories say the soul of a newly deceased person travels in a boat along rivers, building a house at various places until it reaches the ancestors’ land.

After a sago or coconut harvest or a successful wild-pig hunt, the Asmat hold ceremonies to invite ancestral spirits to meet the living and strengthen them. Whenever customary leaders decide to hold a ceremony—to honor the ancestors, to listen to their demands for revenge from wrongdoers, for initiations, to launch canoes, when an important decision needs to be reached—men gather in the communal longhouse for days and nights. Women periodically bring them meals. In the longhouse, men stand to sing and dance, or sit to rest or listen to speeches, each with a spear and a shield.

A ceremony witnessed in a longhouse in Agats

In a ceremony held to request ancestral advice about a division of land, all participants were males. They wore mainly red, white, and black clothes, with belts and monkey-fur headbands, shell necklaces, rattan armlets, white feathers, and bone nose ornaments. Ocher-red symbolized strength, shell-white signified human skin, and charcoal-black symbolized relief from pain. Participants clustered around fireplaces situated every few meters along the floor. Periodically they stood up, sang in chorus, and engaged in dancing (bis pok mbui ‘ancestral spirit-dancing’). They stepped right and left, or simply swayed their bodies while standing or sitting. The floors rippled and swayed.

The tempo of the singing (whose melodies mainly used two or three tones) and drumming kept changing. After a vocalist began to sing, everyone stood to join in, each man dancing in place. Some of the men shouted out comments, whereupon the tempo of the music and dancing increased, only to stop altogether some time later. While resting, participants smoked or ate a snack of sago, and at mealtimes they ate fish or pork, with rice. They then resumed the next bout of music and dancing, repeating the process all day and all night for as long as they believed the ancestors required. The movements, based on those of birds, emphasized the mythological link between human beings and birds.

Carving ritual drums

Asmat ritual art is largely men’s business. Women are not allowed to be present while a wowipits is carving a ritual object or design, or to be in the longhouse on the most sacred occasions, while male musicians play and sing, though they are expected to

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bring meals. Some ceremonies, however, are for women only; men and women may participate in warfare-related ceremonies. 

The main Asmat instrument is a single-headed hourglass drum with a wide waist and a handle attached to one side. Drums from the east and Brazza-northeastern areas are usually plain; drums from the coastal-central and northwestern areas are often decorated with carvings representing ancestral spirits. The handles of the latter drums have carvings of animal, bird, and geometric designs on their bodies; on their handles they bear elaborately carved ancestral figures facing two directions, often combining human and avian faces. In some cases, white and black feathers and beads hang from the body and the handle.

The drums vary in size, depending on their area of origin, with large ones being about 80 to 100 centimeters long, and small ones about 50 centimeters. The drumhead, about 14 to 18 centimeters in diameter, has lizardskin stretched across it, kept firmly in place by a plaited rattan band just below the rim. To keep drums dry and insect-free, the Asmat usually store them on a rack above a fireplace. Before playing, they tauten the skin by holding it over a fire. Normally, they play only one drum at once. The player holds it in his left hand, beating the head with his right hand.

For a carver-artist to make a ritual drum takes about a month. On its handle and body he may carve designs of spirits’ hands and ears, fruitbats’ feet, hornbills’ heads, monkeys’ tails, wriggling snakes, and human figures. For his labor, he and his family receive gifts of cooked meals.

Insiders and outsiders

Partly as a result of Dutch military presence from 1904 to 1913, the world began to find artistic value in Asmat ancestral carvings (including musical instruments) and masks, and such items are found in the world’s major museums. In 1953, after the Dutch had defeated local fighters, the Roman Catholic mission in Agats became influential. Its leverage increased after 1963, when the Indonesian government invaded and took control. This government tried to stop local warfare and cannibalism, yet ancestral rituals were still commonly held. The mission’s museum in Agats has collected Asmat carvings, musical instruments, and other artifacts. In 1988, it became known as the Asmat Museum of Culture and Progress, and received financial assistance from by the government’s Department of Education and Culture. The mission and the government encourage Asmat carvers and performers to resist being swamped by tourists’ demands for cheap artifacts.

Promoting trade and enhancing Indonesia’s image, the government has sent Asmat performers to the United States, Britain, and elsewhere. To some Asmat participants and foreign observers, the presentations—of rural sacred arts to urban secular audiences—have seemed incongruous. Such presentations bring to the fore the conflicting perceptions of “insider” Asmat performers and “outsider” foreign audiences.

— MARGARET J. KARTOMI

A syncretic context: Mali Baining

Among the Mali Baining in the early 1970s, a millenarian religious movement, Pomio Kivung, spread widely (Whitehouse 1995). Its main goal was to prepare for and expedite a miracle—in which ancestors would return to life, bringing material wealth. According to the movement’s Christian-syncretic doctrines, those who invested this wealth wisely would merit salvation.

In 1987, mainly in two villages, a splinter party emerged and claimed it could work the miracle on its own. Renouncing its allegiance to the overall movement, it vowed loyalty to local leaders. These acts did more than assert a new and modified religious dogma: they confirmed the autonomy and unity of a small political unit,

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upholding its leaders’ authority. The splinter party relied heavily on new forms of collective ritual, in which music played a prominent role. 

The model for leadership in the splinter party came from a myth relating the adventures of the ancestor Aringawuk, who experienced a mystical journey to the world of the dead. Returning home, he brought news of a new morality, similar to the Ten Commandments. He urged his people to accept this morality, but they did not, and in protest, he hanged himself.

The details of this story appeared in a song partly remembered by elders. As the splinter party coalesced, they pieced the song together, rehearsing in secret. They finally performed it in public, celebrating one man’s dream—that the ancestors had chosen a new leader, Tanotka, to complete Aringawuk’s task. Tanotka was a young man with little communal influence, but in the light of dreams and other sources of revelation, the community elected him to a position of authority and likened him to the central post of a house: as that post supported the rafters, people expected him to carry the community in its quest for the miracle. These ideas found expression in musical performance.

Celebrating the dream

The climax of the celebration of the dream about Tanotka occurred in a meetinghouse. Men occupied about one-third of it, crammed together on a wooden platform. They handled lengths of bamboo, with which they beat rhythms on the planks beneath them. Contrasting with the complexity of their neighbors’ rhythms, which the Mali often copy, “authentic” Mali rhythms are simple. In the song about Aringawuk, an even beat alternated with a polka-like rhythm, three beats followed by a rest.

The accompanying melody had the character of a dirge. It began on a low note (the pitch varying by verse), slid up to a rapid succession of high notes, and fell to the original one. The oscillation between a low register and a high one corresponded to changes of volume: the low note was quiet and somber; the high notes, loud and stirring. While the choir remained strong, melodies and lyrics repeated; but when several of the men’s voices became weak or fell silent, somebody (usually an elder) would begin a new verse, cueing others to unite behind him and sing with gusto. The same technique introduced songs, often selected according to the mood of the man introducing them, or his perceptions of the mood of the assembly. Sometimes few in the choir knew the new song, and another person might introduce a change. The main criterion for a successful rendition was that it be moving or evocative, and this feeling rose and fell with the energy invested in performing.

Fervent singing inspired the women and girls to dance. When the choir sang the song of Aringawuk, men raised a post, symbolizing the leader Tanotka; women danced around it, in a tight, shuffling crowd. Every couple of hours, on average, all rested for up to fifteen minutes. The singing and dancing lasted until dawn:

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Syncretic music and ritual

The musical rendition of the story of Aringawuk inspired perceptions that ordinary speech, or even the most practiced and persuasive oratory, could not have animated. The story itself recounted the failure of the ancestors to unite behind an inspired leader, with tragic results. It recognized the arrival of a new leader and the opportunity for redemption; this time, it asserted, the community would, in the prevalent metaphor, “stand as one person.”

Unified thought and action achieved its most dramatic display in synchronized drumming and singing, the result of careful and strenuous rehearsal. A solid relationship linked the synchrony of musical performance and the unity of the community. The women’s dancing around the housepost affirmed communal allegiance to Tanotka, around whom everyone symbolically gathered. A series of individual declarations of solidarity, however impassioned, could not adequately have conveyed a similar impression.

The advantage of music was that it could communicate the idea of a body of people greater than the individuals of which it was composed—and within that collectivity, it could cultivate strong emotions. The juxtaposition of differing melodies, intensities, and rhythms created ever-shifting moods, from lamentation in grief to affirmation of allegiance. These moods were meanwhile enhanced by the participants’ movements, heat, and odors.

—HARVEY WHITEHOUSE

Christian contexts

In 1871, the London Missionary Society (LMS) ventured into New Guinea. At first, it represented all Protestant religious denominations; later, it became increasingly a society of independent or congregationalist churches. British missionaries saw themselves as leaders in spreading civilization. For many, imperial expansion was a providential means for making converts to Christianity. Some foreign critics concluded that British colonialists were extending their political control under the cloak of Bibles, prayers, sermons, and hymns.

Political events in 1868 and 1869 required the missionaries to withdraw from French territories in Oceania (Prendergast 1968:69). The French government allowed only islanders under its administration to work as religious teachers in French Polynesian territories. Polynesians played important roles as missionaries in New Guinea, where they first arrived in 1872.

The tools of conversion included hymns. The missionaries began with texts in English and German, but soon added local languages. Kate, once spoken by about six hundred people in a handful of villages, spread through the peninsula into upland areas as far west as Mt. Hagen; by the 1950s, about seventy-five thousand persons understood it. In the same way in northeast New Guinea, the Lutheran mission used Gedaged and Jabêm. Between 1898 and 1984, it printed nearly forty hymnals containing texts of hymns, most of which were Western hymns with indigenous texts (Wagner and Reiner 1986:445). Other missions and their languages are Wesleyan (Dobu, Kuaua), Anglican (Binandere, Wedau), Kwati (Suau), LMS (Hiri Motu, Kiwai, Toaripi), and Unevangelized Fields Mission (Gogodala). After the late 1950s, when English became the national language of education, the religious importance of these languages declined.

The 188Os and after

In 1886, Roman Catholic priests founded a mission on Yule Island. Rivalry with Protestants erupted, but with less dissension than in other areas of the Pacific. By 1887, five organizations were working in New Guinea: the LMS; the Order of the Sacred Heart (Roman Catholic); Wesleyan Methodists; and Lutherans from

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Neuendettelsau, Bavaria, who in 1886 had established a mission at Simbang, near Finschhafen. These missions were on coastal strips or in the islands. 

In 1890, the leaders of the Protestant missions divided British New Guinea (Papua) into spheres of influence. The Methodists took responsibility for the islands off the eastern coast. The LMS, the largest mission, took responsibility for the southern coast. The Church of England agreed to evangelize the northeastern coast, where its missionaries first arrived in 1891.

The missions recognized the importance of getting to know the people to whom they were preaching. Roman Catholics demanded obedience on questions of doctrine, but in other matters allowed converts to continue their old ways. Methodists emphasized an ethical, rather than a doctrinal, manner of life, which did not tolerate “heathen” customs. As late as 1925, one LMS missionary, Charles Abel (at Kwato), condemned indigenous drumming and dancing. Anglican missionaries never fully believed that without their intervention the peoples of the Pacific would die out. They seesawed between demanding the eradication of indigenous culture and tolerating some indigenous activities; but they always condemned dancing because they thought its sexual connotations sinful.

New Guineans learned hymns quickly. Communal singing in church paralleled their experience, since indigenous religious rites involved music. The Anglican Church offered pieces by Handel, Keble, Sankey, and Wesley. Nonconformist works, especially those in gospel-song hymnals, were popular at Dogura in 1894, but Anglican clergymen tried to replace them with plainsong. The gospel-song style gained and held popularity. Certain musical influences at Dogura came from the Kwato mission, where children learned sol-fa singing.

Wherever the music came from, each mission stamped it with unique intonation and rhythms. Wesleyan hymns were “bright rousing choruses, while Anglican singing was always slow and lugubrious” (Wetherall 1977:179). Hymns presented Papua New Guineans with particular problems: the music followed a diatonic scale, with a functionally tonal syntax, in Western structures. Indigenous peoples could not understand the words. Their own songs were repetitive, with only a few notes (often only three to five), sung from memory. Western hymns—in books, with many words and long stanzas—required literacy.

The indigenization of hymns

For missionaries in New Guinea, the choice of music for Christian worship was never straightforward. New Guineans sang the Christian message in local languages before they could read. Is a German chorale sung in a vernacular language not wholly indigenous? If an indigenous Christian composes a hymn in imitation of Western examples, is the new composition indigenous? If a text is a translation of an English or German text, but the melody is indigenous, is the new piece indigenous? The permutations of these variables illustrate the complexity of service music in New Guinea. Identified and listed, they illuminate the word indigenous when applied to hymns.

These are the main kinds of MUSICAL indigenization in New Guinea: A.

Existing Western music, printed in hymnals

 

B.

Music composed in a Western style by an indigenous person

 

C.

Music using indigenous musical material, adapted by an indigenous person

 

D.

As C, but adapted by a Westerner

 

E.

Music composed by a Polynesian, as in peroveta

 

F.

Music composed by an indigenous person in a traditional style

 

G.

“Popular” Western style, as in gospel songs

 

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H.Traditional percussion: kundus, garamuts, or kundus with garamuts

 

I.

Conch trumpets

 

J.

Rattles, or other traditional instruments

 

K.

Western instruments, as an organ

 

L.

Guitars, ukuleles

 
These are the main kinds of TEXTUAL indigenization in New Guinea: M.

Existing Western texts, printed in hymnals

 

N.

Western texts (as M), but translated into an indigenous language

 

O.

Composed by an indigenous person in English or German, based on Western theology

 

P.

Composed by an indigenous person in an indigenous language, based on Western theology

 

Q.

Composed by an indigenous person in an indigenous language, based on New Guinean theology

 

R.

Western (as M), but translated into Tok Pisin

 

S.

Composed in Tok Pisin by an indigenous person

 

T.

Composed in Tok Pisin by a Polynesian

 
These are the main kinds of local indigenization in DANCE: U.

Movement and costume from indigenous traditions

 

V.

Movement and costume from Polynesia

 
In some missionaries’ minds, any permutation except A + M marked a hymn as indigenous, even if only one of the other variables were present. There could therefore be shades of indigenization: A + N, A + O, B + N, B + O, and so on. The most common pattern, in all religions throughout Papua New Guinea, is A + R, a Western hymn with words translated into Tok Pisin.

 

Peroveta

In Central, Gulf, and Western provinces, one unique influence remains: peroveta ‘prophet’, Polynesian music brought by Polynesian LMS missionaries. The people of those provinces believe this influence came from Fiji, Tonga, Sāmoa, or Rarotonga. To learn to sing and dance peroveta, delegations from Western Province annually visit Rarotonga.

The singing of peroveta falls mainly to a mixed choir in two parts. The texts tell of biblical prophets. Dance, an essential element of the genre, illustrates the narratives (figure 3). The songs, often responsorial, frequently use percussive vocalizations typical of certain Polynesian male singing. Though some local people consider peroveta to be thoroughly indigenous, its phrases are longer than those of local songs, and many of its pieces are in a language unknown to the singers.

Conch bands

From 1902 to 1932, the Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn served in New Guinea as a Lutheran missionary. To accompany singing in Christian contexts, he formed bands whose instruments were shells of gastropods of genera Cassis, Fusus, Strombus, and Triton (figure 4). Through holes drilled through the apex or the side, players buzzed their lips. Instruments were of graded sizes: the larger the shell, the lower the pitch.

In 1920, Zahn saw the chance of using these trumpets in four-part harmony—an effect that occurred in precontact music only as the result of accidental melodic overlapping. Zahn’s first band, in 1925, consisted of nineteen conchs. Each shell produced one note, tuned to the diatonic scale. Zahn’s bands gave intonational support

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FIGURE 3 During the Hiri Moale Festival, a choir performs in a perovetacompetition. Photo by Don Niles, 1991.to New Guinean Christians who had difficulty singing in tune. Another solution might have been to import a harmonium, but the Lutherans took pride in using locally available materials. These bands were unique in Oceania. Their heyday lasted three years (1925-1927). One band played at Hocpoi, one in the middle school at Watsutieng-Logaweng, and one in the church at Malalo. 

Before Zahn could form the band, he had to overcome two problems: to obtain conchs and devise a method by which the players could read music. He introduced a notation using the numerals 1 to 7, with 1 representing the tonic (figure 5). He marked lower and upper octaves with dots below or above the numerals respectively. Two (or more) dots below (or above) indicate two (or more) octaves down (or up). Zero denotes a rest. A dot after a figure doubles a duration. Lines above numerals show rhythm: one line marks an eighth; two lines, a sixteenth. An asterisk indicates a flat.

The Conchshell-Hymnal (Zahn 1959) contains eighty-three hymns, some with multiple titles in English, German, and Jabêm. Some hymns have up to five titles. The disposition of the languages hints at the popularity of a particular hymn or the suitability of a text to a language area. Having each person play one tone imposes restrictions on the music, since the coordination of fast notes would be difficult. Zahn responded to this concern by choosing hymns in block chords with simple harmonies, mostly triads in root position.

Around 1927, trumpets, tubas, a baritone, and a trombone—a gift from the Evangelical Trumpet Band Association of Bavaria—arrived at Hocpoi. Zahn taught young people to play these instruments. He then amalgamated his bands: for a few months, ten brasses and twenty-five conchs accompanied hymns in Hocpoi.

Several conch-band revivals have occurred. At Lac around 1955, an expatriate teacher formed a band at Bumayong High School, near the Lutheran headquarters. Revivals occurred briefly at Asaroka Lutheran High School in the 1960s; Bukawa in 1964 and 1983; Logaweng Seminary, Finschhafen, in 1982; and Germany in 1953 and 1972 (Muhlenhard 1983).

Later trends

After Papua New Guinean independence, the missions formulated a policy of indigenizing the liturgy, music, language, and clergy. This policy changed the emphasis

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FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany.from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars. 

In rural performances of the 1990s, the distribution of musical styles might be 10 percent hymns (English and translated versions), 10 percent choruses (with guitar), and 80 percent indigenized music (with kundus). The proportions in urban parishes are possibly 45 percent, 45 percent, and 10 percent, respectively.

Papua New Guinean Anglicans have their own hymnal, with 280 hymns. Many of its texts come from standard British hymnals (Hymns Ancient and Modern Revised 1947; Vaughan Williams, Shaw, and Dearmer 1925), but churches use many modern hymns, often with a repeated chorus. The Lutheran Hymnbook, reflecting its origins, features German chorales. The United Reform Church uses Wesleyan hymns, whose texts expound the strict morality of nineteenth-century Nonconformism. Evangelical churches favor the musical simplicity of gospel songs, encouraging congregations to clap and dance as they sing. —ANNE M. GEE

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FIGURE 5 Conch-band notation: the beginning of “Onward Christian Soldiers” (Zahn 1959). The symbol ∗5 is a flat fifth, though the functional tonality of the note is a sharp fourth. By permission of Kristen Pres Incorporated, Madang, Papua New Guinea.MELANESIA: VANUATU

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In Vanuatu, where notions of the secular are importations, all music bears the influence of religious experience. The ni-Vanuatu (indigenous peoples) distinguish between animistic practices and Christian sects, often nominal, in that elements of old beliefs permeate them. The national motto is We Stand With God (Long God Yumi Stanup), but savvy pagans—15 percent of the population, living mainly on Espiritu Santo, Pentecost, and Malakula—ask which god politicians and clerics have in mind. The resulting conflicts have overt musical implications.

On many northern islands, neighboring villages compete in sawagoro-like dance-songs. In numbers, vigor, volume, and choice of music, one side tries to surpass another. Historical interpretation is a field for combat, on which villagers define their local identities by mobilizing myths and metaphors. To show sophistication, performers select pieces illustrating heroic or even antiheroic stances. One side waits for the other to finish, and fills pauses between items with smartly apposite items. On Ambae in the early 1990s, an Adventist village might have sung popular “Christian choruses” from the European-American campfire ecumenical tradition, advocating puritan virtues. Other villages might have answered it with a sawagoro about a hero who achieved renown by apparent transgressions: lies, adulteries, murders, wars. Comprehensive and subtle, the irony may elude missionaries’ ken. Villages that have renounced custom because of sectarian dictates (Seventh-Day Adventists, Apostolic Church, Church of Christ) often appreciate most sharply the importance of indigenous music. To keep up the interface between custom and importation, they maintain links with laxer Christian sects (Anglicans, Roman Catholics).

Despite rejuvenating events, musical variety often gives way to imported uniformity. By the 1990s, Vanuatu’s 105 languages of the 1970s (each with music related to specific terrains) had dwindled. Conscious of loss, peoples looked inward to cultural specificities in their languages, and produced songs in a mixture of dialect and neo-Melanesian—in what outsiders sometimes thought to be innocuous string-band music, a pan-Pacific style, in which, typically, performers recount boy-meets-girl situations. Though some of the music builds false happiness, some is social commentary in disguise. Apt subjects are adultery, incest, rape, murder, treason. The pretty mask of innocence cozens missionaries and ni-Vanuatu politicians, struggling to homogenize their peoples. Once pierced, the surface of much pan-Pacific pop never looks the same. The ubiquitous string band, Vanuatu’s vigorous, cutting-edge form, where “you have to know the words,” has a deadly, religious-political side.

The content of string-band lyrics comes directly from indigenous song. The government bans some old forms, such as the East Ambae tanumwe, which musicians no longer compose because they deal with technical incest (intramoiety cohabitation), a matter religious people do not tolerate, though they know it persists. Whenever someone sings one of these songs, a crowd gathers and weeps.

Songs and dances join religious forms in marking notable public events. The completion of a building, a well, a windmill—all demand rituals of consecration. In 1977, the Nagriamel Party celebrated with a ceremony the opening of a new road. A suicide eased the question of who should inherit the land, resident colonial commissioners unknowingly ate forbidden pigeons (which they had put on a protected list), and people from the hinterland danced na polo counterclockwise and killed hermaphrodite pigs. At the other end of the road, performers did double-line dances to the accompaniment of an accordion, instead of double raft panpipes; they said the accordion played “much the same sounds.” At any point in such ceremonies, people may break out into nineteenth-century evangelical hymns, such as “Shall We Gather by the River?”

In church-run schools, students typically learn music from a blackboard display

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of sol-fa notation, taken from hymnals published in England. They ignore end-line and mid-line pauses or prolongations, and the sung result is irregular tempo, often with novel rhythmic effects. Neither in hymns nor in string-band songs, their popular offspring, are phrases equal in duration. The aesthetically admired manner of singing requires volume as loud as possible, and no vibrato. 

In 1977, a religious performance used inaudible music. For tribute at a bishop’s consecration, all communities of the diocese presented dances. People from Mota, Motalava, and Maewo displayed elaborate headgear and dress. In perfect synchrony, they danced silently, to music heard only in their heads. Conclusively, punctiliously, they then destroyed their garb. None in the audience knew what religious sentiments they had been expressing.

In the 1970s, high-church Anglicans encouraged a fusion of indigenous and Christian cultures, and local composers set the text of the Anglican Mass to Mota melodies. Fundamentalist Christian sects have pushed ritual music to elementary levels, but more complex religious music might arise from inspiration by international contact on occasions such as the Pacific Festival of Arts. —PETER RUSSELL CROWE

MICRONESIA: YAP

To Yap in 1886 Spanish Capuchin missionaries brought Gregorian chants, the music of the Roman Catholic Church. Distributed among the sections of the Mass, and proper to the day and time, these pieces display various monophonic styles and structures.

In 1903, German missionaries brought another language and different customs. Hymns performed on Yap in the mid-1990s show that the linguistic legacy of German missionaries exceeded that of Spanish ones. German words have made their way into Yapese, most likely as a result of being in religious music. An example is the text of the Agnus Dei, “Saaf ku Goof” (‘Lamb of God’, figure 6). The Yapese word saaf comes from the German word Schaf’sheep’; and Got, from the German Gott ‘God’ (Jensen 1977).

Most hymns performed on Yap have been adapted from conventional hymns or carols. “Felfelan’dad” (‘Let’s Be Joyful’) is widely known beyond Yap as “Joy to the World,” and “Nep ni Zozup” (‘Holy Night’) is based on “Silent Night.” Not all such melodies, however, come from international classics; often, though, the texts are literal translations from English into Yapese.

Yapese hymns have been collected and printed in Ngadatanggad ku Samol (Songs of the Savior), which sorts them by their role in the Mass, their seasonal use, or their topic, such as songs of Mary (tang ku Maria), songs of the dead (tang ko yam), songs

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FIGURE 6 The Agnus Dei as performed on Yap in the mid-1990s. Transcription by Deirdre Marshall-Dean.

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of the Mass (tang ko Misa). At the beginning of the book is a collection of general hymns, not all of which conform with the melodies of standard Roman Catholic hymns. 

Taking melodies from international pop, local composers have created hymns. The most notable of these is the Christmas song “Ke Yib Fare Raen” (‘The Light Has Come’), based on Simon and Garfunkel’s melody “The Sound of Silence.”

Yapese sing hymns outside religious services—at parties and village celebrations, usually unaccompanied and in unison. One such piece is the communion hymn “Kammagar Samol” (‘Thank You, Lord’), based on the song “Kumbaya.” A possible reason for using that music with Yapese words is the phonetic similarity between kumbaya and kammagar. —DEIRDRE MARSHALL-DEAN

POLYNESIA

Important religious concepts of Polynesia included the origin of the universe and connections among gods, ancestors, and humans. These connections were ritually maintained through music and dance, systems of knowledge that hereditary experts held in memory. Gods and people formed a continuum of the sacred and the profane. As gods were sacred and people profane, so were chiefs sacred and commoners profane. This axiom underlay Polynesians’ sociocultural organization, justifying ranked social and kinship structures. It still underlies many Polynesian interpersonal relationships.

The details of Polynesian cosmogony remain to be worked out, but the Proto-Polynesian universe probably began with a primary void. From it came heaven and earth, personified as a sky-father and an earth-mother, who clung in a warm embrace until they were pushed apart by one of the four great Polynesian gods—Tāne, Tangaroa, Tū, and Rongo—or sometimes by a lesser god (or demigod), Maui. In Hawai’i, rather than rending heaven and earth, the sky-father and earth-mother, with various partners, gave birth to the individual islands of the Hawaiian chain.

These gods took various forms throughout Polynesia. They concerned themselves with the creation of the universe, most elements of nature, the other gods, and human beings. They displayed human dispositions, and had to be honored, worshiped, and appeased. Each island or cluster of islands had a unique cast of lesser deities, emphasizing locally salient plants, animals, and natural phenomena. Special gods—like Pele, the goddess of volcanos in Hawai’i—met the requirements of special natural environments (figure 7).

The underlying set of principles through which Polynesians interpreted their world and organized their social lives included mana and taboo (tapu), concepts intertwined with ideas of rank based on divine descent. Mana, possibly best glossed ‘supernatural power’, was a generative force, often linked with genealogical rank, fertility, and protocol. It was protected by taboos, some of which had musical significance because they were charms, activated by the recitation of verbal formulas. As

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FIGURE 7 Near the edge of Hale Ma’uma’u Crater, Hawai’i, Hālau o Kekuhi perform a hulain honor of Pele, the volcano goddess. The teachers of this school, the Kanaka’ole sisters Nalani and Pualani, received a National Heritage Fellowship in 1993. Photo by Adrienne L. Kaeppler, 1982.restrictions on behavior, some taboos were made visible by signs, like a bent branch, or a specially plaited frond attached to a tree to protect its wood, its leaves, or its fruit. Other taboos were conceptual, supported by myths and other intangible tokens of morality (Handy 1927).

 

West Polynesia

In West Polynesia, Tangaloa (East Polynesian Tangaroa) and Maui were the important male god and demigod, respectively, and Hikule’o (Tonga) or Saveasi’uleo (Samoa) governed Pulotu, the underworld. In Tonga, Maui pushed up the skies, ordered in ten layers. Tangaloa was the sole creator, whose universe was the ocean and a many-tiered sky. In Sāmoa, he threw a rock into the ocean, and it became the island of Manu’a. (Alternate myths exist.) The Tongan islands were said to have been created when the gods threw down chips of wood from their workshops. Maui or Tangaloa used special fishhooks to fish up certain islands from the sea.

The origin of the universe

The organization of the universe and important events in the lives of gods or chiefs were embodied in songs and dances that became chronicles of history and geography. The following excerpt, from Tonga, describes the role of Maui and the layers of the heavens (after Kaeppler 1976:202-203).

Na’e fakatupu hotau fonua, Our land was created,
‘O fakapulonga mei ‘olunga, Shrouded from above,
Pea tau totolo hangē ha unga. And we crawled like crabs.
Langi tu’o taha, langi tu’o ua, The first and second skies
Tala ange kia Maui Motu’a Tell to Maui Motu’a
Ke ne teketeke ke ma’olunga To push them high
Ke havilivili he ‘oku pupuha, So the breeze can come in, for it is hot,
Pea fakamaama e fanua. And bring light to the land.
Pea tau tu’u hake ki ‘olunga, And then we stood up,
‘O ‘eve’eva fakamafutofuta. And walked about proudly.
Langi tu’o taha, langi tu’o ua, The first and second skies
Ko e langi pe ‘a Maui Motu’a. Are the skies of Maui Motu’a.
Langi tu’o tolu, langi tu’o fā, The third and fourth skies,

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Nofo ai ‘a ‘Ūfia mo Latā: Are the living places of ‘Ūfia and Latā:
Ko e langi kehe, langi ‘uha, These are separate skies, the rainy sky,
Na ‘ufia e langi ma’a, That covers the cloudless sky,
Pea lilo ai Tapukitea. Where Tapukitea is hidden.

Tapukitea is Venus, the morning and evening star. Later verses mention the origin of the Milky Way and certain climatological features.

 

West Polynesian myths also recount the origin of chiefly titles and kava rituals, linking political structures with other beliefs, and making political and religious concepts suitable topics for the poetry performed at kava ceremonies. In Sāmoa, Tagaloa (Tangaloa) had kava brought from heaven to slake his thirst (Pratt 1891:164). In Futuna, a man obtained kava from spirits in a trance (Burrows 1945:59). A Tongan and Sāmoan myth says kava first grew from the buried body of a chief’s leprous daughter.

The maintenance of order

Taboo contrasted with permitted behavior. The contrast was sometimes explicit, as in Samoa, where notions of the bound (sā) and the free (fua) affected many aspects of life. In Sāmoa since missionization, the Christian day of restricted behavior has been Sunday (aso Sā ‘bound day’), and the people’s first day free of its restrictions has been Monday (aso Gafua ‘free day’). Hence a song of Savai’i, current around 1900:

‘O le tulī ma le ve’a fiafia aso Gafua. The tern and the rail enjoy Mondays.
Kilekuā aso Sā, kilekuā! Kilekuā Sundays, kilekuā!

As with many Polynesian lyrics, even in children’s songs, this text is metaphorical: by saying a seabird (the tern) and a landbird (the rail) enjoy Mondays, it means that all birds—all people—do.

 

Belief in gods and spirits occasioned the performance of several kinds of music. Recitations of prayers were common, by heads of households on behalf of families, and village priests on behalf of communities. In old Sāmoa, annual offerings of food to gods were “associated with games, sham-fights, night-dances” (Turner 1884:20), and a conch served as the emblem of certain gods of war (Stair 1897:221). In the West Polynesian outlier Tikopia, a cycle of seasonal rituals, the Work of the Gods, occasioned the performance of kava, reciting, singing, and dancing (Firth 1967).

Religious beliefs also underlay funeral customs. Laments were a standard feature of indigenous music; some were performed with conventionally intoned sighing, wailing, and sobbing (Kaeppler 1993b; Mayer and Nau 1976), but others were not always somber, weepy, or lugubrious. In old S̄moa, survivors let a dead chief’s body decompose; they eventually severed the head and interred it, but did so with feasting and dancing (Brown 1972 [1910]:405). After the Western missionaries’ arrival, funerals became Christian events, which followed Christian liturgies. In Sāmoa, Protestant funerals end with a performance of the hymn “‘Ia Fa’atasi Pea Iesū ma ‘Oe,” a version of the nineteenth-century evangelical hymn “God Be with You.”

Today, most West Polynesians are Christians. Elaborate churches are familiar aspects of the landscape. In addition to furnishing music for worship, choirs compete in festivals, in their home countries and abroad.

—ADRIENNE L. KAEPPLER, J. W. LOVE

Christian music in Tonga

In 1822, Wesleyan missionaries arrived in Tonga and immediately saw how important music was in Tongan life. On 2 December 1827, a simple hymn of two stanzas,

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composed by the missionary Nathaniel Turner, was sung at a religious service—the first time a Christian hymn was sung in the Tongan language. During the first thirty years of Christianity in Tonga, Methodist missionaries translated many hymns composed by Charles Wesley (1707-1788). The Te Deum was sung in Tongan as early as 1839, at the marriage of Sālote, daughter of Taufa’āhau (later King Tupou I), to a high-ranking chief, the Tu’i Pelehake. The first Tongan hymnal (1849) contained 189 hymns. Missionary Walter Lawry, in a visit in 1850, observed the worship in Nuku’alofa: “The beautiful harmony with which they went through the responses in the Morning Service was very affecting, in tones like the sound of many waters” (Wood 1975:1:91). 

James Egan Moulton and his numerical notation

In 1865, the Rev. (later Dr.) James Egan Moulton (1841-1909) came from England as a missionary and teacher. In 1866, he founded Tupou College, now the biggest boys’ secondary boarding school in the South Pacific. His brilliance as a theologian, linguist, and musician is still recognized. Words and phrases from his hymns have become proverbial in the Tongan language, quoted in public in various settings. Moulton retranslated hymns and the liturgy into stately Tongan, replacing what the early missionaries, with a less fluent knowledge of the language, had produced.

Though the Roman Catholic and Methodist churches shared the pioneering of Christianity in Tonga, it is Moulton’s contribution that is musically outstanding. Composing hymns for the students of Tupou College, he began to introduce music written in sol-fa, but when he started to teach, he learned that certain combinations of syllables were indelicate words in Tongan. He then devised a numerical notation, which Tongan churches and schools still use, even for eight-part anthems and music for bands.

By introducing a system of notation, Moulton brought to Tonga the European oratorio tradition. Handel’s Messiah, Haydn’s Creation, and Mendelssohn’s Elijah soon became familiar. Moulton’s Tongan translations of favorites such as “Abide with Me,” “Jesus, Lover of My Soul,” “Nearer, My God, to Thee,” and “When I Survey the Wondrous Cross” have become part of the cultural heritage of the Tongan people.

Moulton’s techniques of translating

Moulton used his linguistic and theological skills to weave meaningful illustrations into his interpretations of hymns. In the Tongan version of Joseph Scriven’s text “What a Friend We Have in Jesus,” especially the lines “Are we weak and heavyladen, / Cumbered with a load of care,” Moulton used the idea of a father and son going to the garden to get food for the family. The food was carried in a coconut-leaf basket hung on a long stick, the father resting one end of the stick on his shoulder, and the son taking the other end. When the father would draw the basket closer to his end, he would take more of the weight of the load, lightening it for his son. Reinterpreting the hymn, Moulton wrote:

Ka ne ‘ave ki he ‘Eiki, si’o ngaahi fu’u mo’ua,

Te ne ala pe ‘o hiki, hilifaki hono uma:

Te ne toho pe ke ofi ‘au pe hono ma’ama’a.

Tu’u totonu ‘o malohi, faingofua ‘a e faingata’a.

If you take your burdens to the Lord,

He will lift them on to his shoulder:

He will pull the burden closer to make your load lighter.

Stand tall and be strong, and the burden will be easy.

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For Frances Havergal’s hymn “Master, Speak! Thy Servant Heareth,” Moulton began with the idea of a master-servant relationship. He added the story of the calling of Samuel, to produce what has become a favorite Tongan children’s hymn, “‘Amusia ‘a Samiuela hono ui ‘e he ‘Eiki” (‘Oh that I were Samuel to be called by the Lord’).

Some favorite hymns are Moulton’s own lyrics, set to widely known tunes. “‘E ‘Eiki, ke ke me’a mai ‘a e anga ‘eku nofo” (‘See, Lord, the way I live’) illustrates his skill in evoking culturally important imagery. His lyrics meditate on the temptations that surround our lives, trying to trap us:

‘Omi ha konisenisi hange ha tama’imata,

Ke u kalo ‘oka lave si’i ha me’i angahala.

Give me a conscience as sensitive as the pupil of the eye,

So that I will turn away if a speck of sin touches it.

In other texts, Moulton used illustrations from the sea, deeply familiar to an ocean-bound people. In Tongan minds, his hymns evoke important meanings and values associated with outriggers, sails, masts, harbors, storms, and anchors. Noted Tongan scholars have said that no Tongan has equaled his use of the Tongan language.

 

Moulton’s followers

Moulton imbued his students with his love of hymns. When they graduated and returned to their villages, they formed choirs and taught their congregations music they had learned at the college. In 1935, Dr. A. Harold Wood (1896-1989, another musician, also principal of the college) introduced choral competitions, which became so popular that choirs of a hundred or more voices now travel from all over the islands to participate.

Over the years, outstanding Tongan musicians have worked in Christian musical idioms. Tevita Tu’ipulotu Taumoefolau (1915-1981) and Feleti Sitoa Siale (1912-1996) of the Free Wesleyan Church, and Sofele Kakala (1916-1991) of the Roman Catholic Church, were exceptional Tongan choirmasters. Kakala composed Tongan-language masses that incorporated indigenous Tongan melodic contours, and the Vatican honored him for his music. —HELEN TALIAI, SIUPELI TALIAI

Christian music in Sāmoa

In 1830, LMS missionaries arrived in Sāpapāli’i, Savai’i, and King Mālietoa Vaiinupō accepted them. At first, Tahitian and Rarotongan teachers conducted hymns and services in their own languages (Faleto’ese 1961:85); later, missionaries composed Sāmoan texts, for which they borrowed simple melodies from various sources. After the 1840s, when the missionaries established seminaries (Mālua and Pīula), Sāmoans learned English hymns. Graduates from these institutions, as pastors throughout the islands, took these hymns to villages, where they can still be heard in churches and family prayers.

Musical traits of hymns

In modern arrangements, the melody can occur in the soprano or the tenor, or be distributed among four parts; or its melodic line may be hidden and carried by one or two voices. Descants, mostly in the major mode, sometimes decorate hymns. The crossing of voices is uncommon.

Harmonic structure resembles that of English hymns. The diminished chord, a foreign trademark, is popular; it appeared early in Sāmoan hymnals, and later in songs by local composers. Parallel fourths rarely occur. Vocal duets and trios have

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become popular in late-twentieth-century sacred music. A feature of sacred music original to local composers is a parallel movement of inner voices (alto and tenor) in a final cadence or final chord that, in an amen gesture, restates the last line or words of a verse or refrain. 

Harmonic modulation between stanzas came from abroad. In the 1980s, modulation a semitone upward became a favorite way to connect stanzas and hymns, and to end the last section of a song. As a result of repeated upward modulations, sopranos sometimes approach final cadences straining to reach the pitch. The singing of high notes results in straining and nasality, named by several Sāmoan terms: fa’ataiō, fa’aumu, and pese i le isu ‘sing through the nose’.

Rhythms, whether fast or slow, usually derive from textual pronunciation. Short vowels tend to have notes of shorter duration than long vowels. Directors or organists usually start with the music before adding words. Using a text improperly in borrowed music may violate the relationship of vowel length and rhythm, making certain words sound awkward, and even changing their meaning.

In the treatment of tempos, pace reflects mood: texts about tragic events are slow, and texts about joyful events are fast. To specify tempo in written music, local composers write a Sāmoan word that describes the tempo they prefer; for example, the term laulausiva (in other contexts the name of an introductory item with gestures and claps) prescribes a lively, fast tempo.

Strophic form, a trait of many indigenous songs, occurs in Sāmoan hymns. Anthems based on biblical texts are through-composed, with or without repeated sections. Large works called psalms (salamo) have three movements—fast, slow, fast—with an introduction and interludes. Other religious compositions have a development and a coda. Strophic and through-composed hymns have a tendency to repeat each stanza, the refrain after the last stanza, and the last lines of the refrain.

Variations in dynamics are uncommon in Sāmoan religious performances. A piece is sung loudly until the last refrain, which the choir first sings softly and then loudly; the soft singing signals that the hymn will soon end.

The singing of hymns once had a nasal timbre, especially in soprano and tenor voices, which, by carrying the melody in alternation or doubling, stood out from other parts; but in the late 1990s, this nasality is diminishing. Most Sāmoan choral directors do not like it, and try to change it during warm-up exercises (figure 8). Directors also try to control vibrato, three kinds of which are becoming popular in sacred choirs: a fast tremolo, as if quivering (tete pei e ma’alili ‘tremble as if shivering’); a yelling vibrato, with the mouth widely open (tete fa’aumu, or tete fa’ataiō); and a slow, hollow vibrato, resulting from lowering the jaw (leo tete fa’a’ō’ō).

The texts of Sāmoan religious music use the formal register, with the phoneme /t/ pronounced [t]; this register also serves for reciting religious verses, saying prayers, and giving sermons. A controversial textual practice in religious music of the 1980s and 1990s has been to use secular terms, like proverbs and legendary allusions—phrases typically spoken by orators and chiefs in settings outside the church.

Typical plans of worship

Each denomination follows its own order of worship, with slight variations. In Protestant churches, this plan is typical: 1.

Organ prelude, optional

 

2.

Invocation (tatalo ‘āmata), said by the pastor or catechist (ta’ita’i)

 

3.

Hymn (pese fa’afetai or Agāga Pa’ia), sung by the choir and the congregation

 

4.

Long prayer (tatalo ‘umi), said by the pastor or the catechist

 

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FIGURE 8 In Pago Pago, the choir of the Congregational Church of Jesus in Samoa rehearses. Photo by Leua Frost, 1995.5.The Lord’s Prayer, sung by everyone present in a musical version standard throughout Sāmoa. In the Mass, many Roman Catholic congregations also sing this version of the music

 

6.

Hymn, sung by the choir and congregation

 

7.

Skits, optionally inserted by Sunday-school students; especially in Methodist churches in Tutuila, the idea of skits was introduced by the late Rev. Fa’atauva’a Tapua’i, pastor of Susana Uesile Methodist Church in Tafuna and chairman of the National Council of Churches in American Sāmoa

 

8.

Sermon (lāuga), by the pastor or the catechist

 

9.

Hymn, sung by the choir and congregation; at special services, like the anniversary of the founding of the local parish, the choir may at this point present an anthem, or the congregation may sing a psalm to a European psalmodic formula

 

10.

Organ postlude, optional

 
Solo singing is popular in weddings, funerals, and sections of some anthems and psalms.

 

Protestant congregational singing includes hymns from Britain and the United States, especially Sunday-school songs, some in versions maintained orally from the 1800s. Their texts are usually Sāmoan translations by LMS missionaries (whose churches now form the ‘Ekālesia Fa’apotopotoga Kerisiano i Sāmoa) and Methodist missionaries. Protestant services may feature solo, duet, trio, or other small-ensemble performances of gospel or pop adaptations, accompanied by synthesizers or other musical instruments.

Roman Catholic churches follow the order of worship specified in standard liturgical books, but Sāmoan priests make minor adjustments for special services. Many congregations sing hymns—music and text—borrowed from Protestant hymnals. Musical traits particular to Roman Catholic services include responsorial singing between a cantor or a priest and the congregation; the singing of Latin texts, or of Sāmoan texts translated from Latin; and the adaptation of Sāmoan texts and music.

Much music is felt equally appropriate for Roman Catholic and Protestant churches. The main reason is that Roman Catholic churches hire Protestant choir directors. The major forces behind this trend were two composers from the Congregational Church of Jesus in Samoa, Mata’utia Pene Solomona and Elder Mr.

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Ioselani Pouesi, who taught many of today’s choir directors, and composed music for Roman Catholic and Protestant hymnals. 

Musical philosophy

Protestant pastors believe musicians play an important part in religious services. A common phrase they use when thanking musicians is E mafai e le pese ona lāuga, ‘ae lē mafai e le lāuga ona pese ‘A song can preach, but a sermon can’t sing’. Pastors who graduated from theological colleges are said to have been the first choristers (faipese) in village choirs; in some areas, this tradition continues. Some congregations accept that pastors must control the choir; others reject this relationship. Disgruntled members of the church voice their disagreement to pastors by quoting a common phrase: “The job for which we brought you here to our village is your Bible, not music.”

Before the mid-1900s, pastors allowed organists and choirs to select songs for Sundays because the organists could play only by ear (tā fa’alogo) or by fluke (tā fuluka): they needed time to learn to play new hymns and teach them to the choir. By the 1990s, however, most village choirs included one or more persons who could read musical notation, and pastors exercised more choice in selecting hymns.

Conservative pastors prefer to maintain older styles of performing: singing accompanied by an organ (pump or electric), or unaccompanied. They believe the use of keyboards with small log idiophones (pātē) distracts congregations; they disparage the use of pop tunes. But some choristers quote biblical phrases to support the idea that the use of drums and other instruments to praise the deity is theologically acceptable. Some pastors allow drumming, clapping, and dancing in Sunday school and during special services, like White Sunday (Lotu a Tamaiti), the second Sunday in October, when children regale the congregation with religious recitations, songs, and skits.

In the western islands, some Methodist churches put the organ aside and employ sets of pātē, each instrument with a unique pitch; some Roman Catholic churches also allow pātē. Other churches use brasses, woodwinds, and an electric organ. The Assembly of God has begun using electric guitars. Portable keyboards with built-in percussion are fashionable in several denominations. Innovation comes from musicians influenced by popular music, and from American popular or gospel artists, including Michael Jackson and Gloria and William J. Gaither.

—Paul Vaiinupō Pouesi

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FIGURE 9 Pushing up the sky with the feet is a recurring theme in Polynesian religious texts, here featured in sculpture as part of the stand of a Hawaiian pūniu. Photo by Bishop Museum.East Polynesia

Religious experience in East Polynesia underwent dramatic transformations when, largely by the mid-1800s, Polynesians devalued indigenous religious practices to embrace Christianity. Within each society, the role of music has remained central, albeit in different ways. The continuity of certain structural concepts from indigenous spirituality suggests uniquely Polynesian configurations in religious experience, many of which manifest themselves in musical performances (Forman 1982; Garrett 1982) (figure 9), including those in secular contexts.

Several core concepts mark spirituality throughout East Polynesia. The central concept is mana, a dynamic force, regulated through interdictions (tapu, Hawaiian kapu), which keep the sacred separate from the secular. Regulating the flow of mana in and through people and objects was an objective of religious and spiritual practices on at least two levels. First, elaborate state rituals of invocation to major deities, performed on stone temple platforms, legitimized ruling chiefs and maintained stratified social orders, especially in Hawai’i (figure 10) and Tahiti; an elite class of priests closely guarded knowledge of these rituals (Kaeppler 1993a). Second, lesser rituals of supplication to minor deities and animistic spirits permeated daily life; these were

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FIGURE 10 Religious architecture in East Polynesia: center, a reconstructed Hawaiian temple (heiau) at Kailua-Kona, Hawai’i; right, the spire of Mokuaikaua Church, on the site where, in 1820, missionaries from Boston established the first Christian church in the Hawaiian archipelago. Photo by Adrienne L. Kaeppler, 1996.performed in front of altars whose purposes and locations varied from domestic to occupation-specific concerns. 

Central to rituals on all levels were prayers. Uttered in various styles of declaimed speech, these were rendered conceptually distinct from speech by generic classifications, simultaneously in three domains: subject, rhetoric, and declamation. Prayers were believed to effect desired ends because of sanctity inherent in the formulaic statements, as is illustrated in the Hawaiian proverb I ka ‘ōlelo ke ola, i ka ‘ōlelo ka make ‘In the word is life, in the word is death’, and in a belief in dire consequences for prayers incorrectly uttered (Tatar 1982; Valeri 1985).

In the earliest postcontact decades, East Polynesians saw outsiders transgress tapu without retribution, and experienced the compromised effectiveness of tapu in the face of new technologies of production and warfare. They widely considered Christianity a means for obtaining prestige-associated foreign goods. On missionization, they had already renounced the tapu system, or were on the verge of doing so.

Effects of Christianity

Locale-specific configurations of historical circumstances accounted for important differences in denomination and colonization, affecting musical practices. LMS missionaries began evangelical work in the Society Islands in 1797. Helped by Tahitian catechists, they expanded westward to the Austral and Cook islands in the 1820s. American Congregationalists of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions began a mission in the Hawaiian Islands in 1820.

Roman Catholic priests, regarded as a religious arm of French colonial aspirations, faced initial resistance in areas where substantial populations had converted to Protestantism and Protestant missions enjoyed ranking chiefs’ support; the priests had their greatest successes in the Gambier, Marquesas, and Tuamotu archipelagoes, which have remained predominantly Roman Catholic. Among the Maori in Aotearoa, denominational diversity prevailed, as Anglican, Roman Catholic, and Wesleyan Methodist missionaries competed for converts, beginning in the 1820s and 1830s.

Musical ramifications of conversion to Christianity vary throughout East Polynesia. In Protestant areas, missionaries vigorously worked to suppress indigenous practices; those that survived decades of censure did so underground. In Roman Catholic areas, priests tolerated some indigenous activities as resources that could be developed for devotional purposes: hence the emergence of Mangarevan

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‘akamagareva, devotional hymns in the format of kapa, and Marquesan ru’u, chants with devotional texts. American missionaries in Hawai’i taught musical literacy and the use of Western musical notation (Stillman 1993); in contrast, LMS missionaries in the Society, Austral, and Cook islands relied on oral instruction and transmission (Babadzan 1982).

 

Indigenous practices, resurfacing with vigor in the 1830s and 1840s, began to coexist with the singing of Christian hymns. Out of that coexistence emerged new musical styles, which fused aspects of Western melody and harmony with indigenous vocal styles and textures, chief among them the multipart choral tradition of central East Polynesia, known as hīmene in the Society and Austral islands, and ‘īmene in the Cook Islands. (These are vernacular forms of the English term hymn.) These styles emerged largely within Christian worship and devotional contexts, where they have strengthened and enhanced the expression of Christian faith. Many of them, taken into secular contexts and infused with secular subjects, coexist alongside their models (Stillman 1991).

Survivals and revivals

Christianity in East Polynesia accommodates beliefs and practices stemming from indigenous spirituality. Notions of mana continue to inform Christian supplications, as do notions of rank, status, and prestige in the social organizations of village parishes; this is especially notable in village pastors’ and priests’ oratory. Such hierarchies are leveled, however, in congregational singing, which requires cooperative participation. Belief in, and respect for, ancestral spirits persists.

Though Christian hymns continue to play a major role in islanders’ daily lives, indigenous spirituality has been reawakening in the 1980s and 1990s. This trend has especially characterized colonized areas, where political activism is aimed at restoring self-determination. Struggles to regain access to lands and redress environmental imbalances (formerly regulated by tapu) have focused on lands identified as having precontact religious significance.

Since the mid-1970s, a resurgence of voyaging, through the revival of Polynesian navigation, has stimulated a revival of corresponding rituals, ceremonies, oratory, invocations, and styles of performance required for their presentation. In 1995, the convergence of sailing canoes from various East Polynesian areas at the sacred site of Taputapuatea (Ra’iatea, leeward Society Islands) marked a formal reestablishing of ancestral relationships among Polynesian peoples.

—AMY KU’ULEIALOHA STILLMAN

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Barker, John, ed. 1990. Christianity in Oceania: Ethnographic Perspectives. ASAO monograph 12. Lanham, Md.: University Press of America.

Barth, Frederick. 1975. Ritual and Knowledge among the Baktaman of Papua New Guinea. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press.

——-. 1987. Cosmologies in the Making: A Generative Approach to Cultural Variation in Inner New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Boutilier, James A., Daniel T. Hughes, and Sharon W. Tiffany, eds. 1978. Mission, Church, and Sect in Oceania. ASAO monograph 6. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Brown, George. 1972 [1910]. Melanesians and Polynesians. London: Macmillan.

Brown, Paula. 1978. Highland Peoples of New Guinea. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burrows, Edwin G. 1945. Songs of Uvea and Futuna. Honolulu: Bishop Museum. Bulletin 183.

Durkheim, Emile. 1964 [1915]. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Translated by Joseph Ward Swain. London: Allen & Unwin.

Errington, Frederick Karl. 1974. Karavar: Masks and Power in a Melanesian Ritual. Ithaca, N.Y., and London: Cornell University Press.

Faleto’ese, K. T. 1961. A History of the Samoan Church (L.M.S.). Malua: Malua Printing Press.

Feld, Steven. 1990. Sound and Sentiment: Birds, Weeping, Poetics, and Song in Kaluli Expression. 2nd ed. Publications of the American Folklore Society, New Series. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Firth, Raymond. 1967. The Work of the Gods in Tikopia. 2nd ed. New York: Humanities Press.

Forman, Charles. 1982. Island Churches of the

[p. 210 | Page Image]

South Pacific: Emergence in the Twentieth Century. American Society of Missiology Series, 5. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books. 

Fortune, Reo. 1935. Manus Religion. Memoir 3. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society.

Garrett, John. 1982. To Live Among the Stars: Christian Origins in Oceania. Geneva and Suva:

World Council of Churches, with the Institute of Pacific Studies, University of the South Pacific.

Handy, E. S. Craighill. 1927. Polynesian Religion. Bulletin 34. Honolulu: Bishop Museum.

Herdt, Gilbert H. 1981. Guardians of the Flutes: Idioms of Masculinity. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Hymns Ancient and Modern Revised. 1947. London: William Clowes.

Jensen, John Thayer. 1977. Yapese-English Dictionary. Honolulu: University Press of Hawai’i.

Kaeppler, Adrienne L. 1976. “Dance and the Interpretation of Pacific Traditional Literature.” In Directions in Pacific Traditional Literature, ed. Adrienne L. Kaeppler and H. Arlo Nimmo, 195-216. Special Publication 62. Honolulu: Bishop Museum.

——–. 1993a. Hula Pahu: Hawaiian Drum Dances: Volume 1: Ha’a and Hula Pahu: Sacred Movements. Bishop Museum Bulletin in Anthropology 3. Honolulu: Bishop Museum Press.

——–. 1993b. “Poetics and Politics of Tongan Laments and Eulogies.” American Ethnologist 20(3):474-501.

Kirsch, Stuart. 1992. “Myth as History-in-the-Making: Cult and Cargo along the New Guinea Border.” Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Association for Social Anthropology in Oceania, New Orleans, 8 February 1992.

Lewis, Gilbert. 1980. Day of Shining Red: An Essay on Understanding Ritual. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Malinowski, Bronislaw. 1922. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. New York: Dutton.

——–. 1955 [1925]. Magic, Science and Religion. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday.

Mayer, Raymond, and Malino Nau. 1976. “Chants funèbres de l’île Wallis.” Journal de la Société des Océanistes 32(51-53):141-184, 271-279.

Mead, Margaret. 1935. Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies. London: George Routledge and Sons.

Muhlenhard, E. 1983. “Local Music Should Be Promoted.” Weekend Nius (Port Moresby), 4 September.

O’Hanlon, Michael. 1989. Reading the Skin: Adornment, Display and Society Among the Wahgi. London: British Museum Publications.

Pratt, George, trans. 1891. “Some Folk-Songs and Myths from Samoa,” ed. John Fraser. Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales 25:70-86, 97-146, 241-286.

Prendergast, P. A. 1968. “The History of the London Missionary Society in British New Guinea 1971-1901.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hawai’i.

Rappaport, Roy A. 1979. “The Obvious Aspects of Ritual.” Ecology, Meaning, and Religion, 173-221. Richmond, Calif.: North Atlantic Books.

Stair, John B. 1897. Old Samoa: Or Flotsam and Jetsam from the Pacific Ocean. London: Religious Tract Society.

Stillman, Amy Ku’uleialoha. 1991. “Hīmene Tahiti: Ethnoscientific and Ethnohistorical Perspectives on Protestant Hymnody and Choral Singing in the Society Islands, French Polynesia.” Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University.

——–. 1993. “Prelude to a Comparative Investigation of Protestant Hymnody in Polynesia.” Yearbook for Traditional Music 25:89-99.

Strehlow, T. G. H. 1971. Songs of Central Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.

Sutton, Peter, ed. 1989. Dreamings: The Art of Aboriginal Australia. Ringwood, Australia, and London: Viking Penguin.

Tatar, Elizabeth. 1982. Nineteenth Century Hawaiian Chant. Pacific Anthropological Records, 33. Honolulu: Department of Anthropology, Bernice P. Bishop Museum.

Trompf, Gary W. 1990. “Keeping the Lo Under a Melanesian Messiah: An Analysis of the Pomio Kivung, East New Britain.” In Christianity in Oceania: Ethnographic Perspectives, ed. John Barker, 59-80. ASAO Monograph 12. Lanham: University Press of America.

Turner, George. 1884. Samoa a Hundred Years Ago and Long Before. London: Macmillan.

Valeri, Valerio. 1985. Kingship and Sacrifice: Ritual and Society in Ancient Hawaii. Translated by Paula Wissing. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.

Vaughan Williams, Ralph, Martin Shaw, and Percy Dearmer. 1925. Songs of Praise. London: Oxford University Press.

Wagner, Herwig, and Harmann Reiner, eds. 1986. The Lutheran Church in Papua New Guinea: The First Hundred Years 1886-1986. Adelaide: Lutheran Publishing House.

Wetherall, David. 1977. The Reluctant Mission: The Anglican Church in Papua New Guinea: 1891-1942. St. Lucia, Queensland: University of Queensland Press.

Whitehouse, Harvey. 1992. “Memorable Religions: Transmission, Codification, and Change in Divergent Melanesian Contexts.” Man 27(4):777-797.

——–. 1995. Inside the Cult: Religious Innovation and Transmission in Papua New Guinea. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wild, Stephen A. 1975. “Warlbiri Music and Dance in Their Social and Cultural Nexus.” Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana University.

Williams, F. E. 1928. Orokaiva Magic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Wood, A. Harold. 1975. Overseas Missions of the Australian Methodist Church. 2 vols. Melbourne: Aldersgate.

Yayii, Filip Lamasisi. 1983. “Some Aspects of Traditional Dance within the Malanggan Culture of Northern New Ireland.” Bikmaus 4(3):33- 48.

Zahn, Heinrich. 1959 [1934]. The Conchshell-Hymnal. Edited by H. Wolfrum. Madang: Lutheran Mission Press.

The end @ copyright 2012

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-rom”The World War I sencored cover Postal history”

THIS ONLY THE SAMPLE, THE COMPLETE cd EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMEBR,

PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The WW I Sencored Cover Postal History

Image

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Sewnior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

Sent from New Guinea to Holland and then forwarded to Germany. It seems like it was using an official system to tranmit mail. It still has the original note with a translation. There were several letters enclosed. Australian stamps used in New Guinea are very rare.(source Tim)Image

Image
Heinrich  Zahn, the Missioner Of Papaua New  Guinea  letter in 1915
Image

Read more about Missioner Henrich Zahn

 

Image

FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany.from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars.

   

1914

December,12th.1914

 

The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914

 Image

The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914

 German stamp Paper

info about War News

Pro Patria

The Belgian charity Stamps

War Mark still They Come !!

Censor Mark number

Swiss Field mark

Red Cross Stamps

pLEASE READ THE MORE BIGGER INFO

Censor Mark numbers INFO FROM sTAMP mAGAZINE 1914 

Image

The Sample of Dr Iwan e-book In CD-ROM “The Dai Nippon Occupation Java 1942″

The Dai Nippon Occupation Java Part One 1942 history collection

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM WITHOUT ILLUSTRATION, THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND FULL INFO EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE VIA COMMENT

The Dai Nippon Occupation Java 

Part one

1942

 Based On Dr Iwan’s Postal and Archives History Collections

 

Created By

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-BOOK IN CD-ROM Edition

Special For Serious Collectors and Premium Member

 one of the best Dr Iwan Dai nippon archives collections is the Diary of Mr martooadmojo during he work at Djoerangsapi city east Java from august 1942 until 1844, and at the cover of the diary there were the list of Dai nippon officer who work there

119.MB,Martoadmodjo B. handwritten Diary about his work at Japanese logistic stations at Djoerang Koeda Village ‘

Bondowoso,

Basoeki Ressort  east Java

which thrown away after his pass away in 1990 ,faound and became Dr Iwan collections, never publish)

At the cover of diary had written the name of Dai Nippon officer at Nippon Djoerangsapi ken

(I hove the family of this DN officer will glad to know their family there,please send comment and more info about them)

1. The city post office dai nippon djoerangsapi Inoue and Shiroga
2. Egami Djoerangsapi telephone office and Gado.
3. Tela factory Semboda Yasuda and Yamamoto
4.Tanaman cotton Kentjong M.Nishin
KK Djoerangsapi 5.Takashinaya sida: Mori
6.agen Genpi Djoerangsapi KK: Mori and Futama
Chokin 7.Yokohama Ginko (bank) Fujimoto, Fujii, and Hayashida
8.Osaka Seima KK: Nishiike
SH 9.CO Wadoeng: Maeda
10.CO landed: H.Takari
11.Kapas Sampelan: Mitsui and Mura
12.Rikuyu Jimusho Djoerangsapi: Nakashi, Oguri, Sitsuka, Ari Izumi (Suzuki), Kogo, Yamamoto, Fujimora, Tsubakibaru, Nakaki, Matsuyama, Mayama, Satoh and Matsuda
13.PETA: Saito Mataan

 Pendudkan  Dai Nippon Di Tanah  Jawa

Bagian Pertama

1.942

 Berdasarkan Dr Iwan Pos dan Koleksi Arsip Sejarah

Dibuat Oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

Edisi Pribadi  E-BOOK Terbatas DI CD-ROM

Khusus Untuk Kolektor Serius dan Anggota Premium

 salah satu yang terbaik Iwan Dr Dai nippon koleksi arsip adalah Diary of Mr martooadmojo selama ia bekerja di Djoerangsapi kota Jawa Timur dari Agustus 1942 sampai 1844, dan pada sampul buku harian itu ada daftar petugas nippon Dai yang bekerja di sana

119.MB, Martoadmodjo B. Harian tulisan tangan tentang pekerjaannya di stasiun logistik Jepang di Djoerang Koeda Desa ‘

Bondowoso,

Basoeki Ressort Jawa Timur

yang dibuang setelah umpannya pergi pada tahun 1990, dan menjadi faound Dr Iwan koleksi, tidak pernah mempublikasikan)

Pada sampul buku harian itu tertulis nama petugas Nippon Dai Nippon di Djoerangsapi ken

(Saya hove keluarga ini petugas DN akan senang mengetahui keluarga mereka di sana, silakan kirim komentar dan info lebih lanjut tentang mereka)

1. Pos Kota kantor dai nippon djoerangsapi Inoue dan Shiroga
2. Egami Djoerangsapi telepon kantor dan Gado.
3. Tela pabrik Semboda Yasuda dan Yamamoto
4.Tanaman kapas Kentjong M.Nishin
KK Djoerangsapi 5.Takashinaya sida: Mori
6.agen Genpi Djoerangsapi KK: Mori dan Futama
Chokin 7.Yokohama Ginko (bank) Fujimoto, Fujii, dan Hayashida
8.Osaka Seima KK: Nishiike
SH 9.CO Wadoeng: Maeda
10.CO mendarat: H.Takari
11.Kapas Sampelan: Mitsui dan Mura
12.Rikuyu Jimusho Djoerangsapi: nakashi, Oguri, Sitsuka, Ari Izumi (Suzuki), Kogo, Yamamoto, Fujimora, Tsubakibaru, Nakaki, Matsuyama, Mayama, Satoh dan Matsuda
13.PETA: Saito Mataan

1.January 1.942

TAHANAN,PERANG DAI NIPPON

ditangkap di Bataan, yang dipimpin ditutup matanya ke markas untuk diinterogasi. sampai dengan 10 Januari

General Yamashita berdiri di gerbang Kuala Lumpur, di pantai barat Malaya, yang Divisi 5 nya ditangkap keesokan harinya. 

sangat disamarkan Toyota Truck KB dan tankette 97 jenis bergerak di jalan buruk pavemented dari malaya (1942) 

karya seni menunjukkan tank tentara dari Resimen Tank japanese 6 diperintahkan oleh komandan tank Kolonel Kawamura menyerang Inggris di malaya 1.942

 
Januari, 11th.1942

oleh Laksamana Stark,

yang, pada tanggal 11 Januari, sehari setelah
General Wavell tiba di Batavia dengan Jenderal Ter Poorten
 tapi sebelum ia memegang komando, meninjau situasi kritis di Timur Jauh dan mengangkat pertanyaan tentang pengalihan kapal dari rute Atlantik kurang kritis Utara ke Pasifik.

Dalam hal ini ia mendapat dukungan dari Jenderal Marshall dan Laksamana Raja, tapi Inggris, dengan keyakinan bahwa Singapura akan terus dan cemas bagi Amerika untuk menghilangkan kemudian di Islandia dan Irlandia, mencari cara lain untuk menemukan kapal.

Pendaratan dAI nIPPON  di wilayah Inggris di

 Singapore

 Pasukan  dan Kemenangan Dai Nippon

8 Desember 1941 – 15 Februari 1942:

Letnan Jenderal Percival dan partainya membawa Union Jack dalam perjalanan mereka untuk menyerahkan Singapura kepada Jepang. 

Pendaratan Jepang di lepas pantai barat British North Borneo(sekarang Sabah malaysia(, 1942
 

Februari 19th.1942

 lapangan terbang Semplak Bogor dibombardir Jepang  dan di siang serangan Bandung Andir lapangan terbang

Gubernor Jenderal Tjarda VSN Stoukerborough dengan Kepala Staf nya Ter Porten pindah dari Batavia ke Bandung dan mereka tinggal di Villa Mei Ling yang dimiliki oleh Volkraad Tionghoa (rumah perwakilan) ‘s anggota HH Kan

Februari, 19th.1942

Dalam keterlibatan utama di atas Semplak pada tanggal 19 Februari 1942, delapan Belanda Brewster pejuang dicegat pembentukan sekitar 35 pembom Jepang dengan pengawalan sekitar 20 Zero. Para pilot Brewster menghancurkan 11 pesawat Jepang dan kehilangan empat Brewsters, dua pilot tewas Belanda [33].

 

Februari 20th.1942.

Hal ini menempatkan Surabaya dalam jangkauan pembom musuh. Dari Kendari,

Jumat, 20 Februari

 

 

BATTLE OF BADOENG SELAT

 

Kapal Sekutu berada di dua kelompok. Yang pertama adalah kapal penjelajah Belanda De Ruyter, JAVA, Belanda Piet Hein perusak dan Amerika JOHN D FORD, dan Paus. Belanda perusak BANCKERT adalah bagian dari gaya, namun kandas di mulut Tjilatjap pelabuhan dan tidak bisa melanjutkan.

 

Kelompok kedua adalah Belanda cruiser Tromp dari Surabaya dan Amerika perusak STEWART, PARROTT, JOHN D EDWARDS dan Pillsbury dari Ratai Bay.

 

STEWART rusak oleh tembakan Jepang, dengan satu orang tamtama tewas dan pejabat eksekutif LT CB Smiley dan satu orang tamtama terluka. JOHN D EDWARDS memiliki satu orang terdaftar terluka. Piet Hein (Lt Cdr JMLI Chompff) hilang dengan semua tapi 33 awak dan Tromp rusak parah.

 

_____

 

Konvoi SM.3 berangkat Batavia unescorted dengan kapal uap Inggris ADRASTUS (7905grt), KOTA MANCHESTER (8917grt), Marella (7475grt), Dutch PHRONTIS (6181grt) dan Norwegia menonjol (2282grt). Steamers KOTA MANCHESTER dan menonjol terus Tjilatjap dan sisanya dari konvoi ke Fremantle.

_____

 

Konvoi SJ.5 berangkat Batavia dengan kapal uap Inggris Angby (786grt), Filleigh (4856grt), JALAKRISHNA (4991grt), Lulworth HILL (7628grt), SILVERLARCH (5064grt), Yoma (8131grt) dan Norwegia HAI LEE (3616grt). Escort di awal adalah dengan EXETER cruiser berat, STRONGHOLD perusak dan Jumna sloop India. Kapal-kapal melanjutkan ke Kolombo, tiba independen antara 28 Februari dan 6 Maret.

_____

 

Battleship WARSPITE tiba di Sydney, NSW, setelah refitting di Amerika Serikat.

 

_____

 

Destroyer NIZAM berangkat Colombo untuk pantai barat Sumatera untuk mengevakuasi personel. Patroli kapal Pangkor dari Angkatan China juga dikirim untuk mengevakuasi personel. NIZAM dipanggil kembali pada tanggal 21 untuk tugas pengawalan.

_____

 

Ballarat minesweeper Australia dievakuasi toko penting dan menyelesaikan penghancuran fasilitas pelabuhan dan ditinggalkan peralatan di Oosthaven pada tanggal 20.

_____

 

I.65 kapal selam Jepang tenggelam steamer Bhima (5280grt) dalam 7-47N, 73-31e. Awak 68, dua penumpang, semuanya diselamatkan.

_____

 

Steamer KOOLAMA (4068grt) tenggelam oleh bom Jepang off Wyndham, Australia Barat.

_____

 

Belanda steamer Tobelo (983grt) tenggelam oleh bom Jepang di Kupang.

_____

 

Steamer JALAKRISHNA (4991grt) rusak akibat pemboman Jepang di Hindia Belanda.

 

 

Sabtu, 21 Februari

 

 

Konvoi SJ.6 berangkat Tandjong Priok dengan kapal uap MANGOLA dan THEPASTRIN Nawa (3260grt) untuk Fremantle dan Kiang (1451grt), Jalavihar, ELSA, Straat Soenda (6439grt) dan Generaal VAN DE HEYDEN (1213grt) untuk Colombo.

_____

 

Konvoi SJ.7 berangkat Priok Tandjong dengan Orcades kapal pengangkut tentara (23.456 GRT), membawa 3768 tentara dan pengungsi, dikawal oleh kapal perusak ELECTRA ke cahaya cruiser 22 dan Australia HOBART ke 23, ketika konvoi tersebar dan pendamping terpisah. Orcades tiba di Kolombo pada tanggal 27.

 

Amerika memberikan bantuan untuk Australia.46

Washington setuju dengan perkiraan Wavell tentang hilangnya kemungkinan Jawa. Penguatan itu jelas sia-sia dan tentu saja paling bijaksana, Kepala Gabungan berpikir, akan mengirim setidaknya salah satu divisi Australia ke Burma dan lainnya ke Australia. Sudah jelas juga bahwa jatuhnya Jawa akan membagi wilayah ABDA dan membuat pertahanan terkoordinasi dari ekstremitas timur dan barat tidak mungkin. The British karena itu disarankan bahwa Burma dibawa keluar dari ABDACOM dan ditransfer ke komando mereka di India, proposal bahwa Chiefs AS dan General Wavell, yang selalu percaya Burma adalah bagian integral dari perintah India, mudah diterima. Hal ini dilakukan secara resmi

pada 21 February.47

 

Minggu 22 Februari

 

 

LANGLEY dan WITCH SEA, membawa pesawat crated, yang terpisah ke Jawa. LANGLEY hilang dan WITCH SEA berhasil melarikan diri setelah memberikan kargo nya di Tjilatjap.

 

LANGLEY tenggelam oleh bom Jepang. Hanya enam belas awak dan penumpang yang hilang. Para korban dijemput oleh Whipple dan EDSALL. Whipple kemudian bergegas LANGLEY.

 

Konvoi tiba di Kolombo pada tanggal 5 Maret.

_____

 

Patroli kapal Pangkor berangkat Batavia untuk mengevakuasi personil dari Sibolga dan Ongha, kemudian melanjutkan ke Kolombo.

_____

 

Boom pertahanan kapal BARRIER, BARLANE dan BARRICADE berangkat Batavia untuk Colombo dan patroli kapal Excellent lokasi dan MEDUSA untuk Fremantle, melalui Tjilatjap.

_____

 

Konvoi SJ.8 berangkat lebih Tandjong Priok dengan Edendale (1659grt) untuk Fremantle dan FU Kwang (1559grt), Tinombo (872grt) dan ROOSEBOOM (1035grt) untuk Colombo.

_____

 

Kapal selam Jepang I.58 tenggelam kapal Belanda Pijnacker HORDIKJ (2982grt) selatan Tjilatjap.

 

 

Senin, 23 Februari

 

 

Norwegia kapal Belita dan Norwegia collier Woolgar berangkat Colombo untuk Batavia, dikawal sampai 25 oleh perusak NIZAM dan minesweeper Bathurst. Merchantmen tersebut berlangsung secara independen untuk Batavia sampai ingat.

_____

 

Konvoi SM.4 berangkat Priok Tandjong dengan kapal Springdale (1579grt) untuk Fremantle dan SEIRSTAD dan PERAK (1188grt) untuk Colombo. Kapal-kapal berjalan secara independen setelah Selat Sunda.

 

Rencana untuk mengirimkan divisi Australia untuk Burma, bagaimanapun, datang ke sia-sia. Prihatin atas pertahanan negara mereka sendiri, yang terus-menerus menolak Australia, meskipun permohonan kuat dari Churchill dan Roosevelt, untuk mengizinkan pengalihan divisi tersebut ke Burma, dan akhirnya,

pada tanggal 23 Februari, mereka diperintahkan home.48

Meskipun hilangnya Jawa kebobolan oleh semua kecuali Belanda, ada keengganan untuk bertindak atas asumsi ini. Untuk melakukannya akan menciptakan kesan bahwa Amerika dan Inggris yang desersi sekutu Belanda mereka. Pada tanggal 20, oleh karena itu, Kepala Gabungan, menyatakan bahwa “setiap hari diperoleh sangat penting,” diarahkan Wavell untuk membela Jawa “dengan resolusi maksimal” dan tidak menarik atau menyerahkan salah satu pasukan di sana. Untuk meminimalkan hilangnya pasukan Sekutu di Jawa, Kepala khusus dilarang Wavell dari memperkuat pulau yang lebih lanjut, tetapi memberinya keleluasaan untuk menggunakan kekuatan angkatan laut dan pesawat Amerika di Australia saat ia berpikir best.49

Bahkan saat ini petunjuk segar sedang diterima di ABDACOM, Jepang sedang membuat eksekusi mereka mustahil. Pada tanggal 19, mereka mendarat di ujung selatan Bali, segera ke timur Jawa. Keesokan harinya mereka mendarat di Timor, setengah dari yang setengah Belanda dan Portugis. Pengendalian pulau-pulau, terletak di antara Jawa dan barat laut Australia, menyelesaikan isolasi Jawa, ditempatkan Jepang darat pejuang dalam jangkauan pemboman pangkalan Belanda di Surabaya, dan membuat bala bantuan lebih lanjut dari Australia mustahil.

 

 

 

 

. pada tanggal 23 Februari

telah diperintahkan untuk Tjilatjap, di pantai selatan Jawa,

 

dengan muatannya dari tiga puluh dua dirakit P-40 dan pilot mereka. Pada tanggal 27, hampir dalam pandangan Jawa, itu ditemukan oleh pesawat patroli Jepang dan tenggelam. The SeaWitch kargo dengan 27 P-40 dalam memegang nya telah meninggalkan Fremantle pada saat yang sama, tetapi berlayar secara terpisah dan membuat jalan berhasil ke Jawa. Ini tiba di sana pada malam invasi dan P-40, masih crated, yang dibuang ke laut untuk mencegah mereka capture.55

Sementara itu Jepang telah menyelesaikan persiapan mereka untuk invasi Jawa. D-hari ditetapkan untuk

 udara pengintai menegaskan bahwa lapangan udara tidak layak untuk digunakan. Markas Air kemudian membuat pengaturan untuk persediaan akan turun dan hari berikutnya tiga Blenheims dari Singapura, dimodifikasi untuk membawa kontainer, berhasil menjatuhkan £ 900 persediaan di lapangan terbang.

yang 23 Februari

 di Kenamboi, di mana mereka kembali bersatu dengan C dan Perusahaan D.

 

 

Februari, 24 1942

Filght Jepang menyerang dan bombardement Kemajoran Batavia, Buitenzorg Semplak dan Kalijati lapangan terbang.

Selasa, 24 Februari

 

 

Steamers Indragiri (592grt), NAM YONG (1345grt), dan BOERO (7135grt) berangkat Tandjong Priok untuk Colombo.

_____

 

Belanda steamer KOTA RADJA (7117grt) tenggelam oleh bom Jepang di Surabaya.

Belanda light cruiser Heemskerk berangkat Colombo untuk Trincomalee untuk memulai amunisi dan melanjutkan ke Hindia Belanda. Dia kemudian meninggalkan Trincomalee hari berikutnya untuk Selat Sunda dengan pengiriman semua, tapi dialihkan ke Tjilatjap pada tanggal 26. Pada tanggal 1 Maret, dia dan perusak ISAAC Sweers diperintahkan untuk kembali ke Kolombo.

 

 

Rabu, 25 Februari

 

British heavy cruiser EXETER, Australia light cruiser PERTH dan British perusak ENCOUNTER, ELECTRA dan JUPITER berangkat Tanjong Priok untuk bergabung kekuatan Laksamana Petugas Belanda di Surabaya. Australia light cruiser HOBART juga diperintahkan untuk berlayar, tetapi tidak selesai pengisian bahan bakar. Sebaliknya ia bergabung dengan Angkatan mencolok Barat dengan kapal penjelajah ringan Danae, DRAGON dan perusak Tenedos dan SCOUT. Kelompok EXETER tiba di Surabaya pada 0330/26th dan berlayar di 1900 hari itu.

_____

 

Kapal selam Jepang I.58 tenggelam kapal Belanda BOERO (7135grt) selatan Selat Sunda. Awak 70, dengan tidak ada korban.

.

_____

 

. Dengan pembuatan Jepang siap untuk serangan terakhir di Jawa,

Jenderal Wavell berpaling kepada atasannya untuk instruksi baru. Perintah mereka untuk mentransfer komando Jawa kepada Belanda dan menarik, tetapi untuk mempertahankan ABDACOM dan menjaga markasnya utuh. Kapan dan di mana ia akan pergi ditinggalkan kepadanya. Pasukan darat “untuk siapa ada lengan” adalah untuk tetap dan terus melawan, namun angkatan udara yang bisa beroperasi dari pangkalan-pangkalan di luar Jawa dan pasukan lain “yang tidak bisa berkontribusi untuk pertahanan” itu harus ditarik, Amerika dan Australia untuk pergi ke Australia . Jenderal Brett adalah untuk kembali ke Australia, ketika dirilis oleh Wavell, untuk memimpin pasukan AS there.50

Komandan ABDA tidak setuju dengan program ini. Yang dia inginkan adalah pembubaran ABDACOM, semua alasan untuk keberadaannya telah menghilang. Burma, ia menunjuk keluar, sudah dipisahkan dari teater ABDA dan pertahanan Jawa adalah masalah lokal, terbaik ditangani oleh Belanda sendiri. Jika Filipina, yang telah pernah benar-benar berada di bawah kekuasaannya, diambil alih oleh Amerika lagi dan barat laut Australia oleh Australia, katanya kepada Chiefs, ia bisa menyerahkan pasukannya yang tersisa ke Belanda dan meninggalkan daerah dengan

25 February.51

Rekomendasi ini sejalan dengan solusi yang diusulkan oleh Kepala Staf Inggris untuk pembentukan dua daerah di Timur Jauh, yang berada di bawah kendali Amerika dan memasukkan Australia, wilayah yang lain meliputi British India dan Samudera Hindia. Belanda menentang seperti solusi karena takut akan berarti akhir dari bantuan Sekutu di Hindia Belanda. “Demi Tuhan,” tulis Belanda Gubernur Jenderal untuk Marshall, “mengambil keputusan yang kuat dan aktif dan tidak berhenti mengirim bahan dan laki-laki.” 52

Masih ingin menghindari munculnya meninggalkan sekutu mereka, AS Chiefs terus menentang pembubaran ABDACOM. Namun dalam pengakuan atas fakta bahwa Wavell telah kehilangan kepercayaan dari Belanda dan jelas ingin menarik keluar, mereka sepakat untuk pembubaran markas besarnya dan transfer ke India, meninggalkan kontrol daerah ABDA kepada Belanda. Dan agar Belanda harus berpikir bahwa Amerika telah membuat pengaturan ini untuk syirik komitmen mereka, Marshall meyakinkan gubernur Belanda bahwa pasukan kemudian perakitan di Australia yang “mencari kesempatan untuk masuk ke pertempuran ABDA” dan akan “melanjutkan dukungan penuh dari Belanda komandan dalam perjuangan mereka megah “53.

Pada tanggal 25

General Wavell menyerahkan komando kepada Belanda dan meninggalkan untuk India di mana Jenderal Brereton sudah pergi untuk mengatur kekuatan udara Amerika. Langkah ini ditempatkan MacArthur teknis di bawah Belanda, tapi ia sudah diberitahu bahwa “karena situasi khusus Anda semua prosedur dalam kasus Anda tetap sebagai sebelum ini.” 54 Beban membela Jawa kini tepat di Belanda. Kekuatan mereka, dengan pengecualian unit tanah minor (termasuk batalion artileri Amerika), unit angkatan laut Amerika dan Inggris, dan kekuatan AS-Australia tempur kecil, terdiri seluruh perintah.

Masih ada kemungkinan bahwa pejuang bisa dibawa melalui laut, meskipun rute feri udara telah ditutup oleh kejang Jepang Timor. Untuk tugas ini ditugaskan pesawat Langley tender,

 

 

 

 

Kamis, 26 Februari

 

 

Konvoi MR.5 berangkat Madras dengan kapal uap ERINPURA (5143grt), ETHIOPIA (5574grt), KAROA (7009grt) dan VARSOVA (4701grt) dikawal oleh Dorsetshire cruiser berat, yang berangkat Trincomalee pada tanggal 26. Konvoi dan pengawalan tiba di Rangoon pada tanggal 3 Maret.

_____

 

Steamer Ashridge adalah kapal terakhir yang berangkat Tandjong Priok, dikawal melalui Selat Sunda oleh STRONGHOLD penghancur

Kembali di Balikpapan, Jepang mengumpulkan warga sipil dan tahanan yang baru ditangkap perang. Mereka menunda dendam dijanjikan mereka sampai

 

Pada tanggal 27 Februari 1942,

Dan kemudian ada Pertempuran Laut Jawa dari 27 Februari-1 Maret 1942. Belanda Ruyter kapal perang dan Jawa terkena torpedo Jepang, mereka tenggelam dengan kerugian besar kehidupan. Sekutu kehilangan pertempuran ini.

 

 

japanese perusak Inazuma meluncurkan 93 torpedo jenis tombak panjang terhadap kapal-kapal sekutu dalam Pertempuran Kedua Laut Jawa

 

Frank tampak keluar dari Fort Menari untuk melihat armada kecil kapal penjelajah Sekutu dan perusak – Amerika, Inggris, Belanda, dan Australia – mengepul melalui Fairway Barat:

… Teropong mengambil garis ramping abu-abu kamuflase, mencuri melalui kabut fajar keluar ke laut terbuka. Kami gagah Angkatan Laut berlayar ke keterlibatan terakhir mereka dengan musuh, untuk menanggung beban serangan besar. [11]

Di Laut Jawa armada ABDA berani menyerang kapal perang Jepang yang lebih kuat mengawal pasukan invasi Jawa Timur, berharap untuk menerobos dan menenggelamkan kapal angkut pasukan.

Orang Jepang, dengan senjata berat mereka dan maju “Panjang Lance” torpedo, mengusir mereka pergi setelah menimbulkan kerugian yang parah.

Di antara kapal tenggelam adalah

 andalan Belanda, kapal penjelajah ringan De Ruyter.

Dia turun dengan 345 dari krunya, termasuk Waran Officer Frans Anton Boerman, Frank ayah mertua.

Baca selengkapnya

 

Belanda cruiser De Ruyter
Ditetapkan: 1933. Diluncurkan: 1935. Ditugaskan: 1936
Tujuh 150-mm senjata pada perpindahan 6442-ton
Crew: 435

Dalam Pertempuran Laut Jawa pada tanggal 27 Februari 1942, De Ruyter adalah unggulan dari Petugas belakang-laksamana Belanda Karel, dengan bendera nya kapten Eugène Lacomblé (yang sebelumnya bertugas di kapal sebagai letnan). Di lepas pantai utara Jawa dari armada ABDA terkejut pada malam hari oleh skuadron Jepang yang terdiri dari kapal penjelajah Nachi berat dan Haguro didukung oleh 14 kapal perusak.

De Ruyter diduga dihantam torpedo Jepang tunggal Lance panjang pada sekitar 23:30 dan tenggelam pada 02:30 hari berikutnya dengan hilangnya 345 orang, termasuk Petugas Laksamana dan Kapten Lacomblé. Kecelakaan nya ditemukan setelah perang dan menyatakan kuburan perang, dengan hanya lonceng kapal (sekarang di Kloosterkerk di Den Haag) sedang pulih.

 

Pertempuran Laut Jawa

Pada bulan Februari 1942, Sekutu membentuk “Angkatan Menyerang Gabungan” angkatan laut untuk perlindungan Jawa.

 The “Angkatan Menyerang Timur”, yang terdiri dari kapal penjelajah Belanda dan Jawa De Ruyter, AS heavy cruiser Houston, kapal Inggris Exeter, dan kapal penjelajah Australia Perth, ditempatkan di bawah komando Laksamana Karel Doorman Belanda Belakang. “Angkatan Timur mencolok” juga termasuk perusak Witte de With dan Kortenaer (RNN), JD Edwards, Alden, John Ford dan Paul Jones (USN), dan Jupiter, Electra dan Encounter (RN).

Pada tanggal 27 Februari,

 Kekuatan penjaga pintu itu berlayar dari Surabaya untuk mencegat Jepang “Timur Angkatan Invasion”, yang terdiri dari empat kapal penjelajah dan kapal perusak 14, mengawal 41 kapal transportasi. Pada sekitar 4 pm, dua kekuatan bertemu dalam pertempuran yang berlangsung lebih dari malam. Outgunned, kekuatan Petugas itu dapat melibatkan armada invasi, yang melarikan diri ke utara sementara kapal escort yang menekan serangan mereka.

Korban Sekutu berat.

 

Laksamana Petugas

hilang bersama kedua kapal penjelajah Belanda dan hampir semua awak mereka.

The Exeter rusak parah oleh shell-api, dan tenggelam bersama dengan Encounter perusak mengawal nya dua hari kemudian. Di antara kapal lain yang bergerak, Kortenaer, Jupiter dan Electra semuanya tenggelam, dengan banyak kehilangan kehidupan. Armada invasi Jepang ditunda, tetapi tidak dicegah dari membuat mendarat di Jawa pada tanggal 28 Februari. Para penjelajah hidup, Houston dan Perth, tenggelam pada malam hari yang sama ketika mereka mencoba untuk mundur ke Ceylon, setelah bertemu dengan “Angkatan Invasi Barat” Jepang di Selat Sunda.

 

Laksamana Petugas andalan De Ruyter di jangkar sesaat sebelum pertempuran di Laut Jawa.

Baca lebih lanjut tentang Laksamana Karel dorman

Rear-Admiral K.W.F.M. Petugas, RNN

 

Karel Willem Frederik Marie Petugas

Lahir Utrecht April 23, 1889 – Meninggal di papan light cruiser De Ruyter, 28 Februari 1942

 

Meskipun Karel Doorman adalah anak dari seorang perwira tentara, ia bergabung dengan kursus petugas di Institut Angkatan Laut pada tahun 1906, yang ia selesai dengan sukses empat tahun kemudian. Setelah beberapa tahun di Hindia Bela