The Korea Historic Collections Part Three Choson 1800-1900

The Choson Historic Coillections 1800-1900

 

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Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

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Part One Taejo- Choson 1342-1700

Part two Choson 1700-1800

Part Three 1800-1910

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 Korea, South THE CHOSoN DYNASTY -

Statue of King Sejong (1418-50), Toksu Palace, Seoul
Courtesy Oren Hadar

At 518 years (1392-1910), the Choson Dynasty is the nation’s longest-lived. Its founder, Yi Song­gye, took the dynastic name Taejo (“Great Prog­enitor”), moved the capital to Hanyang (Seoul), and named the dynasty after the ancient ChosOn Kingdom. This ended the Koryo Dynasty Wang family’s rule and supplanted it with the Chonju branch of the Yi family. Referring to this family name, the Choson Dynasty is often mistakenly called the Yi Dynasty

 

The Koryo Dynasty had suffered from a number of internal problems; Yi and his followers implemented drastic reforms to place the new dynasty on firmer ground. One of these problems revolved around the deterioration of land administration, a basic issue in a predominantly agrarian society. Contrary to the law specifying public (governmental) ownership of land, powerful clans and Buddhist temples had acquired a sizable proportion of farmland. By exacting a disproportionate share of crops in the form of rents, the “landlords” were causing economic destitution and social discontent among the peasants. By illicitly removing the farms from tax rolls, these clans and temples reduced the government’s income, thus straining the treasury. Yi had sided with reformists even before he took power, hence it was natural for him to rectify past inequities after ascending to the throne.

The reform of the land system, however, had direct repercussions on the practice of Buddhism, because Buddhist temples and monks had been among those exacerbating the land problem. The economic influence of the temples was eliminated when they lost vast lands. The rectification went beyond economic reform, however, because the dominant forces in the new dynasty were devout Confucianists who regarded Buddhism as a false creed. The fact that Buddhist monks had wielded a strong influence in politics, the economy, and society during the latter part of the Koryo Dynasty–and that many of them had been corrupted by power and money–strengthened the opposition to Buddhism. Accordingly, the new dynasty launched a sweeping attack on Buddhism and its institutions, an attack that had profound and enduring effects on the character of civilization on the peninsula.

north korea 1800

Many of the outstanding temples were permitted to remain intact; indeed, a few Choson monarchs were devout Buddhists. Nevertheless, Buddhism exerted little influence over the religious life of Korea under the Choson Dynasty; nor did any organized religion replace it. Although many people adhered to shamanism, geomancy, fortunetelling, and superstitions, Korea effectively became a secular society.


Jar, porcelain decorated in underglaze copper red, Choson dynasty. 18th century.

The Choson Dynasty had an auspicious beginning. During the reign of the fourth monarch, King Sejong (1418-50), a Buddhist, enormous strides were made in the arts, science, and technology. The Korean script, known as han’gul(see Glossary), which eventually came into common usage in the twentieth century, was developed by scholars at that time.

After Sejong, however, the dynasty fell into the hands of lesser men, and in the late fifteenth century the country began a long decline. Succession to the throne often caused long and bitter struggles, particularly when a ruler did not leave behind an heir who had reached the age of majority. Members of the Confucian-educated, scholar-official elite yangban(see Glossary) class quarreled over minor points of Confucian ritual and etiquette, especially the proper period of mourning upon the death of a royal personage. Factional groups began vying for power, frequently going to the extreme of exterminating the members of defeated factions. The civil service examination became a sham, and corruption ran rampant. Royal relatives and members of powerful factions increased their landholdings, which became exempt from taxes and thereby reduced the dynasty’s sources of revenue. The farmers suffered more and more from tax burdens and other extractions imposed by greedy officials and landlords. In short, the country was not being effectively governed. To make matters worse, Japanese attacks in 1592 and 1597 and Manchu assaults in 1627 and 1636 ravaged the country’s economy and turned much of the farmland to waste for a long period thereafter.

The resulting social and economic depression of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries fostered the rise of a new intellectual movement advocating the practical use of human knowledge. Pioneered by a Confucian scholar named Yi Su-kwang, the new thought–soon to be called Sirhak (practical learning)–was partly inspired by the firsthand knowledge of occidental sciences that Yi Su-kwang had acquired while on official visits to Beijing. As historian Ki-baik Lee has noted, Sirhak thought encompassed a variety of intellectual activities and several diverse viewpoints. These included proposals for refinement of the traditional administrative and land systems, advocacy of commercial and manufacturing activity, and a renewed interest in Korean history and language. Brought to maturity in the late eighteenth century by Chong Yag-yong, the Sirhak Movement was supported by a group of discontented scholars, petty officials, former bureaucrats, and commoners.

The Sirhak Movement found itself in direct confrontation with the dominant trend in neo-Confucian thought, which stressed the metaphysical and abstract teachings of the renowned Chinese philosopher Zhu Xi (see Traditional Social Structure, ch. 2). Neither the efforts of such wise and able kings as Yongjo (1725-75) and Chongjo (1776-1800), nor those of the Sirhak scholars, were able to reverse the trend against empirical studies and good government.

Western ideas, including Christianity, reached Korea through China in the seventeenth century. By 1785, however, the government had become incensed over the rejection of ancestor worship by Roman Catholic missionaries, and it banned all forms of Western learnin

1801

Archive for the ‘Yi Gahwan (李家煥 이가환)’ Category

Yi Gahwan (李家煥, 이가환, 1742-1801) was a scholar and Chosun government official. He is of the Yeoju Yi clan (驪州李氏, 여주이씨); his courtesy name was Jeongjo (廷藻, 정조, “Water chestnut of the court”); and his pen names were Geumdae (錦帶, 금대, “Silk belt”) and Jeongheon (貞軒, 정헌, “loyal veranda”). In 1771, he passed the civil entrance exams and served on various posts. He was of the Southerners’ faction (南人, 남인) and a member of the Neo-Confucian School of Pragmatic Thought, or Silhak (實學, 실학). Yi Gahwan was also skilled in astronomy and mathematics. He was introduced to Catholicism by Yi Byeok, and studied the new thought with Yi Seunghun, Jeong Yakyong, and Gweon Cheolshin. He was involved in secretly inviting Chinese Catholic priest Ju Munmo (周文謨, 주문모). Yi Gahwan died in prison during the Persecutions of 1801 (辛酉迫害, 신유박해, Shin’yu Bakhae). The following poems (two truncated verses)  are about a pavilion (pictured above) on the Daedong River, which flows through Pyongyang.

練光亭次鄭知常韻 연광정차정지상운

The Yeon’gwang Pavilion Borrows the Tones [1] of Jeong Jisang [2]

江樓四月已無花 강루사월이무화
簾幕薰風燕子斜 렴막훈풍연자사
一色碧波連碧草 일색벽파연벽초
不知別恨在誰家 부지별한재수가

By the river and the pavilion, in April, already does not have flowers.
Upon the hanging bamboo curtains, in the warm breeze, the swallows [fly] crooked.
One color, the blueness of the waves connect with the blueness of the grass [3].
I do not know which house has the grief of separation.

仁聖遺祠歲月多 인성유사세월다
朝天舊石是悲歌 조천구석시비가
大同門外長江水 대동문외장강수
不見迴波見逝波 불견회파견서파

At the Shrine of Benevolent Sage [4], the years and months are many.
Upon the Old Rock of the Morning Sky [5] – this sorrowful song.
Outside the Gate of Grand Union [6], distant are the waters of the river.
I do not see the returning waves; [although] I see the departing waves.

Notes:

  1. 次韻 (차운, Cha’un) – A technique used among Classical Chinese poets in which one poet takes another poet’s poem and changes some or all of the characters with other characters that are homophones or have similar or contrasting meanings.
  2. 鄭知常 (정지상, Jeong Jisang, ?-1135) – A minister and poet during the Goryeo dynasty.
  3. The colors “green” and “blue” are often called “blue” by Koreans.
  4. 仁聖遺祠 (인성유사, Inseong’yusa) – I think this is a name of a shrine. I cannot find any references of it online.
  5. 朝天舊石 (조천구석,  Jocheon’guseok) – Another reference to a geographic location.
  6. 大同門 (대동문, Daedongmun) – A gate in Pyeongyang.
Characters:
  • 簾 (렴, ryeom) – bamboo curtain.
  • 薰 (훈, hun) – to be fragrant; or gently blow.
  • 燕 (연, yeon) – swallows.
 
 

 

- The first one baptished featured below is by Yi Seunghun (李承薰, 이승훈, 1756

 

I.1800-1830

CHOSON DYNASTI 1800-1850


Figure 12 Rank badge, embroidered silk. Choson dynasty;
19th century.

1800

.

Western ships began to approach Korean shores after 1801, seeking trade and other contacts, but the government rejected all overtures from abroad. When news of the Opium War in China (1839-42) reached Korea, the dynasty had all the more reason to shut the doors tightly against Western “barbarians.” III.1870-1900

 

In the meantime, the Choson Dynasty suffered from a series of natural calamities including floods, famines, and epidemics, as well as large-scale revolts of the masses in the northwest (1811-12) and southwest (1862 and 1894-95).

The expansion of Western powers in East Asia in the nineteenth century significantly altered the established order, in which Korea had been dominated by China. China under the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) was in decline; its power waned rapidly under the concerted attacks of such Western nations as France, Britain, and Russia.

1800 – 1822 –

Joseon-do – Ulleungdo (朝鮮圖 – 鬱陵島)

 
The map below is from the atlas “Joseon-do” (朝鮮圖), which is stored in the Osaka Nakanoshima Library (中之島圖書館). It is believed to have been made sometime in the early 1800s.

One of the interesting things about the map is that it shows Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 – 울릉도) with a neighboring island labeled as “Usan” (于山 – 우산). Some Korean historians claim that Usando (于山島 – 우산도) was the old Korean name for “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks), but this map and many, many others show that Usando was just a neighboring island of Ulleungdo.
 
 
 
The fact that Usando was drawn just off Ulleungdo’s east shore strongly suggests that it was present-day Jukdo (竹島), which is Ulleungdo’s largest neighboring island and only about two kilometers off Ulleungdo’s east shore.
 

 
 
Notice that the above map of Ulleungdo is very similar to the following map of Ulleungdo in the Dongyeodo (東輿圖) atlas, which is stored in the University of Tsukuba Library (筑波大學附屬圖書館) in Japan. The Dongyeodo is believed to have been made sometime between 1795 and 1800.
 
 
 
Compare the above maps with the following satellite photo of Ulleungdo’s northeast shore. Notice that the location and shape of the small island offshore in the satellite photo is similar to that of the island labeled as “Usan” (于山) on the above maps. The small island offshore in the satellite photo is Ulleungdo’s neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about two kilometers offshore.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pos

1801

LIFE IN LATE-CHOSON

 

2. New Trends in Cultural Activities

 

(1) New Directions in Scholarly Activities

During the Choson period, scholarly works were based on the study of Songrihak or Neo-Confucianism. Scholars in metaphysics professed that only metaphysics was correct and dismissed other learnings. They dismissed not only Buddhism, but the philosophy of Wang Yang-ming which was one current in Confucianism, and concentrated on metaphysics alone. As a result, while it is true that metaphysics developed in Choson and obtained deeper roots, it is also true that by placing too much of a bias on the metaphysical theory alone, an atmosphere encouraging the free development of scholarly activities was not present.

In spite of the fact that the country’s social and economic problems were greatly affected by the damage of the two wars of Waeran and Horan and the livelihoods of the people greatly endangered, metaphysics, which concerned itself with philosophical questions, could not provide the answers to these difficult realities.

At this juncture, there arose a new movement in scholarly learning. To rectify the misaligned metaphysical and Yangban-centered reality and to set new directions for the country which would aid the livelihood of the people, new thinking called “Practical Learning” emerged.

 

(2) The Origin and Development of Practical Learning

 

The harbingers of Practical Learning were Han Paek-kyom and Yi Su-kwang; however, the actual leaders of Practical Learning who brought its ideas to fruit as a new thought were Yu Hyong-won and Yi Ik. They did not take positions as government officials, but made efforts in rural communities to nurture disciples in order to create opportunities for the development of this movement. Yu Hyong-won wrote the Pan’gye surok and Yi Ik was the author of Songho sasol, which was written in an encyclopedia form.

In the early 17th and 18th centuries, scholars of Practical Learning dealt mainly with the problems in rural areas, and from the latter 18th century to the early 19th century, scholars dealt with researching economic, technological, and social problems. Furthermore, around the 19th century, these scholars led efforts to build the axes of Han’gukhak (Koreanology) with studies in history, geography, languages, and epigraphy. This branch of Practical Learning led the scholarly world at this time.

So Yu-gu discussed problems in agriculture and showed the way to achieving stability in the livelihoods of the people. Hong Tae-yong, Pak Chi-won and Pak Che-ga insisted that agricultural and commercial industries should be regarded as important, and for that purpose Choson must open its posts to China, import technology and simultaneously increase trade activities.

Chong Yag-yong propagated structural reforms and a theory of industrial restoration based on these two positions. His scholarly activities contributed to the understanding of science, medicine, religion and Confucianism. There was not any field which was left untouched by his scholarly work. He wrote 500 volumes of books including the Mogmin simso, Humhum shinso and Kyongse yup’yo and achieved a synthesis of Practical Learning.

 

(3) Developments in Kukhak (national learning) and the Significance of Practical Learning

 

Scholars of the school of “on-the-spot survey” which was one of the trends in Practical Learning believed that people must achieve an academic understanding of the realities and culture of their country. They strove to conduct academic research concerning the country.

Yi Chong-hwi, Yu Tuk-kong, Han Ch’i-yun, and An Chong-bok studied history, and Sin Kyong-chun, Yi Chung-hwan, Kim Chong-ho studied geography. Chong Sang-ki and Kim Chong-ho drew maps of Korea, but Kim Chong-ho is particularly well known for the creation of a map known as the “Taedong yojido” which was made through actual field studies and had a variety of practical uses.

 

Taedong yojido : Dating back to 1861, it is the oldest detailed map of Korea

Many scholars also studied Korea’s language. The works of Sin Kyongchun and Yu Hui are famous. Springing from an interest in history, Kim Chong-hwi concentrated on studying the epigraphs on stone monuments. As the sphere of cultural activities expanded and scholarly interest in each of the fields increased, many encyclopedia-like books appeared.

Yi Ik’s Songho sasol, Yi Tok-mu’s Ch’ongchanggwan chonso, So Yuku’s Imwon kyongje-chi, Yi Kyu-kyong’s Oju yonmun changjon san’go and the palace-authorized Tongguk munhon pigo are representative examples of such works. Ch’oe Han-ki, during the reign of Honjong, was a scholar comparable to Chong Yag-yong who wrote hundreds of books on the subjects of government, geography, science, medicine, and mathematics.

Through the scholarly activities of these scholars throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, many measures concerning government administration and improvements in the welfare of the people were presented. The activities of field studies also greatly contributed to national development. These scholarly activities displayed an awareness of approaching modern times and a national consciousness, but were still not completely rid of the influence of metaphysics. In addition, because scholars were not in positions to influence policy making, their advancements didn’t affect the actual lives of the people.

 

(4) Developments in Science and Technology

 

As the sphere of cultural activities expanded, various industrial activities became active and developments in science and technology and medicine occurred. In addition, Western technology and medicine were partially accepted.

Books based on studies of agricultural technologies were reprinted. Among them were: Sin Sok’s Nongga chipsong, a technical guide to paddy farming; Pak Se-dang’s Saekkyong, a guide to fruit farming, tree planting, livestock farming, floriculture, irrigation and weather; and So Yu-ku’s Imwon kyongje-chi, a book dealing with agriculture, forestry, livestock farming, sericulture, food processing, food preservation, clothing, eating, and housing. In addition, Haedong nongso came out as a book which systematized the agricultural sciences of Korea on the basis of such theories of agricultural technologies and management.

 

A 1801 report stating the completion of Suwon Castle
Crane : created by Chong Yag-yong
(1752-1836), it’s mechanism is based on the theory of the pinwheel.

 

“Ssirum” or Korean-style wrestling and “Dancing Boy” by Kim Hong-to (1745~after 1814)

Chong Yak-chon, a pragmatist who went to the island of Huksan to study marine products, researched 155 varieties of fish which he collected and catalogued into a book, Chasan obo.

Many new theories also developed in the fields of astronomy and divination, which are closely related to agriculture. Yi Su-kwang introduced new theories based on his observations of solar and lunar eclipses, tides and other natural phenomena. Kim Sok-mun and Hong Tae-yong advocated a theory of heliocentricity and criticized the traditional geocentric world view.

Kim Yuk introduced the Western calendar from China and put it to use. It is a well-known fact that Chong Yag-yong designed a crane based on a book he read which was imported from China. This crane was used in the construction of Suwon Castle.

In traditional Chinese medicine, achievements were also made with regard to its theory and treatment methods. As basic Chinese medical texts, Ho Chun’s Tongui pogam and the Ch’imgu kyonghombang (a book on acupuncture) are famous and influencial even today. Research on the measles were carried out early on and Chong Yag-yong compiled many books on the subject in order to publish the Makwa hoet’ong. He even experimented with vaccinations.

 

(5) Growth in the Activities of Popular Culture

 

“inwang chesekdo : Clear Skies over Mount Inwang.”
by Chong Son(1751)

As industrial activities advanced and the welfare of the people improved with changes in the social status system, the population expressed interest in educational and cultural activities. As their knowledge gradually grew, people displayed creative talents in literature and the arts. Although there were some Sodangs (village schools for the learning of Chinese classics) in the early period of Choson, in the latter period, there was hardly a single village which did not have its own Sodang which was run and maintained by the local population. Sodangs were the institutions of primary education which taught Confucianism and history.

P’ansoris and other songs indigenous to Korea appeared. These accurately reflected the cultural tastes of the people and contained lyrics from novels and folktales. In addition, the Ch’ang-guk developed, a type of operatic theater which the general population greatly enjoyed, and the mask theaters which made fun of the Yangbans were very popular since they expressed the sentiments of the people.

Within the women’s society, traditional social activities were frowned upon. So, some ladies, who were learned, composed novels and short poems for songs in Han’gul.

 

(6) New Movements in Literature

 

“inwang chesekdo : Clear Skies over Mount Inwang.”
by Chong Son(1751)

Illustrious Yangban officials exerted most of their energy studying Chinese literature. In opposition to the Yangban’s interest in Chinese Literature, the pragmatists believed that the origins of Confucianism must be rediscovered. Thus, a movement to restudy the classics arose. There also appeared a new movement to use colloquial and everyday language and throw away the old conventions. Pak Chi-won’s Yolha Diary is a work which was written in this new style.

In the late 18th century, the middle class and illegitimate sons of Yangbans engaged in literary activities in order to raise their social status. They revealed the historical origins of the middle class, composed biographies of representative personages, and published anthologies of poems and songs. The Kyusa (History of the Sun Flower) and Ihyang Kyonmullok (Experiences in Foreign Countries) are representative of such biographies and the Ch’onggu yong’on, Haedong kayo and Haedong yuchu are anthologies of poems and songs.

The most conspicuous features of literary activities during the latter period of Choson are the appearance of works which display a popular consciousness and have been written to meet popular tastes. Examples are narratives, novels and the pansoris.

Tales such as the Taedong yasung and T’aep’yong kwanggi were composed. Among novels, Pak Chi-won’s Hosaeng-jon and Hojilmun (Tiger’s Reprimand) as well as works by Yangbanjon were written in Chinese characters. But Ho Kyun’s Hong Kil-tong-jon, Kim Man-chung’s Kuunmong (Dream in Nine clouds) and Sassi namjonggi (Southern Expedition), Changhwa hongnyon-jon (Rose and the Red Lotus), K’ongjwi P’atjwi-jon, Sim Ch’ong-jon, Hungbu-jon, Sukhyang-jon and Ch’unhyang-jon were written in Han’gul and read widely by women and common men. Pansoris were especially favored during the latter period of Choson. Ch’unhyang-ga, Chokbyok-ga, Simch’ong-ga, T’okki t’aryong (Song of the Hare) are the most popular pansoris. The man who became famous for the creation and arrangement of many Pansoris is Sin Chae-hyo.

 

(7) New Trends in Art Activities

 

In painting, a new trend arose. Korean landscapes in true life form were drawn. This genre of painting of peculiar customs of everyday life was in vogue and tales which were made popular by the common people laid the groundwork for such paintings.

The pioneers of true life landscape paintings were Chong Son and Sim Sa-hong of Hwawon. Kim Hong-to and Sin Yun-bok of Hwawon are also famous as genre painters depicting the lives of the people in the farming villages and cities. Kim Tuk-sin and Kim Sok-sin, two brothers, were also genre painters who possessed similar styles of painting.

Among civilian scholars, there were many who displayed outstanding talents in drawing. Among them, Kang Se-hwang, Sin Wi and Kim Chong-hui were particularly well known. There were also changes in the Yangban culture of calligraphy. Calligraphers of the past were not able to break away from the influence of Chinese calligraphers, but Kim Chong-hui succeeded in developing a peculiar style of calligraphy known as Ch’usa.

 

“Orchids” by Kim Chong-hui (1786~1857). Hanging scroll, ink or paper.
A 16th century white porcelain vase with a pinetree, deer, crane, and clouds, all symbols of longevity.

 

In the latter period of Choson, white porcelain was chiefly developed. Originally, white porcelain was forbidden to the common people, but in the latter period of Choson, white porcelain was freely sold, and even the common people were able to buy and utilize it. Among wares made in white porcelain, landscapes, flowers and grass were drawn on Ch’onghwa paekcha. They were used as jars, flower vases and water bottles. Among wooden goods, stationery cases, cabinets, tables, and small dining tables were the chief items used in everyday life.

Among the architectual works of the latter period of Choson, the most representative with its beautiful and solid structure is the castle of Suwon. Others which still remain today are the Maitreya Palace in the Kumsansa Temple, Taeung-jon in the Sogwangsa Temple, Kakhwang-jon of the Hwaomsa Temple and P’alsang-jon in the Popchusa Temple.

 

The Maitreya Hall at Kumsansa Temple is the only in Korea with a triple stories roof.
P’alsangjon, Popchusa Temple : built during the Shilla Dynasty under King Chinhung,
reconstructed in 1626.
Suwon castle, Suwon city, Kyonggi province. Built from 1794 to 1796, the castle has been designated Historic Site No. 3.

 1812

Peasant Wars of 1812 and 1862

During this period, drought and floods alternately struck the country, causing a succession of bad harvests, which in turn generated a grim cycle of famine.  Excessive tax collection and forced labor ensued.  These adverse natural and social conditions ignited a series of agrarian revolts.  In 1812, Hong Kyong-nae rose up in revolt with the peasants at Kasan, in the northern part of Korea, and held power in that district for some months.  Frightened government officials dispatched the army, and only after waging a hard campaign were they able to suppress the revolt.  In the south, all the way to Chejudo island, as well as in the north, peasants persevered in their struggle against oppression at the hands of the government, the local nobility and the wealthy landlords.

Half a century after Hong Kyong-nae’s well-organized fight, the situation had not improved.  A group of farmers in Chinju, Kyongsang-do province, rebelled against their oppressive overlords, the provincial officials and the wealthy landowners.  THis uprising of 1862 is directly attributable to the exploitation of destitute farmers by Paek Nak-shin, a newly appointed military commander who had jurisdiction over the western half of Kyongsang-do province.

Yu Kye-ch’un, an intellectual native to the district who was outraged by Paek Nak-shin’s rapacious conduct, led the farmers to riot, denouncing corrupt minor officials and wealthy landlords.  The rebels killed local government functionaries, set fire to government buildings and wrought considerable destruction.  The startled Hanyang government hurriedly sent an investigator to the scene.  On the basis of its findings of fraudulent practices by the local officials concerned, the government hastily revised the land, military and grain lending systems in an effort to eliminate such abuses.  From the outset, however, it was unrealistic to expect the ruling class in the central government, which was itself deeply involved in such frauds, to make radical changes.  But at least a superficial attempt at reform was made.

The agrarian revolt in Chinju served as a signal for similar uprisings elsewhere.  In Kyongsang-do, Cholla-do and Ch’ungch’nong-do provinces, on faraway Chejudo island and in Hamgyong-do and P’yong-an-do provinces in the north, groups of farmers rose up, attacking offices in principal towns and routing officials.

Under such social conditions, Ch’oe Che-u (1824-1864) formulated the ideology of Tonghak (Eastern Learning) in order to rescue the farmers from prevalent poverty and unrest, and to restore political and social stability.  His ideas rapidly gained acceptance and he set his doctrines to music so that farmers would understand and accept them more readily.  His teachings were systematized and compiled as a message of salvation to farmers in distress.  The songs he sang were a mixture of traditional elements from Confucianism, Buddhism and Son-gyo (teachings of Shilla’s Hwarang), and to these he added modern humanistic ideas.  Exclusionism was another characteristic of his religion, which incorporated an early form of nationalism and rejected alien thought.

 

 

 

II.1830-1870

1851

 

 Document chest, wood covered with black lacquer, inlaid with mother-of-pearl; Tobacco box, iron inlaid with silver; Tobacco box, green soapstone. Choson dynasty, 19th century. .

 the Korean object, an iron helmet decorated with silver inlay, FOUND  in 1878, it was originally documented as Japanese. Such mis-attribution was a recurring feature in the early acquisitions history for Korea.

 the increase of Westerners travelling or living in Korea and returning with objects . Thomas Watters (1840-1901), the son of a clergyman from County Down, Ireland, resided in Seoul as Acting Consul General after having held the position of British Consul in China.  a substantial collection of Korean objects as well as Chinese artifacts. These included a black lacquer document chest (mun’gap) which would have graced the male quarters of a Korean house during the late Choson period (1392- 1910) (). The top of the chest is ornately decorated with mother-of-pearl inlay featuring deer, cranes, pine and bamboo motifs symbolizing longevity, while the sliding doors bear a complex geometric pattern. Tobacco boxes made from green soapstone and iron inlaid with silver, popular souvenirs often brought back from Korea by Western travellers during this period, .

1852

Emperor Gojong


Gojong and the Korean Empire

26th
Emperor
Gojong

l:1852-1919
r2:1897-1907
    27th
Emperor
Sunjong
l:1874-1926
r:1907-1910
    Prince
Geon
       
      Wanchinwang     Prince
Wu
       
      Euichinwang     Yi Bang
       
            Yi Chang
       
            Yi Ju
       
            Yi Gon
       
            Yi Gwang
       
            Yi Hyun     30th
Yi Won
           
            Yi Gap     Yi Sangwoo
           
            Yi Seuk (Hwangson)
       
            Yi Hwan
       
            Yi Jung
       
     
   
      28th
Eumin taeja
    29th
Yi Gu (1931)
       

War, Chosun was finally free and no longer was a vassal state of China.

the Great Korean Empire (大韓帝國, 대한제국).

For the first time since the Goryeo dynasty’s subjugation to the Mongols, Korea was able to take titles reserved for China and its Emperor. Thus, to usher a new era, King Gojong assumed the title “Emperor” and changed the name of Chosun to the Great Korean Empire (大韓帝國, 대한제국).

 He attempted to put Korea on par with the imperial Western nations and Japan, and introduced reforms by opening port and bringing in both Westerners and the Japanese. Unfortunately, it was too little, too late.

The Japanese, with their aspirations to have a foothold on the Asian mainland, interfered in internal Korean politics and forced Emperor Gojong to abdicted  After the defeat to  the Qing dynasty in the First Sino-Japanese

 

Emperor Gojong – Enjoying Spring

 a poem by Emperor Gojong (高宗光武帝, 고종광무제, r. 1863-1907, 1852-1919), the second to last monarch of the last dynasty.

賞春 상춘Enjoying Spring

花間看蝶舞 화간간접무
柳上聽鶯聲 유상청앵성
群生皆自樂 군생개자락
最是愛民情 최시애민정

flower-between-to see-butterfly-to dance
willows-above-hear-nightingale-sound
group-life-all-by themselves-joy
first-to be-love-people-condition

Between the flowers, I spotted a butterfly dancing.
Above the willows, I hearken the nightingale’s singing.
All sorts of life are all together by themselves enjoyable.
The first of these is to esteem the conditions of [Our country's] people.

Characters:

  • 蝶 (접, jeop) – butterfly (나비).
  • 鶯 (앵, aeng) – nightingale (앵무새).
 
 

1853

Stimulated by these events, Japan proceeded to modernize after having been forced to open its ports by Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States Navy in 1853-54. Korea, however, remained dormant, having closed itself to all outside contacts in the early eighteenth century.

1863

 

 Late Joseon period

Heungseon Daewongun

After invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo led a renaissance of the Joseon dynasty. King Sukjong and his son King Yeongjo tried to solve the problems caused by faction politics. Tangpyeong’s policy was to effectively freeze the parties’ disputes.

Yeongjo’s grandson, King Jeongjo enacted various reforms throughout his reign, notably establishing Kyujanggak, a royal library in order to improve the cultural and political position of Joseon and to recruit gifted officers to run the nation. King Jeongjo also spearheaded bold social initiatives, opening government positions to those who would previously have been barred because of their social status. King Jeongjo had the support of the many Silhak scholars, who supported his regal power. King Jeongjo’s reign also saw the further growth and development of Joseon’s popular culture.

In 1863

King Gojong took the throne. His father, Regent Heungseon Daewongun, ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood. During the mid 1860s the Regent was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French Campaign against Korea, 1866. The early years of his rule also witnessed a large effort to restore the largely dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During Heungseon Daewongun‘s reign, factional politics and power wielded by the Andong Kim clan completely disappeared.

 In 1871,

 U.S. and Korean forces clashed in a U.S. attempt at “gunboat diplomacy” following on the General Sherman incident of 1866.

In 1873,

 King Gojong announced his assumption of royal rule. With the subsequent retirement of Heungseon Daewongun, the future Queen Min (later called Empress Myeongseong) gained complete control over her court, placing her family in high court positions.

1885

Decline

Empress Myeongseong.

Deokhye, Princess of Korea

 

 
 
 
Princess Deokhye
Spouse Count Sō Takeyuki
Issue
Countess Sō Masae
Father Gojong of Korea
Mother Lady Bongnyeong
Born 25 May 1912(1912-05-25)
Changdeok Palace, Seoul
Died 21 April 1989(1989-04-21) (aged 76)
Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, Republic of Korea
Burial Hongryureung, Namyangju, Republic of Korea
Deokhye, Princess of Korea
Hangul 덕혜옹주
Hanja 德惠翁主
Revised Romanization Deokhye Ongju
McCune–Reischauer Tŏkhye Ongju

Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) was the last Princess of Korea.

She was born on 25 May 1912 at Changdeok Palace in Seoul. She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Gwangmu and his concubine, Lady Bongnyeong. In 1917, her name was formally entered into the Imperial Family’s registry. Her father, Emperor Gwangmu, loved her greatly, and established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her in Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong hall. Girls her age from noble families attended the kindergarten. In 1919, she was secretly engaged to Kim Jang-han, a nephew of Kim Hwangjin (a court chamberlain).

In 1925, she was taken to Japan under the pretense of continuing her studies. Like her brothers, she attended the Gakushuin. She was described as silent and isolative. Upon the news of her mother’s death in 1929, she isolated herself in her rooms and was eventually given permission to visit Korea temporarily to attend her mother’s funeral in 1930. In the Spring of 1930, upon the onset of mental illness (manifested by sleepwalking), she moved to King Lee’s Palace, her brother Crown Prince Eun‘s house in Tokyo. During this period, she often forgot to eat and drink. Her physician diagnosed her illness as precocious dementia, but by the following year, her condition seemed to have improved.

In May 1931, after “matchmaking” by Empress Teimei, the consort of Emperor Taishō of Japan, she married Count Sō Takeyuki (武志), {1923-1985} a Japanese nobleman. The marriage had in fact been decided in 1930; her brother had protested against it, and it had been postphoned because of her condition, but when she recovered, she was immediately given instructions that the marriage was to take place. She gave birth to a daughter, Masae (正惠) on 14 August 1932. In 1933, Deokhye was again afflicted with mental illness, and after this, she spent many years in various mental clinics. She finally divorced her husband in 1953. Suffering an unhappy marriage, her grief was compounded by the loss of her only daughter who committed suicide by drowning in 1955. After this, her condition deteriorated.

She returned to Korea at the invitation of the Korean government on 26 January 1962. She cried while approaching her motherland, and despite her mental state, accurately remembered the court manners. She lived in Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace, with Crown Prince and Princess Eun, their son Prince Gu, his wife Julia Mullock, and Mrs Byeon Bokdong, her lady-in-waiting. She died on 21 April 1989 at Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, and was buried at Hongryureung in Namyangju, near Seoul.

Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, acquired Western military technology, and forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876, opening three ports to trade and granting the Japanese extraterritoriality. Port Hamilton was occupied by the British Navy in 1885.

Many Koreans despised Japanese and foreign influences over their land and the corrupt oppressive rule of the Joseon Dynasty. In 1894, the Donghak Peasant Revolution saw farmers rise up in a mass rebellion, with peasant leader Jeon Bong-jun defeating the forces of local ruler Jo Byong-gap at the battle of Go-bu on January 11, 1894; after the battle, Jo’s properties were handed out to the peasants. By May, the peasant army had reached Jeonju, and the Joseon government asked the Qing Dynasty government for assistance in ending the revolt. The Qing sent 3,000 troops and the rebels negotiated a truce, but the Japanese considered the Qing presence a threat and sent in 8,000 troops of their own, seizing the Royal Palace in Seoul and installing a pro-Japanese government on 8 June 1894. This soon escalated into the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) between Japan and Qing China, fought largely in Korea.

Empress Myeongseong[19] had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support. In 1895, Empress Myeongseong (referred to as “Queen Min”[19]) was assassinated by Japanese agents.[20][20] The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Goro, orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents along with the Hullyeondae Army[20] entered the Royal Palace in Seoul, which was under Japanese control,[20] and Empress Myeongseong was killed and her body desecrated in the North wing of the palace.

The Qing acknowledged defeat in the Treaty of Shimonoseki (17 April 1895), which officially guaranteed Korea’s independence from China. It was a step toward Japan gaining regional hegemony in Korea.

1897

The Joseon court, pressured by encroachment from larger powers, felt the need to reinforce national integrity and declared the Korean Empire in 1897. Emperor Gojong assumed the title of Emperor in order to assert Korea’s independence. In addition, other foreign powers were sought for military technology, especially Russia, to fend off the Japanese.

 

Wongudan, Seoul

 

 An altar site in Seoul built in 1897 as a location for the performance of the rite of heaven

reinstated with the founding of the Korean Empire in 1897

Wongudan, Seoul A 1925 photo of Wongudan, an altar site in Seoul built in 1897 as a location for the performance of the rite of heaven. King Seongjong of the Goryeo Dynasty was the first to perform the rite, designed to ensure a bountiful harvest, in the tenth century. The practice was discontinued by later Goryeo kings, revived briefly in the mid fifteenth century by Sejo of the Joseon Dynasty, then reinstated with the founding of the Korean Empire in 1897. Much of the altar complex was destroyed during the Japanese occupation, and the gate and fountain seen here were also subsequently removed, leaving only the three-storey Hwangungu pagoda remaining

1897

 Technically, 1897 marks the end of the Joseon period, as the official name of the empire was changed; however the Joseon Dynasty would still reign, albeit perturbed by Japan and Russia.

 

In 1863, Prince Yi Ha-ung, better known as the Taewon-gun or Prince Regent, put into effect a series of sweeping reforms encompassing national finance and government administration in order to strengthen the royal authority.  He strongly opposed the increasing infiltration of foreign commercial interests into the country.  In the spring of 1866, the government ordered the rigorous persecution of Catholics.  Aroused by this measure, the French fleet sailed up the Han-gang river and hostilities broke out on Kanghwado island.

Economic and social developments drove the majority of yangban to bankruptcy, while the peasants and merchants were eager to throw off the traditional social constraints.  As these trends developed, the government devised measures to suppress them.  Another impetus to social dynamism was the increase in offspring of the yangban and mothers of lower origin.

Although the emancipation of bondsmen resulted in an increase in the number of taxable people, the exploitation of farmers by the ruling class caused the state’s tax revenues to decline

 

III.1870-1900

A Korean street, late 1800’s. A Korean street, late 1800s

1875

The Japanese were the first foreign power in recent history to succeed in penetrating Korea’s isolation. After a warlike Japanese provocation against Korea in 1875 (when China failed to come to Korea’s aid), the Japanese forced an unequal treaty on Korea in February 1876. The treaty gave Japanese nationals extraterritorial rights and opened up three Korean ports to Japanese trade. In retaliation, China sought to counter Japan by extending Korea’s external relations and playing off one Western power against another. Accordingly, Korea signed treaties with the United States, Britain, Italy, Russia, and other countries were signed within the decade after the one with Japan.

Internally, the Korean court split into rival pro-Chinese, pro-Japanese, and pro-Russian factions, the latter two having more reformist and modernizing orientations. In 1895 the Japanese minister to Korea masterminded the assassination of the Korean queen, who with her clan had opposed reform-oriented, Japanese-supported leaders. The Korean king, however, rejected not only Japan but also the various reform measures and turned for support to one of Japan’s adversaries–Russia. The king fled to the Russian legation in Seoul to avoid possible Japanese plots against him and conducted the nation’s business from there. The Japanese blunder had served the Russians well.

In the meantime, under the leadership of So Chae-p’il, who had exiled himself to the United States after participating in an unsuccessful palace coup in 1884, a massive campaign was launched to advocate Korean independence from foreign influence and controls. As well as supporting Korean independence, So also advocated reform in Korea’s politics and customs in line with Western practices. Upon his return to Korea in 1896, So published Tongnip simmun (The Independent), the first newspaper to use the han’gul writing system and the vernacular language, which attracted an ever-growing audience (see The Korean Language, ch. 2). He also organized the Independence Club to introduce Korea’s elite to Western ideas and practices. Under his impetus and the influence of education provided by Protestant mission schools, hundreds of young men held mass meetings on the streets and plazas demanding democratic reforms and an end to Russian and Japanese domination. But the conservative forces proved to be too deeply entrenched for the progressive reformers who trashed the paper’s offices. The reformers, including Syngman Rhee, then a student leader, were jailed. So was compelled to return to the United States in 1898, and under one pretext or another the government suppressed both the reform movement and its newspaper.

The revolt of 1894-95, known as the Tonghak Rebellion, had international repercussions. Like the Taiping rebels in China thirty years earlier, the Tonghak(see Glossary) participants were fired by religious fervor as well as by indignation about the corrupt and oppressive government. The rebellion spread from the southwest to the central region of the peninsula, menacing Seoul. The Korean court apparently felt unable to cope with the rebels and invited China to send troops to quell the rebellion. This move gave Japan a pretext to dispatch troops to Korea. The two countries soon engaged in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), which accelerated the demise of the Qing Dynasty in China.

The victorious Japanese established their hegemony over Korea via the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) and dictated to the Korean government a wide-ranging series of measures to prevent further domestic disturbances. In response, the government promulgated various reforms, including the abolition of class distinctions, the liberation of slaves, the abolition of the ritualistic civil service examination system, and the adoption of a new tax system.

Russian influence had been on the rise in East Asia, in direct conflict with the Japanese desire for expansion. In alliance with France and Germany, Russia had just forced Japan to return the Liaodong Peninsula to China (which Japan had seized during the First Sino-Japanese War) and then promptly leased the territory from China. The secret Sino-Russian treaty signed in 1896 also gave the Russians the right to build and operate the Chinese Eastern Railway across northern Manchuria, which served as a link in the Russian Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. Russia proceeded to acquire numerous concessions over Korea’s forests and mines.

The strategic rivalry between Russia and Japan exploded in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, won by Japan. Under the peace treaty signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan’s “paramount political, military, and economic interest” in Korea. A separate agreement signed in secret between the United States and Japan at this time subsequently aroused anti-American sentiment among Koreans. The Taft-Katsura Agreement was cynical by modern standards, exchanging what amounted to a lack of interest and military capability in Korea on the part of the United States (Japan was given a free hand in Korea) for a lack of interest or capability in the Philippines on the part of Japan (Japanese imperialism was diverted from the Philippines). Given the diplomatic conventions of the times, however, the agreement was a much weaker endorsement of the Japanese presence in Korea than either the Russo-Japanese peace treaty or a separate Anglo- Japanese accord. Two months later, Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate. Thereafter, a large number of Koreans organized themselves in education and reform movements, but by then Japanese dominance in Korea was a reality. Japan annexed Korea as a colony on August 22, 1910

The Last Empress a historical drama about

Queen Min (Empress Myeongseong) , who was assassinated by the Japanese

new information suggest by my friend Yeoung fron turkish site:

 

Princess Deokhye / 덕혜옹주[Resim: princessdeokhye1.png]


Prenses Deokhye(25 Mayıs 1912 – 21 Nisan 1989) Kore’nin son prensesidir.

25 Mayıs 1912’de Seoul’de Changdeok Sarayı’nda doğdu. Hükümdar Gwangmu ile cariyesi Lady Bongnyeong’un en genç çocuklarıydı. Adı, 1917’de İmparatorluk Ailesi kaydına resmi olarak işlendi. Babası hükümdar Gwangmu onu çokça severdi, onun için Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong Salonu’na Deoksu Saray Anaokulu’nu kurdurttu. Onun yaşındaki asil ailelerin kızları bu anaokuluna gitti.1919’da saray nazırı Kim Hwangjin’in yeğeni Kim Jang-han ile gizlice nişanlandırıldı ve eğitimine devam etmesi bahanesiyle Japonya’ya götürüldü. Erkek kardeşleri gibi Gakushuin’e girdi (Gakushuin, Kraliyet Üniversitesi olarak da bilinen eski bir Japon üniversitesidir). 1930 yılının baharında, ruhsal bir bozukluğun baş göstermesi üzerine (uyurgezerlik olarak ortaya çıktı) Kral Lee’nin sarayından erkek kardeşi Veliaht Eun’ın Tokyo’daki evine taşındı. Doktoru erken bunama teşhisi koydu ama ilerleyen yıllarda durumu düzelmiş olarak göründü.

Mayıs 1931’de İmparatoriçe Teimei’nin çöpçatanlığıyla Japonya İmparatoru Taishō’nın arkadaşı, asilzade bir Japon olan Kont Sō Takeyuki(武志) ile evlendi. 14 Ağustos 1932’de kızı Masae’yi (正惠) doğurdu. Mutsuz bir evliliğe katlanırken, buna intihar eden kızını kaybetmenin acısı da eklendi. Bu olaydan sonra durumu kötüleşti ve 1953’de eşinden boşandı.

Kore hükümetinin davetiyle 26 Ocak 1962’de Kore’ye geri döndü.21 Nisan 1989’da Changdeok Sarayı, Sugang Salonu’nda hayatını kaybetti, Namyangju’daki Hongryureung’a defnedildi.

[Resim: princessdeokhye2.jpg] [Resim: princessdeokhye3.jpg]

 

Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) was the last Princess of Korea.

She was born on 25 May 1912 at Changdeok Palace in Seoul. She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Gwangmu and his concubine, Lady Bongnyeong. In 1917, her name was formally entered into the Imperial Family’s registry. Her father, Emperor Gwangmu, loved her greatly, and established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her in Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong hall. Girls her age from noble families attended the kindergarten. In 1919, she was secretly engaged to Kim Jang-han, a nephew of Kim Hwangjin (a court chamberlain) and was taken to Japan under the pretense of continuing her studies. Like her brothers, she attended the Gakushuin. In the Spring of 1930, upon the onset of mental illness (manifested by sleepwalking), she moved to King Lee’s Palace, her brother Crown Prince Eun’s house in Tokyo. Her physician diagnosed her illness as precocious dementia, but by the following year, her condition seemed to have improved.

In May 1931, after “matchmaking” by Empress Teimei, the consort of Emperor Taishō of Japan, she married Count Sō Takeyuki (武志), a Japanese nobleman. She gave birth to a daughter, Masae (正惠) on 14 August 1932. Suffering an unhappy marriage, her grief was compounded by the loss of her only daughter who committed suicide by drowning. After this, her condition deteriorated, and she finally divorced her husband in 1953.

She returned to Korea at the invitation of the Korean government on 26 January 1962. She cried while approaching her motherland, and despite her mental state, accurately remembered the court manners. She lived in Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace, with Crown Prince and Princess Eun, their son Prince Gu, his wife Julia Mullock, and Mrs Byeon Bokdong, her lady-in-waiting. She died on 21 April 1989 at Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, and was buried at Hongryureung in Namyangju, near Seoul.

By the 1880s, court power struggles were no longer a domestic issue and took on international aspects .As a newly emergent country, Japan turned its attention towards Korea. It was vital for Japan, in order to protect its own interests and security, to either annex Korea before it fell prey (or was annexed) to another power or to insure its effective independence by opening its resources and reforming its administration. As one Japanese statesman put it, Korea was “an arrow pointed at the heart of Japan”. Japan felt that another power having a military presence on the Korean peninsula would have been detrimental to Japanese national security, and so Japan resolved to end the centuries-old Chinese suzerainty over Korea. Moreover, Japan realized that Korea’s coal and iron ore deposits would benefit Japan’s increasingly-expanding industrial base.

In 1874, King Kojong began his rule and his wife, Queen Min, gained increasing power, which she used to support reform and use Japanese officers to train a new Korean  army .In 8882 a Japanese military instructor arrived to train Korean soldiers in modern methods .The Korean Daewongun (Prince of the Court) Prince Gung, who rejected modernization, used the discontent of the dismissed soldiers and a food shortage to incite them to attack the palace and the Japanese legation in 1882 .Queen Min barely escaped and seven Japanese officers were killed along with 300 pro-reform Koreans .The Chinese sent Admiral Ding Ju-chang twith six gunboats and two transports of troops to investigate the situation who took steps to avoid Japanese punitive action by having the Daewongun arrested and an indemnity of $550,000 to be paid to Japan.Japan was allowed to station troops at its legation .Queen Min returned, who was now strongly opposed to the Japanese .

 

After the insurrection of 1882, Li Hung-chang took steps to strengthen China’s position in Korea with a commercial treaty, loans and six Chinese battalions to maintain order and check Japanese aggression .Tension mounted between pro-Chinese and pro-Japanese forces. In 1884, China was involved in a war with France and withdrew three battalions. the pro-Japanese faction took this opportunity to launch a coup and captured the king. A pro-Japanese government was sworn in, independence from China was proclaimed and a new Japanese fiance minister was appointed .

The Japanese had been too heavy handed however, and many reformers and pro-Japanese switched to the conservative, pro-Chinese faction .A force of 5,000 Korean and Chinese soldiers under Yuan Shikai fell on the palace The chinese broke through the palace gates, and the Japanese detonated a mine which killed 90 Chinese soldiers .However, there were too many against the Japanese and pro-Japanese forces, and a company of 140 Japanese soldiers and the Japanese minister fought their way to Chemulpo ( Inchon). With the conservatives victorious, the remaing pro-Japanese and progressives were rounded up and executed , along with their families .

An envoy, Ito Hirobumi, was sent to confer with Li Hung-chang, where they reached the Sino-Japanese Tientsin Convention on April 18, 1885. Ito felt that Japan was not yet modernized enough for a war with China .This stipulated that both China and Japan would withdraw their troops from Korea in four months, neither side would train Korean troops and that each would notify the other before dispatching troops to Korea .This in effect made Korea a co-protectorate of China and Japan . Yuan Shi-kai, as chinese pro-consul was very powerful in Korea at this time.and basically ran the Korean government. He dismissed all pro-Japanese advisors, prohibited inland trade with Russia and the sale of rice to Japan, which had in part caused the food shortage before . This greatly angered the Japanese, who granted asylum to progressives who were wanted by the Korean government .There was great anger in the Korean countryside over the abuses of the Yangban ruling class over high taxes, buying land cheap or stealing it, forcing farmers into debt bondage and xenophobia against foreign intrusion in Korea. The Japanese secret society, began to secretly aid a group fighting these injustices, the Tonghaks, hoping Japan could profit from an unstable situation in Korea .

Waning of the Dynasty

uniforms in the late Choson Dynasty

Aside from perceived threats from the West, Korea also faced serious internal problems during the last century of the Choson Dynasty. The 1800s saw increasing corruption and inefficiency in government. The kings were weaklings and policies were made by powerful families or factions of high-ranking individuals at court. Cul­tural and artistic expression flourished, but the country was stunted politically and economically, poorly developed militarily, and naive in in­ternational relations. Voices of dissent were re­pressed and because of yangban oppression of the lower classes, dissatisfaction continued to ferment and sometimes boiled over. An effort, termed the Kabo Revolution, by upper-class pro-Japanese activists in 1884 to bring about drastic changes in government and institute re­forms (similar to those of the Meiji Restoration in Japan a few years earlier) also failed.

In the 1860s, the indigenous religion, Tong­hak(“Eastern learning”), ( more details on the Tonghaks )had been formulated. Combining elements from Buddhism, Confu­cianism, shamanism, and other sources, it es­poused the equality and dignity of all peoples, equal opportunity, national self-sufficiency, and independence from foreign influence. Tonghak followers in 1894 protested against social conditions and the growing dominance of Japanese merchants in the Korean market. They engaged in violent clashes with the Korean army, prompting both China and Japan to send in troops to help suppress the demonstrations. As China and Japan were at this time vying for influence over the Korean Peninsula, the Tong­hak Rebellion brought relations between the two giants to a head and helped spark the Sino­Japanese War (1894-95).

 

The Korean government banned the movement and had its founder Ch’oe Che-u, executed by decapitation in 1864  and the movement was forced to go underground .The Tonghaks, were aided by the Japanese Genyosha secret society, to organize a mass movement with large protests and stage a rebellion .A Korean army sent to attack the Tonghaks was defeated at Gobu in southwest Korea on January 11, 1894 and the Korean court, fearing a Tonghak invasion of Seoul, asked for Chinese aid.

 

The initial success of the revolt led a panic court to seek help from  China .In early June a Chinese force of 2,800 was dispatched from Chefoo ( Yingtan) to Asan under general Yuan Shikai, a port outside of Seoul, where they camped.The arrival of the Chinese forces caused the Tonghaks to call off their attack on Seoul after the Korean government arranged a truce . The Tonghak leader, Chon Pong-chun regarded this as an opportunity to archive his objectives without further recourse to warfare. In consequence hostilities came to an end, on condition that an end also be put to government misrule.  .The Japanese considered this action to be a violation of the Convention, and sent their own expeditionary force of 8,000 troops to Korea. to its legation in Seoul ad the surrounding area .

The Daewongun (Taewongun) (1821-1898) was the father of Kojong and was the de facto ruler of Korea as the regent of the young king till his death in 1898. As an old school Confucianist he promoted isolationism and persecution of Korean Catholics, leading to the French attack of Ganghwa Island in 1866 after the execution of a French priest. In 1882 he was abducted by the Qing General in China, Yuan Shihkai and taken to China. He returned 4 years later.

Partially fought on Korean soil, this was the first modern war engaged in by foreign powers on the peninsula. Japan won, dramatically ending Chinese influence there. Japan subsequently demanded that Korea make sweeping changes in its policies to benefit Japanese interests. Because of its loss in the war, China ceded Taiwan and the Liaotung Peninsula to Japan and was forced to recognize Korea as a fully independent nation, ending its centuries-long domination of the peninsula.

 1882

Gamgok Parish Church

 

From Anseong, we (i.e., Andy Jackson and I) got on a bus to Janghowon in nearby Icheon-si. And from Janghowon, we walked across the river to its sister city, Gamgok-myeon, Eumseong-gun in lovely Chungcheongbuk-do.

Gamgok-myeon is home to one of Korea’s oldest—and certainly one of its most beautiful—Catholic churches, Gamgok Parish Church, or more precisely, Gamgok Maegoe Virgin Mary Catholic Cathedral (maegoe is the Sino-Korean word for the Rosary, so I guess the proper way to translate the name of the church—the English name of the official site not withstanding—would be Gamgok Our Lady of the Rosary Church).

Gamgok Parish Church sits atop a hill overlooking the town of Gamgok like a sentinel. The land where the church is now used to be the owned by Min Eung-sik, a second cousin of Empress Myeongseong and a major late Joseon-era conservative. During the Mutiny of 1882, when old-guard military units rebelled against the government’s military modernization plans, Min offered the empress sanctuary at his palatial home. After Empress Myeongseong’s assassination in 1895, Min was arrested and brought to Seoul. His home was occupied by loyalist militias, which made it a target of the Japanese Army, which proceeded to burn it down.

The upside to this was that when French priest Father Camillus Bouillon of the Paris Foreign Missions Society came around looking for a place to build a church, he could buy the land for a song.  Or a Gregorian chant, as the case may be.

It’s said that when Bouillon first saw the massive house (presumably before the Japanese torched it) and the hillside on which it rested, he prayed that if the Virgin Mary were to give him the house and hill, he would become her humble servant, and she would be the patron saint of the church. Well, as it would turn out, the Blessed Virgin Mary held up her end of the bargain (and even got the Imperial Japanese Army to foot the cleanup bill), so Bouillon kept his, establishing a church in May 1896 and dedicating it to the Virgin Mary.

The current Gothic-style church—a miniature version of Myeongdong Cathedral—was built in 1930 (by Chinese laborers), and was designed by French priest Father Pierre Chizallet.

I’ll say this—Bouillon couldn’t have chosen a better spot to put a church. The place gives off a very happy, loving vibe. The church itself is absolutely beautiful—a red-and-black brick Gothic structure of the kind loved by French missionaries in Korea. It’s the surroundings, however, that make it what it is—how it looks out over the surrounding countryside, the beautiful trees that surround it, how you can feel the spring breeze. It’s just a very peaceful place.

1888

Yi Munsun Chip (1241).

missionary who arrived in Korea in 1888 and spent the next forty years there. A prodigious scholar, Gale translated many of Korea’s literary classics into English and wrote numerous books on Korean history, literature, and culture. Gale helped the Library procure a number of Korean classics, including rare books from the estate of the Korean scholar Kim To-hui

1890


Figure 2 Stacking chest, wood covered with red lacquer, inlaid with mother-of- pearl. Choson dynasty, 1890-1910

1894

1894. before the 1894 version of “Choson Seaway (朝鮮水路誌)”

1893 -

 “The Sea Chart of Hokkaido and Northeastern Islands(北洲及北東諸島)” plots Waywoda Rock far outside of Korean territory

 
Dec. 24th edition of Japan’s San-in Chuo Shimpo(山陰中央新報) (cache)reported that the new evidence which debunks pro-Korean’s distorted claim was found, again.”The Sea Chart of Hokkaido and Northeastern Islands(北洲及北東諸島)” was made by Hydorographic Office of Japan(日本水路部), basing on the British Navy’s seachart, in 1893 originally, just a year before the 1894 version of “Choson Seaway (朝鮮水路誌)” was published. The map plots Waywoda rock near Okushiri island of Japan’s Hokkaido and it also shows the trace Japanese Navy did fathomed to survey around the area, but labelled as “non-existant” just like British “China Sea Directory” reported. The location is exactly the place 1894 “Choson Seaway” reported and it is clearly far outside of Korean territory at a glance.Pro-Korean scholars like Prof. Hori Kazuo(1987) wrongfully claimed as follows and pro-Korean scholars have been blindlessly following his unrealistic claim even up until now.

“しかし、海図は地理的な認識を示すだけなので、海図中の島の所属については、その解説書たる水路誌を重視しなければならない。”(p105)
———————————————-
“However, marine charts usually show geographical features and do not specify sovereign rights to islands in them. As for sovereign rights to islands, therefore, one has to consult a guide to sea routes, an expounder of a chart.(p105)”
“そして他方、日本海軍の『朝鮮水路誌』一八九四年版と九十九年版には、鬱陵島と並んでリアンコールト列岩が載せられている。つまり十九世紀末に、日本海軍の水路部当局が竹島=独島を朝鮮領だと認識していたことは、疑いのないところである。”(p106)
———————————————–
“Moreover, the 1894 and 1897 editions of the Chosen suiroshi (Korea’s Sealanes) by the Japanese Navy show Liancourt Rocks/Tokdo,26) along with Ullungdo. There is no doubt the Japanese naval hydrographic anthorities were aware Takeshima/Tokdo belonged to Korea around the end of the 19th century.”

First of all, waterway magazines are just “guide to sea routes” and they don’t represent the “sovereign rights to islands”. They are written for the safety of the voyages as well as seachart. In fact, Liancourt Rocks was listed along with Matsushima(Ulleungdo) and Waywoda rock as “dangerous rocks in the Sea of Japan(左ニ記載スルモノヲ除ク外日本海内絶エテ暗岩危礁ナシ)” for the safe voyages in 1894 “Choson Seaway”. And Waywoda Rock was reported as situated in lat. 42°16′N., long.137°18′E. , way up north from Korean territorial limit in the first place. Pro-Korean always wrongfully refer to this book as one of the evidences Japanese considered Takeshima as Korean territory only because it was listed in the section “East Coast of Choson” of “Choson Seaway.”, ignoring Waywoda rock, which is clearly outside of Korean territory, was also listed in the same section.

Moreover, the preface of this waterway magazine clearly depicts eastern limit of Korean territory is 130º 35′ E.longitude, under the name of the Kimotsuki Kaneyuki (肝付兼行),a director of Hydrography Department. From this fact, we can see that Kimotsuki clearly recognized that Takeshima/Dokdo was outside of Korean territory when Nakai met him in 1904.

Lastly, Eastern Strait(東水道) of Choson Strait, between Tsushima and Iki(壱岐) of Nagasaki, Japan was also listed in the previous chapter(Chapter 3). You cannot claim that the strait between Tsushima and Iki also belong to Korea only because it is listed in the “Choson Seaway”. It also proves that Liancourt Rocks in this waterway magazines were not for territorial issue, but only for the safety of voyages.

It is funny to see that the Prof. Hori’s old unreliable thesis based on out-of-date resources, written more than 20 years ago, is still keep followed by Korean scholars and made them look stupid worldwidely.

1893 北洲及北東諸島_11893 北洲及北東諸島_221893 北洲及北東諸島_41893 北洲及北東諸島_5

 
Post

 1896

The secret Sino-Russian treaty signed in 1896

also gave the Russians the right to build and operate the Chinese Eastern Railway across northern Manchuria, which served as a link in the Russian Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. Russia proceeded to acquire numerous concessions over Korea’s forests and mines.

1897

Queen Min

 

Funeral of Queen Min (Empress Myeongseong) in 1895 Seoul. She had been assassinated by Japanese due to her pro-Russian stance.Korea was declared a protectorate in 1905 and annexed in 1910. In 1910 name of the city of Seoul was changed to Keijo (Japanese Korean Hanseong).

 After the Chinese loss to the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War, the Korean government was forced to declare their independence from the Chinese and no longer being a tributary state King Kojong (Gojong) declared Korea to be the Korean Empire. Many in the Korean court such as Qin Minsought Russian help in thrawrting the growing power of the Japanese. Russia , England and France had recently forced Japan to abandon the Liaodong Peninsula which it had won in the recent war with China.

 

1953 newsreel on Changgyeonggung

 

The  Japanese, wishing to end this meddling sent a new ambassador to Korea, Miura Goro with orders to arrange the assassination of Queen Min which was done on Oct 8, 1895 at Gyeongbokgung. This is known as the Eulmi Incident. After the assassination King Kojong and Crown Prince Sunjong fled to the Russian Legation on Feb 11, 1896

After the murder of Queen Min in 1895, King Kojong and his heir fled to the Russ­ian legation. Emerging about one year later, the king proclaimed himself emperor. The country’s name was changed to Taehan Cheguk, or “Great Han Empire,” symbolically equalizing the status of Korea, China, and Japan. It was an empty honor, however, as Kojong was nearly powerless in the face of foreign imposition; Korea found herself the pawn of foreign governments which had little concern for the people of the peninsula.

  

coins started to be minted from modern presses in 1888, such as this silver 5 Yang (兩liang also known as a tael)

대한제국 (大韓帝國)   Greater Korean Empire   1897-1910

1901

The earliest known footage of Korea from 1901.

1904-1905

 

1904-1907

In a complicated series of maneuvers and counter-maneuvers, Japan pushed back the Russian fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in 1905. With the conclusion of the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War with the Treaty of Portsmouth, the way was open for Japan to take control of Korea. After the signing of the Protectorate Treaty in 1905, Korea became a protectorate of Japan.

1909

Itō Hirobumi was the first Resident-General of Korea, although he was assassinated by Korean independence activist An Jung-geun in 1909 at the train station at Harbin.

 

The strategic rivalry between Russia and Japan exploded in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, won by Japan. Under the peace treaty signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan’s “paramount political, military, and economic interest” in Korea. A separate agreement signed in secret between the United States and Japan at this time subsequently aroused anti-American sentiment among Koreans. The Taft-Katsura Agreement was cynical by modern standards, exchanging what amounted to a lack of interest and military capability in Korea on the part of the United States (Japan was given a free hand in Korea) for a lack of interest or capability in the Philippines on the part of Japan (Japanese imperialism was diverted from the Philippines). Given the diplomatic conventions of the times, however, the agreement was a much weaker endorsement of the Japanese presence in Korea than either the Russo-Japanese peace treaty or a separate Anglo- Japanese accord. Two months later, Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate. Thereafter, a large number of Koreans organized themselves in education and reform movements, but by then Japanese dominance in Korea was a reality. Japan annexed Korea as a colony on August 22, 1910

1910

In 1910,

although many Koreans opposed the annexation, the Japanese Empire annexed Korea by force

The Japanese Administration of Korea 

Did Japan ruin the economy of Korea during the Japanese Administration? Koreans say that Japan did, and that they even stole all the rice and left people starving. However, there is a lot of evidence to say that was not the case.

During the period of Japanese Administration,

there were great increases in population, unprecendented in Korean history. This is not consistent with a people that are starving, because the population should decrease in that case.

Not only are the Korean claims dubious, but it seems that they benefitted in many ways from the Japanese Administration. Lets take a look at picutures of Korea before and during the Japanese Administration.

slaves
This was the true state of Koreans in the Choson Era.

medicine
Before the Japanese introduced medicine in Korea, Koreans would cure Malaria by writing their names on their feet.

medicine2
Pre-Japanese era Korean medicine. This childs parents are trying to cure this childs disease by throwing away this straw doll. Various diseases could be ‘cured’ by this ‘method’. The average Korea lifespan at this time was around 24 years old. Thanks to Japanese investment in medicine and nutrition in Korea, the lifespan went up to nearly 50 years old by the end of WW2

k
The center of Seoul, Namdemun, Circa 1880. Thatched buildings and shops.

edo
Compare that with 1850′s Tokyo. Korea was a basket case.

k
The common people of the Choson Era lived in a state of slavery, if not in name then in practice. Picture is of Namdemun.

bare breasted woman
Typical Korean Woman of the pre-annexation period. It was common for women to walk around bare breasted in Korea at the time, as in Africa.

Hooker
It is common in Korea to claim that prostitution did not exist in Korea before the Japanese came, but here is a picture of one anyway.

Che Yonhi
Koreans say that they were simply slaves during the Japanese administration, and werent even allowed to have Korean names. I wonder then how they explain the existence of dancer Che Yonhi, who not only became wealthy and famous, but kept her Korean name. Surely if the Japanese wanted to force Koreans to have Japanese names, they would have started with Korean role models? This is a picture of her in a hotel cafe in Seoul.

department
A department store in Seoul for Korean consumers. Picture 1937.

namdaemun
Koreans boldly claim that Japan destroyed many Korean cultural monuments that were in truth destroyed by Korean neglect. The above is a before and after photo of Namdaemun. Is this what Koreans mean by Korea being ‘ruined’ by the Japanese?

Industry
Massive Japanese investment created industry where there was none. The raised living standards and provided housing. The landlords and oppressors of common people lost their legal right to lord it over others.

Hydro
The worlds largest Hydroelectric generator (at the time) was built in Korea by the Japanese, at the expense of the Japanese. This contributed much to Korea’s development.

Pyongyang
This was Pyongyang under Japanese rule.

Pyongyang2
Pyongyang again.

Really, one could go on and on about this. I would conjecture that this kind of information is nowhere to be found in Korean textbooks, based on my conversations with Koreans. Could Korean anti Japanism be mostly founded upon Koreans vain belief in their ‘Great History’

Refrences

Research Articles and Chapters

“Chosŏn hugi ŭi mukwa chedo wa Han’guk ŭi kŭndaesŏng” (The Late Chosŏn Military Examination System and Korean Modernity). In Korean. Han’guk munhwa (Korean Culture) 51 (September 2010): 299–319.

“Saeroun kajoksa ŭi ch’ugu: kŭndae Han’guk ŭi chokpo p’yŏnch’an kwa chungin ch’ŭng ŭi panŭng” [A search for a new family history: genealogy compilation and the reactions of chungin stratum in modern Korea]. In Korean. Trans. Yi Kanghan. Yŏksa munje yŏn’gu (Critical Studies on Modern Korean History) 20 (October 2008): 139–167.

“Imagined Connections in Early Modern Korea, 1600–1894: Representations of Northern Elite Miryang Pak Lineages in Genealogies.” Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 21.1 (June 2008): 1–27.

“Status and ‘Defunct’ Offices in Early Modern Korea: The Case of Five Guards Generals (Owijang), 1864–1910.” Journal of Social History 41.3 (Spring 2008): 737–757.

“War and Peace in Premodern Korea: Institutional and Ideological Dimensions.” In The Military and
South Korean Society, edited by Young-Key Kim-Renaud, R. Richard Grinker, and Kirk W. Larsen, pp. 1–13. The Sigur Center Asia Papers Vol. 26. Washington DC: Sigur Center for Asian Studies, George Washington University, 2006.

“Local Elites, Descent, and Status Consciousness in Nineteenth-Century Korea: Some Observations on the County Notable Listings in the Chosŏn Hwanyŏ Sŭngnam.” In Han’guksa e issŏsŏ chibang kwa chungang [The periphery and the center in Korean history], edited by Chŏng Tuhŭi and Edward J. Shultz, pp. 205–225. Seoul: Sogang University Press, 2003.

“Military Examinations in Sixteenth-Century Korea: Political Upheaval, Social Change, and Security Crisis.” Journal of Asian History 35.1 (2001): 1–57.

“Military Examinations in Late Chosŏn, 1700–1863: Elite Substratification and Non-Elite Accommodation.” Korean Studies 25.1 (2001): 1–50.

“Chosŏn ch’ogi mukwa ch’ulsin ŭi sahoejŏk chiwi: T’aejong-Sŏngjong nyŏn’gan ŭi kŭpcheja rŭl chungsim ŭro” [The social status of early Chosŏn military examination graduates: passers from the reign of T’aejong through that of Sŏngjong]. In Korean. Yŏksa wa hyŏnsil (Quarterly Review of Korean History) 39 (March 2001): 100–126.

“Military Examination Graduates in Early Chosŏn: Their Social Status in the Fifteenth Century.” The Review of Korean Studies 3.1 (July 2000): 123–156.

Between Dreams and Reality: The Military Examination in Late Chosŏn Korea, 1600–1894
 
 

As previously mentioned, Rhee Syngman (李承晩, 이승만/리승만, 1875-1965) was the other South Korean president who wrote Classical Chinese poetry. He was of the Jeonju Yi Clan, the same family clan as the old royal family of the Chosun dynasty. His pen name was U’nam (雩南, 우남). After receiving his education in the US, Rhee Syngman became active in the Korean independence movement and served in the Provisional Government of Korea in Shanghai. As president, he was vigorously anti-Communist and went after the leftist political dissidents. He was also a bit mad with the lust for power and changed the election procedures in his favor. He also had members of the old royal family under house arrest, fearing their popularity. After his fourth re-election, the people started demonstrating and Rhee Syngman was exiled to Hawaii, where he passed away in 1965. The following is a poem, he presumably wrote during wartime, based on the title.

戰時春 전시춘

A War Time Spring

半島山河漲陣烟 반도산하장진연
胡旗洋帆翳春天 호기양범예춘천
彷徨盡是無家客 방황진시무각객
漂泊誰非辟穀仙 표박수비벽곡선
成市遺墟如古壁 성시유허여고벽
山川燒地起新田 산천요지기신전
東風不待干戈息 동풍불대간과식
細草遍生敗壘邊 세초편생패루변

On the mountains and rivers of the peninsula, military camps are full of smoke.
Barbarian [1] banners and Western sails conceal the Spring sky.
Wandering and lost are these exhausted travelers without homes.
Among the drifting and roaming, who is not as if living off of little sustenance [2]?
[Where] markets were open, the remaining ruins are are like old  walls.
In the mountains and streams, lands are being burn to arise [again] as new rice paddies.
The eastern winds do not tarry for resting pikes and shields [3].
On the sides of the defeated forts, small grass have [started to] grow about it.

Notes:

  1. 胡 (호, ho) – refers to the Chinese here. This is the same character that was used referred to the Manchurian Qing Dynasty.
  2. 辟穀 (벽곡, byeokgok) – refers to abstaining (辟, 벽) from grains (穀, 곡).
  3. That is, soldiers.

Characters:

  • 漲 (장, jang) – to be full of water (물이 넘치다); to be much (많은 모양).
  • 翳 (예, ye) – to conceal or cover (가리다).
  • 彷徨 (방황, banghwang) – to be lost or roaming.
  • 墟 (허, heo) – ruins or to be in ruins.
  • 壘 (루, ru) – small military encampment or fort.
Source:
 
 

 

 The last imperial family

This photo, taken about 1915 (actually a compilation of individual photographs taken since the Japanese did not allow them to all be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea) shows the following royal family members, from left: Prince Ui (Ui chinwang 의친왕), the 6th son of Gojong; Sunjong, the 2nd son and the last monarch of Joseon; Prince Yeong (Yeong chinwang 영친왕), the 7th son; Gojong, the former King; Queen Yoon (Yoon daebi), Queen Consort of Sunjong; Deogindang Gimbi, wife of Prince Ui; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Prince Ui. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye (Deokhye ongju 덕혜옹주), Gojong’s last child.

After the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910, the Princes and Princesses of the Imperial Family were forced to leave for Japan to be re-educated and married. The Heir to the Throne, Imperial Crown Prince Uimin, married Princess Yi Bang-ja née Nashimoto, and had two sons, Princes Yi Jin and Yi Gu. His elder brother, Imperial Prince Ui had twelve sons and nine daughters from various wives and concubines.

The Crown Prince lost his status in Japan at the end of World War II and returned to Korea in 1963 after an invitation by the Republican Government. He suffered a stroke as his plane landed in Seoul and was rushed to a hospital. He never recovered and died in 1970. His brother, Imperial Prince Ui died in 1955 and the Korean people officially considered this to be the end of the Royal line.[citation needed]

Presently Prince Yi Seok is one of two pretenders[citation needed] to the abolished throne of Korea (the monarchy was abolished in 1910 by Japan and following Japan’s defeat in World War II, North Korea has been organized as a communist regime and South Korea has been organized as a republic). Prince Yi Seok is a son of Prince Gang of Korea, a fifth son of Gojong of Korea and currently a professor of history lecturing at Jeonju University in the Republic of Korea.

Furthermore, many descendants live throughout the United States, Canada and Brazil, having settled elsewhere, outside of Korea.

Today, many tombs of the descendants still exist on top of the mountain in Yangju. According to the pedigree written on the tombstone, it is believed that these descendants are from the great king of Joseon, Seongjeong (The 9th ruler of Joseon Dynasty). It was discovered that this mountain belongs to the member of the royal family named Yi Won (Born in 1958). More details of current descendants of the House of Yi.

 The imperial family

 
the end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2011

Who Is William Colby ? some informations to open mystery

 WHO IS WILLIAM COLBY? THE UNKNOWN MAN

THE ID OF WILLIAM COLBY IN VIETNAM

 Saigon, Vietnam; March 17, 1959

 

Central Intelligence Agency – Saigon Station Chief, William Colby was the key figure in Northern Service Planning and Command Committee.  Captain Ngo The Linh code name was “Mr. Binh”.  He worked very closely with Bill Colby from 1958 until 1964 (when CIA transferred its agent operations to MACV-SOG).  Central Intelligence Agency supplied advanced weapons, equipments and helped trained long-term spy agents and Sea Commandos at Long Thanh, Da Nang, and Nha Trang for missions to the North.
 

latest information by google exploration

old informations

DSCN0037

New York Times report headline reads “Body of William Colby is found on river bank”
May 7, 1996

Former CIA Head William Colby

William Colby standing on NYC street with envelope and trench coat
Late 1980s

colbyimg9460

William Colby, President Gerald Ford and his cabinet with Colby family
In Oval Office receiving the National Secuirty Medal; 1976

colbyimg9050

William Colby with Colby family at home
Washington (front steps); Late 1960s

colbyimg9036

William Colby and Elbridge (not pictured, William Colby’s father)
Washingon DC National Airport.

colbyimg7783

William Colby standing with hands on desk taking oath to tell the truth
Testifying before Congress as CIA Director; 1975

 
colbyimg6827

William Colby in “Wanted Poster”
William Colby as the Ace of Spades anti-Vietnam war poster. Washington, DC; Early 1970s

colbyimg6285

Side angle of William Colby as CIA Director testifying before Congress
1975

colbyimg5073

William Colby and Barbara Colby wedding
New York City; Sept. 15, 1945

colbyimg4522

WEC at cottage winter
Lake Champlain, VT; Early 1980s

colbyimg3633

William Colby, Barbara Colby and two kids
Piazza in San Marco, Venice, Italy; 1950s

colbyimg3143

Young Carl Colby on boat
Lake Champlain, VT; 1950s

colbyimg3044

William Colby Barbara Catherine Carl Jonathan
Lake Champlain cottage, VT; Mid-1950s

colbyimg1888

William Colby as a boy with toy soldiers in bedroom
Early 1930s

colbyimg1372

Farewell tea William Colby, Barbara, Carl, Catherine and Paul with President Ngo Dinh Diem
Presidential Palace, Saigon, Vietnam; 1962

colbyimg1332

Carl and William Colby at William Colby’s birthday
Saigon, Vietnam; Early 1960s

colbyimg1319

Carl with friends by pool
Saigon Le Cercle Sportif – Saigon, Vietnam; Early 1960s

colbyimg615

William Colby testifying before Congress.
1975

colbyimg526

William Colby official passport photo
U.S. State Dept. cover for CIA; 1960s

colbyimg351

William Colby with USMC cap team in Quang Nam Province in Vietnam War
Vitenam; Late 1960s

colbyimg008

William Colby Major, OSS in Norway
With Herbert Helgesson, leader of Norway resistance.

A3720-9

William Colby with briefcase
White House anteroom of the White House – Washington, DC; 1975

Colbyimg95471 copy

New York Times front page article re: WEC death
“Nine days after canoe trip, Colby’s body is found”; May 17, 1996

colbyimg9542

Daniel Ellsberg protesting WEC involvement in Phoenix Program – sign
Early 1970s

colbyimg9536

Frontispiece of William Colby book with dedication to Carl
reads: “A great son, with a great future story to tell. With love, Dad.”; 1978

colbyimg9365

Congressional record – Senate
re: WEC and CIA (Phoenix Program) S15539; August 1, 1973

colbyimg9208

William Colby in black pajamas surrounded by civilian self defense team in Vietnam
Note: “To Carl with love, Dad”; June 9, 1968

colbyimg7052

William Colby U.S. diplomatic passport.
1960s

colbyimg7049

William Colby ID card – Cercle Sportif
Saigon, Vietnam; March 17, 1959

colbyimg6682

Young William Colby at cottage with spyglass looking out to sea
Lake Champlain, VT; Early 1930s

colbyimg6403

OSS application filed by William Colby.
October 20, 1943

colbyimg6179

Cartoon and quote from Ho Chi Minh
(VA006251) – Vietnam; March 17, 1959

colbyimg6039

William Colby major OSS Jedburgh teams and comrades
Fargland, Norway; 1944

colbyimg6017a

Major Colby leading O.S.S. Jedburgh team in WWII
Operation Rype; 1944

colbyimg4790

Colby family on S.S. Constitution
Mediterranean cruise (from Spain to NY); 1962

colbyimg4756

Colby family returning from Vietnam to US
Turkey; 1962

colbyimg4116

Carl drawing on floor at home
Rome, Italy; Mid-1950s

colbyimg4100

Young Carl Colby at Korean DMZ
Demilitarized border of North and South Korea; May 1962

colbyimg4089

William Colby and son Paul in rocking chair
Rome, Italy; Mid-1950s

colbyimg3777

Colby family having picnic (passing a radio to someone)
Stockholm, Sweden; Early 1950s

colbyimg3760

Colby family
Stockholm, Sweden; Early 1950s

colbyimg3564

Colby family
In Florida on holiday, on home leave; Early 1950s

colbyimg3479

Colby Children at the Roman Forum
Rome, Italy; Early 1950s

colbyimg3468

Barbara and Colby children
Saubaudia Beac, Italy; Mid-1950s

colbyimg523

William and Carl Colby
Bogor, Indonesia; 1966

colbyimg217

William and Barbara Colby at Vermont cottage
Lake Champlain

please who know him,be kind to send more informations to open the mystery,thanks,this asking by my friend.

The French Indochina Post WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Vietnam Cybermuseum)

THE VIETNAM FRENCH INDOCHINA POST WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

THE FRENCH INDOCHINA POST WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

1.Nha Trang Maritime Academy 1952-1970
skill 4 – small_taskforce_tactics;naval_engineering;naval_tr aining;seamanship
reference : http://haisu.tripod.com/index.htm Vietnamese source

2.Da Lat Military Academy 1930-1954
skill 2 – centralized_execution;small_unit_tactics;training
reference: http://aosauvuon.fortunecity.net/ndsl-tvb.htm Vietnamese source

3.Nguyen Van Hinh 1936 – 1955
skill 2 – decentralized_execution;piloting;fighter_tactics
reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nguyen_Van_Hinh

 

22.Mining and Plantation Industry Facility 1930 – 1954 <= I can not find exactly company name under French rule in IndoChina, but I have find out the pic that the french have build a lot of plantation and mine so I add this team.
skill 1 – industrial_engineering;mechanics

23.Cam Tiem Power Plant 1930 – 1954
skill 1 – electronic
 

in the French Air Force.( 5)

Indochina 1949-1951

 

 

The S/S Champollion which took me from Bizerte to Saigon , 06/1949 – 07/22/1949

Saigon. First visit of the town.

 

In the mangrove bordering an arroyo (brook) at Bach-Maï

 

Hanoi. At the outdoor cafe, Paul Bert Street. The 421 game is on the table…

On the Doumer Bridge, crossing the Red River. Travelling to Gia-Lam Airbase. Note that even in winter in Tonkin, we must wear the woolen battle-dress uniform as on the mainland.

.

 


The Indochina war broke out in 1945 and escalated quickly. More troops were sent year after year. The 5th Wing based in Sidi-Ahmed (Bizerte) was assigned for a one year tour of duty in south-east Asia. But unlike the previous unit who had to use the equipment already there, the 5th was taking their own planes with them. So the wing would take their American P-63 Kingcobra. The support unit made of mechanics of various trades was constituted. Strangely, one member from the administration office was assigned to the unit. It was the technical supply-accountant which happen to be me ! Thankfully a lot my mechanics buddies from El-Aouina were part of the unit so we had a tight group. All personnels sent to Indochina were career soldier although we had a few draftees who were lured either by the cash bonus or the search for adventure. Before shipping out, I sold my side-car to the first guy with a descent offer. The entire 5th wing (Squadrons 1/5 Vendee and 2/5 Ile de France) and its auxiliary units gathered in Sid-Ahmed before boarding for Saigon. The S/S Champollion would ferry the personnel while the aircraft carrier Dixmude would handle the Kingcobras already partially disassembled and crated. We got on the way on June 30, 1949 for a long cruise with layovers in Port Said (entrance of the Suez canal), Djibouti, Aden, Colombo (Ceylon), Singapore et finally Saigon after a 100 km trip up the Saigon river. Life on board was new for most of us if you exclude the short hop we took to cross the Mediterranean. Except for the officers who had 1st class quarters, us non-Comm and troop were stuck below deck in the cargo space with rudimentary accommodations: a few benches and tables and hooks to setup our hammock for the night. No comfort what-so-ever, just a few sinks for the morning wash-up.
We were in July so the weather was getting hotter as we got closer to Egypt. From the very first day, I found it difficult to sleep below deck because of the heat and smell. I went in search for a better place. The emergency canoes located on the bridge turned out to be the perfect spot. Since they were covered, I was able to spend my nights very comfortably. Actually, a few of my buddies did the same. The only drawback was to make sure that we wouldn’t get caught by the crew. Since they we washing the deck early in the morning, we had to sneak back in at dawn.
We were able to go on shore during some of the layovers. We had 10 hours in the evening in Djibouti, a day in Colombo (Ceylon at the time but now known as Sri Lanka). The 1st and 2nd class passengers had the opportunity to come ashore in Singapore.
The sea had been calm for the first leg of the trip but everything changed once we were in the Indian Ocean. It was the summer monsoon and we were met by big storms and torrential rain. We were able to overcome being sea-sick thanks to a bunch of characters who endlessly entertained us. I’ve always been amazed how much a few distractions could relieve the sickness! A sigh of relief could be heard through out the ship when we finally reached Cap St Jacques at the mouth of the Saigon river. We dock in the Saigon harbor and came ashore under heavy rain and suffocating heat.
In spite of the fact that we were accustomed to the North African lifestyle already different from home, we now had to adjust to another life. Saigon was in the south and we were July 22nd so it was summer: rain and intense heat. After the usual landing inspection, we were trucked to the Tan-Son-Nhut airbase on the north side of town. We were housed in barracks nicknamed Fillod (they were manufactured by the Fillod company in St Amour). Nights had to be spent under the protective cover of mosquito nets listening to the deafening concert of the toads!.
It took several days before I could get ride of the rocking feeling from the ship on which we had spent 3 weeks. Our first few days were spent unloading the equipment from the Champollion and Dixmude. We had to handle ammunition crates and load them on those tall and narrow English made Trucks. The planes, still in crates, were loaded on trailers.
Both squadrons were reinforcements and were in Saigon only until they were operational. Once the planes were in flying order, they would move north. The 1/5 was ready first and left Saigon for Hanoi (Gialam) in September. Our auxiliary unit had to remain until the departure of the second group. During the four months we spend in Tan-Son-Nhut, we were unable to go site seeing. Even simple leaves to go into town were sparse for, they said, safety reasons. Regardless, we used the little free time we had to rest and catch up on sleep. When the last planes and personnel of the 2/5 made their way north, our group (40 strong) started to get ready to move out. Instead of Gia-Lam, our next home was going to be Bach-Mai (still near Hanoi though). We also were assigned an official title. Our unit was the Park 1/482 detached to Bach Mai (the headquarter of the park 482 was in Bien-Hoa). But instead of being flow to our new location like the rest of the wing, it was once again by boat that we made our way. The ship, the S.S Esperance (Hope in French) had a name full of promises. But all it was really, was a coal cargo ship with enough room to qualify as a troop transport. I believe he was ferrying coal from the north and picked up troop and supplies that needed to move from the south. Our trip that should have taken a day or two lasted 11 days! Slowly making its way along the coast with a three-day stopover in Tourane (although we were not allowed off the boat). During this journey, we did everything possible to keep ourselves busy and make time go by quicker. Our unit was the only one on board and the crew was all civilian and mostly Vietnamese. So discipline was lax but food was rather poor. We unloaded in Haiphong and made the last leg of the trip by train.
Weather in Indochina is very different from north to south. We arrived in September 49 at the beginning of winter which is a bit like the one in France, cold with frequent rain or drizzle and temps in the 10-20º C (14-68° F) maximum. On the other hand, the south was in the dry season with temps in the mid 20s to the 30s and sometimes higher.
Our tour of duty was supposed to be for one year unlike the Colonial tour that lasts two. However, we stayed for 18 months.
Our arrival was without celebration. Service personnel in Indochina really lived for the day of their return. Only flying personnel were really involved in military operations. Even the ground crews who were busy with plane maintenance to contend with had nothing else to do. The only military activity around was the base protection against the Viets.
We were pleasantly surprised to be housed outside of the base. Although we were close by, we were none-the-less outside of the guarded perimeter. So we were armed with a machine gun each. It was recommended to sleep with it, not only to keep it handy but also to prevent having it stolen by a night intruder. The Viets were known to be able to sneak everywhere at night. One night as we were sleeping peacefully, they infiltrated our perimeter using tunnels they had dug without anybody noticing. They got close to some planes and succeeded in blowing up a dozen JU-52 by planting mines near them and detonate them as they retreated. Since our duty was to guard our quarter, we were made aware of the result the next day.
From this point on, our off-site quarters became a possible target. So we moved into barracks located inside the base perimeter. Security was tightened as well.
On Saturdays afternoon and Sundays, it was relatively easy to go downtown. However, transportation was sparse. Bicycles and tricycles are very common in the north. There was a bicycle factory near Hanoi. With some friends, we went there and each of us acquired a bike. From this point on, we had more freedom to go into town et even visit our buddies at the 5th wing based out of Giam-Lam field by going across town and crossing the red river on the Doumer bridge (Eiffel design). In the spring, we enjoyed going into town (during the day only) and go shopping Rue de la Soie (Silk street) or any other street with their own specialty, hang out by the little lake in the center of town. There was 2.5 miles between the base and the center of town and the terrain is flat, so this was an easy ride. Other sources of entertainment were rare. There wasn’t even a theater on the base. There was a specialty house 300 feet from the base entrance. Civilians were running it but under the army’s supervision. All branches of the service attended this place, from the foreign legion to regular army, airforce and navy. The locals on the other hand rarely set foot in this place.
My work consisted of the technical equipment accounting. It was neither glorious nor fascinating. But the friendship that existed among us was strong and made up for the frustration of being far from home. We had a number of married guys, some with children and this was especially hard for them, more so than for singles.
I acquired a record player and some hard to come by records of French artists. But it wasn’t long before my buddies got bored to listen to the same tunes over and over. In the end, they started to buy new ones to expend our repertoire.
The favorite moment of the day was the morning meal. It wasn’t too hot yet and our break was long enough that we could make it to the mess for a real meal “a la carte”. We could choose a whole roasted chicken (for two), cold cuts, cheese, bananas or pineapple with a good bottle of Bourgogne to top this off. Often time, we were not hungry by lunchtime, either still full from our break or because the heat.
After a year spent in Indochina, we started to hope that our tour was near the end. But we had to come to the realization that the one-year tour model did not really fit our profile. Even for the non-support units, it was decided that the time spent re-assembling the planes would not be accounted for. Seeing that the situation was getting worse, headquarter didn’t seem ready to let us go. In December 1950, the army had already evacuated most isolated posts in the northern part of the country. All the units that could be spared moved south. Our unit moved to Bien Hoa where the Parc 482 we depended from was stationed. This time we made the trip in a C-47 Dakota. At that time, Bien Hoa (30 km for Saigon) was a small base without any fighting unit stationed. It later became a large US and South Vietnamese airbase. Although we were reunited with our primary unit, our group remained together and was kept apart. That was fine, as our main concern was our pending return.
We were housed in some very exotic looking huts without any facilities. Since we weren’t too busy, we had plenty of time for site seeing or go into the nearby town. This charming community had not yet been damaged by the war.
After two months of this life, the news of our return home came. We moved to Saigon to have our return papers issued. Most of us used this time to hunt for souvenirs and gifts to bring home if that hadn’t been taken care of already. In my case, shopping was take care of quickly as we were not accustomed to bringing souvenirs. The trunks were packed and made ready to ship home via boat while we were flying back.
On February 7th 1951, we boarded a DC-4 Skymaster heading for France. After multiple layovers, we landed at Paris-Orly on the 9th. Having left Saigon during the dry and hot season, we landed in the middle of winter wearing only light civilian clothes. Since we had layovers in foreign countries, wearing our uniform had been forbidden. For most of us, it had been two years since we had seen French soil, as we didn’t get a leave prior to our departure from Tunisia. After all these months of intense camaraderie, emotions were high as we parted company. A friend who was getting married in Pierre-de-Bresse and I took the train together. On the way down, we meet a journalist from Radio Luxembourg. He didn’t miss an opportunity to interview us at length on the war in Indochina. At that time, the war was so far away, most people didn’t care about it. None-the-less, the left wing (mostly communists) was very vocal in their opposition to this conflict, especially the troop deployment. In spite of this opposition, it took another three years, the Dien-Bien-Phu tragedy and the Geneva accords to put an end to it.

f.Bo Dai Saigon Regime in 1950
 

1) January 1950

(1)early 1950

(a)United States and Britain recognized Bao dai’s government (D).

    

(b) The US only recognized by  only several American Official.

    

(c) Charlton Oghurn,another State Department ‘s Bureau of Far east Eastren Affairs, excoriated the emperor as “ a figure deserving of the redicule and contempr with which he generally regarded by the Vietnamese, and any suppsition that he could succeed or that a french army in Indochina could possibly be an asset to us could be entertained only by one totally ignorant of Asian realities,

Another State Department expert, Raymond B.Fosdick, selivered an even more passionate diatribe in a memorandum that Potrayed the Bao Dai regime as “doomed”  and went on to foretell the future with remarkable prescience :”This shabby business probably represent as improvement over the brutal colonialism of early years, but it is now too late in the history of the world to settle of this cheap substitute” (D)

 

(d) With the recognition of Bo Dai’s regime, The US establised a full-fledge embassy in Saigon headed by Donald Heath , a veteran diplomat entranced by the French cause. They forbade US military advisers to supervise the use of American equipment, and  they barred them from planning sessins. They either refused them intelligence  or fed them misleading information , and they reacted fiercely to sugges-tions that they accord more latitude to Vietnamese nationalist. Top French official even suspected that American’s real aim was not to help them but to supplant French politically and economically.

Nor did the French , despite their’ solemn pledges’ yield more thatn a thin veneer of Independence to Bo Dai’s government.

Though they trained a few Vietnamese officers, they hept control of the army, breweries, and factories as well as imports and exports. They also devised a financial agreement under which piastres, the Vietnamese currency, could be exchanged for French Francs at a radiculously favorable rate, and those with licenses made fortune.

(e)One well-placed figure implicated in the traffic was the son of Vincent Auriol, the president of France.

Not that granting power t Bao dai at this stage mattered. He spent most his time at his lodge in Dalat, having delegated his nominal power to a new prime minister, Tran Van Huu, a rich landowner and Naturalized French Citizen. But the authority in his entourage belong to Nguyen van Tam, his security director, a gnarled creature known as the Tiger of Cailay, his native village in the Mekong Delta, where he had served the French by crushing Communist-led  peasant uprising. The Vietminh had killed two of his sons in retallion, and his speciality in Saigon was tracking down real and inncuos enemies of the French, whom he liquidated brutally.(D)

2) February 1950

     The stamp, a 3-piater value of dullblue color bore the westren attired Chief of State, ex-emperor Bao-Dai (scott#9) along with the stamp on First Day of Issues are the official govern-ment seal and Bao Dai’signature .

The South Vietnam  stamps collection began with the Ex emperor Bao-Dai ‘s return to his country as Chief of State, ranging in value from several hundred dollars to thousands od dollars each.  (Nguyen Bao Tung’s collection)

( I have the mint stamps of dullblue emperor Bo dai 3 piastres faund in HCM city-auth )

3) March 1950

 

(1) March,9th .1950

     Acheson advised Truman to allocate $15 million to France for Indochina.(D)

4)-

5) june 1950

Ban Me Thoot, May 1950. General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (right), commander of French troops in Indochina, and Bao Dai, the former emperor of Vietnam, visit in Ban Me Thoot with the Vietnamese Mois people, who were fghting the communist-dominated Vietminh forces.

Ban Me Thoot, May 1950. General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (right), commander of French troops in Indochina, and Bao Dai, the former emperor of Vietnam, visit in Ban Me Thoot with the Vietnamese Mois people, who were fghting the communist-dominated Vietminh forces.

6) June 1950

(1)June.28th 1950

     Three days after the Korean war broke out, Achenson persuaded Truman  to order an “ acceleration”  of assistance to the French.(D)

(2)June,29th.1950

     Eight C-47 cargo aircraft flew across the Pacific to Indochina-  not only time that The US to act illegaly in Vietnam.(D)

     (3)Mid 1950

     Washington’s recognation of Bo dai sparked economic and Military-assistance program (MACP-auth) , began in mid-1950.(IMNAHA report the postal used cover of MACP-auth)

7)-11) not yet info

1) January 1950

(1)early 1950

(a)United States and Britain recognized Bao dai’s government (D).

(b) The US only recognized by  only several American Official.   

(c) Charlton Oghurn,another State Department ‘s Bureau of Far east Eastren Affairs, excoriated the emperor as “ a figure deserving of the redicule and contemporary with which he generally regarded by the Vietnamese, and any suppsition that he could succeed or that a french army in Indochina could possibly be an asset to us could be entertained only by one totally ignorant of Asian realities,

Another State Department expert, Raymond B.Fosdick, selivered an even more passionate diatribe in a memorandum that Potrayed the Bao Dai regime as “doomed”  and went on to foretell the future with remarkable prescience :”This shabby business probably represent as improvement over the brutal colonialism of early years, but it is now too late in the history of the world to settle of this cheap substitute” (D)

(d) With the recognition of Bo Dai’s regime, The US establised a full-fledge embassy in Saigon headed by Donald Heath , a veteran diplomat entranced by the French cause. They forbade US military advisers to supervise the use of American equipment, and  they barred them from planning sessins. They either refused them intelligence  or fed them misleading information , and they reacted fiercely to sugges-tions that they accord more latitude to Vietnamese nationalist. Top French official even suspected that American’s real aim was not to help them but to supplant French politically and economically.

Nor did the French , despite their’ solemn pledges’ yield more thatn a thin veneer of Independence to Bo Dai’s government.

Though they trained a few Vietnamese officers, they hept control of the army, breweries, and factories as well as imports and exports. They also devised a financial agreement under which piastres, the Vietnamese currency, could be exchanged for French Francs at a radiculously favorable rate, and those with licenses made fortune.

(e)One well-placed figure implicated in the traffic was the son of Vincent Auriol, the president of France.

Not that granting power t Bao dai at this stage mattered. He spent most his time at his lodge in Dalat, having delegated his nominal power to a new prime minister, Tran Van Huu, a rich landowner and Naturalized French Citizen. But the authority in his entourage belong to Nguyen van Tam, his security director, a gnarled creature known as the Tiger of Cailay, his native village in the Mekong Delta, where he had served the French by crushing Communist-led  peasant uprising. The Vietminh had killed two of his sons in retallion, and his speciality in Saigon was tracking down real and inncuos enemies of the French, whom he liquidated brutally.(D)

2) February 1950

     The stamp, a 3-piater value of dull blue color bore the westren attired Chief of State, ex-emperor Bao-Dai (scott#9) along with the stamp on First Day of Issues are the official government seal and Bao Dai’signature .

The South Vietnam  stamps collection began with the Ex emperor Bao-Dai ‘s return to his country as Chief of State, ranging in value from several hundred dollars to thousands od dollars each.  (Nguyen Bao Tung’s collection)

( I have the mint stamps of dullblue emperor Bo dai 3 piastres found in HCM city-auth )

3) March 1950

(1) March,9th .1950

     Acheson advised Truman to allocate $15 million to France for Indochina.(D)

4)-5) Not yet information

6) June 1950

1950 (June 12), Saigon to Paris flight, crashed upon landing at Bahrain, damaged envelope, without stamps and most of reverse missing addressed to Versailles and re-directed to Paris, straight line black “COURRIER ACCIDENTE” cachets (2), on reverse Versailles postmark of July 10 and small fragment of Officially Sealed tape (Nierinck 500612a)

(1)June.28th 1950

     Three days after the Korean war broke out, Achenson persuaded Truman  to order an “ acceleration”  of assistance to the French.(D)

(2)June,29th.1950

     Eight C-47 cargo aircraft flew across the Pacific to Indochina-  not only time that The US to act illegaly in Vietnam.(D)

     (3)Mid 1950

     Washington’s recognation of Bao dai sparked economic and Military-assistance program (MACP-auth) , began in mid-1950.(IMNAHA report the postal used cover of MACP-auth)

7)- 9)no info9

10)October

The first LVT(4)s arrived in Indochina in October 1950 and were assigned to the 1st Cavalry Regiment for operational testing. This resulted in several organizational changes,

11) not yet info

 

 

 

 

12) December 1950

(1)December , 4 th 1950

The LAISSEZ-PASSER  ID with native Vietnamese photo,

          LAISSEZ –PASSER(PASS)

           Valable Jusqu’a nouvei ordo(vALID UNTIL NEW ORDO)

(Giay thon-ba’nh tam du’ng de’m khi noi linh moi )

(Circulaire No.28 Cir/Mi/Ag du 24-5-46 du Ministre de L’Inte’riem)

                __________________

 

Nome et prenom(NAME) :  Huynh Ngoc Hoa

 ..ssance(ADRESS): Phu Lun 19 a’Long Chau Vinlong 

 . ngay ,than,na’m dao(DAY,MONTH,YEAR)

.        native              .   cua mie : Thai Ti Bich

.    vietnamese        .  Ngieu      : Buon Ban

.         lady’s             .  Village hang : Long cha’u

.  photo      . hai neau : 1” quartier

.  . Maison  no(na s6) : 46 B Dong Khan.

___________________

                           Vinlong,le 4 December 1950

Lang : Lang-Cheung  4.12..50

        Huong Than               Xuong Truong          Huong-hau

 

          Handsigned            handsigned             handsigned &

  & red squared           round violet stamped

Stamped                DELEGATION DU CHEF -LIEU

    “ SUD VIETNAM-

                                      PROVINCE DE VINLONG 

 

(RARE  Document,revenue and postal history collections delegation du Chef-Lieu  Of Sud-Vietnam province Vinlong, the only one ID  found from the year 1950, why?,please comment-auth)

Saigon 1950s - Rue Catinat

Saigon 1950s – Rue Catinat

 
Saigon - Une Charette

Saigon – Une Charette

 
SAIGON, Riche enterrement

SAIGON, Riche enterrement

 
SAIGON, marchande ambulante

SAIGON, marchande ambulante

 
SAIGON, Rue Paul Blanchy

SAIGON, Rue Paul Blanchy

ngay nay la duong Hai Ba Trung

Saigon - Vue générale du Port

Saigon – Vue générale du Port

SAIGON. Les petites embarcations sur la rivière de Saïgon. 1951

SAIGON. Les petites embarcations sur la rivière de Saïgon. 1951

Small boats on the Saigon River. 1951

Saigon 1950 - A local citizen driving a crate moved by two bulls through the streets.

Saigon 1950 – A local citizen driving a crate moved by two bulls through the streets.

 
Saigon 1950 - Two brothers bathing in a river while peering into the distance.

Saigon 1950 – Two brothers bathing in a river while peering into the distance.

Anyone can see this photo Proud mother and son sitting near a docking area

Proud mother and son sitting near a docking area

 
Saigon 1950 - Mother and her two children taking a bath in the Saigon river

Saigon 1950 – Mother and her two children taking a bath in the Saigon river

 
Saigon 1950

Saigon 1950

 
Saigon 1950 - A mother carrying her son and fish to a boat.

Saigon 1950 – A mother carrying her son and fish to a boat.

 
Saigon 1950 - A local woman selling oysters while peering into the distance

Saigon 1950 – A local woman selling oysters while peering into the distance

 
Saigon 1950

Saigon 1950

 
Saigon 1950 -

Saigon 1950 -

Anyone can see this photo

Saigon 1950 -

Saigon 1950 -

Anyone can see this photo

Saigon 1950 -

Saigon 1950 -

Anyone can see this photo


 

_____________________________________

g.The last year of Francaise Indochine and the First year Bao Dai regime in 1951

_____________________________________

 

1)-4)

5)May 1951

may,24th.1951

 Pan Am First Air Mail flight from Wake Island to Saigon, Vietman 24 May 1951

6) June 1951

(1) June,6th 1951

The first Vietnamese postage stamp issued in this day, less than two year after the country recovered nominal independence. That date marked the anniversary of the national reuni-fication (Hung-Quoc Khanh-niem) decree by Emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty .

     (The design two types, the low nominal value the emperor building and the high nominal the picture of emperor Bo Dai, this stamps rare mint without hing very find condition , 15 pi red brown and 30  pi blue green, -auth)

7) -12) not yet information.

September 1951

September,12th.1951

 

October 1951

October,23th.1951

 

 November 1951

December 1951

December,24th.1951

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________________

h.1952-FEDERATION OF INDOCHINE OR ETAT DU VIETNAM, AS INDEPENEDENT COUNTRY UNDER FRANCH BEGUN.

_____________________________________

The Vietnam Postal History 1952  

 




Vietnam
20c Imperial Palace at Hue and 1P Temple at Saigon 1955 Banmethuot, Viet-Nam Printed matter to Vista, Calif. Crease at top. EUROPEAN SIZE.



Vietnam
50c Temple at Saigon (2) and 1.50P Empress Nam-Phuong (2) 1955 Nhatrang, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Crease. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
1P Temple at Saigon (2) and 2P Imperial Palace 1955 Gia Dinh, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
50c and 1P Temple at Saigon, 80c Dragon, and 3P Emperor Bao-Dai c1955 Saigon-R-P, Viet-Nam Airmail to Ramsgate, England. EUROPEAN SIZE.






Vietnam
50c and 1P (3) Temple at Saigon 1952 Saigon – A, Sud Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked. Crease at right and one 1P stamp damaged.




Vietnam
50c Temple at Saigon (6) 1952 Da Lat, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Shortpaid so rated hs T in triangle. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
20c Imperial Palace (2) and 50c (2) and 1P (2) Temple at Saigon 1952 Hue, Centre Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked.




Vietnam
20c Imperial Palace (4) and 50c and 1P (2) Temple at Saigon 1952 Saigon – R.P. Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Tear at bottom right. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls, 20c Imperial Palace (2), and 1P Temple at Saigon (3) 1952 Nam – Dinh, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked. Bit reduced at top.




Vietnam
50c Temple at Saigon and 3P Emperor Bao-Dai 1952 Hai – Phong, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
20c Imperial Palace, 1P Temple at Saigon, and 1.20P Emperor Bao-Dai (2) 1952 Gia Dinh, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.






Vietnam
50c and 1P Temple at Saigon and 2P Imperial Palace 1952 Hon-Gay, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris France.





Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (2), 20c Imperial Palace (7), 50c Temple at Saigon, and 1.20P Emperor Bao-Dai 1952 Nha Trang, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (6) and 1.20P Emperor Bao-Dai (2) 1952 Ha-Noi, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Shortpaid so rated hs T in triangle. France 10F Wheat Sheaves Postage Due added. Crease.




Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (3) and 1P Temple at Saigon (3) 1952 Ha-Noi, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reduced at top.





Vietnam
3.30P Viet Nam 1952 Ben Tre, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Crease at left. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls, 20c Imperial Palace, and 3P Emperor Bao-Dai 1952 Nha Trang, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
1P Temple at Saigon (4) 1952 Cholon, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked.





Vietnam
3.30P Viet Nam 1952 Aero-Port, Hanoi Airmail to Paris, France. Crease at left. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (3), 1P Temple at Saigon, and 2P Imperial Palace 1952 Saigon – R.P. Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.






Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls, 20c Imperial Palace (7), and 1P Temple at Saigon (2) 1952 Dalat, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked. EUROPEAN SIZE.






Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls, 1.20P Emperor Bao-Dai, and 2P Imperial Palace 1952 Hue, Viet-Nam to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (3) and 3P Emperor Bao-Dai 1952 Saigon – R.P. Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Crease at left.





Vietnam
3.30P Viet Nam 1952 Bien Hoa, Vietnam Airmail to Paris, France.

1) January 1952

 

(1)The federation of Indochine consist Republic Vietnam (Annam ,Tonkin ,Cochin China), the Kingdom of Cambodge and Laos.

 The Independence country under the Union of France since 1950.

(2) In 1952 ,

__KGrHqIOKpUE24S3Nw_0BN5UZTU_Ww___12

Sud-Vietnam, Saïgon, Le Trésor, 1952Some of the people want the full free country and they fight against French and their area called “Viet Minh” or Indochine Ho Chi Minh.

 

 

(3) South Vietnam Flag (OP)

(4) National anthem of Viet Nam (Quoc Ca Vietnam (OP)

(5) Vintage Saigon Map & District(Do-Thanh Saigon & Bang Chi Cac Congso) (OP)

(5)In 1952, when Nguyen Van Tam took over as  Bao Dai’s prime minister, he formed a cabinet described by the US consul in Hanoi as composed of “opportunist, nonentities, extreme reactionaries, assassins, hirelings and , finally , men of faded mental powers,”

  

(6)The minister of youth and sports, Vo Hong Khanh, had been responsible for the murder by garrting of no fewer than ten frenchmen some year earlier. Not only would the cabinet serve the vietminh as anindirect “propaganda tool”, the consul concluded , but it was :

“ a poor return for French blood and American money (ibis stenly Karnow ,p-195) 

2)February 1952

    

(1) February,11th 1952

    

(a)The latest used of  Indochine Francaise Timbre Taxes revenue.

Indochine farncaise timbre fiscal revenue, 5 piastres + 4 Piastres used one Hand written “Zuoc gia Vietnam Cho Chia Dat land transaction , the handdrawed map roeu Hin Tri road , R.100.00 Mai v nhan, R 130.00 Phan Mai ran  Louis, R 180.00 Phan Mai lung Chau, 226.00 Phan thai nan Nham, 180.00 Phan Hai thi Kiet.

 Signed  Thai van Nham, Thai San Kie, Mai thi Kiet , Ruong quae Phu, Phan v.Kiem and Chau v,Ruo’ng, fingerprint signed by Dau lang Say ngoui dung Chia dat vu nau ho cac cu con nho moi and Tran thi khuyen Kiu Gu La’ng Nay.

This certificate on double folio writting paper, in the last page

,”Thi Chung”

     Chung toi La Ban quan tri Lang Than Choi Chung

Mai oan Nhan, Mai thi Kiet. Quang quoc Phu Mai ton Luc va Tran thi Khuyuh Ken la Tu dten co Ky te’n va Lang tay truoc

Mat chung toi May nguoi nay dtung lap giao Keo co Khai

Voi chung toi rang hien ro to tren dtay  va ung nhan Y theo

Loi giao Ket trong to Va chung them co 2 nguoi toc nhon la

Phan van Kiem, Chau van Ruong co Ky ten truoc mat chung

Toi va Khai rang su chia dtat dtay vo va con cua Mai

Van Thoi ung thuan nhan.

                                      Thanh  thoi ngay 11.2.1952

          Thuong than                    Xa truong               Thuong hao

Hand signed                 Handsigned             Handsigned

                                      Violet squered stamped

                                      ======================

                    :    NAM-VIET              :

                                :______________________:

:       TINH BENTRE            :

                                :    TONG-MINH HUE       :

                                :   LANG THANH-THOI     :

                           ==================

Hand written          0,6 %  = 162 ‘

Pho beud Naud              11%     = 495   >     837 $

Thue de chung ui dau   4%  = 180  ‘

Red squaered stamped.

            Dong Bang Phan Tai Myto

            Ngay  Thoi ba Shanghai 1952

             Quyen :———–

             Thue : Thau tran ba moi bay dtong bac ,180$

Signed &Red circle stamped :Binh Nam Tha Xuong Mytho. …….not clear…..      

 

(Four same document with same revenue , interseting collection-auth)

 

(b)The earliest Etat du Vietnam Timbre Fiscal revenue

The same document with (a) but  red-green 2×3 Piastres, Etat du Vietnam Timbrefiscal revenue, but signed only by three Dau Ky len cua Ky Lao , Lam thai Lang Banh Thoi ngay 8.2.1952. and the authetication :

               Thi Chung

Chung toi Ban quan tri lang thanh thoi chung

Ong Phan van Kiem-Chau van ruong ho dau

Sach dteu co thy ten truoc mat chung toi ba

Ong Ky Lao Nay la ban than cua gia toc cua

Ngai van Thoi dtung lap to tong chi tren dtay

                            Hanh thoi ngay 11.2.1952

            Houng than     Xa truong   Huong hao

             Signed            Signed        Signen

 

                        Squered black stamped

                               NAM-VIET

                             TINH BENTRE

                        TONG MINH-HUE

                        LANG THAN-HOI

 

( This collections very rare and  best to showed, because four same document with Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue  5 + 4 piastres and one Document with  Etat du vietnam  Timbre fiscal 2 x 3 piastres. The latest and the earliest revenue at the same date february,11th 1952 and with same authentication, will be the historic fact abbout the transition between Indochine Francaises and the unoin France state Vietnam(etat du vietnam), please comment – auth)

3)-

4)April 1952

5-7) not yet information

August 1952

(1)August,15th 1952

     The common Empress Nam Phuong multicolour stamps were issued in this day.(I found this stamps in Indonesia-auth)

(2)August,18th.1952

the first  Vietnam Aermaikl stamps postally used cover send from Saigon Vietnam  to Zurich Switzerland

(3)August.19th 1952

The Receipt of Police D’Abonne-ment A L’eau Portable, Service technique at Saigon, with Indochine Franchaise Timbre Fiscal revenue 5 Piastres. Stamped Prefecture De Saigon Cholon ,Etat Du Vietnam –Suid Vietnam ,signe 19 Aout 1952.

(3)August.21th.1958

The certificate of Indochine Francaise Revenue sheet  16 piaster added revenue ofVietnam  union  (etat du Vietnam) 3 piaster and  3 x4 $dong vietnam thue coniem revenue.

Legalized by Vietnam Naval Chief(Hang Tau Viet Saigon) in 27.2.1958 during Ngo Dinh Diem Era

9)September

 not yet info

10) October 1952

(1)18.10.1952

Indochine 40 cent revenue sheet used added Indochine Francaise 10 cent timbre fiscal and Saigon Cholon taxes  Regionales 10$00 –brown –old chinese style building(the cholon market?) , the revenue sheet used as“To ban nha”  (contract?) between Nguyen van Thoai ,carte de service (Car services) n so 4121 ngay 1-8-1950 with Pham Thi Dieuw “Laisser-passer” so 2108 ngay 8.3.1949 tai  ho 4 Saigon. (The very rare revenue history collection  because in one sheet were found three types revenue, Indochina lettter sheet revenue, & revunue timbrefiscal and Taxes Regional Saigon Cholon revenue. Auth)

 

 

11) November 1952

  

(1) November ,9th 1952

   Original vintage private photo, three native vietnamese lady at the bulding near the beach, back  handwritten  Nha’ Beach , 9-11-52.

     (maybe Nha Thrang ?-auth)

 

12) December 1952

 

(1) December.12th 1952

Vintage Photo” A man rode a Mobilete“ in the Saigon road, always seen an antique  car. Behind the photo “ Sur Mobylete de Luxe te sou du 5/12/52 a’la rue Cabina

( Unique vintage picture of vintage mobylete with written motorbike type information ,date and location, biside that The same antique car now put in the left front near entrace of the Ho Chi Min city Museum, during my last visit in July, 2009 I made my own photo in the front of that antique card help the museum guard, look at that photo -auth   )

(2) By 1952,

 according to a secret US report, Bao Dai was recieving an official stipend of more that $4 million a year.

He was not a big spender- his four private airplanes were his majr expense, and his wife and children lived in relative modesty on the Cote d’Azur,

while his own residence in Dalat was no more Lavish than a house in an affluent New York suburb

Bao Dai palace  where the last Emperor of Vietnam – Bao Dai (1913-1997) stayed and ruled his Vietnam from 1949 to 1954 and then transfer to Mong Mo hill, Love Valley  is beautiful and romantic landscape of Dalat Vietnam. One of highlight in Dalta is Truc Lam Zen Monastery – The largest Zen Monastery of Vietnam in Dalat city. Tuyen Lam Lake – The nicest Lake of Dalat. and then and enjoy Lat Ethnic band
Dalat tour

( I had seen in internet auction the photo of Bao Dai House when he get out of the car and went in the house-auth).

But he was transferring enormous sums to French and Swiss banks and investing extravagantly in real estate in French and Marocco ( I have a letter send from Marocco to Saigon, may be many Rich Vietna-mese stayed at Marocco-auth)

   The annual payment consumed 5 % of the Regime’s total revenue- four times more than the appropriation  for land reform program.

Even so, Bao dai was chronically strapped for funds, and he relied heavily on Bay Vien, the boss of the Binh Xuyen gang, to supplement his finaces handsomely.

He put Bay Vien in charge of Saigon’s casino, bordellos, opium dens, gold  smuggling  and other rackets, and even promoted him to rank of General.

Soon the French sanctioned Bay Vien’s respectability by emplying him hoodlums against the Vietminh and other  nationalist.

The corruption became institutionalizes , making a farce of earnest American hopes for a credible Vietnamese administration that would check the Communist, indeed , the French and Bao dai seemed at that stage to have His reached a tacit understanding : he played the puppet and they indulged his pleasures.

 His inner circle at one point included a spectacular blond French courtesan billed as a : member of the Imperial film unit” Once hearing her disparaged, he remarked “ She is only plying her trade. I’m the real whore”(D)

___________________________________

i. Bo Dai regime in 1953

__KGrHqYOKosE3FRJjW1_BN5UY_n1Fg___12

 Sud-Vietnam, Saïgon, Le Marché de Tân Dinh, 1953

 

1)-3) no info

 

5) April 1953

culminating with the 1st Amphibious Group formed in April 1953. This unit included a “reconnaissance and rapid maneuver element” of 2 squadrons, each with 3 platoons of 10 crabs, and a “shock element” of 3 squadrons, each with 8 LVT(4)s embarking a light rifle company, and 3 LVT(A)4s for direct support. A separate platoon of six LVT(A)4s under group headquarters was provided for general support. A second amphibious group was formed shortly after for service in the north..

These groups had substantial firepower: fifteen 75mm howitzers in the LVT(A)4s, two machineguns in each crab and amtrac, and six 57mm recoilless guns and three 60mm mortars per squadron. The group also had the personnel and communications to operate as two subgroups. This flexibility, and the practice of carrying 3 days of supplies, provided the autonomy and endurance needed for long range operations. Although the group was remarkably versatile, it had limitations. Both amtracs and crabs often had to be moved by tank transporters to assembly points near operational operational areas. Further, the crab’s tracks were easily damaged and the amtracs bogged down in thick, heavy mud. But, when operations were planned with due regard for these factors, the Legion’s amphibious groups yielded spectacular results. They remain among the more innovative amtrac organizations ever conceived.

__________________

(1) 1st  April 1953

Binh Chung Phao Cao Xa, don vi anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng, Vu Trang Nhan Dan

(please tranlate the document-auth)(D)

6) May 1953

(2) May.2nd 1953

The Receipt of electricity “Campagne des Eaux et D’electricite de L’Indochine  52$00, revenue Etat du Viet-nam 30 cent.

(The French electricity compagny still have powered-auth)

5) April  no info

6) May 1953

(1)May 12th 1953

     The latest used Etat du Vietnam  30 cent revenue on The Franch “Compagne des Eaux et D’ellectricity De L’Indochine “ electric recieved  600 $ for instalation (puissance du compteur a instalaller)

Because the same electric recieve in November 1953 the revenue change with Etat du Vietnam Quoc gia –auth)

(2) May.22.1953

The Receipt of Maison WINH-LOI  No 6 rue Minh Mang Dalat, frm Tran Thi Dao for paid 570&00 , used 2 x 20 cent Etat du Vietnam quoc-Gia revenue . (Rare earliest used new second type revenue at Dalat-auth)

 

   (2)May 1953

   The Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina had prepared  the map, described graphically the actualposition of the French in this month, a position that was to worsen rapidly during the course of the next twelve monts (look at the map , ibid Kahin)

 

7)June 1953

june,3rd.1953

       

(1) Mid 1953

   By mid 1953, Most of Annam was solidly under Vietminh, as were the nothern district of Cochin China almost as far as South as Saigon Itself, with the Camau pennisula as well as much of the Mekong delta administered by the Vietminh.

   The map prepared by teh Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina, General Henri Navarre, described graphically the actual position of the French in May of 1953

 

7) -8) no info

 

9) September 1953

 

   (1) Navarre Plan

France,with strong American encouragement , essayed one final and disastrous effort to recoup her military defeats and achieve a position of strength from which to negotiate with the Vietminh.

   This  Last major military bid, termed the “Navarre Plan”was undertaken at atime when Franch were able to draw on a total of 517.000 men of these ,369.000 were Indochinese , for the most part Vietnamese ; 48.000 were soldiers from  the French’s North African colonies; 20.000 were members of French Foreign Legion ,  and Total of 80,000 were French.

(from the Kahin’s information, we could found the postal history from every kind of Soldiers who send the letters to their family , Vietnamese in saigon, French North Colonies, and to French at this time, I hope someone comment and report that Postal history that I have never found until this day, only one from Marocco but at the Vietnam Liberation war-auth)

10) no info

 

11) November 1953

 

(1) November 6th 1953

The Indochine electricity receipt form still , but in Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia 20 cent revenue.(RH)

( the French electricity compagny changed to Vietnam electricity compagny – the French stated to loss the power, two revenue collection of the reciept of elevtricity paid fro Mai and November will be best for showed because this transition period from Etat du vietnam france Union , to Etat du Vietanm quoc gia, please comment the exact date the transition between the two date – auth)

 

__________________________________

5)1954

photo

Un coin du port de Saïgon 1954

__________________________________

1) January 1954

 1954 – Corpsmen of USS MAGOFFIN (APA-199) 1954 – Corpsmen of USS MAGOFFIN (APA-199) assisted by a Vietnamese male nurse examines an elderly refugee in the ship’s sickbay during operation ‘Passage to Freedom.’

 

2)February 1954

Chinese oversease refugee from Haiphong

 en route to Saigon, Indochina, from Haiphong,

Taking Vietnamese refugees from Haiphong to Saigon ~ 1954

-3) no info

4) April 1954

    

(1) April,6th 1954

     The U.S. announced that its aids to Indochina for  the subsequent fiscal year would run to $ 1.33 billion .This equalled one-third of the entire American foreignaid program and was far its largeres single component.

      Of this amount $800 million was “ allocated through France” for “ direct support” of French Union forces fighting in the Indochina theater, $ 300 million was for economic and tech-nical assistance” (IMNAHA report postal history postal cover from the Technical assistance-auth)

In comparison , this totaled more than eleven time the entire United States economic –aid program   budgeted that year for India (ibid Kahin)

(1)Bao Dai select Ngo Dinh Diem as prime minister

5) May 1954

 

(1) May, 10.1954.

The rare postally cover from V0.v.Luat Elive TC BE 724 Fao (M) , with Marocco stamps 15 F “ Barrage de Bine of OUDANE  CDS Le Noi ELLE Du 8 FES, 10Mai 1954. to  Nguyen Thi Ham Ecole Vo Thanh Phu Nhuon, Sud Vietnam, int the bach destination  postal stamped SAIGON R.P.-VIETNAM 13-5-1954  . Handwritten “Geleco communication”

(many vietnamese have the villa in the French colony like algeria , and also near that country Marocco-auth)

 

6) June 1954

(1)June 1954

     Diem returned to Vietnam as prime minister, he was met at Saigon airport by only a handful of enthusiasts, mosy of them Catholics like himself. Though a veteran nationalist, he was a virtually unknown figure (P)

(2)     June,15th 1954

The crown prince Bao Long with native vietnamese ware’s stamps were issued, the rare stamps  the high nominal value 50 &100 piastres in mint condition or used condition.

(I have found the mint without hings at Hoat Kiem Hanoi during visit 2007, and the used low nominal value found in used condition in Indonesia.-auth)

The vintage crown Prince Bao Long pictures

The Annam Imperial power jewellary pictures

     (3) June,30th 1954

     The Etat Du Vietnam “Sursis Exeptionnel” card of Air-Vietnam  used during Vietnam Cong Hoa this day with  the change of Exceptionel to Professionel

ETAT DU VIET-NAM

        __________                         SURSIS PROFESSIONNEL

                     Valable du 1er/7/1954 au 1er/Ier/1955                                              ______________

REFERENCE : Arrete No.600-VP/QP du 15 Mai 1954 et Decision

                     de la Commission Centrale des Sursis du 19 juin 1954

                                      _________________________

Nom et Prenoms du beneficiance : NGUYEN HUU TAM

Date et lieu de naissance : 21-2-1925 a’Cantho

Emploi occupe :  Comptable

Designation du service employeur : AIR_VIETNAM

                     Saigon, le  30  Juin   1954

                           Le Directeur general des servive de Police

                                             .et de Surete National du Vietnam

Le Chef  du Tu Hoan

Red double circle Stamped                        Violet circle stamped

QUOC PUONG *NHA NHAN-VIEN      “ MYRE VILLERS SAIGON.

                   HAM BAC                            VIETNAM HANG-KHONG

                                                                             AIR VIETNAM”

( The rare “Air Vietnam “ cursus/training ID card , best for thematic of air-pilot-auth)

7)July 1954

July 2, 1954
The agreements of the international peace conference in Geneva, signed July 20, 1954, put an end to the conflict. According to their terms, the French abandoned the control of the entire Vietnamese territory. Vietnam was also divided into two separate states, north and south of 17th parallel, the northern part becoming a republic ruled by the Communist Ho Chi Minh, the southern part, after the deposition of Emperor Bao Dai, a republic enjoying U.S. support.
The involvement of the United States in the war is progressive. After installing the nationalist regime of Ngo Dinh Diem in 1955 with the aim of maintaining anti-regime in the south American involvement began under President Eisenhower set up in Saigon at the outset of the French troops in charge of a military mission assume fully the organization and training of the army of South Vietnam. In 1961, President Kennedy brings to 15,000 the number of male military advisers

 

(1) Diem returns to Saigon

(2)General J.Lawton Collins, Eisen-hower’s special envoy . arrives in Saigon to affirm American Support for Diem, including USD 100 millions in aid. Hundred of thousand Refugees flee from the North to the South with help of US Navy.(Some collections from the refugees have found in South Vietnam like pasport,ID Card , Diploma etc-auth)(D)

(3) In a house in Indochine where the enemies skull were collected for up the famnily power (P)

(4) The Indochine’s student study in Al Azhar University with the albain and Syrian ‘s student(P)

8)-9) no info

10) October 1954

 

(1)October,11th 1954

THE “QUITANCE DE LOYER” paying ’s Receipt 12834$ for August 1954,with 1 piastre and 40 cents revenue Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia

(the rare 1 piastres Quoc-Gia of Etat du Vietnam revenue on Medicine transaction’s receipt ?-auth)

(2)  Nearly a million a large preportion of them Catholic, fleeing from Nothern Vietnam in late 1954 as the Vietminh prepared their take over. In many instances,as here, the evacuation was handled by the US Navy

(I have found Chinese consulat’s Haiphong north Vietnam  passport in HCM city, belong to the Chinese ‘s North Vietnam refugee to Cholon-Saigon, from Chinese overseas(Hoa Kiao) harbor Haiphong in the north flea to Hoa Kiao harbor Cholon Saigon in the South, I will write special book about them in the next times-auth (P)

(3) Not long after his return to Vietnam as prime minister, Ngo Dinh Diem organized a referendum to oust Bao Dai. Diem recieved almost all the votes, and the Bo Dai picture put down in  court’s meeting room (P)

(4) Diem consolidated his power by  defeating the Binh Xuyen, a private gang supporeted by the French’s forces clashed with the Binh Xuyen in the street of Saigon, devasting the city(P)

(5) October ,19th 1954

Original vintage photo, chinese women  with vietnamese gown , seated at the rock near beach, in the back handwritten

nKy ara’n o’ ca’p gnya 19-10-54

(Li van vi).

 

11) November 1954

 

(1)     November,11th 1954

Original small clear Vintage photo of two vietnamese soldier in the ront of statue, in the back handwritten :

“Than Tang Chi em anh, nay dte ky niem dtoi song cui bap cua em, Thang ben.Kia La Nec Toi. Nimy Le 20/11/54.

 

12) December 1954

(1)Cessation of the Indochina War in 1954 left the Associated States of Indochina divided into four countries: Cambodia, Laos, North Viet Nam and South Viet Nam. The Chief of State, Bao Dai, called on Ngo Dinh Diem, to form a government, but although in office, he lacked control, especially over the army. After a time, Diem brought the army under control. Diem turned his attention to his own status and called for a referendum to al1ow Vietnamese to choose between Diem and Emperor Bao Dai. A referendum was ordered for October 23, 1955. Diem’s bid to replace Bao Dai was successful. Official Vietnamese government records showed that 91.8 percent of the voting population participated and that 98.2 percent of the voters chose to replace Bao Dai with Diem.

 

 

_____________________________________

4.2.3.Republic Of Vietnam(Vietnam Cong Hoa )1955-1975

_____________________________________

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­___________________________________

a. the transition Bo Dai-Diem regime in 1955

photo

1955 SAÏGON – Boulevard Bonnard

Tên ông toàn quyền Bonard hay bị các ông Tây viết sai thành bonard

tượng Bá Đa Lộc đã được đưa về Pháp

___________________________________

1)Jan 1955

  

(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

  (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955

Not yet info

 

3) March  1955

(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.

     (2) Ngo Dinh diem stamps were issue in this year but the date not known, the rare stamps were the hign nominal in mint condition 35 pi and 100 pi ( I have found the common used stamps in Indonesia-auth)

(4) April 1955

    

(a) April 1955

Diem crush Binh Xuan sect. The period  end of French forces and their auxillaries to deployed South and for Vietminh  troops to regroup the north,

(5) May & (6) June 1955

No info

(7) July 1955

(a)July.11th 1955

The man of action formally extend-ed Phillipine recognation in a diplo-matic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col .Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969)

 

(b)July,1955

The late used Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60.

 

(c)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(d) July,20th 1955

The mythology turtle (read at the Ancient Vietnam war-auth) stamped issued ( uncommen  in mint condition., I have only the used one found in Indonesia-auth)

(e) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :

(*)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”

(**) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese nto support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriedly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”

(***)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and com-munism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more profitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dan-gerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnam-ese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnamese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

(8)August & (9) September 1955

No info.

(10) October 1955,

 

(a) October 11th 1955

The refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day, the rare mint high nominal value stamps 55 pi and 100 pi.

(b)October 22th,1955

The last day of Bo Dai regime

_______________________________

7) Republic Vietnam Cong Hoa (South Vietnam) 1955-1975.

_______________________________

b.The first year Diem Regime-1955

________________________________

 

(A) Ngo Dinh Regime (1955-1963)

( October 23th 1955-  1963)

(1) October 1955

(a)23th October 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum  and Bo dai official was through down to the floor. (P)

(b) October,26th  1955

(1.1)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

(1.2) Magsasay (Phillipine president ‘s recognation of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime the opposition Recto attack  on his recognations which according to him had been done in obedience to American dictates.

 

(c) October,29th 1955

           Three days after his attack on Magsaysay for the recognition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime,  

Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

(2) November 1955

(a) Novermber,23th 1955

The information  about Magsasay recieved Campaind fund from America had appeared in the today issue of Time Magazine.

Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

     (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information

 The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505. auth)

(b)Ca Ve Cu Booklet

 The small Booklet ’s Covers with red Photo illustration

Ca Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955” and in the back propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

In This cover, handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD)

_______________________________

 Diem’s South Vietnam in1956

_________________________________

1) January 1956

(1)in 1955 and 1956, thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North. The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.

(2)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2)-4) no info

5) May 1956

 

(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956. (the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where location ? please comment-auth)

(2)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) -7) no info

August 1956

     (1) August 6th 1956

     The common overprint “Chaou Tu Bu Dien” or Gouverment Post Office building” stamps were issued ( I found this stamps in Indonesia).

9) September no info

10) October 1956

    

(1)  Children stamps were issued , the rare was the violet  35 pi in mint condition ( I found the used one in Indonesia , and the mint 75 cent in Ho Chi Minh city-auth)

(5) 5th October 1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN (OD)

(6) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12) December 1950

 

(1)December , 4 th 1950

The LAISSEZ-PASSER  ID with native Vietnamese photo,

          LAISSEZ –PASSER

           Valable Jusqu’a nouvei ordo

(Giay thon-ba’nh tam du’ng de’m khi noi linh moi )

(Circulaire No.28 Cir/Mi/Ag du 24-5-46 du Ministre de L’Inte’riem)

                __________________

 

Nome et prenom :  Huynh Ngoc Hoa

________________.  ..ssance: Phu Lun 19 a’Long Chau Vinlong 

.                  . ngay ,than,na’m dao

.        native              .   cua mie : Thai Ti Bich

.    vietnamese        .  Ngieu      : Buon Ban

.         lady’s             .  Village hang : Long cha’u

.  photo      . hai neau : 1” quartier

.                                . Maison  no(na s6) : 46 B Dong Khan.

___________________

                           Vinlong,le 4 December 1950

Lang : Lang-Cheung  4.12..50

        Huong Than               Xuong Truong          Huong-hau

 

          Handsigned            handsigned             handsigned &

  & red squared           round violet stamped

Stamped                DELEGATION DU CHEF -LIEU

    “ SUD VIETNAM-

                                      PROVINCE DE VINLONG

 

(RARE  Document,revenue and postal history collections delegation du Chef-Lieu  Of Sud-Vietnam province Vinlong, the only one ID  found from the year 1950, why?,please comment-auth)
 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Early Vietnam War 1955-1964

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                    

              DVWC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Vietnam War  Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Diem South Vietnam War Document

       and Postal History

               1955-1959

The complete information exist in CD_ROM as the part of Vietnam Indochina hIstoric collections 1800-1964,please subscribed as the premium member via comment to find more informations about the CD-ROM.

This is only the sample of CD-ROM.

 

 DIEM REGIME (1955-1957)

a.TRANSITION PERIOD -1954

4665478542 e03dd28b25 French Indo China Government official Vien Bay reading a prepared speech. O

 

French Indo China Government official Vien Bay reading a prepared speech

1) October    1954

(1)October ,23th 1954

 

(a)The  President Eisenhower’s latter  to Diem :

___________________________________

Dear Mr President,

 

I have been following with great interest the course of developments in Viet-Nam , particularly since the conclusion of the conference at Geneva.

 

The implications of the agreement concerning Viet-Nam have caused grave concern regarding the future of a country temporanly divided by an artificial military grouping, weakened  by a long and exhausting war and faced with enemies without and by their subversive collaborators within.

 

You recent request for and to assist in the formidable project of the movement of several hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese citizen away from areas which are passing under a de facto rule and political ideology which they abhor, are being fulfilled .I am glad this humanitarian effort

 

We have been exploring ways and means to permit our aid to Viet-Nam to be more effective and to make a greater contribution to the welfare and stability of the Government of Viet-Nam.

I am,accordingly, instructing the American Ambassador to Viet-Na,m to examine with you in your capacity as chief of government how an intelligent program of American aid given directly to your Government canserve to assist Viet-Nam in its present hour of trial , provided that your Government is preparedto give assurances as to the standars of performance it would be able t main tain the event such aid were supplied.

 

The purpose of this offer in tp assist the Government of Viet-Nam in developed and maintaining a strong, viable state, capable of resisting attempted subversion or aggresion through military means .

 

The Government  of United States expects that their aid will be met by performance on the part the Government of Viet-Nam in undertaking needed reforms.It hopes that such aid, combined with your own continuing efforts, will contribute effectively toward an independent Viet-Nam endowed with a strong government.

 

Such a government would, I hope, be so responsive to the nationalist aspiration of its people, so enlightened in purpose and effective in performance, that it will be respected both at home and abroad and discourage any who might to impose a foreign idelogy on your free people.

 

Sincerely,

 

Dwight D. Eisenhower.

__________________________________________________

(source : Modern History Sourcebook)

4.Do Cao Tri 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – small_unit_tactics;combined_arms_focus;training

5.Ho Tan Quyen 1955 – 1963
skill 5 – seamanship;naval_training;small_taskforce_tactics

6.Indochina University 1930 – 1956
skill 1 – management;chemistry;mathematics


7. Viet Nam National Military Academy 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – small_unit_tactics;piloting;training;naval_trainin g;decentralized_execution
ref

8.Indochine Raiload Company 1930 – 1954
skill 1 – mechanics;management;industrial_engineering
ref

9.Thu Duc Military Academy 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – combined_arms_focus;centralized_execution;individu al_courage
ref

10.The University of Saigon 1957 – 1970
skill 4 – management;chemistry;electronics;mathematics
ref

11.Vu Quoc Thuc 1956 – 1962
skill 4 – management;industrial_engineering
ref

12.U.S. Army Construction Agency Vietnam 1963 – 1970
skill 6 – management;technical_efficiency;general_equipment; electronics;mechanics
ref

13.David Lilienthal 1963 – 1970
skill 6 – management;mathematics;industrial_engineering
ref

14.U.S. Agency for International Development Vietnam 1961 – 1970
skill 6 – industrial_engineering;general_equipment;chemistry ;management;artillery
ref

15.Republic of Vietnam Navy 1952 – 1970
skill 4 – small_taskforce_tactics;centralized_execution;nava l_engineering;naval_training
ref

16.MAAG Vietnam 1950 – 1960
skill 4 – artillery;training;general_equipment;industrial_en gineering;mechanics
ref

17.U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam 1962 – 1970
skill 4 -combined_arms_focus;small_unit_tactics;bomber_tact ics;piloting;naval_training
ref

18.Ba Son Shipyard 1930 – 1954
skill 2 – naval_engineering;industrial_engineering;mechanics
ref

19.Ba Son Shipyard 1955 – 1970 <= duplicated in order to simulate the aid of US navy
skill 4 – technical_efficiency;naval_engineering;naval_artil lery

20.Air Viet Nam 1930 – 1970
skill 3 – aeronautics;technical_efficiency;electronics
ref

21.U.S. Pacific Air Forces 1961 – 1970 <= representative for the US air force in South Viet Nam
skill 5 – rocketry;aeronautics;artillery;chemistry
ref
pic : later

(b)The Photograph of President of South Vietnam  Ngo Dih Diem with President USA Eisenhowrer at Whasington National Airport.

___________________________________

b. The First year of Diem regime-1955

5701937047 445e21f5b6 Saigon 1955 O

 

 Madame Nhu

 
 
In the case of the Vietnam War, most recall only that it was a bad idea for the U.S to become involved. Given the war’s unpopularity and near universal denouncement since, we may tend to forget that our  leaders were sent down the slippery slope with well-intentioned reasons that seemed to make sense to most people at the time.
 
 Vietnam had the alleged Tonkin Gulf attack on the USS Maddox. In each case, there was a President at the ready to pull the trigger. We all recall the details of what lead up to the former, but the details of what led up to the latter remains largely unknown or forgotten to most.
 
The Dragon Lady, although a largely forgotten part of our Vietnam buildup in the early 1960’s, was a key player in a swirling Cold War world of nuclear brinksmanship and complex international relationships. Perhaps from her, we might have learned early on at what masters the Vietnamese were at playing the Americans.
 
Lest we forget, following is her obituary written for the New York Times by Joseph R. Gregory:
 
As the official hostess to the unmarried president of South Vietnam, her brother-in-law, she was formally known as Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu. But to the American journalists, diplomats and soldiers caught up in the intrigues of Saigon in the early 1960s, she was “the Dragon Lady,” a symbol of everything that was wrong with the American effort to save her country from Communism.
 
In those years, before the United States deepened its military involvement in the war, Madame Nhu thrived in the eye of her country’s gathering storm as the wife of Ngo Dinh Nhu, the younger brother and chief political adviser to Ngo Dinh Diem, the president of South Vietnam from 1955 until 1963.
 
While her husband controlled the secret police and special forces, Madame Nhu acted as a forceful counterweight to the diffident president, badgering Diem’s aides, allies and critics with unwelcome advice, public threats and subtle manipulations. Then, after both men were killed in a military coup mounted with the tacit support of the United States, she slipped into obscurity.
 
In her years in the spotlight, when she was in her 30s, she was beautiful, well coiffed and petite. She made the form-fitting ao dai her signature outfit, modifying the national dress with a deep neckline. Whether giving a speech, receiving diplomats or reviewing members of her paramilitary force of 25,000 women, she drew photographers like a magnet. But it was her impolitic penchant for saying exactly what she thought that drew world attention.
 
When, during Diem’s early days in power, she heard that the head of the army, Gen. Nguyen Van Hinh, was bragging that he would overthrow the president and make her his mistress, she confronted him at a Saigon party. “You are never going to overthrow this government because you don’t have the guts,” Time Magazine quoted her as telling the startled general. “And if you do overthrow it, you will never have me because I will claw your throat out first.”
 
Her “capacity for intrigue was boundless,” William Prochnau wrote in “Once Upon a Distant War: Young War Correspondents and the Early Vietnam Battles” (1995). So was her hatred of the American press. “Madame Nhu looked and acted like the diabolical femme fatale in the popular comic strip of the day, ‘Terry and the Pirates,’ ” Mr. Prochnau wrote. “Americans gave her the comic-strip character’s name: the Dragon Lady.”
 
In the pivotal year of 1963, as the war with the North worsened, discontent among the South’s Buddhist majority over official corruption and failed land reform efforts fueled protests that culminated in the public self-immolations of several Buddhist monks. Shocking images of the fiery suicides raised the pressure on Diem, as did Madame Nhu’s well-publicized reaction. She referred to the suicides as “barbecues” and told reporters, “Let them burn and we shall clap our hands.”
 
Tran Le Xuan was the younger daughter of Nam Tran Chuong, herself the daughter of an imperial Vietnamese princess, and Tran Van Chuong, a patrician lawyer who later became Diem’s ambassador to Washington. As a willful girl, she bullied her younger brother, Khiem Van Tran, and was more devoted to the piano and the ballet than to her studies.

She later resisted any arranged marriage, choosing in 1943 to wed one of her mother’s friends, Ngo Dinh Nhu. Fifteen years her senior, he was from a prominent Hue family of Roman Catholics who opposed both French colonial rule and the Communist rebels. Tran Le Xuan, raised a Buddhist, embraced her new family’s faith as well as its politics.
 
As World War II ended, Vietnam’s battle for independence intensified. In 1946, Communist troops overran Hue, taking Madame Nhu, her infant daughter and aging mother-in-law prisoner. They were held for four months in a remote village with little food and no comforts before being freed by the advancing French. After she was reunited with her husband, the family lived quietly for the next few years, an interlude that Madame Nhu would later refer to as her “happy time.” She and her husband would eventually have four children, two boys and two girls.
 
dining with President Diem 
in Saigon in 1957. Madame Nhu does not 
appear to have been present.
In 1955, Diem became president of the newly independent South Vietnam, his authority menaced by private armies, gangsters and disloyal officers like General Hinh. Madame Nhu publicly urged Diem to act. This only embarrassed him, and he exiled her to a convent in Hong Kong. Then he reconsidered, took her advice, smashed his opponents and forced Hinh into exile.
 
Madame Nhu returned, complaining that life in the convent had been “just like the Middle Ages.” But then, so was the lot of most Vietnamese women. After winning a seat in the National Assembly in 1956, Madame Nhu pushed through measures that increased women’s rights. She also orchestrated government moves to ban contraceptives and abortion, outlaw adultery, forbid divorce and close opium dens and brothels. “Society,” she declared, “cannot sacrifice morality and legality for a few wild couples.”
 
Meanwhile, she kept a tight emotional hold on the president. According to a C.I.A. report, Diem came to think of his sister-in-law like a spouse. She “relieves his tension, argues with him, needles him, and, like a Vietnamese wife, is dominant in the household,” the report said. It also said that their relationship was definitely not sexual. When Diem, who was notoriously prudish, once questioned the modesty of Madame Nhu’s low-cut dress, she was said to have snapped back: “It’s not your neck that sticks out, it’s mine. So shut up.”
 
In fact, both their lives were on the line. In 1962, renegade Vietnamese Air Force pilots bombed and strafed the presidential palace. Diem was not hurt. Madame Nhu fell through a bomb hole in her bedroom to the basement two floors below, suffering cuts and bruises.
Vietnamese officers were judged by their loyalty to Diem and Nhu, who kept their best troops close to Saigon, to the exasperation of the Americans. 
 
As Communist strength grew, the South’s internal stresses mounted. Diem sought compromise with dissidents, but he was undercut by the Nhus. In August 1963, thousands of Buddhists were arrested and interned. In Washington, Madame Nhu’s father declared that Diem’s government had done more damage than even the Communists and resigned as ambassador; her mother, South Vietnam’s observer at the United Nations, also quit. 

That fall, Madame Nhu went on an American speaking tour, criticizing Diem’s critics as soft on communism. She was in Los Angeles on Nov. 1 when news flashed that Diem and her husband had been shot to death in a coup. “The deaths were murders,” she told reporters, “either with the official or unofficial blessing of the American government.”
 
Refused permission to return to Vietnam, she and her children moved to Rome to be near her brother-in-law, Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc. In July 1966, in a vehemently anti-American interview with a French journalist, she expressed sympathy for the Vietnamese Communists and declared that America preaches “the liberty of the jungle.”

In 1967, her eldest daughter, Le Thuy, was killed in an automobile accident in France. In 1986, her parents were found strangled in their Washington home. Her brother, Khiem, was charged in the killings, motivated, according to the authorities, by the fact that he had been disinherited. In 1993, after seven years in a mental hospital, he was declared incompetent but harmless, and released.
 
As time passed, Madame Nhu declined to be interviewed, but in November 1986 she agreed to answer questions in an exchange of letters with The New York Times. In these statements she continued to blame the United States for the fall of South Vietnam and for her brother’s arrest. Asked to describe her daily life, she wrote, “Outer life such as writing and reading has never seemed interesting enough to be talked about, while inner life, more than a secret, is a mystery that cannot be so easily disclosed.”

Saigon 1955

1)Jan 1955

  

(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

 (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955

 

5701937549 c6352c02fc Saigon 1955 O

 

 Saigon 1955

5702506600 7e0f870246 Saigon 1955 O

 Saigon 1955
5702506830 7252cc29fe Saigon 1955 O

 

    

5702508344 ccd7f7c86c Saigon 1955 O

 

 (1) February,2th,1955

     The recieved of Rayon Ford Car’s repaired station Saigon  with the earliest used rare Vietnam Thue Coniem brown revenue 0$50 .

 “Nghan do phu tung (Rayon Pieces Detachees) Ford” Saigon 1.2.1955 for  Charger  two charger of car EOA 1130 = 224 $ + Cahes 3$96 total 232$96, revenue 0$60 total 233$56, 

        (Best collection for showed-auth)

3)March 1955

 

(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.

 

             

4) April 1955

april,29th.1955

 

April 29, 1955 – A Vietnamese Paratrooper takes cover as refugees flee the Cholon are of Saigon during fighting with rebel Binh Xuyen

Vietnamese fleeing on the street

 (1)Diem crust the Binh Xuyen sect

at the period end of French forces and their Vietnam auxillaries to deploy  to South, and for Vietminh troops to regroup in the North. 

5)May 1955

1718914130 434c3e4dc7 Saigon May 07 1955 - Cao Dai Chief Gen. Nguyen Thanh Phuong Giving a Speech O

 

Saigon May 07 1955 -

 Cao Dai Chief Gen. Nguyen Thanh Phuong Giving a Speech O

5702507252 4692458c8f Saigon 1955 O

 
1718918758 bc97f25928 Binh Xuyen Members Sleeping on the Ground O

 

 Binh Xuyen Members Sleeping on the Ground

1718946284 7148f1772f Saigon 1955 O

 

Saigon 1955

 6) June 1955      

Diem to power, rise of the Southern Republic 1955-1963

 

June 1955 – South Vietnamese Premier Ngo Dinh Diem, fresh from victory in his struggles for power, greets villagers during a visit to the coastal town of Binh Dinh.

..

 

Some 300,000 people applauded Vietnamese army troops during parade to celebrate their victory of the Binh Xuyen rebels in the swamps south of Saigon. The battle was an important victory for the Diem regime

 

June 1955 – South Vietnamese troops train with U.S. weapons.

1955

(1)July.11th 1955) July

 

(a)The man of action formally extended Phillipine recognation in a diplomatic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col.Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969) 

 

(b)The late used revenue of  Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60. with red squered stampedGarantie & Mois- Sauf Cases.” And red round stamped “ Ban Quan horlogerie-97 Boulevard Charner- Saigon.”

 

(2)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(3) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :

 

(a)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”

 

(b) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese to support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriendly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”

 

(c)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and communism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more prfitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dangerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnamese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnam-ese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

August 1955

Not yet information.

 

9) September 1955

    

 

September 1955 – Infantry men stand at attention in water as Premier Ngo Dinh Diem makes a tour of the troops in the Rung Sat swamp to thank the men who defeated the rebel Binh Xuyen forces.

10) October 1955

(1) October.23th 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum .

(2)October,26th. 1955

(a)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

october,26th.1955

 

October 26, 1955 – Premier Ngo Dinh Diem proclaims himself as president during ceremonies in Saigon that followed his victory in a referendum

 

 

October 26, 1955 – A crowd outside Independence Palace in Saigon listens to Ngo Dinh Diem proclaim the new Republic of South Vietnam, with himself as president and prime minister. Ngo received 98 percent of the votes in the referendum against the absentee emperor, Bao Dai.7

(b) Three days after Senator Recto attack on Magsaysay for the recog-nition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime, which according to him  had been done in obedience to American dictates, Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

       The information had appeared in the November 23.1953, issue of Time Magazine. Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

       (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information-auth)

 

(c) The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505.(P) 

 

 

(3) 1955

(a)The small Book’s Covers with red native vietnamese ‘s Picture illustrationCa Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955”, Muc Luc Hieu Tu, Nu tac and Nich ai vong an, and at the back cover propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

This cover used as the cover of handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD) 

( What the meaning of ca ve cu sau ? please comment and tranlate the handwritten “Kinh cao cho mau an giac “-auth)

 

(b) The best of Nguyen Bao Tung Phillatelic ’s colection  contains stamps from the Government led by the late President Ngo-Dinh-diem from 1955 to 1963 and he had the covers with Diem signed and official sealed stamped

  

11) November 1955

(1)The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese’s soldier party at the restaurant “Nghi Xuan”

The soldier with civil complete dress, and two flag there, Vietnam Cong Hoa ‘s yelow three green strip and the military AVRN flag ,s one bigger star.

     “Buoi tiec dtai chien si Hoang Dieu tai nha hang Nghi Xuan

( best flag thematic photo’s  collec-tions, auth)

12) December 1955

 

(1)     December ,9th.1955

The two original vintage black-white photos of a Vietnamese traveler’s group  to  an ancient building

“ Cuoc du lich o Nam-vian na De Thien De Thu trong 3 ngay 9-10-11 Decembre 1955.”

(Please someone translate, where Thien De Thu trong 3 ? auth)

     

(2)     December,11th 1955

The Refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day , very rare in mint never hinged stamps. 30 and 100 piastres.(the used stamps were found in Indonesia, the mint not yet found, I have seen in HCM city-auth)

 

 

 

 

_______________________________

c.Diem’s Regime in1956

_________________________________

The Canadian Connection

SAIGON, Vietnam — (1956) Cpl Renald Paquette with his "team" in Saigon. Source: Sgt (Ret) R. Paquette.

SAIGON, Vietnam — (1956) Cpl Renald Paquette with his “team” in Saigon. Source: Sgt (Ret) R. Paquette.

1) January 1956

 

(1)in 1955 and 1956,

(a) Thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North.

The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.     

(b)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2) February

 
photo

Saigon 1956

–4)April 1956

 

     Not yet info

5) May 1956

(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue with anxient Building, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956.

The complete Khai Sinh form :

 

————————————————————————

 

Quoc –Gia Viet-Nam                               Chung Thu Thay Giay

          Trung-Viet

         ==ooo===                                             KHAI  SINH

 

Lang  Thun Doang Son va dtoi choi

Quan  Yifoa  Vang

Tinh     Quan Nam

 

Ten ho dua con :  Nguyen Nhan

Trai hay gai        :  Trai

Sinh cho na’e     :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa Vang

Sinh ngay nao    :   Nam 1908 Ngay 16 thang 3

Vung moi Sau thong Ba Nan mot ngau Chin trai le Tam.

Ten Ho Cha         : Nguyen Khue

Nha ciro o’ dau  :  thon duong Son xa Hoa theu quan Hoa vang

Ngep-ngep         :  lam Nong

Ten ho me           :  Dang thi Sifaul

Vo chanh hay thu:  Vo Chanh

Ten ho nguoi khai:  Nguyen Khue

May Toi                 : Sot tam Nuoi tuoi

Ngep-ngep          :  Lam Nong

Nha cua o’ dau   :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa vang

Ten ho nguoi chung thu nhat : Nguyen quan(50t) Nam muoi toi

Tuo,ngep-ngep ,noi o’; thay thuoi Thoi LUONG soi,pa dtoi thai

Ten ho nguoi chung thu’ ba : Nguyen Dui Ngu(60 t) sau muoi tuoi

Tuoi,nge-nghiep ,noi o: Lam Nong thoi Duong Lon Xa Hoa thai

quan Hoi vong.

 

               Lam tai  Thoi Duong son xa ,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1956.

NGU’OI KHAI             Do’ng Hu’ong-Chinh Xa  Hoa Thoi

Nguyen Khue                 squered stamped “ Thih-Quang Nam-

Quan –Hoa-vang-Hoi Dong Huong

Chinh –Lien Xa-HOA-THAI

Nhung nguoi Chung       Nhan thiet chu ky cua Hoi-Dong Huong

Chinh Xa Hoa Thai

                                          Hoa Vang ngay 11 thang 5 nam 1956

                                                     TINH TRUONG

                                            Signed and red circle stamped

 

————————————————————————

(the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where the location ? please comment-auth)

4) June 1956 no info

5) July 1956

 

 
    
 
    
Images of 1957PA 146524
    Senior military advisors to the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam discuss the location of fixed investigation teams. Left to right: Colonel J.Bryn (Poland), Brigadier M.S. Dunn (Canada), and Major-General D.S. Bar (India), July 16, 1956.
 
 

(1)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) August 1956

 

Images of 1957PA 151203
    Members of the Canadian Delegation to the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam at a headquarters meeting, August 9, 1956.

(1)             Nuoi Ngot 1956

The original vintage photo of the vietnamese lady in the beach of Nuoi Ngot.

 

(2)             Long Hai 1956

The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese lady in the front of the traditional house at Long hai.

7) September 1956

(1) September,17th 1956

The  Admission’s card of Franch –Vietnamese University at President TINH street Saigon.

_______________________________________________ 

UNIVERSITE-POPULAIRE

FRANCO-VIETNAMIENE

   14 Rue President Tinh                           PHOTO

           SAIGON

CARTE D’ADMISSION

M     Do Thin Muoi

Est admis aux Cource de:

  1. Vietnamienen 1 degre A 30
  2. Francais A 66  Age……………………………………………….
  3. Anglais debut A 40   profession ……………………………
  4. ………………………………………………………………………….. 

Saigon ,le 17-9 1956            Adresse………………………….

      Le Directeur                               Le Titulaire

     Hansigned                             Handsigned

____________________________________

10) October 1956

 

(1)  October,5th.1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN

In the back , rare ephemera vintage handwatch Pronto automatic ,”Ban va Su’a” and Montresz-Stylos , BAQUAN, 97 Boulevard Charner tel.No 2.414 SAIGON (OD)

 

(2) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.

 

November 1956

November,19th.1956

Images of 1957PA 143197
    Paul Martin, Minister of Health and Welfare (left) talking with President Ngo Dinh Diem of the Republic of Vietnam, Saigon, November 19, 1956

9) December 1956

(1) December 7th 1956

The rare  earliest Regional taxes Saigon Cholon revenue, on Health certificate. Sign By  the Chief beraue archive signe Guiges , and sign legalized  7-12-52  with red cross Bac-Si-Nguyen red stamped.

 (Rare health record document with regional saigon cholon 10$00 yellow revenue, because this revenue from 1960 every years was overprint with year to 1975, and unoverprint on piece difficult to find, only three found another  29.4.1957 and 16.3.1959-auth)

____________________________________

 4.3.2 DIEM REGIME   WAR 1957-1963

____________________________________

 

The US supported Diem, a corrupt but anti-Communist dictator of South Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam, arrives in Washington in 1957, and is greeted by President Eisenhower

In this photo, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower greets South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem upon his arrival in Washington D.C. in 1957. Diem ruled Vietnam after the French pulled out in 1954; his pro-capitalist stance made him an attractive ally to the United States, which was in the throes of the Red Scare.

 

a) IBID Stanley Karnow & Nguyen  Ngoc Vy

The South vietnamese Communist  ,the Vietcong, began organising in the countryside in 1957 , planning the assasination of Diem’s village headmen and official. But Ho Chi-minh was still holding back.

Diem’s authoritarian rule, his rustlessness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among peasants but among all those groups excluded from power and from a share in the loot.

The Vietcong assasinations soon made themselves felt, exciting deep unease throuhout the country.

Murder of government officials increase from 1200 in 1959 to 4000 a year by 1961.

Diem’s response was to drive the peasant into foryified hamlets, but this proved both ineffective and couter-productive , alienating the peasantry, who objected to being placed under military commanders and were any-way caught between Diem’s reprisals during the day and the Vietcong at night.

The US administration failed to appreciate that the Vietcong were not lackey of the communists in the North but were an expanding and powerfully organisd army of south Vietnam engaged  in a guerrila civil war.

Clearly South Vietnam stability was deteriorating , though Diem was still in control of the cities and much of the countryside of South Vietnam.

That was most unwelcome to the Americans, since the communist regions of the country bordered on North and South Vietnam and so acted as a passage for suplies and men along the maze of Jungle trails as the Ho Chi-minh trail, by which it took two months to reach the South from the North.

This sparsely populated country of some 2,5 million bordered not only on North and south Vietnam , but also on China,Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, and so was a potential cockpit of struggle between more powerful neighbour.

SEATO , “the South –east Asian collec-tive defence treaty”, organised by Dulles in September 1954, onlike NATO had no standing Armies, nor had its signatories promised military support in each other. So,although it as extended to cover the defence of Cambodian  and South Vietnam, it provided no guarantees of help and proved of limited value when the United States did appeal for Military assistance.

The Eisenhower administration also sent military advisers to South Vietnam and to Laos, yet the Laotian Royal Army never became an effective fighting force capable of dealing with the guerilla tactics of the Pathet Lao.

The influx of American and dollars, more, corrupted and undermined the South Vietnamese and the Laotians.

American advisers, in anycase , suffered from one disability  they couldnot overcome : they were foreigners white oustsiders.   

The Vietcong , for all the violence and disorders they bought to their fellow countrymen , were their own people.

An enormous amout of financial aid was poured into South-east Asia ; most of it went to the military or lined the pockets of corrupt officials.

What the pattern of military aid reveal are the priorities of the United States in South-east Asia from mid-1950s to the mid-1960s. By far the largest amount of aid as calculated  per head of population was sent to Laos and south Vietnam during the decade from 1955 to 1963, about half that amount per head went to cambodia and the Phillipines.

Eisenhower was committing technical,financial and military ait to enable the anti-communist forces in South-east Asiato defend themselves against the communist. But he was opposed to using US military forces on the Asian mainland ( except in South Korea). The mighty US Seven Fleet with its nuclear weapons was close by. What if the nuclear threat did not deter the Vietminh, while supplies continued to reach them from China and the Soviet Union ? What if, despite US ait, the anti-communist groups were too weak to resist effectively? That dilemma Eisenhower bequethed to his successors,

In November 1960 the Democratic Senator from Massachusets J.F.Kennedy won the US preidential election.

Indochina lay at the heart of the “Unfinished bussiness” left over from the Eisenhower administration and the issued came to the boil within the fitst sixth months of 1961. A speech by Khrushchev on 6 January 1961, declaring that the Soviet Union would support waht he called “National liberation movement” in the under-developed countries (including South Vietnam-auth)

April 1961 was a critical month for the White House . Vietnam became the focus of crisis management.

Kennedy order  a review of what military,political and economic action-overt and covert- it would be necessary for the United States to undertake to prevent the communist domination of South Vietnam.

There was wild talk by the military of air strikes against North Vietnam and Southern China.

Although Kennedy frequently showed a better sense of propotion than smoke of his advisers about the dangers of escalation following the despatch of US troops, he never departed from his policy of increasing the US Commitment as much as he judge necessary to defeat Viet cong.

First and fore most it was ignorance, a failure to understand the true nature of  the conflict in Vietnam, reducing it to the simple formula that it was part of the worldwide struggle berween the free and the communist.

But it was not a war arising simply out of communist aggression from North Vietnam . The Vietcong were a south Vietnamese force, the expression of political opposition and disaffection with the ruler of South Vietnam.

It was this misreading of the situation that underlay the US decision to intervene on a massive scale,

The belief that superior technology, the bombardement from the air, coul break the will and capacity to fight of the North Vietnamese and the Viercong caused heavy loss of life and terrible destruction, but in the end was in effective.

Nor could the ground forces defeat ab enemy prepared to naswer escalation with escalation.

The military experts were wrong in their optimistic assements and once more President Johnson had engaged America prestige he found it impossible to pull out and to admit defeat.

But meanwhile that war had been Americanised abd, after Tet, the propping up of an unviable South Vietbamese gevrnment became increasingly problematical.

The US had been sucked into a civil war and faced a determined and rushless enemy. Attrition in the end broke the American will to continue fighting in a country thousands of miles away and for a cause that could not be won.

 

b).AIR WAR IN VIETNAM (Above and Beyond,vol.4,New Horizon Publizher Inc.Chicago,1968)

     Airpower has been the critical element in US military operations in Vietnam.

Massive,unprecedented use of airpower has provided important advantages fro US troops that no conventional army ever enjoyed in a large-scale war against well-organized guerilla forces.

 ( This book have written before the fall of Saigon, that is way the writter and US armed forces still have the arogan to win because they don’t understand the Vietcong and vietminh people powers and in the Iraq war the used most modern aircraft and  startegic attack especially the bunkers, read another book “The unique Iraq War’s docu-ment and postal history collection”-auth)

     The main advantages of modern airpower are completely new levels of mobility and firepower, Helicopter, employed by hubdreds, have brought the new mobility to  ground operations. Most US infantry in Vietnam move into position for its sweeps and assaults by helicopter, which is more than ten times faster than any ground trasportation, high speed move,ment of large forces gives US commandrs a much greater opportunity for suprissing the guerillas than was possible in the past.

          More important, in the fact that moving primarly in the air, instead of by road,largely robs the guerrilla of the opportunity for ambush.

          Aerial firepowe, unprecendented in the swiftness, had been turned against the Viet cong and the North Vietnamese(Vietminh-auth) army in South Vietnam.

          Attack aircraft are spread throughot South Vietnam in such numbers that they usually can respond to any call for help in less than 15 minutes and very often within five minutes.

          When the enemy does attempt an ambush of ground forces, or stage a suprise attack on a fortified village, strike fighters can almost immedietely bring tons of the heviest ordnavce down on the attackers.

          The ability to respond quickly, and massively to any assault has been a key factor in stopping the capture of isolated settlements by guerillas, and in keeping small friendly units from being overrun by larger Vietcong forces.

          Bombing by B-52 bombers, the most massive use of firepower in any guerillq war, has been a key US tactic because it deprives the Vietcong of its mountain and jungle sanctuaries.

          Guerilla armies traditionally have operated from a sanctuary in rough country where safe from attack and  could rest, train new troops, prepare their operations and treat their wounded.

          The B-52 raids have knocked out many of the large tunnel complexes in mountains and junges which served as major Viet Cong and Vietminh bases.

          Air supply also has been important in Vietnam. Daily movement of tons of food, ammunition, and fuel is needed to support helicopter-borne troops, and this supply movement is provided mostly by fixed-wing transports. These military air transports also provide what amounts to a scheduled airline service between the major towns of South Vietnams, carrying both and freight war’s 

(including postal, that is way every Vietnam covers were Airmails-auth) .

          The vital role of airpower is Vietnam is best illustrated by contrasting the US position in the late 1960’s with that of the french in the early 1950’s because  the French army had mobility and firepower as same as the guerilla vietminh, they don’t use aircraft helicopters. (very rare airmail potally covers during Vietminh war 1952-1955 aut)

          Most dramatic and important innovation of the Vietnamese war (Vietcong war-auth.) is the mass employment of helicopterss. For the US and South Vietnamese infantry , is often is called the “helicopter war”, for helicopters carry him into battle, provide part of his fire support, usually allmof his resuplly of ammunition and food, and then vacuare him in case he is wounded or when the operation is over.

          More than ten years (situation in 1968 when the information had written-auth),   were required to bring airmobile, helicopter-army from concept to reality.

          A small group of Army Generals, of which Lt.Gen. Hamilton H.Howze was one of the most persistent, fought for the new idea and by 1956 brought about the formation of experimental helicopter (air-cavalary) units at Fort Benning, Georgia technology strongly to the aid of this new concept in form of the long-range, reliable turbine-powered helicopter which appeared in the early 1960’s

 

 

 

 

_____________________________

b. Diem regime war collections.

_________________________________

 

__________________________________

a.)Diem vs Vietcong in 1957

__________________________________

cathedral saigon in 1957 no maria statue

1) Jan 1957

    

(1)Soviet Union, favoring a permanent division of the country , proposes that North and South Vietnam be admitted to United nations as separate states .(D)

 

(2)The Vietcong (South Vietnamese communist) began to organized at countryside in this year.

 

(3)January.2nd 1957

 The receipt of Car service station “  Nhanh do phu tung Ford-Cholon” 1800$00 and the earliest used the bigger Vietnam Cong-Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 and 0$60.

(The early republic of Vietnam -vietnam Cong Hua Con niem/revenue – was the histroric proof that  the  transition period between the Franch power to  Nationalist power in South Vietnam  had finish and thenationalist characters were begun –auth)

 

2) February 1957

 University Of Saigon 1957

  The University of Saigon 1957

(1)February.16th 1957

The earliest used of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 40 cents, on the receipt of car station”Ford” saigon, paid 147$64, RATE REVENUE 40 CENT.

3)March 1957

(1)March, 11th 1957

 – Procession of elephants in the Trung Sisters’s Parade in Saigon, 1957

The original photo of vietnamese lady  at Long Hai.

(2)March,19th 1957

The rare Etat du Vietnam Quc-Gia Con Niem revenue 30 cents on the receipt of car statin”Ford” Saigon, paid 93$- ,revenue rate 0$20,

(Because the 20 cent revenue didn’t exist because too many used as the  postal ‘s porto ,  prevent against the law,  they used 30 cent.  DUE TO THIS SITUATION, the fiscal authoritiest must issued the emergency overprint 0$20 revenue to prevent the people paid more than the law order, look at another collection with that emergency revenue. -auth)

4) April 1957

 

     (1) April, 27 1957

     The Vo Giay Ban Nha  certificate, with Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes Regional 10$00 revenue, the complete document :

_____________________________________________________

(Chong) Toi ten la’ Do-van –Pho , so’ Kiem tra N.1706.A0053 cap tai Quan sau Ngay 13 thang 7 nam 1955.

 

(Vo) Toi ten la Nguyen le Nguyen-thi-kiem lan the kiem tra so 090069. 20 B .003751 cap tai quan Co Vap ngay 18 tahang 5 nam 1955,

 

        Vu  Chong toi ky ten duoi da’y , dong y’ ba’ng lo’ng

Ba’n cho o’ng Tran van-Rue, so keim tra 1703-31-A006414

Mocan nha so 509.8 duong truong Minh Giang noi dai cat tre dat chua cu Tay. Vo chong toi hien ngu tai so nha 183.A duong Yen-ro. Vo chong toi ky ten duoi day co nhan du so tien cua ong Tran-can-Ruo la’ 19.500$00 (MUOI CHIN NGAN TRAN DONG BAC)  de’ ban mot can nha so’ 309.B. Hai ben vach xay gach  va ngang la 3m/2 Be dai la 8 m thuoc ve quyen so huu cua ong Tran-van-ruo so tra du so tien mua can nha 309.B. cho chung toi roi. Khoi su ngay lam to giay nay. Tran –van-Ruo lam chu thiet tho gian nha noi tren, va pha tra tien dat, cho chu dat tuy theo ngieu 1 t  can nha so 30 ma tu tro di khong con quyen so huu cua chang toi moi.

        Hung toi bang long ban gian nha so 309.B. cho

        Tran van Ruo nan san nay co ad lam  ai tro ngai co o

Tran van Ruo thi chung toi xin chiu hoan toan trach nhie.

 

            Lam tai saigon ngay 29 thang 4 nam 1957               

Ong Do-van-pho                   Ba nguyen thi-kim

 

           Ban nay lap thanh hai ban, ban chanh ong Tran-Ruo giu de lam bang, con ben phu thi ong Do-van-Pho va ba Nguyen-thi –kim-lan giu.

 

                                                        On Tran-van-Ruo

 

Thi nhen chu ky ten tren tuy ta cuc

O’ So Van Pho cap

Nguyen thi Kim Lan

Saigon nge 30 thang 4 nam 1957

Truong Saigon-Cholon

Vuong-quan Nha

Blue double circle stampedVIET-NAM CONG-HOA* DO THAN S.C. TRUONG QUAN-RA*”

_______________________________________________________

 (THE LATEST SAIGON-CHOLON TAX REGIONALES REVENUE-AUTH)

5) May 1957

 

(1)May.7th 1957

 

May 7, 1957 – President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, on a state visit to the United States, views San Francisco from a sighseeing boat passing beneath the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. With him are Lt. Gen. John w. O’Daniel (ret.), left, chairman of the American Friends for Vietnam, and Robert Blum, head of the Asia Foundation.

The receipt from Rayon pieces Detachees (nganh do phu tung) ford Sai Gon ,Car repaired 1978$.

  Very rare revenue “Vietnam overprint   0$20” with 3x 0$40  Vietnam Conghoa CON NIEM (THE EARLIEST USED),red ”PAYE” stamped

 

(2)May.8 th.1957

 

(a)The rare Etat du Viet-Nam Quc Gia Con Niem 2 piastres, on the receipt f car statin service “Ford” saigon for paid 994$00, with ravenue rate 2$00.

(The latest used the old franch currency piastres, and etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia very short time, and change to Vietnam Thue To and then Vieetnam Conghoa-auth)

(b) The Vuon-Gia-Can’s Pilot Identity card, signed at Saigon, in the back authetication violet double circle stamped “VIET-NAM CONG-HOA * DO-THANH S.C. QUAN-BA*”, on Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes regional 10$00 revenue,the complete documen :

_____________________________________

 

ECOLE VUONG-GIA-CAN

 216,Ru Dixmunde-Saigon

     46,Legrand de la Liraye-DAKAO

_____________________________________________________________

 

Certifie l’Authenticitie                  CARTE D’IDENTITE

   de la signature de            le Directeur de L’Ecole VUONG-         PHOTO

Monsieur VUONG-GIA-CAN   GIA-CAN soussigne pertifie

Opposee ci-controle               que le nomme Nguyen tu Sai

Saigon le 21.5.1957                   No M1e 157 ne le 3 Aout 1940

          Stamped                           a’ tan an Vinh Long

Tun Authentic Saigon-Cholon  fils d M,Nguyen van Tri

TRUONG QUAN-BA                     et de Mme Nguyen ngoc Hoa

                                                       Profession  pilote

SIGNED & VIOLET               domicile 30 Bui cheu Saigon  

DOUBLE RING CIRCLE STAMPED est bien eleve du ditetablisment.

“Vietnam Cong Hoa*Do thanh         Saigon, le 8-Mai 1957

S.C. TRUONG QUAN BA*”                           Le Directeur

Signed & Red double circle  stamped

“ VUONG-GIA-CAN * TRUONG –HOC-

TU-THUO* 46 PHAN-THANH-GIAN.

________________________________________________________________

( very rare Pilot ID with the bad official printed revenue,  but because the situation still used .

Later in 1960 the design still used but change from S.C or Saigon-Cholon province to Do-Thanh Saigon ,the new province’s name after assasination Diem.  Taxes regional ,Franch style  was changed to the vietnamese with same meaning   “Niem thue “ .

Due to the bad quality , on the  revenue were surcharged with the year from 1960 -1975 ,except 1963 not yet found-auth) 

(3)May.18th 1957

     Diem arrives in U.S. for ten day visit . President Eisenhower reaffirms support for his regime.(D) and Ngo Dinh Diem waves to New York lunchtime crowd as a parade in his honor proceeds up Broadway. Very few Americans could have then found Vietnam on a map (P)

 

6)June 1957

 

(1)June.7th 1957

     The First Covers of  Stamps” Tem Tho Cau Nguyen “stamps design native army with elephants, CDS Saigon June 7th 1957 found in Indonesia

(After Afro Asia conference in Bandung 1955, many South Vietnam stamps and first day covers send to Indonesia, auth)

 

(2)June,18th 1957

The reciept from Saigon Rayon detachee Ford for car repaired 124$40 with revenue 2x Overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia revenue

 (very rare strip two overprint revenue of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia ,the transition between Bodia to Ngo dien diem authority-auth)

  

(3)June.8th 1957

The Reciept of Service station Vespa-Ford Saigon , 928$00 with added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 3 x 0$60 ,rate 1$80

(The earliest  Diem’s revenue of Vietnam Conghoa or the Republic of Vietnam in trhe South ex Cochin Chine -auth).

 

(4)June.18th 1957

The rare combination revenue Vietnam Thue Con Niem 3$(without 00) with emergency overprint 0$20  Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 80 cent.on the receipt of car Service station “Ford” saigon , paid 1561$00 added revenue 3$20.

 (The Serial Reciept with revenue of the Car service station “Ford” Saigon with various type revenue, were the best collection for show –auth)

 

(5)June.21th 1957

The reciept from Rayon Detachee Ford for repiared car, 2.075$20, revenue etat du vietnam Quoc-Gia overprint 0$20 and 5 x new type brown Viet-nam revenue 80 cent (rate 4$20) .(rare transition revenue, the vietnam revenue used very short times -auth).

 

 

 

 

7) July 1957

 

(1) July.16th 1957

The Reciept of Bo Thanh Saigon ,Ty Tai Chanh vung Saigon for 22$10 for Gia moi thuoc khoi,Tien muon thuy luong ke & Tien tu-bo dan nuoc ,thue truong Ba. With overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia revenue

(rare revenue, I have only three that kind revenue on complete docu-ment,best variation rate, this the best transition  revenue during the earliest of liberation war-Diem era, I hope one day will put on show in USA and Saigon- auth)  

 

(2)July.12th 1957

The Receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon 2108$00 added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 8 x 0$60(rate 4$80) ,

( rare eight revenue, strip of five and three revenue 0$60.-auth)

(3)July.17th.1957

The Receipt of Car service Station Ford Saigon 538$00, added 3 x 0$40 (rate 1$20) bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue.

 

(4)July.12th 1957

The rare combination common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80 with rare emergency overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia con niem revenue 80  cent. On the receipt of car servive station for Saigon  470$00, rate revenue 1$00.-

(rare the Quoc Gia revenue 1$00 that time-auth)

 

(5)July.26th 1957

The very rare combination emergency overprint 0$20 Quoc-Gia Etat du vietnam revenue  with 3 x 0$80  Vietnam thue Con Niem revenue 80 cents (rate 2$60), on the receipt of car repaired station “ford” saigon ,for paid 1.220$20.

(unusual revenue rate and cmbination rare type revenue, best collection for show , the late used of vietnam Thue Con Niem sea-fauna type revenue -auth)

(6)July ,30th 1957

The receipt of car&motorbike  service station Vespa&Ford Saigon , Ringlauer cable complete, 87$00, added very rare emergency revenue “ Overprint Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia con niem black 0$20 on 0$80 this time difficult to found revenue Etat du Vietnam Quc Gia 0$20”

 

 

August 1957

(1)August.27th 1957

The receipt of Car Service of Ngahn du Phu tung Ford Saigon , 2981$00 added Revenue Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00.

 

(The serial reciept with complete nominal value revenue in 1957 until 1959 will showed us the transition period  including the emergencies overprint revenue were best collection to show  look at that varition revenue-auth)

9)September 1957

Colombo plan conference at Saigon

excellence of government officials in France
at that time, can be seen in this picture taken
in 1957 in Saigon, where  the Colombo Plan
Conference negotiations were held.

 
 
Two more nice pictures, from books by French DS specialist Fabien Sabatès.
On the left, “one of the first DS arrived in Saigon, in 1957″, in “La DS, objet de culte”.

On the right, “the first DS in Saigon, Sept. 1957″, in “Le Guide DS19“.

(1)September.20th 1957

The rare combination between common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue 0$40 with rare Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue 2 Piastres , on the receipt or car servive statin “Ford” cholon, 1138$ , revenue rate 2$40.

(still used Piastres revenue-at transition period -auth)

 

(2)September.19th 1957

The unusual nominal value of revenue only  2$ without 00 (the right must 2$00) Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue on the reciept of car station service “Ford” saigon 1012$00, rate revenue 2$00.

(Unusual print without 00 after 2$, only  2$ , the right was 2$00, before another type 3 piastres -auth)

(3)September.26th 1957

The Contant Receipt of Societe Indochinoise De Transport  for car service SIT Saigon &SIT Phon Phenh  “Bobine Lucas 12v-237706” 328$00 with bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80

(The Indochine old form still used-auth)

 

10) October 1957

(1)October 1957

Communist insurgent activity in South Vietnam begins in accordance with decision reched in Hanoi to organized  thirty seven armed companies in Mekong delta.

During the year guerrillas assassinated more than four hundred minor South Vietnamese official.(D)

(2) , The South Vietnam Communist, The Vietcong , began organising  in the countryside, planning the assasination on Diem ‘s village headmen and official,

 

(3) The photo of Diem in the front of Saigon Bishop and another officials, he sat at law chair (TT Diem tam Cao nguyen Trung phan 1957) (P)

11)November 1957


 
 
 
Saigon River enroute Saigon, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Main deck, port side on the Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Roman Catholic cathedral, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Shoppers on a street in Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Shoppers on a street in Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Shoppers in Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
LT John McAuliffe on Rochester, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Fishing boats, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Jungle alongside Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Water ballet at Le Circle Sportif, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Arrival party at dockside, Saigon, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Tug boats and Admiral’s Barge, entering Saigon, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Sailboats on the Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Passing SS President Taylor, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Sailors on deck (note Riddle, C.M.), Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Anchor detail and gawkers, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
LTjg Edmond P. Willis and crew members, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Fountain and vendor stalls, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Presidential Palace, Saigon, with a portrait of Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Water ballet and oglers, Le Circle Sportif, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Water ballet and oglers, Le Circle Sportif, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957

12)December 1957

________________________________

 b)Diem AVRN vs VIETCONG GUERILLA’S in 1958

_____________________________

1) January 1958

 

(1)Diem in 1958

 Diem’s authoritarian rule, his ruthlesness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among pheasant bu among all those groups excluded from power and from a share .

2) February 1958

(1)February,7th 1958

The receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon, 1667$00, added Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 + 0$60.(rate 3$60)

3) -4) 1958

     No info

5) May 1958

(1)May.8th.1958

The receipt of Indochine electric company 61$20 with Vietnam Cong Hoa common bigger type 0$20. the form write in Franch langueges.

6) June 1958

(1)Vietcong form a coordinated command structure in eastren Mekong delta .

7) July 1958

(1)July.31th 1958

The receipt of Car Service station Ford Saigon , 800$00 with Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 2 x 0$80 (rate 1$20)

August 1958

(1)August.15th 1958

The Military certificate, “ Quan-Doi Vietnam Cong Hoa” De Tam Quan-Khu. “CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN-MON SO 1 Bo-Binh” (Quan/Military certificate/Chung Chi), the complete certificate with armed walfare illustrations. :

_____________________________________

Hoi-Dong Giam Khao ky thi man khoa lai T.T.H.L/SDKC 14 ta ngay 23 thang 6 nam 1958 den 28 thang 6 nam 1958  .

          Chung nhan Binh nat TRAN-VAN-KHIET  so quan 400.052

Ta trung tuyen ky thi CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN MON S 1/BO-BINH.

          Voi diem trung binh chung 13,23/20 . thung hang 43/71 .

Chuyen mon   :         Bo-Binh

 

Lam Tai KBC 4.061, ngay 15-8-1958

             Chan cu kao

Thieu-Ta Nguyen –Luong-Khuong

 

KBC 4.098 ngay 25/9/1958

Trung –Ta Bui-Huu-Nhon

Q Tu Linh-Do Tam Quan-khu

                             Signed&stamped.

____________________________________________________________________

(the interesting for South Vietnam military document ‘s showed  with the picture of  green black military action around the certificate, sign at KBC 4061(?) and 4098(?) not list in IMNAHA KBC number please comment the complete area from KBC 4027 – Dalat National Military academy to KBC-4100 Thu Duc infantry school.

This was the trung tham certificate? Change thingking? Because only 12 days training,what kind of training and where the location -auth)

9) September 1958

(1) September.27th 1958

Tet Nhi Dong Saigon (Tet New Year Holiday) covers with the tet Stamps and special first day postal stamped In this day 20 years laters Vietcong suprise  attack (PH)

10)-11) 1958 no info

12) December 1958

(1)  by 1958 almost all the residual insurgent had been wiped out.(P)

 

_____________________________________

c) Diem ARVN vs Vietcong  in 1959

________________________________

SAIGON 1959 Postcard Flower Market Tandinh Street Scene

Vintage Old Multiview Colour Hand Tinted Postcard. French Indo-China Indochina, Vietnam. Souvenir de Saigon. Marche aux fleurs, Marchand ambulant de ballons, Le Marche de Tandinh, Bd Kitchner vers Cauonglanh. Little Boy with Balloons. Native Street Scene. Postally Used with Viet-Nam Cong-Hoa stamp 6d Chinh.Publisher: P-C Paris Cliche des Editions P.C.
Series No: 118
Faults: Minor crease at top & bottom right tip
Sent from: Saigon
Addressed to: Brighton Sussex
Stamp: 6d
Condition: UsedSAIGON 1959 Postcard Flower Market Tandinh Street Scene

:

 
 

1) January 1959

(1) Murderer of Gouvernment official by Vietcong 1200 per years.(D)

(2)Since 1959, the best Vietnam phillatelic collector Nguyen Bao Tung was a member of South Vietnam’s council for planning new stamps design and secretary General of the Vietnamese-American Association Stamp Club in Vietnam

( please Mr Tung or his native Vietnam phillatelic ‘s friend help me with more comment and information-auth)

  

     (3) The original vintage photo Vietnamese army (AVRN) wiyh his sister (4 womens) , in the back of photo written “ Ky niem Hoi con tic 1959 Bihuy.”

2) February 1959

(1)February ,18th 1959

The picture postcard of Nha Trang beach ‘Cha”ng ca’nh , Dai ta’nh” postally used (stamp off) CDS NHA TRA(NG) , 18.(2).1959 TO Cholon.

    _____________________________

Nha Trang 14.2.59      cds Nha trang            

Cordial souvenuer                      18.2.1959

Nuedley vocine                   Nguyen Ba Luon

Pour l’annee                         Profeneur

      Ky’ Hoi                                E’cole Francaise de              

                                                        CHOLON

__________________________________

                 

(2)February .6th 1959

The rare reciept of Police D’Abonnement Au Compteur, appreil instalattion than-chan ,Trinh , money 9114$63, with the rare highest nominal value bigger type green Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 10$00.

(This revenue document very find condition  and very rare the Police ambonnement of Compteur, for high price installation nine thousand $ , and high nominal 10$00 revenue- the show piece collection-auth)

3) March 1959

(1)   March,1st. 1959

     BINH CHUNG  RA-DA.  Don Vi Anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng. Vu Trang Nhan Dan (D)

     (2) March,3rd 1959

The HOC CHI of Truong Trung Hoc Tu Thuc Cong-Hoa, 139 ,Duong Pasteur saigon. DE Tu Nhien Khoa 1958-1959.

Signed by Hieu Truong Phan van Van with rede doublke circle official stamped.,

Autheticated  with  regional Cholon-Saigon taxes regional 10$00 yellow revenue. By T.U.N. Do Truong Saigon,Truong Quan cuan Na with official stamped “ Vietnam Cong-Hua* D0-Thanh S.C. Truong Chan Ba.*”

 

(The lattest used of the regional revenue, after this  regional revenue will ovrprinted with year from 1960 to 1975 except 1963, the best serial regional revenue and best for showed-auth)

 

     (3) March 14th 1959

          The stamps of Trung sister on Elephant were issued in this day, the  6 pi uncommon in mint no hings condition.

(The Vietnam hero’s  Trung sister  very popular but the Lady Trieu didn’t issued because the people hate Madame Ngu because she said  that she was the reincarnation of Lady Trieu and she made the statue which broken out after the Diem regime fall, read the chapter I  Ancient Vietnam War, -auth)

MARCH,17th.1959

THE ID OF WILLIAM COLBY IN VIETNAM

 Saigon, Vietnam; March 17, 1959

4) April 1959 no info

5) May 1959

(1) North Vietnam forms Group 559, to begin infiltrating cadres and weapons into Southy Vietnam via the Saigon Trail.(D)

 

6) no info

7) July 1959

(1) July 1959

Group 759 organized by Vietminh to suplies to the south by sea.(D)

july,7th.1959

 
photo

 

(2)July,12th. 1959

        The Dalat” Chuc Pongouh” water-fall vintage picture postcard send from Dalat in French char. In the back in franch:

___________________________________________

                                                                   Dalat le 12.7.50

Monsieur Triat,

 

Alur tres …ne nouvelle a vous

aunoncre, j’ai trouv …..juine (JUNE) fille pour vous et j.

..re, quu’elte vous flavia.Je vous la prisenter , Ju mon retour.Si Vous e les presse, regadez en attenolant la

photo qua Germaine Vous a envorjee.Je cois qu ‘slle yest de dana (Danang)  .

         

#Bientiet et Bon counage.                   Signed

 

______________________________________________________

(Please somone translate this latter ,thanks,auth)

(3)July,15th. 1959

     To Khai Gia Dinh ‘s Bo Thanh Saigon ‘s document from Canh Sat Cuoc Quan ,Khu 7

signed by Gia-truong dung Khai ,ky ten and Kien-thj , le canh sai truong with red double circle Sat quoc quan with bamboo / flora disign.(OD)

 

(4) July 24th 1959

Ban Xa-Hoi Quan Tan-Binh

AU-TRI-VIEN PHU-NHUAN B.N. 10$

Nha Lanh cua Bo Dinh thi Nam SO BAC LA : Mui dtong bac :

____________________________________

Giup vao Quy Au-Tri Vien phunun.

Tan Binh,26.6.1959

T.U.N BAN CHA’P HANH XA HOI

Chu Tieh signed Nguyen –Thi-Lieng

Red Stamped BAN XA-HOI  Tinh Gia-dinh

Quan Tan-Binh.

______________________________

 (What the meaning : “Au-Tri-vien”? auth)

August 1959

 

   (1) August,1st,1959

   The red “The’  Cu’ Tri (election?) Card” in vietnamese language , 1.8.1959 :

 

 

 

       _____________________________________________

                        THE’ CU’ – TRI

          BAU CU’ QUO’C HO’I NAM 1959

                        No. 0634621 A/IX

 

    Ho’ Te’n   Nguyen Thi Thuan

    Ngay sinh va sinh :  29 tuoi

    Dia-chi  9 –B- Be’n Nguyen Duy

    The’ co’n cuo’c so’  B .003.539 nga’y………ca’p toi…..

    Cha ‘ ky’ cu’a       Zua’n Ta’m     ngay  1 Thang 8 na’m 1959

     Nguo co the                                     Chu’ ky’ va’ da’u cu’n

                                                               Nha chue’ tra’ch ca’p tha’i

 

                                                                        Handsigned

  CHU’ Y’ .Ai du”ng the’ cu-tri cu’a ngu’o’i khac’ hoa’c dua the’ cu’-tri cua

                    Minh cho ke’ kha’c du’ng de’u bi truy-tp’ theo hinh-tua’t.

_________________________________________________________________________  

August,7th.1959

 
photo

9) no info

10) October 1959

(1)Notre Dam Basilica (Saigon)

This church up to the Basilica in 1959 during 300 years Saigon Bishop (D- in the front of Basilica no Marie Madona statue) and private photo of the Basilica (OP- i964, there were Madona-Marie statue, may be made after Diem assasination)

When my visit in 2007, in the front of this Basilica I saw the Madonna statue  and  I have prayed at the front of that statue : “Please help me to get the best vietnam war postal history” and when I turned to the right I saw the small native stamps shops where some Vietcong postal history were found-there, difficult to seek the stamps shop in saigon because everybody did.t understand where the antique or phillatelic shop, you must told them Buu chin shop, also the Stamp catalogues.

In my last visit july 2009, I have went  by foot, walking from Phi Vu Hotel Nguyen Trai street , through the street in the front of the Hotel two block –to the right I came to the Back of the Market at front of Saigon Bus station, the to the right two block came to Ho Chi Minh City Museum where show the Vietnam War weapon, helicopter, jet and tank, granat,gun, archive ,photo and document of Vietnam Liberation war including Vietcong collections, but not the revenue and pstal history, also traditional wedding ceremony, and the Vietnam cultural ethnic collection and Saigon history, then   turn to the right found Pasteur street(Duong),

More two block turn left I have seen the Basilica, seen inside , many brides have made the antique photo, a Chinese Oldman help me to take photo of myself , in the front Mary statue at the front of Basilica,  

At left side of the basilica,  I met The Antique Saigon post office where I made two CTO cover, one for my friend Adi Darma with the 2006 sheet stamps chinese shio, and for my collection Ho Chi Minh stamps block four, but very pity I cann’t find the Stamp shop anymore after asking many persons because I still have the name card, after that by bus I go to Saigon bus station and met my friend in the front of that bus station and her husband bring me to her house at Chilon by motorbike, where I found complete revenue , postal and document history’s collections to add what I have found yesterday -auth)  

 

11) November 1959

 

(1) November,28th 1959

The  official first day postcard of first anniversary Republic du Tchad ,first day CDS “Premier Emission”, and the picture of flag blue-white-red, very pity the stamp was taken off.

 This unused postcard issue by “ Aevres sciales, office Equatorial des Postes et Telecommunication. (please told me what kind of stamps, vietnam or Franch stamps? –auth)

(2)Ecole Lamartine L.M.C. Billet D’Inscription Card.

 Aunee Seolaire 1959-1960.

Nom  : Vo Thi Thao

Classe:  10 eiue A

Venant de 11.

12)December 1959

    

(1)Soon after consolidating its power in saigon, the diem regime embarked on a massive campaign to liquidate in South Vietnam.

Many were imprisoned in reeducation Camp “TRUONG TAM “ or Center to Change thought.

(IMNAHA report postally used cover from Truong Tam, look at July,10th 1967-auth)

(3)    December,12th 1959

The traffic accident of two car  NCC 578 and NBO 096  report with the road map of accident’s situation, for repaired.

(If someone will translate the document, the complete document will showed in the blog, very rare accident that time  because not many cars in Saigon-auth)

______________________________

The Diem South Vietnam war 1960-1961

 

 

 
photo

saigon 1960′

Vietnam War (contd-5)

 

 

 

Insurgency in the South, 1956-1960

 

 

The Sino-Soviet split led to a reduction in the influence of the PRC, which had insisted in 1954 that the Viet Minh should accept a division of the country.

 

 

 

Truong Chinh, North Vietnam’s pro-PRC party first secretary, was demoted and Hanoi authorised communists in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency in Dec 1956. This insurgency in the south had begun in response to Diem’s Denunciation of Communists campaign, in which thousands of local Viet Minh cadres and supporters had been executed or sent to concentration camps, and was in violation of the Northern Communist party line which had instructed them not to start an insurrection,  but rather engage in a political campaign, agitating for a free all-Vietnam election in accordance with the Geneva accord.

Ho Chi Minh advised, “Do not engage in military  operations, that will lead to defeat. Do not take land from the peasant. Emphasize nationalism rather than communism. Do not antagonise any one if you can avoid it  Be selective in your violence . If an assassination is necessary, use a knife, not a rifle or a grenede. It is easy to kill innocents with guns and bombs, and accidental killing of the of the innocent bystanders will allienate peasants from the revolution. Once an assassination has taken place, make sure peasants know why the killing occurred “. This strategy was referred to as “armed propaganda”.     

1960

October 1960

 

October 28, 1960 – The fifth anniversary of the Republic of South Vietnam is celebrated with a military parade on Thong Nhut Boulevard in Saigon.

 

June 1961 – South Vietnamese militiamen, automatic weapons in hand, stand guard in My Quai, a village about 75 miles southwest of Saigon in an area threatened by guerilla forces.

 

February 26, 1962 – The palace in Saigon is hit by an isolated attack by two members of the South Vietnamese air force. President Ngo Dinh Diem was unhurt.

 

October 1962 – U.S. advisor trains Vietnamese troops in the use of a flame thrower.1961

Tu Do Nightclub – Vũ trường Tự Do, góc Tự Do – Thái Lập Thành
www.flickr.com/photos/13476480@N07/5203227465/in/set-7215…

  • banner appealing the whole people to vote in the Presidential Election – “Tòan dân tham gia bầu cử Tổng Thống – Đi đông hào hứng, bầu đúng cử xứng”
photo

Saigon 1961 – Tu Do Street

Lính gác trên đường Tự Do gần phía trước trụ sở Quốc Hội vào dịp bầu cử Tổng Thống 1961 – Soldiers on guard duty on Tu Do street near the National Assembly building during the 1961 Presidential Election in South Vietnam.

 
photo

Saigon 1961 – General Le Van Ty

Đại tướng Lê Văn Tỵ, Tổng Tham Mưu trưởng Quân đội VNCH

 

 

  1. .Trung tướng Lê Văn Tỵ, giữ chức vụ Tổng Tham mưu trưởng Quân lực Việt Nam Cộng Hòa từ tháng 10 năm 1955 đến tháng 7 năm 1963.

    5-1955 Indo Chinese General Le Van Ty smiling after the arrest of a traitor.

    May 1955 – General Nguyen Van Vy being held at gun point by politician Nhị Lang after the latter attempted to take over the army:

1962

 

47 people were killed at Saigon, in 1962

November 1962

.

a. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

December’

 

Similar greetings were sent in 1962 from ARVN Brigadier General Van Thanh Cao and his wife to Major Giertsen of the Strategic Hamlets Division. The card was sent postage free via APO 143.

 

 

f). The  crisis escalation 1963 

(Monk burn himself , Student protest and Diem assasination )

________________________________

1) January 1963

(1)Vietcong units defeat South Vietnamese at the battle of Ap Bac .(D)

 

2) February no info

 

3) March 1963

 

     (1) March, 6th.1963

     The very rare Do Than Saigon THE’ CU’-TRI  (election?) card  with  stamped red squared box D.V.16 – cross and  D.V. 19.  signed by Cap tai Saigon , print 16.9.1964 , change with red ink written 6.3.1963. signe by Quan-Truang Quan 8 , Cao Ming Chung with red double circle official stamped of TOA KAHN CHAN QUAN THAY-VIETNAM CONG HUA  D0-THAN SAIGON.

( Why the date of the’ cu’ Tri change from 1964 to 1963, may be the worst situation in 1963 and what the meaning of Stamped D.V. 16 and 19. may be military  areal code,please comment-auth)

 

 

                        VIET NAM CONG HOA

                             DO THENH SAIGON

                                                                                                  __________

                                         THE CU – TRI           : D.V. 19 :

                       So 0735593                             

          Ho te’n       LAM VAN HUE’

       Ngay va noi sinh  1928 Cho Lon

          Nai cu-tri  9 B Nguyen deuy R 11 ky 14

          The’ ca’n cua’c so”   050977    cap tai quan    ngai 1960

 

          Chu ky cua cu-tri     Cap tai Saigon ngay 6 thanh 3 nam 1963  

                                    Quan-Truong Quo’n    8

 

                                                                             CHAU MINH CHUNG

 

                             Chu Y” : 1. The nay duoc cap hoan Toan mien phi

                                                        2. Xin gia the de Quan Trong cac quoc

                                                             Bau cu khac.

                                                        3.Ai dung cu tri cua nguot khac hooc

                                                            Dua the cu-tri cua minh cho ngua khac

                                                            Cung co bi truy to theobhinh tuoi.

             

 

4) no info

 

5) May 1963

 

(1)  May,8th.1963

South Vietnamese troops and police shoot at Buddhist demonstrators in Hue. (D)

6) June 1963

(1)Crisis intensifies as Buddhist monk commits suicide by self –immolation.

A Budihst monk burns himself to death in Saigon in this day ,as a protest against the South Vietnamese governnment ‘s mistreatment of Budhist.

 This suicide , the first of several by Budhist militans as Tri Quang, after that  a Buddhists Monk displayed pheno-menal skill in Mobilizationn south Vietnam ‘s Buddhist to protest against the Diem regime.

 He and  other monks stage a sit down strike on a street in Saigon , then sparked widespread demonstrations against the Govern-ment. Two kind of photo’s angle self immolations, first form the left side and second from the right , also the photo of  Tri Quang sitdown strike  (D & P)

 

7) July 1963

 

(1)  July,1st.1963

 

July 1, 1963 – South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem reviews honor troops in Saigon, marking his first appearance in public since the crisis between Diem, a Roman Catholic, and the Buddhists.(2)July,4th. 1963

      CIA agent, informs from South Vietnam General Tran Van Don, officers are plotting against Diem.(D)

     (2) July,7th 1963

     The Vietnamese Emblem and armor defend stamps issued in this day.

 

(3) August 1963

 

(a)August 1963 – Policeman breaks up an advertisement for a beauty parlor because it violates laws for a ‘healthier society.’ Fancy hairdos and seductive smiles were outlawed in ads and other public displays.

 (b)August 5, 1963 – A severely wounded South Vietnamese soldier is comforted in a sugarcane field near Duc Hoa, 12 miles west of Saigon after a Viet Cong ambush. The one-day operation involved about 3,000 troops in tanks, armored river craft, and on foot..

    

(c) Vietnam Special force cordon off the Saigon Market because of student demonstration (P)

(d)Dean of the school of Science and Paedagogy at the center trying to calm student holding a protest demonstration against the repressive measures of the Diem government (photo)

         

(e)Students at the School of Sciences and Paedagogy holding a protest demonstration against the Diem goverment(photo)

                  

(f) Tam Pham Bieu , Dean of the school of Medicine at the University of Saigon, speaking to Students after his arrest by the Diem Government.(photo)

                   

(g) Military Governor of Saigon-Cholon (Gia Dinh) province holding a press conference at the city hall to defend the Diem government’s position during the period of martial law two. Look at the Governor’s photo (D&P)

                  

(h) Anti-Diem goverment demonstration by the student at the University of Saigon School of Sciences and Paedagogy(P)

                  

(i) Demonstration by high school students against Diem Goverment at the Saigon city street (Truong vo Truong Toan, canh ben Truong Trung Vuong, gan so Thu Saigon-P)

(j)August 9th 1963     

(a1)US secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara visit Saigon , look the photo , he sat behind ARVN Brig.General Do Cao Tri (photo)

         

(b1)General Maxwell D.Taylor also visit South Vietnam and he had made a tour of Inspection with ARVN General Van Minh Duoang, look at his photo when gave military salute (photo)

                   

(c1)The photo of the South Vietnam presidential family , their put the native traditional gown , at left Diem (P)

 

(d1) Madame Dinh Nhu Ngo , ex first lady during Diem regime, waving from the stairs of an airoplane  to went abroad before His husband and her brother in law Ngo Dinh Diem assasination.(photo)

 

(e1) During the period of martial law, Military Governor Ge. Ton That Dinh and General Nguyen van La holding a confrence to defend the Diem Goverment’s position, look at their Photo (D&P)

 

(f1) In this day, Phu Lam SG Budhist monk arrested by Diem regime, being held in guarded compound at Phu Lam (Photo)

 

(g1) The Photo of Rome Italy- Arch-bishop Ngo Dinh Thuc , was taken in this day (P)

 

(h1)The photo of official meeting in Saigon this day, ARVN General Nguyen Dinh Thuan defend the Diem position to the US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge jr and US secretary of defense  Robert S. McNamara.(P)

         

(i1)  Unidentificated Dean of the School of Sciences and paedagogy attempting to persuaden the security Police of The Diem government no to arrest the student demonstrator (P), but The Student still being taken away in trucks by them(P)

(3)  August,21th 1963

     Ngo Dinh Nu’s forces attack Buddhist temples.(D)

(4) August,22th 1963

Washington recommends tha Nhu be removed; also suggest American support for mutinous generals against Diem.(D)

 

9) September 1963

 

(1) September,2nd 1963

     Kennedy criticized Diem in a television interview.(D)

         

(2) Pres.Ngo Dinh Diem’s brother Ngho Ding Nhu and his younger son  with his wife went to europe by aeroplane (Photo at airport)

         

(3) Us Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge yunior meeting with President of southnVietnam Ngo Dinh Diem (P)

And he talking with Mr Ngo Dinh Nhu at a diplomatic reception (P), he also talking with acting Foreign Minister Truong Cong Cuu at a diplomatic reception.

         

(4) Us Ambassador H.C.Lodge Jr shaking hands with US Army services on the Saigon city street(P) and he with his wife  leaving St Christopher’s Anglican Episcopal congregation Church after services on Sunday.(P)

 

(5)  The formation of the 11th Air Assault Division.  After  the one year prepared concept tested in two month s of continous maneuver against the 82nd Airborne Division.

 The outcome was strongly vin favor of the helicopter-borne forces and the 82nd was defeated as sound-ly as any division ever was its peace-time maneuvers.(D)

 

 

 

          (6) President Diem talking with a delegation of Budhist monks from the Union Committee for the Defense of Pure Buddhism at Gia Long.(P)

 

          (7) Nhu holding press confrence (P)

 

          (8) Police participating in a Diem government sponsored demonstration (P)

         

(9) Police holding back a crows at the An Quang Pagoda as the Buddhist monk are taken away again by the Diem government(P)

 

          (10) Police hauling away high school student who were demon-strating against the Diem goverment (P)

 

          (11)Pictures of the Buddhist monks who burned themselves to death  prior to the anti-Diem Government revolution in the xa-Loi pagoda (P)

         

(12) Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Saigon being welcomed back by medical student after his arrest by the Diem government (P)

         

(13) Combat Policemen going to student demonstration (P)

         

(14) Buddhist monk tidying up the vestry rooms in the Xa Loi pagoda at its official reopening by permission of the Diem government(P)

 

          (15) September,13th 1963

The photo at Belgrade,Yugoslavia, where Kennedy,s meet Mrs Nhu, accompanied by  Senator Edward(P)

And Senator Edward M.kennedy tals with Mrs Nhu(P)

 

 

 

10) October 1963

(1)October ,10th 1963

Infantrymen move toward the woodline after being airlifted to a landing zone in Xa Ba Phuic during a search and destroy mission (P)

(2)October 1963, 16.000 US troops  sent more to South Vietnam . The Geneva agreement were dead, as the US responded military to increasing Vietcong activity.(D)

     (3) October,16th.1963

 

October 16, 1963 – Armed South Vietnamese marines march past Saigon’s Xa Loi Pagoda, once headquarters of the Buddhist opposition, as the participate in National Day Thanksgiving Service

(4)October,21th 1963

     Mrs Nhu in Whasington DC ( Ba Ngo Dinh Nhu trong buei hop bao tai Washington DC, Hoa Ky)

11) November 1963

(1)November 1st 1963

(a)A photo of Vietcong army(?) in this day, Cac binh si tham gia cuoc dao chanh (please someone translate to find more information-auth)

         

(b)The Photo of Dinh Gia Long (office) , noi TT Ngo Dinh Diem va ong (overthrew ?)

 

(c)in this day, at The photo we saw the  wrecked Presidential Palaced, gutted & ransacked after military coup that overthrew Diem Goverment(P)

  

(d) Mayor General Van Don Tran with other officers and troops celebreting overthrown in this day(P)

         

(e) General Van Minh Duong leader of military coup that overthrew Diem regime , in this day made a press conference (P)

         

(f) The photo of Monks meeting with Military coup after overthrew Diem Regime (P)

         

(g) In this day , Vietnamese dancing again at night club (after forbidden during the Diem regime ) aftrer overthrew of Diem Regime (P)

__________________________________________

(2) November,2nd. 1963

Diem’s regime became increasingly corrupt and authoritarian until Nov. 2, 1963, when he was assassinated in a coup. He was succeeded by General Duong Van Minh, who orchestrated the coup d’etat

( The Diem and Nhu assasination’s day)

____________________________________

(a)Arrest and Assassination of Diem and Nhu.(source:Wikipedia)

Marked the culmination of a successful CIA-backed coup d’etat led by General  Duong Van Minh in november 1963.

On the morning , November,2nd 1963 , Diem and his adviser, young brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, were arrested after the Army of The Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) had been successful in bloody overnight siege on Gia Long Palace in Saigon.

The coup was the culmination of nine years of autocratic and nepotistic family rule in South Vietnam Dis-comfort with the Diem regime had been simmering below the surface, and exploded  with mass Buddhist protest against long standing religious dicrimination after the government shooting of protesters who defed a ban on the flying of the Budhist flag.

When rebel forces entered the palace, the Ngo brothers were not present, as they escaped the night to the loyalist shelter in Cholon.

 

The brothers had kept in communication with the rebels through a direct link from the shelter to the palace, and misled them into believing that they were still in the palace.

The Ngo brothers agreed to surrender and were promised safe exile, after being arrest,  they were instead    executed in the back of an armoured personnel carrier by ARVN officers on the journy back  to military headquaters at Son Nhut Air Base.

While no formal inquiry was conducted, the responbility for the death of the Ngo brothers in the trip. Minh’s  bodygueard, Captain  Nguyen van Nhung, and on Major Duong Hieu Ngia, both of whom guarded the brothers during the trip.

Minh’s army colleagues and US official in Saigon agreed that Minh ordered the executions.

They postulated various motives, including that the brothers embar-rassed Minh by fleeing the Prseidential Palace, and that the brothers were killed to prevent a later political came back.

 The general initially attempted to cover up the execution by suggesting that the brothers had committed suicide, but this was contradicted when photos of the Ngo’bloofied bodies surfaced in the media.

 

(b) The street of Saigon were littered when opponent of Diem broke into the office of a newspaper sympathetic to the Government Diem’s overthrow was greeted with jubilation by the Saigon populace which had hated his harsh rule(P)

 

(c) In the morning of this day, a mutinous South Vietnamese soldier inside  the presidential palace , after Diem and Nhu had fled to a hiding place on the Saigon suburbs (P)

 

(d) The bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel carrier, in which they were murdered by two insurgent officer after their captutre on this day. They had surrendered, hoping to be permitted to leave the country (P)

 

(e) The book’s illustration of the bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel courier , in which they were mudered by two insurgent officers after their capture on November 2 1963 ,They had surrendered hoping to be permitted to leave the country (ibid S.Karnow)

 

(f)Nguyen Bao Tung best phillatelic collections aslo contain the stamps of the Founder of the Republic of Vietnam who was assasinated after The military coup on November.1st 1963., the collections bore the signatures of the president Diem and official seals

( very rare collections with original signature and official seals because no one keep the Diem official cover after he was assasinations, please comment –auth)

 

(3)November,22th 1963

(a)Three weeks after Diem’s death  J.F.Kannedy assasination in Dallas, succeeded by Lyndon Johnson.

The death of Kennedy and Diem led to a new phase  in the American involvement in Vietnam (D)   

 

(b)Henry Cabot Lodge, American ambassador to Saigon, with President Diem. Lodge had little patience for Diem, whom he felt was hindering the American effort on help South Vietnam fight the Vietcong (P)

 

(c) An American adviser, leads South Vietnamese troops into action in thge Mekong delta in 1963. America adviser then in Vietnam were suppos-ed to avoid combat, but many parti-cipated in battle neverless(P

 

12)December 1963

 

(1) December,15th 1963

     The Thanh-Minh-Tu, AP PHU HAI, XA PHANRI-CUA “THIEP MOI” invitation(?) letter from Phu-Hot to Kinh Goi Ong Bu “ Quan-Truong Quan(Military) Hoa –Da

__________________________________________

“Trong 9 nam chien tranh tan khuc.Tan-Minh-Tu Phu-Hai pai bj canh tieu tan sup do, mai den nay m duoc co-duyen xay dung hoan thanh, do cung nhoi au giup do cua Chinh-quyen, nho su giup do cua cac nha hao tam ung-ho va duc tin tuong manh liet cua toan dan trong Ap, gop lan cua moi lap nen.

Le Khan thanh se cu hanh trong 3 ngay 12,13, va  14 thang 11 quy –Mao  tuc ngay 27,28,29,29-12-1963 the chuong trinh vach dinh ben canh.

….etc………………………………………….

                                    Tron trong kinh moi

                                    T.M. Ban To-chuc

                                                Truong-Ban

                                                Tran-Van-Ne (OD)

 

(Please native Vietnamese collectors will helping me to translate this  very rare document and also the below document , because the information from this document very useable for postal history colecter and Vietnamese historian-auth)

 

 

(2)December,12th 1963

The very rare official letter send by  Cuorier from Ngoc Bang Saigon double red circle stamped on Covers sending by Courier to Ong Ba,Trung Uy’ Quan Trung. He oa-Da.

        Inside Doan Ca-Kich Ngoc Bang Saigon,Chiep Moi Card used for writting the latter :

 

____________________________________________

     26-12-63

      Kouh Anh!

Doan cua chung toi rui qua din dia phung nay theit bai luon 3 hon’i khy dhuong xoay tu’.

            Itiui guo nay ca 50 doan vien Chua Co buoi au son nai.

            King thi vi hoan caung dien diug cua gauf ceuy dau hiem 3 ngay ray Rly ngoi dan duoa.

            Vay: Vo choy toi nho eum dui thua vio auh nho anth tieui.

            Pheuing hui gi’up do doang ti guing say duo ngay Tet.

            Hoay Rinz. (PH)

 

(Please native Vietnam to help me for translate this interesting informations from this letter, why this cover din’t send by Postal , may be no postal services by the worst situation , if someone have the postal histori covers in 1963 please comment and sho us that rare collection-auth)

 

(2)The meeting between General AVRN Van Minh Duong with American Ambassador Henry Cabot Jr and Robet McNamara,(P),

__________________________________

4.3.3. AVRN  War in 1964-1967

__________________________________

a. AVRN vs Vietcong war 1964

______________________________

General Cao headed up ‘Operation Sunrise’ that oversaw the creation of three strategic hamlets in Binh Duong Province earlier that year. Ultimately, around 14,000 such hamlets were created throughout South Vietnam and populated with forcibly relocated peasants before the program was dismantled in early 1964

1)January 1964

(1)January,30th. 1964

General Nguyen Khan seizes power in Saigon , arrest four ruling generals but allow Minh to remain as figure head chief of State.(D)

(2) In the year after 1963 , Nguyen van Thieu steadily in importance he became the deputy premier and minister of defense.

 

2)February 1964

Not yet info

3) March 1964

(1)US Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara visit Vietnam , vow support for Khanh.(D)

 

(2) March,20th 1964

The chinese written postally cover from Saigon-Vietnam 20.3.1964 to Saigon-Cholon  Viet-Nam 21.3.1964, with  1d justice emblem and 2d Unesco stamps (rate 3 d) .

( Cholon was the chinese overseas area over the Mekong river in Saigon where I found this posta history , the address in chinese traslate means…….. :……………..auth)

4) April and 5) May 1964 noinfo

 

6) June 1964

 

 

 

(1)June , 2nd . 1964

Pantagon Strategist refine plans for bombing North Vietnam.

(2)Johnson anticipate a large scale US effort:

       (a)The Tonkin Resolution was simply intended to give him the discretion to punish the North Vietnamese, but it was  noneless regarded  as essential to bring stability to an independent

(b) Non-communist  South-Vietnam in order to counter Khruschev’s claim to have the right to support “ war of National Liberation”(D)

7)July 1964, no info

 

August 1964

Wreckage from a Viet Cong Bombing in Saigon, Vietnam (1964)
Wreckage from Viet Cong bombing in Saigon (1964)Bombing in Saigon, Vietnam by Viet Cong

1964 was a key year in the Vietnam War. In August, the United States alleged that one of its ships had been fired on in the Gulf of Tonkin. Although this was not true, it provided the Congress the pretext it needed to authorize full-scale military operations in Southeast Asia.

(1)Vietnam was still seen  by the public as no more than a miror problem : The Us would need only to flex her muscles for the communists to back down.(D)

       

(2)Covert South Vietnamese Maritime operations begin against North Vietnam.(D)

        (3) North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the MADDOX , an US destroyer in Tongkin Gulf, August 2(D).

       

(4) A doubtful second incident report two days later(D)

(5) US aircraft bomb North Vietnam for the first time in this month.(D)

     (6) August, 21st , 1964

      The rare postal history of US’s Kennedy prestamped 11c airmail letter sheet       send from native vietnamese at California CDS “SAN LUIS OBISPRO 1934004, Aug 21 1967” to South Vietnam CDS “Saigon-Vietnam 26-8 1967”

The handwitten latter in vietnamese language:

 

Cal Poly-San Luis Obispro                         Chu nhat 20.8.1967

 

                             Hong mien

          Lan qua khong dube bien y ma Hong, anh ut truong La Hong da quan anh, khong con nho gi dten thang anh xa xoi may nua the roi dong hu do anh nhen duoc the Hong vo nhat la khan quan co do think tay Hong sung tai, va anh thay minh co loi doi nghi oan cho hong, hong chonanh xia nha. Tu nay anh khong dan nghi tam bay tam ba nhu vay  noi dan nhung anh anh hong ung dung bo be anh nuy , moi lan duoi thu van biet chat itoi gia ma viet cho anh doi dong de goi la chanh qua soy am tam long doi coi nay. Anh thang thue cau du truong ve qua tang ma hong, anh vat sung luong va cam doi thay tu nua lanh de anh quang khan cua hong.

Mau ve  kiem day lain anh thich thu nhat day, hop y ve dung la nhy diem anh nhuoc tu lan. Honh khan that, anh ky biet noi sao cho bet sui  biet an cua voi hong duoc, anh nung khong biet hong nuon gi e anh co gi anh ve tang hong theu y hong, thu san hong biet nho, hong muon gi anh nung chra y ca muon la……..etc….

          Hong lua nay ra Sao! Anh rat nay tu Hong, anh khy quan duoc nhy ky vien va thy luong ve Hay chue Hong voi ve, manh an duong man.

                                                                             Signed Hien

______________________________________________________________

( This collection very interesting, because not many communication between Vietnamese who study in California to his friend (Girl?) and writting information and comment about his own country, we will understood about the vietnam information in US –please someone wil kind to translate-auth)

9) September 1964

(1)September,7th 1964

     The South Vietnam first day covers-Premier Jour D’Emmision of Bai Bien (Plaque De) “Ha Tien” stamps, firstday special stamped  Tem Tho “Ba Bien Ha Tien.Saigon , Ngay Bau-Rien 7-9-64. (PH)

10) October 1964

 

(1)October,30th. 1964

     Vietcong attack  Bienhoa air base, but Johnson rejects proposal for   retaliatory raids against North Vietnam .(D)

11) November 1964

(1)Lyndon Johnson defeats Barry Goldwater for the presidency ,November 3(D).

 

(2) Saigon convulsed by Rioters protest Khanh’s rule  and Taylor now ambassador , urges Khanh to leave the country.(D)

12)December 1964

 By the end of 1964, the number of US troops in Vietnam shot up from about 2,000 military advisers to more than 16,500.

(1)  December,24th. 1964

     Vietcong terrorist bomb American military billet in Saigon, but Johnson again rejects proposal for raids against North Vietnam.(D)

(2) December.20th 1964

Bien Lai Khai Sanh- Bo Thanh saigon certificate-without photo(?) ,sign and stamped by Quan-Truong ,vietnam Cong Hoa NAM –PHAN, for Tian boi Phan ,tai quan 4 Saigon durong (street) 9 Le Chach, con (Children) cua :Tian hoc Diec,va cua Ly tu Ky (father & Mother?) 

Trước 1975 là PX của Mỹ, hiện nay là KS Hoàng Đế

PX Mỹ tại số 117 Phan Đình Phùng (nay là Nguyễn Đình Chiểu) Q.3 Sài Gòn
VPA (SRVN)





















ARVN (RVN)











VNAF (RVN)











Sources:

http://forum.axishistory.com/
http://vnaf.net/
http://community.webshots.com/user/hoapham
http://www.vnafmamn.com/

Some of the SU27 pics were borrowed from Carambol. Thank you.

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN SUWANDY 2011

The Old Fashion In 19th Century

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

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  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

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    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

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Driwancybermuseum Blog

THE OLD FASHION IN 19thCENTURY

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THE OLD FASHION IN 19thCENTURY

euro-westren fashion

 

and

 ... afflicted from year to year 12 the cut of a admirer s covering and

Updated: The Easter Parade, alive on the Web from NYC, tiny – Projo …

Updated: The Easter Parade, alive on the Web from NYC, tiny - Projo ...

Christmas and New Year’s Party Appearance 1878-9

Christmas and New Year’s Party Appearance 1878-9

… fashion. The engageantes and stomacher

 ... fashion. The engageantes  and stomacher

Real Dress, c. 1800

Real Dress, c. 1800

Real Dress, c. 1800

Real Dress, c. 1800

… in the 1700&apos;s & 1800&apos;s – National Architecture & Design | Examiner.com

 ... in the 1700&apos;s & 1800&apos;s - National Architecture & Design | Examiner.com

fashion in 1700 1800 001 Appearance in 1700 1800 wallpapers Vinodam …

fashion in 1700 1800 001 Appearance in 1700 1800 wallpapers Vinodam ...

File:1794-1887-Fashion-overview-Alfred-Roller.GIF – Wikimedia Commons

File:1794-1887-Fashion-overview-Alfred-Roller.GIF - Wikimedia Commons

Colouring in Pictures of Late C18 th Children&apos;s Fashions 1775 to 1800

Colouring in Pictures of Late C18 th Children&apos;s Fashions 1775 to 1800

Fashion of the 1800&apos;s | LoveToKnow

Fashion of the 1800&apos;s | LoveToKnow

paris fashions for october 1864

paris fashions for october 1864

Kathy Decker’s Regency Style, year by year

Kathy Decker’s Regency Style, year by year

Mens&apos;Fashion Plates 1800-1900 – Part 13

Mens&apos;Fashion Plates 1800-1900 - Part 13

Dress 1800&apos;s

Dress 1800&apos;s

The accepted trends that are in and appearance forecasts for the New Year …

The accepted trends that are in and appearance forecasts for the New Year ...

avant-garde beheld and actual culture, will analyze how and why appearance

ABORIGIN FASHION 19TH CENTURY

 ... aboriginal photographs of men history of mens appearance affiche boys 1830s 1

afflicted from year to year 12 the cut of a admirer s covering

File:Cicatrices de flagellation sur un esclave.jpg

ASIA FASHION 19th CENTURY

 

 

The Driwancybermuseum ‘s Chritsmas And New Year ExhibitIon

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

Welocome to

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(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

The Old Christmas And New Year Collections Exhibition

Dr Iwan suwandy and staf wishing You A Merry Cristmas 2011 and A Happy New Year 2012,specila for Old Pictures Colletors  from all Over The wolrd,special for you Driwancybermuseum blog making a amizing exhibition:

THE OLD CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEaR COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION.

I hope all of the collectoras will enjoy to look this exhibition.

Sincerely

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Christmas Card

Christmas Card Example

Christmas Cards—A Brief History

Christmas cards were partly inspired by Valentine’s Day cards and New Year’s cards, the oldest surviving of which was printed in 1466. Home-made cards were fashioned by children even during the reign of Queen Anne, but the popularized Christmas card as we know it wasn’t invented until the mid 1800s.

A Replica of a William Egley Christmas Card

A Replica of the
Egley Christmas Card

Who Created the First Christmas Card?

The First Egley Christmas Card

There is some debate over who was the “inventor” of the Christmas card. The oldest Christmas card created for general distribution probably was created by William Egley Jr.; a 16 year-old British youth. His 3 1/2-inch- by 5 1/2-inch, preserved in the British Museum, depicts four holiday scenes and a “Merry Christmas and Happy New Year” greeting with blanks after the word “To” on the top and “From” at the bottom. Industrious kid! The date on his card is clearly 1842… or 1849. The last figure is obscure, so it’s difficult to say who was first.

In the year 1843, Sir Henry Cole commissioned John Calcott Horsley to paint a card showing the feeding and clothing of the poor. A center panel displayed a happy family embracing one another, sipping wine and enjoying the festivities. (So much for good intentions. The card drew criticism because showing a child enjoying a sip of wine was considered “fostering the moral corruption of children.”) “A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You” was printed on that first Christmas card. Legend says Sir Henry Cole didn’t send any Christmas cards the following year, but the custom became popular anyway.

The First Horsely Christmas Card

A Replica of the first Christmas Card-- an original John Calcott Horsely

A Replica of the First Horsely Christmas Card

Others say the date of this story was in 1847. They agree that the first Christmas card was produced by Sir Henry Cole who worked for the British Postal Service, and an artist he hired named John Horsley. Cole was too busy to write his own greetings, so he hired Horsley to design a card for him. One thousand of these cards were printed and could be mailed for a penny a piece.

The criticism it drew may have contributed to its popularity. By the Christmas season of 1847, a number of people were giving out Christmas cards of their own. Had it not been for the controversy over Horsley’s card, many of these new card givers may never have considered it.

The “Fad” of the Christmas Card

The early Christmas card manufacturers believed Christmas cards to be a fad that would soon pass. They did not bother to document the cards they produced. However, the Christmas card was destined to become an integral part of the holiday season. By 1880 their manufacture was big business, creating previously unknown opportunities for artists, writers, printers, and engravers.

Three Factors that Contributed to the Success of the Christmas Card.

  1. U.S. postal changes spurred sales of Christmas cards. Until 1855, senders had the option of requiring the recipients to pay the postage on cards and letters, and most did. Also, except in a few of the larger cities, the recipient was required to go to the post office to pick up his or her mail. But in 1855, it became compulsory for the sender to pay the postage. In 1858, collection boxes began appearing in larger cities; therefore, the sender didn’t have to go to the post office, and by 1890 most of the post offices had free city delivery. At the start of the 20th century, the post office began free rural delivery. All these items helped speed the growth in Christmas cards.
  2. The invention of the steam press in the early 1800s made it less expensive to have cards printed.
  3. The design and features of the Christmas cards. Holiday cards designed by Kate Greenaway, the Victorian children’s writer and illustrator, and Frances Brundage and Ellen H. Clapsaddle, were favorites in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. Most were elaborate, decorated with fringe, silk and satin. Some were shaped liked fans and crescents; others were cut into the shapes of bells, birds, candles and even plum puddings. Some folded like maps or fitted together as puzzles; other squealed or squeaked. Pop-up Cards reveled tiny mangers or skaters with flying scarves gliding around a mirrored pond.

Christmas Cards in the United States

For more than 30 years, Americans had to import greeting cards from England.

A Replica of a Louis Prang Christmas Card

A Replica of a Louis Prang Christmas Card

The Louis Prang Christmas Card

In 1875, Louis Prang, a German immigrant to the U.S., opened a lithographic shop with $250 and published the first line of U.S. Christmas cards. His initial creations featured flowers and birds, unrelated to the Christmas scene. By 1881, Prang was producing more than five million Christmas cards each year. His Yuletide greetings began to feature snow scenes, fir trees, glowing fireplaces and children playing with toys. His painstaking craftsmanship and lithographic printing have made his cards a favorite of collectors today.

Prang received most of his recognition however from his Christmas card contests that he ran. Every year he would enlist of the help of well-known figures in the American art world to judge the entrants. Winners would receive cash prizes. He further involved the public by allowing them to vote for their favorite cards, as well. This “Public Prize” was conducted apart from the professional judges and the winners were also awarded cash prizes.

When the market was flooded with cheap Christmas cards in the 1890s, Prang abandoned his Christmas card business as a statement of disgust, and perhaps because his sales were dwindling.

Modern Christmas Cards

Holiday cards designed by Kate Greenaway, the Victorian children’s writer and illustrator, and Frances Brundage and Ellen H. Clapsaddle, were favorites in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. Most were elaborate , decorated with fringe, silk and satin. Some were shaped liked fans and crescents; others were cut into the shapes of bells, birds, candles and even plum puddings. Some folded like maps or fitted together as puzzles; other squealed or squeaked. Pop-up Cards reveled tiny mangers or skaters with flying scarves gliding around a mirrored pond.

Christmas Cards have changed since the days of Sir Henry and Louis Prang. They now sport comics, jokes and clever verses. But those that picture timeless and simple settings such as excited children around a Christmas tree, Nativity scenes, nature scenes and carolers singing in the snow are still in the highest demand today.

Today, over 2.6 billion Christmas cards are mailed annually (over $571 million dollars worth!). This amount is almost twice the volume of the $277 million dollars worth of Valentine cards mailed annually. With the popularity of digital cameras, computers, and the plethora of scrapbook suppliers, home-made Christmas cards are again becoming popular. Some simply mail a picture of their family and a short greeting, while others include a brief write-up, touching on events of the previous year. And, with so many computer users jumping online, electronic cards, or e-cards are also flooding the Internet.

THE EARLY 19th CENTURY COLLECTIONS

1800

THE MID  19th CENTURY COLLECTIONS

1843 

First Known Christmas Card, 1843
© J.C. Horsley from description : Designed by J.C. Horsley

THE LATE 19 th COLLECTIONS

1878 christmas and new year party

112-year-old Christmas pudding found in cupboard

112-year-old Christmas plum pudding

What is probably the oldest Christmas plum pudding in the world, tinned 112 years ago in 1899, has been found at the back of a kitchen cupboard in Poole, Dorset and donated to the National Museum of the Royal Navy at the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard in Hampshire. It was donated by a woman who found it in her cupboard after her husband’s death. She knew nothing about it other than the date stamped on the can — 1900 — and that it had been in her husband’s family for years.

112-year-old Christmas plum pudding tin, back

The handsomely decorated tin marks it as “Peek, Frean & Co’s Teetotal Plum Pudding – London, High Class Ingredients Only.” Instructions on the bottom state “This pudding is ready for use but may be boiled for an hour if required hot.” Peek Frean was a cookies and confectionary company established in 1857. Within a few years they focused on making confections for export to distant locales like Australia and India, hence the sealed tins. The back of the container depicts children holding out plates, presumably to beg for more of that delicious teetotal plum pudding.

This particular pudding was also destined for faraway lands, South Africa specifically. It’s a teetoal pudding because it was a special issue, commissioned by Victorian philanthropist and superintendent of the Royal Naval Temperance Society Agnes “Aggie” Weston. She ordered 1000 tins of brandyless Christmas plum pudding to be sent to Royal Navy sailors fighting in the Boer War. There’s a message from her on the tin as well: “For the Naval Brigade, In the Front, With Miss Weston’s Best Christmas & New Year, 1900, Wishes.” As far as we know, this is the only surviving tin of the 1000

THE EARLY  20thCENTURY COLLECTIONS

From the Middle East

New Year Greeting Card

The New Year Greeting Card was sent in 1900 from the city of Jerusalem by the Great Yeshiva Torath Chaim rabbis to my great grandfather. The Yeshiva building in the old city of Jerusalem is shown in the upper part of the card and the old city of Jerusalem is shown below.

Above the main greeting, “LESHANA TOVA“, there is a quote of blessing from Jerusalem and Zion. Another quote on the right and left sides is from the ancient Talmudic book called “Yerushalmi”, since it was a compilation of thoughts, commentaries and philosophies on Jewish topics generated by the rabbis that remained in the Land of Israel after the destruction of the second Jewish Holy Temple, approximately 2000 years ago.

It was, and still is, customary to decorate “New Year” and other good wishes cards (for weddings, Bar Mitzvah etc.) with quotes about Jerusalem.







 

1900

Spread Cheer with Vintage Christmas Cards

Here you will find a wide assortment of beautiful vintage Christmas cards and Holiday greeting cards. These uniquely designed vintage greeting cards are sure to warm the hearts of all who receive them.

Victorian era stylings and art are all a big part of the ever-growing Steampunk sub-culture. So if you are a part of the Steampunk movement or know someone who is, these cards would be the perfect way of showing a partner, friend, or family member that you remembered them this Holiday season.

Victorian Christmas Cards
Victorian Era Angel Christmas Card This vintage Christmas card features an angel from the Victorian era. The angel is sitting on the moon and holding a star. A lit Christmas tree is shown, and a house is on the horizon.

 

 

 

Victorian Santa Claus Greeting Cards

Old Saint Nick Portrayed in the Victorian Artistic Style

 

Radio Santa Christmas Card card
Radio Santa Christmas Card

This vintage holiday card depicts Santa Claus listening to a vacuum tube type radio. This card design is circa early 1900’s.
 

 

 

Victorian Christmas Cards
Busy Santa Christmas Card

Old Saint Nick is hard at work stuffing stockings in this vintage Victorian era Christmas card design. The central image is of Santa delivering toys and is surrounded by a wood grain pattern decked with Holly.
 

 

 

Steampunk Christmas Cards
Santa with a Sack Christmas Card

Santa with a sack of toys over his shoulder. This card design is circa early 1900’s and features an early version of Saint Nicholas dressed in something other than the traditional red and white suit that we all know so well.
 

 

 

Victorian Christmas Cards
Old Fashion Santa Christmas Card
Here is an vintage card design from 1908. It features an old school Santa from way back. Send some old fashioned holiday cheer with this digitally restored vintage Victorian Christmas card.
 

 

 

Victorian Christmas card
Victorian Santa Claus Christmas Card
This card design is late Victorian circa early 1900’s and features Santa Claus with a staff and a wreath of holly on his hat. The candles on the Christmas tree are indicative of the era in which the original card was made.

 

The Top Five Reasons Why These Victorian Holiday Cards are the Best

A list of the top five reasons this page has the best selection of Victorian style Holiday greeting cards.Victorian Christmas Cards
Curious Cat Christmas Card
  • Beautiful original greeting cards evoke nostalgia as they depict scenes from a simpler time.
  • There are a wide variety of designs to choose from.
  • Holiday cards with a vintage look and feel.
  • Greeting cards that have memorable scenes.
  • Greeting cards suitable for Steampunk fashion sense.

 

Vintage Angel Cards

 

Holy Angel Christmas Card
Holy Angel Christmas Card

This vintage Victorian era card design features an angel in snow white robes holding sheet music next to a vase of holly. This card aged very well and the artwork is incredibly beautiful.
 

 

 

vintage Angel Christmas Card
Angel Snow Scene Christmas Card

This vintage Christmas card design features an angel in a tree hovering over a snow scene. The original card is ca early 1900’s. 

 

 

Victorian Era Angel Christmas Card card
Victorian Era Angel Christmas Card

This is a Vintage Victorian Christmas card design circa early 1900’s. It features an angel holding a star (Presumably the star of Bethlehem) while reclining on a crescent moon

 

 

Vintage Christmas Cards Featuring Kids

 

These cute old-time cards all feature children being children during the holiday season.

Boy with Phone Christmas Card card
Boy with Phone Christmas Card

This vintage Victorian era greeting card has a very simple design. It depicts a boy talking on an antique telephone from the original era of the card. It features a fill in the blank greeting mimicking a telephone call. The card is also decked with a bough of holly.

 

 

 

Chimney Children Christmas Card card
Chimney Children Christmas Card
This very cute vintage Victorian era greeting card features a boy in a Santa costume jumping into a chimney as a little girl watches on with a look of surprise on her face.

 

 

 

Full Stockings Christmas Card card
Full Stockings Christmas Card
This vintage Victorian era greeting card features a girl with a candle walking in front of a fireplace with stockings hung for Santa Claus.

 

 

 

Full Stockings Christmas Card card
Full Stockings Christmas CardMake a personalized note card online at zazzle
This vintage Victorian era greeting card has a very simple design. It depicts two children waking up to stocking filled with toys on Christmas morning.

 

 

 

Cute Girl in Red Dress Christmas Card card
Cute Girl in Red Dress Christmas Card

This early 1900’s vintage card design features an adorable little girl in a red dress dancing. The candles on the Christmas tree reflect the era of this card.

 

 

 

 
 

Season’s Greetings!

For this time of holidays and wintery weather, we offer a sampling of traditional images from the rich image source,

Children wearing festive hats standing by a Christmas tree
North Bennet Street Industrial School (Boston, Mass.), 1932

Christmas card
 

New Year’s Card for 1900

christmas card 1914 during WW I

Woman costumed as a Christmas tree,

Child with Christmas tree

 

The End @ Copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The USA Military Police Pictures Historic Collections

 

The USA Military Police Pictures Historic collections

LTC Rex Smith writes: Here are two photos that I came across that were taken in Iceland in either 1942 or 1943. They are of officers of, I believe, the 810th MP Company.  In August 1943, we took men to Iceland to form an MP Bn.  
LTC Luis Mark, then Captain, is indicated by the arrow. He landed at Omaha Beach on D-Day as PM with the 2nd Engineer Amphibious Brigade. I next ran into him in 1948 when he was assigned as Chief of CID, PM Office, First US Army, Fort Jay, New York. He attended the advance course at the MP School at Ft Gordon in 1951. From there, he went to Korea and died of heart attack a couple of months after arriving there. He was one hell of an officer, one of the best I ever served under. If he had lived, I am sure he would have made general.
LTC Luis Mark then Captain, is third from the right.  CPT Zukowsky is the first from the right; I think his name was Theodore. In November 1943, he went to England as the CO of the 449th MP Company, landed with the company on Utah Beach on D-Day with the First Engineer Amphibious Brigade.
The following pictures were provided by Sam Reinert, Commanding Officer of the 545th MP Company in Phouc Vinh, Vietnam, 1969 – 1970.  Sam is the founder of the 545th Military Police Company Association. 

CPT Dalton Lain (in front of his unit) CO, MP Platoon, Hqs Troop, 1st Cavalry Division, Camp Drake Japan 1945.
CPT Louis Mehl, CO 545th MP Co Commander on the right and LTC James H. Ashcraft,  second from right, 1st Cavalry Division Provost Marshal in the 545th MP Co Dayroom at Camp Drake Japan 1949. The others are the Army Chief of Staff, his aide, the 1st Cav Div CG and the 545th MP Co First Sergeant


Maj Max Phelps inspecting his 1st Cav MP’s at Camp Drake Japan (GEN Chase, 1st Cav CG – in breeches) walks along behind in 1948
LTC Norman A Mott who escorted Japanese POW’s to the Military Tribunals in Manila in 1945
545th MP Co Platoon Leader, S. Strange at Camp Crawford, Japan
Photo sent in by COL Dick Mosco.  Dick is 2d Row, third from the left.  Also in the Class were Second Lieutenants Jim George,Perry Elder,Doug Shannon and Travis Parker.
Advisory Team#14,USAMACV.The Team advised Army Of Vietnam Military Police in the operation of the Central EPW Camp on Phu Quoc Island. The Team was under the OPCON of the MACV PM(J15) and was the only pure Military Police Advisory unit in Vietnam. Dick Moscow’s tenure as the Team Commander and Senior Advisor to the Camp Commander was during the period 1967-68.The Team had four officers assigned.One Major and three Captains.The rest of the team were Military Police Non Commissioned Officers.Captain Mike Annast is the the first officer standing on the left,second row.Next to him is Captain Dave Stockman.Captain Mike O’laughlan is the first person kneeling on the right,first row.  Dick is standing, first on the right,second row. 
First row(Left to right): Lt. Swindell, LT. Buffaloe, LT. Dillion, CPT. Moore, LT. Harris, LT. Palzer, LT. Scott.

Second Row (L to R): CPT. Elder, LT. Briggs, LT. Cathron, LT. Valimony, LT. MacDonald, LT. Mosco.

Third Row (L to R): LT. Lange, LT. Oldemiski, CPT. Boswell, CPT. George, LT. Novac, LT. Nicolls.
 
Thanks to W.N. Lange, PhD, MAJ (Ret), MPC for identifying the complete class.
MP Officer Career Course  Class #5.1964-65.COL Karl Gustafson,School Commandent is in the first row, center.To his left is the Class Leader, Major Dave Anderson. Dick Mosco is in row five,5th from the right.
CPT Mike Tarman
Tay Ninh, RVN, 1969
709th MP BN Paris, France WW II 
Pictures of the Battalion Officers during 1945. LTC Harry Gustafson was the Battalion Commander Nov 1943 to 1946.
 
Assigned officers when the unit departed for England in 1944:  LTC Harry Gustafson, CO; MAJ David Sigourney, XO; CPT Donald McIntire, S2/S3; LT Alfred Levine, ADJ; LT Fred Deyesso, S4; CPT  Pierce, CO, Co A; CPT Ralph Philpott, CO, Co B; CPT  Shephard, CO, Co C; CPT Marchand, CO, Co D; W/O Murphy, Personnel Off; CPT D. Schorr, Surgeon; CPT H. Teague, Dentist; LT B.J. Wall; LT H.G. Orton; LT G. Dugas; LT Norman Applebaum; LT  C. Porcelli; LT Chas Echols; LT Geo Moore; LT Fred Vigil; LT Geo Morehouse; LT  Cushman; LT Geo McCombs; LT F.A. Mac Donald; and LT Robert Collier.
BG David P Schorr, Jr. Provost Marshal EUSA, cuts cake at the 18th Anniversary 728th MP Bn at Co B.  L to R: LTC Thomas R Smith, Jr. Bn CO; General Schorr; CPT Charles A Heck, CO Co B; and 1Lt Eddie M Nix, Plt Ldr, Korea 1959.
 
 
 
SSG Charles A Heck – 1945
 
Some of the first Officers to be assigned to the 518th Military Police Battalion upon its activation. Photographed in the summer of 1941. They are (Left to Righ) Lt Martin Davy; Lt Bill Campbell; Lt Ed Lambert; Major H.H. Harris; Lt Bernie Schlinger; Lt Sid Marcus; Lt Mel Pollack; Lt Ralph Gramazio; Lt Stan Evans; Lt Bob Sullivan; Lt John Stouell; Lt Tom Whitford; and Lt Claude Lindsey.(Source of information is from the Military Police Journal and the Article written by Colonel Robert E. Sullivan, History of U.S. Army Military Police Battalions – The 518th MP BN). 

Customs liaison meeting, Saigon, Vietnam  March 1971 between MP customs officials and ROK PMO, to discuss mutual cooperation.
 
LtoR : CPT Oh Sae Chan  ROK F-V, CPT William D. Houck, CO Saigon Customs Detachment, LTC Clyde Murphy, CO Joint Customs Group Vietnam, COL Lee Jung Hyen ROK F-V, MAJ David Lynch, XO Joint Customs Group Vietnam, LTC Lee Jung Hyung ROK F-V.


Stand down of 173rd Airborne  Brigade, Charang Valley, Vietnam. July 1971

Left photo L to R:  CPT Bill Houck, CPT Jones, CPT Roger Holland

Right photo L to R:  CPT William D. Houck, CPT Roger Holland


June 1971, MAJ Fouad Aide, MP Advisor, Central EPW Camp on Phu Quoc Island.

CSM Gordon Larum, CPT Hensley, MSG McCurdy, and COL Timmerberg, Fall of 1971, 89th MP Gp
BG Timmerberg, COL Hiram Daniels, CSM Larum, getting 89th MP Gp Crests, July 1971
CSM Larum, COL Proudfoot taking command 89th MP Gp, BG Timmerberg
BG Wallace Wittwer, USAREUR PM, being greeted upon his arrival at Stuttgart by LTC Tom Briggs, Area PM and Cdr 31st MP Det, 1972.
BG Wittwer, USAREUR PM; LTC Tom Briggs, Cdr 31st MP Det, and LTC Robert Tambling, Cdr 385th MP Bn.
L to R: LTC Killough, Cdr, 508th MP Bn, inspecting 508th MP BN Highway Patrol Unit. Unk Officer in middle, CPT Van Gemert, Cdr, CO C, 508th MP BN, Stettin Kaserne,Munich, 1951-52.
Approximately April 1967, Valley A Binh Dinh Prov, RVN

(then) BG Harley Moore arrives at Hq 504 A MP. BN, greeted by (then) MAJ William A. Hewitt,acting CO.
 
                                                   Photo from LTC Bill Hewitt
March, 1954
Eniwetok, Marshal Islands,  JTF Castle

Shown:  Members of MP Detachment.
2nd. row, standing, left, Corporal (P) William A. Hewitt (now, LTC, retired).
2nd. row, standing, L to R, 3rd right LTC John Gibson(MPC);  6th right at end of row (hand raised) then 1st LT Archie O. Patterson (MPC)

Photo from LTC Bill Hewitt
Members of 92nd MP Bn, Saigon VN, following promotion ceremony on March 16, 1967.  From left to right:  1LT John Hannon (Oklahoma City, OK), Sgt Richard Sparrow (Indianapolis, IN), Sgt Angel Colon (Gartegena, PR), LTC John P “Jack” Hill (Sarasota, FL), Sgt Thomas Markowski (New York, NY), Sgt Richard W Johnson (Long Beach, CA0, and CPT David L Lemon (Abilene, TX) 
                                                                                                                                                      Photo from LTC John Hannon
l to r – 1Lt R.C. Purdy; 1Lt Giddion Cox; 1Lt Robert Baumfalk; 1Lt W.R. Cathy;  Cpt John Liddle; 1Lt Carl Knowles (XO); and 1SG Gordon Larum, 7th MP Co Staff  Korea 1952      Photo from Dick Burch


After seeing the above two photos, COL Charles (Dave) Childers sent RMPO the following email:

“I was looking at the online site this morning and noticed the photos of BG Wittwer and LTC Briggs and it sure brought back old memories. I was Tom Briggs driver in the fall on 1972, and if I’m not mistaken, I took him to meet BG Wittwer that day – if not on the day of that visit, then one of his later trips that same year. Talking about being scared – I’d been in the Army for six months, was a newly minted PFC, driving a brigadier general!  After Tom left Europe in early 1973, I was Dale Friend’s driver for almost a year at the 385th MP Battalion. Both were fantastic officers who greatly influenced my life.  Attached is a photo of me leaning on the fender of Tom’s very famous black 1971 Ford sedan in Stuttgart. Dale talked me into re-enlisting and Tom helped me in my selection for OCS. I’m deeply indebted to both.”

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