The Driwan’s Cybermuseum
(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
(Driwan Vietnam War Cybermuseum)Showcase:
The Diem South Vietnam War Document
and Postal History
The complete information exist in CD_ROM as the part of Vietnam Indochina hIstoric collections 1800-1964,please subscribed as the premium member via comment to find more informations about the CD-ROM.
This is only the sample of CD-ROM.
DIEM REGIME (1955-1957)
a.TRANSITION PERIOD -1954
French Indo China Government official Vien Bay reading a prepared speech
1) October 1954
(1)October ,23th 1954
(a)The President Eisenhower’s latter to Diem :
Dear Mr President,
I have been following with great interest the course of developments in Viet-Nam , particularly since the conclusion of the conference at Geneva.
The implications of the agreement concerning Viet-Nam have caused grave concern regarding the future of a country temporanly divided by an artificial military grouping, weakened by a long and exhausting war and faced with enemies without and by their subversive collaborators within.
You recent request for and to assist in the formidable project of the movement of several hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese citizen away from areas which are passing under a de facto rule and political ideology which they abhor, are being fulfilled .I am glad this humanitarian effort
We have been exploring ways and means to permit our aid to Viet-Nam to be more effective and to make a greater contribution to the welfare and stability of the Government of Viet-Nam.
I am,accordingly, instructing the American Ambassador to Viet-Na,m to examine with you in your capacity as chief of government how an intelligent program of American aid given directly to your Government canserve to assist Viet-Nam in its present hour of trial , provided that your Government is preparedto give assurances as to the standars of performance it would be able t main tain the event such aid were supplied.
The purpose of this offer in tp assist the Government of Viet-Nam in developed and maintaining a strong, viable state, capable of resisting attempted subversion or aggresion through military means .
The Government of United States expects that their aid will be met by performance on the part the Government of Viet-Nam in undertaking needed reforms.It hopes that such aid, combined with your own continuing efforts, will contribute effectively toward an independent Viet-Nam endowed with a strong government.
Such a government would, I hope, be so responsive to the nationalist aspiration of its people, so enlightened in purpose and effective in performance, that it will be respected both at home and abroad and discourage any who might to impose a foreign idelogy on your free people.
Dwight D. Eisenhower.
(source : Modern History Sourcebook)
4.Do Cao Tri 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – small_unit_tactics;combined_arms_focus;training
5.Ho Tan Quyen 1955 – 1963
skill 5 – seamanship;naval_training;small_taskforce_tactics
6.Indochina University 1930 – 1956
skill 1 – management;chemistry;mathematics
7. Viet Nam National Military Academy 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – small_unit_tactics;piloting;training;naval_trainin g;decentralized_execution
8.Indochine Raiload Company 1930 – 1954
skill 1 – mechanics;management;industrial_engineering
9.Thu Duc Military Academy 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – combined_arms_focus;centralized_execution;individu al_courage
10.The University of Saigon 1957 – 1970
skill 4 – management;chemistry;electronics;mathematics
11.Vu Quoc Thuc 1956 – 1962
skill 4 – management;industrial_engineering
12.U.S. Army Construction Agency Vietnam 1963 – 1970
skill 6 – management;technical_efficiency;general_equipment; electronics;mechanics
13.David Lilienthal 1963 – 1970
skill 6 – management;mathematics;industrial_engineering
14.U.S. Agency for International Development Vietnam 1961 – 1970
skill 6 – industrial_engineering;general_equipment;chemistry ;management;artillery
15.Republic of Vietnam Navy 1952 – 1970
skill 4 – small_taskforce_tactics;centralized_execution;nava l_engineering;naval_training
16.MAAG Vietnam 1950 – 1960
skill 4 – artillery;training;general_equipment;industrial_en gineering;mechanics
17.U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam 1962 – 1970
skill 4 -combined_arms_focus;small_unit_tactics;bomber_tact ics;piloting;naval_training
18.Ba Son Shipyard 1930 – 1954
skill 2 – naval_engineering;industrial_engineering;mechanics
19.Ba Son Shipyard 1955 – 1970 <= duplicated in order to simulate the aid of US navy
skill 4 – technical_efficiency;naval_engineering;naval_artil lery
20.Air Viet Nam 1930 – 1970
skill 3 – aeronautics;technical_efficiency;electronics
21.U.S. Pacific Air Forces 1961 – 1970 <= representative for the US air force in South Viet Nam
skill 5 – rocketry;aeronautics;artillery;chemistry
pic : later
(b)The Photograph of President of South Vietnam Ngo Dih Diem with President USA Eisenhowrer at Whasington National Airport.
b. The First year of Diem regime-1955
dining with President Diem
in Saigon in 1957. Madame Nhu does not
appear to have been present.
(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army
(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan, in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)
(2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945, were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.
The recieved of Rayon Ford Car’s repaired station Saigon with the earliest used rare Vietnam Thue Coniem brown revenue 0$50 .
“Nghan do phu tung (Rayon Pieces Detachees) Ford” Saigon 1.2.1955 for Charger two charger of car EOA 1130 = 224 $ + Cahes 3$96 total 232$96, revenue 0$60 total 233$56,
(Best collection for showed-auth)
After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.
4) April 1955
April 29, 1955 – A Vietnamese Paratrooper takes cover as refugees flee the Cholon are of Saigon during fighting with rebel Binh Xuyen
Vietnamese fleeing on the street
(1)Diem crust the Binh Xuyen sect
at the period end of French forces and their Vietnam auxillaries to deploy to South, and for Vietminh troops to regroup in the North.
6) June 1955
Diem to power, rise of the Southern Republic 1955-1963
June 1955 – South Vietnamese Premier Ngo Dinh Diem, fresh from victory in his struggles for power, greets villagers during a visit to the coastal town of Binh Dinh.
Some 300,000 people applauded Vietnamese army troops during parade to celebrate their victory of the Binh Xuyen rebels in the swamps south of Saigon. The battle was an important victory for the Diem regime
June 1955 – South Vietnamese troops train with U.S. weapons.
(1)July.11th 1955) July
(a)The man of action formally extended Phillipine recognation in a diplomatic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col.Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969)
(b)The late used revenue of Etat du Vietnam thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60. with red squered stamped “Garantie & Mois- Sauf Cases.” And red round stamped “ Ban Quan horlogerie-97 Boulevard Charner- Saigon.”
Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States
(3) July 22th 1955
Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem
He proceeded to prove the following contentions :
(a)”That South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”
(b) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese to support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriendly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”
(c)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and communism is to indulge in fiction.
True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more prfitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dangerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnamese people.
In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.
Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnam-ese people”
Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’
Not yet information.
9) September 1955
September 1955 – Infantry men stand at attention in water as Premier Ngo Dinh Diem makes a tour of the troops in the Rung Sat swamp to thank the men who defeated the rebel Binh Xuyen forces.
10) October 1955
(1) October.23th 1955
Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum .
(a)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.
October 26, 1955 – Premier Ngo Dinh Diem proclaims himself as president during ceremonies in Saigon that followed his victory in a referendum
October 26, 1955 – A crowd outside Independence Palace in Saigon listens to Ngo Dinh Diem proclaim the new Republic of South Vietnam, with himself as president and prime minister. Ngo received 98 percent of the votes in the referendum against the absentee emperor, Bao Dai.7
(b) Three days after Senator Recto attack on Magsaysay for the recog-nition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime, which according to him had been done in obedience to American dictates, Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.
The information had appeared in the November 23.1953, issue of Time Magazine. Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.
(The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information-auth)
(c) The Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also another type ship like High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505.(P)
(a)The small Book’s Covers with red native vietnamese ‘s Picture illustration“Ca Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955”, Muc Luc Hieu Tu, Nu tac and Nich ai vong an, and at the back cover propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)
This cover used as the cover of handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”
Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.
Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.
La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.
Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.
Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.
Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.
Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.
Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu chung toi cho khoi chet chim, thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.
Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.
Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD)
( What the meaning of ca ve cu sau ? please comment and tranlate the handwritten “Kinh cao cho mau an giac “-auth)
(b) The best of Nguyen Bao Tung Phillatelic ’s colection contains stamps from the Government led by the late President Ngo-Dinh-diem from 1955 to 1963 and he had the covers with Diem signed and official sealed stamped
11) November 1955
(1)The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese’s soldier party at the restaurant “Nghi Xuan”
The soldier with civil complete dress, and two flag there, Vietnam Cong Hoa ‘s yelow three green strip and the military AVRN flag ,s one bigger star.
“Buoi tiec dtai chien si Hoang Dieu tai nha hang Nghi Xuan “
( best flag thematic photo’s collec-tions, auth)
12) December 1955
(1) December ,9th.1955
The two original vintage black-white photos of a Vietnamese traveler’s group to an ancient building
“ Cuoc du lich o Nam-vian na De Thien De Thu trong 3 ngay 9-10-11 Decembre 1955.”
(Please someone translate, where Thien De Thu trong 3 ? auth)
(2) December,11th 1955
The Refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day , very rare in mint never hinged stamps. 30 and 100 piastres.(the used stamps were found in Indonesia, the mint not yet found, I have seen in HCM city-auth)
c.Diem’s Regime in1956
The Canadian Connection
1) January 1956
(1)in 1955 and 1956,
(a) Thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North.
The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.
(b)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)
Not yet info
5) May 1956
The very rare Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue with anxient Building, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956.
The complete Khai Sinh form :
Quoc –Gia Viet-Nam Chung Thu Thay Giay
==ooo=== KHAI SINH
Lang Thun Doang Son va dtoi choi
Quan Yifoa Vang
Tinh Quan Nam
Ten ho dua con : Nguyen Nhan
Trai hay gai : Trai
Sinh cho na’e : Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa Vang
Sinh ngay nao : Nam 1908 Ngay 16 thang 3
Vung moi Sau thong Ba Nan mot ngau Chin trai le Tam.
Ten Ho Cha : Nguyen Khue
Nha ciro o’ dau : thon duong Son xa Hoa theu quan Hoa vang
Ngep-ngep : lam Nong
Ten ho me : Dang thi Sifaul
Vo chanh hay thu: Vo Chanh
Ten ho nguoi khai: Nguyen Khue
May Toi : Sot tam Nuoi tuoi
Ngep-ngep : Lam Nong
Nha cua o’ dau : Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa vang
Ten ho nguoi chung thu nhat : Nguyen quan(50t) Nam muoi toi
Tuo,ngep-ngep ,noi o’; thay thuoi Thoi LUONG soi,pa dtoi thai
Ten ho nguoi chung thu’ ba : Nguyen Dui Ngu(60 t) sau muoi tuoi
Tuoi,nge-nghiep ,noi o: Lam Nong thoi Duong Lon Xa Hoa thai
quan Hoi vong.
Lam tai Thoi Duong son xa ,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1956.
NGU’OI KHAI Do’ng Hu’ong-Chinh Xa Hoa Thoi
Nguyen Khue squered stamped “ Thih-Quang Nam-
Quan –Hoa-vang-Hoi Dong Huong
Chinh –Lien Xa-HOA-THAI
Nhung nguoi Chung Nhan thiet chu ky cua Hoi-Dong Huong
Chinh Xa Hoa Thai
Hoa Vang ngay 11 thang 5 nam 1956
Signed and red circle stamped
(the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where the location ? please comment-auth)
4) June 1956 no info
5) July 1956
|Senior military advisors to the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam discuss the location of fixed investigation teams. Left to right: Colonel J.Bryn (Poland), Brigadier M.S. Dunn (Canada), and Major-General D.S. Bar (India), July 16, 1956.|
(1)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.
6) August 1956
|Members of the Canadian Delegation to the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam at a headquarters meeting, August 9, 1956.|
(1) Nuoi Ngot 1956
The original vintage photo of the vietnamese lady in the beach of Nuoi Ngot.
(2) Long Hai 1956
The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese lady in the front of the traditional house at Long hai.
7) September 1956
(1) September,17th 1956
The Admission’s card of Franch –Vietnamese University at President TINH street Saigon.
14 Rue President Tinh PHOTO
M Do Thin Muoi
Est admis aux Cource de:
- Vietnamienen 1 degre A 30
- Francais A 66 Age……………………………………………….
- Anglais debut A 40 profession ……………………………
Saigon ,le 17-9 1956 Adresse………………………….
Le Directeur Le Titulaire
10) October 1956
Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN
In the back , rare ephemera vintage handwatch Pronto automatic ,”Ban va Su’a” and Montresz-Stylos , BAQUAN, 97 Boulevard Charner tel.No 2.414 SAIGON (OD)
(2) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.
|Paul Martin, Minister of Health and Welfare (left) talking with President Ngo Dinh Diem of the Republic of Vietnam, Saigon, November 19, 1956|
9) December 1956
(1) December 7th 1956
The rare earliest Regional taxes Saigon Cholon revenue, on Health certificate. Sign By the Chief beraue archive signe Guiges , and sign legalized 7-12-52 with red cross Bac-Si-Nguyen red stamped.
(Rare health record document with regional saigon cholon 10$00 yellow revenue, because this revenue from 1960 every years was overprint with year to 1975, and unoverprint on piece difficult to find, only three found another 29.4.1957 and 16.3.1959-auth)
4.3.2 DIEM REGIME WAR 1957-1963
In this photo, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower greets South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem upon his arrival in Washington D.C. in 1957. Diem ruled Vietnam after the French pulled out in 1954; his pro-capitalist stance made him an attractive ally to the United States, which was in the throes of the Red Scare.
a) IBID Stanley Karnow & Nguyen Ngoc Vy
The South vietnamese Communist ,the Vietcong, began organising in the countryside in 1957 , planning the assasination of Diem’s village headmen and official. But Ho Chi-minh was still holding back.
Diem’s authoritarian rule, his rustlessness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among peasants but among all those groups excluded from power and from a share in the loot.
The Vietcong assasinations soon made themselves felt, exciting deep unease throuhout the country.
Murder of government officials increase from 1200 in 1959 to 4000 a year by 1961.
Diem’s response was to drive the peasant into foryified hamlets, but this proved both ineffective and couter-productive , alienating the peasantry, who objected to being placed under military commanders and were any-way caught between Diem’s reprisals during the day and the Vietcong at night.
The US administration failed to appreciate that the Vietcong were not lackey of the communists in the North but were an expanding and powerfully organisd army of south Vietnam engaged in a guerrila civil war.
Clearly South Vietnam stability was deteriorating , though Diem was still in control of the cities and much of the countryside of South Vietnam.
That was most unwelcome to the Americans, since the communist regions of the country bordered on North and South Vietnam and so acted as a passage for suplies and men along the maze of Jungle trails as the Ho Chi-minh trail, by which it took two months to reach the South from the North.
This sparsely populated country of some 2,5 million bordered not only on North and south Vietnam , but also on China,Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, and so was a potential cockpit of struggle between more powerful neighbour.
SEATO , “the South –east Asian collec-tive defence treaty”, organised by Dulles in September 1954, onlike NATO had no standing Armies, nor had its signatories promised military support in each other. So,although it as extended to cover the defence of Cambodian and South Vietnam, it provided no guarantees of help and proved of limited value when the United States did appeal for Military assistance.
The Eisenhower administration also sent military advisers to South Vietnam and to Laos, yet the Laotian Royal Army never became an effective fighting force capable of dealing with the guerilla tactics of the Pathet Lao.
The influx of American and dollars, more, corrupted and undermined the South Vietnamese and the Laotians.
American advisers, in anycase , suffered from one disability they couldnot overcome : they were foreigners white oustsiders.
The Vietcong , for all the violence and disorders they bought to their fellow countrymen , were their own people.
An enormous amout of financial aid was poured into South-east Asia ; most of it went to the military or lined the pockets of corrupt officials.
What the pattern of military aid reveal are the priorities of the United States in South-east Asia from mid-1950s to the mid-1960s. By far the largest amount of aid as calculated per head of population was sent to Laos and south Vietnam during the decade from 1955 to 1963, about half that amount per head went to cambodia and the Phillipines.
Eisenhower was committing technical,financial and military ait to enable the anti-communist forces in South-east Asiato defend themselves against the communist. But he was opposed to using US military forces on the Asian mainland ( except in South Korea). The mighty US Seven Fleet with its nuclear weapons was close by. What if the nuclear threat did not deter the Vietminh, while supplies continued to reach them from China and the Soviet Union ? What if, despite US ait, the anti-communist groups were too weak to resist effectively? That dilemma Eisenhower bequethed to his successors,
In November 1960 the Democratic Senator from Massachusets J.F.Kennedy won the US preidential election.
Indochina lay at the heart of the “Unfinished bussiness” left over from the Eisenhower administration and the issued came to the boil within the fitst sixth months of 1961. A speech by Khrushchev on 6 January 1961, declaring that the Soviet Union would support waht he called “National liberation movement” in the under-developed countries (including South Vietnam-auth)
April 1961 was a critical month for the White House . Vietnam became the focus of crisis management.
Kennedy order a review of what military,political and economic action-overt and covert- it would be necessary for the United States to undertake to prevent the communist domination of South Vietnam.
There was wild talk by the military of air strikes against North Vietnam and Southern China.
Although Kennedy frequently showed a better sense of propotion than smoke of his advisers about the dangers of escalation following the despatch of US troops, he never departed from his policy of increasing the US Commitment as much as he judge necessary to defeat Viet cong.
First and fore most it was ignorance, a failure to understand the true nature of the conflict in Vietnam, reducing it to the simple formula that it was part of the worldwide struggle berween the free and the communist.
But it was not a war arising simply out of communist aggression from North Vietnam . The Vietcong were a south Vietnamese force, the expression of political opposition and disaffection with the ruler of South Vietnam.
It was this misreading of the situation that underlay the US decision to intervene on a massive scale,
The belief that superior technology, the bombardement from the air, coul break the will and capacity to fight of the North Vietnamese and the Viercong caused heavy loss of life and terrible destruction, but in the end was in effective.
Nor could the ground forces defeat ab enemy prepared to naswer escalation with escalation.
The military experts were wrong in their optimistic assements and once more President Johnson had engaged America prestige he found it impossible to pull out and to admit defeat.
But meanwhile that war had been Americanised abd, after Tet, the propping up of an unviable South Vietbamese gevrnment became increasingly problematical.
The US had been sucked into a civil war and faced a determined and rushless enemy. Attrition in the end broke the American will to continue fighting in a country thousands of miles away and for a cause that could not be won.
b).AIR WAR IN VIETNAM (Above and Beyond,vol.4,New Horizon Publizher Inc.Chicago,1968)
Airpower has been the critical element in US military operations in Vietnam.
Massive,unprecedented use of airpower has provided important advantages fro US troops that no conventional army ever enjoyed in a large-scale war against well-organized guerilla forces.
( This book have written before the fall of Saigon, that is way the writter and US armed forces still have the arogan to win because they don’t understand the Vietcong and vietminh people powers and in the Iraq war the used most modern aircraft and startegic attack especially the bunkers, read another book “The unique Iraq War’s docu-ment and postal history collection”-auth)
The main advantages of modern airpower are completely new levels of mobility and firepower, Helicopter, employed by hubdreds, have brought the new mobility to ground operations. Most US infantry in Vietnam move into position for its sweeps and assaults by helicopter, which is more than ten times faster than any ground trasportation, high speed move,ment of large forces gives US commandrs a much greater opportunity for suprissing the guerillas than was possible in the past.
More important, in the fact that moving primarly in the air, instead of by road,largely robs the guerrilla of the opportunity for ambush.
Aerial firepowe, unprecendented in the swiftness, had been turned against the Viet cong and the North Vietnamese(Vietminh-auth) army in South Vietnam.
Attack aircraft are spread throughot South Vietnam in such numbers that they usually can respond to any call for help in less than 15 minutes and very often within five minutes.
When the enemy does attempt an ambush of ground forces, or stage a suprise attack on a fortified village, strike fighters can almost immedietely bring tons of the heviest ordnavce down on the attackers.
The ability to respond quickly, and massively to any assault has been a key factor in stopping the capture of isolated settlements by guerillas, and in keeping small friendly units from being overrun by larger Vietcong forces.
Bombing by B-52 bombers, the most massive use of firepower in any guerillq war, has been a key US tactic because it deprives the Vietcong of its mountain and jungle sanctuaries.
Guerilla armies traditionally have operated from a sanctuary in rough country where safe from attack and could rest, train new troops, prepare their operations and treat their wounded.
The B-52 raids have knocked out many of the large tunnel complexes in mountains and junges which served as major Viet Cong and Vietminh bases.
Air supply also has been important in Vietnam. Daily movement of tons of food, ammunition, and fuel is needed to support helicopter-borne troops, and this supply movement is provided mostly by fixed-wing transports. These military air transports also provide what amounts to a scheduled airline service between the major towns of South Vietnams, carrying both and freight war’s
(including postal, that is way every Vietnam covers were Airmails-auth) .
The vital role of airpower is Vietnam is best illustrated by contrasting the US position in the late 1960’s with that of the french in the early 1950’s because the French army had mobility and firepower as same as the guerilla vietminh, they don’t use aircraft helicopters. (very rare airmail potally covers during Vietminh war 1952-1955 aut)
Most dramatic and important innovation of the Vietnamese war (Vietcong war-auth.) is the mass employment of helicopterss. For the US and South Vietnamese infantry , is often is called the “helicopter war”, for helicopters carry him into battle, provide part of his fire support, usually allmof his resuplly of ammunition and food, and then vacuare him in case he is wounded or when the operation is over.
More than ten years (situation in 1968 when the information had written-auth), were required to bring airmobile, helicopter-army from concept to reality.
A small group of Army Generals, of which Lt.Gen. Hamilton H.Howze was one of the most persistent, fought for the new idea and by 1956 brought about the formation of experimental helicopter (air-cavalary) units at Fort Benning, Georgia technology strongly to the aid of this new concept in form of the long-range, reliable turbine-powered helicopter which appeared in the early 1960’s
b. Diem regime war collections.
a.)Diem vs Vietcong in 1957
cathedral saigon in 1957 no maria statue
1) Jan 1957
(1)Soviet Union, favoring a permanent division of the country , proposes that North and South Vietnam be admitted to United nations as separate states .(D)
(2)The Vietcong (South Vietnamese communist) began to organized at countryside in this year.
The receipt of Car service station “ Nhanh do phu tung Ford-Cholon” 1800$00 and the earliest used the bigger Vietnam Cong-Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 and 0$60.
(The early republic of Vietnam -vietnam Cong Hua Con niem/revenue – was the histroric proof that the transition period between the Franch power to Nationalist power in South Vietnam had finish and thenationalist characters were begun –auth)
2) February 1957
University Of Saigon 1957
The earliest used of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 40 cents, on the receipt of car station”Ford” saigon, paid 147$64, RATE REVENUE 40 CENT.
(1)March, 11th 1957
– Procession of elephants in the Trung Sisters’s Parade in Saigon, 1957
The original photo of vietnamese lady at Long Hai.
The rare Etat du Vietnam Quc-Gia Con Niem revenue 30 cents on the receipt of car statin”Ford” Saigon, paid 93$- ,revenue rate 0$20,
(Because the 20 cent revenue didn’t exist because too many used as the postal ‘s porto , prevent against the law, they used 30 cent. DUE TO THIS SITUATION, the fiscal authoritiest must issued the emergency overprint 0$20 revenue to prevent the people paid more than the law order, look at another collection with that emergency revenue. -auth)
4) April 1957
(1) April, 27 1957
The Vo Giay Ban Nha certificate, with Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes Regional 10$00 revenue, the complete document :
(Chong) Toi ten la’ Do-van –Pho , so’ Kiem tra N.1706.A0053 cap tai Quan sau Ngay 13 thang 7 nam 1955.
(Vo) Toi ten la Nguyen le Nguyen-thi-kiem lan the kiem tra so 090069. 20 B .003751 cap tai quan Co Vap ngay 18 tahang 5 nam 1955,
Vu Chong toi ky ten duoi da’y , dong y’ ba’ng lo’ng
Ba’n cho o’ng Tran van-Rue, so keim tra 1703-31-A006414
Mocan nha so 509.8 duong truong Minh Giang noi dai cat tre dat chua cu Tay. Vo chong toi hien ngu tai so nha 183.A duong Yen-ro. Vo chong toi ky ten duoi day co nhan du so tien cua ong Tran-can-Ruo la’ 19.500$00 (MUOI CHIN NGAN TRAN DONG BAC) de’ ban mot can nha so’ 309.B. Hai ben vach xay gach va ngang la 3m/2 Be dai la 8 m thuoc ve quyen so huu cua ong Tran-van-ruo so tra du so tien mua can nha 309.B. cho chung toi roi. Khoi su ngay lam to giay nay. Tran –van-Ruo lam chu thiet tho gian nha noi tren, va pha tra tien dat, cho chu dat tuy theo ngieu 1 t can nha so 30 ma tu tro di khong con quyen so huu cua chang toi moi.
Hung toi bang long ban gian nha so 309.B. cho
Tran van Ruo nan san nay co ad lam ai tro ngai co o
Tran van Ruo thi chung toi xin chiu hoan toan trach nhie.
Lam tai saigon ngay 29 thang 4 nam 1957
Ong Do-van-pho Ba nguyen thi-kim
Ban nay lap thanh hai ban, ban chanh ong Tran-Ruo giu de lam bang, con ben phu thi ong Do-van-Pho va ba Nguyen-thi –kim-lan giu.
Thi nhen chu ky ten tren tuy ta cuc
O’ So Van Pho cap
Nguyen thi Kim Lan
Saigon nge 30 thang 4 nam 1957
Blue double circle stamped “ VIET-NAM CONG-HOA* DO THAN S.C. TRUONG QUAN-RA*”
(THE LATEST SAIGON-CHOLON TAX REGIONALES REVENUE-AUTH)
5) May 1957
May 7, 1957 – President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, on a state visit to the United States, views San Francisco from a sighseeing boat passing beneath the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. With him are Lt. Gen. John w. O’Daniel (ret.), left, chairman of the American Friends for Vietnam, and Robert Blum, head of the Asia Foundation.
The receipt from Rayon pieces Detachees (nganh do phu tung) ford Sai Gon ,Car repaired 1978$.
Very rare revenue “Vietnam overprint 0$20” with 3x 0$40 Vietnam Conghoa CON NIEM (THE EARLIEST USED),red ”PAYE” stamped
(a)The rare Etat du Viet-Nam Quc Gia Con Niem 2 piastres, on the receipt f car statin service “Ford” saigon for paid 994$00, with ravenue rate 2$00.
(The latest used the old franch currency piastres, and etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia very short time, and change to Vietnam Thue To and then Vieetnam Conghoa-auth)
(b) The Vuon-Gia-Can’s Pilot Identity card, signed at Saigon, in the back authetication violet double circle stamped “VIET-NAM CONG-HOA * DO-THANH S.C. QUAN-BA*”, on Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes regional 10$00 revenue,the complete documen :
46,Legrand de la Liraye-DAKAO
Certifie l’Authenticitie CARTE D’IDENTITE
de la signature de le Directeur de L’Ecole VUONG- PHOTO
Monsieur VUONG-GIA-CAN GIA-CAN soussigne pertifie
Opposee ci-controle que le nomme Nguyen tu Sai
Saigon le 21.5.1957 No M1e 157 ne le 3 Aout 1940
Stamped a’ tan an Vinh Long
Tun Authentic Saigon-Cholon fils d M,Nguyen van Tri
TRUONG QUAN-BA et de Mme Nguyen ngoc Hoa
SIGNED & VIOLET domicile 30 Bui cheu Saigon
DOUBLE RING CIRCLE STAMPED est bien eleve du ditetablisment.
“Vietnam Cong Hoa*Do thanh Saigon, le 8-Mai 1957
S.C. TRUONG QUAN BA*” Le Directeur
Signed & Red double circle stamped
“ VUONG-GIA-CAN * TRUONG –HOC-
TU-THUO* 46 PHAN-THANH-GIAN.
( very rare Pilot ID with the bad official printed revenue, but because the situation still used .
Later in 1960 the design still used but change from S.C or Saigon-Cholon province to Do-Thanh Saigon ,the new province’s name after assasination Diem. Taxes regional ,Franch style was changed to the vietnamese with same meaning “Niem thue “ .
Due to the bad quality , on the revenue were surcharged with the year from 1960 -1975 ,except 1963 not yet found-auth)
Diem arrives in U.S. for ten day visit . President Eisenhower reaffirms support for his regime.(D) and Ngo Dinh Diem waves to New York lunchtime crowd as a parade in his honor proceeds up Broadway. Very few Americans could have then found Vietnam on a map (P)
The First Covers of Stamps” Tem Tho Cau Nguyen “stamps design native army with elephants, CDS Saigon June 7th 1957 found in Indonesia
(After Afro Asia conference in Bandung 1955, many South Vietnam stamps and first day covers send to Indonesia, auth)
The reciept from Saigon Rayon detachee Ford for car repaired 124$40 with revenue 2x Overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia revenue
(very rare strip two overprint revenue of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia ,the transition between Bodia to Ngo dien diem authority-auth)
The Reciept of Service station Vespa-Ford Saigon , 928$00 with added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 3 x 0$60 ,rate 1$80
(The earliest Diem’s revenue of Vietnam Conghoa or the Republic of Vietnam in trhe South ex Cochin Chine -auth).
The rare combination revenue Vietnam Thue Con Niem 3$(without 00) with emergency overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 80 cent.on the receipt of car Service station “Ford” saigon , paid 1561$00 added revenue 3$20.
(The Serial Reciept with revenue of the Car service station “Ford” Saigon with various type revenue, were the best collection for show –auth)
The reciept from Rayon Detachee Ford for repiared car, 2.075$20, revenue etat du vietnam Quoc-Gia overprint 0$20 and 5 x new type brown Viet-nam revenue 80 cent (rate 4$20) .(rare transition revenue, the vietnam revenue used very short times -auth).
7) July 1957
(1) July.16th 1957
The Reciept of Bo Thanh Saigon ,Ty Tai Chanh vung Saigon for 22$10 for Gia moi thuoc khoi,Tien muon thuy luong ke & Tien tu-bo dan nuoc ,thue truong Ba. With overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia revenue
(rare revenue, I have only three that kind revenue on complete docu-ment,best variation rate, this the best transition revenue during the earliest of liberation war-Diem era, I hope one day will put on show in USA and Saigon- auth)
The Receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon 2108$00 added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 8 x 0$60(rate 4$80) ,
( rare eight revenue, strip of five and three revenue 0$60.-auth)
The Receipt of Car service Station Ford Saigon 538$00, added 3 x 0$40 (rate 1$20) bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue.
The rare combination common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80 with rare emergency overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia con niem revenue 80 cent. On the receipt of car servive station for Saigon 470$00, rate revenue 1$00.-
(rare the Quoc Gia revenue 1$00 that time-auth)
The very rare combination emergency overprint 0$20 Quoc-Gia Etat du vietnam revenue with 3 x 0$80 Vietnam thue Con Niem revenue 80 cents (rate 2$60), on the receipt of car repaired station “ford” saigon ,for paid 1.220$20.
(unusual revenue rate and cmbination rare type revenue, best collection for show , the late used of vietnam Thue Con Niem sea-fauna type revenue -auth)
(6)July ,30th 1957
The receipt of car&motorbike service station Vespa&Ford Saigon , Ringlauer cable complete, 87$00, added very rare emergency revenue “ Overprint Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia con niem black 0$20 on 0$80 this time difficult to found revenue Etat du Vietnam Quc Gia 0$20”
The receipt of Car Service of Ngahn du Phu tung Ford Saigon , 2981$00 added Revenue Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00.
(The serial reciept with complete nominal value revenue in 1957 until 1959 will showed us the transition period including the emergencies overprint revenue were best collection to show look at that varition revenue-auth)
Colombo plan conference at Saigon
excellence of government officials in France
at that time, can be seen in this picture taken
in 1957 in Saigon, where the Colombo Plan
Conference negotiations were held.
On the left, “one of the first DS arrived in Saigon, in 1957″, in “La DS, objet de culte”.
On the right, “the first DS in Saigon, Sept. 1957″, in “Le Guide DS19“.
The rare combination between common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue 0$40 with rare Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue 2 Piastres , on the receipt or car servive statin “Ford” cholon, 1138$ , revenue rate 2$40.
(still used Piastres revenue-at transition period -auth)
The unusual nominal value of revenue only 2$ without 00 (the right must 2$00) Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue on the reciept of car station service “Ford” saigon 1012$00, rate revenue 2$00.
(Unusual print without 00 after 2$, only 2$ , the right was 2$00, before another type 3 piastres -auth)
The Contant Receipt of Societe Indochinoise De Transport for car service SIT Saigon &SIT Phon Phenh “Bobine Lucas 12v-237706” 328$00 with bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80
(The Indochine old form still used-auth)
10) October 1957
Communist insurgent activity in South Vietnam begins in accordance with decision reched in Hanoi to organized thirty seven armed companies in Mekong delta.
During the year guerrillas assassinated more than four hundred minor South Vietnamese official.(D)
(2) , The South Vietnam Communist, The Vietcong , began organising in the countryside, planning the assasination on Diem ‘s village headmen and official,
(3) The photo of Diem in the front of Saigon Bishop and another officials, he sat at law chair (TT Diem tam Cao nguyen Trung phan 1957) (P)
b)Diem AVRN vs VIETCONG GUERILLA’S in 1958
1) January 1958
(1)Diem in 1958
Diem’s authoritarian rule, his ruthlesness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among pheasant bu among all those groups excluded from power and from a share .
2) February 1958
The receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon, 1667$00, added Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 + 0$60.(rate 3$60)
3) -4) 1958
5) May 1958
The receipt of Indochine electric company 61$20 with Vietnam Cong Hoa common bigger type 0$20. the form write in Franch langueges.
6) June 1958
(1)Vietcong form a coordinated command structure in eastren Mekong delta .
7) July 1958
The receipt of Car Service station Ford Saigon , 800$00 with Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 2 x 0$80 (rate 1$20)
The Military certificate, “ Quan-Doi Vietnam Cong Hoa” De Tam Quan-Khu. “CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN-MON SO 1 Bo-Binh” (Quan/Military certificate/Chung Chi), the complete certificate with armed walfare illustrations. :
Hoi-Dong Giam Khao ky thi man khoa lai T.T.H.L/SDKC 14 ta ngay 23 thang 6 nam 1958 den 28 thang 6 nam 1958 .
Chung nhan Binh nat TRAN-VAN-KHIET so quan 400.052
Ta trung tuyen ky thi CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN MON S 1/BO-BINH.
Voi diem trung binh chung 13,23/20 . thung hang 43/71 .
Chuyen mon : Bo-Binh
Lam Tai KBC 4.061, ngay 15-8-1958
Chan cu kao
Thieu-Ta Nguyen –Luong-Khuong
KBC 4.098 ngay 25/9/1958
Trung –Ta Bui-Huu-Nhon
Q Tu Linh-Do Tam Quan-khu
(the interesting for South Vietnam military document ‘s showed with the picture of green black military action around the certificate, sign at KBC 4061(?) and 4098(?) not list in IMNAHA KBC number please comment the complete area from KBC 4027 – Dalat National Military academy to KBC-4100 Thu Duc infantry school.
This was the trung tham certificate? Change thingking? Because only 12 days training,what kind of training and where the location -auth)
9) September 1958
(1) September.27th 1958
Tet Nhi Dong Saigon (Tet New Year Holiday) covers with the tet Stamps and special first day postal stamped In this day 20 years laters Vietcong suprise attack (PH)
10)-11) 1958 no info
12) December 1958
(1) by 1958 almost all the residual insurgent had been wiped out.(P)
c) Diem ARVN vs Vietcong in 1959
SAIGON 1959 Postcard Flower Market Tandinh Street Scene
Vintage Old Multiview Colour Hand Tinted Postcard. French Indo-China Indochina, Vietnam. Souvenir de Saigon. Marche aux fleurs, Marchand ambulant de ballons, Le Marche de Tandinh, Bd Kitchner vers Cauonglanh. Little Boy with Balloons. Native Street Scene. Postally Used with Viet-Nam Cong-Hoa stamp 6d Chinh.Publisher: P-C Paris Cliche des Editions P.C.
1) January 1959
(1) Murderer of Gouvernment official by Vietcong 1200 per years.(D)
(2)Since 1959, the best Vietnam phillatelic collector Nguyen Bao Tung was a member of South Vietnam’s council for planning new stamps design and secretary General of the Vietnamese-American Association Stamp Club in Vietnam
( please Mr Tung or his native Vietnam phillatelic ‘s friend help me with more comment and information-auth)
(3) The original vintage photo Vietnamese army (AVRN) wiyh his sister (4 womens) , in the back of photo written “ Ky niem Hoi con tic 1959 Bihuy.”
2) February 1959
(1)February ,18th 1959
The picture postcard of Nha Trang beach ‘Cha”ng ca’nh , Dai ta’nh” postally used (stamp off) CDS NHA TRA(NG) , 18.(2).1959 TO Cholon.
Nha Trang 14.2.59 cds Nha trang
Cordial souvenuer 18.2.1959
Nuedley vocine Nguyen Ba Luon
Pour l’annee Profeneur
Ky’ Hoi E’cole Francaise de
(2)February .6th 1959
The rare reciept of Police D’Abonnement Au Compteur, appreil instalattion than-chan ,Trinh , money 9114$63, with the rare highest nominal value bigger type green Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 10$00.
(This revenue document very find condition and very rare the Police ambonnement of Compteur, for high price installation nine thousand $ , and high nominal 10$00 revenue- the show piece collection-auth)
3) March 1959
(1) March,1st. 1959
BINH CHUNG RA-DA. Don Vi Anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng. Vu Trang Nhan Dan (D)
(2) March,3rd 1959
The HOC CHI of Truong Trung Hoc Tu Thuc Cong-Hoa, 139 ,Duong Pasteur saigon. DE Tu Nhien Khoa 1958-1959.
Signed by Hieu Truong Phan van Van with rede doublke circle official stamped.,
Autheticated with regional Cholon-Saigon taxes regional 10$00 yellow revenue. By T.U.N. Do Truong Saigon,Truong Quan cuan Na with official stamped “ Vietnam Cong-Hua* D0-Thanh S.C. Truong Chan Ba.*”
(The lattest used of the regional revenue, after this regional revenue will ovrprinted with year from 1960 to 1975 except 1963, the best serial regional revenue and best for showed-auth)
(3) March 14th 1959
The stamps of Trung sister on Elephant were issued in this day, the 6 pi uncommon in mint no hings condition.
(The Vietnam hero’s Trung sister very popular but the Lady Trieu didn’t issued because the people hate Madame Ngu because she said that she was the reincarnation of Lady Trieu and she made the statue which broken out after the Diem regime fall, read the chapter I Ancient Vietnam War, -auth)
THE ID OF WILLIAM COLBY IN VIETNAM
Saigon, Vietnam; March 17, 1959
4) April 1959 no info
5) May 1959
(1) North Vietnam forms Group 559, to begin infiltrating cadres and weapons into Southy Vietnam via the Saigon Trail.(D)
6) no info
7) July 1959
(1) July 1959
Group 759 organized by Vietminh to suplies to the south by sea.(D)
The Dalat” Chuc Pongouh” water-fall vintage picture postcard send from Dalat in French char. In the back in franch:
Dalat le 12.7.50
Alur tres …ne nouvelle a vous
aunoncre, j’ai trouv …..juine (JUNE) fille pour vous et j.
..re, quu’elte vous flavia.Je vous la prisenter , Ju mon retour.Si Vous e les presse, regadez en attenolant la
photo qua Germaine Vous a envorjee.Je cois qu ‘slle yest de dana (Danang) .
#Bientiet et Bon counage. Signed
(Please somone translate this latter ,thanks,auth)
To Khai Gia Dinh ‘s Bo Thanh Saigon ‘s document from Canh Sat Cuoc Quan ,Khu 7
signed by Gia-truong dung Khai ,ky ten and Kien-thj , le canh sai truong with red double circle Sat quoc quan with bamboo / flora disign.(OD)
(4) July 24th 1959
Ban Xa-Hoi Quan Tan-Binh
AU-TRI-VIEN PHU-NHUAN B.N. 10$
Nha Lanh cua Bo Dinh thi Nam SO BAC LA : Mui dtong bac :
Giup vao Quy Au-Tri Vien phunun.
T.U.N BAN CHA’P HANH XA HOI
Chu Tieh signed Nguyen –Thi-Lieng
Red Stamped BAN XA-HOI Tinh Gia-dinh
(What the meaning : “Au-Tri-vien”? auth)
The red “The’ Cu’ Tri (election?) Card” in vietnamese language , 1.8.1959 :
THE’ CU’ – TRI
BAU CU’ QUO’C HO’I NAM 1959
No. 0634621 A/IX
Ho’ Te’n Nguyen Thi Thuan
Ngay sinh va sinh : 29 tuoi
Dia-chi 9 –B- Be’n Nguyen Duy
The’ co’n cuo’c so’ B .003.539 nga’y………ca’p toi…..
Cha ‘ ky’ cu’a Zua’n Ta’m ngay 1 Thang 8 na’m 1959
Nguo co the Chu’ ky’ va’ da’u cu’n
Nha chue’ tra’ch ca’p tha’i
CHU’ Y’ .Ai du”ng the’ cu-tri cu’a ngu’o’i khac’ hoa’c dua the’ cu’-tri cua
Minh cho ke’ kha’c du’ng de’u bi truy-tp’ theo hinh-tua’t.
9) no info
10) October 1959
(1)Notre Dam Basilica (Saigon)
This church up to the Basilica in 1959 during 300 years Saigon Bishop (D- in the front of Basilica no Marie Madona statue) and private photo of the Basilica (OP- i964, there were Madona-Marie statue, may be made after Diem assasination)
When my visit in 2007, in the front of this Basilica I saw the Madonna statue and I have prayed at the front of that statue : “Please help me to get the best vietnam war postal history” and when I turned to the right I saw the small native stamps shops where some Vietcong postal history were found-there, difficult to seek the stamps shop in saigon because everybody did.t understand where the antique or phillatelic shop, you must told them Buu chin shop, also the Stamp catalogues.
In my last visit july 2009, I have went by foot, walking from Phi Vu Hotel Nguyen Trai street , through the street in the front of the Hotel two block –to the right I came to the Back of the Market at front of Saigon Bus station, the to the right two block came to Ho Chi Minh City Museum where show the Vietnam War weapon, helicopter, jet and tank, granat,gun, archive ,photo and document of Vietnam Liberation war including Vietcong collections, but not the revenue and pstal history, also traditional wedding ceremony, and the Vietnam cultural ethnic collection and Saigon history, then turn to the right found Pasteur street(Duong),
More two block turn left I have seen the Basilica, seen inside , many brides have made the antique photo, a Chinese Oldman help me to take photo of myself , in the front Mary statue at the front of Basilica,
At left side of the basilica, I met The Antique Saigon post office where I made two CTO cover, one for my friend Adi Darma with the 2006 sheet stamps chinese shio, and for my collection Ho Chi Minh stamps block four, but very pity I cann’t find the Stamp shop anymore after asking many persons because I still have the name card, after that by bus I go to Saigon bus station and met my friend in the front of that bus station and her husband bring me to her house at Chilon by motorbike, where I found complete revenue , postal and document history’s collections to add what I have found yesterday -auth)
11) November 1959
(1) November,28th 1959
The official first day postcard of first anniversary Republic du Tchad ,first day CDS “Premier Emission”, and the picture of flag blue-white-red, very pity the stamp was taken off.
This unused postcard issue by “ Aevres sciales, office Equatorial des Postes et Telecommunication. (please told me what kind of stamps, vietnam or Franch stamps? –auth)
(2)Ecole Lamartine L.M.C. Billet D’Inscription Card.
Aunee Seolaire 1959-1960.
Nom : Vo Thi Thao
Classe: 10 eiue A
Venant de 11.
(1)Soon after consolidating its power in saigon, the diem regime embarked on a massive campaign to liquidate in South Vietnam.
Many were imprisoned in reeducation Camp “TRUONG TAM “ or Center to Change thought.
(IMNAHA report postally used cover from Truong Tam, look at July,10th 1967-auth)
(3) December,12th 1959
The traffic accident of two car NCC 578 and NBO 096 report with the road map of accident’s situation, for repaired.
(If someone will translate the document, the complete document will showed in the blog, very rare accident that time because not many cars in Saigon-auth)
The Diem South Vietnam war 1960-1961
Vietnam War (contd-5)
Insurgency in the South, 1956-1960
The Sino-Soviet split led to a reduction in the influence of the PRC, which had insisted in 1954 that the Viet Minh should accept a division of the country.
Truong Chinh, North Vietnam’s pro-PRC party first secretary, was demoted and Hanoi authorised communists in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency in Dec 1956. This insurgency in the south had begun in response to Diem’s Denunciation of Communists campaign, in which thousands of local Viet Minh cadres and supporters had been executed or sent to concentration camps, and was in violation of the Northern Communist party line which had instructed them not to start an insurrection, but rather engage in a political campaign, agitating for a free all-Vietnam election in accordance with the Geneva accord.
Ho Chi Minh advised, “Do not engage in military operations, that will lead to defeat. Do not take land from the peasant. Emphasize nationalism rather than communism. Do not antagonise any one if you can avoid it Be selective in your violence . If an assassination is necessary, use a knife, not a rifle or a grenede. It is easy to kill innocents with guns and bombs, and accidental killing of the of the innocent bystanders will allienate peasants from the revolution. Once an assassination has taken place, make sure peasants know why the killing occurred “. This strategy was referred to as “armed propaganda”.
October 28, 1960 – The fifth anniversary of the Republic of South Vietnam is celebrated with a military parade on Thong Nhut Boulevard in Saigon.
June 1961 – South Vietnamese militiamen, automatic weapons in hand, stand guard in My Quai, a village about 75 miles southwest of Saigon in an area threatened by guerilla forces.
February 26, 1962 – The palace in Saigon is hit by an isolated attack by two members of the South Vietnamese air force. President Ngo Dinh Diem was unhurt.
October 1962 – U.S. advisor trains Vietnamese troops in the use of a flame thrower.1961
Tu Do Nightclub – Vũ trường Tự Do, góc Tự Do – Thái Lập Thành
- banner appealing the whole people to vote in the Presidential Election – “Tòan dân tham gia bầu cử Tổng Thống – Đi đông hào hứng, bầu đúng cử xứng”
Saigon 1961 – Tu Do Street
Lính gác trên đường Tự Do gần phía trước trụ sở Quốc Hội vào dịp bầu cử Tổng Thống 1961 – Soldiers on guard duty on Tu Do street near the National Assembly building during the 1961 Presidential Election in South Vietnam.
Saigon 1961 – General Le Van Ty
Đại tướng Lê Văn Tỵ, Tổng Tham Mưu trưởng Quân đội VNCH
|47 people were killed at Saigon, in 1962|
a. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Similar greetings were sent in 1962 from ARVN Brigadier General Van Thanh Cao and his wife to Major Giertsen of the Strategic Hamlets Division. The card was sent postage free via APO 143.
f). The crisis escalation 1963
(Monk burn himself , Student protest and Diem assasination )
1) January 1963
(1)Vietcong units defeat South Vietnamese at the battle of Ap Bac .(D)
2) February no info
3) March 1963
(1) March, 6th.1963
The very rare Do Than Saigon THE’ CU’-TRI (election?) card with stamped red squared box D.V.16 – cross and D.V. 19. signed by Cap tai Saigon , print 16.9.1964 , change with red ink written 6.3.1963. signe by Quan-Truang Quan 8 , Cao Ming Chung with red double circle official stamped of TOA KAHN CHAN QUAN THAY-VIETNAM CONG HUA D0-THAN SAIGON.
( Why the date of the’ cu’ Tri change from 1964 to 1963, may be the worst situation in 1963 and what the meaning of Stamped D.V. 16 and 19. may be military areal code,please comment-auth)
VIET NAM CONG HOA
DO THENH SAIGON
THE CU – TRI : D.V. 19 :
Ho te’n LAM VAN HUE’
Ngay va noi sinh 1928 Cho Lon
Nai cu-tri 9 B Nguyen deuy R 11 ky 14
The’ ca’n cua’c so” 050977 cap tai quan ngai 1960
Chu ky cua cu-tri Cap tai Saigon ngay 6 thanh 3 nam 1963
Quan-Truong Quo’n 8
CHAU MINH CHUNG
Chu Y” : 1. The nay duoc cap hoan Toan mien phi
2. Xin gia the de Quan Trong cac quoc
Bau cu khac.
3.Ai dung cu tri cua nguot khac hooc
Dua the cu-tri cua minh cho ngua khac
Cung co bi truy to theobhinh tuoi.
4) no info
5) May 1963
South Vietnamese troops and police shoot at Buddhist demonstrators in Hue. (D)
6) June 1963
(1)Crisis intensifies as Buddhist monk commits suicide by self –immolation.
A Budihst monk burns himself to death in Saigon in this day ,as a protest against the South Vietnamese governnment ‘s mistreatment of Budhist.
This suicide , the first of several by Budhist militans as Tri Quang, after that a Buddhists Monk displayed pheno-menal skill in Mobilizationn south Vietnam ‘s Buddhist to protest against the Diem regime.
He and other monks stage a sit down strike on a street in Saigon , then sparked widespread demonstrations against the Govern-ment. Two kind of photo’s angle self immolations, first form the left side and second from the right , also the photo of Tri Quang sitdown strike (D & P)
7) July 1963
July 1, 1963 – South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem reviews honor troops in Saigon, marking his first appearance in public since the crisis between Diem, a Roman Catholic, and the Buddhists.(2)July,4th. 1963
CIA agent, informs from South Vietnam General Tran Van Don, officers are plotting against Diem.(D)
(2) July,7th 1963
The Vietnamese Emblem and armor defend stamps issued in this day.
(3) August 1963
(a)August 1963 – Policeman breaks up an advertisement for a beauty parlor because it violates laws for a ‘healthier society.’ Fancy hairdos and seductive smiles were outlawed in ads and other public displays.
(c) Vietnam Special force cordon off the Saigon Market because of student demonstration (P)
(d)Dean of the school of Science and Paedagogy at the center trying to calm student holding a protest demonstration against the repressive measures of the Diem government (photo)
(e)Students at the School of Sciences and Paedagogy holding a protest demonstration against the Diem goverment(photo)
(f) Tam Pham Bieu , Dean of the school of Medicine at the University of Saigon, speaking to Students after his arrest by the Diem Government.(photo)
(g) Military Governor of Saigon-Cholon (Gia Dinh) province holding a press conference at the city hall to defend the Diem government’s position during the period of martial law two. Look at the Governor’s photo (D&P)
(h) Anti-Diem goverment demonstration by the student at the University of Saigon School of Sciences and Paedagogy(P)
(i) Demonstration by high school students against Diem Goverment at the Saigon city street (Truong vo Truong Toan, canh ben Truong Trung Vuong, gan so Thu Saigon-P)
(j)August 9th 1963
(a1)US secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara visit Saigon , look the photo , he sat behind ARVN Brig.General Do Cao Tri (photo)
(b1)General Maxwell D.Taylor also visit South Vietnam and he had made a tour of Inspection with ARVN General Van Minh Duoang, look at his photo when gave military salute (photo)
(c1)The photo of the South Vietnam presidential family , their put the native traditional gown , at left Diem (P)
(d1) Madame Dinh Nhu Ngo , ex first lady during Diem regime, waving from the stairs of an airoplane to went abroad before His husband and her brother in law Ngo Dinh Diem assasination.(photo)
(e1) During the period of martial law, Military Governor Ge. Ton That Dinh and General Nguyen van La holding a confrence to defend the Diem Goverment’s position, look at their Photo (D&P)
(f1) In this day, Phu Lam SG Budhist monk arrested by Diem regime, being held in guarded compound at Phu Lam (Photo)
(g1) The Photo of Rome Italy- Arch-bishop Ngo Dinh Thuc , was taken in this day (P)
(h1)The photo of official meeting in Saigon this day, ARVN General Nguyen Dinh Thuan defend the Diem position to the US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge jr and US secretary of defense Robert S. McNamara.(P)
(i1) Unidentificated Dean of the School of Sciences and paedagogy attempting to persuaden the security Police of The Diem government no to arrest the student demonstrator (P), but The Student still being taken away in trucks by them(P)
(3) August,21th 1963
Ngo Dinh Nu’s forces attack Buddhist temples.(D)
(4) August,22th 1963
Washington recommends tha Nhu be removed; also suggest American support for mutinous generals against Diem.(D)
9) September 1963
(1) September,2nd 1963
Kennedy criticized Diem in a television interview.(D)
(2) Pres.Ngo Dinh Diem’s brother Ngho Ding Nhu and his younger son with his wife went to europe by aeroplane (Photo at airport)
(3) Us Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge yunior meeting with President of southnVietnam Ngo Dinh Diem (P)
And he talking with Mr Ngo Dinh Nhu at a diplomatic reception (P), he also talking with acting Foreign Minister Truong Cong Cuu at a diplomatic reception.
(4) Us Ambassador H.C.Lodge Jr shaking hands with US Army services on the Saigon city street(P) and he with his wife leaving St Christopher’s Anglican Episcopal congregation Church after services on Sunday.(P)
(5) The formation of the 11th Air Assault Division. After the one year prepared concept tested in two month s of continous maneuver against the 82nd Airborne Division.
The outcome was strongly vin favor of the helicopter-borne forces and the 82nd was defeated as sound-ly as any division ever was its peace-time maneuvers.(D)
(6) President Diem talking with a delegation of Budhist monks from the Union Committee for the Defense of Pure Buddhism at Gia Long.(P)
(7) Nhu holding press confrence (P)
(8) Police participating in a Diem government sponsored demonstration (P)
(9) Police holding back a crows at the An Quang Pagoda as the Buddhist monk are taken away again by the Diem government(P)
(10) Police hauling away high school student who were demon-strating against the Diem goverment (P)
(11)Pictures of the Buddhist monks who burned themselves to death prior to the anti-Diem Government revolution in the xa-Loi pagoda (P)
(12) Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Saigon being welcomed back by medical student after his arrest by the Diem government (P)
(13) Combat Policemen going to student demonstration (P)
(14) Buddhist monk tidying up the vestry rooms in the Xa Loi pagoda at its official reopening by permission of the Diem government(P)
(15) September,13th 1963
The photo at Belgrade,Yugoslavia, where Kennedy,s meet Mrs Nhu, accompanied by Senator Edward(P)
And Senator Edward M.kennedy tals with Mrs Nhu(P)
10) October 1963
(1)October ,10th 1963
Infantrymen move toward the woodline after being airlifted to a landing zone in Xa Ba Phuic during a search and destroy mission (P)
(2)October 1963, 16.000 US troops sent more to South Vietnam . The Geneva agreement were dead, as the US responded military to increasing Vietcong activity.(D)
October 16, 1963 – Armed South Vietnamese marines march past Saigon’s Xa Loi Pagoda, once headquarters of the Buddhist opposition, as the participate in National Day Thanksgiving Service
Mrs Nhu in Whasington DC ( Ba Ngo Dinh Nhu trong buei hop bao tai Washington DC, Hoa Ky)
11) November 1963
(1)November 1st 1963
(a)A photo of Vietcong army(?) in this day, Cac binh si tham gia cuoc dao chanh (please someone translate to find more information-auth)
(b)The Photo of Dinh Gia Long (office) , noi TT Ngo Dinh Diem va ong (overthrew ?)
(c)in this day, at The photo we saw the wrecked Presidential Palaced, gutted & ransacked after military coup that overthrew Diem Goverment(P)
(d) Mayor General Van Don Tran with other officers and troops celebreting overthrown in this day(P)
(e) General Van Minh Duong leader of military coup that overthrew Diem regime , in this day made a press conference (P)
(f) The photo of Monks meeting with Military coup after overthrew Diem Regime (P)
(g) In this day , Vietnamese dancing again at night club (after forbidden during the Diem regime ) aftrer overthrew of Diem Regime (P)
(2) November,2nd. 1963
Diem’s regime became increasingly corrupt and authoritarian until Nov. 2, 1963, when he was assassinated in a coup. He was succeeded by General Duong Van Minh, who orchestrated the coup d’etat
( The Diem and Nhu assasination’s day)
(a)Arrest and Assassination of Diem and Nhu.(source:Wikipedia)
Marked the culmination of a successful CIA-backed coup d’etat led by General Duong Van Minh in november 1963.
On the morning , November,2nd 1963 , Diem and his adviser, young brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, were arrested after the Army of The Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) had been successful in bloody overnight siege on Gia Long Palace in Saigon.
The coup was the culmination of nine years of autocratic and nepotistic family rule in South Vietnam Dis-comfort with the Diem regime had been simmering below the surface, and exploded with mass Buddhist protest against long standing religious dicrimination after the government shooting of protesters who defed a ban on the flying of the Budhist flag.
When rebel forces entered the palace, the Ngo brothers were not present, as they escaped the night to the loyalist shelter in Cholon.
The brothers had kept in communication with the rebels through a direct link from the shelter to the palace, and misled them into believing that they were still in the palace.
The Ngo brothers agreed to surrender and were promised safe exile, after being arrest, they were instead executed in the back of an armoured personnel carrier by ARVN officers on the journy back to military headquaters at Son Nhut Air Base.
While no formal inquiry was conducted, the responbility for the death of the Ngo brothers in the trip. Minh’s bodygueard, Captain Nguyen van Nhung, and on Major Duong Hieu Ngia, both of whom guarded the brothers during the trip.
Minh’s army colleagues and US official in Saigon agreed that Minh ordered the executions.
They postulated various motives, including that the brothers embar-rassed Minh by fleeing the Prseidential Palace, and that the brothers were killed to prevent a later political came back.
The general initially attempted to cover up the execution by suggesting that the brothers had committed suicide, but this was contradicted when photos of the Ngo’bloofied bodies surfaced in the media.
(b) The street of Saigon were littered when opponent of Diem broke into the office of a newspaper sympathetic to the Government Diem’s overthrow was greeted with jubilation by the Saigon populace which had hated his harsh rule(P)
(c) In the morning of this day, a mutinous South Vietnamese soldier inside the presidential palace , after Diem and Nhu had fled to a hiding place on the Saigon suburbs (P)
(d) The bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel carrier, in which they were murdered by two insurgent officer after their captutre on this day. They had surrendered, hoping to be permitted to leave the country (P)
(e) The book’s illustration of the bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel courier , in which they were mudered by two insurgent officers after their capture on November 2 1963 ,They had surrendered hoping to be permitted to leave the country (ibid S.Karnow)
(f)Nguyen Bao Tung best phillatelic collections aslo contain the stamps of the Founder of the Republic of Vietnam who was assasinated after The military coup on November.1st 1963., the collections bore the signatures of the president Diem and official seals
( very rare collections with original signature and official seals because no one keep the Diem official cover after he was assasinations, please comment –auth)
(a)Three weeks after Diem’s death J.F.Kannedy assasination in Dallas, succeeded by Lyndon Johnson.
The death of Kennedy and Diem led to a new phase in the American involvement in Vietnam (D)
(b)Henry Cabot Lodge, American ambassador to Saigon, with President Diem. Lodge had little patience for Diem, whom he felt was hindering the American effort on help South Vietnam fight the Vietcong (P)
(c) An American adviser, leads South Vietnamese troops into action in thge Mekong delta in 1963. America adviser then in Vietnam were suppos-ed to avoid combat, but many parti-cipated in battle neverless(P
(1) December,15th 1963
The Thanh-Minh-Tu, AP PHU HAI, XA PHANRI-CUA “THIEP MOI” invitation(?) letter from Phu-Hot to Kinh Goi Ong Bu “ Quan-Truong Quan(Military) Hoa –Da
“Trong 9 nam chien tranh tan khuc.Tan-Minh-Tu Phu-Hai pai bj canh tieu tan sup do, mai den nay m duoc co-duyen xay dung hoan thanh, do cung nhoi au giup do cua Chinh-quyen, nho su giup do cua cac nha hao tam ung-ho va duc tin tuong manh liet cua toan dan trong Ap, gop lan cua moi lap nen.
Le Khan thanh se cu hanh trong 3 ngay 12,13, va 14 thang 11 quy –Mao tuc ngay 27,28,29,29-12-1963 the chuong trinh vach dinh ben canh.
Tron trong kinh moi
T.M. Ban To-chuc
(Please native Vietnamese collectors will helping me to translate this very rare document and also the below document , because the information from this document very useable for postal history colecter and Vietnamese historian-auth)
The very rare official letter send by Cuorier from Ngoc Bang Saigon double red circle stamped on Covers sending by Courier to Ong Ba,Trung Uy’ Quan Trung. He oa-Da.
Inside Doan Ca-Kich Ngoc Bang Saigon,Chiep Moi Card used for writting the latter :
Doan cua chung toi rui qua din dia phung nay theit bai luon 3 hon’i khy dhuong xoay tu’.
Itiui guo nay ca 50 doan vien Chua Co buoi au son nai.
King thi vi hoan caung dien diug cua gauf ceuy dau hiem 3 ngay ray Rly ngoi dan duoa.
Vay: Vo choy toi nho eum dui thua vio auh nho anth tieui.
Pheuing hui gi’up do doang ti guing say duo ngay Tet.
Hoay Rinz. (PH)
(Please native Vietnam to help me for translate this interesting informations from this letter, why this cover din’t send by Postal , may be no postal services by the worst situation , if someone have the postal histori covers in 1963 please comment and sho us that rare collection-auth)
(2)The meeting between General AVRN Van Minh Duong with American Ambassador Henry Cabot Jr and Robet McNamara,(P),
4.3.3. AVRN War in 1964-1967
a. AVRN vs Vietcong war 1964
General Cao headed up ‘Operation Sunrise’ that oversaw the creation of three strategic hamlets in Binh Duong Province earlier that year. Ultimately, around 14,000 such hamlets were created throughout South Vietnam and populated with forcibly relocated peasants before the program was dismantled in early 1964
General Nguyen Khan seizes power in Saigon , arrest four ruling generals but allow Minh to remain as figure head chief of State.(D)
(2) In the year after 1963 , Nguyen van Thieu steadily in importance he became the deputy premier and minister of defense.
Not yet info
3) March 1964
(1)US Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara visit Vietnam , vow support for Khanh.(D)
(2) March,20th 1964
The chinese written postally cover from Saigon-Vietnam 20.3.1964 to Saigon-Cholon Viet-Nam 21.3.1964, with 1d justice emblem and 2d Unesco stamps (rate 3 d) .
( Cholon was the chinese overseas area over the Mekong river in Saigon where I found this posta history , the address in chinese traslate means…….. :……………..auth)
4) April and 5) May 1964 noinfo
6) June 1964
(1)June , 2nd . 1964
Pantagon Strategist refine plans for bombing North Vietnam.
(2)Johnson anticipate a large scale US effort:
(a)The Tonkin Resolution was simply intended to give him the discretion to punish the North Vietnamese, but it was noneless regarded as essential to bring stability to an independent
(b) Non-communist South-Vietnam in order to counter Khruschev’s claim to have the right to support “ war of National Liberation”(D)
7)July 1964, no info
1964 was a key year in the Vietnam War. In August, the United States alleged that one of its ships had been fired on in the Gulf of Tonkin. Although this was not true, it provided the Congress the pretext it needed to authorize full-scale military operations in Southeast Asia.
(1)Vietnam was still seen by the public as no more than a miror problem : The Us would need only to flex her muscles for the communists to back down.(D)
(2)Covert South Vietnamese Maritime operations begin against North Vietnam.(D)
(3) North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the MADDOX , an US destroyer in Tongkin Gulf, August 2(D).
(4) A doubtful second incident report two days later(D)
(5) US aircraft bomb North Vietnam for the first time in this month.(D)
(6) August, 21st , 1964
The rare postal history of US’s Kennedy prestamped 11c airmail letter sheet send from native vietnamese at California CDS “SAN LUIS OBISPRO 1934004, Aug 21 1967” to South Vietnam CDS “Saigon-Vietnam 26-8 1967”
The handwitten latter in vietnamese language:
Cal Poly-San Luis Obispro Chu nhat 20.8.1967
Lan qua khong dube bien y ma Hong, anh ut truong La Hong da quan anh, khong con nho gi dten thang anh xa xoi may nua the roi dong hu do anh nhen duoc the Hong vo nhat la khan quan co do think tay Hong sung tai, va anh thay minh co loi doi nghi oan cho hong, hong chonanh xia nha. Tu nay anh khong dan nghi tam bay tam ba nhu vay noi dan nhung anh anh hong ung dung bo be anh nuy , moi lan duoi thu van biet chat itoi gia ma viet cho anh doi dong de goi la chanh qua soy am tam long doi coi nay. Anh thang thue cau du truong ve qua tang ma hong, anh vat sung luong va cam doi thay tu nua lanh de anh quang khan cua hong.
Mau ve kiem day lain anh thich thu nhat day, hop y ve dung la nhy diem anh nhuoc tu lan. Honh khan that, anh ky biet noi sao cho bet sui biet an cua voi hong duoc, anh nung khong biet hong nuon gi e anh co gi anh ve tang hong theu y hong, thu san hong biet nho, hong muon gi anh nung chra y ca muon la……..etc….
Hong lua nay ra Sao! Anh rat nay tu Hong, anh khy quan duoc nhy ky vien va thy luong ve Hay chue Hong voi ve, manh an duong man.
( This collection very interesting, because not many communication between Vietnamese who study in California to his friend (Girl?) and writting information and comment about his own country, we will understood about the vietnam information in US –please someone wil kind to translate-auth)
9) September 1964
The South Vietnam first day covers-Premier Jour D’Emmision of Bai Bien (Plaque De) “Ha Tien” stamps, firstday special stamped Tem Tho “Ba Bien Ha Tien.Saigon , Ngay Bau-Rien 7-9-64. (PH)
10) October 1964
Vietcong attack Bienhoa air base, but Johnson rejects proposal for retaliatory raids against North Vietnam .(D)
11) November 1964
(1)Lyndon Johnson defeats Barry Goldwater for the presidency ,November 3(D).
(2) Saigon convulsed by Rioters protest Khanh’s rule and Taylor now ambassador , urges Khanh to leave the country.(D)
By the end of 1964, the number of US troops in Vietnam shot up from about 2,000 military advisers to more than 16,500.
(1) December,24th. 1964
Vietcong terrorist bomb American military billet in Saigon, but Johnson again rejects proposal for raids against North Vietnam.(D)
(2) December.20th 1964
Bien Lai Khai Sanh- Bo Thanh saigon certificate-without photo(?) ,sign and stamped by Quan-Truong ,vietnam Cong Hoa NAM –PHAN, for Tian boi Phan ,tai quan 4 Saigon durong (street) 9 Le Chach, con (Children) cua :Tian hoc Diec,va cua Ly tu Ky (father & Mother?)
Trước 1975 là PX của Mỹ, hiện nay là KS Hoàng Đế
PX Mỹ tại số 117 Phan Đình Phùng (nay là Nguyễn Đình Chiểu) Q.3 Sài Gòn
Some of the SU27 pics were borrowed from Carambol. Thank you.
THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN SUWANDY 2011