The Cecil Beaton Art Photography

artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marlene Dietrich in New York", 1937. - Courtesy of and © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. - On view at The Museum of the City of New York  in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

THE CECIL BEATON ART PHOTOGRAPHY

artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marlene Dietrich in New York", 1937. - Courtesy of and © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. - On view at The Museum of the City of New York  in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.


“Cecil Beaton: the New York Years”, The exhibition traces the artist’s astonishing career in New York City. Photographs of Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn, Mick Jagger, Marilyn Monroe, Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), and Andy Warhol, among many other 20th-century icons, taken by a man who made himself iconic—the legendary Cecil Beaton .”Cecil Beaton: the New York Years” will feature vintage fashion photographs and celebrity portraits, award-winning set and costume designs for celebrated stage productions, original drawings, and other ephemera.  A book, entitled Cecil Beaton: the New York Years, accompanies the exhibition; featuring 200 stunning images, it is published by Skira Rizzoli and will be available in the Museum’s Shop and elsewhere.

  “New York City provided especially fertile territory for Cecil Beaton in the mid-20th century.  Presented with its kaleidoscopic scene, he photographed everything from the jewel-toned gowns of Charles James to the scrappy t-shirts of Warhol’s Factory members, and everyone from Greta Garbo to Tom Wolfe, and even himself in many guises. Cecil Beaton was enchanted by New York, and in turn he enchanted the world with its glamour.” The exhibition documents the artist’s colossal success in New York City from the height of the Jazz Age through the 1980s.  As a result of his prescience, which brought him to the city as it was becoming a world capital, and his talent, which catapulted him to the heights of his profession almost instantly, Cecil Beaton enthralled New Yorkers and the rest of the world with his prodigious output, blurring the boundaries between art, theater, commerce, high society, and counter-culture. “Cecil Beaton: the New York Years” is the second exhibition of the artist’s work at the Museum, which in 1969 mounted 600 Faces by Beaton.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Audrey Hepburn Costume for Film Version of My Fair Lady, 1963 Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby'sHighlights of the exhibition include photographs that stunningly document the pantheon of celebrated fashion designers of the day, including Balenciaga, Irene, Charles James, Lanvin, Mainbocher, Elsa Schiaparelli, and others, drawings and photographs of the women who played key roles in Beaton’s career and life—Mona Bismarck, Greta Garbo, Diana Vreeland, and Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), material related to Beaton’s firing by Condé Nast in early 1938 for an anti-Semitic comment that was inadvertently published, although Beaton was brought back to the magazine in the early 1940s, Beaton’s photographs of Greta Garbo, counted among the greatest images of her ever taken, which were made when the two were romantically involved, photographs of such 20th-century figures as Adele and Fred Astaire, Marlon Brando, Maria Callas, Martha Graham, Elsa Maxwell, Babe Paley, Diana Vreeland, and more. The exhibition will also feature Beaton’s hand-drawn portraits, caricatures, and sketches beside costume and set designs for Broadway plays, including Noël Coward’s Quadrille (1954), Lerner and Loewe’s My Fair Lady (1956), and Lerner and Previn’s Coco (1969) and the New York City Ballet productions of Camille (1946), Illuminations (1950), and Swan Lake (1951).

British-born Cecil (Walter Hardy) Beaton (1904-1980) arrived in New York City in 1928, having achieved early success in his homeland.  Trans-Atlantic connections resulted in his near-instant introduction to New York City’s elite, including Elsie de Wolfe and Edna Woolman Chase, the editor of Vogue magazine at the time. What followed is the stuff of legend:  a remarkably agile career which spanned fifty years and as many visionary works in which Beaton brought his rarefied vision to bear on fashion photography, illustration and caricature, portraiture (in drawings and photographs), and set and costume design for stage and film. Cecil Beaton’s stratospheric ambition was nurtured and sustained by mid-20th–century New York, where his career was able to maintain a feverishly high pitch. Society figures, media giants, impresarios, celebrities, actors, artists, writers, and the merely famous passed in front of his camera in an endless parade of glamour and style. The pages of Condé Nast publications—most notably, Vogue magazine—showcased his elaborately staged photo shoots, in which his eye for opulence and drama animated such sitters as Fred (and his wife, Adele) Astaire, Maria Callas, Greta Garbo, Martha Graham, Audrey Hepburn, Katharine Hepburn, and the woman who would become the ultimate 20th-century icon:  Marilyn Monroe. He enlivened his photographs with sets in which he borrowed liberally and extravagantly from European art forms, incorporating formal elements of modern (and classical) painting and sculpture into his work, and bringing elements of such major aesthetic movements as impressionism, surrealism, and others into the homes of magazine readers nationwide.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marilyn Monroe", 1956. Courtesy of  © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton" until February 20th 2012.

Beaton’s photographs, in essence, were sets—or tableaux—enabling him to shift effortlessly into design for the performing arts just as post-WWII New York was becoming an international cultural capital. His extraordinary stage sets and costumes for Broadway, the Metropolitan Opera, and the New York City Ballet were masterful evocations of “place” in the extreme.  He depicted the ancient Chinese society of Turandot (1961) with a visual hierarchy of robed chorus members and tiered pagodas; original costumes for this opera will be on view in Cecil Beaton:  The New York Years.  The Metropolitan Opera’s opening season at Lincoln Center featured Beaton’s production of La Traviata; original costumes from this opera will also be on view. His costume designs for the Ascot Race scene in Broadway’s My Fair Lady (1956), for which he won a Tony Award, pointedly exaggerated Edwardian fashion and later inspired Truman Capote’s renowned Black and White Ball of 1966.  The facility with which he designed for the stage coupled with his mastery of photographic technique catapulted him into film, where his costume and set designs for My Fair Lady (1964) earned him two Academy Awards, both in addition to the one he’d received for his costumes in the beloved film Gigi (1958).

In the 1960s Beaton turned his lens on Andy Warhol and the Factory.  Like Beaton and his close friend and confidante (and subject of numerous photographs), Truman Capote, Warhol moved easily both within New York society (where each found artistic inspiration) and outside of it (where each was able to work obsessively).  Unlike Beaton, Warhol had publicly expressed his belief that art and commerce were inextricably linked.  Unlike Warhol however, Beaton was criticized—by Hilton Kramer in The New York Times—for his proximity to society’s riches.  Possibly inspired by, or recognizing a kindred spirit in Warhol, Beaton pursued a new, young generation of the rich or famous, including a study of Factory members Candy Darling and Ultra Violet, as well as others, such as Mick Jagger and Tom Wolfe.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Andy Warhol & Candy Darling - New York City 1969 - Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby's - On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

THE BIOGRAPHY OF CECIL BEATON

 

Biography

 

Beaton was born on 14 January 1904 in Hampstead the son of Ernest Walter Hardy Beaton (1867–1936), a prosperous timber merchant, and his wife Etty Sissons (1872–1962). His grandfather, Walter Hardy Beaton (1841–1904), had founded the family business of Beaton Brothers Timber Merchants and Agents, and his father followed into the business. Ernest Beaton was also an amateur actor and had met his wife, Cecil’s mother, when playing the lead in a play. She was the daughter of a Cumbrian blacksmith named Oldcorn who had come to London to visit her married sister.[2] It is through this connection that Cecil is related to the Blessed Father Edward Oldcorne who was involved in the Gunpowder Plot. They had four children — in addition to Cecil there were two daughters Nancy (1909–99) and Baba (1912–73), and another son Reggie (1905–33).

Nancy married Sir Hugh (Smiley Baronets) (1905–90) and Baba married Alec Hambro.

Cecil Beaton was educated at Heath Mount School (where he was bullied by Evelyn Waugh) and St Cyprian’s School, Eastbourne, where his artistic talent was quickly recognised. Both Cyril Connolly and Henry Longhurst report in their autobiographies being overwhelmed by the beauty of Beaton’s singing at the St Cyprian’s school concerts.[3][4] When Beaton was growing up his Nanny had a Kodak 3A Camera, a popular model which was renowned for being an ideal piece of equipment to learn on. Beaton’s nanny began teaching him the basics of photography and developing film. He would often get his sisters and mother to sit for him. When he was sufficiently proficient, he would send the photos off to London society magazines, often writing under a pen name and ‘recommending’ the work of Beaton.[5]

 

Beaton attended Harrow, and then, despite having little or no interest in academia, moved on to St John’s College, Cambridge, and studied history, art and architecture. Beaton continued his photography, and through his university contacts managed to get a portrait sitting with the Duchess of Malfi — actually George “Dadie” Rylands and, as Beaton recalled years later, “It was a slightly out-of-focus snapshot of him as Webster’s Duchess of Malfi standing in the sub-aqueous light outside the men’s lavatory of the ADC Theatre at Cambridge.”[6] The resulting images gave Beaton his first ever piece of published work when Vogue magazine bought and printed the photos.[5]

 

Beaton left Cambridge without a degree in 1925, but only coped with salaried employment in his father’s timber business for eight days.[6] His brother Reggie however entered the business and remained until his death in October 1933.

For fifteen years between 1930 and 1945

 

, Beaton leased Ashcombe House in Wiltshire, where he entertained many notable figures.

In 1948 he bought Reddish House, set in 2.5 acres of gardens, approximately 5 miles to the east in Broad Chalke. Here he transformed the interior, adding rooms on the eastern side, extending the parlour southwards, and introducing many new fittings. Greta Garbo was a visitor.[7] The upper floor had been equipped for illegal cock-fighting at the beginning of the 20th century but Beaton used the cages as wardrobes to store the costumes from his set design of My Fair Lady. He remained at the house until his death in 1980 and is buried in the churchyard.[8][9][10] In 1947, he also bought a townhouse at number 8 Pelham Place in London.

 Career

 Photography

Beaton designed book jackets and costumes for charity matinees, learning the professional craft of photography at the studio of Paul Tanqueray, until Vogue took him on regularly in 1927.[6] He also set up his own studio, and one of his earliest clients and, later, best friends was Stephen Tennant; Beaton’s photographs of Tennant and his circle are considered some of the best representations of the Bright Young People of the twenties and thirties.

 

He was a photographer for the British edition of Vogue in 1931 when George Hoyningen-Huene, photographer for the French Vogue traveled to England with his new friend Horst. Horst himself would begin to work for French Vogue in November of that year. The exchange and cross pollination of ideas between this collegial circle of artists across the Channel and the Atlantic gave rise to the look of style and sophistication for which the 1930s are known.[11]

 

Beaton is best known for his fashion photographs and society portraits. He worked as a staff photographer for Vanity Fair and Vogue in addition to photographing celebrities in Hollywood.

Beaton’s first camera was a Kodak 3A folding camera. Over the course of his career, he employed both large format cameras, and smaller Rolleiflex cameras. Beaton was never known as a highly skilled technical photographer, and instead focused on staging a compelling model or scene and looking for the perfect shutter-release moment.

Beaton often photographed the Royal Family for official publication.[12] Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother was his favourite Royal sitter, and he once pocketed her scented hankie as a keepsake from a highly successful shoot. Beaton took the famous wedding pictures of the Duke and Duchess of Windsor (wearing an ensemble by the noted fashion designer Mainbocher).

During the Second World War, Beaton was initially posted to the Ministry of Information and given the task of recording images from the home front. During this assignment he captured one of the most enduring images of British suffering during the war, that of three-year-old Blitz victim Eileen Dunne recovering in hospital, clutching her beloved teddy bear. When the image was published, America had not yet officially joined the war—but splashed across the press in the US, images such as Beaton’s helped push the American public to put pressure on their Government to help Britain in its hour of need.[5]

Beaton had a major influence on and relationship with two other leading lights in British photography, that of Angus McBean and David Bailey. McBean was arguably the best portrait photographer of his era—in the second part of McBean’s career (post-war) his work is clearly heavily influenced by Beaton, though arguably McBean was technically far more proficient in his execution. Bailey was also enormously influenced by Beaton when they met while working for British Vogue in the early 1960s, Bailey’s stark use of square format (6×6) images bears clear connections to Beaton’s own working patterns.

Stage and film design

After the war, Beaton tackled the Broadway stage, designing sets, costumes, and lighting for a 1946 revival of Lady Windermere’s Fan, in which he also acted.

His most lauded achievement for the stage was the costumes for Lerner and Loewe‘s My Fair Lady (1956), which led to two Lerner and Loewe film musicals, Gigi (1958) and My Fair Lady (1964), both of which earned Beaton the Academy Award for Costume Design. He also designed the period costumes for the 1970 film On a Clear Day You Can See Forever.

Additional Broadway credits include The Grass Harp (1952), The Chalk Garden (1955), Saratoga (1959), Tenderloin (1960), and Coco (1969). He is the winner of four Tony Awards.

He also designed the sets and costumes for a production of Puccini’s last opera Turandot, first used at the Metropolitan Opera in New York and then at Covent Garden.

He also designed the academic dress of the University of East Anglia.[13]

 Diaries

Cecil Beaton was also a published and well-known diarist. In his lifetime six volumes of diaries were published, spanning the years 1922–1974. Recently a number of unexpurgated diaries have been published. These differ immensely in places to Beaton’s original publications. Fearing libel suits in his own lifetime, it would have been foolhardy for Beaton to have included some of his more frank and incisive observations.[14]

Personal life

He was made a Knight Bachelor in the New Year Honours 1972.[15]

Two years later he suffered a stroke that would leave him permanently paralysed on the right side of his body. Although he learnt to write and draw with his left hand, and had cameras adapted, Beaton became frustrated by the limitations the stroke had put upon his work. As a result of his stroke, Beaton became anxious about financial security for his old age and, in 1976, entered into negotiations with Philippe Garner, expert-in-charge of photographs at Sotheby’s. On behalf of the auction house, Garner acquired Beaton’s archive—excluding all portraits of the Royal Family, and the five decades of prints held by Vogue in London, Paris and New York. Garner, who had almost singlehandedly invented the photographic auction, oversaw the archive’s preservation and partial dispersal, so that Beaton’s only tangible assets, and what he considered his life’s work, would ensure him an annual income. The first of five auctions was held in 1977, the last in 1980.

Reddish House

By the end of the 1970s, Beaton’s health had faded. In January 1980, he died at Reddish House, his home in Broad Chalke in Wiltshire, at the age of 76.[5]

The great love of his life was the art collector Peter Watson, although they were never lovers. He had relationships with various men. He also had relationships with women, including the actresses Greta Garbo and Coral Browne, and the British socialite Doris, Viscountess Castlerosse.

Honours, awards and medals

Work

Photographs

Bibliography

  • My Royal Past, 1939
  • Ashcombe: The Story of a Fifteen-Year Lease, 1949
  • Photobiography, 1951
  • Persona Grata, 1953
  • Indian Diary and Album
  • The Glass of Fashion
  • My Bolivian aunt: a memoir
  • Chinese Diary and Album
  • Japanese, 1959
  • Ballet
  • Portrait of New York
  • Self-portrait with Friends: the Selected Diaries of Cecil Beaton, 1926–1974
  • The wandering years; diaries, 1922–1939
  • Cecil Beaton’s The Years Between Diaries, 1939–44
  • The strenuous years, diaries, 1948–55
  • The restless years: diaries, 1955–63
  • The parting years: diaries, 1963–74
  • The Unexpurgated Beaton: The Cecil Beaton Diaries as He Wrote Them, 1970–80
  • Beaton in the Sixties: The Cecil Beaton Diaries as He Wrote Them, 1965–69
  • Cecil Beaton’s ‘Fair Lady’ (diary excerpts and costume sketches), 1966 .
  • The face of the world: an international scrapbook of people and places.
  • I take great pleasure
  • Quail in Aspic: the Life Story of Count Charles Korsetz

[edit] Exhibitions

Major exhibitions have been held at the National Portrait Gallery in London in 1968 and in 2004.

The first international exhibition in thirty years, and first exhibition of his works to be held in Australia was held in Bendigo, Victoria from 10 December 2005 to 26 March 2006.

In October 2011, the BBC’s Antiques Roadshow featured an oil portrait by Beaton of rock star Mick Jagger, whom Beaton meet in the 1960s. The painting, originally sold at the Le Fevre Gallery in 1966, was valued for insurance purposes at £30,000.

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN SUWANDY 2011

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Andy Warhol & Candy Darling - New York City 1969 - Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby's - On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

The Masterpiece Of International Artwork Exhibitions

 

 

 artwork: Salvador Dali - Flordali I , 1981- Courtesy of William Bennett Gallery, NYC

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

artwork: Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881 - 1973) - Studio with Plaster Head, Summer 1925. - Oil on canvas. Unframed: 97.9 x 131.1 cm. -  © 2011 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Purchase, 1964. -  Digital Image © The Museum.

THE MASTERPIECE OF INTERNATIONAL ARTWORK COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION

Allegory and History, Man and Contemporary Life, Man and Nature and Solitude.

PAINTER:  HENRI ROSSEAU,ALEXANDER CABANET,JEAN FRANCOIS MILLET

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artwork: Henri Rousseau - "War or The Cavalcade of Discord", circa 1894 - Oil on canvas - 114 x 195 cm. - Collection of the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. On view at National Museum of Singapore in "Dreams & Reality: Masterpieces of Painting, Drawing & Photography from the Musée d’Orsay" until February 5th 2012.

At the turn of the century from 1848 to 1914, with the advent of the Industrial Revolution in Europe, a rapidly urbanising social and economic landscape in Europe compelled Man to react towards modernity. The arts particularly grew in prominence as artists were confronted by a whole new world of ideas, possibilities and influences. Some chose to pursue their desire to capture contemporary subjects; others who were anguished and disorientated by the onslaught of massive change, sought refuge in their dreams and imagination founded on mythologies, legends and ancient civilisations. Their varied response generated new ways of depicting reality and a proliferation of artistic styles, redefining their own identities amidst the radical transformations taking place around them. This exhibition is divided into four main sections: Allegory and History, Man and Contemporary Life, Man and Nature and Solitude.

artwork: Alexandre Cabanel - "The Birth of Venus", 1863 - Oil on canvas - 130 x 223 cm. - Collection of the Musée d’Orsay, Paris.

Allegory and History is illustrated with works by artists such as Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, who blended myths of classical antiquity with history and reality, creating a new trend that was perpetuated in the Salons during the second half of the 19th century. Gods and goddesses were increasingly depicted as stylised figures, stripped of meaning. During the Romantic period in the 19th century, the links between literature, theatre, music and painting grew. Artists sought to free themselves of classicism; yearning freedom, they embraced a dark melancholy and rebellious pessimism. After France surrendered and lost two provinces Alsace and a large part of Lorraine to Prussia in the 1870 War, many artists were affected by the tragic events and dedicated paintings and drawings to the defence of Paris and the Commune – a resistance movement against the Empire’s defeat. Man and Contemporary Life Family Family was the only constant source of stability, comfort and moral support for the artists. Family members thus became tractable models with whom the artists could share their difficulties in artistic creation. When the once agrarian society transited into an urban one, some artists  felt nostalgic towards the countryside as a sort of “lost paradise”, while others denounced the archaic conditions and exploitation of peasants.

Another group of artists looked at a different reality – contemporary life in the city and the exalted heroism of factory workers. As Paris modernised, an array of new leisure activities sprung up. Artists began to discover the beauty of modern life by painting new places like theatres, public gardens and railways. Man and Nature The Human Figure From the mid-19th century, traditional approaches to figure-painting, portraits and nudes were widely challenged and succeeded by new artistic styles which included informal poses, people donning their own clothes performing daily tasks in their homes or on the streets. While landscape in art was initially linked to history, mythology and the Bible, it moved towards a more subjective and lyrical interpretation from the second half of the 18th century onwards. Towards the end of the 19th century, landscapes became increasingly devoid of human presence, underlining the insignificance of man as a subject compared to the forces of Nature. Man as a solitary being Surrounded by progress on all fronts, a group of artists were concerned about the irreversible changes made to the fast urbanising environment, hence, they set out to depict Man as a solitary being. In the artists’ perspective, the only way humans can escape the weight of science and technology is through the individual’s mind.

artwork: Jean-François Millet - "Spring", 1868-1873 - Oil on canvas - 86 x 111 cm. - Collection of the Musée d'Orsay, Paris. On view at National Museum of Singapore in "Dreams & Reality" until February 5th 2012.

With a history dating back to its inception in 1887, the National Museum of Singapore is the nation’s oldest museum with a progressive mind. The National Museum is a custodian of the 11 National Treasures, and its Singapore History and Living Galleries adopt cutting-edge and varied ways of presenting history and culture to redefine conventional museum experience. A cultural and architectural landmark in Singapore, the Museum hosts vibrant festivals and events all year round – the dynamic Night Festival, visually arresting art installations, as well as amazing performances and film screenings – in addition to presenting lauded exhibitions and precious artefacts. The programming is supported by a wide range of facilities and services including F&B, retail and a Resource Centre. The National Museum of Singapore reopened in December 2006 after a three-year redevelopment. The museum used to house a vast collection of zoological items, but were transferred to the National University of Singapore (NUS) and other museums in the Commonwealth.

Among the highlights of the collections are the Singapore Stone, the Gold Ornaments of the Sacred Hill from East Java, a Dagguerreotype of Singapore Town which was one of the earliest photographs of Singapore, the will of Munshi Abdullah, the portrait of Frank Athelstane Swettenham, the hearse of Tan Jiak Kim, a Peranakan coffin cover, the mace of the City of Singapore commemorating King George VI’s raising of the island’s status to a city in 1951, the Xin Sai Le puppet stage, William Farquhar’s drawings of flora and fauna and the portrait of Shenton Thomas, who was the former governor of Singapore. Rocks from the nearby Fort Canning Hill were used to create two sculptures commissioned from Cultural Medallion-winner Han Sai Por.    

Modern Art Presents a Retrospective of Ignacio Burgos

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artwork: Ignacio Burgos - "Bobsleigh 1", 2010 - Mixed media on canvas - 150 x 150 cm. - Courtesy The Moscow Museum of Modern Art. On view in "Ignacio Burgos: A Retorspective" from November 9th until December 14th.


 the solo exhibition of Ignacio Burgos, one of the most interesting contemporary artists in his country. His art is recognizable and self-contained; for long years, the master is faithful to his style and does not surrender to the dictation of markets, galleries, and curators. His manner can be defined as ‘figurative expressionism’: in his canvases, the exquisite palette of blues, purples and ochres comes into balance with a special Mediterranean light, and soft but precise brushwork. “Ignacio Burgos: A Retorspective” .

Attention: open in a new window. artwork: Pablo Picasso (Spanish, 1881 - 1973) - Studio with Plaster Head, Summer 1925. - Oil on canvas. Unframed: 97.9 x 131.1 cm. -  © 2011 Estate of Pablo Picasso / Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York. The Museum of Modern Art, New York, Purchase, 1964. -  Digital Image © The Museum.


 Modern Antiquity: Picasso, de Chirico, Léger, and Picabia in the Presence of the Antique, , focuses on how four eminent artists reinvented and transformed antiquity between 1906 and 1936. Classicizing creations such as de Chirico’s enigmatic piazzas, Picasso’s post-cubist women, Léger’s mechanized nudes, and Picabia’s “transparencies” made the arts of antiquity modern. Following its showing at the Getty, the exhibition will be on view at the Musée Picasso, Antibes 
   

Christie’s Impressionist & Modern Art evening sale in NYC totals $140,773,500artwork: Max Ernst "The Stolen Mirror" - Oil on canvas, painted in 1941. - Estimate: 4,000,000-6,000,000. Sold for: $16,322,500 USD / £10,283,175. Photo: Christie's Images Ltd 2011.


NEW YORK, N.Y.- Christie’s Impressionist & Modern Art Evening Sale achieved $140,773,500 (£88,687,305/ €102,764,655), with three works of art selling above the $10 million mark. Despite spots of selective bidding throughout the sale, Surrealist works and modern sculpture performed well overall, and buyers competed aggressively for rare works and those offered fresh to the market from private and museum collections. Christie’s offered the three top private collections this season, including the Property From the Collection of Lew and Edie Wasserman, which totaled $8.5 million; The Collection of John W. Kluge, sold to benefit Columbia University, which achieved $4.9 million; and A Distinguished West Coast Collection, which realized $10.5 million.
artwork: Yves Tanguy - "Untitled", 1938 - Tempera on paper - 9.3 x 23.3 cm. - Collezione Peggy Guggenheim, Venezia. On view at the Lucca Center of Centemporary Art in "Revealing Papers: The Hidden treasures of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection" until January 15th.

The Lucca Center of Centemporary Art is proud to be showing “Revealing Papers: The Hidden treasures of the Peggy Guggenheim Collection”,. Peggy Guggenheim’s career, as patron and collector, was driven by her readiness to support, both financially and morally, the intellectual vanguard, whether literary or artistic, and her desire to communicate to others her own enthusiasm for the art of her time. Her vision went beyond the mere acquisition of works of contemporary art to the creation of a comprehensive collection of museum standard. Peggy worked to bring about the acceptance of the avant-garde not only in the United States, but also in Europe and in particular in Italy. This exhibition presents a selection of seldom seen works on paper from the Peggy Guggenheim Collection in Venice.]

   

 3 Abstract Artists Attention: open in a new window.

artwork: Meghan McKnight - "I Untitled", 2011 - Acrylic on wood - 122 x 183 cm. - Courtesy p|m Gallery in Toronto. On view at Galerie Trois Points, Montreal in "p | m gallery @ Montreal " from November 12th until December 17th.


 the exhibition of three Ontarian painters . The three artists featured, William Griffiths, Meghan McKnight, and Amanda Reeves all approach their abstract practice through distinctly different layering strategies.
artwork: Lady Pink - "Ghetto Pink", 2011 - Acrylic on canvas - 116.8 x 177.8 cm. - Courtesy of the Woodward Gallery, New York. On view in "Lady Pink - Evolution" from November 5th until December 30th.


 “Lady Pink – Evolution”, . Lady Pink is the first woman in graffiti based art.  In her current solo exhibition “Evolution,” Lady Pink re-masters work she once created as public murals. Lady Pink muses on old lettering outlines which have evolved from three decades of writing. To the cultured eye, Lady Pink’s street tag can be identified from the period in which it was deliberately constructed. The colorful POP- surreal canvases today, have her trademark name interwoven throughout the elaborate image, as if to authenticate her mark in art history. Lady Pink’s unique personal vision has been communicated throughout her evolution from subway writer to fine artist.
artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marlene Dietrich in New York", 1937. - Courtesy of and © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. - On view at The Museum of the City of New York  in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

“Cecil Beaton: the New York Years”, The exhibition traces the artist’s astonishing career in New York City. Photographs of Greta Garbo, Audrey Hepburn, Mick Jagger, Marilyn Monroe, Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), and Andy Warhol, among many other 20th-century icons, taken by a man who made himself iconic—the legendary Cecil Beaton

and Queen Elizabeth II coronation

 

.”Cecil Beaton: the New York Years” w

 

ill feature vintage fashion photographs and celebrity portraits, award-winning set and costume designs for celebrated stage productions, original drawings, and other ephemera.  A book, entitled Cecil Beaton: the New York Years, accompanies the exhibition; featuring 200 stunning images, it is published by Skira Rizzoli and will be available in the Museum’s Shop and elsewhere.

  “New York City provided especially fertile territory for Cecil Beaton in the mid-20th century.  Presented with its kaleidoscopic scene, he photographed everything from the jewel-toned gowns of Charles James to the scrappy t-shirts of Warhol’s Factory members, and everyone from Greta Garbo to Tom Wolfe, and even himself in many guises. Cecil Beaton was enchanted by New York, and in turn he enchanted the world with its glamour.” The exhibition documents the artist’s colossal success in New York City from the height of the Jazz Age through the 1980s.  As a result of his prescience, which brought him to the city as it was becoming a world capital, and his talent, which catapulted him to the heights of his profession almost instantly, Cecil Beaton enthralled New Yorkers and the rest of the world with his prodigious output, blurring the boundaries between art, theater, commerce, high society, and counter-culture. “Cecil Beaton: the New York Years” is the second exhibition of the artist’s work at the Museum, which in 1969 mounted 600 Faces by Beaton.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Audrey Hepburn Costume for Film Version of My Fair Lady, 1963 Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby'sHighlights of the exhibition include photographs that stunningly document the pantheon of celebrated fashion designers of the day, including Balenciaga, Irene, Charles James, Lanvin, Mainbocher, Elsa Schiaparelli, and others, drawings and photographs of the women who played key roles in Beaton’s career and life—Mona Bismarck, Greta Garbo, Diana Vreeland, and Wallis Simpson (the Duchess of Windsor), material related to Beaton’s firing by Condé Nast in early 1938 for an anti-Semitic comment that was inadvertently published, although Beaton was brought back to the magazine in the early 1940s, Beaton’s photographs of Greta Garbo, counted among the greatest images of her ever taken, which were made when the two were romantically involved, photographs of such 20th-century figures as Adele and Fred Astaire, Marlon Brando, Maria Callas, Martha Graham, Elsa Maxwell, Babe Paley, Diana Vreeland, and more. The exhibition will also feature Beaton’s hand-drawn portraits, caricatures, and sketches beside costume and set designs for Broadway plays, including Noël Coward’s Quadrille (1954), Lerner and Loewe’s My Fair Lady (1956), and Lerner and Previn’s Coco (1969) and the New York City Ballet productions of Camille (1946), Illuminations (1950), and Swan Lake (1951).

British-born Cecil (Walter Hardy) Beaton (1904-1980) arrived in New York City in 1928, having achieved early success in his homeland.  Trans-Atlantic connections resulted in his near-instant introduction to New York City’s elite, including Elsie de Wolfe and Edna Woolman Chase, the editor of Vogue magazine at the time. What followed is the stuff of legend:  a remarkably agile career which spanned fifty years and as many visionary works in which Beaton brought his rarefied vision to bear on fashion photography, illustration and caricature, portraiture (in drawings and photographs), and set and costume design for stage and film. Cecil Beaton’s stratospheric ambition was nurtured and sustained by mid-20th–century New York, where his career was able to maintain a feverishly high pitch. Society figures, media giants, impresarios, celebrities, actors, artists, writers, and the merely famous passed in front of his camera in an endless parade of glamour and style. The pages of Condé Nast publications—most notably, Vogue magazine—showcased his elaborately staged photo shoots, in which his eye for opulence and drama animated such sitters as Fred (and his wife, Adele) Astaire, Maria Callas, Greta Garbo, Martha Graham, Audrey Hepburn, Katharine Hepburn, and the woman who would become the ultimate 20th-century icon:  Marilyn Monroe. He enlivened his photographs with sets in which he borrowed liberally and extravagantly from European art forms, incorporating formal elements of modern (and classical) painting and sculpture into his work, and bringing elements of such major aesthetic movements as impressionism, surrealism, and others into the homes of magazine readers nationwide.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - "Marilyn Monroe", 1956. Courtesy of  © Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby’s. On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton" until February 20th 2012.

Beaton’s photographs, in essence, were sets—or tableaux—enabling him to shift effortlessly into design for the performing arts just as post-WWII New York was becoming an international cultural capital. His extraordinary stage sets and costumes for Broadway, the Metropolitan Opera, and the New York City Ballet were masterful evocations of “place” in the extreme.  He depicted the ancient Chinese society of Turandot (1961) with a visual hierarchy of robed chorus members and tiered pagodas; original costumes for this opera will be on view in Cecil Beaton:  The New York Years.  The Metropolitan Opera’s opening season at Lincoln Center featured Beaton’s production of La Traviata; original costumes from this opera will also be on view. His costume designs for the Ascot Race scene in Broadway’s My Fair Lady (1956), for which he won a Tony Award, pointedly exaggerated Edwardian fashion and later inspired Truman Capote’s renowned Black and White Ball of 1966.  The facility with which he designed for the stage coupled with his mastery of photographic technique catapulted him into film, where his costume and set designs for My Fair Lady (1964) earned him two Academy Awards, both in addition to the one he’d received for his costumes in the beloved film Gigi (1958).

In the 1960s Beaton turned his lens on Andy Warhol and the Factory.  Like Beaton and his close friend and confidante (and subject of numerous photographs), Truman Capote, Warhol moved easily both within New York society (where each found artistic inspiration) and outside of it (where each was able to work obsessively).  Unlike Beaton, Warhol had publicly expressed his belief that art and commerce were inextricably linked.  Unlike Warhol however, Beaton was criticized—by Hilton Kramer in The New York Times—for his proximity to society’s riches.  Possibly inspired by, or recognizing a kindred spirit in Warhol, Beaton pursued a new, young generation of the rich or famous, including a study of Factory members Candy Darling and Ultra Violet, as well as others, such as Mick Jagger and Tom Wolfe.

artwork: Cecil Beaton - Andy Warhol & Candy Darling - New York City 1969 - Courtesy of Cecil Beaton Studio Archive at Sotheby's - On view at The Museum of the City of New York in "Cecil Beaton: the New York Years" until February 20th 2012.

 its heritage of diversity, opportunity, and perpetual transformation. Founded in 1923 as a private, nonprofit corporation,artwork: The Leopold Museum (on the far right) in the famous  Museumsquartier of Vienna, Austria . . Over 11,500 m2 of display space at The Leopold. Housed in a striking modern building designed by Pritzker Prize winning architects Ortner & Ortner and opened in 2001

In 1994, with support from the National Bank of Austria, the Leopold Museum was founded by Professor Rudolf Leopold and the Republic of Austria. The first task of the foundation was to grant public access to the comprehensive collection (over 5,700 artworks from the Leopold’s private collection) through the construction of a new 11,500 m2 modern museum. The result, the Leopold Museum, occupies a striking modern building designed by Pritzker Prize winning architects Ortner & Ortner, which opened in 2001. Located in Vienna’s Museum Quarter, the building appears as a light-flooded cube of shell-white limestone. The building’s interior only allows daylight to penetrate at specific points along the length of the rooms (with side light along the breadth) and only allows one-sixth of the exhibition area to be lit by daylight from above. A few very deliberately positioned picture windows create the kind of randomness found in “bourgeois“ homes, consistent with the pictures having been painted for that certain stratum of society. The voluminous building could almost be said to house two museums, one above the other. The part of the building above ground level is entirely dedicated to the Leopold Collection, the three lower floors are mainly used for the graphics collection, temporary exhibitions, communication (the auditorium) and storage. Visitors enter at the high atrium level, and can either take the single-flight staircase to the right, or enter the Klimtsaal (Klimt gallery), the first large gallery on the left. The top of the main stairs overlooks another big gallery which is in fact accessed on a lower floor and is part of the temporary exhibition area. The staggered heights of these galleries create a mezzanine which houses the museum shop, which in turn leads up to the café above the entrance hall. The functional “confusion“ of the spatial order in the entrance area is presumably not an artistic principle but a response to a simple need, one which has been translated into an instrument of spatial perception throughout the entire museum. It is on the next floor that the whole concept of the sequence of interlocking rooms becomes clear, both in terms of the simplicity of the arrangement and the variations in the repeated basic configuration. In Addition to featuring the works of the expressionist Egon Schiele, the Leopold Museum has also made a name for itself as the museum of Viennese Art Noveau. No other museum offers a comparable cross section of the exceptional achievements of this uniquely Viennese tradition. The finest examples of turn-of-the-century Viennese craftsmanship are combined with a presentation of painting, graphic art and sculpture, providing insight into this remarkable era. Designed by artists like Kolo Moser or Josef Hoffmann and produced by the Wiener Werkstätte, these objects bear witness to the timeless elegance of art in Vienna around 1900. Visit The Leopold Museum at : www.leopoldmuseum.org/

artwork: Egon Schiele - "Reclining Woman" (1917) - Oil on canvas From the Leopold Museum's extensive collection of Egon Schiele artwork

Professor Rudolf Leopold (1925-2010) was born in Vienna, and obtained his doctoral degree in medicine in 1953. During his medical studies, he began to attend art history lectures and to collect paintings and objects of art at the same time, above all, works of the then little-respected Egon Schiele. He purchased his first painting (“The Hermits” by Egon Schiele) using the 30,000 Austrian Schillings that his mother had promised him for a car as a reward for completing of his medical studies. But Rudolf Leopold decided against the car and bought the Schiele, thus beginning his collecting career with a brilliant coup. Over the years, professor Leopold not only amassed a large and significant collection (extending to other significant Austrian artists), but became the foremost expert on Schiele, curating exhibitions of his work and publishing a critical catalogue of Schiele’s works with a detailed list of his motifs. The museum owns 44 oil paintings and 180 gouaches and watercolours by Egon Schiele (the largest collection of Egons Schiele’s art in the world), as well as other Austrian art of the 20th century, including key paintings and drawings by Gustav Klimt, Oskar Kokoschka, Richard Gerstl, Albin Egger-Lienz, and paintings and prints by Herbert Boeckl, Hans Böhler, Anton Faistauer, Anton Kolig, Alfred Kubin, and Wilhelm Thöny. The historical context is illustrated by major Austrian works of art from the 19th and 20th centuries.The panoramic windows of the museum offer a unique view of the Vienna city centre, with Maria Theresien-Platz and the Imperial Palace.

artwork: Roy Lichtenstein (1923-1997) - "Girl with tears" (1977) - Oil and magna on canvas - 117 x 101.5 cm. Currently on loan from the Beyeler collection" and at exhibition at the Leopold Museum Fondation Beyeler, Tieh / Basel © VBK, Vienna 2010 - Photo: Peter Schibli, Basel

Two exhibitions are  “Cezanne – Picasso – Giacometti” extended until 2 provides an opportunity to see masterpieces from the Beyeler Foundation in Basel. The main interest of the Beyelers lay mainly in collecting “well-approved” works of art. The approval process entailed a private ambience that allowed the works to be viewed over a long period of time, under varying conditions. The main purpose was not to reflect a history of modern art but rather the deep relationship the couple had built to the work they had collected, the accent lying always on the singularity and permanence of each work. Key works by artists like Paul Cézanne, Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Vincent van Gogh, Francis Bacon, Jackson Pollock, Roy Lichtenstein or Andy Warhol stand out in an abundance of distinguished names. Over time, a series of work groups emerged, for which the Beyeler Foundation enjoys worldwide acclaim. These include groups of work by Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Fernand Leger, Alberto Giacometti, Paul Klee and Jean Dubuffet. A second exhibition, “Florentina Pakosta” (until 18 April 2011) provides an overview of work to date by the contemporary Viennese artist Florentina Pakosta. Her work takes socially critical realism as its starting point. Beginning in the late 1950s, Florentina Pakosta used pencil drawings and India ink works to examine anonymous character types whom she met at inns, on the streets or in train stations. Parallel to this, she was also experimenting with a cubist formal language. Over the course of time, her psychology-focused portrayals of human beings were reduced to stereotypical characters which she sometimes alienated to the point of becoming caricatures, and which occasionally even ended up as monstrosities. In the 1970s, Pakosta began creating the monumental character heads which were to garner her widespread fame. Further themes in Florentina Pakosta’s works from the 1980s are uniformity and control.

   

Collodion Images of Ken Merfeld

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artwork: Ken Merfeld - ' Gethsemane ' - 14 1/2 

San Pedro, CA – One of the few masters producing images in this 19th Century photographic art process is Los Angeles artist, Ken Merfeld, who will be premiering his new, exquisite body of Collodion work at Flazh!    

Abstract Art in South & North America artwork: Antonio Llorens (1920-1995) - Composición (Composition), 1952 - Oil on board -  © Estate of Antonio Llorens Colección Galería Oscar Prato, Montevideo, Uruguay / Constructive 8

: Abstract Art in South and North America, 1920s–50s. This groundbreaking exhibition is the first to bring together South American and U.S. geometric abstraction and includes a range of paintings, sculptures, prints, photographs, drawings and films.

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artwork: Salvador Dali - Flordali I , 1981- Courtesy of William Bennett Gallery, NYC

 A retrospective two years in the making providing a fresh insight to the lifelong dialogue Salvador Dal í had with Love, Poetry, Religion, Bullfighting and Surrealism. Featuring a selection of original works on paper and Dalí’s rarest graphic portfolios. showing Alice in Wonderland | Paradise Lost | Divine Comedy | The Biblia Sacra | The Hippies | The Tauromachie Surréaliste | Greek Mythology | Carmen | and other selected works at William Bennett Gallery.   

First Retrospective of Artist & Critic Lil Picard Debuts artwork: Photograph by Julie Abeles of Lil Picard performing Construction Destruction-Construction, October 20, 1967, Judson Memorial Church , NY Gelatin silver photograph, 8 x 10 in. - Lil Picard Papers, University of Iowa Libraries © Julie Abeles.

 Lil Picard and Counterculture New York comprises over 70 works by a pioneering feminist artist who played varied and vital—but under-acknowledged―roles in the New York art world during the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s. This first comprehensive American museum exhibition presents paintings, sculptures, drawings, collages, and several landmark installations and performances. Also included are photographs, writings, and films. All the works are drawn from the collections of the University of Iowa Museum of Art (UIMA), which organized the show, and from the University of Iowa Libraries, which houses the artist’s extensive papers. .
The life of this self-described “primitive sophisticated artist” is as intriguing as her art. Born Lilli Elisabeth Benedick in Landau, Germany, in 1899, the multitalented Picard worked as a cabaret actress, accessories designer, and writer in the heady, avant-garde scene of Berlin between the wars. In the 1930s, she focused on writing and criticism, working as a cultural reporter for Berliner Tageblatt, and asa fashion editor for Zeitschrift für Deutsche Konfektion. Best known there as a journalist and critic, she emigrated to the U.S. in 1937, following the rise of Nazi Germany and the revocation of her press credentials due to her Jewish heritage. In New York, she opened a custom millinery shop on Madison Avenue, selling her designs to Lord & Taylor, Macy’s, and Bloomingdale’s. After studying at the Art Students League and with Hans Hofmann in Provincetown, she began painting in earnest in 1939; less than a decade later, she was exhibiting in Greenwich Village’s Tenth Street galleries.

http://img.artknowledgenews.com/files2010apr/Lil-Picard-Lady-Woolworth.jpg&#8221; alt=”artwork: Lil Picard -<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
Lady Woolworth, 1963. Assemblage on cardboard, 28 x 24 in. Lil Picard<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />
Collection, © University of Iowa Museum of Art Colection” width=”275″ height=”419″ align=”left” border=”0″ hspace=”10″ />“A very early practitioner of socio-political Happenings and installations,” notes Kathleen A. Edwards, UIMA’s chief curator, who organized the show, “Picard was several generations older than groundbreaking female performance artists such as Carolee Schneemann and Hannah Wilke. The Estate of Lil Picard, which came to the University of Iowa in 1999, is a remarkable treasure trove of the artist’s work as well as a resource for scholars and students working on New York’s underground art scene in the 1950s, ’60s, and ’70s.”

Studying and making art in New York in the 1940s, Picard met artists such as Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, and Jackson Pollock. Later she frequented Andy Warhol’s Factory and participated in the nascent performance scene with colleagues like Schneemann, Claes Oldenburg, and Yoko Ono. Her personal photographs and letters document her love affairs with artists Al Jensen and Ad Reinhardt. By the 1950s, she had resumed her journalistic career to support her art, most notably as the New York art correspondent for Die Welt, a prominent German daily. Through these writings, she was instrumental in shaping German perceptions of American art, especially Pop art, which she championed vigorously. She also contributed articles to Kunstforum International, Das Kunstwerk, Arts Magazine, East Village Other, and Interview.

Throughout her career, Picard referenced her own life in her art. Her autobiographical observations and experiences―recorded in personal journals, snapshots, and notes―as well as drafts, published articles, and images of her past work, all provided fodder for her visual and performance art. Beginning with her early work Crossing, 1947, with its vigorous, expressive brushstrokes, the exhibition follows Picard’s move toward the dynamic and brightly colored collaged canvases of the 1950s. Layered with the detritus of her everyday existence—theater tickets, wine bottles, cigarette labels, and scraps of clothing—paintings such as the four-paneled Love, 1958–59, and the complex Collage in Blue, 1957, with their active, highly tactile surfaces, reflect the artist’s simultaneous engagement with both past and present.

With the advent of the 1960s, Picard first concentrated on sculpture and assemblage, and later moved toward Happenings and installations. Her playful yet haunted Hide and Seek House, 1960, is featured, along with a series of mixed-media assemblages dating from 1962 to 1964. Both socially and politically aware, Picard demonstrated her feminist concerns in Lady Woolworth, 1963, a work that functions as an early critique of mass media’s manipulation of women. A participant in the NO! art movement who embraced its strategy of melding artistic production with socio-cultural action, Picard explored the trauma of war. She soon preferred performances and installations as vehicles for the expression of her views on the Vietnam War and social oppression, as seen in Construction-Destruction-Construction. This 1967 installation and performance piece incorporated collaged paintings, maimed mannequins, vibrantly painted costumes, spray-painted Associated Press photographs, and an altered American flag quilt, and will be represented in the exhibition by original props and a slide show.

Picard was keenly aware of the intellectual and aesthetic currents of her time. For example, the title of her series of drawings from the mid-1970s known as “dematerializations” was inspired by Lucy Lippard’s book Six Years: The Dematerialization of the Object, published in 1973. Picard’s Napkinian Portraits series also demonstrates the depth of her involvement in New York’s art and literary world, and works such as Socialite Napkin, 1975, with its collaged photograph and mirrored drawings, hint at the artist’s interest in the notion of celebrity.

artwork: LIL PICARD - Cosmetic sculpture II, 1965

By the time of her death in 1994, Picard had had 15 solo exhibitions in the U.S. and Germany, and her work had been included in more than 40 group shows. Her first solo show was at the David Anderson Gallery in 1960. In 1976, she enjoyed simultaneous exhibitions at New York’s Goethe House, Ronald Feldman Gallery, and Holly Solomon Gallery. Her last major show was a 1978 retrospective at the Neue Berliner Kunstverein in Berlin. “The Grey Art Gallery is thrilled to host this important and overdue exhibition,” notes Lynn Gumpert, the Grey’s director. “It reinforces the Grey’s mission to focus on Lower Manhattan’s amazing history of avant-garde art and culture, where artists from a surprisingly broad range of backgrounds converged in a rich and fertile mix. University museums are uniquely equipped to present such scholarly reassessments, and we are pleased to work with Kathy Edwards and the UIMA to reintroduce Lil Picard to New York audiences.” The show will also include two films about Picard by New York filmmaker Silviana Goldsmith: Art is a Party, the New Party is Art and Lil Picard.

Lil Picard and Counterculture New York will be accompanied by a state-of-the-art interactive web site, which will include hundreds of photographs of both Picard’s artworks and the artist with art-world friends. It will also present selected critical writings by Picard, pages from her diaries, some of her recorded interviews with artists, and film clips. Following its debut at the Grey, the exhibition will be on view at the Black Box Theater at the Iowa Memorial Union in Iowa City in Spring 2011.

Picard pursued a remarkable career devoted to art, writing, performance, and fashion that spanned a century. Living in Berlin in the 1920s, she studied art, literature, ballet, and voice. Associated with the Berlin Dada group―which included George Grosz, Hugo Ball, and Richard Huelsenbeck―and influenced by Brecht’s “epic theater” and use of critical satire, she performed in prominent cabarets as well as film. Celebrated as a muse to the postwar New York art world, she became a member of Andy Warhol’s inner circle and counted among her friends numerous art-world luminaries. Drawn entirely from the artist’s estate and its extensive archives at the University of Iowa, Lil Picard and Counterculture New York sheds welcome light on the life and work of an important German-born American artist and critic.
 THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Rare Qing Imperial Landscape decoration Ceramic Found In Indonesia

 

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

 

The Rare Qing Imperial Landscape Decoration Ceramic

Found In Indonesia

 

Introductions

During Qing Dinasty, not many landscape decoration ceramic gift by the emperor to Indonesian Sultanate.

I have only found two ceramic from the imperial Qing de Zhen one bigger plate 35 cm and one cup, many repro items with lower quality exist.

If the Indonesian collectors have the  imperial landscape decoration ceramic which found in Indonesia , please be kind to  report.

I need the informations to complete my research,for that thanks very much.

For all collectors Merry Christmas 2011 and happy new year 2012

Jakarta,December 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

Dr Iwan Collections

Qing Imperial Landscape Stampcup

qing imperial lanscape plate

 original artifact(digital Restoration)

landscape of the imperial saucer

I have found Saucer artifact with the unidentified landscaped red brown color painting of Indonesia gulf port with Stupa ,fort and in the sea-gulf Euro trader’s ship, native fisherman ship, and native with the local ship came to the euro ship, I cann’t identified the port location because no stupa at old Bantam port, the stupaonly found at old Taruma negara port at cibuaya but that time euro didn.t came , the Chinese junk different shape, please comment about the location and this ceramic made in China or Euro ? look carefully the other painting of this UNFO sucer ceramic.@copyright 2010 , I need the sponsored to developed this special site UNFO in this blog, because need much spece for illustration, please contact through e.mail or comment .Dr Iwan S.
Foreign ship( VOC,EIC or Portugeus?) in the sea-gulf (where? may be Old Bantam port , but in hat area no stupa)

 

Native fisherman ship

 

Local people with their ship went to the foreign bigger ship at the gulf (where?)

 

The landscape at the beach of the gulf ,look at the traditional fisherman trap.at the rim of the soucers.

 

Dutch Indie Company (VOC) Port

Compare with Dr Iwan non imperial landscape Ewer(tea Pot)

 

 

 

International Collections

 

 

DSC01562

DSC01547

 

 

 

 

 

Chinese Imperial porcelain blue and white, underglaze copper-red and celadon vase. Six-character mark of Kangxi and period

M2502

M2502a

M2502b

M2502c

M2502d

A Chinese Imperial porcelain blue and white, underglaze copper-red and celadon vase. Six-character mark of Kangxi in underglaze blue and of the period, 1662-1722. Courtesy Marchant

of club form slightly tapering towards the foot, painted on each facet with a mountainous river landscape with houses, viewing pavilions, pine, wuti and incised celadon rockwork, two panels with fishermen, one beneath the moon, each panel within underglaze blue double lines, the flat shoulder with four sprays of prunus, lotus, bamboo and daisy with tall branches of bamboo, repeated on the cylindrical flaring tall neck. 21 1/8th inches, 53.7 cm high. The unglazed base with recessed glazed centre, bearing a six-character mark of Kangxi in underglaze blue and of the period, 1662-1722. – Price on request

Formerly in a private American collection. 

No other vase of this type appears to be recorded.

A similar blue and white vase, painted with a night visit to the Red Cliff and inscribed with part of the poem, together with a similar Kangxi mark and identical sprays of bamboo on the neck, is illustrated by Wang Qingzheng in Kangxi Porcelain Wares from the Shanghai Museum Collection, no. 31, pp. 42-43, another from the Wang Xin Lou collection is illustrated by Julian Thompson and Dr. Robert D. Jacobsen, in Imperial Perfection, The Palace Porcelain of Three Chinese Emperors, no. 2, pp. 30-31.

A_blue_and_white_porcelain_tripod_censer

A blue and white porcelain tripod censer. Kangxi Period. Photo Bonhams

Carefully potted with a raised ridge to the flared rim, a cloud pattern painted to the waist and a continuous landscape with scholars and attendants encircling the convex exterior walls raised on three short feet, the celadon-tinged glaze stopping in a circle within the feet; 9 1/2in (24cm) diameter.
Estimate: US$5,000 – 7,000

Property from Various Owners

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

D’Orsoy The Dandyman Art Lithography Collections

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

 FOUNDER

  Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

 

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

D’Orsay Art Lithography Collections

Count d’Orsay, yang meninggal  pada tahun 1852, ia banyak digambarkan sebagai “pangeran” atau – lebih dgn biasa saja – “yang terakhir” dari pesolek. Fenomena pesolek menggelitik keingintahuan intelektual dalam hitungan yang asli Prancis, di mana ia adalah subjek dari setidaknya satu buku-panjang studi pada abad ke-19. Dalam karyanya Inggris angkat, tempat kemenangan sosialnya, ia terbatas untuk berjalan-pada bagian dalam berbagai kronik usia sementara juga muncul sebagai karakter tipis-terselubung dalam fiksi kontemporer.

Untuk yang terbaik dari pengetahuan saya, W. Teignmouth Shore D’Orsay, atau The Complete Dandy biografi Inggris pertama dari pelat pasca-Kabupaten besar mode, muncul hampir 60 tahun setelah kematiannya. Aku sudah dikutip dari buku Shore, di mana ia menggambarkan d’toilet Orsay’s dan tinggi sendirian menolak penginapannya yang kami kunjungi di London (sebuah perjalanan yang mungkin telah meringankan itu saya telah menyadari volume yang lain Shore, Touring London dengan W Teignmouth Shore;. sebuah buku kecil pedoman friendly bagi mereka yang mengunjungi London, & mereka yang diam di London).

Lengkungan, bertele-tele prosa biografi Shore tanpa henti menghibur tampaknya lebih ke era milik sendiri daripada hitungan menjelang Perang Besar. “Meskipun tidak ada otoritas untuk membuat pernyataan,” avers dia dalam sambutannya, “kita tidak berpikir bahwa kita salah dalam menyatakan bahwa pada hari ketika Adam pertama kali mengeluh kepada Hawa bahwa ia tidak memotong daun ara nya celana sesuai dengan fashion terbaru pesolekan lahir. “

Bapak yang tak perlu dari para pesolek, Beau Brummell, sudah rias London paling berpengaruh saat Gedeon Gaspard Alfred de Grimaud (juga terdaftar sebagai Alfred Guillaume Jibril), Comte d’Orsay, lahir di Paris pada tahun 1801. D’Orsay membuat entri sendiri ke dalam kota 20 tahun kemudian, dengan waktu yang telah diburu Brummell ke pengasingan oleh kreditor, dan itu akan lebih lama masih sebelum menghitung mengambil tempat tinggal. Pertemuan yang tidak lazim romantis – termasuk urusan yang panjang dengan masyarakat maven Lady Blessington, dan mungkin suaminya Tuhan Blessington yang menjadi ayah mertuanya ketika ia menikah dengan putri remaja Earl dari pernikahan sebelumnya – mungkin mengejutkan (dan bingung) kota jiwa lebih sensitif. Tapi d’Orsay gabungan kecantikan fisik, kecerdasan berkilauan, amour propre-magnetik dari dandy serta bau berbahaya dari petualangan Napoleon dan gelar pra-Revolusi, baik diwariskan oleh ayah umumnya. Ini adalah minuman yang memabukkan dan masyarakat jatuh di kakinya indah-bersepatu.

D’Orsay adalah sebagai menghina kesederhanaan fiskal karena ia moralitas borjuis. Ia berbagi tekad Brummell untuk menaikkan hidupnya sendiri untuk status kultus sementara mengabaikan tuntutan yang lebih keras, meskipun jika apa pun bahkan lebih boros. Dia pasti cemerlang. Sebagai salah satu avatar d’Orsay’s sastra mengatakan dalam Henrietta Temple, “Saya ingin sedikit; rumah bagus, baik kereta, kuda baik, lemari pakaian lengkap, yang terbaik opera-kotak, koki pertama, dan uang saku – yang adalah semua Saya membutuhkan “. D’belanja Orsay’s gratis lalai membawanya jauh melampaui berarti nya.

Itu jelas untuk memenuhi hutang bahwa menghitung mengejar potret sebagai karier. Hitungannya adalah networker tak kenal lelah dan untuk rakyatnya dia harus tidak terlihat lagi dari lingkaran sendiri, beberapa orang London yang paling modis dan berpengaruh (dan beberapa wanita), termasuk Disraeli novelis kemudian-dandyish, penulis Henrietta Temple, yang kemudian menjadi Perdana Menteri.

Melihat ke karir Orsay’s d’artistik untuk pertama kalinya aku berpaling untuk Shore untuk pencerahan lebih lanjut, dan ia tidak mengecewakan. Bab “Artis ini” diawali dengan kata-kata berikut (dan Anda benar-benar perlu membaca ini keras-keras dalam napas putus asa untuk mencapai efek yang diinginkan): “Ini mendorong kami sekarang untuk membayar perhatian ke D’Orsay’s klaim sebagai seorang seniman, jika dia telah bertanyakan hanya sebagai amatir, keheningan akan mungkin, tetapi ia bekerja untuk uang, masuk daftar dengan seniman lain, dan karena itu meletakkan dirinya terbuka untuk penghakiman. “Dan kemudian ia pergi selama beberapa halaman dalam bahasa Prancis, mengutip artikel surat kabar yang Shore alami diasumsikan pembaca berpendidikan akan mengerti dalam bahasa aslinya.

Cukuplah untuk mengatakan, Shore tidak sangat terkesan, tapi kolektif d’Orsay’s potret merupakan sesuatu seperti dewa Britannic dari paruh pertama abad ke-19: Byron, Disraeli, Carlyle, Wellington, Dickens – dan d’Orsay dirinya. Banyak dari mereka, baik gambar asli dan litograf, sekarang diadakan di National Portrait Gallery London. Dengan hanya sedikit pengecualian, pengasuh ditampilkan dari tubuh dalam profil kiri; keseluruhan keseragaman ketat membuat untuk sebuah ensemble sangat elegan. Cara ini menetapkan komposisi keintiman hilang dari potret yang lebih besar dan memungkinkan d’Orsay untuk berkonsentrasi pada detail busana yang dia begitu dihargai. Ada timbal balik yang aneh narsisme bekerja dalam foto-foto yang sangat menambah daya tarik mereka: rusa muda aristokrat di sekitar kota akan sangat tersanjung untuk memiliki pangeran pesolek menangkap profilnya, d’Orsay seperti tersanjung melihat pakaiannya mendikte sehingga hati-hati diamati.

Dilihat dalam isolasi, memang benar, potret itu mengungkapkan karakter lebih dari bakat, dan ada sedikit kemajuan dalam keterampilan d’dilihat Orsay’s selama bertahun-tahun 20 atau lebih di mana ia bekerja. Potongan-potongan yang lebih ambisius – seperti potret minyak Wellington atau “Swedia burung bulbul” Jenny Lind – meninggalkan d’Orsay’s ingin prestasi teknis terkena dan tampaknya untuk membenarkan meremehkan Shore. “Semua hal dipertimbangkan kita dapat menuliskan Perhitungan d’Orsay sebagai amatir cukup tingkat pertama,” kata Shore, sebelum menambahkan duri akhir: “sebagai terampil dalam bidang seni seperti setiap keren yang pernah.”

Dalam kasus apapun, Count d’penciptaan Orsay’s terbesar adalah – sebagai harus menjadi kasus untuk setiap dandy sejati – sendiri.

Sebuah pilihan potret d’Orsay’s:

 
 
 

 

original info

Count d’Orsay, who died on this day in 1852, was variously described as “the prince” or – more prosaically – “the last” of the dandies. The phenomenon of the dandy piqued intellectual curiosity in the count’s native France, where he was the subject of at least one book-length study in the 19th century. In his adoptive England, the scene of his social triumphs, he was confined to walk-on parts in numerous chronicles of the age while also appearing as a thinly-veiled character in contemporary fiction.

To the best of my knowledge, W. Teignmouth Shore’s D’Orsay, or The Complete Dandy was the first English biography of the great post-Regency fashion plate, appearing almost 60 years after his death. I’ve already quoted from Shore’s book, in which he describes d’Orsay’s toilet and high-handedly dismisses his lodgings which we visited in London (a journey which might have been lightened had I been aware of another Shore volume, Touring London with W. Teignmouth Shore; a little book of friendly guidance for those who visit London & those who dwell in London).

The arch, prolix prose of Shore’s endlessly entertaining biography seems to belong more to the count’s own era than the eve of the Great War. “Though there is not any authority for making the statement,” he avers in his opening remarks, “we do not think that we are wrong in asserting that on the day when Adam first complained to Eve that she had not cut his fig-leaf breeches according to the latest fashion dandyism was born.”

The undisputed daddy of the dandies, Beau Brummell, was already London’s most influential dresser when Gédéon Gaspard Alfred de Grimaud (also listed as Alfred Guillaume Gabriel), Comte d’Orsay, was born in Paris in 1801. D’Orsay made his own entry into the city 20 years later, by which time Brummell had been hounded into exile by his creditors, and it would be longer still before the count took up residence. His unconventional romantic encounters – including a long affair with society maven Lady Blessington, and possibly her husband Lord Blessington who became his father-in-law when he married the Earl’s teenage daughter from a previous marriage – may have shocked (and confused) the city’s more sensitive souls. But d’Orsay combined physical beauty, sparkling wit, the magnetic amour-propre of the dandy as well as a dangerous whiff of Napoleonic adventure and a pre-Revolutionary title, both bequeathed by his general father. It was a heady brew and society fell at his exquisitely-shod feet.

D’Orsay was as scornful of fiscal temperance as he was of bourgeois morality. He shared Brummell’s determination to raise his own life to the status of a cult while ignoring its harsher exigencies, though if anything he was even more extravagant. He was certainly flashier. As one of d’Orsay’s literary avatars says in Henrietta Temple, “My wants are few; a fine house, fine carriages, fine horses, a complete wardrobe, the best opera-box, the first cook, and pocket money – that is all I require”. D’Orsay’s heedless free spending took him far beyond his means.

It was evidently to meet his debts that the count pursued portraiture as a career. The count was a tireless networker and for his subjects he needed to look no further than his own circle, some of London’s most fashionable and influential men (and a handful of women), including the then-dandyish novelist Disraeli, author of Henrietta Temple, who would later become Prime Minister.

Looking into d’Orsay’s artistic career for the first time I turned to Shore for further enlightenment, and he didn’t disappoint. The chapter “The Artist” begins with the following words (and you really need to read this aloud in an exasperated sigh to achieve the desired effect): “It behoves us now to pay some attention to D’Orsay’s claims as an artist; if he had posed simply as an amateur, silence would be possible, but he worked for money, entered the lists with other artists, and therefore laid himself open to judgment.” And then it goes on for a couple of pages in French, quoting a newspaper article which Shore naturally assumed the educated reader would have understood in the original.

 

Suffice to say, Shore was not greatly impressed, but collectively d’Orsay’s portraits constitute something like a Britannic pantheon of the first half of the 19th century: Byron, Disraeli, Carlyle, Wellington, Dickens – and d’Orsay himself. Many of them, both original drawings and lithographs, are now held in London’s National Portrait Gallery. With only a few exceptions, the sitter is shown from the torso up in left profile; overall the rigorous uniformity makes for a supremely elegant ensemble. This mode of composition establishes an intimacy missing from larger portraits and allows d’Orsay to concentrate on the sartorial details which he so valued. There’s a strange reciprocal narcissism at work in these pictures which greatly adds to their fascination: the aristocratic young buck around town would have been highly flattered to have the prince of dandies capturing his profile, d’Orsay just as flattered to see his dress dictates so carefully observed.

Viewed in isolation, it is true, his portraits reveal more character than talent, and there is little discernible progression in d’Orsay’s skills over the 20 or so years in which he worked. His more ambitious pieces – such as oil portraits of Wellington or “Swedish nightingale” Jenny Lind – leave d’Orsay’s want of technical accomplishment exposed and seem to justify Shore’s disdain. “All things considered we may write down Count d’Orsay as a quite first-rate amateur,” says Shore, before adding the final barb: “as skilful in the arts as any dandy has ever been.”

In any case, Count d’Orsay’s greatest creation was – as must be the case for any true dandy – himself.

A selection of d’Orsay’s portraits:

 

NPG 4026(56); Charles Augustus Bennet, 6th Earl of Tankerville by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(12); Charles William Bury, 2nd Earl of Charleville by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(13); Henry Fothergill Chorley by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(14); Ulick de Burgh, 1st Marquess of Clanricarde by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(16); Charles Spencer Cowper by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D20137; Charles Dickens; Alfred, Count D'Orsay by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D7814; Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield after Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(20); Thomas Slingsby Duncombe by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(21); Edwardes by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D8626; Thomas Grosvenor Egerton, 2nd Earl of Wilton by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(22); John Fairlie by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(23); Lord Frederick Fitzclarence by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D11463; Albany William Fonblanque by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(33); George Rawdon-Hastings, 2nd Marquess of Hastings by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(36); Edward Hughes Ball Hughes by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D8378; Walter Savage Landor by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D1880; Edward George Earle Lytton Bulwer Lytton, 1st Baron Lytton after Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(51); Jack Spalding by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(53); Lincoln Stanhope by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG D4545; Charles Tyrwhitt by Alfred, Count D'Orsay
NPG 4026(61); Sir George Wombwell, 3rd Bt by Alfred, Count D'Orsay

 OTHER INFOMATIONS

 

 

Sub-titled “the scandalous life and escapades of Count Dorsay” you might be excused for thinking this is an expose of aristocratic life. In fact I was left wondering just what it was that could be called scandalous in a modern context although I suppose a french aristocrat being squired around the grand tour by an apparently bisexual irish lord and his wife would have raised an eyebrow or two way back then. This is a surprisingly interesting, true tale about life at the top of the money chain, set against the context of the revolutions of 1815 and 1848. It’s also a moral tale: in the end, Lord Blessington the Irishman dies, his wife is trapped by the bailiffs and Count dorsay escapes to france in penury. Even then money didn’t necessarily buy you everything, but it sounded like fun trying to make it so.
 
 

 

 

 

A biography of Count Alfred d’Orsay, a dandy, soldier and celebrity in Nineteenth Century Britain and France. It’s an interesting read for anyone interested in the Regency to Victorian period.
Count d’Orsay met with most of the great names of the time, Dickens, Thackery, Byron and many others, and drew them.
The book is interesting but irritatingly does not provide translations of the french quotes, and although I do understand them in a general way I’m sure there’s implications I missed with not having an in depth knowledge of french. It follows Count d’Orsay’s life from birth to death and sometimes doesn’t get as in depth as you’d perhaps like. His life was tinged with scandal as he was closely linked to both Lord and Lady Blessinton, possibly sexually close. A few more illustrations of period dress would have been useful. The Bibliography is extensive and it’s well indexed.
Nick Foulkes is quite nasty about the Irish of the period and also has a tendency to be a bit judgemental about manners and mores of the time.
 
THE MEANING OF DANDY AND OTHER DANDYMAN AND WOMEN

 

Sporty Parisian dandies of the 1830s: a girdle helped one achieve this silhouette. The man on the left wears a frock coat, the man on the right wears a morning coat

A dandy[1] (also known as a beau, or gallant[2]) is a man who places particular importance upon physical appearance, refined language, and leisurely hobbies, pursued with the appearance of nonchalance in a cult of Self.[3] Historically, especially in late 18th- and early 19th-century Britain, a dandy, who was self-made, often strove to imitate an aristocratic style of life despite coming from a middle-class background.

Though previous manifestations, of Alcibiades, and of the petit-maître and the muscadin have been noted by John C. Prevost,[4] the modern practice of dandyism first appeared in the revolutionary 1790s, both in London and in Paris. The dandy cultivated skeptical reserve, yet to such extremes that the novelist George Meredith, himself no dandy, once defined “cynicism” as “intellectual dandyism”; nevertheless, the Scarlet Pimpernel is one of the great dandies of literature. Some took a more benign view; Thomas Carlyle in his book Sartor Resartus, wrote that a dandy was no more than “a clothes-wearing man”. Honoré de Balzac introduced the perfectly worldly and unmoved Henri de Marsay in La fille aux yeux d’or (1835), a part of La Comédie Humaine, who fulfills at first the model of a perfect dandy, until an obsessive love-pursuit unravels him in passionate and murderous jealousy.

Charles Baudelaire, in the later, “metaphysical” phase of dandyism[5] defined the dandy as one who elevates æsthetics to a living religion,[6] that the dandy’s mere existence reproaches the responsible citizen of the middle class: “Dandyism in certain respects comes close to spirituality and to stoicism” and “These beings have no other status, but that of cultivating the idea of beauty in their own persons, of satisfying their passions, of feeling and thinking …. Contrary to what many thoughtless people seem to believe, dandyism is not even an excessive delight in clothes and material elegance. For the perfect dandy, these things are no more than the symbol of the aristocratic superiority of his mind.”

The linkage of clothing with political protest had become a particularly English characteristic during the 18th century.[7] Given these connotations, dandyism can be seen as a political protestation against the rise of levelling egalitarian principles, often including nostalgic adherence to feudal or pre-industrial values, such as the ideals of “the perfect gentleman” or “the autonomous aristocrat”, though paradoxically, the dandy required an audience, as Susann Schmid oberserved in examining the “successfully marketed lives” of Oscar Wilde and Lord Byron, who exemplify the dandy’s roles in the public sphere, both as writers and as personae providing sources of gossip and scandal.[8]

Contents

Etymology

Eccentricity defined as taking characteristics, such as dress and appearance, to extremes, began to be applied generally to human behavior in the 1770s;[9] similarly, the word dandy first appears in the late 1700s: In the years immediately preceding the American Revolution, the first verse and chorus of “Yankee Doodle” derided the alleged poverty and rough manners of American-born colonists, suggesting that whereas a fine horse and gold-braided clothing (“mac[c]aroni“) were required to set a European apart from those around him, the average American’s means were so meager that ownership of a mere pony and a few feathers for personal ornamentation would qualify one of them as a “dandy” by comparison to and/or in the minds of his even less sophisticated compatriots.[10] A slightly later Scottish border ballad, circa 1780,[11] also features the word, but probably without all the contextual aspects of its more recent meaning. The original, full form of ‘dandy’ may have been jack-a-dandy.[12] It was a vogue word during the Napoleonic Wars. In that contemporary slang, a “dandy” was differentiated from a “fop” in that the dandy’s dress was more refined and sober than the fop’s.

In the 21st century, the word dandy is a jocular, often sarcastic adjective meaning “fine” or “great”; when used in the form of a noun, it refers to a well-groomed and well-dressed man, but often to one who is also self-absorbed.

Beau Brummell and early British dandyism

Caricature of Beau Brummell by Richard Dighton (1805).

The model dandy in British society was George Bryan “Beau” Brummell (1778-1840), in his early days, an undergraduate student at Oriel College, Oxford and later, an associate of the Prince Regent. Brummell was not from an aristocratic background; indeed, his greatness was “based on nothing at all,” as J.A. Barbey d’Aurevilly observed in 1845. [13] Ever unpowdered, unperfumed, immaculately bathed and shaved, and dressed in a plain dark blue coat,[14] he was always perfectly brushed, perfectly fitted, showing much perfectly starched linen, all freshly laundered, and composed with an elaborately knotted cravat. From the mid 1790s, Beau Brummell was the early incarnation of “the celebrity,” a man chiefly famous for being famous–in his case, as a laconically witty clothes-horse.[citation needed]

By the time Pitt taxed hair powder in 1795 to help pay for the war against France, Brummell had already abandoned wearing a wig, and had his hair cut in the Roman fashion, “à la Brutus”. Moreover, he led the transition from breeches to snugly tailored dark “pantaloons,” which directly led to contemporary trousers, the sartorial mainstay of men’s clothes in the Western world for the past two centuries. In 1799, upon coming of age, Beau Brummell inherited from his father a fortune of thirty thousand pounds, which he spent mostly on costume, gambling, and high living. In 1816 he suffered bankruptcy, the dandy’s stereotyped fate; he fled his creditors to France, quietly dying in 1840, in a lunatic asylum in Caen, just before age 62.[citation needed]

Joachim Murat, the French King of Naples, was dubbed the “Dandy King” because of his flawless appearance.[15]

Men of more notable accomplishments than Beau Brummell also adopted the dandiacal pose: George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron occasionally dressed the part, helping reintroduce the frilled, lace-cuffed and lace-collared “poet shirt.” In that spirit, he had his portrait painted in Albanian costume.[citation needed]

Another prominent dandy of the period was Alfred Guillaume Gabriel d’Orsay, the Count d’Orsay, who had been friends with Byron and who moved in the highest social circles of London.

By the mid-19th century, the English dandy, within the muted palette of male fashion, exhibited minute refinements — “The quality of the fine woollen cloth, the slope of a pocket flap or coat revers, exactly the right colour for the gloves, the correct amount of shine on boots and shoes, and so on. It was an image of a well-dressed man who, while taking infinite pains about his appearance, affected indifference to it. This refined dandyism continued to be regarded as an essential strand of male Englishness.”[16]

Dandyism in France

The beginnings of dandyism in France were bound up with the politics of the French revolution; the initial stage of dandyism, the gilded youth, was a political statement of dressing in an aristocratic style in order to distinguish its members from the sans-culottes.

During his heyday, Beau Brummell’s dictat on both fashion and etiquette reigned supreme. His habits of dress and fashion were much imitated, especially in France, where, in a curious development, they became the rage, especially in bohemian quarters. There, dandies sometimes were celebrated in revolutionary terms: self-created men of consciously designed personality, radically breaking with past traditions. With elaborate dress and idle, decadent styles of life, French bohemian dandies sought to convey contempt for and superiority to bourgeois society. In the latter 19th century, this fancy-dress bohemianism was a major influence on the Symbolist movement in French literature.[citation needed]

Baudelaire was deeply interested in dandyism, and memorably wrote that a dandy aspirant must have “no profession other than elegance … no other status, but that of cultivating the idea of beauty in their own persons … The dandy must aspire to be sublime without interruption; he must live and sleep before a mirror.” Other French intellectuals also were interested in the dandies strolling the streets and boulevards of Paris. Jules Amédée Barbey d’Aurevilly wrote The Anatomy of Dandyism, an essay devoted, in great measure, to examining the career of Beau Brummell.[citation needed]

Later dandyism

Robert de Montesquiou (1855-1921) portrait by Giovanni Boldini

The literary dandy is a familiar figure in the writings, and sometimes the self-presentation, of Oscar Wilde, H.H. Munro‘s Clovis, P.G. Wodehouse‘s Bertie Wooster and Ronald Firbank, writers linked by their subversive air.

The gilded 1890s provided many suitably sheltered settings for dandyism in real life. The poets Algernon Charles Swinburne and Oscar Wilde, Walter Pater, the American artist James McNeill Whistler, Joris-Karl Huysmans, and Max Beerbohm were dandies of the period, as was Robert de MontesquiouMarcel Proust‘s inspiration for the Baron de Charlus. In Italy, Gabriele d’Annunzio and Carlo Bugatti exemplified the artistic bohemian dandyism of the fin de siecle.[citation needed]

George Walden, in the essay Who’s a Dandy?, identifies Noël Coward, Andy Warhol, and Quentin Crisp as modern dandies. The character Psmith in the novels of P. G. Wodehouse is regarded to be a dandy, both physically and intellectually; Bertie Wooster, narrator of Wodehouse’s Jeeves novels, does his most to be a dandy, only to have Jeeves undermine all his plans to this end.

In Japan, dandyism became a fashion subculture during the late 1990s.

Further information: Lolita Fashion#Ōji (Boystyle)

The artist, writer, and hedonist Sebastian Horsley identifies himself as a dandy, and discusses the subject at length in his biography.

Female Dandies

The female counterpart is a quaintrelle. In the 12th century, cointerrels (male) and cointrelles (female) emerged, based upon coint[17], indicating a person of beautiful dress and refined speech. By the 18th century, coint became quaint,[18], indicating elegant speech and beauty. Middle English dictionaries note quaintrelle as a beautifully dressed woman (or overally dressed), but do not include the favorable personality elements of grace and charm. The notion of a quaintrelle sharing the major philosophical components of refinement with dandies is a modern development, one which returns quaintrelles to their historic roots.

An 1819 Dandizette

Female dandies did overlap with male dandies for a brief period during the early 19th century when dandy had a derisive definition of “fop” or “over-the-top fellow”; the female equivalents were dandyess or dandizette. Charles Dickens, in All the Year Around (1869) comments, “The dandies and dandizettes of 1819-1820 must have been a strange race. Dandizette was a term applied to feminine devotees to dress and their absurdities were fully equal to those of the dandy.” In 1819, the novel Charms of Dandyism was published “by Olivia Moreland, chief of the female dandies”; although probably written by Thomas Ashe, “Olivia Moreland” may have existed, as Ashe did write several novels about living persons. Throughout the novel, dandyism is associated with “living in style”. Later, as the word dandy evolved to denote refinement, it became applied solely to men. Popular Culture and Performance in the Victorian City (2003) notes this evolution in the latter 1800s: “…or dandizette, although the term was increasingly reserved for men.”

the end @ copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

Koleksi Sejarah tentara Gurkha(Gurkha Historic Collections)

 

 a young Gurkha presents arms

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

 FOUNDER

  Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

 

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

Koleksi Sejarah Tentara Gurkha

Gurkhas in WWII

 PENGANTAR

 

dalam sejarah di Indonesi sudah dua kali tentara Gurkha bersama tentara India shik

bertugas yaitu saat tentara sekutu Inggris menduduki Indonesia tahun 1945 dan saat Timor Leste menang jajak pendapat, untuk mengenal sejarah dan dan saat pengamanan chaos di Timor Leste setelah jajak pendapat.

untuk mengenal sejarah dan profile mereka,maka  karya tulis ini dibuat berdasarkan informasi dari google eksplorasi.

Gurkha Yang Pertama

 Dalam perang Nepal 1812 Inggris mengirim kekuatan 30.000 terhadap 12.000 Gorkha (dalam realitas saat ini tidak ada hal seperti Gurkha – mereka disebut Gorkhalis) berpikir dalam kesombongan mereka yang biasa mereka akan mengambil Nepal oleh badai. Justru sebaliknya terbukti benar. Para Gorkha melawan Inggris macet.

gurkha motto

Sebagai contoh, selama pertempuran sangat pahit ketika mempertahankan benteng bukit Kalunga yang Gorkha kehilangan 520 dari 600 pembela tetapi mereka berjuang begitu berani dan begitu baik dan kerugian yang diderita Inggris begitu mengejutkan itu mengilhami Inggris untuk mendirikan sebuah pertempuran batu monumen di Kalunga bertuliskan kata-kata:

MEREKA bertempur di KONFLIK MEREKA SEPERTI PRIA DAN, DALAM INTERVAL KONFLIK SEBENARNYA, MENUNJUKKAN US sopan santun LIBERAL.

Tapi, itu adalah jalan dua arah. Dalam insiden lain Inggris Letnan Frederick muda memimpin partai laskar terkejut oleh kekuatan Gorkha. Para laskar saat melihat kekuatan khukuri menghasilkan Gorkha lari meninggalkan Petugas Inggris untuk menghadapi Gorkha saja.

Ada pertempuran kecil di sini sejak kekuatan Gorkha begitu unggul tetapi kenyataan bahwa Perwira Inggris tetap mencoba untuk menahan tanah mereka dan tidak melarikan diri sangat terkesan Gorkha. Mereka meminta muda dan bawahannya mengapa mereka tidak juga lari dan menurut legenda muda menjawab, “Aku tidak datang dari jauh untuk lari saya datang untuk tinggal..” Dan tetap ia lakukan. Selama sekitar setahun Gorkha ditawan muda tetapi selama tahun ini Gorkha mengembangkan hormat yang tulus dan mendalam untuk Young dan semangat juang Inggris yang banyak menyerupai mereka sendiri. Dan, memang, itu muda sendiri yang mampu merekrut Gorkha pertama untuk melayani di bawah bendera Inggris – 3.000 Gorkha dibagi menjadi empat batalyon. Muda melanjutkan untuk melayani sebagai komandan Batalyon Sirmoor dari Gurkha selama 28 tahun dan, luar biasa, mampu melaporkan layanan batalion siap setelah hanya enam bulan.

Ini adalah pertama Gorkha, prajurit dari kerajaan pegunungan Nepal – Rai, Magar, Limbu, Gurung dan suku Sunwar. Perawakan kecil, besar hati, terbiasa dengan kesulitan ketakutan, baik hati dengan rasa humor, setia sampai mati, lebih disiplin daripada kekuatan tempur di dunia, berani dan mampu, dan benar-benar tanpa.

Hal yang sama dapat dikatakan untuk setiap Gorkha turun garis karena mereka Gorkha pertama dan untuk setiap Gorkha dalam pelayanan hari ini.

 

Gurkhas launch a much feared khukuri charge

RUU Martino 2/17/99
Gurkha dan kukri

Mungkin pisau tempur yang paling terkenal di dunia adalah kukri, pisau melengkung jahat dari Gurkha Nepal. Dimanapun ini dilatih pria Inggris-gunung telah pergi ke medan perang, kukri mereka telah diukir petak luas di kalangan musuh. Beberapa tahun yang lalu, ketika saya bekerja di Malaysia, saya pergi pada patroli sesekali dengan Inggris yang terkenal Tracker-Killer Tim di Malaya dan Amerika Kalimantan. Misi dari para ahli hutan terampil adalah pindah ke hutan dan menjaga tekanan pada gerilyawan musuh, akhirnya pelacakan mereka untuk tempat persembunyian mereka dan menghancurkan mereka. Ini, kecil kelompok mobile, biasanya tidak lebih dari selusin orang, yang terdiri dari Gurkha dengan pelacak dan anjing pembunuh, Inggris bintara dan Iban headhunter dari Kalimantan. Para Iban dan Gurkha memiliki banyak kesamaan. Mereka mengasihi pisau. Selama waktu istirahat di hutan, mereka akan menghunus pisau mereka dan lembut uji tepi dengan ibu mereka, mengetahui semua waktu, tentu saja, hanya seberapa tajam mereka. Setiap kali aksi tampak dekat, meskipun mereka bersenjata dengan senapan Sterling kecil, mereka akan menarik kukri mereka.

Sebuah contoh sempurna dari ketergantungan pada pisau ditunjukkan suatu pagi. Menjelang sebuah desa kecil pribumi yang kabarnya memendam gerilyawan, dua Gurkha-seorang pramuka dan keselamatannya manusia-pindah dengan rahmat dan keanggunan penari balet dari semak ke pohon, semakin mendekati gubuk sendirian di lapangan. Menempatkan pistolnya di tanah, seorang prajurit mengambil dua granat gegar otak dari sabuknya dan menggantung mereka dari giginya. Kemudian, gambar kukri, ia berlari seperti flash dan melompat melalui jendela yang terbuka, melompat keluar dari sisi jauh dan jatuh ke dalam hutan, meninggalkan granat dalam. Atap sepertinya untuk mengangkat off beberapa meter dan drop turun lagi. Dua warga Indonesia yang sangat ketakutan berlari keluar untuk menghadapi segerombolan anjing menggeram berteriak, tentara dan headhunter liar dicat. Tidak ada pertanyaan tentang perkelahian, karena perintah adalah untuk mengambil musuh hidup, dan semua orang cukup senang (kecuali Iban, yang ingin kepala).

SerinGurkhas take a hill somewhere in Tunisia in 1943gkali hanya dengan melihat sebuah kukri terhunus sudah cukup untuk mencegah tindakan lebih lanjut dengan menyebabkan dingin, perasaan sempit di daerah bawah perut. Bahkan beberapa tahun yang lalu menunjukkan kukri pemberontakan dibatalkan sebelum berubah menjadi sebuah revolusi penuh. Kita harus kembali beberapa tahun ketika Federasi Malaysia terbentuk setelah Perang Dunia Kedua. Pada saat itu Kesultanan Brunei memutuskan untuk tetap berada di bawah perlindungan Inggris, meskipun independen. (Setelah semua, mereka semua minyak.) Sebuah kantong kecil, Brunei duduk nyaman di sepanjang pantai yang subur hutan Kalimantan (sekarang Sabah) antara Sarawak ke selatan dan apa yang sebelumnya Jesselton di British Borneo Utara.

Suatu saat ketika Yang Mulia sedang berlibur tahunan di Inggris, jauh dari intrik-intrik politik dan kudeta istana, pemberontakan dicoba. Markas militer Inggris, kemudian ditempatkan di Kuching, ibukota Sarawak, itu waspada dan cepat menerbangkan sebuah perusahaan Gurkha jarak pendek dari pantai.
Mendarat di bandara Brunei, cokelat kecil laki-laki dua kali waktunya ke Bruneitown dan segera datang dalam pandangan para perusuh.

Membentuk garis tipis berwarna khaki di seberang jalan utama tunggal, mereka menghunus kukri mereka dan berdiri menghadap massa melolong. Melihat baris yang diam pria, pisau mereka berkilauan di bawah sinar matahari, para pemberontak memiliki beberapa pikiran cepat dan perlahan-lahan mulai bubar. Pasukan cerdas tentang berwajah, berlari kembali ke lapangan terbang dan terbang pulang ke Kuching. Berlalu waktu untuk menghancurkan pemberontakan-bawah dua jam.

Dara young Gurkha presents armsi

Pisau dan Knifemakers oleh Sid Latham …… Macmillan / Collier
 

Sonam pada organisasi unit Gorkha India

Cleaning house -- Gurkha style.

Bagian = 10 bersenjata senapan, diperintahkan oleh 1 Naik (kopral)
Peleton = 3 Bagian, diperintahkan oleh Subedar (JCO – akan datang ke ini nanti)
Perusahaan = 3 Peleton, dipimpin oleh Mayor HQ & Coy
Perusahaan Senapan Batalyon = 4, diperintahkan oleh Kolonel, Letnan Kolonel adalah 2IC (kedua-di-perintah)
+ Dukungan Perusahaan (MGS, peleton Mortar, pelopor peleton, bagian sniper, dll) + HQ
Perusahaan (koki, juru tulis, transportasi, dll); membuat grand total sekitar 750-800 personel
per Batalyon.

Setiap Batalyon milik Resimen spesifik tertentu dan mengikuti tradisi, norma, dll
Resimen itu. Ada 7 resimen Gorkha di Angkatan Darat India, 1 Gorkha Rifles
dengan 5 batalion (1 / 1 GR, 2 / 1 GR, dll), 3 Gorkha Rilfes dengan 5 batalyon, ke-4
Gorkha Rifles dengan 6 batalyon, yang Gorkha 5 Rifles (Frontier Force) dengan 6 batalyon, yang
8 Gorkha Rifles dengan 6 batalyon, yang Gorkha 9 Riles dengan 6 batalyon, dan 11
Gorkha Rifles dengan 7 batalyon. Anda mungkin telah memperhatikan bahwa resimen melewatkan beberapa nomor,
itu karena mereka adalah resimen bahwa Inggris mengambil dengan mereka setelah India
kemerdekaan pada 1947 (tanggal 2, 6, 7 dan 10 – yang sayangnya tidak ada lagi, semua memiliki
telah digabung menjadi sangat berkurang “Gurkha Rifles Royal”).

Tanggal 1, 3, 4, 5 dan 8 Gorkha Rifles direkrut terutama dari Gurung dan Magar
suku-suku di bagian barat Nepal, terutama merekrut 9 kasta tinggi Chettri dan Bahun, dan 11
direkrut terutama dari suku Rai dan Limbu barat Nepal. Gorkha juga direkrut di
jumlah yang besar di Assam Rifles dan Resimen Naga.

Gurkha officers, 1/5 Regiment, maybe 1883

Jajaran dalam batalion Gorkha kira-kira:

Penembak dgn senapan

Bintara (NCO):
Lance-Naik (L / Kopral) – (satu garis di lengan kanan, jika saya ingat benar Lengan lainnya menanggung.
 lambang Divisi yang batalion melayani dengan)
Naik (Kopral) – (dua garis)
Havildar (Sersan) – tiga garis
Havildar-Mayor (Sersan-Mayor) – (tiga garis-garis dengan Singa Asoka di atas).
Ada beberapa peringkat lainnya di antara yang aku tidak terlalu yakin tentang – Perusahaan
Havildar-Mayor, Batalyon Havildar-Mayor, dll – saya tahu beberapa dari mereka mengenakan tambahan
lambang dalam bentuk gelang kulit dengan Ashoka-Singa, tidak yakin rincian, meskipun.

Pejabat Ditugaskan Junior-(JCOs):
Lapisan peringkat dulu disebut Petugas Raja Muda yang Ditugaskan (VCOs) dalam
Inggris hari. Mereka mengambil dari peringkat NCO – dengan kata lain, Anda tidak mendapatkan
menugaskan secara otomatis sebagai JCO, Anda harus membayar iuran Anda di jajaran. Di lama
hari (dan bahkan saat ini) mereka bertugas sebagai penghubung penting antara para perwira dan pasukan

 

A Gurkha doing his job

(Keduanya berasal dari latar belakang yang berbeda seperti, saya kira mereka membutuhkan tangan tua sekitar untuk
membuat hal-hal berjalan dengan baik). Mereka mengenakan lencana peringkat mirip dengan perwira (kecuali
dengan strip kuning-REB tambahan pita pada epaulettes tepat di atas resimen
lencana) dan diberikan banyak penghargaan yang sama.
Naib-Subedar (satu bintang pada tanda pangkat bahu)
Subedar (dua bintang)
Subedar-Mayor (Asoka-Singa). SM adalah salah satu tokoh paling penting dalam batalion,
telah memiliki layanan terpanjang, berkali-kali lebih lama dari Kolonel, dan dekat-Nya
kepercayaan dalam banyak hal mulai dari kebiasaan resimen dan Gorkha dan tradisi, untuk
pelatihan, untuk kesejahteraan pasukan, dll

 Ditugaskan Petugas (dalam hal ini, sebagian besar India, dan ada kaku persaingan di antara
calon perwira untuk mendapatkan komisi di Gorkha) – mereka lebih atau kurang sama seperti di
Angkatan Darat Inggris:
2 Lt – satu bintang
Letnan – bintang dua
Kapten – tiga bintang
Mayor – Singa Ashoka
Letnan Kolonel (2IC) – Asoka Singa dan satu bintang (julukan “Anak Domba” – karena dalam kasus masalah apapun
dari tinggi-up dia yang pertama yang “ditawarkan untuk berkorban”)
Kolonel (CO) – Asoka Lion dan dua bintang, dengan tab merah pada kerah dan band merah pada-Nya
Gorkha-topi (julukan “Macan” untuk alasan yang jelas)

Berikut adalah beberapa komentar langsung dari seorang perwira pensiunan Gurkha dan sejarawan:
Pada waktu saya, meskipun peringkat Officer (BO) Inggris dan struktur promosi di batalyon Gurkha adalah seperti bahwa mereka selalu dibutuhkan untuk mendatangkan kapten beberapa tambahan atau jurusan sementara – relawan dari resimen Inggris, yang pasti akan berpikir itu sebagai ` sebuah ‘postingan menarik untuk sementara waktu – sebagian besar adalah rumah-tumbuh, datang langsung dari Sandhurst (atau perusahaan pelatihan lain petugas yang ada dari waktu ke waktu) dan pengeluaran karir mereka badged dalam Resimen.

Selalu ada banyak calon komisi di resimen Gurkha, saya kira karena reputasi mereka untuk keterampilan disiplin, loyalitas dan pertempuran yang baik, dan mungkin karena mereka biasanya di Timur Jauh, dan ini berarti bahwa resimen bisa pilih-pilih `’. Dalam semua, saya pikir standar petugas WS lebih tinggi dalam satuan Gurkha, tapi aku tidak ingin membesar-besarkan itu. Di atas semua itu, orang harus menghindari kata `elit ‘, baik untuk petugas atau orang-orang. Hanya ada satu bagian yang benar-benar elite Angkatan Darat Inggris, dan itu adalah SAS, istilah ini dibenarkan sini karena mereka dapat mengambil yang terbaik dari unit lain. Resimen yang merekrut langsung dari penduduk tidak bisa disebut elit dalam pendapat saya.

When Samurai sword meets khukuri

Bahwa Gurkha yang dikeluarkan cukup banyak kit yang sama dikeluarkan untuk tentara persemakmuran lain untuk operasi teater tertentu secara luas benar. Ketika saya bergabung GR 10 di Inggris, kami memiliki 1944 Pola anyaman, yang telah dirancang untuk Timur Jauh, tapi orang lain di Inggris dan Jerman telah Pola 1958. Unit di Hong Kong peleton senjata anti-tank tua (MOBAT lama kemudian Wombat senjata recoilless 120mm di waktu saya, sementara di Eropa rudal Milan sedang dikeluarkan).

Bagian paling luar biasa dari perlengkapan terpisah dari khukuris mereka adalah tingkat pengalaman. Rata-rata prajurit Gurkha disajikan untuk setidaknya 15 tahun. Dia dipilih dari 100s atau ribuan pelamar, ini benar, jadi mungkin `elit ‘dibenarkan dan pelatihan lebih lama dan lebih keras dari pelatihan yang diberikan kepada pasukan persemakmuran lainnya.”

Hanya lagi karena mereka perlu belajar lebih banyak, termasuk beberapa bahasa Inggris (juga dasar seperti cara menggunakan pisau dan garpu, dan rincian lain dari
Barat hidup) …

Untuk seorang anak muda di Nepal selama abad ke-20 ke-19 dan awal, janji sebagai prajurit di unit Gurkha akan menjadi prestasi luar biasa. Mereka akan telah ditetapkan untuk hidup. Ini tidak harus diambil sebagai makna mereka akan pernah duduk kembali setelah naik anak tangga bawah tangga – semua ingin (dan masih) untuk tinggal selama mungkin dan dipromosikan sejauh mungkin. Meskipun pada satu tingkat Gurkha sangat baik menerima hierarki, dan selalu menghormati orang tua dari diri mereka sendiri, paradoks mereka sangat egaliter antara rekan-rekan mereka, dan sering sangat benci bila tidak memilih untuk promosi lebih lanjut.

 Ada yang menyebutkan dari ‘kookrie’ sebagai sebuah ‘sepotong resmi peralatan’ sedini 1837. Mereka Gurkha dan mereka selalu membawa khukuri. Tidak ada periode waktu yang ditentukan.

Anda mengambil ke dalam pertempuran apa yang Anda butuhkan untuk mendapatkan pekerjaan yang dilakukan. Inspeksi dan parade itu mungkin cerita yang berbeda mengenai apa yang harus dibawa.

 
The Sistem Kasta

 Sistem kasta Hindu dibagi menjadi empat kasta dasar:
1) Bahun / Brahmana (tertinggi, imam kasta)
2) Chhetri / ksatria (prajurit / raja kasta – Raja Nepal berjalan di sini, tidak ada layanan militer yang saya tahu tapi ia mewarisi kasta sebagai semua lakukan)
3) Baishra / Waisya (bisnis kasta – Newaris dan pengusaha pergi di sini)
4) Sudra (kamis, tukang jagal, jenazah, petugas kebersihan dan sejenisnya pergi di sini – tak tersentuh)
 

 British Gurkha training
Ini kasta dasar dibagi menjadi subcastes. Saya tidak pernah dibayar banyak perhatian untuk itu tapi saya percaya, misalnya, bahwa Kami adalah kasta lebih tinggi dari tukang daging, tetapi keduanya masih tak tersentuh. Sistem kasta telah dilarang di kedua India dan Nepal tetapi masih diamati untuk beberapa derajat, terutama di daerah pedesaan. Pada satu waktu itu memiliki efek yang berbeda pada hidup seseorang. Contoh: perkawinan antara kasta dilarang dan bahkan saat ini di beberapa daerah pedesaan sangat disukai. Kami yang yang membuat khukuri yang membunuh beruang tidak akan memasuki rumah ayah mertuanya kecuali untuk pemakaman atau pernikahan jika diundang. Namun, karena sistem kasta dilarang hal-hal yang telah membaik dan saya percaya hari ini Perdana Menteri India adalah yang tak tersentuh.

Praktek yang buruk menurut pendapat saya, tapi di hari tua itu membantu menjaga ketertiban sosial dan memberi setiap orang dalam masyarakat “tempat.” Gorkha direkrut dari setiap kasta kecuali Newaris yang terlalu sibuk mencari uang untuk membuat Gorkha baik. Buddha, seperti ayah mertua, yang selama bertahun-tahun ditolak masuk ke layanan Gorkha, gagasan yang mereka terlalu damai untuk membuat Gorkha layak. Tapi, setelah mencoba beberapa umat Buddha itu ditemukan bahwa mereka jauh seperti orang Kristen – “engkau tidak membunuh” (kecuali dalam menjalankan tugas).

RUU Martino 11/98

 
Gurkha Training ??” closure_uid_3qs18p=”293″ Bf=”>Gurkha Training ??” Cf=”> Gurkha Pelatihan?? “>> Gurkha Pelatihan??

Gambar-gambar ke kiri & bawah ini disediakan courtesy of Library Gambar Angkatan Darat Inggris. Mereka menggambarkan Gurkha pelatihan direkrut dengan khukuris selama enam minggu pelatihan infanteri dasar mereka di Catterick Basis Angkatan Darat, North Yorkshire, Inggris. Gambar-gambar ini menunjukkan bahwa beberapa pelatihan militer formal dengan khukuri saat ini ada.
- Howard Wallace – 01/05

*******british gurkha training*****************

Beberapa waktu lalu kami memiliki diskusi yang hidup tentang pelatihan khukuri untuk Gorkha. Komunitas Bando tampak yakin ada pelatihan ketat. Sonam yang ayahnya adalah seorang komandan Gorkha berkomentar ia belum pernah melihat ada pelatihan formal selama bertahun-tahun hidup di kamp-kamp Gorkha. Aku tahu bahwa ayahku dalam hukum telah bergerak memerangi beberapa tapi mereka sederhana – kepala, usus, dan paha pemogokan tetapi saya tidak pernah bertanya kepadanya tentang pelatihan formal.
Jadi, untuk menempatkan catatan langsung saya bertanya kakak ipar, Jeevan, untuk survei setidaknya 30 dokter hewan Gorkha, baik tua dan muda, kembali di Nepal, tempat kelahiran dan rumah dari Gorkha, dan meminta mereka apa pelatihan mereka diterima dalam pertempuran khukuri sehingga kita akan memiliki cerita yang sebenarnya langsung dari mulut kuda, sehingga untuk berbicara. Berikut adalah jawaban Jeevan itu kata demi kata saat ia menulis dalam sedikit kaku tapi saya pikir bahasa Inggris dipahami dan aku punya beberapa komentar penjelasan dalam kurung melemparkan masuk Berikut adalah apa yang ia menulis:
 

Saudara yang terhormat:
Maaf membuat Anda menunggu untuk pesan. Kadang bisnis sampingan saya membuat saya benar-benar gila dan aku tidak bisa menangani semua pekerjaan segera. Pokoknya, di sini saya datang dengan beberapa informasi yang Anda minta di surat sebelumnya. Nepal tidak diberi pelatihan khusus pada Khukuri karena Khukuri adalah salah satu senjata nasional Nepal. Lebih lanjut sebagaimana Nepal menggunakan Khukuri pada sebagian besar kesempatan, mereka tidak berpikir dalam yang perlu memberi mereka pelatihan Khukuri. Pala (ayah mertua) telah digunakan Khukuri selama periode nya (1950) di Angkatan Darat India untuk pergi ke hutan dan memotong semak-semak yang menghalangi jalan mereka. Dan ia menggunakannya untuk mengusir anjing-anjing selama waktu patroli. Dalam kasus kegagalan senapan atau di finishment dari peluru juga ia gunakan Khukuri melawan musuhnya atau mengatakan lawan. Setiap kali terjadi perang, akan ada kemungkinan lebih dari memukul lawan sendiri dengan peluru. Jadi, dalam rangka untuk mengontrol mishappening yang Khukuries digunakan. Aku bertanya pertanyaan yang sama dengan banyak Gorkha yang jawabannya sama. Para Gorkha terus Khukuri dengan mereka semua bersama 24 jam meskipun mereka memiliki senjata yang sangat modern dengan mereka.
Seperti mungkin itu “Khukuri” senjata nasional Nepal dikenal menjadi populer tidak hanya di antara kami sendiri tetapi melalui seluruh dunia. Bahkan saat ini, Khukuri memainkan peran penting dalam sebagian besar perang tidak peduli, dunia ilmiah telah mengembangkan rudal laser yang dipandu. Khukuri harus dilihat adalah apa-apa selain senjata besi kecil. Namun penggunaan dan pentingnya tidak dapat disangkal oleh tidak ada badan lain. Untuk mengatakan cara Anda telah memperkenalkan Khukuri di Amerika adalah sebuah kebanggaan nyata tidak hanya bagi kita tetapi untuk semua Nepal dan Gorkha terlambat. Aku akan mendapatkan lebih banyak kisah Khukuri cepat atau lambat untuk Anda sehingga Anda akan dikenal tentang hal itu.

 Jadi, di sana Anda memilikinya, langsung dari Nepal, langsung dari 30 dokter hewan Gorkha, baik muda dan tua. Kecuali kita cukup bodoh untuk menyebut mantan Gorkha pendusta maka kita harus menerimanya sebagai fakta bahwa tidak ada pelatihan formal untuk Gorkha khukuri.
Tapi catatan dukungan untuk kurangnya pelatihan. Ingat kisah saya tentang Dende Sherpa, sepupu Yangdu, yang memukul setengah telinga dari seorang rekan yang telah menuduhnya selingkuh? Jelas, Dende tahu cara menggunakan nya Sirupati 15 inci, cepat dan akurat – dan ia tidak pernah Gorkha dan tidak pernah memiliki satu hari pelatihan formal dengan khukuri. Juga, kita mungkin mempertimbangkan petani yang membunuh beruang – cukup prestasi dan ia pernah mendapatkan pelatihan formal dengan khukuri. Jadi, mungkin mereka benar-benar tidak memerlukan pelatihan formal.

Kukri Inspection in France during World War I

 
- **********************

Suatu malam, di perbukitan Nepal beberapa hari utara Kathmandu, saya mengamati seorang wanita mengiris kentang untuk makan malam. Dia menggunakan khukuri untuk tugas tersebut.

Sebuah khukuri berukuran penuh bukan alat pilihan untuk mengiris kentang. Namun demikian, ia melakukan cukup baik. Dia mengiris pada putaran tinggi dari kayu, sehingga tangannya bisa berada di bawah bidang talenan. Dia mengiris mereka secepat seperti yang saya lakukan ketika saya di dapur, tapi cukup jelas bahwa ia akan kehilangan perlombaan mengiris kentang dengan koki Prancis menggunakan pisau koki.

Dia mungkin menggunakan pisau saja dia dimiliki. Saat aku mulai merenungkan apa lagi dia bisa membuat khukuri lakukan, pikiran saya kembali ke orang lain yang saya telah melihat menggunakan mereka. Orang memotong bambu, ayam pemotongan, kayu bakar membelah, mempersiapkan makanan. Dia mungkin bisa menggunakan alat yang efektif untuk sebagai salah satu dari mereka pekerjaan. Bisakah dia melawan dengan itu? Sebuah sekilas menatap wajahnya meyakinkan saya bahwa dia masih tersenyum. Bagus, karena aku ragu aku bisa berlari lebih cepat dari dia.
- Howard Wallace 2/20/99
 

******************************

Ketika satu tumbuh menggunakan keluar khukuri kebutuhan seseorang belajar bagaimana menggunakannya dengan baik. Dan, di tangan pengguna sangat termotivasi dengan khukuri, seperti alat seperti kapak, obeng atau palu, dengan cepat dapat berubah menjadi senjata yang sangat efektif.
  Gurkha Sharpening Kukri - Afghanistan training 2001

******Gurkha Sharpening Kukri - Afghanistan training 2001**********************

Seperti disebutkan Pala sebagian besar layanan Gorkha nya dikhususkan untuk menjaga integritas perbatasan internasional dan khusus beberapa tugas ops karena kemampuannya bahasanya.
Konfrontasi yang biasa Pala bersama-sama dengan orang yang ingin untuk melompat perbatasan atau menyelundupkan selundupan. Tugasnya hanya untuk menghentikan mereka. Sebagian besar waktu sesama dalam pakaian Gorkha dengan M-3 dan khukuri yang mengatakan “Anda tidak bisa melakukan ini” sudah cukup. Pada beberapa kesempatan di mana keuntungan dari penyelundupan cukup tinggi mereka mungkin berdebat masalah. Pala tidak bisa menggambar di atas mereka dan menembak mereka sehingga ia akan menarik khukuri dan berkata lagi, “Anda tidak akan melakukan ini.” Membunuh seorang pria dan memotong anggota badan adalah dua hal yang berbeda. Pala telah mengembangkan pola pikir, tampak pria yang tepat di mata, dan membuat pendiriannya. Sebagai Pala katakan, “beruntung bagi saya mungkin mereka semua lari.”
- RUU Martino
 

****************************

Saya pertahanan diri khukuri terdiri dari pelanggaran yang kuat hanya tiga langkah – pemogokan kepala, pemogokan usus, atau menyerang kaki. Saya selalu melihat ke dalam mata lawan karena mereka tampaknya menceritakan apa yang akan dilakukan – mungkin beruntung bagi saya dia selalu lari. Dan, aku dikondisikan berpikir saya untuk membuat diriku akan bersedia untuk perdagangan up – Saya akan perdagangan jari untuk tangan, lengan tangan, dan, tentu saja, lengan untuk kepala.
- Sherpa KAMI
 

****Gurkha assault rifle - afghanistan 2001*****************************

Saya memiliki beberapa pelanggan yang membawa tersembunyi khukuri untuk tujuan defensif. Setiap orang telah membuat atau pernah membuat rig bahu yang memungkinkan dia untuk membawa pisau di bawah lengannya, di bawah jaket. Para khukuri biasa pilihan untuk tujuan ini adalah Sirupati 12 inci.
 
Ketika Yangdu adalah seorang gadis muda dan digunakan untuk perjalanan ke India untuk mengunjungi kerabat dia akan naik apa yang disebut “bus malam.” Para penumpang laki-laki seringkali akan mencoba untuk menjadi asmara dengan penumpang wanita selama kegelapan malam sehingga Yangdu akan selalu tape khukuri 9 inci kecil ke bagian dalam pahanya. Jika dia didekati ia akan mencapai di bawah dia anghi (panjang gaun Sherpa) dan cambuk keluar nya khukuri sedikit. Frase saham-nya, “jika Anda ingin menyimpan tangan yang kemudian tetap dari saya.”
- RUU Martino
 

***************************

Para kukri, pisau, pendek melengkung, berbilah lebar, dan berat, adalah senjata nyata dari Gurkas, dan itu dikenakan oleh semua dari yang tertinggi sampai yang terendah. Dalam resimen keluar mereka dibawa dalam katak melekat pada sabuk pinggang.
Dari awal menangani sampai akhir, atau tombak titik dari pisau mereka rata-rata sekitar 20 inci panjangnya.
Dimana kayu berlimpah, mereka sangat menyukai berlatih memotong dengan kukri, dan mereka akan mengurangi dengan satu pukulan pohon ukuran lengan orang biasa.
Sebuah pemotong benar-benar terampil akan memotong irisan setelah irisan dari akhir sepotong kayu hijau, masing-masing irisan yang tebal dari sepotong kulit sepatu biasa. Mereka menyebut ini ‘chinnu’, ‘untuk mengiris’.
- Vansittart (sekitar 1890)

Using a Khukuri” closure_uid_3qs18p=”385″ Bf=”>Using a Khukuri” Cf=”> Menggunakan Khukuri “>> Menggunakan Khukuri

Sejak aku masih ditempatkan sebagai perwira penghubung ke unit kecerdasan Soviet di Kashmir di tengah-ke-akhir 60s, saya telah menjadi penggemar khukuri. Di India Saya juga menemukan hal yang sangat penting lainnya seperti Tuhan, meditasi, dan yoga – yang semuanya telah membantu saya bertahan hidup. Tentu saja berbagai senjata dan pisau saya telah melakukan selama bertahun-tahun, di kali, membantu saya bertahan juga. Salah satu pasti kebutuhan batin serta keterampilan bertahan hidup luar dalam pendapat saya.
Tapi kembali ke khukuris. Menurut pendapat saya, mereka membuat senjata jarak dekat yang sangat baik serta pisau yang sangat baik dan tahan lama dan helikopter lapangan.

british gurkha training

Sebelum saya mulai tentang kelayakan pertempuran dari khukuri, saya ingin mengatakan beberapa hal penting. Pertama-tama, bahkan dalam operasi pasukan khusus, pisau lapangan digunakan 99-100% dari waktu untuk tugas-tugas sederhana seperti semak kliring, tempat tinggal buiding, mengumpulkan kayu bakar, peti pembukaan dan kaleng, dan sebagai bar campur. Sebuah dibuat dengan baik khukuri sangat baik untuk semua ini. Kedua orang cenderung melawan terbaik dengan senjata yang sering kereta api dengan. Jika Anda adalah seorang penembak pistol dan tangan seseorang yang Anda sebuah $ 3.000 kustom 1911, Anda tidak akan menembak itu serta pistol sampai Anda berlatih cukup dengan itu. Yang sama berlaku dengan melawan pisau (IMO).
 
Seperti yang saya tidak tahu berapa banyak latar belakang pelatihan yang Anda miliki dalam menghentikan penyerang ditentukan, saya akan berbicara sedikit tentang bagaimana orang-orang seperti itu biasanya berhenti bersama dengan aset khukuri bertarung.

1. Memutuskan kolom tulang belakang biasanya cara yang paling dapat diandalkan untuk menghentikan penyerang yang gigih. Apapun di bawah daerah ini lumpuh. Leher adalah daerah terbaik karena hal ini melumpuhkan lengan. Karena pisau melengkung, khukuri unggul ini. Hit lebih rendah akan menyebabkan seseorang jatuh, sehingga membuat mereka target yang lebih mudah. Para khukuri, serta setiap pisau (£ 1 +.) Berat pemotongan melakukan pekerjaan ini dengan sangat baik.

2. Smashing tengkorak jika dilakukan dengan pukulan berat akan, setidaknya, biasanya setrum jika tidak menghentikan lawan. Namun saya tidak tahu bagaimana mungkin mempengaruhi hewan besar seperti beruang, dll Tapi jika seperti menyajikan kesempatan itu sendiri, khukuri akan melakukan pekerjaan dengan baik – seperti yang akan apapun pisau yang berat.

3. Memotong atau mematahkan tulang bahu dan tungkai juga cara yang baik untuk menghentikan atau setidaknya memperlambat berkelahi. Sebuah ekstremitas terputus cukup untuk membuat tetapi berhenti, lawan terberat yang paling ditentukan. Jika tidak, kehilangan darah akan menurunkan tekanan darah dalam 3-4 menit sehingga otak tidak akan menerima oksigen, dan lawan akan pingsan. Menghancurkan tulang juga menonaktifkan kebutuhan taktis seperti tangan seorang kaki. Para khukuri yang unggul pisau melengkung di pemotongan. Namun setiap pisau yang tajam yang berat akan melakukan pekerjaan juga.

3. Membuat luka (dorong atau garis miring) yang akan mengakibatkan kehilangan darah yang cepat. Menebas pembuluh darah besar dan arteri dapat dilakukan dengan pisau, tetapi lebih berat dan lebih lama pisau, semakin baik. Pisau melengkung khukuri itu unggul dalam hal ini. Semua pisau yang berat juga melakukan yang baik. Namun salah satu langkah paling mematikan dalam perkelahian pisau adalah cut sebaliknya, ini adalah tempat yang lama berat pisau dan pedang pendek Bowie angkatan laut mendominasi. Sebuah langkah sebaliknya juga bisa dilakukan dengan khukuri, tetapi karena tulang kusam, itu hanya akan memecah atau menghancurkan tulang, sedangkan pisau berbilah ganda yang berat dapat memotong mendalam dan mungkin bahkan dapat parah dahan.
 
Penetrasi mendalam ke dalam organ-organ vital juga akan menyebabkan kehilangan darah yang parah. Hal ini menempatkan khukuri di sedikit kerugian. Karena ujung secara signifikan lebih rendah bahwa garis dorong, lebih sulit untuk memukul tempat yang tepat ditujukan pada. Sekali lagi pisau bowie, pedang pendek, parang, dll melakukan pekerjaan ini dengan lebih mudah. Namun khukuri tidak pada posisi yang kurang menguntungkan seperti banyak pikir. Ketika saya berdebat dengan orang lain dan membuat dorong, titik saya bertujuan jarang ada karet ujung pisau berbilah saya membuat kontak dengan kulit musuh saya. Namun ketika saya menggunakan khukuri nyata dan dorong cepat pada titik yang ditandai pada kotak, saya menemukan bahwa intinya adalah satu inci atau lebih off, sedangkan ketika menggunakan pisau lurus, saya hampir selalu memukul tempat saya bertujuan untuk. Namun dalam panasnya pertempuran, saya pikir ini mungkin menjadi titik diperdebatkan.

Saya juga melihat khukuris menembus Tingkat IIA pelindung tubuh dengan dorongan keras, tapi tentu saja, tidak dapat memotong dirinya melalui – tapi kemudian tidak bisa pedang ukuran penuh.
— ‘Lone Tree’ 01/11

British Gurkha training

Dari Khonvention Khukuri 2003 tahunan (di Reno, Nevada):

Duvon lebih memilih dan menggunakan 18 “model Perang Dunia II dan ini adalah salah satu ia hampir” bersikeras “murid-muridnya digunakan.

Duvon adalah gelar sabuk hitam dengan 20 6 + tahun dalam seni bela diri dan hanya neraka seorang pria. Menjadi keponakan HI selama belasan tahun +.
Dia telah memasuki sistem Biksu dari Bando pada tahap hidupnya – khukuris, kick boxing, agresi adalah sejarah sekarang. Ia mengajar tetapi tidak lagi praktek atau bersaing.

Sistem Bando Monk adalah hasil akhir dari seni bela diri yang paling layak garam mereka. Meditasi, yoga, pencarian spiritual sekarang terkemuka. Dalam sistem Monk Bando seorang bhikkhu dapat menggunakan stafnya, selempang, dan tali dengan batu atau knot pada setiap akhir (saya menyebutnya bolo Bando) untuk tujuan pertahanan saja. Sistem Monk adalah manifestasi dari kesadaran bahwa ada pencarian yang lebih penting dalam hidup dari membunuh atau melukai.

- Paman Bill, Maret 2003

 
atas – L ke R Pala, Duvon, Paman Bill – Duvon Paman menyajikan dengan kemeja Bando
bawah – L ke R Pala, Duvon, Lama Jigme – Duvon mendengarkan pertanyaan / komentar dari peserta konferensi. Jawaban-Nya selalu sangat informatif

 Gurkha Kukri Charge - Afghanistan Training 2001

 

atas – Empat lainnya pics dari Duvon dalam tindakan menunjukkan sikap yang berbeda, Techiques Menyerang, metode mencolok, teknik defensif, didefinisikan dalam handout. Saya harus merujuk ke, handout catatan saya belajar dan mencoba untuk mendefinisikan khusus pic masing-masing, tapi mudah-mudahan Anda mendapatkan ide umum.

 
atas – Josh cukup baik untuk digunakan sebagai lawan beberapa kali. Josh berbaring datar di lantai, Duvon bersiap-siap untuk menetralkan dia ke dimensi berikutnya. Duvon adalah menunjukkan salah satu ‘zona’ di daerah dada dan saya yakin, awal ekstraksi / membelah (push), memutar (tarik), jalankan (membongkar)

Photos From the National Musuem of Nepal:” closure_uid_3qs18p=”452″ Bf=”>Photos From the National Musuem of Nepal:” Cf=”> Foto Dari Musuem Nasional Nepal:   “>> Foto Dari Musuem Nasional Nepal:
 
Berikut adalah pakaian pertempuran dari Gorkha kuno. Ini pakaian kulit konon milik dan dipakai dalam pertempuran oleh Narayan Shah Prithivi, Raja Gorkha, Raja pertama dari Nepal, dan penyelenggara kekuatan tempur pertama di dunia Gorkha. Seragam tampak seolah-olah telah melalui beberapa kali cukup sulit dan jika Prithivi mengambil tembakan seperti yang ditunjukkan pada celananya pasti dalam pertemuan sangat menyakitkan sedikit. Perhatikan sarung tangan tugas berat.
Beberapa senjata kuno Gorkha

Great old pictures from “The Navy and Army Illustrated”, July 24th, 1896.’ closure_uid_3qs18p=”458″ Bf=’>Great old pictures from “The Navy and Army Illustrated”, July 24th, 1896.’ Cf=’> Tua gambar Besar dari “Angkatan Laut dan Angkatan Darat Illustrated”, 24 Juli 1896. ‘>> Tua gambar Besar dari “Angkatan Laut dan Angkatan Darat Illustrated”, 24 Juli 1896.

” closure_uid_3qs18p=”459″ Bf=”>” Cf=”>   “>>
 
Resimen Gurkha 5 & 72 Highlanders
(1878 Northwest Frontier)
[Dari Illustrated London News]

 British Gurkhas - Afghanistan 2001 training
Gurkha & Highlanders di Tirah (Northwest Frontier)

 
 

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Gurkha Links
  Brigade Gurkha – resmi Angkatan Darat Inggris Royal situs
Sejarah Brigade Gurkha pelayanan ke Crown berjalan kembali sejauh 1815. Sejak itu Brigade telah melakukan itu sendiri dengan perbedaan pada berbagai konflik di seluruh dunia. Gurkha dipekerjakan sebagai bagian integral dari Angkatan Darat Inggris dan memainkan bagian penuh dalam komitmen operasional.
   
      
  Inggris Gurkha Nepal – Gurkha Rekrutmen
Kedutaan Besar Inggris di Kathmandu – British Gurkha Nepal (BGN) adalah organisasi Angkatan Darat Inggris yang bertugas mendukung Gurkha 3500 melayani di Angkatan Darat Inggris. Berbasis di 3 situs, di Kathmandu, Pokhara (Nepal Barat) dan Itahari (Timur Nepal).

   
      
  Gurkha Kesejahteraan Kepercayaan
Para Gurkha Kesejahteraan Trust didirikan di Inggris pada tahun 1969. Mengirimkan adalah untuk memberikan bantuan keuangan, medis dan masyarakat untuk mengurangi kesusahan dan penderitaan di antara Gurkha-servcemen mantan Angkatan Darat Inggris dan tanggungan mereka setelah mereka kembali ke tanah air mereka di Nepal.

   
      
  Para Gurkha Museum
Museum Gurkha di Winchester (Inggris) menceritakan kisah bergerak dan unik dari Gurkha layanan untuk Kerajaan Inggris dan orang selama hampir 200 tahun. Gurkha kuburan tersebar di seluruh muka bumi di hampir setiap negara di mana Inggris telah berjuang – bukti bisu Loyalitas Gurkha dan Keberanian.
   
      
  Gurkha Insignia
Lambang tentara Gurkha dan Pejabat.

   
      
  Gurkha Koleksi

Gurkha historic collections

original info 

Gurkhas in WWII

THERE ARE MANY IMAGES ON THIS PAGE – PLEASE WAIT FOR IT TO LOAD

The first Gurkhasgurkha mottoIn the Nepal war of 1812 the British sent a force of 30,000 against 12,000 Gorkhas (in reality at this time there was no such thing as a Gurkha — they were called Gorkhalis) thinking in their usual arrogance they would take Nepal by storm. Just the opposite proved to be true. The Gorkhas fought the British to a standstill.For example, during extremely bitter fighting while defending the hill fortress of Kalunga the Gorkhas lost 520 out of 600 defenders but they fought so bravely and so well and the losses they inflicted on the British were so staggering it inspired the British to erect a stone battle monument at Kalunga inscribed with the words: 

THEY FOUGHT IN THEIR CONFLICT LIKE MEN AND, IN THE INTERVALS OF ACTUAL CONFLICT, SHOWED US A LIBERAL COURTESY.

But, it was a two way street. In another incident British Lieutenant Frederick Young leading a party of irregulars was surprised by a force of Gorkhas. The irregulars upon seeing the khukuri yielding Gorkha force ran away leaving the British Officers to face the Gorkhas alone.

There was little battle here since the Gorkha force was so superior but the fact that the British Officers had remained to try to hold their ground and had not fled greatly impressed the Gorkhas. They asked Young and his subordinates why they had not also ran away and according to legend Young replied, “I have not come so far to run away. I came to stay.” And stay he did. For about a year the Gorkhas held Young captive but during this year the Gorkhas developed a sincere and deep respect for Young and the British fighting spirit which much resembled their own. And, indeed, it was Young himself who was able to recruit the first Gorkhas to serve under the British flag — 3,000 Gorkhas divided into four battalions. Young went on to serve as the commander of the Sirmoor Battalion of Gurkhas for 28 years and, amazingly, was able to report his battalion service ready after only six months.

These were the first Gorkhas, fighting men from the mountain kingdom of Nepal — Rai, Magar, Limbu, Gurung and Sunwar tribesmen. Small of stature, large of heart, accustomed to hardship, good natured with a keen sense of humor, loyal to death, more disciplined than any fighting force in the world, brave and capable, and absolutely without fear.

The same can be said for every Gorkha to come down the line since those first Gorkhas and for every Gorkha in service today.

BILL MARTINO 2/17/99

Gurkhas and KukrisProbably the most renowned fighting knife in the world is the kukri, the wickedly curved knife of the Gurkhas of Nepal. Wherever these British-trained mountain men have gone into battle, their kukris have carved a wide swath among the enemy. Some years ago, when I worked in Malaysia, I went on an occasional patrol with the famed British Tracker-Killer Teams in Malaya and the Borneo States. The mission of these skilled jungle experts was to move into the jungle and keep pressure on enemy guerrillas, eventually tracking them to their hideouts and destroying them. The small, mobile groups, usually no more than a dozen men, were composed of Gurkhas with their tracker and killer dogs, British NCOs and Iban headhunters from Borneo. The Ibans and Gurkhas had much in common. They loved knives. During rest periods in the jungle they would unsheathe their blades and gently test the edge with their thumb, knowing all the time, of course, just how sharp they were. Whenever action seemed imminent, even though they were armed with the small Sterling gun, they would draw their kukris.

Gurkhas launch a much feared khukuri charge

A perfect example of this reliance on knives was demonstrated one morning. Nearing a small native village that reportedly harbored guerrillas, two Gurkhas- a scout and his safety man-moved with the grace and elegance of ballet dancers from bush to tree, ever nearer to a lone hut in the clearing. Placing his gun on the ground, one soldier took two concussion grenades from his belt and hung them from his teeth. Then, drawing his kukri, he ran like a flash and vaulted through an open window, jumped out the far side and tumbled into the jungle, leaving the grenades inside. The roof seemed to lift off a few feet and drop down again. Two very frightened Indonesians ran out to face a yelling horde of snarling dogs, soldiers and wildly painted headhunters. There was no question of a fight, since orders were to take the enemy alive, and everybody was reasonably happy (except the Ibans, who wanted heads).

Often the mere sight of an unsheathed kukri is enough to discourage any further action by causing a cold, cramped feeling in the nether regions of the stomach. In fact some years ago a show of kukris aborted a revolt before it turned into a full-fledged revolution. We must go back some years to when the Federation of Malaysia was being formed after the Second World War. At that time the Sultanate of Brunei decided to remain under British protection, even though independent. (After all, they had all the oil.) A small enclave, Brunei sits comfortably along the lush jungle coast of Borneo (now Sabah) between Sarawak to the south and what was formerly Jesselton in British North Borneo.

Gurkhas take a hill somewhere in Tunisia in 1943

Once while His Highness was on annual holiday in England, far removed from political intrigues and palace coups, an uprising was attempted. British military headquarters, then stationed in Kuching, the capital of Sarawak, was alerted and quickly flew a company of Gurkhas the short distance up the coast.
Landing at Brunei airport, the little brown men double-timed into Bruneitown and soon came in view of the rioters.

Forming a thin khaki line across the lone main street, they unsheathed their kukris and stood facing the howling mob. Looking at that silent row of men, their knives sparkling in the sun, the insurgents had some fast second thoughts and slowly began to disband. The troops smartly about-faced, trotted back to the airfield and flew home to Kuching. Elapsed time to crush a rebellion-under two hours.

From Knives and Knifemakers by Sid Latham…… Macmillan / Collier

a young Gurkha presents arms
Sonam on the organization of an Indian Gorkha unitSection = 10 Riflemen, commanded by 1 Naik (corporal)
Platoon = 3 Sections, commanded by Subedar (JCO – will come to this later)
Company = 3 Platoons, commanded by Major & Coy HQ
Battalion = 4 Rifle Companies, commanded by Colonel, Lt. Col is 2IC (second-in-command)
+ Support Company (MGs, Mortar platoon, pioneer platoon, sniper section, etc.) + HQ
Company (cooks, clerks, transport, etc.); making a grand total of about 750 – 800 personnel
per Battalion.Each Battalion belongs to a certain specific Regiment and follows the traditions, norms, etc.
of that Regiment. There are 7 Gorkha Regiments in the Indian Army, the 1st Gorkha Rifles
with 5 battalions (1/1 GR, 2/1 GR, etc.), the 3rd Gorkha Rilfes with 5 battalions, the 4th
Gorkha Rifles with 6 battalions, the 5th Gorkha Rifles (Frontier Force) with 6 battalions, the
8th Gorkha Rifles with 6 battalions, the 9th Gorkha Riles with 6 battalions, and the 11th
Gorkha Rifles with 7 battalions. You might’ve noticed that the regiments skip some numbers,
that’s because those were the regiments that the British took with them after Indian
independence in 1947 (the 2nd, 6th, 7th and 10th – which sadly no longer exist, all having
been amalgamated into a greatly reduced “Royal Gurkha Rifles”).The 1st, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 8th Gorkha Rifles recruits predominantly from Gurung and Magar
tribes of western Nepal, the 9th recruits primarily high-caste Chettri and Bahun, and the 11th
recruits primarily from Rai and Limbu tribes of western Nepal. Gorkhas are also recruited in
large numbers in the Assam Rifles and the Naga Regiment.The ranks in a Gorkha battalion are roughly:RiflemanNon-Commissioned Officers (NCOs):
Lance-Naik (L/Cpl) - (one stripe on right arm, if I remember correctly. The other arm bears the
 insignia of the Division to which the battalion is serving with)
Naik (Corporal) – (two stripes)
Havildar (Sergeant) - three stripes
Havildar-Major (Sergeant-Major) - (three stripes with an Ashoka Lion on top).
There are a couple of other ranks in between that I’m not too sure about – Company
Havildar-Major, Battalion Havildar-Major, etc. – I know some of them wear an additional
insignia in the form of a leather bracelet with an Ashoka-Lion, not sure of the details, though.Junior-Commissioned Officers (JCOs):
This layer of ranks used to be called the Viceroy’s Commissioned Officers (VCOs) in the
British days. They are picked from the NCO ranks – in other words, you don’t get
commissioned automatically as a JCO, you have to pay your dues in the ranks. In the old
days (and even nowadays) they served as a vital link between the officers and the troops

 

Cleaning house -- Gurkha style.
(both coming from such different backgrounds, I guess they needed old hands around to
make things run properly). They wear rank badges similar to commissioned officers (except
with an additional yellow-reb strip of ribbon on the epaulettes just above the regimental
insignia) and are accorded a lot of the same respect.
Naib-Subedar (one star on shoulder epaulette)
Subedar (two-stars)
Subedar-Major (Ashoka-Lion). The SM is one of the most important figures in the battalion,
having had the longest service, many times longer than the Colonel’s, and is his close
confidant in many matters ranging from Regimental and Gorkha customs and traditions, to
training, to welfare of the troops, etc.

 Commissioned Officers (in this case, mostly Indian, and there is stiff competition among the
officer candidates to get a commission in the Gorkhas) – they’re more or less the same as in
the British Army:
2 Lt. - one star
Lt. – two star
Captain – three stars
Major - Ashoka Lion
Lt. Col (2IC) – Ashoka Lion and one star (nickname “Lamb” – since in case of any trouble
from higher-ups he’s the first one to be “offered for sacrifice” )
Colonel (CO) – Ashoka Lion and two stars, with red tabs on the collar and a red band on his
Gorkha-hat (nickname “Tiger” for obvious reasons)

>

Here is a some commentary directly from a retired Gurkha officer and historian:In my time, although the British Officer (BO) rank and promotion structure in Gurkha battalions was such that they always needed to bring in a few extra captains or majors temporarily — volunteers from British regiments, who would definitely have thought of it as `an interesting posting’ for a while — the great majority were home-grown, coming straight from Sandhurst (or other officer training establishments that existed from time to time) and spending their careers badged in the Regiment.
Gurkha officers, 1/5 Regiment, maybe 1883There were always plenty of candidates for commissions in the Gurkha regiments, I guess because of their reputation for good discipline, loyalty and fighting skills, and probably because they were usually in the Far East, and this meant that regiments could be `picky’. In all, I think the standard of officer WAS higher in Gurkha units, but I would not want to exaggerate it. Above all, one should avoid the word `elite’, either for the officers or the men. There is only one truly elite part of the British Army, and that is the SAS; the term is justified here because they can take the best from other units. Regiments which recruit direct from the population cannot really be called elite in my opinion.That the Gurkhas were issued pretty much the same kit issued to other commonwealth soldiers for the particular theater of operation is broadly  true. When I joined 10 GR in UK, we had 1944 Pattern webbing, which had been designed for the Far East, but everyone else in UK and Germany had the 1958 Pattern. Units in Hong Kong had older anti-tank platoon weapons (old MOBAT then WOMBAT 120mm recoilless guns in my time, while in Europe the MILAN missile was being issued).The most exceptional piece of equipage apart from their khukuris was their level of experience. On average the gurkha soldier served for at least 15 years. He was chosen from 100s or thousands of applicants, this is true, so perhaps `elite’ is justified and his training was longer and harder than the training provided to other commonwealth troops.”Only longer because they needed to learn more, including some English (also such basics as how to use a knife and fork, and many other details of
western life)…

A Gurkha doing his job

To a young boy in Nepal during the 19th and early 20th centuries, an appointment as a soldier in a Gurkha unit would have been a tremendous accomplishment. They would have been set for life.  This should not be taken as meaning they would ever sit back having got on the bottom rung of the ladder — all wanted (and still do) to stay as long as possible and be promoted as far as possible. Although at one level Gurkhas are very good at accepting heirarchy, and always respect people older than themselves, paradoxically they are very egalitarian among their peers, and often very resentful when not picked for further promotion.

 There is mention of the ‘kookrie’ as being an ‘official piece of equipment’ as early as 1837. They are Gurkhas and they have always carried a khukuri. No time periods are specified.

You take into combat what you need to get the job done. Inspections and parades were probably a different story as to what to carry.

 
>The Caste System The Hindu caste system is divided into four basic castes:
1) Bahun/Brahmin (highest, priestly caste)
2) Chhetri/Kshatriya (warrior/king caste — King of Nepal goes here, no military service that I know of but he inherited his caste as all do)
3) Baishra/Vaishya (business caste — Newaris and businessmen go here)
4) Sudra (kamis, butchers, undertakers, janitors and the like go here — untouchables)
When Samurai sword meets khukuri 
These basic castes are divided into subcastes. I never paid much attention to it but I believe, for example, that a kami is a higher caste than a butcher but both are still untouchables. The caste system has been outlawed in both India and Nepal but it is still observed to some degree, especially in rural areas. At one time it had a distinct effect on one’s life. Examples: intermarriage between castes was forbidden and even today in some rural areas heavily frowned upon. The kami who made the khukuri that killed the bear would not enter my father-in-law’s home except for funeral or wedding if invited. However, since the caste system was outlawed things have improved and I believe today the Prime Minister of India is an untouchable.A nasty practice in my opinion but in the old days it helped keep social order and gave everyone in society a “place.” Gorkhas were recruited from every caste except the Newaris who were simply too busy making money to make good Gorkhas. Buddhists, like my father-in-law, were for years denied entry into Gorkha service, the notion being they were too peaceful to make decent Gorkhas. But, after trying a few Buddhists it was found that they are much like Christians –“thou shalt not kill” (except in the line of duty).BILL MARTINO 11/98
>Gurkha Training ??

The pictures to the left & below are provided courtesy of the British Army Picture Library. They depict Gurkha recruits training with khukuris during week six of theirBritish Gurkha training basic infantry training at Catterick Army Base, North Yorkshire, UK.  These pictures demonstrate that some formal military training with the khukuri currently exists.
Howard Wallace – 5/01

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Some time back we were having a fairly lively discussion regarding khukuri training for Gorkhas. The Bando community seemed convinced there was rigorous training. Sonam whose father was a Gorkha commander commented he had never seen any formal training during his many years of living in Gorkha camps. I knew that my father in law had a few combat moves but they were simple — head, gut, and thigh strikes but I had never asked him about formal training.
So, to put the record straight I asked my brother-in-law, Jeevan, to survey at least 30 Gorkha vets, both old and young, back in Nepal, the birthplace and home of the Gorkhas, and ask them what training they had received in khukuri combat so we would have the real story straight from the horses mouth, so to speak. Here is Jeevan’s reply verbatim as he wrote it in a bit stilted but I think comprehensible English and I have a couple of explanatory comments in parenthesis tossed in. Here is what he wrote:
british gurkha training

Dear Brother:
Sorry keeping you waiting for messages. Sometime my side business makes me really crazy and I can not handle all the jobs immediately. Anyway, here I come with some informations you asked in previous mail. Nepali are not given a special training on Khukuri because Khukuri is one of Nepal’s national weapon. Further as Nepalese uses Khukuri on most of the occasions, they don’t think its in need to give them training on Khukuri. Pala (father-in-law) had used Khukuri during his period (1950’s) in Indian Army for going to forest and cutting the bushes which blocked their way. And he used it to chase away the dogs during patrolling time. In case of the failure of rifle or in finishment of the bullets too he used Khukuri against his enemy or say opponent. Whenever going on war, there’d be more chances of hitting own opponent with bullets. So, in order to control mishappening the Khukuries were used. I asked the same question with many Gorkhas for which the reply was the same. The Gorkhas keeps the Khukuri with them all along 24 hours although they have very modern weapons with them.
As may be it “Khukuri” a national weapon of Nepal is known to be popular not only among ourselves but through the entire world. Even today, the Khukuri plays a vital role in most of the wars no matter, the scientific world have developed laser guided missiles. Khukuri to be seen is nothing but a small iron weapon. But its usage and importance cannot be denied by no body else. To say the way you have introduced Khukuri in America is a real pride not only for us but for all the Nepalese and the late Gorkhas. I will get more stories on Khukuri sooner or later to you so that you will be well known about it.

British Gurkha training So, there you have it, straight from Nepal, straight from 30 Gorkha vets, both young and old. Unless we are foolish enough to call these former Gorkhas liars then we must accept it as fact that there is no formal khukuri training for Gorkhas.
But a note of support for this lack of training. Remember the story I told of Dende Sherpa, Yangdu’s cousin, who whacked half an ear off a fellow who had accused him of cheating? Obviously, Dende knew how to use his 15 inch Sirupati, quickly and accurately — and he was never a Gorkha and never had a single day of formal training with the khukuri. Also, we might consider the farmer who killed the bear — quite an accomplishment and he never had any formal training with the khukuri. So, maybe they really don’t need any formal training.
BILL MARTINO 1/14/99

**********************

One evening, in the hills of Nepal a couple of days north of Kathmandu, I observed a woman slicing potatoes for the evening meal. She was using a khukuri for the task.

A full sized khukuri is not the tool of choice for slicing potatoes. Nevertheless, she was doing pretty well. She was slicing on a tall round of wood, so her hand could be below the plane of the chopping block. She was slicing them up as quickly as I do when I’m in the kitchen, but it was fairly obvious that she would loose a potato slicing race with a French chef using a chef’s knife.

She was probably using the only knife she owned. As I began to ponder what else she could make that khukuri do, my thoughts went back to the other people I had seen using them. People cutting bamboo, butchering chickens, splitting firewood, preparing food. She could probably use her tool as effectively for any of those jobs. Could she fight with it? A quick glance up at her face reassured me that she was still smiling. Good thing, because I doubt I could have outrun her.
Howard Wallace 2/20/99
 

******************************

When one grows up using a khukuri out of necessity one learns how to use it well. And, in the hands of a highly motivated user the khukuri, like any tool such as an axe, screwdriver or hammer, can quickly turn into a very effective weapon.
BILL MARTINO 2/21/99
 Kukri Inspection in France during World War I

****************************

As Pala mentioned most of his Gorkha service was devoted to keeping the integrity of international borders and a few special ops assignments because of his language ability.
Pala’s usual confrontations were with people wanting to jump the border or smuggle contraband. His job was simply to stop them. Most of the time a fellow in Gorkha garb with an M-3 and khukuri who says “you can’t do this” was enough. On a few occasions where profit from smuggling was high enough they might argue the issue. Pala couldn’t draw down on them and shoot them so he would draw the khukuri and say again, “you are not going to do this.” Killing a man and chopping off a limb are two completely different things. Pala had developed the mind set, looked the guy right in the eyes, and made his stand. As Pala puts it, “lucky for me maybe they all ran away.”
–BILL MARTINO
 

****************************

My khukuri self defense consisted of a strong offense of only three moves — a head strike, gut strike, or leg strike. I always looked into the eyes of the opponent because they seemed to tell me what he was going to do — perhaps lucky for me he always ran away. And, I conditioned my thinking to make myself to be willing to trade up — I would trade a finger for a hand, a hand for an arm, and, of course, an arm for a head.
–KAMI SHERPA
 

*********************************

I have several customers who carry a khukuri concealed for defensive purposes. Every man has made or had made a shoulder rig which allows him to carry the knife under his arm, under a jacket. The usual khukuri of choice for this purpose is a 12 inch Sirupati.
Gurkha Sharpening Kukri - Afghanistan training 2001
When Yangdu was a young girl and used to travel to India to visit relatives she would ride what is called the “night bus.” The male passengers would often try to become amorous with female passengers during the darkness of night so Yangdu would always tape a small 9 inch khukuri to the inside of her thigh. If she was approached she would reach under her anghi (long Sherpa dress) and whip out her little khukuri. Her stock phrase was, “if you want to keep that hand then keep it off me.”
–BILL MARTINO
 

***************************

The kukri, a short, curved, broad-bladed, and heavy knife, is the real weapon of the Gurkas, and it is worn by all from the highest to the lowest. In out regiments they are carried in a frog attached to the waist-belt.
From the beginning of the handle to the end, or spear point of the blade they average about 20 inches in length.
Where wood is plentiful, they are very fond of practicing cutting with the kukri, and they will cut down with one blow a tree the size of an ordinary man’s arm.
A really skillful cutter will cut off slice after slice from the end of a piece of green wood, each slice being thicker than an ordinary piece of shoe leather. They call this ‘chinnu’, ‘to slice off’.
–Vansittart (circa 1890 )

>Using a Khukuri 

Ever since I was stationed as a liason officer to a Soviet intellegence unit in Kashmir in the middle-to-late 60s, I have been a fan of the khukuri. In India I also found other very important things such as God, meditation, and yoga–all of which have helped me survive. Of course the various guns and knives I have carried over the years have, at times, helped me survive also. One definitely needs inner as well as outer survival skills in my opinion.
But back to khukuris. In my opinion, they make an excellent close-quarters weapon as well as excellent and durable field knives and choppers.Before I begin about the battle worthiness of the khukuri, I would like to say several important things. First of all even in special forces operations, field knives are used 99-100% of the time for mundane tasks such as bush clearing, shelter buiding, firewood gathering, opening crates and cans, and as a pry bar. A well-made khukuri is excellent for all of this. Secondly one tends to fight best with the weapons one frequently trains with. If you are a revolver shooter and someone hands you a $3,000 custom 1911, you won’t shoot it as well as the revolver until you practice sufficiently with it. The same goes with fighting knives (IMO).
Gurkha assault rifle - afghanistan 2001
As I don’t know how much training background you have in stopping determined attackers, I will talk a little bit about how such people are usually stopped along with the khukuri’s fighting assets.1. Severing the spinal column is usually the most reliable way to stop a determined attacker. Whatever is below this area is paralyzed. The neck is the best area as this paralyzes the arms. Because of the curved blade, the khukuri excells at this. Lower hits will cause a person to fall down, thus making them an easier target. The khukuri, as well as any heavy (1+ lbs.) slashing blade does this job very well.2. Smashing the skull if done with a heavy blow will,at the least, usually stun if not stop an opponent. Howver I don’t know how it might affect large animals like bears, etc. But if such an opportunity presents itself, the khukuri will do a good job–as will any heavy blade.3. Severing or breaking shoulder bones and limbs are also good ways to stop or at least slow down a fight. A severed limb is enough to make any but the toughest, most determined opponent stop. If it doesn’t, the loss of blood will lower the blood pressure in 3-4 minutes so that the brain will not receive oxygen, and the oponent will pass out. Smashed bones also disable tactical necessities like hands an feet. The khukuri’s curved blade excels at dismemberment. However any sharp heavy blade will do the job also.3. Making wounds (thrust or slash) that will result in rapid blood loss. Slashing major veins and arteries can be done with any knife, but the heavier and longer the knife, the better. The khukuri’s curved blade excells at this. All heavy knives do well also. However one of the most deadly moves in a knife fight is the reverse cut; this is where long heavy Bowie knives and naval cutlasses dominate. A reverse move can also be done with a khukuri, but because of its dull spine, it will only break or smash bone; whereas a heavy double bladed knife can cut deeply and perhaps even can severe a limb.
Gurkha Kukri Charge - Afghanistan Training 2001
Thrusting deep into vital organs will also cause severe blood loss. This puts the khukuri at a slight disadvantage. Because the tip is significantly lower that the line of thrust, it is harder to hit the exact spot being aimed at. Again bowie knives, cutlasses, parangs, etc. do this job more easily. However the khukuri is not at such a disadvantage as many think it is. When I spar with others and make a thrust, the point I am aiming at is seldom there as my rubber bladed knife tip makes contact with my adversary’s skin. However when I use my real khukuri and quick thrust at a marked point on a box, I find that the point is an inch or so off, whereas while using a straight blade, I almost always hit the spot I aiming for. However in the heat of battle, I think this might be a moot point.I have also seen khukuris penetrate Level IIA body armour with a hard thrust, but of course, it couldn’t slash itself through–but then neither could a full-size sword.
—‘Lone Tree’ 11/01

British Gurkhas - Afghanistan 2001 training

From the 2003 annual Khukuri Khonvention (in Reno, Nevada):

Duvon prefers and uses the 18″ WWII model and this is the one he almost “insists” his students use.Duvon is a 6th degree black belt with 20+ years in martial arts and just a hell of a guy. Been an HI nephew for a dozen+ years.
He has entered the Monk system of Bando at this stage of his life — khukuris, kick boxing, agression are history now. He teaches but no longer practices or competes.The Bando Monk system is the end result of most martial arts worth their salt. Meditation, yoga, spiritual pursuits are now foremost. In the Bando Monk system a monk can use his staff, sash, and a rope with rocks or knots at each end (I call it the Bando bolo) for defensive purposes only. The Monk system is the manifestation of the realization that there are more important pursuits in life than killing or maiming.–Uncle Bill, March 2003duvan - khuk khon 2003
top – L to R Pala, Duvon, Uncle Bill — Duvon presenting Uncle with a Bando shirt
bottom –
L to R Pala, Duvon, Lama Jigme — Duvon listening to a question/comment from conferees. His answers were always very informativeduvan in action - khuk khon 2003duvan in action 2 - khuk khon 2003above – The other four pics of Duvon in action demonstrating different stances, Offensive Techiques, striking methods, defensive techniques, defined in the handout. I would have to refer to my notes, study handout and try to define specifically each pic, but hopefully you get the general idea.

duvan - khuk khon 2003
above – Josh was kind enough to be used as an opponent several times. Josh lying flat on floor, Duvon getting ready to neutralize him to the next dimension. Duvon is demonstrating one of the ‘zones’ in the chest area and I believe, the beginning of extraction/ Rend (push), rotate (pull), run (pry)

>Photos From the National Musuem of Nepal:

ancient Gurkha armour
Here is the battle dress of an ancient Gorkha. This leather outfit supposedly belonged to and was worn in battle by Prithivi Narayan Shah, King of Gorkha, first King of Nepal, and organizer of the world’s first Gorkha fighting force. The uniform looks as though it has been through some pretty tough times and if Prithivi took the shots as shown on his trousers it must have been in a few very painful encounters. Notice the heavy duty gloves.
Some ancient Gorkha weapons
Some ancient Gorkha weapons

>Great old pictures from “The Navy and Army Illustrated”, July 24th, 1896.

>

Gurkha & Scots
5th Gurkha Regiment & 72nd Highlanders
(1878 Northwest Frontier)
[ from the Illustrated London News ]tirah
Gurkhas & Highlanders at Tirah (Northwest Frontier)


Gurkha Links
Brigade of Gurkhas Brigade of Gurkhas – official UK Royal Army site
The history of the Brigade of Gurkhas service to the Crown goes back as far as 1815.  Since then the Brigade has conducted itself with distinction during numerous conflicts worldwide. Gurkhas are employed as an integral part of the British Army and plays a full part in its operational commitments.
 
     
British Embassy in Kathmandu - Gurkha Recruitment British Gurkhas Nepal – Gurkha Recruitment
British Embassy in Kathmandu – British Gurkhas Nepal (BGN) is an organisation of the British Army tasked with supporting the 3500 Gurkhas serving in the British Army. Based at 3 sites, in Kathmandu, Pokhara (West Nepal) and Itahari (East Nepal).
 
     
Gurkha Welfare Trust Gurkha Welfare Trust
The Gurkha Welfare Trust was established in England in 1969. Its remit is to provide financial, medical and community aid to alleviate hardship and distress among Gurkha ex-servcemen of the British Army and their dependants after they have returned to their homeland of Nepal.
 
     
Gurkha Museum The Gurkha Museum
The Gurkha Museum at Winchester (England) tells the moving and unique story of Gurkha service to the British Crown and people over nearly 200 years. Gurkha graves are spread across the face of the earth in nearly every country in which Britain has fought – silent testament to Gurkha Loyalty and Courage.
 
     
Gurkha insignia Gurkha Insignia
Insignia of Gurkha soldiers and Officers.
 
     
Gurkha Collection - Roy Morris with Piper from Queen&apos;s Gurkha Signals Gurkha Collection
This site was originally set up for the late Roy Morris to share his passion for the Gurkhas and his collection of Gurkha militaria with everyone.
 
     
Gurkhas.com Gurkhas.com
Gurkha-related news, personal stories/interviews with Gurkhas, and contact/community for Gurkha soldiers and officers.
 
     
Royal Nepalese Army Royal Nepalese Army
Official site of the Army of Nepal.
 
     
bharat raksha Bharat Raksha
consortium of Indian military websites
 
bhaarata shastra Bharata Shastra – Indian Subcontinental Militaria
resources for Indian, Nepalese and other subcontinental arms & armourincluding books on Gurkhas & Khukuris

Wanita Penghibur Tentara Dai Nippon di Indonesia 1942-1945( Dai nippon comfort women Jugun Ianfu)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

 S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

DAI NIPPON’S IUGUN IANFU

 

Comfort women: the Dark History of the Past

Pictures Collections

 

 

 

document collections

carricature collections

Information from Ex Comfort Women

Sad Stories of Jugun Ianfu in Indonesia

 

 Sad stories of Jugun Ianfu during Japan occupation in Indonesia only get small portion on history
.
 
Jugun Ianfu is female entertainer for Japan soldiers. Bad stigma, defamation from public, and guilty feeling have made them keep silent about their bad experience.  
 
This sad reality led Jan Banning, a photographer, and Hilde Jansen, a journalist, from Netherland to capture jugun ianfu on portraits, pictures, and paintings.
 
“Indonesian Government gives almost no attention to this issue,” Jansen said on opening ceremony of photo exhibition, titled “Jugun Ianfu” at Erasmus Huis Jakarta, Thursday (8/12) evening.
 
Unlike other Japan’s occupation countries, such as Korea and China, there are only a few of historical reference about Jugun Ianfu in Indonesia.
 
During the New Order administration, Jansen said, these women had been warned to not telling about their stories. At that time, Indonesia’s government concerned about losing opportunities of trade with and investment from Japan, if Jugun Ianfu in Indonesia asked for compensation money.
 
Jakarta Legal Aid Foundation finally helped Banning and Jansen to get data about these women. Mostly, Jugun Ianfu were coming from Java, Sumatera, and Kalimantan. Many of them had passed away now. If they are still alive, most of these Jugun Ianfu are more than 80 years old now.
 
Hilde Jansen and Jan Banning had started their project to trace Jugun Ianfu since 2007 to 2009, by the help from the National Commission of Violence against Women (Komnas Perempuan). They succeeded to “find” and to reveal story of more than 50 ex Jugun Ianfu.
 
“It was difficult to interview them. Some of them even did not want to tell us about their experience. They thought that they have made enough effort to get respects, but they still do not get it the respects yet,” Jansen said.
 
Hilde explained that this photo exhibition is dedicated to Jugun Ianfu who dared to speak up and still have spirit of life.
 
Chief of Komnas Perempuan Yuninanti Chufaizah suggested that these jugun ianfu need compensation and rehabilitation.
 
“They have got unstoppable violence, even through generations,” Chufaizah said.
 
This exhibition adds a little stories and concrete pictures of these Jugun Ianfu.
 
“We want this issue [about Jugun Ianfu] to be set out on curriculum of history lesson at school,” Yuninanti Chufaizah said. (E4)
Photo: VHRmedia / Ema Arifah
 
 Towards the momentum of the capitulation of Japan in Asia Pacific to the Allied Forces on September 2, 1945, the Global Future Institute was moved to uncover the history of black Japanese militarism and fascism in the Second World War. Under the guise of liberation armies of Asia, Japan’s real to come to Indonesia as the new replaces the Dutch colonizers 350 years already entrenched in Indonesia.However, the colonization and Japanese occupation for three years in Indonesia, it seems no less important to be revealed in the history books, literature and film. The following article would be a reference starting point for further studies with respect to the actions of the Japanese military administration in Indonesia and Southeast Asia in general. Includes a variety of Japanese war crimes such as sex slavery who later popularly known as Comfort women.Comfort women is a Japanese term comfort women against the Japanese imperial army war days of the Asia Pacific, other foreign terms is the Comfort Women. Comfort women is in fact not a female entertainer but a brutal sexual slavery, planned, and the international community regarded as war crimes. An estimated 200 to 400 thousand Asian women aged 13 to 25 years were forced to become sex slaves Japanese army.
 Understanding Comfort women:Is the term given to the comfort women, aka the Comfort Women, which became sexual slavery during World War II in Japanese colonies and war zones.This woman was forced to satisfy the sexual needs of Japanese troops in Indonesia and also other Jepan colonies in the period 1942-1945.According to research by Dr.. Hirofumi Hayashi, a professor at Kanto Gakuin University:Approximate amount of this sex slave women including Japanese, Korean, Chinese, Malaya (Malaysia and Singapore), Thailand, the Philippines, Indonesia, Myanmar, Vietnam, India, Indo, the Netherlands, and Pacific islanders, in time of war is between 20,000 and 30,000.According to research Dr. Ikuhika Hata, a professor at Nihon University:People who became Japan Comfort women is about 40%, Korea 20%, Chinese 10%. And 30% were from other groups.Doing invasions into other countries that lead to war the Japanese army made a mental fatigue. These conditions resulted in the Japanese army impingement brutal sexual conduct by mass rape that resulted in outbreaks of venereal diseases which infect the Japanese army. This is certainly weaken the strength of the Japanese imperial army. This situation raises the idea to recruit local women, selected health and incorporate them into Ianjo-Ianjo as Japanese military brothels.They were recruited in more subtle ways as promised free education, a job as a performer, domestic workers, restaurant waiters and rude manner by terrorizing accompanied by acts of violence, kidnapping and even raped in front of the family.Jugunianfu comes from South Korea, North Korea, China, Philippines, Taiwan, East Timor, Malaysia, and Indonesia. A small percentage of them from the Netherlands and Japan itself. They were taken to the battlefield to serve the sexual needs of Japanese civilian and military both on the front lines of battle and in the region behind the battle lines.Most of the women who came from the island of Java which is used as Comfort women like Mardiyem, Sumirah, Emah Kastimah, Sri Sukanti, just a small part of Indonesia Comfort women could be identified. Comfort women is still a lot of Indonesia who live or dead world that has not been detected its existence.They raped and tortured mercilessly. Forced to serve the sexual needs of Japanese soldiers as much as 10 to 20 people day and night and left to starve. Later in the forcible abortion when pregnant. Many women died in Ianjo due to illness, suicide or tortured to death.Ianjo world’s first built in Shanghai, China in 1932. Ianjo development in China serve as a model for development-Ianjo Ianjo across the Asia Pacific region including Indonesia since the Japanese occupation Ianjo years 1942-1945 have been built in various areas such as Kalimantan, Sulawesi, the Moluccas, Java, Bali, Sumatra, Papua.

Asia-Pacific after the war was over Comfort women who are still alive wracked feelings of shame to go home to my hometown. They chose to live elsewhere and lock the dark past in silence and solitude. Living in economic poverty and excluded communities. Physical suffering, the shame and feelings of worthlessness until the end of his life.

Emperor Hirohito is a blessing giver Comfort women system was implemented in the entire Asia Pacific region. The executor in the field are military leaders who gave the command of the war. So now the party should be responsible for crimes against humanity is the Japanese government.

The Japanese government today do not admit his involvement in the practice of wartime sexual slavery in Asia Pacific. The Japanese government argues Comfort women is managed and operated by private parties. The Japanese government refused to officially apologize to the Comfort women. Nevertheless July 1995 Prime Minister Murayama Tomiichi never implied apology personally, but do not represent the country of Japan. Yohei Kono in 1993 representing the Japanese cabinet secretary gave a statement to the victim empathy Comfort women. But in March 2007 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe issued a controversial statement to refute the involvement of Japanese military sexual slavery system in practice.

Government of Indonesia considers Comfort women issue is over, even strengthening bilateral relations and economic ties with Japan’s post-war Asia-Pacific. But until now many non-governmental organizations continue to fight for the fate of Comfort women and continue to do lobbying at the international level to pressure the Japanese government to resolve these cases of sexual slavery. Then the research effort is still underway to clarify the history of Indonesia opaque Comfort women, race against time because the victims who are elderly.

Many people are humble, and to free the victims of social gatherings. Case Comfort women are considered mere “accident” the war by using the term “Japanese rations”. Labeling the victims as prostitutes commercial. Many parties also opportunists masquerading as defending the interests of Comfort women and the project on behalf of humanity, yet they are the brokers who corrupted the fund would have received immediate victims.

July 1995 Asian Women’s Fund (AWF) was established by Japanese private organization. The organization is accused of being “agents briber” to quell protests do not represent the international community and the Japanese government officially. In the reign of Suharto in 1997 Minister of Social Affairs Inten Suweno receive compensation fund for victims amounting to 380 million yen was amortized over 10 years. But many of the victims claimed never received such compensation.

Here are some of the demands of the victims jugunianfu:

The Japanese government today should formally acknowledge and apologize that intentional sexual slavery by Japan during the Asia-Pacific War 1931-1945.
The victims were given compensation as victims of war for the lives that have been destroyed by the Japanese military.
Demanded the inclusion of black history Comfort women into the school curriculum in Japan so that Japanese young people know the truth of the history of Japan.

In 1992, for the first time Kim Hak Soon to open South Korean victims of the sound of Japanese military atrocities against himself to the public. After that problem solved Comfort women and one by one the victims of various countries speak out. Then in 2000 the Tokyo Tribunal has held that demands accountability and Emperor Hirohito of Japan’s military sexual slavery practices during the Asia Pacific region. In 2001 the final decisions issued in the Tribunal of The Hague. After that international pressure on the Japanese government continues to Do. United States Congress in October 2007 issued a non-binding resolution that suppresses the Japanese government to meet political responsibility for these problems. Still to this day the Japanese government has not admitted what he had done to hundreds of thousands of women in Asia and the Netherlands in Asia Pacific during the war.
 
 
STORY SUMIRAH “Comfort women” ORIGIN SALATIGA
 
Quezon City is a small city with a style of life a quiet and peaceful but it keeps a history that is so bitter period of Japanese colonization in Indonesia in 1942-1945. Some young women were kidnapped from Quezon City to serve the Japanese military forced Comfort women (Japan’s military sex slaves). Few of the women who are willing to reveal the dark period of Japanese history. One of them Sumirah, the pretty young woman comes from Hamlet Packaging.

That afternoon Sumirah 14-year-old was walking down Jalan Gendingan, Semarang with his new bike. Apparently around that location Sumirah see some Japanese soldiers were forced to climb a number of young women soldiers trus. Seeing the young Sumirah incident rather than away from the dangers that lurk, even stunned surprise overwhelmed by fear. Without being aware of a Japanese soldier was beside Sumirah and forced him onto a truck go up. Sumirah helplessly forced to follow the will of the Japanese army and left his new bicycle lay on the ground.

The next truck headed for the Pandan Sari a boarding location named Kurabu Semarang (Semarang Club). This location turned out to have been there five army trucks carrying Japanese women of Arab descent, China and the Netherlands. Of the five trucks, only one truck that was selected in which there are young Sumirah.

The young woman told one of his Japanese soldiers to make them work for the Japanese military, as it is explained also that the opportunity is given to them (the women) worked as a nurse. Japan’s military pledged to provide wage employment and met all the needs of their lives. With the soldier cried aloud, “Are all want this job?”, Came the answer in unison “Want”.

Shortly after giving that answer, women are entering the building Kurabu Semarang, Dutch architect-style building that has taken Japan from the owner of the Dutch. Each person was given a room that is equipped with soap, toothbrush, toothpaste, and perfumes. After that each woman health checked by a Japanese doctor.

The next few days it turns out these women are forced to sexually serve Japanese soldiers who visited Semarang Kurabu. When you refuse to serve the punch, kick and tempelengan received as a result of rejection. From this day forward is a hell for the women. Apart from having to serve in Semarang Kurabu, often Sumirah officers shall serve at the Hotel Du Pavillon Hotel Oewa Asia and the location is not too far from Semarang Kurabu.
In Semarang Kurabu turns Sumirah terncantik women among other women, until a Japanese officer named Yatsusita Matsuo fell in love with beauty and elegance Sumirah, immediately take it from Semarang Kurabu. Then place the Dutch Sumirah in an empty house at Jalan Gendingan, located not far from Semarang Kurabu. The house was formerly owned by a Dutchman who worked as an agent for Singer sewing machines.
Since then Sumirah a monopoly Matsuo, no wonder the Japanese officers were able to do this given the fairly high position as commander in Semarang Heiho well respected. Sumirah satisfied their needs by Matsuo. If there is free time together Matsuo Sumirah frequented the Village Packaging Sumirah birthplace. Until finally the people in the village knows that Sumirah has become the wife of a Japanese soldier.
In 1945 when the Japanese lost the war Asia-Pacific, and Matsuo Sumirah away from Semarang to Magelang. In this place Matsuo disarmed and detained by the TKR (People’s Security Army) as a prisoner of war. From Magelang Matsuo moved to Navan for the internment, then moved again to Apex to be submitted to the hands of allies on Galang Island, Riau’s with approximately 4700 Japanese prisoners of war from Central Java to repatriated to Japan.
Dark history that has passed sixty years more, however traces the history of Comfort women is very interesting to diterlusuri back and still relevant to contemporary political issues that are still Questioning issues of sexual slavery in the frame of human rights and the interests of history that is still not recognized in Indonesia historical corridor .
Three locations in the city of Semarang Ianjo it let me browse, not easy to do because it only relies Sarmudji memory without notes document. Location Ianjo the first found in the northern part of Semarang city is the Hotel Oewa Asia (Oewa = Good). The hotel is still standing strong in the face of architecture that has not changed much, still the same function as the inn with rooms rented about 40 rooms. During the Dutch colonial hotel is named Hotel Oewa, as Japan entered the hotel was taken over and given the additional name of Asia.
Walk towards the south found the Hotel Du Pavillon still reveals the grandeur of the past. Hotel has been established since 1847, located amid the hustle Road Youth. The hotel occupies a land area of ​​10,000 m2. Post in 1945 this hotel has been changing hands from the manager of Semarang City Government, Department of Transportation and the Department of tourism. then in 1976 was taken over entirely by the Treasury Department in partnership with PT Natour manage the hotel and changed the name of Du Pavillon become Inna Dibya Castle.
Physical building of this hotel is not changed just a few small additional hotel lobby looks like a hall that was built after 1945. Less physical arrangement in accordance with the historical value of this ancient building makes face Inna Dibya kesejarahannya Castle lost spirits. Hotel has 61 rooms which are still functioning as a 2 star hotel.
The search for the most difficult Kurabu Semarang, this location could hardly be found because Sarmudji decaying memory of this section. Armed with determination and confidence, finally found the direction south of Semarang Kurabu Du Pavillon Hotel. Kurabu Semarang is now a private home of Chinese descent Semarang. However, the smell of history can still be terendus in the area which is a dense residential area of ​​Kampung Pandan Sari.
Some of the silent witness of the old wall that had stood since the Dutch colonial period which witnessed a number of women from Salatiga forced into Comfort women in that location. Although Sumirah and the other women had died, but traces its history is still standing strong. Traces this history can be a witness for all of us younger generation who appreciate the history and uphold human rights

original info

Menjelang momentum kapitulasi Jepang di Asia Pasifik kepada Tentara Sekutu pada 2 September 1945, Global Future Institute merasa tergerak untuk mengungkap kembali sejarah hitam militerisme dan fasisme Jepang pada Perang Dunia Kedua. Dengan berkedok sebagai tentara pembebasan Asia, Jepang sejatinya datang ke Indonesia sebagai penjajah baru menggantikan Belanda yang sudah 350 tahun bercokol di Indonesia.


Namun demikian, masa penjajahan dan pendudukan Jepang selama tiga tahun di Indonesia, nampaknya tak kalah penting untuk diungkap dalam buku-buku sejarah, karya sastra maupun film. Artikel berikut ini kiranya bisa menjadi referensi awal untuk studi-studi lebih lanjut berkenaan dengan sepak-terjang pemerintahan militer Jepang di Indonesia dan Asia Tenggara pada umumnya. Termasuk berbagai kejahatan perang Jepang seperti Perbudakan Sex yang kelak populer dengan sebutan Jugun Ianfu.


Jugun Ianfu adalah istilah Jepang terhadap perempuan penghibur tentara kekaisaran Jepang dimasa perang Asia Pasifik, istilah asing lainnya adalah Comfort Women. Pada kenyataannya Jugun Ianfu bukan merupakan perempuan penghibur tetapi perbudakan seksual yang brutal, terencana, serta dianggap masyarakat internasional sebagai kejahatan perang. Diperkirakan 200 sampai 400 ribu perempuan Asia berusia 13 hingga 25 tahun dipaksa menjadi budak seks tentara Jepang.
 


Pengertian Jugun ianfu :


Adalah istilah untuk menyebut wanita penghibur alias Comfort Women, yang menjadi perbudakan seks selama Perang Dunia II di koloni Jepang dan wilayah perang.


Wanita ini dipaksa menjadi pemuas kebutuhan seksual tentara Jepang yang ada di Indonesia dan juga negara jajahan Jepan lainnya dalam kurun waktu tahun 1942-1945.


Menurut riset oleh Dr. Hirofumi Hayashi, seorang profesor di Universitas Kanto Gakuin :


Jumlah perkiraan wanita budak seks ini termasuk orang Jepang, Korea, Tiongkok, Malaya (Malaysia dan Singapura), Thailand, Filipina, Indonesia, Myanmar, Vietnam, India, Indo, Belanda, dan penduduk kepulauan Pasifik, pada saat perang adalah berkisar antara 20.000 dan 30.000.


Menurut riset Dr. Ikuhika Hata, seorang profesor di Universitas Nihon :


Orang Japan yang menjadi jugun ianfu ini sekitar 40%, Korea 20%, Tionghoa 10%. Dan 30% sisanya dari kelompok lain.


Melakukan invansi ke negara lain yang mengakibatkan peperangan membuat kelelahan mental tentara Jepang. Kondisi ini mengakibatkan tentara Jepang melakukan pelampiasan seksual secara brutal dengan cara melakukan perkosaan masal yang mengakibatkan mewabahnya penyakit kelamin yang menjangkiti tentara Jepang. Hal ini tentunya melemahkan kekuatan angkatan perang kekaisaran Jepang. Situasi ini memunculkan gagasan untuk merekrut perempuan-perempuan lokal , menyeleksi kesehatan dan memasukan mereka ke dalam Ianjo-Ianjo sebagai rumah bordil militer Jepang.


Mereka direkrut dengan cara halus seperti dijanjikan sekolah gratis, pekerjaan sebagai pemain sandiwara, pekerja rumah tangga, pelayan rumah makan dan juga dengan cara kasar dengan menteror disertai tindak kekerasan, menculik bahkan memperkosa di depan keluarga.


Jugunianfu berasal dari Korea Selatan, Korea Utara, Cina, Filipina, Taiwan, Timor Leste, Malaysia, dan Indonesia. Sebagian kecil di antaranya dari Belanda dan Jepang sendiri. Mereka dibawa ke wilayah medan pertempuran untuk melayani kebutuhan seksual sipil dan militer Jepang baik di garis depan pertempuran maupun di wilayah garis belakang pertempuran.


Sebagian besar perempuan-perempuan yang berasal dari pulau Jawa yang dijadikan Jugun Ianfu seperti Mardiyem, Sumirah, Emah Kastimah, Sri Sukanti, hanyalah sebagian kecil Jugun Ianfu Indonesia yang bisa diidentifikasi. Masih banyak Jugun Ianfu Indonesia yang hidup maupun sudah meninggal dunia yang belum terlacak keberadaannya.


Mereka diperkosa dan disiksa secara kejam. Dipaksa melayani kebutuhan seksual tentara Jepang sebanyak 10 hingga 20 orang siang dan malam serta dibiarkan kelaparan. Kemudian di aborsi secara paksa apabila hamil. Banyak perempuan mati dalam Ianjo karena sakit, bunuh diri atau disiksa sampai mati.


Ianjo pertama di dunia dibangun di Shanghai, Cina tahun 1932. Pembangunan Ianjo di Cina dijadikan model untuk pembangunan Ianjo-Ianjo di seluruh kawasan Asia Pasifik termasuk Indonesia sejak pendudukan Jepang tahun 1942-1945 telah dibangun Ianjo diberbagai wilayah seperti Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, Jawa, Nusa Tenggara, Sumatra, Papua.


Setelah perang Asia Pasifik usai Jugun Ianfu yang masih hidup didera perasaan malu untuk pulang ke kampung halaman. Mereka memilih hidup ditempat lain dan mengunci masa lalu yang kelam dengan berdiam dan mengucilkan diri. Hidup dalam kemiskinan ekonomi dan disingkirkan masyarakat. Mengalami penderitaan fisik, menanggung rasa malu dan perasaan tak berharga hingga akhir hidupnya.


Kaisar Hirohito merupakan pemberi restu sistem Jugun Ianfu ini diterapkan di seluruh Asia Pasifik. Para pelaksana di lapangan adalah para petinggi militer yang memberi komando perang. Maka saat ini pihak yang harus bertanggung jawab atas kejahatan kemanusiaan ini adalah pemerintah Jepang.


Pemerintah Jepang masa kini tidak mengakui keterlibatannya dalam praktek perbudakan seksual di masa perang Asia Pasifik. Pemerintah Jepang berdalih Jugun Ianfu dikelola dan dioperasikan oleh pihak swasta. Pemerintah Jepang menolak meminta maaf secara resmi kepada para Jugun Ianfu. Kendatipun demikian Juli 1995 Perdana Menteri Tomiichi Murayama pernah menyiratkan permintaan maaf secara pribadi, tetapi tidak mewakili negara Jepang. Tahun 1993 Yohei Kono mewakili sekretaris kabinet Jepang memberikan pernyataan empatinya kepada korban Jugun Ianfu. Namun pada Maret 2007 Perdana Menteri Shinzo Abe mengeluarkan pernyataan yang kontroversial dengan menyanggah keterlibatan militer Jepang dalam praktek sistem perbudakan seksual.


Pemerintah Indonesia menganggap masalah Jugun Ianfu sudah selesai, bahkan mempererat hubungan bilateral dan ekonomi dengan Jepang paska perang Asia Pasifik. Namun hingga kini banyak organisasi non pemerintah terus memperjuangkan nasib Jugun Ianfu dan terus melakukan melobi ke tingkat internasional untuk menekan pemerintah Jepang agar menyelesaikan kasus perbudakan seksual ini. Kemudian upaya penelitian masih terus dilakukan untuk memperjelas sejarah buram Jugun Ianfu Indonesia,berpacu dengan waktu karena para korban yang sudah lanjut usia.


Banyak masyarakat yang merendahkan, serta menyisihkan para korban dari pergaulan sosial. Kasus Jugun Ianfu dianggap sekedar “kecelakaan” perang dengan memakai istilah “ransum Jepang”. Mencap para korban sebagai pelacur komersial. Banyak juga pihak-pihak oportunis yang berkedok membela kepentingan Jugun Ianfu dan mengatasnamakan proyek kemanusiaan, namum mereka adalah calo yang mengkorupsi dana santunan yang seharusnya diterima langsung para korban.


Juli 1995 Asian Women’s Fund (AWF) didirikan oleh organisasi swasta Jepang. Organisasi ini dituduh sebagai “agen penyuap” untuk meredam protes masyarakat internasional dan tidak mewakili pemerintah Jepang secara resmi. Di masa pemerintahan Soeharto Tahun 1997 Menteri Sosial Inten Suweno menerima dana santunan bagi para korban sebesar 380 juta yen yang diangsur selama 10 tahun. Namun banyak para korban menyatakan tidak pernah menerima santunan tersebut.


Berikut adalah beberapa tuntutan dari para korban jugunianfu:


  1. Pemerintah Jepang masa kini harus mengakui secara resmi dan meminta maaf bahwa perbudakan seksual dilakukan secara sengaja oleh negara Jepang selama perang Asia Pasifik 1931-1945.
  2. Para korban diberi santunan sebagai korban perang untuk kehidupan yang sudah dihancurkan oleh militer Jepang.
  3. Menuntut dimasukkannya sejarah gelap Jugun Ianfu ke dalam kurikulum sekolah di Jepang agar generasi muda Jepang mengetahui kebenaran sejarah Jepang.


Tahun 1992, untuk pertama kalinya Kim Hak Soon korban asal Korea Selatan membuka suara atas kekejaman militer Jepang terhadap dirinya ke publik. Setelah itu masalah Jugun Ianfu terbongkar dan satu persatu korban dari berbagai negara angkat suara. Kemudian tahun 2000 telah digelar Tribunal Tokyo yang menuntut pertanggung jawaban Kaisar Hirohito dan pihak militer Jepang atas praktek perbudakan seksual selama perang Asia Pasifik. Tahun 2001 final keputusan dikeluarkan di Tribunal The Haque. Setelah itu tekanan internasional terhadap pemerintah Jepang terus Dilakukan. Oktober 2007 kongres Amerika Serikat mengeluarkan resolusi tidak mengikat yang menekan pemerintah Jepang memenuhi tanggung jawab politik atas masalah ini . Meski demikian pemerintah Jepang sampai hari ini belum mengakui apa yang telah diperbuat terhadap ratusan ribu perempuan di Asia dan Belanda pada masa perang Asia Pasifik.
 
 
KISAH SUMIRAH “JUGUN IANFU” ASAL SALATIGA
 

Salatiga merupakan kota kecil dengan langgam kehidupan yang tenang dan damai namun menyimpan sejarah yang begitu pahit masa kolonialisasi Jepang di Indonesia tahun 1942-1945. Sejumlah perempuan muda asal Salatiga diculik paksa militer Jepang untuk dijadikan Jugun Ianfu (budak seks militer Jepang). Sedikit dari para perempuan tersebut yang bersedia mengungkap sejarah kelam periode Jepang. Salah satunya Sumirah, perempuan muda nan cantik berasal dari Dusun Kemasan.

Sore itu Sumirah yang baru berusia 14 tahun sedang menyusuri Jalan Gendingan, Semarang dengan sepeda barunya. Ternyata disekitar lokasi itu Sumirah melihat beberapa tentara Jepang sedang memaksa sejumlah perempuan muda menaiki trus tentara. Melihat kejadian itu Sumirah muda bukannya menyingkir dari bahaya yang mengintai, malahan tertegun kaget diliputi perasaan takut. Tanpa disadari seorang tentara Jepang sudah berada di samping Sumirah dan memaksanya ikut naik keatas truk. Tanpa berdaya Sumirah terpaksa mengikuti kemauan tentara Jepang tersebut dan meninggalkan sepeda barunya tergolek di tanah.

Selanjutnya truk tersebut berjalan menuju daerah Pandan Sari sebuah lokasi berasrama yang bernama Semarang Kurabu (Club Semarang). Dilokasi ini ternyata telah ada lima truk tentara Jepang yang mengangkuti perempuan-perempuan keturunan Arab, Cina dan juga Belanda. Dari kelima truk, hanya satu truk yang terpilih yang didalamnya terdapat Sumirah muda.

Para perempuan muda ini diberitahu salah seorang serdadu Jepang untuk meminta mereka bekerja untuk militer Jepang, saat itu dijelaskan juga bahwa kesempatan ini diberikan kepada mereka (para perempuan) bekerja sebagai perawat. Militer Jepang berjanji akan memberikan upah kerja dan mencukupi semua kebutuhan hidup mereka. Dengan lantang serdadu itu berseru,”Apakah semua mau pekerjaan ini?”,terdengar jawaban serentak”Mau”.

Tak lama setelah memberikan jawaban itu, para perempuan tersebut memasuki bangunan Semarang Kurabu, bangunan bergaya arsitek Belanda yang telah direbut Jepang dari pemiliknya orang Belanda. Setiap orang diberi kamar yang sudah dilengkapi dengan sabun, sikat gigi, odol, dan minyak wangi. Setelah itu setiap perempuan diperiksa kesehatan oleh seorang Dokter Jepang.

Hari-hari berikutnya ternyata para perempuan ini dipaksa melayani kebutuhan seksual tentara Jepang yang mengunjungi Semarang Kurabu. Bila menolak melayani maka pukulan, tendangan dan tempelengan yang diterima sebagai akibat penolakan. Sejak hari ini dan seterusnya adalah neraka bagi para perempuan tersebut. Selain harus melayani di Semarang Kurabu, seringkali Sumirah harus melayani para perwira di Hotel Du Pavillon dan Hotel Oewa Asia yang lokasinya tidak terlalu jauh dari Semarang Kurabu.
Di Semarang Kurabu ternyata Sumirah perempuan terncantik diantara perempuan lainnya, hingga seorang perwira Jepang bernama Yatsusita Matsuo jatuh hati kepada kecantikan dan kemolekan Sumirah, serta merta mengambilnya dari Semarang Kurabu. Kemudian menempatkan Sumirah di rumah Belanda yang kosong di Jalan Gendingan, lokasinya tidak jauh dari Semarang Kurabu. Rumah itu dulunya milik seorang Belanda yang bekerja sebagai agen mesin jahit Singer.
Sejak saat itu Sumirah menjadi monopoli Matsuo, tidak heran perwira Jepang itu bisa melakukan hal ini mengingat kedudukannya cukup tinggi sebagai komandan Heiho di Semarang yang cukup disegani. Sumirah dicukupi kebutuhan hidupnya oleh Matsuo. Jika ada waktu senggang Sumirah bersama Matsuo kerap mengunjungi Dusun Kemasan tempat kelahiran Sumirah. Hingga akhirnya orang-orang di dusun itu mengetahui bahwa Sumirah telah menjadi istri seorang tentara Jepang.
Tahun 1945 pada saat Jepang mengalami kekalahan perang Asia Pasifik, Sumirah dan Matsuo menyingkir dari Semarang ke Magelang. Di tempat ini Matsuo dilucuti senjatanya dan ditahan oleh pihak TKR (tentara Keamanan Rakyat) sebagai tawanan perang. Dari Magelang Matsuo dipindahkan ke Purwokerto untuk di interniran, selanjutnya dipindahkan lagi ke Rembang untuk diserahkan ke tangan sekutu di Pulau Galang, Riau bersama sekitar 4700-an tawanan perang Jepang asal Jawa Tengah untuk dipulangkan ke Jepang.
Sejarah kelam itu telah berlalu enam puluh tahun lebih, namun demikian jejak sejarah Jugun Ianfu sangat menarik untuk diterlusuri kembali dan masih relevan dengan persoalan politik kontemporer yang masih menyoal persoalan perbudakan seksual dalam bingkai hak asasi manusia dan kepentingan sejarah yang masih belum diakui dalam koridor kesejarahan Indonesia.
Tiga lokasi Ianjo di Kota Semarang itu coba saya telusuri, tidak mudah memang karena hanya mengandalkan memori Sarmudji tanpa disertai catatan dokumen. Lokasi Ianjo yang pertama ditemukan di bagian utara kota Semarang adalah Hotel Oewa Asia (Oewa=Baik). Hotel ini masih berdiri kokoh dengan wajah arsitektur yang tidak banyak berubah, fungsinya pun masih sama sebagai tempat penginapan dengan kamar yang disewakan sekitar 40 kamar. Pada masa kolonial Belanda Hotel ini dinamai Hotel Oewa, begitu Jepang masuk hotel ini diambil alih dan diberi tambahan nama Asia.
Berjalan kaki kearah selatan ditemukan Hotel Du Pavillon masih menampakan kemegahan masa silam. Hotel tersebut telah berdiri sejak tahun 1847, lokasinya berada ditengah keramaian Jalan Pemuda. Hotel ini menempati lahan seluas 10.000 m2. Paska tahun 1945 hotel ini telah berganti-ganti tangan pengelola mulai dari Pemerintah Kota Semarang, Departemen Perhubungan dan Departemen Parawisata. kemudian tahun 1976 diambil alih sepenuhnya oleh Departemen Keuangan yang bermitra dengan PT Natour mengelola hotel ini dan mengganti nama Du Pavillon menjadi Inna Dibya Puri.
Bangunan fisik hotel ini tidak berubah hanya beberapa tambahan kecil saja kelihatan seperti selasar lobi hotel yang dibangun paska tahun 1945. Penataan fisik yang kurang sesuai dengan nilai sejarah bangunan kuno ini menjadikan wajah Inna Dibya Puri kehilangan roh kesejarahannya. Hotel yang memiliki 61 kamar ini masih berfungsi sebagai hotel bintang 2.
Pencarian terhadap Semarang Kurabu paling sulit, lokasi ini nyaris tidak ditemukan karena memori Sarmudji meluntur dibagian ini. Berbekal tekad dan keyakinan, akhirnya Semarang Kurabu ditemukan searah selatan Hotel Du Pavillon. Semarang Kurabu kini merupakan rumah pribadi dari keturunan Tionghoa Semarang. Namun demikian aroma sejarah masih bisa terendus di daerah itu yang merupakan daerah pemukiman padat dari Kampung Pandan Sari.
Beberapa saksi bisu berupa tembok tua yang telah berdiri sejak masa kolonial Belanda menyaksikan masa dimana sejumlah perempuan asal Salatiga dipaksa menjadi Jugun Ianfu di lokasi itu. Meski Sumirah dan para perempuan lainnya telah meninggal dunia, namun jejak sejarahnya masih berdiri kokoh. Jejak sejarah inilah yang bisa menjadi saksi bagi kita semua generasi muda yang menghargai sejarah dan menjunjung tinggi hak asasi manusia.

 
 


 

Comfort women is a Japanese term comfort women against the Japanese imperial army war days of the Asia Pacific, other foreign terms is the Comfort Women. In fact Jugun Ianfubukan a female entertainer but a brutal sexual slavery, planned, and the international community regarded as war crimes. An estimated 200 to 400 thousand Asian women aged 13 to 25 years were forced to become sex slaves Japanese army.
Doing invasions into other countries that lead to war the Japanese army made a mental fatigue. These conditions resulted in the Japanese army impingement brutal sexual conduct by mass rape that resulted in outbreaks of venereal diseases which infect the Japanese army. This is certainly weaken the strength of the Japanese imperial army. This situation raises the idea to recruit local women, selected health and incorporate them into Ianjo-Ianjo as Japanese military brothels.

They were recruited in more subtle ways as promised free education, a job as a performer, domestic workers, restaurant waiters and rude manner by terrorizing accompanied by acts of violence, kidnapping and even raped in front of the family.

Jugunianfu comes from South Korea, North Korea, China, Philippines, Taiwan, East Timor, Malaysia, and Indonesia. A small percentage of them from the Netherlands and Japan itself. They were taken to the battlefield to serve the sexual needs of Japanese civilian and military both on the front lines of battle and in the region behind the battle lines.

Most of the women who came from the island of Java which is used as Comfort women like Mardiyem, Sumirah, Emah Kastimah, Sri Sukanti, just a small part of Indonesia Comfort women could be identified. Comfort women is still a lot of Indonesia who live or dead world that has not been detected its existence.

They raped and tortured mercilessly. Forced to serve the sexual needs of Japanese soldiers as much as 10 to 20 people day and night and left to starve. Later in the forcible abortion when pregnant. Many women died in Ianjo due to illness, suicide or tortured to death.

Ianjo world’s first built in Shanghai, China in 1932. Ianjo development in China serve as a model for development-Ianjo Ianjo across the Asia Pacific region including Indonesia since the Japanese occupation Ianjo years 1942-1945 have been built in various areas such as Kalimantan, Sulawesi, the Moluccas, Java, Bali, Sumatra, Papua.

Asia-Pacific after the war was over Comfort women who are still alive wracked feelings of shame to go home to my hometown. They chose to live elsewhere and lock the dark past in silence and solitude. Living in economic poverty and excluded communities. Physical suffering, the shame and feelings of worthlessness until the end of his life.

Emperor Hirohito is a blessing giver Comfort women system was implemented in the entire Asia Pacific region. The executor in the field are military leaders who gave the command of the war. So now the party should be responsible for crimes against humanity is the Japanese government.

The Japanese government today do not admit his involvement in the practice of wartime sexual slavery in Asia Pacific. The Japanese government argues Comfort women is managed and operated by private parties. The Japanese government refused to officially apologize to the Comfort women. Nevertheless July 1995 Prime Minister Murayama Tomiichi never implied apology personally, but do not represent the country of Japan. Yohei Kono in 1993 representing the Japanese cabinet secretary gave a statement to the victim empathy Comfort women. But in March 2007 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe issued a controversial statement to refute the involvement of Japanese military sexual slavery system in practice.

Government of Indonesia considers Comfort women issue is over, even strengthening bilateral relations and economic ties with Japan’s post-war Asia-Pacific. But until now many non-governmental organizations continue to fight for the fate of Comfort women and continue to do lobbying at the international level to pressure the Japanese government to resolve these cases of sexual slavery. Then the research effort is still underway to clarify the history of Indonesia opaque Comfort women, race against time because the victims who are elderly.

Many people are humble, and to free the victims of social gatherings. Case Comfort women are considered mere “accident” the war by using the term “Japanese rations”. Labeling the victims as prostitutes commercial. Many parties also opportunists masquerading as defending the interests of Comfort women and the project on behalf of humanity, yet they are the brokers who corrupted the fund would have received immediate victims.

July 1995 Asian Women’s Fund (AWF) was established by Japanese private organization. The organization is accused of being “agents briber” to quell protests do not represent the international community and the Japanese government officially. In the reign of Suharto in 1997 Minister of Social Affairs Inten Suweno receive compensation fund for victims amounting to 380 million yen was amortized over 10 years. But many of the victims claimed never received such compensation.

Here are some of the demands of the victims jugunianfu:

1. The Japanese government today should formally acknowledge and apologize that intentional sexual slavery by Japan during the Asia-Pacific War 1931-1945.
2. The victims were given compensation as victims of war for the lives that have been destroyed by the Japanese military.
3. Demanded the inclusion of black history Comfort women into the school curriculum in Japan so that Japanese young people know the truth of the history of Japan.

In 1992, for the first time Kim Hak Soon to open South Korean victims of the sound of Japanese military atrocities against himself to the public. After that problem solved Comfort women and one by one the victims of various countries speak out. Then in 2000 the Tokyo Tribunal has held that demands accountability and Emperor Hirohito of Japan’s military sexual slavery practices during the Asia Pacific region. In 2001 the final decisions issued in the Tribunal of The Hague. After that international pressure on the Japanese government continues to Do. United States Congress in October 2007 issued a non-binding resolution that suppresses the Japanese government to meet political responsibility for these problems. Still to this day the Japanese government has not admitted what he had done to hundreds of thousands of women in Asia and the Netherlands in Asia Pacific during the war.

Testimony Mardiyem (ex Comfort women with nicknames Momoye)

Nothing is more painful and humbling when someone’s personal experience is not stated correctly and even denied. But that’s what happened with the former women Comfort women, women who were forced to become sex slaves by the Japanese military during World War II.

Early March, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe said no evidence was found of forcing women to become sex slaves. It is a painful statement and simultaneously deny the experiences of the women. Not only that, the statement also deny the historical evidence available.

Statement of Prime Minister Abe sparked outrage in countries such as China, Korea, the Philippines, and also a number of Dutch citizens in Indonesia had also been victims. Historians claimed about 200 thousand women from Korea, China, Philippines, Taiwan, and Indonesia were forced to become sex slaves for soldiers serving at the time of Dai Nippon. If Prime Minister Abe stated now there is no compulsion, it means that 200 thousand women were all lying berramai-crowded about their experiences?

Comfort women Indonesia
In Indonesia alone there are about 1500 women ex Comfort women that most of them are elderly have even died. Cause they do to demand justice and recognition not only arduous and long, but they also fought almost alone because until now no visible support from the government prior to their recognition.

‘Perhaps this is due to highly political issue at all because it relates to the Japanese government is not denying aid and grants for Indonesia’s largest. So maybe the government was afraid when addressing this issue then it could have an impact on the policy side of Japan as the largest donor country for Indonesia ‘. Thus the response of Estu Fanani Apik, Comfort women Advocacy Network members.

The story of ‘Momoye’


One of the former Comfort women in Indonesia are still persistent struggling for recognition and justice is the mother Mardiyem. In 1943, Mardiyem when it was still a teenager aged 13 years. He was orphaned at the time. His mother died when he was an infant and his father followed ten years later. Mardiyem sing this little hobby of thought will be invited to enter in a play group when Japanese soldiers registering for girls. Small Mardiyem not feel suspicious when she had to undergo a medical examination.

Mardiyem together with 48 other girls were taken to Kalimantan or Borneo at the time. A week when he got in Banjarmasin Mardiyem not employed in a play group but put Tlawang hotel which is actually a brothel. Mardiyem placed in room number 11 and he was given a new name, the name of Japan ‘Momoye’. New Mardiyem realizes that he and his friends made what he called ‘mischief’.

Therefore Mardiyem very angry when it is said that she was a prostitute before Comfort women used it. Mardiyem further recalled that her friends are included at the hotel are all crying. ‘My heart is crushed. I was of good family, my neighborhood gentry, how can I be a bad person ‘, so Mardiyem said with a sigh.

From room number 11’s, suffering for the sake of the suffering experienced by Mardiyem. Kicks and punches are often received from the guests when he dared to refuse the request Japanese guest. “Such treatment of animals, but we can not do anything ‘, so Mardiyem. In fact, such treatment is still in progress when he was five months pregnant and she did not know it. He should be an abortion was. ‘My stomach is pressed, the pain is not playing and when he came out he was squirming’, so said Mardiyem while staring into the ceiling of his house in Yogyakarta. As a result, the content Mardiyem damaged so that he could no longer produce offspring.

Coercion
Perhaps just as it was intended coercion Prime Minister Abe took the form of a barrel of a gun pointed at the front of the head. It’s things like that not experienced by the victims who had testified as Mardiyem from Indonesia or Qiaomei Zhu from China. But there are women Comfort women from other countries who testified about the gang rape against them before Comfort women serve as testimony Geun Joo Hwang from Taiwan. Or they were kidnapped by Japanese soldiers and forced to become a Comfort women like Prescila Bartonico and Maxima Reagala de La Cruz from the Philippines.

Coercion can take more subtle forms such promises will be given the job. Did not even this thing as we often hear today? Young women are promised jobs abroad but later coerced or forced into the prostitution? Or in a situation similar but subordinate relationship between the employer, ruling with a subordinate. Whether in a relationship that is not balanced like this subordinate party dared to challenge his superiors’ orders?

The attitude of Japan
After the emergence of a strong reaction from various countries on the statement, then Prime Minister Abe re-issued a statement to quell anger. In front of a parliamentary commission this week, Abe said the government stick to the 1993 statement spoken by Chief Cabinet Secretary Yohei Kono at the time. The statement acknowledged the Japanese military’s direct involvement in procuring entertainers venues and forced the women into Comfort women. In connection with the Kono apology stated.

Prime Minister Abe expressed stick Kono statement  the Japan policy that it but adding that Japan would not apologize again about Comfort women is a problem. Not long after the acting Chief Cabinet Secretary Shimomura Hakubun re-issued a controversial statement. He expressed his belief that the Japanese army was not involved in forcing women into sex slaves. Some supporters of Abe’s conservative view that the Comfort women is a prostitute who was paid for his service.

It’s very sad if quite minutely understand the story about Comfort women (or often called as Rations of  Japan military army  as the first), they are victims of fraud who womens d & d’forcibly raped by the Japanese (who is now occupied  Indonesia ) to be satisfying lust of the soldiers and civil servants who da d’Indonesia Japan …. According to the book I read yag (Agony of Women: Heart cries Comfort women) a d ‘Comfort women forced to serve 15 org Japanese men within a day without d’pay!! Can you imagine how heavy & tersiksa’a them, when they become pregnant they should faced  forced abortions without anesthesia which  who they were severely damaged uterus could have offspring .
I really, really appreciated  & honored to the struggle of   the Comfort women ,Because they helped struggled within Indonesia’s independence, did not reply with how to join the war or   way but  with who “somewhat” unusual is enamored Japanese soldiers to abandon guns to be stolen by fighters d’Indonesia (are not  HOT !!!!!) but what can who gifts people and government of Indonesia ????? Blasphemy! yaa only that they may receive gifts for all their toil “penderitaan”

They d’considered an equal with prostitutes who deliberately m’jual tubuh’a only for money, sometimes I cannot think kind thoughts with feeling of that man came and want  m’hujat the Comfort women & try m’analogikan m’balik position with Comfort women ni c ckckckckckck with them …. The story of the Comfort women is one who were to pushed my  interest with matkul Gender, rather than demanding the same  position but  i just want to protect  & “cleanse” their name d’eyes of the people of Indonesia (hahhhh. may be realitation terrealisasi .. I wish iaminnn: D)

yahhh … but what more words what else? ud mjdi rice porridge, dark tale tu mjdi now only history that may dull org know atw ill even to mengetahui’a Wallahualam t’tarik Bu … now Mardiyem (ex Comfort women satu2’a Indonesia who are still alive) have b ‘ home k’Rahmatullah epidemic of 2008, I just only could  hopefully he & all the spirits of the former Comfort women dr b’bagai other parts of the world & bs d’thank his side who has found happiness as long as they live aminnn  ….

 

original info

Jugun Ianfu: Sejarah Kelam Masa Lalu

 

Jugun Ianfu adalah istilah Jepang terhadap perempuan penghibur tentara kekaisaran Jepang dimasa perang Asia Pasifik, istilah asing lainnya adalah Comfort Women. Pada kenyataannya Jugun Ianfubukan merupakan perempuan penghibur tetapi perbudakan seksual yang brutal, terencana, serta dianggap masyarakat internasional sebagai kejahatan perang. Diperkirakan 200 sampai 400 ribu perempuan Asia berusia 13 hingga 25 tahun dipaksa menjadi budak seks tentara Jepang.Melakukan invansi ke negara lain yang mengakibatkan peperangan membuat kelelahan mental tentara Jepang. Kondisi ini mengakibatkan tentara Jepang melakukan pelampiasan seksual secara brutal dengan cara melakukan perkosaan masal yang mengakibatkan mewabahnya penyakit kelamin yang menjangkiti tentara Jepang. Hal ini tentunya melemahkan kekuatan angkatan perang kekaisaran Jepang. Situasi ini memunculkan gagasan untuk merekrut perempuan-perempuan lokal , menyeleksi kesehatan dan memasukan mereka ke dalam Ianjo-Ianjo sebagai rumah bordil militer Jepang.Mereka direkrut dengan cara halus seperti dijanjikan sekolah gratis, pekerjaan sebagai pemain sandiwara, pekerja rumah tangga, pelayan rumah makan dan juga dengan cara kasar dengan menteror disertai tindak kekerasan, menculik bahkan memperkosa di depan keluarga.Jugunianfu berasal dari Korea Selatan, Korea Utara, Cina, Filipina, Taiwan, Timor Leste, Malaysia, dan Indonesia. Sebagian kecil di antaranya dari Belanda dan Jepang sendiri. Mereka dibawa ke wilayah medan pertempuran untuk melayani kebutuhan seksual sipil dan militer Jepang baik di garis depan pertempuran maupun di wilayah garis belakang pertempuran.Sebagian besar perempuan-perempuan yang berasal dari pulau Jawa yang dijadikan Jugun Ianfu seperti Mardiyem, Sumirah, Emah Kastimah, Sri Sukanti, hanyalah sebagian kecil Jugun Ianfu Indonesia yang bisa diidentifikasi. Masih banyak Jugun IanfuIndonesia yang hidup maupun sudah meninggal dunia yang belum terlacak keberadaannya.Mereka diperkosa dan disiksa secara kejam. Dipaksa melayani kebutuhan seksual tentara Jepang sebanyak 10 hingga 20 orang siang dan malam serta dibiarkan kelaparan. Kemudian di aborsi secara paksa apabila hamil. Banyak perempuan mati dalam Ianjokarena sakit, bunuh diri atau disiksa sampai mati.Ianjo pertama di dunia dibangun di Shanghai, Cina tahun 1932. Pembangunan Ianjo di Cina dijadikan model untuk pembangunan Ianjo-Ianjo di seluruh kawasan Asia Pasifik termasuk Indonesia sejak pendudukan Jepang tahun 1942-1945 telah dibangun Ianjo diberbagai wilayah seperti Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Maluku, Jawa, Nusa Tenggara, Sumatra, Papua.Setelah perang Asia Pasifik usai Jugun Ianfuyang masih hidup didera perasaan malu untuk pulang ke kampung halaman. Mereka memilih hidup ditempat lain dan mengunci masa lalu yang kelam dengan berdiam dan mengucilkan diri. Hidup dalam kemiskinan ekonomi dan disingkirkan masyarakat. Mengalami penderitaan fisik, menanggung rasa malu dan perasaan tak berharga hingga akhir hidupnya.Kaisar Hirohito merupakan pemberi restu sistem Jugun Ianfuini diterapkan di seluruh Asia Pasifik. Para pelaksana di lapangan adalah para petinggi militer yang memberi komando perang. Maka saat ini pihak yang harus bertanggung jawab atas kejahatan kemanusiaan ini adalah pemerintah Jepang.Pemerintah Jepang masa kini tidak mengakui keterlibatannya dalam praktek perbudakan seksual di masa perang Asia Pasifik. Pemerintah Jepang berdalih Jugun Ianfu dikelola dan dioperasikan oleh pihak swasta. Pemerintah Jepang menolak meminta maaf secara resmi kepada para Jugun Ianfu. Kendatipun demikian Juli 1995 Perdana Menteri Tomiichi Murayama pernah menyiratkan permintaan maaf secara pribadi, tetapi tidak mewakili negara Jepang. Tahun 1993 Yohei Kono mewakili sekretaris kabinet Jepang memberikan pernyataan empatinya kepada korban Jugun Ianfu. Namun pada Maret 2007 Perdana Menteri Shinzo Abe mengeluarkan pernyataan yang kontroversial dengan menyanggah keterlibatan militer Jepang dalam praktek sistem perbudakan seksual.Pemerintah Indonesia menganggap masalah Jugun Ianfu sudah selesai, bahkan mempererat hubungan bilateral dan ekonomi dengan Jepang paska perang Asia Pasifik. Namun hingga kini banyak organisasi non pemerintah terus memperjuangkan nasib Jugun Ianfu dan terus melakukan melobi ke tingkat internasional untuk menekan pemerintah Jepang agar menyelesaikan kasus perbudakan seksual ini. Kemudian upaya penelitian masih terus dilakukan untuk memperjelas sejarah buram Jugun IanfuIndonesia,berpacu dengan waktu karena para korban yang sudah lanjut usia.Banyak masyarakat yang merendahkan, serta menyisihkan para korban dari pergaulan sosial. Kasus Jugun Ianfu dianggap sekedar “kecelakaan” perang dengan memakai istilah “ransum Jepang”. Mencap para korban sebagai pelacur komersial. Banyak juga pihak-pihak oportunis yang berkedok membela kepentingan Jugun Ianfudan mengatasnamakan proyek kemanusiaan, namum mereka adalah calo yang mengkorupsi dana santunan yang seharusnya diterima langsung para korban.Juli 1995 Asian Women’s Fund(AWF) didirikan oleh organisasi swasta Jepang. Organisasi ini dituduh sebagai “agen penyuap” untuk meredam protes masyarakat internasional dan tidak mewakili pemerintah Jepang secara resmi. Di masa pemerintahan Soeharto Tahun 1997 Menteri Sosial Inten Suweno menerima dana santunan bagi para korban sebesar 380 juta yen yang diangsur selama 10 tahun. Namun banyak para korban menyatakan tidak pernah menerima santunan tersebut.Berikut adalah beberapa tuntutan dari para korban jugunianfu:1. Pemerintah Jepang masa kini harus mengakui secara resmi dan meminta maaf bahwa perbudakan seksual dilakukan secara sengaja oleh negara Jepang selama perang Asia Pasifik 1931-1945.
2. Para korban diberi santunan sebagai korban perang untuk kehidupan yang sudah dihancurkan oleh militer Jepang.
3. Menuntut dimasukkannya sejarah gelap Jugun Ianfuke dalam kurikulum sekolah di Jepang agar generasi muda Jepang mengetahui kebenaran sejarah Jepang.Tahun 1992, untuk pertama kalinya Kim Hak Soon korban asal Korea Selatan membuka suara atas kekejaman militer Jepang terhadap dirinya ke publik. Setelah itu masalah Jugun Ianfuterbongkar dan satu persatu korban dari berbagai negara angkat suara. Kemudian tahun 2000 telah digelar Tribunal Tokyo yang menuntut pertanggung jawaban Kaisar Hirohito dan pihak militer Jepang atas praktek perbudakan seksual selama perang Asia Pasifik. Tahun 2001 final keputusan dikeluarkan di Tribunal The Haque. Setelah itu tekanan internasional terhadap pemerintah Jepang terus Dilakukan. Oktober 2007 kongres Amerika Serikat mengeluarkan resolusi tidak mengikat yang menekan pemerintah Jepang memenuhi tanggung jawab politik atas masalah ini . Meski demikian pemerintah Jepang sampai hari ini belum mengakui apa yang telah diperbuat terhadap ratusan ribu perempuan di Asia dan Belanda pada masa perang Asia Pasifik.Kesaksian Mardiyem (eks Jugun Ianfu dgn julukan Momoye)

Tiada yang lebih menyakitkan dan merendahkan ketika pengalaman pribadi seseorang dinyatakan tidak benar dan bahkan diingkari. Namun itulah yang terjadi dengan para perempuan eks Jugun Ianfu, para perempuan yang dipaksa menjadi budak seks oleh militer Jepang pada masa Perang Dunia II.

Awal bulan Maret, Perdana Menteri Jepang Shinzo Abe mengatakan tidak ditemukan bukti-bukti terjadinya pemaksaan terhadap para perempuan untuk menjadi budak seks. Itu merupakan pernyataan yang menyakitkan dan sekaligus mengingkari pengalaman para perempuan itu. Bukan hanya itu saja, pernyataan tersebut juga mengingkari bukti-bukti sejarah yang ada.

Pernyataan Perdana Menteri Abe ini menyulut kemarahan di negara-negara seperti Cina, Korea, Filipina, dan juga Belanda yang sejumlah warganya dulu di Indonesia juga menjadi korban. Sejarawan menyatakan sekitar 200 ribu perempuan dari Korea, Cina, Filipina, Taiwan, dan Indonesia dipaksa menjadi budak seks untuk melayani tentara Dai Nippon pada waktu itu. Apabila Perdana Menteri Abe sekarang menyatakan tidak ada paksaan, berarti 200 ribuan perempuan itu semuanya berbohong berramai-ramai tentang pengalaman mereka?

Jugun Ianfu Indonesia
Di Indonesia sendiri terdapat sekitar 1500 perempuan eks jugun ianfu yang sebagian besar dari mereka sudah berusia lanjut bahkan telah meninggal dunia. Perjuangan yang mereka lakukan untuk menuntut keadilan serta pengakuan tidak saja melelahkan dan lama, tapi mereka juga nyaris berjuang sendirian karena sampai saat ini tidak nampak adanya dukungan dari pemerintah terlebih pengakuan terhadap mereka.

‘Mungkin ini disebabkan isu ini sangat politis sekali karena berkaitan dengan pemerintah Jepang yang tidak dipungkiri lagi memberi bantuan dan hibah terbesar buat Indonesia. Jadi mungkin pemerintah takut apabila menyikapi isu ini maka bisa berdampak pada sisi policy Jepang sebagai negara pendonor terbesar bagi Indonesia’. Demikian tanggapan Estu Fanani dari LBH Apik, anggota Jaringan Advokasi Jugun Ianfu.

Kisah ‘ Momoye’
Salah satu eks Jugun Ianfu di Indonesia yang masih gigih berjuang untuk mendapatkan pengakuan dan keadilan adalah Ibu Mardiyem. Tahun 1943, Mardiyem ketika itu masih seorang remaja berusia 13 tahun. Ia telah yatim piatu pada waktu itu. Ibunya meninggal ketika ia masih bayi dan ayahnya menyusul sepuluh tahun kemudian. Mardiyem kecil yang hobi menyanyi ini menyangka akan diajak masuk dalam kelompok sandiwara ketika tentara Jepang melakukan pendaftaran untuk anak-anak perempuan. Mardiyem kecil tidak merasa curiga ketika ia harus menjalani pemeriksaan kesehatan.

Mardiyem bersama 48 anak perempuan lainnya dibawa ke Kalimantan atau Borneo pada waktu itu. Seminggu sesampainya di Banjarmasin Mardiyem tidak dipekerjakan di kelompok sandiwara tapi dimasukkan ke hotel Tlawang yang sebenarnya adalah rumah bordil. Mardiyem ditempatkan di kamar nomor 11 dan iapun diberi nama baru, nama Jepang ‘Momoye’. Baru Mardiyem menyadari bahwa ia dan teman-temannya dijadikan apa yang disebutnya ‘orang nakal’.

Oleh karena itu Mardiyem sangat marah apabila dikatakan bahwa dirinya adalah pelacur sebelum dijadikan Jugun Ianfu itu. Mardiyem selanjutnya bertutur bahwa teman-temannya yang dimasukkan di hotel tersebut semuanya menangis. ‘Hati saya remuk. Saya ini dari keluarga baik-baik, lingkungan saya priyayi, kok bisa saya jadi orang nakal’, begitu kata Mardiyem sambil menghela napas.

Dari kamar nomor 11 itulah, penderitaan demi penderitaan dialami oleh Mardiyem. Tendangan dan pukulan seringkali diterima dari para tamunya apabila ia berani menolak permintaan tamu Jepangnya. ‘Perlakuan seperti binatang, tapi kami tidak bisa berbuat apa-apa’, demikian Mardiyem. Bahkan perlakuan seperti ini masih saja berlangsung ketika ia telah hamil lima bulan dan ia sendiri tidak mengetahuinya. Ia harus menggugurkan kandungannya itu. ‘Perut saya ditekan, sakitnya bukan main dan ketika keluar ia masih menggeliat-geliat’, demikian tutur Mardiyem sambil matanya menerawang ke langit-langit rumahnya di Yogyakarta. Akibatnya, kandungan Mardiyem rusak sehingga ia tidak bisa lagi menghasilkan keturunan.

Paksaan
Mungkin saja paksaan seperti yang dimaksudkan Perdana Menteri Abe itu berbentuk laras senjata yang diacungkan di depan kepala. Memang hal seperti itu tidak dialami oleh para korban yang pernah memberi kesaksian seperti Mardiyem dari Indonesia atau Zhu Qiaomei dari China. Namun ada perempuan-perempuan Jugun Ianfu dari negara-negara lain yang bersaksi tentang perkosaan beramai-ramai terhadap mereka sebelum dijadikan Jugun Ianfu seperti kesaksian Hwang Geun Joo dari Taiwan. Atau mereka diculik oleh tentara Jepang dan dipaksa menjadi Jugun Ianfu seperti Prescila Bartonico dan Maxima Reagala de La Cruz dari Filipina.

Paksaan dapat mengambil berbagai bentuk yang lebih halus seperti janji-janji akan diberi pekerjaan. Bukankah hal seperti inipun seringkali kita dengar saat ini? Perempuan-perempuan muda yang dijanjikan pekerjaan di luar negeri tapi kemudian dipaksa atau terpaksa masuk dalam pelacuran? Atau dalam situasi serupa tapi tak sama hubungan antara majikan dengan bawahan, penguasa dengan yang bawahan. Apakah dalam relasi yang tidak seimbang seperti ini pihak bawahan berani menentang perintah atasannya?

Sikap Jepang
Sesudah munculnya reaksi keras dari berbagai negara atas pernyataannya itu, maka Perdana Menteri Abe kembali mengeluarkan pernyataan untuk meredam kemarahan. Di depan komisi parlemen pekan ini, Abe mengatakan tetap berpegang pada pernyataan pemerintah tahun 1993 yang diucapkan oleh Kepala Sekretariat Kabinet Yohei Kono pada waktu itu. Pernyataan itu mengakui keterlibatan langsung tentara Jepang dalam mengadakan tempat-tempat penghibur dan memaksa para perempuan menjadi Jugun Ianfu. Sehubungan dengan itu Kono menyatakan maaf.

Perdana Menteri Abe menyatakan tetap berpegang pada pernyataanSikap Jepan Kono itu tapi menambahkan pula bahwa Jepang tidak akan minta maaf lagi mengenai masalah Jugun Ianfu ini. Tidak berselang lama penjabat Kepala Sekretaris Kabinet Hakubun Shimomura kembali mengeluarkan pernyataan kontroversial. Ia menyatakan keyakinannya bahwa tentara Jepang tidak terlibat dalam memaksa para perempuan menjadi budak seks. Sebagian pendukung Abe yang konservatif berpandangan bahwa para Jugun Ianfu itu adalah pelacur yang dibayar untuk pelayanannya.

Sungguh sangat miris jika qt pahami dgn seksama kisah ttg Jugun Ianfu (atau sering d’sebut sbg Ransum Jepun oleh org2 dulu), mereka adalah wanita2 korban penipuan yg d’perkosa & d’paksa oleh pihak Jepang (yg saat tu m’jajah Indonesia) utk menjadi pemuas nafsu para tentara maupun pegawai sipil Jepang yg da d’Indonesia….Menurut buku yag gw baca (Derita Kaum Perempuan: Jerit Hati Jugun Ianfu) seorang Jugun Ianfu d’paksa utk melayani 15 org lelaki Jepang dlm sehari tanpa d’bayar!!!! Bisa kalian bayangkan betapa berat & tersiksa’a mereka,, saat mereka hamil mereka harus m’hadapi aborsi secara paksa tanpa obat bius yg m’buat rahim mereka rusak parah hingga ga bisa memiliki keturunan :(

Gw amat sangat m’hargai & salut ma p’juangan para Jugun Ianfu krn mereka jg turut b’juang dlm kemerdekaan Indonesia, memang tidak dgn cara b’perang atw yg lain’a tp dgn cara yg “agak” tidak lazim yaitu merayu para tentara Jepang utk menanggalkan senjata’a agar bisa d’curi oleh para pejuang Indonesia (HEBAT ga tu!!!!!) namun apa hadiah yg d’dapat dr masyarakat maupun pemerintah Indonesia????? HUJATAN!!! yaa hanya itu hadiah yg mereka terima atas semua p’deritaan & jerih payah mereka

Mereka d’anggap setara dgn PELACUR yg sengaja m’jual tubuh’a hanya demi uang, t’kadang gw ga abis pikir dgn pemikiran macam tu…pengen rasa’a gw datengin tu org2 yg m’hujat para Jugun Ianfu & coba m’analogikan dgn m’balik posisi c Jugun Ianfu ni dgn mereka ckckckckckck….Kisah para Jugun Ianfu inilah yg m’jadi salah satu p’dorong gw interest dgn matkul Gender, bukan menuntut kesataraan posisi tp gw hanya ingin m’bela & “membersihkan” nama mereka d’mata masyarakat Indonesia (hahhhh…mudah2an t’realisasi keinginan gw ni aminnn :D)

yahhh…tp mw d’kata apa lagi? nasi ud mjdi bubur, kisah kelam tu kini hanya mjdi sejarah yg mungkin tdk banyak org mengetahui atw bahkan tdk t’tarik utk mengetahui’a Wallahualam…kini Bu Mardiyem (satu2’a eks Jugun Ianfu Indonesia yg masih hidup) telah b’pulang k’Rahmatullah taun 2008, gw hanya bs b’doa semoga arwah beliau & segenap para eks Jugun Ianfu dr b’bagai belahan dunia lainnya bs d’terima disisiNya & menemukan kebahagiaan yg telah t’renggut selama mereka hidup aminnn….

Sumber: http://www.jugunianfuindonesia.org/

 

Koleksi Pedang Panjang Aceh(Peudeng Aceh Long Sword collections)

 

 

 

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN

 S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

KOLEKSI PEDANG PANJANG ACEH

Pedang Panjang Aceh Sumatera

Aceh (juga disebut sebagai Aceh, Atjin, Aceh Achin.) Berada di ujung utara Sumatera di Indonesia. Hal ini diyakini menjadi salah satu kerajaan tertua di Indonesia. Hindu dan Budha pengaruh dari India mungkin telah sampai ke Aceh pada awal abad pertama. abad keenam A. D. Tionghoa sejarah. berbicara tentang sebuah kerajaan di ujung utara Sumatera bernama Po-Li. Hal ini diyakini bahwa Islam mungkin pertama kali memasuki kepulauan Indonesia melalui Aceh suatu waktu antara abad ke-8 dan 12. Pada 1292, Marco Polo, pada pelayaran epik dari China mengunjungi Sumatera dalam perjalanan ke Persia dan melaporkan bahwa di bagian utara pulau setidaknya ada enam pelabuhan perdagangan sibuk termasuk Perlak, Samudera dan lambri. Dengan masa lalu seperti ini tidak mengherankan bahwa senjata mereka telah Hindu, Budha, pengaruh Cina dan Islam. Daerah ini memiliki sejarah bela diri yang luas. Pada pertengahan abad ke-14, Pasai diserbu oleh tentara Majapahit dari Jawa. Pada tahun 1523, Sultan Ali menyerang Portugis di Pasai, Portugal menewaskan komandan militer Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali berhasil mengusir pasukan Portugis dari Pasai. Setelah kekalahan ini, Portugal berusaha untuk menaklukkan beberapa kali di Aceh, tanpa keberhasilan. Pada 1873, Belanda menyatakan perang dan menyerang Aceh Darussalam. Tapi Belanda menemukan lebih sulit daripada mereka diharapkan untuk mendapatkan kontrol dari seluruh Aceh. Aceh menolak pendudukan, menyentuh dari Perang Aceh, perang kolonial / ekspedisi terpanjang diperjuangkan oleh lebih dari 10.000 jiwa Belanda dan mengklaim. Aceh-Belanda perang berlarut-larut sampai 1914, resistensi dilanjutkan dengan kelompok-kelompok kecil sampai 1942 ketika Jepang tiba di Hindia Belanda. Sudah sering dikatakan bahwa Kesultanan Aceh dari abad ke-16 pada itu dalam perjuangan terus-menerus. Meskipun banyak senjata bermata digunakan di Aceh ada 3 senjata utama yang telah memainkan peran dalam sejarah Aceh. Mereka adalah rencong, Siwaih (Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) dan peudeueng. Artikel ini akan berurusan dengan peudeueng tersebut. Ketika saya mendapatkan imformation lebih ini akan diperbarui dan jenis pedang yang lebih dapat ditambahkan. Tidak ada dalam ini harus dianggap sebagai pekerjaan baru atau asli di bagian saya. Sebaliknya ini adalah kompilasi dari apa yang begitu banyak orang telah berbaik hati untuk berbagi dengan saya, dan apa yang diterbitkan bahan yang saya telah dapat mengakses. Saya yakin ada ketidakakuratan di sini yang merupakan hasil dari kesalahan yang jujur. Mereka akan dikoreksi karena saya dibuat sadar dari mereka atau mencari informasi yang lebih baik. Itulah salah satu keuntungan besar artikel yang telah berbasis web. Tidak seperti kata dipublikasikan yang hanya dapat sebagai baik sebagai informasi pada saat penerbitan; artikel berbasis web dapat udated dan diubah.

The New York Times, pada 6 Mei 1873, menulis: “Sebuah pertempuran berdarah telah terjadi di Aceh, Kerajaan pribumi menempati bagian utara pulau Sumatra Belanda menyampaikan serangan umum dan sekarang kami memiliki rincian hasilnya. Serangan itu. jijik dengan pembantaian besar. jenderal Belanda tewas, dan tentara-Nya dimasukkan ke penerbangan bencana. Tampaknya, memang, telah harfiah hancur. “
 

Pedang panjang Aceh disebut peudeung tersebut. Meskipun pedang diberikan ke Aceh itu hampir pasti mereka digunakan juga oleh kelompok-kelompok etnis lain di daerah tersebut. Ada bukti penggunaannya sebagai senjata setidaknya sejauh kembali sebagai abad ke-17. Ini mungkin telah digunakan secara terpisah, dengan pedang ganda atau dengan perisai bulat kecil yang disebut sebuah peurise. Perlu dicatat bahwa pedang ini juga sering disebut dengan nama lain. Dalam buku referensi yang sangat lengkap, SENJATA TRADISIONAL DARI KEPULAUAN INDONESIA. oleh AG Van Zonneveld mereka disebut sebagai “aku Pedang” “Sikin Pasangan” dan “Sikin Panjang” Banyak sumber-sumber lain termasuk situs yang sangat baik Dominique Buttin yang menyebutnya sebagai “Sikin” (Sikim, Sikkim, Sekem). Dalam sebuah korespondensi dengan Dominique Buttin, ia memberitahu bahwa, “Peudeung namanya berarti pedang, yang merupakan arti sama dengan Podang dari Batak atau Pedang dari Jawa.” Sebuah masalah besar dengan memutuskan nama yang akan digunakan untuk ini pedang berasal dari fakta bahwa ada 10 kelompok subethnic dari acehnesse (seperti Aceh, Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban dan Julu) Disini Saya akan menggunakan istilah yang digunakan dalam sebagian besar sumber-sumber Belanda dan itu adalah “Peudeueng”. Sebuah tinjauan literatur tampaknya untuk membagi peudeueng oleh gaya pisau dan jenis jika gagang. Berbilah pedang lurus disebut peudeueng Panjang (sikin Panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh,). Pisau melengkung peudeueng disebut peudeueng Peusangan (peudeueng Pasangan, sikin Peusangan, sikin pasagan, Pedang, poedeung).

Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (Hulul Buaya)

Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET

Sebuah Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung (HuluPasangan)

 


Divisi lain untuk Aceh pedang adalah dengan jenis atau bentuk gagang atau Hulu, Dalam “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta, ia menggambarkan mereka sebagai “gagang seperti ekor kucing”, “gagang seperti mulut buaya”, “gagang seperti tanduk rusa”, “gagang seperti kaki kuda”, dan “gagang seperti ekor bebek” Sementara semua ini dapat ditemukan di Aceh lainnya pedang, saya hanya menemukan 4 jenis Hulu pada peudeueng. Gagang yang terlihat seperti mulut terbuka hewan (atau buaya) disebut Hulu tumpang beunteung di Gayo atau Hulu Buaya di Aceh. Jenis gagang dapat dilihat pada kedua peudeueng Panjang dan peudeueng Peusangan. Dalam salah satu varian dari tips datang bersama-sama sampai mereka hampir menyentuh dengan ujung diratakan. Gaya Saya diberitahu oleh smith Aceh masih disebut Buaya Hulu tetapi beberapa buku juga menyebutnya Peusangan Hulu. Peusangan adalah nama sungai dan nama kecamatan di Bireuen, Aceh Jenis ketiga adalah biasanya terlihat hanya pada Panjang peudeueng disebut Rumpung Hulu.

a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

 

 dari dekat dari Hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

Sebuah Panjang peudeueng dengan rumpung Hulu

Keempat jenis gagang yang terlihat pada peudeueng disebut meu APET Hulu (Hulu Muapit di Gayo atau Sukul Mekepit di Alas). Hulu berarti gagang meu adalah kata kerja APET (jaga / kawal) berarti dijaga, maka ini hanya dapat berarti “gagang dijaga”. Beberapa sumber lain menyebutnya gagang Daun Tebu. Duan Daun Tebu Gula Tebu berarti dan ujung gagang ini dikatakan menyerupai tebu tumbuh. Para Hulu meu APET sangat mirip gagang pedang India terlihat pada Khanda dan firangi, tetapi lonjakan akhirnya adalah lebih pendek.

dari dekat dari meu suatu APET Hulu


Baru-baru ini Ariel Barkan, pada forum di http://www.vikingsword.com, menyadari bahwa hal itu juga dipengaruhi oleh gagang Gulabghati India, dinamakan demikian karena disk atasnya memiliki garis-garis konsentris menyerupai bunga mawar, “gulab”. Lebih lanjut tentang ini gaya gagang dapat ditemukan di India dan Armour Senjata oleh GN Celana.

suatu Hulu meu APET LANGKA  terlihat dengan tombol pada akhir gagang, ini kadang-kadang disebut meutampoh Peudeueng. Mungkin ini harus dianggap sebagai gaya terpisah dari gagang

 

 

 Albert G. Van Zonnenveld menyatakan dalam bukunya, bahwa Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET sebagian besar pembuatan asing dan tidak mendapatkan bantuan besar. Perasaan adalah bahwa karena itu varian ini mungkin sebagian besar seremonial. Itu mungkin benar hari ini, bagaimanapun, foto yang diambil selama perang Belanda-Aceh dapat ditemukan dengan pedang ini digunakan. Sementara spesimen hiasan dapat ditemukan, mayoritas Hulu meu APET saya jumpai atau melihat gambar yang dirancang untuk fungsi dan tidak terlalu banyak hiasan. Para sarung biasanya ditemukan dengan mereka yang juga agak keras. Spesimen dapat ditemukan dengan tanda-tanda kerusakan biasanya berhubungan dengan kerusakan pertempuran. Pedang dengan Hulu meu APET bahkan ditemukan pada beberapa pertempuran bendera. Selain contoh dari pedang dapat ditemukan dengan Azimat di dalamnya atau pada selubung untuk melindungi pembawa dalam pertempuran.

 

Bendera ini – secara harfiah – telah direndam dalam darah: penelitian laboratorium telah mengkonfirmasi bahwa bendera memiliki lubang peluru dan beruang noda darah. Ini mungkin darah CH letnan satu Bischoff. Dialah yang ditangkap bendera untuk jarahan selama penyerbuan sebuah ‘benteng’ (Melayu untuk benteng) yang diselenggarakan oleh musuh Achinese pada tahun 1840. Bischoff membayar petualangannya dengan sebelas luka yang ditimbulkan oleh klewangs musuh. Klewang awalnya pedang asli Aceh: ‘gliwang’. Menjelang akhir abad ke-19 itu menjadi fitur karakteristik seragam Belanda Hindia Timur prajurit. Pedang melebar di ujung pisau yang bersama-sama dengan pegangan, f

ORMS garis melengkung .. Dia dibawa terbungkus bendera. Beberapa hari kemudian, pada tanggal 3 Mei 1840, Bischoff meninggal karena luka-lukanya. Sebelum meninggal, ia dipromosikan ke pangkat kapten karena perbuatan heroik.

Foto bendera pertempuran di koleksi Rijksmuseum Amsterdam


 
 Sarung (Sarung) Para sarung untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET biasanya kayu ditutupi dengan kulit. Beberapa dihiasi dengan perak banding. Sarung pedang untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung dan peudeueng Panjang adalah dari kayu dan dapat ditemukan baik hiasan dan polos

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung

 

 

Sebuah sarung untuk Panjang peudeueng

 

 

Sebuah sarung khas untuk Peusangan peudeueng dengan tumpang Hulu beunteung

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pada bulan Maret 2006 terungkap beberapa informasi tentang beberapa dari keyakinan spiritual dan ritual sekitarnya pedang ini. Tampaknya bahwa ada paralel dengan anting (atau anting-anting) yang digunakan pada senjata Filipina. Ini jimat disebut tangkal atau azimat / zimat atau jimat. Jimat ini berisi ayat-ayat pelindung atau ayat-ayat agama dari ayat-ayat Quran (mungkin lagi sebuah sejajar dengan praktek Filipina Oracion). Hal ini terungkap pada thread di Vikingsword.com. Dalam diskusi ini tangkal atau azimat telah diposting yang berasal dari bawah tangan seorang penjaga Peusangan peudeueng dengan Hulu meu APET. Ini adalah area yang saya berharap untuk dapat melakukan penelitian lebih lanjut tentang temuan dan post di sini. Saya terima kasih kepada Fazli Ibrahim untuk membantu saya dengan informasi tentang ini.

Berikut adalah pedang yang azimat itu ditemukan di dalam dan kantong yang berisi hal

 

 

 

It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.

 

Beberapa gambar dari azimat dalam yang menangani pedang. Bagian antara 2 bintang dikenal sebagai Khatimus Sulaiman;.

Tujuan itu adalah untuk melindungi pemakainya itu terhadap “ilmu hitam” dan roh-roh jahat.

Beberapa Azimat lainnya dari Museum Nasional di Indonesia
 

Sebuah Azimat tertulis pada selubung dari Pa

njang Peudeung

Beberapa pedang Aceh memiliki motif vegatative di tenggorokan Pucuk Rebung disebut. Berbentuk V Pucuk Rebung bambu tumbuh mewakili
Menurut beberapa acehnesse, jika ada emas di gagang / menangani / sarung pedang hanya dapat dibuat untuk atau dimiliki oleh Panglima (komandan, kepala suku), teungku (noblility) dan sangat dihormati orang lain.

Berikut adalah beberapa foto-foto pejuang Aceh dengan peudeueng tersebut.

 

Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.

 

A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .

The photograph on the far right shows the source book.

 

Sebuah foto pejuang Aceh (foto kanan) dengan peudeueng dan rencong dari “Wapens Blanke” oleh JG Dieles. Satu memiliki sebuah Hulu tumpang beunteung (kanan) sebuah lainnya Hulu meu APET (kiri).

Foto di kanan menunjukkan buku sumber.

“Aceh bangsawan” dari: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).

Referensi

1) “Hands of Time: Kerajinan Aceh”, oleh Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989

2) “Senjata Tradisional kepulauan Indonesia” oleh Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Buku Seni – Leiden; Musim Semi

3) Blades 2001OLD – Dunia Melayu Senjata beringsut. Copyright © 2000 – 2005
Revisi: 2005-04-03

4) “India Senjata dan Armour” oleh Pant GN 1978

5). Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV murah V. Gambar 21 A.

6) Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Museum Ethnographisch, bagian VI (1912), plat V; (Museum Etnografi di Leiden, Belanda, sekarang “RMV Leiden”).
7) Senjata dan Memerangi Seni Indonesia, oleh Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Penerbitan 1972

 

 

original info

The Achenese Peudeueng

The Long Sword of Aceh Sumatra

Aceh (also referred to as Atjeh, Atjin, Acheen Achin.) is at the northern tip of Sumatra in Indonesia. It is believed to be one of the oldest kingdoms in Indonesia. Hindu and Buddist influence from India may have reached Aceh as early as the first century. sixth century A.D. Chinese chronicles. spoke of a kingdom on the northern tip of Sumatra named Po-Li. It is believed that Islam likely first entered the Indonesian archipelago through Aceh sometime between the 8th and 12th century. In 1292, Marco Polo, on his epic voyage from China visited Sumatra on his way to Persia and reported that in the northern part of the island there were at least six busy trading ports including Perlak, Samudera and lambri. With a past like this it is not surprising that their weapons have Hindu, Buddist, Chinese and Islamic influence. The area has an extensive martial history. In the middle of the 14th century, Pasai was invaded by Majapahit soldiers from Java. In 1523, Sultan Ali attacked the Portuguese in Pasai, killing Portugal military commander Horge de Brito. Sultan Ali managed to drive the Portuguese troops out of Pasai. After this defeat, Portugal attempted to conquer Aceh several times, without success. In 1873, the Netherlands declared war and invaded Aceh Darussalam. But the Dutch found it more difficult than they expected to gain control of the whole of Aceh. The Acehnese resisted the occupation, touching off the Aceh War, the longest colonial/expeditionary war fought by the Dutch and claiming more than 10,000 lives. Aceh-Dutch war dragged on until 1914, resistance continued with smaller groups until 1942 when the Japanese arrived in the Dutch East Indies. It has often been said that the Sultanate of Aceh from the 16th century on was in continual struggle. Although a multitude of edged weapons are used in Aceh there are 3 primary weapons that have played a role in Aceh’s history. They are the rencong, Siwaih ( Siwah, Sewar, Siwar) and peudeueng. This article will deal with the peudeueng. As I gain more imformation this will be updated and more sword types may be added. Nothing in this should be considered new or original work on my part. Instead this is a compilation of what so many people have been kind enough to share with me, and what published material I have been able to access. I am certain there are inaccuracies here that are the result of honest mistakes. They will be corrected as I am made aware of them or find better information. That is one large advantage a web based article has. Unlike the published word wich can only be as good as the information at the time of publishing; the web based article can be udated and changed.

THE NEW YORK TIMES, on May 6th, 1873, wrote: “A sanguinary battle has taken place in Aceh, a native Kingdom occupying the Northern portion of the island of Sumatra. The Dutch delivered a general assault and now we have details of the result. The attack was repulsed with great slaughter. The Dutch general was killed, and his army put to disastrous flight. It appears, indeed, to have been literally decimated.”

 

The Aceh long sword is called the peudeung. While these swords are attributed to the Aceh it is almost certain they were used also by other ethnic groups in the area. There is evidence of its use as a weapon at least as far back as the 17th century. It may have been used singly, with dual swords or with a small round shield called a peurise. It should be noted that these swords are also often called by other names. In the very complete reference book, TRADITIONAL WEAPONS OF THE INDONESIAN ARCHIPELAGO. by A.G. Van Zonneveld they are referred to as a “Pedang I” “Sikin Pasangan” and” Sikin Panjang” Numerous other sources including Dominique Buttin’s excellent site call it a “Sikin” ( Sikim , Sikkim, Sekem ). In a correspondence with Dominique Buttin, he informed the that, “The name Peudeung means sword, which is the same meaning as Podang from the Batak or Pedang from the Javanese.” A major problem with deciding which name to use for these swords comes from the fact that there are 10 subethnic groups of acehnesse (such as Aceh , Gayo, Alas, Aneuk Jamee, Melayu Tamiang, Kluet, Devayan, Sigulai, Haloban and Julu ) Here I will use the term used in the most of the Dutch sources and that is “Peudeueng” . A review of the literature seems to divide peudeueng by blade style and type if hilt. The straight bladed swords are called peudeueng panjang ( sikin panjang, sikin pandjang, loedjo Aceh, ). Curved blades peudeueng are called peudeueng peusangan ( peudeueng pasangan , sikin peusangan, sikin pasagan, pedang, poedeung ).


A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)

A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

A peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung (HuluPasangan)

 

The other division for Aceh swords is by type or shape of the hilt or hulu, In “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, 1989, Jakarta she describes them as “hilt like the tail of a cat”, “hilt like the mouth of a crocodile”, “hilt like the horns of a deer”, “hilt like the legs of a horse”, and “hilt like the tail of a duck” While all of these may be found on other Aceh swords; I have only found 4 types of hulu on peudeueng. The hilt that looks like the open mouth of an animal ( or crocodile) is called hulu tumpang beunteung in Gayo or Hulu Buaya in Aceh. This type of hilt can be seen on both peudeueng panjang and peudeueng peusangan. In one variant of this the tips come together till they almost touch with flattened ends. This style I was told by an Acheen smith is still called a hulu Buaya but some books also call it a Hulu Peusangan. Peusangan is the name of a river and the name of a subdistrict in Bireuen, Aceh The third type is usually seen only on the peudeueng panjang is called a Hulu Rumpung.

 

a close up of a hulu tumpang beunteung (Hulu Pasangan)

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu tumpang beunteung ( Hulul Buaya)

A peudeueng panjang with a hulu rumpung

 

The fourth type of hilt that is seen on peudeueng is called Hulu Meu Apet (Hulu Muapit in Gayo or Sukul Mekepit in Alas). Hulu means hilt Meu is a verb Apet ( jaga / kawal) means guarded ; so this may simply mean “guarded hilt”. Some other sources call this hilt Daun Tebu. Duan Tebu means Sugar Cane Leaf and the end of the hilt on this is said to resemble a sprouting sugar cane. The hulu meu apet strongly resembles Indian sword hilts seen on the khanda and firangi, but the end spike is shorter.

a close up of a a Hulu Meu Apet

Recently Ariel Barkan, on the forum at www.vikingsword.com, noticed that it also is influenced by the Indian Gulabghati hilt, named so because its upper disk has concentric lines resembling a rose flower, “gulab”. More on this style of hilt can be found in Indian Arms and Armour by G.N. Pant.

 

Rarely a Hulu Meu apet is seen with a knob at the end of the hilt, this is sometimes called a Peudeueng meutampoh. Perhaps this should be considered a separate style of hilt

 

Albert G. Van Zonnenveld states in his book, that the peudeueng peusangan with the Hulu Meu Apet was largely of foreign manufacture and did not gain great favor. His feeling is that because of that this variant may be largely ceremonial. That may be true today, however, photos taken during the Dutch-Aceh war can be found with this sword being used. While ornate specimens can be found; the majority of the hulu meu apet I have encountered or seen pictures of are designed for function and not overly ornate. The scabbards normally found with them are also rather austere. Specimens can be found with signs of damage usually associated with battle damage. The sword with the hulu meu apet was even found on several battle flags. In addition examples of these swords can be found with Azimat in them or on the sheath to protect the bearer in battle.

 

This flag has – literally – been soaked in blood: laboratory research has confirmed that the flag has a bullet hole and bears blood stains. This was probably the blood of first lieutenant C.H. Bischoff. It was he who captured the flag for booty during the storming of a ‘benteng’ (Malay for fort) held by the Achinese enemy in 1840. Bischoff paid for his escapade with eleven wounds inflicted by enemy klewangs. The klewang was originally a native Atjeh sword: ‘gliwang’. Towards the end of the 19th century it became a characteristic feature of the Dutch East Indian soldier’s uniform. The sword widens at the tip of the blade which, together with the handle, f

orms a curved line.. He was carried off wrapped in the flag. Several days later, on 3 May 1840, Bischoff died of his wounds. Before passing away, he was promoted to the rank of captain for his heroic deed.

Photo of a battle flag in the collection of the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam


Scabbards ( Sarung)

The scabbards for the peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet are usually wood covered with leather. Some are adorned with silver banding . Scabbards for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung and the peudeueng panjang are of wood and can be found both ornate and plain

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung

 

 

A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang

 

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet

A typical scabbard for a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu tumpang beunteung

 

 

A scabbard for a peudeueng panjang

 

 

In March of 2006 some information was revealed about some of the spiritual beliefs and rituals surrounding these swords. It appears that there are parallels to the the anting ( or anting-anting ) used on Philippine weapons. These talismans are called tangkal or azimat/zimat or jimat. These talismans contained protective verses or religious verses from the Quranic verses ( perhaps again a parallel to the Phillipine practice of Oracion ). This came to light on a thread on Vikingsword.com. In this discussion a tangkal or azimat was posted that came from under the hand guard of a peudeueng peusangan with a hulu meu apet. This is an area that I hope to be able to do more research on and post the findings here. My thanks to Fazli Ibrahim for helping me with information on this.

Here is the sword that the azimat was found in and the bag that contained it

 

 

Some pictures of the azimat in that sword handle. The portion between the 2 stars is known as Khatimus Sulaiman;.

 

 

 

It’s purpose is to protect it’s wearer against “black magic” and evil spirits.

 

Some other Azimat from the National Museum in Indonesia

An Azimat inscribed on the sheath of a Peudeung Panjang

Some Aceh swords have a vegatative motif at the throat called Pucuk Rebung. The V shaped Pucuk Rebung represents sprouting bamboo
According to some acehnesse, if there is gold on hilt / handle / scabbard the sword only can be made for or owned by Panglima ( commander , chieftains ), teungku ( the noblility ) and other highly respected persons.

Here are some photographs of Aceh warriors with the peudeueng.

 

A photograph of Aceh warriors ( right photo) with the peudeueng and a rencong from “Blanke Wapens” by JG Dieles. One has a of a hulu tumpang beunteung ( right ) the other a hulu meu apet ( left) .

The photograph on the far right shows the source book.

 

“Acehnese noblemen” from: Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).

References

1)      “Hands of Time: The Crafts of Aceh”, by Barbara Leigh, Djambatan – Jakarta, 1989

2)      “Traditional Weapons of the Indonesian Archipelago” by Albert G. van Zonneveld C. Zwartenkot Art Books – Leiden; Spring

3)      2001OLD BLADES – Malay World Edged Weapons.  Copyright © 2000 – 2005
Revised: 2005-04-03

4)      “Indian Arms and Armour” by GN Pant 1978

5)      . Lombard, D. 1967: Planches IV dan V. Gambar 21 A.

6)      Catalogus van ‘s Rijks Ethnographisch Museum, part VI (1912), plate V; (Museum of Ethnography in Leiden, the Netherlands, now “RMV Leiden”).
7)      The Weapons and Fighting Arts of Indonesia, by Don F. Draeger Tuttle, Publishing 1972