Japan Papermoney History Collections (sample of E-Book In CD-ROM)

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FRAME TWO:
THE JJ STOKES BIOGRAPHY


J. J. Stokes Date of birth: October 6, 1972 (1972-10-06) (age 38)
Place of birth: San Diego, California
Career information
Position(s): Wide receiver
College: UCLA
NFL Draft: 1995 / Round: 1 / Pick 10
Organizations
As player:
1995-2002
2003
2003 San Francisco 49ers
Jacksonville Jaguars
New England Patriots
Playing stats at DatabaseFootball.com

Jeral Jamal Stokes (born October 6, 1972) is a former National Football League wide receiver. Stokes last played in the NFL in December 2003 for the New

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JAPAN PAPER MONEY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

BY

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In Cd-Rom

Special for Numismatic Collectors and Historian Scholars

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

 

Dr Iwan comment

In July 2016 I visit this country , with my wife Lily and So0n Anton ,with his wife Grace and my granddaufghter Cess withh her grandmother Sisca. We we stayed at GrandNikko Hotel Tokyo, we visit Mount Fuji, then by train we visit Osaka and stayed at   Hotel mayling Osaka, we visit also Kyoto , then after that I with my wife visit Hongkong.

 

Preface

I found Japan papermoney in 2000, and

I still collected that papermoney until this day .

In 2016 I star to collect Switzerland Paper MoneY

RAREREST COLLETION jAPAN 10 YEN BELOW

And for add my museum collections in North Jakarta Pondok Gading “Our Ancestor Museum WANLI SONS”

This E-book I write for my Sons Anton Jimmi Suwandy ,and his wife Grace with their children Cessa as the remembrance of my effort to ptotect the world heritage from Switzerland.

I put some information from Wikipedia dan E-Bay to give more knowledge to collectors and historian scholar.

Jakarta August 2015

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Ret.Senior Superintentands Indonesian National Police

Consultant Information

 

Introduction

10th Century

During the period of Japanese history from 1185-1603, Japan was ruled by the Emperor, but his power was not absolute.

1603-1863

One of the neatest collectible currencies in the world is Japanese Hansatsu. These banknotes were issued during the Edo Period (1603-1868), but there are similar designs issued before the Edo period and after the Edo period, during the Meiji Restoration, which restored Imperial Rule to Japan.

 

 


After winning the Battle of Sekigahara

in 1600, Tokugawa Ieyasu became the supreme ruler over Japan. He organized all the Daimyo’s into around 300 Han, a type of fief, or domain, from which he demanded loyalty. Those who were his enemies had their houses destroyed and their lands taken. Those who were loyal, he granted powerful positions to in the Han’s.


The Han’s were able to produce what were called Han-Satsu, a type of banknote similar to notes issued previously by private issuers, but had since been removed from circulation. Hansatsu were issued in the different han’s and they circulated primarily within the han they were issued in, though there were a few exceptions. Hansatsu were based on the gold, silver and copper coinage of the time, but there were a few that that were to be exchanged for commodities such as rice and fish.

17th Century

Yamada Hagaki Period Issued By Shinto Priest

1600

A Yamada Hagaki, Japan’s first banknote, circa 1600.

Japan’s first banknotes, called Yamada Hagaki (山田羽書), were issued around 1600 by Shinto priests also working as merchants in the Ise-Yamada (modern Mie Prefecture), in exchange for silver.[1] This was earlier than the first goldsmith notes issued in England around 1640.[1]

 

 

1661

An early issue of domain scrip took place in the Fukui domain in 1661. As early as 1610, private notes had been printed for purposes such as payment of workers on construction projects. Domains issued scrip to supplement coins in times of shortage and to adjust the amount in circulation. They also exchanged scrip for coins to improve the financial situation of the domain. By the end of the period, eight out of ten domains issued paper, as did a few daikan-sho and hatamoto.

 

Accepting scrip always carried the risk of forfeiture.

18th Century

Edo Period

(Era Shogun)

Feudal domains of Japan

During the Edo period, feudal domains of Japan issued scrip called hansatsu (藩札?) for use within the domain.

During the Edo period, the shogunate seized some domains, and transferred others; on such occasions, the new daimyo might not honor the old scrip. Following the condemnation and death of the daimyo Asano Naganori, for example, Ōishi Yoshio, a house elder in the Akō Domain (and later the leader of the Forty-seven Ronin), ordered the redemption of scrip at 60% of face value. In addition, in times of financial difficulty, the domain might simply declare scrip void.

Early in the period, domains printed their own scrip; later, they operated through

 

 

1707

In 1707 the controlling Tokugawa Shogunate banned the use of paper money, due to abuses of the system.

1730

However, in 1730, the practice of issuing Hansatsu was officially resumed. In reality, Japan was actually controlled by powerful Daimyo, (feudal lords) and Shoguns (warlords). This period has been divided up into separate periods of rule based on who was in control at the time.

prominent merchants, whose credibility was important to the acceptance of the currency.

This paper currency supplemented the coinage of the Tokugawa shogunate. Most scrip carried a face value in silver coinage, but gold and copper scrip also circulated. In addition, some scrip was marked for exchange in kind for a commodity such as rice.

In addition to those issued by the domains, forms of paper money were also issued by rice brokers in Osaka and Edo. Originally used only as a representation of amounts of rice (subdivisions of koku) owned by the scrip-holder and held in the Osaka or Edo merchants’ storehouse, these scrips quickly came to be used as currency

1866

Japan Edo period papewr money “Hansatsu Imone” Nara 1866 UNC Est price IDR 263,157.89

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this paper money three type , two from Tokyo flea market and one from Jakarta market.

Japanese Banknotes

 

 

A collection of 18th & 19th century Hansatsu banknote designs

 

 


When Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned in 1867, the result was the Boshin War in January of 1868, in which the Shogunates forces were defeated and the Emperor declared himself to be restored to power. This period is known as the Meiji Restoration. At this time the government began an exchange program for people to turn in their Hansatsu for the new national currency called the Dajoukansatsu, which was the first banknote issued by a central government in Japan. This was met with reluctance, however, and the exchange ran until 1879.

 

Hansatsu notes are vertically printed and narrow, which has garnered them the nickname of ‘Bookmark Notes’ by some collectors. The notes have many different designs and motifs, and are usually filled with the Japanese Kanji script both in printed and handwritten form. One of the more prevalent design features is that of a corpulent man standing on two barrel shaped rice bales, and carrying an oversized sack over his shoulder. These depictions are of the Daikokuten, one of the Shichi Fukujin, or Seven Gods of Fortune. Originating from the Buddhist faith in India, where he was known as Mahakala and was a fierce warrior god. Towards the end of the fifth century, he was ensconced in Buddhism, and he made his way to Japan by the eighth century where, over time, he lost his fierce ways and became a chubby, happy man. Renamed Daikokuten, he adopted a magic mallet, a large treasure sack, bales of rice, and became the god of wealth, happiness, farming, and of course, good fortune. He rapidly grew into a favorite deity throughout Japan.

 

His association with agriculture has him depicted almost always standing or sitting on two rice bales. This has also made him a favorite deity for cooks and kitchens. Tradition also has it that the main pole in a house is often called the Daikokuten pole, meant to support the house with good fortune.

 

The oversized sack of treasure has in it three items, in abundance: Wealth, Wisdom and Patience.

 

The magical wooden mallet is said to be able to grant whatever wish you want when it is struck on the ground, and when shaken, coins will magically appear to fall out of it. The mallet contains a wish granting jewel, called the Hoju, that is a special symbol of power in Buddhism. The Hoju is said to be able to grant wishes, bring calm, and give understanding of the Dharma, or Buddhist law. The Dharma is also considered to be wealth in Buddhist teachings. The jewel has also been said to contain the sacred ashes of the Buddha himself. The mallet can also be seen with three jewels in a flame, or a single pointed flame.  The three jewels and flame are, along with rice, powerful fertility symbol. On Hansatsu notes, these jewels can most often be seen on the ends of the rice bales.

 

Daikokuten is somtimes depicted with three heads, and is then known as the Sanmen Daikoku, which is depicted to show him as the protector of the three Buddhist “Treasures”: Buddha himself, Law and Buddhist disciples. This depiction of him was quite popular during the Edo Period in Japan.

 

Below are some typical Hansatsu notes from my personal collection. As I do not read Japanese, the translations are not complete. I have had to base my identification of these notes from the information I could obtain from the seller, or from other sources in books or on the Internet. Unfortunately, I have not come across a detailed description of these notes in English, and have often had to rely on sources in French or Polish – there is undoubtedly something lost in the translation at some point. Any assistance in the identification or translation of these notes will be greatly appreciated.

Link: How to attribute dates on Hasnatsu

 

1 Silver Monme – 1740

 

 

1 Silver Monme – 1863

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued by the Shibamura Han in the Yamamoto-Wahsu Province during the Enkyo (Edo) era, year 2 (Kinoto Ushi) – Western year 1745

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 (Kanoe-inu) Western year 1730

 

 

1 Silver Monme – Undetermined Han and date

 

 

 

1 Silver Monme – Issued in the Anwei era – Western year 1854

 

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Tenpo era – Western year 1838

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Keio era year 2 (Hinoe-Tora) – Western year 1866

 

 

1 Monme Issued during the Keio era – Western year 1865

 

 Image result for JAPAN 1 Monme Issued during the Keio era - Western year 1865-1867

1 Monme Issued during the Keio era – Western year 1865-1867

 Image result for JAPAN 1 Monme Issued during the Keio era - Western year 1865-1867

 

1 Monme Issued during the Koka era, year 4 (Hinoto-Hitsuji – Western year 1847

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Keio era year 1 Nana Meguri Hanchi-ko Mura – Western year 1865

 

 

1 Silver Monme Issued during the Bunkyu era, year 4 Hyogo Prefecture of Kasai – Western year 1863

 

 

3 Silver Bu Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 Kanoe-inu – Western year 1730

 

 

3 Silver Monme Issued during the Kyoho era, year 15 Kanoe-inu Nagasawa, Kawachi (Osaka) – Western Date 1730

 

 

1 Silver Monme issued by the Yanagimoto Han in Yamato no Kuni Nara-Ken Prefecture Issued during the Bunsei era, year 13 – Western year 1830

 

 

1 Silver Monme issued by the Mangani Temple of Abeyamain Yamato no Kuni Nara-Ken Prefecture Issued in Keio 2nd year during the Edo era – Western year 1866

 

 

 

3 Silver Monme issued by the Hatake Mura Village in Atsumi Gin, Mikawa no Kuni – Achi Ken Prefecture Issued during the Meiji era, year 2 – Western year 1869

Valid until Meiji 5th year – Western year 1872

 

The gentleman catching a fish in this vignette is not Daikokuten, but is instead the ‘laughing god’ Ebisu, one of the Seven Gods of Furtune. According to legend, Ebisu gained ill favor with his elders at the age of three, and he was cast into the sea, who is always happy and laughing, and evidently very generous. He is depicted as always wearing traditional Japanese court clothing with a fishing rod and a fish known as a ‘red sea-bream’ (pagrus cardinalis), which is supposedly the most delicious fish that can be prepared. In some modern illustrations, he is also associated with jellyfish.

 

Ebisu is the patron of merchants and tradesmen, as well as fishermen. Perhaps due to his clothing, it is considered good luck to purchase clothing and material on Ebisu Day.

 

How to date Hansatsu (Or try to really, really hard, anyway!)

Link: How to attribute dates on Hasnatsu

 

Source

http://www.banknoteden.com/Japan.html

Look more Hansatsu Edo Papermoney collections from this era from E-Bay auction

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1866 Uncirculated

o    IDR263,157.89

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o    From Japan

o   

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1700s

o    IDR131,578.95

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o    From Japan

o   

JAPAN HANSATSU 31 NOTE LOT – OUTSTANDING LOT -MANY SCARCE NOTES – 1700S- 1800S

o    IDR4,440,789.47

Was: IDR5,921,052.63

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JAPAN HANSATSU – MEIJI ERA 3 MONME SMALL NOTE

o    IDR118,421.05

Was: IDR157,894.74

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o    25% off

o    From United States

Japan Edo period paper money “Hansatsu 1monme” Nara 1700s

IDR171,052.63

The shogunate prohibited the use of scrip in 1707.

 

.Edo Period: Pre-conditions for Industrialization

(See Handout no.2)

The Edo period: 1603-1867

 

Nikko Toshogu Shrine (Yomei Gate)

 

Tokugawa Ieyasu, the first Edo Shogun

From the late 12th century through the 17th century, Japan was ruled by samurais (military leaders) but politics remained unstable. Internal wars and power shifts were very frequent, especially during the late 15th century to the end of the 16th century (called Sengoku Jidai, or warring period).

Finally, Ieyasu Tokugawa unified the country after the decisive Battle of Sekigahara (located between Nagoya and Kyoto, visible from Shinkansen) in 1600 and the attacks on Osaka Castle in 1615 where the rival Toyotomi family perished. Ieyasu established a new government in Edo and became the first shogun of the Edo Bakufu in 1603. Edo, a sleepy little town until then, was transformed into a huge political city by aggressive public works including land reclamation, new canals and clean water supply systems. The Tokugawa family ruled the country in the next 264 years (15 shoguns in all). Ieyasu Tokugawa was deified and worshiped in Nikko Toshogu Shrine (even today).

We start the story of Japan’s economic development from the Edo period because pre-conditions for later industrialization and modernization were created internally during this period (moreover, quantitative data for earlier periods are very limited). The following are the pre-conditions that were generated:

(1) Political unity and stability
(2) Agricultural development in terms of both area and productivity
(3) Development of transportation and the existence of nationally unified markets
(4) The rise of commerce, finance and the wealthy merchant class
(5) The rise of manufacturing (food processing, handicraft, etc)
(6) Industrial promotion by central and local governments (sometimes successful but not always)
(7) High level of education

These are the features of the Edo period which are commonly cited by many researchers. The remainder of this lecture discusses them in detail. Note that some of these conditions are not achieved even today in some countries. In fact, developing countries that are equipped with all these conditions are relatively rare.

SHOGUN WOODBLOCK PICTURE

 

Here are some basic terminology for the Edo period:

Edo

The old name for Tokyo. Edo literally means the mouth of bay. Incidentally, Tokyo means eastern capital (the western, or the traditional, capital is Kyoto).

Daimyo

Regional samurai ruler. During the Edo period, it meant the head samurai of a local government (han).

Shogun

Originally, the supreme commander of dispatched army. But it usually means the head of a central military government.

Bakufu

Residence of a military ruler. Later it meant the central military government itself.

Han

A local government (like province or prefecture) in the Edo period.

Features of the Bakufu-Han System

The basic characteristics of the Edo society and politics were as follows.

(1) It was a class society: The ruling class was samurai (military men who were permitted to carry a sword). Then farmers (ranked no.2), craftsmen (no.3), merchants (no.4). There was a big gap between the samurai class and other classes. Farmers were officially placed no.2 because they paid the rice tax, but they were not particularly respected. Below all of these classes, there were also outcasts (eta and hinin).

(These four classes were called Shi-Nou-Kou-Shou (from top to bottom). Historically, Vietnam also had the distinction of Si-Nong-Cong-Thuong (Chinese characters are the same, only the pronunciation is different). It is clear that the idea originally came from China. In Vietnam, however, the top class “Si” meant scholars or literary bureaucrats, not fighting men. Moreover, it merely showed what types of people were important and respectable in society without political implication. The Edo government changed this idea into an ideology that legitimized a class society with samurais on top.)

(2) Politically, it was a centralized system. The Bakufu (central government) had absolute political power over the fate of hans (local governments) and could even remove or abolish them. It was a feudal society in the sense that the shogun gave daimyos the land to rule. In return, daimyos pledged loyalty to shogun. Any sign of disobedience was met with sternest punishment (often seppuku (ritual suicide) and/or the termination of the family).

(3) Economically, it was more decentralized. The Bakufu was not very capable of (or interested in) imposing consistent economic policies. Its policies were often unstable and short-sighted. Each han could decide its tax rates and other economic regulations, or encourage certain industries (so long as it was not explicitly prohibited by the Bakufu).

(4) The Bakufu imposed the following expenses on hans. (i) sankin kotai, bi-annual commuting between home and Edo (one year the daimyo must live in Edo, next year in his han, then Edo, then home, ad infinitum) — a large number of retainers also moved with him. This cost a large sum of money and usually constituted the largest part of han’s expenditure; (ii) public works ordered by the Bakufu, such as building castles, moats, roads, irrigation ponds and canals, waterworks, etc; (iii) other ad hoc and arbitrary taxes and charges.

Imposition of these financial expenses on hans had the effect of weakening the financial capability of hans so they were unable to build military forces to rebel against the Bakufu.

 

Figure 2-1

Bakufu-Han System

Agriculture

The Edo society was agrarian (particularly at the beginning) with about 90% of the population being peasants. Later, the ratio declined somewhat. The basic unit of production was the small family. Previously, one farming household often contained many families plus servants. But official land surveys (kenchi) conducted before and after the beginning of the Edo period dismantled the big family system and created small farming units, with each family guaranteed of the land to cultivate.

According to the law, peasants had no right to move and were tied to the land as labor force (they were the tax base !) But in reality, some farmers moved to new land, sometimes to avoid a high tax burden, unreasonable policy or famine, but sometimes to look for new land to improve their life. Later, as rural income rose, many well-to-do farmers enjoyed village festivals as well as trips to Ise Shrine and other religious spots (officially for worship, but actually for fun).

Villages were well organized and permitted autonomy, as long as they paid rice taxes as stipulated. The rice tax was levied on villages (not individual farmers), and village representatives, who were often themselves farmers, allocated rice tax burden among all villagers. In a sense, they played the role of lowest-level tax administration. Thanks to them, the Bakufu and hans could raise tax revenues with little administrative cost. Prof. Keiichi Tanaka (Edo historian) argues that farmers were very dynamic and independent, and they often rejected Bakufu officials and policies which were inconsistent and unreasonable. (Prof. Tanaka thinks that the Bakufu had no long-term vision and their laws and regulations were ad hoc responses to unfolding events.)

There were two ways to determine the rice tax obligation. One was the kemi (inspection) system where an official inspector came to check the actual yield every year. Naturally, village representatives treated the official with lots of food and gifts. Some officials only had drinking parties and did not actually check the fields. The bribed official happily understated the crop output (often very substantially) so villages paid much less taxes. According to Prof. Shinzaburo Oishi (historian), such corruption was an important reason for chronic revenue shortage of the government. On the other hand, if the visiting official was arbitrary and uncooperative, he might raise the tax obligation to the chagrin of the farmers.

Another method was the jomen (fixed amount) system where the rice tax was unchanged for three or five years based on the average output of the preceding years. Under this system, the government could expect a more stable tax revenue and also minimize the inspection cost. Farmers borne a greater risk for crop failure, but incentive to produce was also greater (if they worked hard, additional output was all theirs). According to Prof. Tanaka, farmers often preferred the jomen system because they did not want to cope with corrupt officials every year.

During the Edo period, agricultural development underwent two phases: from quantitative expansion to qualitative intensification.

Table 2-1
Estimated Land under Cultivation

 (unit: thousand hectare)

930 AD

862

1450 AD

946

1600 AD

1,635

1720 AD

2,970

1874 AD

3,050

Source: S. Oishi (1977).

From the mid 15th century to the late 17th century (this includes the previous Sengoku Jidai (warring period) as well as the early Edo period), there was an enormous expansion of farmland (especially rice paddies). Earlier, rice was produced in narrow valleys where mountains ended and plains began–this was the only place where constant water supply was available. But during this period, large-scale water projects were carried out all over Japan by daimyos and private farmers to control floods and use rivers for irrigation. As a result, land under cultivation expanded dramatically. The plains, which had hitherto been uninhabitable marshlands, were turned into productive paddy fields. The population increased rapidly (such population growth was very unusual for a pre-modern society). Prof. Shinzaburo Oishi calls this “The Great Age of Opening Fields.”

After the late 17th century, land expansion came to a halt. The rapid growth of farmland in the previous period also brought some negative effects, including (i) shortage of labor force; and (ii) deforestation and frequent occurrence of floods. From this period onward (even today), Japanese agriculture emphasized intensive cultivation with large inputs of labor and technology, instead of quantitative expansion.

 

Agricultural technology in the Edo period

From the 18th century onward, the area of cultivation and population remained relatively stable, but rice output continued to grow thanks to increased productivity. Contributing factors included double cropping, new species of rice, fertilizer (dried fish was popular), and invention of new farming tools. Many guidebooks were published to teach farmers how to produce crops more effectively and efficiently.

At the beginning of the Edo period (17th century), peasants produced mainly for family consumption. They ate what they produced and their living standards were at subsistence levels. However, from the middle Edo period, as productivity rose, agricultural surplus was created and peasants began to sell their rice and other crops to the market (which was nationally integrated). Cash crops increased and commercial agriculture began.

Officially, all farmers were supposed to belong to (or be tied to) pre-assigned land. But in the 19th century as landless farmers increased, the landlord-tenant relationship began to emerge.

Farmers’ uprisings (ikki) frequently occurred, especially at the time of famine and toward the end of the Edo period. They were unhappy with taxes, inflation, famine, corrupt officials, or government policies.

Budget and money

The Bakufu’s revenue sources included the following:

–Rice tax from land directly held by Bakufu (land not distributed to other daimyos)
–Monopoly on mining, foreign trade and minting money
–Direct control on major cities (Edo, Kyoto, Osaka, Nagasaki, Sakai, etc)
–Financial contributions from merchants in exchange for monopoly & cartel permission
–Charges on and borrowings from rich merchants (sometimes not repaid)
–In addition, the Bakufu assigned hans to various public works, as noted above

Hans’ revenue included the following:

–Rice tax from its territory
–Revenues from local industries (if industrial promotion was successful)

The entire fiscal system was based on the rice tax. The unit of fiscal account was “koku” (about 180 liters of rice). The han’s economic size was measured in koku and samurai’s salaries were paid in rice (but of course they had to convert it to cash to buy things). Rice was physically collected from each village and transported to the major rice markets (Osaka was the most important national rice market), then redistributed to the rest of the country. The “koku” size of each han was based on cultivated areas at the beginning, but as new fields were opened and productivity rose, the official “koku” size and the actual “koku” size of each han deviated.

This rice-based system had the following consequences:

(1) Since rice had to be actually shipped across regions, this tax system required a nationally unified transportation and distribution mechanism. Private merchants provided such services but the Bakufu and han governments often guided and supported them. Land transportation (on horseback) was very costly and inefficient, so sea and river transportation was mainly used.

(2) Economic activity gradually shifted from subsistence farming to commercial agriculture and handicraft industries. But the government’s tax base basically remained on rice. There were some taxes on commerce but this did not become the reliable tax base. As a result, the Bakufu and han governments faced fiscal crisis while farmers and merchants were allowed to increase their income and wealth.

(3) Faced with chronic fiscal crisis, the Bakufu responded in the following ways: monetary debasement (similar to printing money, which leads to inflation), spending cuts, tax increases, price controls, administrative reforms. Some commercial policies were tried, including providing certain merchants with the exclusive right to market a product (i.e. monopoly) in exchange for financial contribution to the government.

Money consisted of both gold and silver. Gold was popular in Edo and silver was mainly used in Osaka. Copper money was also used for small transactions. Hans could also issue local paper money. Inflation rose at the time of famine and accelerated toward the end of the Edo period (especially after international trade was resumed).

Transportation and commerce

 

Tokaido “Highway”

The Bakufu designated five official highways and opened major sea lanes. But private inns, restaurants, shippers, baggage carriers, etc. provided the necessary service. Farming villages near the highway were required to provide horses when necessary (part of their nontax obligation). Sankin kotai (bi-annual commuting by daimyos) also stimulated the development of the road system. At the same time, due to military reasons, Bakufu did not encourage free movement of people and merchandise. At major check points, sekisho (passport controls) were created. Some rivers were left without bridges, intentionally and for military reasons. Hans were not allowed to build ships or maintain navy.

As noted above, from the beginning, the Edo tax system presupposed a nationally unified rice market. Development of cash crops and handicrafts also stimulated nationwide commerce. Osaka was the commercial center with many rich merchants and money lenders, while Edo was a political center and consumption city. Naturally, the sea lane between the two cities was well developed. In Osaka, the futures market in rice emerged (this is said to be the first futures market in the world).

The Bakufu’s policy towards commerce and industry was variable and inconsistent. Sometimes the central government tried to control and tax private businesses. Other times free economy was permitted. Cartels were sometimes imposed and other times prohibited. Among historians, opinions differ as to whether the Edo economy was more dynamic under free market policy or pro-cartel policy. Prof. Tetsuji Okazaki (Tokyo University) tries to show that estimated GDP grew faster during the time when cartels were permitted than when they were banned. He argues that trade cartels were a positive factor for the development of the Edo economy rather than an impediment. However, his data and regressions may be too crude to be decisive.

Toward the end of the Edo period, many hans and local cities developed economically. As a result, direct trading among them (without the intervention of Osaka merchants) began. The center of economic activity gradually moved eastward, from Kansai (Osaka, Kyoto) to Edo and Eastern Japan. Many markets (not just rice, but almost everything) were nationally integrated.

Industry

As agriculture and commerce grew, pre-modern manufacturing (handicrafts, food processing) also began to develop. For example, the following products were produced:

tea, tobacco, wax, indigo, salt, knives, sword, pottery, lacquer ware, silk, cotton, soy sauce, sake, paper, stone cutting, medicine, chemicals

 

Cotton weaving factory in Owari (Nagoya). No steam engines or electricity yet, but division of labor was underway.

In order to enrich local population and increase tax revenue, many hans promoted local industries, and some even succeeded (S. Nishikawa and M. Amano, 1989). For example,

Tokushima han (indigo): Farmers produced indigo along the Yoshino River and their output gradually grew. But indigo distribution was monopolized by Osaka merchants who imposed high interest on loans. In order to protect local farmers and encourage local merchants, the han government created an indigo exchange and provided financial and distribution services. But the Bakufu objected to this move, prohibiting such official support (the Bakufu wanted to protect Osaka merchants who contributed financially to the central government). So the han privatized the indigo exchange and other services.

Takamatsu han (sugar): The Takamatsu government issued han’s paper money to promote various industries but failed, and its money depreciated. After many such failed attempts, the han finally succeeded in research on sugar production (from sugar beets) and commercialized the technology. As sugar production greatly increased, the han promoted inter-han trade (direct trade between hans). But again, the Bakufu tried to discourage such trade not brokered by Osaka merchants.

Satsuma han (military technology): This han in southern Kyushu imported new technology from the West and produced blast furnace, cannons and western ships. It was also engaged in illegal trade with Ryukyu (Okinawa), which was very profitable. By increasing wealth and military capability, Satsuma han later played the key role in toppling the Bakufu government and establishing the Meiji government.

These are just a few examples. Many other hans were engaged in industrial promotion, including Choshu han (paper, wax), Yonezawa han (safflower, lacquer wax), Akita han (silk and silk dress), Hizen han (pottery, coal), Higo han (lumber, silk), and so on. But we should not forget that there were many hans which were less successful and deeply in debt. They borrowed money from big private merchants but never repaid.

Education

   

Bakufu school at Yushima Seido (Ochanomizu, Tokyo). Confucianism was taught to the sons of bakufu samurais.

Professional school (enacted)

The popularity of education in the Edo period is often cited as the cause of fast industrialization in later periods. Education in this period ranged from the recondite study of Chinese philosophy and literature at public schools to children’s primary education at private schools. More specifically, four types of learning institutions were important.

(1) Bakufu schools

The bakufu’s schools mainly taught Confucianism, an ancient Chinese philosophy started by Confucius in the 6th to 5th century BC. It emphasized social order, proper rituals, the way of good political leader, and respect for elderly and superior. The Edo government vigorously promoted Confucianism as an ideology to legitimize and maintain the class society. Seika Fujiwara and Razan Hayashi were the leading bakufu scholars. Students had to memorize and interpret ancient Chinese books. How to modify this foreign doctrine to fit the Japanese reality was one of the important theoretical questions. There were also bakufu schools for European language (Dutch) and technology (medicine, navigation, military technology, etc).

(2) Han schools

Hans also established schools to educate their young samurais. The curriculums were basically the same as bakufu schools with Confucianism at the center of learning. Toward the end of the Edo period, han schools were expanded to emphasize practical skills such as military training and foreign language. Some even accepted non-samurai students. Many han schools were transformed into education institutions in the following Meiji period.

(3) Private professional schools

An eminent scholar often established his school and recruited students. Depending on the instructor, various subjects were taught: Confucianism, research on ancient Japanese literature (later leading to nationalism and anti-foreigner movement), Western language (Dutch, later also English), medicine, science, technology, and so on. These schools accepted both samurai and non-samurai students. In the late Edo period, they often attracted talented and hot-hearted young people with the desire to contribute to the country. Their eyes were opened to the international situation and Japan’s precarious position in it. A large number of national leaders in the late Edo period and the early Meiji period came from such professional schools.

Table 2-2
Examples of Private Professional Schools (Late Edo Period)

School & location

Teacher & year of establishment

Main teaching

Prominent students

Shokason Juku
(Hagi, Choshu Han)

Shoin Yoshida
1855-57

Social and political philosophy

Shinsaku Takasugi (anti-bakufu fighter)
Genzui Kusaka (anti-bakufu fighter)
Hirobumi Ito (prime minister)
Aritomo Yamagata (prime minister)

Teki Juku
(Osaka)

Koin Ogata
1838-

Dutch language & medicine

Yukichi Fukuzawa (founder of Keio Univ.)
Masujiro Omura (military reformer)
Sanai Hashimoto (Western studies)
Keisuke Otori (Bakufu & Meiji statesman)

Narutaki Juku
(Nagasaki)

Philipp F. B. von Siebold (German)
1824

Western medicine

Choei Takano (Western scholar)
Genboku Ito (medical doctor)
Keisuke Ito (medical doctor and botanist)

Kangien
(Hita, Bungo Han)

Tanso Hirose
1817

Confucianism & ancient Chinese literature

Choei Takano (Western studies)
Masujiro Omura (military reformer)

(4) Terakoya (private primary schools)

These schools were run by local teachers for teaching 3Rs — reading, writing, and arithmetic (abacus) — to small children, usually starting from six years old. The popularity of terakoya all over Japan contributed to the very high literacy among the general public.

 

Terakoya in caricature. The teacher simultaneously taught different things to different kids. In this picture, some kids are fighting in the corner.

 

Proto-industrialization and population dynamics

Economic historians have noticed that certain areas of Europe (say, Flanders in Belgium and Lancashire in England) were “industrialized” in the 17th-18th centuries, even before the Industrial Revolution began in the UK. This industrialization was characterized by rural, family-based production of textile and garment without modern machinery (often brokered by urban merchants).

The concept of proto-industrialization was proposed to explain why this happened, and why it was observed in certain areas only (proto means primitive or early). The proponents advance a hypothesis to explain rural industrialization from the unique interaction among agriculture, population and commerce. Population growth is often considered given in economic modeling. But in the hypothesis of proto-industrialization, population dynamics is a crucial endogenous factor. F.F. Mendels and P. Deyon, who proposed this idea, define proto-industrialization as the phenomenon satisfying the following three conditions:

–It is a manufacturing activity for market sale, not for home consumption.
–It is undertaken by peasants in a rural area (where soil is poor and plots are small).
–It is located near an area of commercial agriculture with large farm size and high productivity.

Proto-industrialization begins as a side job in villages where agricultural productivity is low. They can sell cloth and garments to nearby rich villages where agricultural productivity is high. It is a sort of specialization (or division of labor) within a relatively small geographical area: villages with fertile soil produce farm products and villages with poor soil produce manufactured goods, and they exchange output with each other (they also sell products to the outside world too).

Furthermore, the hypothesis of proto-industrialization is demographically dynamic, as follows:

(1) For some reason, villages with poor soil face a population increase, leading to food shortage.
(2) Poor peasants engage in the production of garments for sale to relieve population pressure.
(3) This increases their income, and they start to get married sooner and have more children.
(4) Population growth continues to keep the peasants just as poor as before even though they are more “industrialized.”
(5) Supply of cheap labor is increased in this way, and rich farming villages and urban merchants continue to accumulate wealth.

(This widening income gap may possibly generate capitalists and landless farmers which leads to industrialization under full-fledged capitalism. However, such historical linkage is not convincingly proven statistically.)

According to Prof. Osamu Saito (Hitotsubashi University), Japanese data in the Edo period does not support the hypothesis of proto-industrialization as stated above. There is no evidence of systematic population change in the areas where peasants engaged in pre-modern manufacturing. On the contrary, it is said that farmers practiced birth control (sometimes even killing new-born babies) to cope with the population pressure.

At any rate, proto-industrialization seems to assume a rather peculiar population dynamics which may be applicable to certain European regions in certain periods, but not in the rest of the world or other periods. However, the idea of population growth responding to the process of early industrialization is an interesting one.

Additional Questions & Answers

<References>

Dore, Ronald P., Education in Tokugawa Japan, University of Michigan Center, 1984.

Iwanami Shoten, Keizai Shakai no Seiritsu: 17-18 seiki, Nihon Keizaishi 1 (Establishment of Economic Society: 17th-18th Centuries, Japanese Economic History vol. 1), A. Hayami & M. Miyamoto, eds, 1988.

Iwanami Shoten, Kindai Seicho no Taido, Nihon Keizaishi 2 (Signs of Modern Development, Japanese Economic History vol. 2), H. Shimbo & O. Saito, eds, 1989.

Nishikawa, Shunsaku, and Masatoshi Amano, “Shohan no Sangyo to Keizai Seisaku” (Industries and Economic Policies of Hans) in Iwanami Shoten, 1989.

Oishi, Shinzaburo, Edo Jidai (The Edo Period), Chuko Shinsho no.476, 1977.

Okazaki, Tetsuji, Edo no Sijokeizai: Rekishiseidobunseki kara Mita Kabunakama (The Market Economy of Edo: Trade Cartels from the Viewpoint of Historical Institutional Analysis), Kodansha Sensho Metier 155, 1999.

Saito, Osamu, Proto Kogyoka no Jidai (The Age of Proto-Industrialization), Nihon Hyoronsha, 1985.

Tanaka, Keiichi, Hyakusho no Edo Jidai (The Edo Period Led by Farmers), Chikuma Shinsho, 2000.

Source

Grips.ac.jps

 

1730

In 1730, however, Tokugawa Yoshimune authorized domains to issue paper with time limits for redemption. Large domains (200,000 koku and above) could issue currency valid for 25 years, and small domains for 15 years. His son Ieshige prohibited new issue of scrip, and restricted the circulation of scrip other than that exchangeable for silver, in 1759. Despite the prohibitions, domains in severe financial straits occasionally issued paper money.

Each domain formulated its own rules about its scrip. While there were some that forbade the shogunate’s coinage, many allowed both coins and scrip to circulate.

Japan:Money

From Marteau

(Redirected from Money (Japan))

Contents

[hide]

   1 The Closed Country

   2 Selling Silver for Silk – International Trade Relations

   2.1 Trade Relations with Europe

   3 Monetary Politics

   3.1 Paper Money of the Clans

   3.2 The Unified Currency – Metal Money

   4 A Note on our Conversion Tools

   5 Literature

Japan 1710-1714 (Hoei Era) Gold Koban or Ryo

[edit]

The Closed Country

Japan practiced a policy of national seclusion – the “closed country” or “sakoku” policy – aiming at autarky in economical terms, yet it developed a trade deficit resulting in the 1690s in a severe shortage of money. Japan’s Edo or Tokugawa period beginning in the early years of the 17th century (see Japan’s dynasties and rulers) became a period of stability and growth, yet the developing nation failed to turn the advatageous situation into one of wealth creating more wealth – paradoxes sharpened by the dangerous monetary decisions of the 1690s and early 1700s. Compared with the parallel history of England’s monetary decisons following the 1680s one could read the history of money in Japan as one of all the fatal decisions those responsible in London’s could not even dream of.

[edit]

Selling Silver for Silk – International Trade Relations

Japan’s economy was at the beginning of the 17th century – after a century of internal wars – theoretically independent. The strife between the feudal clans (daimyo) had led to a concentration of power. Oda Nobunaga, 1534-1582, the first of Japan’s three unifiers, had effectively welcomed the Portuguese who had landed on Tanegashima island in 1543. Their technological support – fire arms – was helpful and the Jesuit mission they brought seemed especially convenient to counterbalance the power of the militant Buddhist cloisters. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, 1537-1598, his successor, acted undecided between toleration and a total ban of the Christian mission. Tokugawa Ieyasu, 1543-1616, the final unifier of Japan eventually opted for the seclusion of the country and a ban of Christianity. Supported by the Portuguese, the Spanish and the Dutch the new faith had proven to be of no real service on Japan’s way to a centrally governed state. In 1612 the shogun’s retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands were ordered to foreswear Christianity, in 1616 all foreign trade was restricted on Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyushu. The Kyushu daimyo had been the most prominent supporter of the new faith just before. 1622 saw the execution of 120 missionaries and converts, 1624 the expulsion of the Spanish, 1629 a wave of executions with thousands of Christian victims – an estimated 500,000 Japanese had embraced the new religion over the last decades. The edicts of 1633 and 1635 prohibited all contact between Japanese and foreigners: Ships and Japanese subjects were forbidden to leave Japan for a foreign country without a license; all Japanese living abroad were to be put to death if they tried to return to Japan (except those who had resided abroad for less than five years and had been unavoidably detained). The Nagasaki commissioners were to investigate all those suspected of being Christians, and a reward was offered to any informer who revealed the location of “Bateren”, foreign priests. Foreign ships arriving, were to be guarded while a report was sent to Edo. A strict search was to be made for bateren on all ships entering Japan. The Portuguese were restricted to Deshima, an artificial island especially created for that purpose in Nagasaki’s harbor. The Shimabara Rebellion of 1637-38, in which discontented Christian samurai and peasants rebelled against the bakufu (the shogunate administration), was ended by Edo’s government through the help of the Dutch whose ships bombarded the rebel stronghold. Soon thereafter, all “southern barbarians” – the term refering to the Portuguese and Spanish – were permanently expelled, members of the Portuguese diplomatic mission were executed, all subjects were ordered to register at a Buddhist or Shinto temple, and the Dutch and Chinese were restricted, respectively, to Deshima and to a special quarter in Nagasaki. Besides small trade of some outer daimyo with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands, to the southwest of Japan’s main islands, by 1641 foreign contacts were limited to Nagasaki.

The political turmoil of the late 16th and early 17th centuries had paved the way to the Tokugawa or Edo period – the period in which Edo, today Tokyo, became the political centre of the nation. Power was from now onwards to lie in the hands of the shogun; the emperor played a ceremonial rather than a political role. The political stability the new regime dictated, allowed growth. Those who profited from the situation found, however, few incentives for investing their wealth in anything more profitable than their representation. As far as the trade balance is concerned the wealth created in Japan came to be spent on luxury goods satisfying the rich upper class. Silk from China and ginseng from Korea became the most important imported goods. An estimated 1.1 million kan (4,125 tons) of Keicho cho-gin – approximately three-quarters of the silver coinage and silver produced in Japan – left the island in this exchange over the hundred years from 1614 to 1714. A ban on exporting gold that had been implemented to curb the outflow, was lifted in 1664, the sell-out of gold and silver became legal and accelerated in the last decades of the 17th century – till the monetary decisions of the years 1695-1714 served to make goods produced outside Japan too expensive to be paid with money that freely any longer.

[edit]

Trade Relations with Europe

Trade relations with Europe were everything but marginal. They had begun with the arrival the Portuguese in 1543. Dutch explorers had reached Usuki Bay on the southern Japanese island of Kyushu in 1600. Their original expedition had started with 5 ships from Rotterdam on June 27th 1598 of which only one had reached Japan – the Liefde with 24 men, 23 Dutch, and their English captain. Europe’s nations contested each other over influence on Japan’s growing regime. The Dutch eventually won and gained the monopoly on Japan’s trade with Europe. The privilege was otherwise an ordeal: the permanent settlement to be reached over a bridge included a director of the Dutch East India company and about ten employees. No foreign women were allowed on Deshima island. (The regulation was first violated in 1817, Japan’s authorities could, however, enforce their laws three months later). Dutch ships came twice a year – time which had to be passed in isolation. But the base paid: In 1662 the Dutch trading houses withdrew from Taiwan. The Taiwan-Nagasaki import route on which white raw silk, the finest type of Chinese raw silk, used to reach Japan, lost its importance. Nagasaki became the central harbour of a trade now focussing on Korea; and the Tsushima domain became the mediator sustaining the new trade connection. The connection provided Japan with import goods right into the 1690s. Chung Sungil [“The Volume of Early Modern Korea-Japan Trade: A Comparison with the Japan-Holland Trade” Acta Koreana vol 7-1, 2004] compared trade volumes passing between Korea and Japan in Pusan and between Japan and the Dutch in Nagasaki and concluded that trade with the Dutch did not outweigh the Korean-Japanese trade before the 1690s. The situation changed after 1695 and Chung Sungil’s investigation implies that the main reason for the change had little to do with official ceilings set by the Tokugawa shogunate. The Tsushima daimyo was effectively able to circumvent any restrictions and send false reports to the bakufu whilst the Japan-Dutch trade connection could be tightly monitored by the central government. The primary reasons for the drop of the trade with Korea seems to have been the devaluation of Japan’s silver money in 1690s.

Later efforts to bring back the old currency and to thus solve the problems of Korean-Japanese trade relations, failed. When re-introduced for trade abroad in 1710 (and in 1714 for trade inside Japan) the better money was no longer affordable to those who had first lost their wealth when acquiring the worthless money of the 1690s and early 1700s. Goods from abroad remained expensive.

The Dutch, more interested to buy than to sell – silk and porcelain, goods to be sold on Europe’s markets with good profit rates – could take the otherwise catastrophic situation as an advantage. They could offer what Japan needed: money for goods to be sold on other markets.

[edit]

Monetary Politics

Japanese mon, the basic copper coin, as minted between 1668 and 1700

The Edo or Tokugawa period had begun around 1600 with the settlement of the feudal conflicts. The clans had lost power to the central shogunate government. Decisions to create a central currency stood at the beginning of the era. The new money was to have gold, silver and copper units – all exchangeable at fixed rates. The Oban and the Koban gold coins were oblong plates, the smaller Ichibukin little rectangular pieces of minted gold. Silver was hardly minted in the European sense of the word. It was traded in lumps and weighed. The central unit for silver, the momme, was (and still is) a mere unit of weight matching 3.75 g. The lowest unit, the copper mon was influenced by the design of Chinese coins, the only object in the ensemble resembling a conventional coin. The rates between gold and silver were fixed, yet market reates fluctuated. The pattern did not change between 1600 and 1700:

Gold

     
 

1 Oban

=

7.5* Ryo

 

1 Ryo / Koban

=

4 Bu

   

=

4 Kan

   

=

70* Momme

 

1 Bu

=

4 Shu

 

1 Shu

   

Silver

     
 

1 Kamme

=

1000 Momme

 

1 Momme [3.75 g]

=

10 Fun

 

1 Fun

=

10 Rin

 

1 Rin

   

Copper

     
 

1 Kan [3.75 kg]

=

1000 Mon

 

1 Mon

   

*market rates

Wages for ordinary people were paid mostly in copper and silver coins. Wages for the Samurai class, which accounted for 10% of the total population, were paid in amounts of rice. The Tokugawa shogun granted the Samurai a fief, the stipend was measured by the volume of rice the region could be expected to produce. Three times the year the Samurai sold the rice collected as a land tax to traders – the Samurai were better served with money they could spend on goods – part of the problem Japan’s economy faced.

Japan’s trade developed a sophisticated system of cashless payments on Osaka’s market – the central market for goods produced in Japan. Transactions between merchants were settled in silver. In order to reduce the transaction costs the exchange of metal would have produced, a check system developed with checks issued on the basis of current account deposits at money changers, the “ryogae-sho”. The development which led back into the 1660s supported the commercial transaction with its smooth fund settlement. Between 1716 and 1736 about 650 ryogae-shos settled the checks issued by about 6000 merchants every day. The system was as efficient as the Giro-system used in European countries. Access to it was, however, limited to the leading merchants and it was never used to pay wages. It remained the system of Osaka’s wholesale market. Business in cities like Edo and Kyoto did hardly go beyond retail transactions.

Three characteristics distinguished Osaka’s check system: Central institutions, such as the centralized check clearing institution and a centralized fund settlement institution, did not exist. The ryogae-sho had strong ties among each other, together they formed a strict hierarchy with few but powerful money changers called juunin-ryogae at the top. The juunin-ryogae created a de facto central fund settlement by establishing correspondent deposit accounts used exclusively for mutual settlements. All the checks requested by the subsidiary ryogae-sho were settled within this system. In this sense, the large fund settlement system centring on juunin ryougae can be interpreted as a hybrid of a check clearing and fund settlement system. Thirdly, the juunin ryogae ensured a final settlement by allowing overdrafts of accounts. These were usually settled by gold and silver coins based on the net liability amount gained through balancing the debit and credit every half a month or month. The complex system remained intact until the institution of a modern banking system in the 19th century.

Trade inside Japan was furthermore facilitated by an exchange of paper money gaining importance on the level of the clan territories issuing the respective notes.

[edit]

Paper Money of the Clans

Paper money promising a given value of gold, silver or copper, was first issued by merchants of the Uji-, Matsuzaka-, Isawa-, Yamato-shimoichi-, and Settsuhirano-go-regions: the Yamada Hagaki notes. The shogunate’s metal coinage and rivalling clan notes issued by the local feudal lords, left, however, no room for a further development of Yamada Hagaki notes. An autonomous administrative body of the Yamada region, the Sanpokai-gosho, was eventually the only authority issuing Yamada Hagaki notes – under permission of the shogunate which thus stabilised the regional power short of money. In the early 18th century, old notes of this production were exchanged for new ones at intervals of seven years to limit the amounts in circulation and the risk of forgeries.

 

Hansatsu as issued by the Fukui clan in Echizen from 1661 to 1673: A silver 10-momme note from 1666. The denomination is noted in ink and traced on both sides by rows of characters of different shapes and meaning, all pronounced however, identically as “ten”, the note’s denomination. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

Paper money issued by the feudal clans – the “han”, hence the term “hansatsu” – differed from Yamada Hagaki in that it effectively demanded respect as legal tender substituting all gold, silver and copper transactions within the borders of the region issuing the notes. Local authorities supported their paper monies by prohibiting the circulation of species money and by imposing charges on any exchange of paper and metal money within their reach. Hansatsu notes were almost always authorized by the shogunate – by the same shogunate which strove for a unified metal based currency and for supremacy over the feudal lords. Hansatsu issued by a region could, so the laws, not claim any value outside their region. The hansatsu currencies financed and stabilised regional power on the regional level – a stabilisation the shogunate could approve of especially if it became the superior power granting the rights to issue such money. The Fukuyama and the Bingo regions played a leading role in the introduction of hansatsu in the 1630s, the second half of the 17th century saw paper money winning trust throughout the country. The shortage of metal and the massive debasement of the coin implemented by the shogunate in the 1690s did everything but increase the trust in money the central authorities offered. In 1707 the shogunate finally banned all paper money – allegedly a measure designed to curb abuse stemming from the unlimited circulation of hansatsu outside their respective homelands. The measure played, however, its much more important role in the second step of the debasement of Japan’s metal money. With the ban of 1707 more than 50 feudal clans had to change hansatsu they had issued into specie the shogunate issued. Those who changed paper money into gold and silver lost about half of the money they had invested to acquire the paper notes – to the advantage ot the central government issuing the new metal money it could otherwise hardly have brought into circulation.

[edit]

The Unified Currency – Metal Money

The problem of metal money was its open advantage: metal money bearing its value in the coin minted could be traded without any institution guaranteeing its value. The Korean merchant who accepted Japanese money whether gold or silver accepted a certain amount of fine metal within the piece of metal he acquired. Exchanged on the basis of its weight, Japan’s money could just as well cross borders in Japan without affording any clan territory to guarantee for the value of the coin circulating. The problem of Japan’s metal money was its constant loss in trade abroad. Japan exchanged silver for silk and ginseng – a metal which would not lose its value for goods which were to be lost at home in consumption. Monetary experts could still claim rice to be the nation’s real money and wealth – a currency of use in any state of emergency in which metal would turn out to be fundamentally worthless (H. Eijiro, “The Economic thought in the middle period of the Tokugawa period” (1940), p.7-8 pdf. Rice, so the refutation grew, while money – gold, silver and copper – were stable assets. The stable assets left the country and Japan’s gold and silver mines did in the second half of the 17th century, no longer make up for the losses. The growing economy needed more money and encountered a shortage of money instead.

The option to solve the problem was a move towards a metal based currency of nominal rather than real metal values. In 1695 the shogunate government decided to collect and re-issue the circulating metal money. The amount of money in circulation was diluted and thus optically increased – the number of coins rose, the fine metal total minted stayed the same. Had the Keicho Koban issued after the monetary reform of May 1601 offered approximately 17.9 g gold with fineness of 84-87% The Genroku gold Koban issued in 1695 to replace the old Keicho Koban still weighed around 17.9 g. Its content of gold, was however reduced to 57%. The Hoe gold Koban of 1706 returned to the original fineness, now, however, the size was reduced – the new coin had little more than half the metal value the Keicho gold Koban had had a century ago. The Bank of Japan offers the following images and information to illustrate the development for the gold Koban: link

 

Keicho Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness: 

approx.84-87%

Genroku Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness:

approx.57%

Hoei Koban
Weight:

approx.9.4g
Fineness:

approx.84%

Kyoho Koban
Weight:

approx.17.9g
Fineness: 

approx.87%

Gembun Koban
Weight:

approx.13.1g
Fineness: 

approx.66%

 

A parallel debasement of Japan’s silver money took place with the production of coins like the silver Hoei Yotsuho Chogin of 1711 – a coin with a silver content of 20% – Keicho Cho gin and Mameitagin had been minted with a fineness of 80%.

 

Hoei Yotsuho Cho-gin, 1711 Silver coins were debased four times in five years beginning with 1706. The poorest-quality cho-gin, with a silver content of merely 20 percent, was called the Hoei Yotsuho Cho-gin. To note the value the Chinese character ho “treasure” within a circle is stamped four times on the coin’s face. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

The devaluation of Japan’s currency answered the need created by Japan’s growing economy with problematic results: Prices of foreign goods rose as Japan’s new coins were, of course, no money of a nominal value in the modern sense of the word. There was no central bank offering gold and silver of the promised value for coins circulating under that value. Foreign traders could do what Japanese customers could not do: They could demanded more money to get the amount of fine silver they would get for their goods on other markets. Japanese traders had to fulfil their demands and finally convinced the government in 1710 to issue silver of the original quality to satisfy traders from Korea.

 

Oko-gin, 1710 minted to be used by the Tsushima daimyo to pay for imports of Korean ginseng and Chinese raw silk, to satisfy Korea’s traders who rejected the Hoei Cho-gin because of its inferior quality. As with other cho-gin (silver coins), an image of the god of wealth and the Chinese character takara, “treasure”, are stamped numerous times over the face. The fineness is with 80% comparable to the fineness of the Keicho Cho-gin minted after 1601 – regular cho-gin coins had a silver content of 20-50%. (Image: curtesy of the Bank of Japan’s web page)

The result was a system of double standards. Japan’s silver and gold claimed a value it had not – it could do this within the isolated economy. The measure failed, however, on the wider scale. Prices for goods from China and Korea rose after the debasement. To offer the original content of fine silver Japanese merchants had to offer 160% more minted silver after 1695. The debasement of 1706 forced them to offer 200 momme silver where they had offered 100 momme silver of the original quality. The end of the scale were 400 momme matching now the original 100 momme if reduced to fine silver. 400 momme of 20% silver the Japanese trader had bought at home for the price of 80% silver. The problem was not solved with the introduction of expensive 80% silver minted exclusively for the trade with Korea in 1710 nor was it solved with the new silver money issued in 1714 with the old fineness, yet to be bought for a price no one could afford any longer.

The reform came in two steps: To improve the fineness and weight of gold and silver coins the Shotoku Koban was introduced in 1714 – in quality and weight matching the old Keicho Koban. Rumors alleged it was by no means equal in quality to the Keicho Koban. The following year, hence, saw the introduction of the Kyoho Koban, which was slightly higher in quality than the Shotoku Koban and the preceding Keicho Koban had been. The amount of money in circulation dropped with the introduction of the new money. Economic activities came to a standstill, and prices dropped drastically. The measures had consequences down to the rice prices, impoverishing both the samurai class and its farmers.

To stimulate the economy and raise prices, the eighth Tokugawa Shogun, Yoshimune, finally carried out another recoinage in 1736, lowering the quality of gold and silver coins again and increasing their circulation. As had happened with the recoinage of the Genroku and Hoei Koban, the Gembun Koban was debased. Nevertheless, this recoinage deserves more credit, as it supported the Edo period’s economic development from the aspect of currency circulation. Governmental profits from the recoinage resolved the problem of a currency shortage, succeeded in turning the economy around, and allowed the currency a high degree of stability for the next 80 years. Japan had taken the step to a currency of nominal values, yet the market brought this currency back to the value given with the coinage itself.

The immediate effects of the recoinage of the 1690s and early 1700s where immensely problematic – Japan suffered a wave of bankruptcies. In the longer perspective the catastrophe led Japan towards even greater autonomy. The economical problem of the trade deficit was not solved by decisions which might have turned Japan into an exporting country able to stabilise its trade balance. Much rather the decisions strengthened the way towards the even severer national seclusion. As for Japan’s government the steps taken had their beauty: the clans, beaten in the wars of the 16th century, had made money by issuing paper-money for gold, silver and copper money. In the end the central government had made its own profits in the struggle for power. Profits in money and in power over the money it issued.

[edit]

A Note on our Conversion Tools

It is at this point everything but uninteresting to offer conversion tools — in order to perform conversions as traders would have performed them and to allow comparisons of prices and wages on the different Asian and European markets exporting and importing goods like silver and porcelain. The rates between gold, silver, and copper coins were fixed by the shogunate government: The 1 Ryo gold coin matched 50 momme of silver or 4 kan of copper coins. Actual rates differed due to the changes of supply of gold and silver on the market and due to different evaluations of the coins involved. The Kenji gold Koban minted in the 16th century had stood at 60 momme of silver, the Keicho gold Koban of 1601 had been changed into 80-90 momme silver, the Genroku gold Koban of 1695 came to be accepted as an equivalent of 70 momme silver (Eijiro Honjo (1940), p.6 pdf).

The central unit of account in Japan and between Japan and its few partners abroad was the momme silver – quite conveniently nothing but a unit of weight. The difficulty is, of course, the devaluation of Japan’s silver and the double standard it created between the nominal value of money inside Japan and the “real” value of the coin to bee seen from without. Those who traded with Japan made sure they were not paid with bad silver at the rate Japan’s government had forced its citizens to accept. In 1710 Japan began to mint silver coins of the old 80% fineness exclusively for its Korean trade partners. If we base our tools on an exchange of regular Dutch silver coins and equivalent amounts of Japanese silver of 80% fineness the rate will be one of 3 Dutch guilders matching 10 momme: On the Japanese side 10 momme of 80% silver will amount to 30 g fine silver. On the other hand 3 Dutch gulden could be an amount of fine silver between 28.67 and 30.88 g depending on whether one paid in silver gulden (of 10.49 g coin weight and 91.1% fineness) or more valuable Leeuwendaalders (the equivalent of 3 gulden, each coin of 27.53 g metal weight and 74.3% fineness) – with both coins we get a corridor of tolerance our conversion should aim at.

The factor of 3 was chosen to facilitate further computations with silver of less than the nominal 80% fineness. The new coinage could be imposed on a country of closed borders and we get accurate information about the general structure of prices and wages if we allow the new money to have – at least initially – actually circulated at its nominal value. Rates with 80% silver are otherwise misleading. If one changed money one took care of compensations or demanded better coins. If you think of actual money being changed you will hence ask to take the actual fineness of Japanese silver into account. To do so you change the first factor of our conversion tools: 3 stands for 3 g silver and the orginal money of 80 percent fineness, make the momme contain it 1.88 g silver and you will calculate with money minted after 1695s, go down to 0.75 g silver per momme to calculate with the ultimate debasement of 1710. You will now need 133 and a third momme to match 10 Dutch gulden. The price of foreign goods had more than quadruppled, so the perception Japanese customers had, when buying with their new money, a money they had received for a very dear price indeed.link

[edit]

Literature

  • Camfferman, K./ Cooke, T.E., “The Profits of the Dutch East India Company’s Japan Trade”, Abacus, vol. 40, no. 1, (February 2004), pp. 49-75(27). link
  • Sungil, Chung, “The Volume of Early Modern Korea-Japan Trade: A Comparison with the Japan-Holland Trade,” Acta Koreana, vol 7-1 (2004).
  • Shikano, Yoshiaki, “Currency, wage payment and large fund settlement system in Japan: 1600-1868” (Wages and Currency: Global and Historical Comparisons, Symposium in Amsterdam/Leiden, 24-25 May 2002). Abstract
  • Ohnuki, Mari, “Paper Money in Japan 2-2 Hansatsu(I): From Their First Issue to Their Prohibition in the Early 1700s”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies, 17.1 (1999). link
  • Fujii, Noriko, “Oko-gin Silver Coins for Import of Korean Ginseng – A Two-Tiered Pricing System for Silver Coins”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies 16.1, (1998). link
  • Ohnuki, Mari, “The Genroku, Hoei, Shotoku, Kyoho, and Gembun Koban”, Short Essays on Monetary History Contained in Monetary and Economic Studies, Research Division 3, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan (ed.), Monetary and Economic Studies, 15.2 (1997). link
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Exports of Japan’s Silver to China via Korea and Changes in the Tokugawa Monetary System during the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries”, in: Dennis O. Flynn and Arturo Giraldez (eds.), Metals and Monies in an Emerging Global Economy (Brookfield, VT: Ashgate, 1997).
  • Uyenaka, Shuzo, “The Tong Shin Sa and The Tokugawa Bakufu: An Aspect of Korea-Japan Relations, 1603-1867,” East Asian Review, 1 (March 1997), 89-98.
  • Mikami, Ryuzo, Edo Bakufu: Hasan e no Michi [Edo Period Government: The Road to Bankruptcy] (NHK Books, 1991) [in Japanese].
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Exports of Gold and Silver During the Early Tokugawa Era, 1600-1750”, in: Eddy H.G. Van Cauwenberghe (ed.), Money, Coins and Commerce: Essays in the Monetary History of Asia and Europe (From Antiquity to Modern Times): Proceedings of th 4th and 5th International Monetary History Conferences (Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press, 1991).
  • Tashiro, Kazui, Tokugawa Jidai no Boeki [Trade during Tokugawa Rule] Nihon Keizai Shi (History of the Japanese Economy), vol. 1 (Iwanami Shoten, 1988) [in Japanese].
  • Hisamitsu, Juhei, Nihon Kahei Monogatari [The Story of Japanese Coins] (Mainichi Shimbunsha, 1976) [in Japanese].
  • Tashiro, Kazui, “Tsushima han’s Korean Trade, 1684-1710,” Acta Asiatica, 30 (1976), 85-105.
  • Bank of Japan, Economic Research Department, ed. Zuroku Nihon no Kahei [Japanese Coins], vol. 3, (Toyo Keizai Shimposha, 1974) [in Japanese].
  • Taya, Hirokichi, Kinsei Ginza no Kenkyu (Yoshikawa Kobunkan, 1963). [A study of early modern silver mints in Japanese]
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in the midde period of the Tokugawa period”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xv, no. 2 (Kyoto, April 1940), p.1-33. [On monetary politics, price developments and the relatinonship between coinage and price developments, 1688-1763] pdf
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in the eraly period of the Tokugawa period”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xiv, no. 4 (Kyoto, Oct. 1938), p.1-17. [Concentrating on the period 1600-1688] pdf
  • Honjo, Eijiro, “The Ecomonmic thought in Tokugawa days”, Kyoto University Econmonic Review, vol. xiii, no. 1 (Kyoto, Oct. 1938), p.1-22. [Overview of th perod 1600 to 1867] pdf

 

Source

Pierre-marteur.

 

 

19th century\

1866

As a rule, scrip circulated only within the domain that issued it, but there were exceptions. For example, paper issued by the Kishū domain in 1866 was also used in Yamato, Izumi, Kawachi, Settsu, and Harima Provinces.

In 1871, the Government of Meiji Japan ordered the abolition of the han system and ordered the exchange of all scrip for the national currency. Exchange continued until 1879. In the interim, some scrip carried markings from the central government indicating the value in yen and the smaller sen and rin.

1867

Tokugawa coinage was a unitary and independent metallic monetary system established by Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu in 1601 in Japan, and which lasted throughout the Tokugawa period until its end in 1867.[1]

Further information: Japanese currency

Gold mines across Japan, such as the Toi gold mine (pictured) provided the material for the coinage.

The establishment of Tokugawa coinage followed a period in which Japan was dependent on Chinese bronze coins for its currency.[1] Tokugawa coinage lasted for more than two centuries, and ended with the events of the Boshin war and the establishment of the Meiji restoration.

A Tenshō Ōban (天正大判), made in 1588 by Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

The first attempt at a new currency were made by Hideyoshi, who developed the large Ōban plate, also called the Tensho Ōban (天正大判), in 1588.[2]

From 1601, Tokugawa coinage was minted in gold, silver, and bronze denominations.[1] The denominations were fixed, but the rates actually fluctuated on the exchange market.[1]

The material for the coinage came from gold and silver mines across Japan. To this effect, gold mines were newly opened and exploited, such as the Sado gold mine or the Toi gold mine in Izu Peninsula.

Devaluations and re-evaluations[edit]

Initially, the coinage was used essentially for export purposes in order to pay for imports of luxury goods from China, such as silk.[1] As gold and silver were in short supply, and also because the government was running a deficit, the content of gold in coins was decreased on two occasions, in 1695 and 1706-1711, in order to generate more revenues from seigneurage, but with the effect of generating inflation.[3]

With the beginning of the 18th century, Japan started to restrict the export of bullion currency, which came to be seen as a loss for the country. An export ban on monetary specie was imposed by Arai Hakuseki in 1715.[1] Trade substitution was encouraged, but remained limited anyway due to the policy of closure, or Sakoku. Upon Arai Hakuseki’s suggestion the government increased again the gold and silver content of coinage in 1714-1715, but this led to crippling deflation this time.[3] In 1736, Japan abandoned this policy and again increased the money supply, with a resulting price stability for the next 80 years.[3]

In the early 19th century, budgetary problems resulting from natural disasters and large Tokugawa governmental expenditures led the government to increase the money supply and the seigneurage associated to it. From 1818 to 1829 the money supply increased by 60%, and from 1832 to 1837 by 20%. Severe inflation again followed as prices nearly doubled.[3]

Size evolution of the Koban during the Tokugawa period. From left to right: Keichō koban (1601-1695), Genroku koban (1695-1710), Hōei koban (1710-1714), Shōtoku koban (1714), Kyōhō koban (1714-1736), Genbun koban (1736-1818), Bunsei koban (1819-1828), Tenpo koban (1837-1858), Ansei koban (1859), Man’en koban (1860-1867).

Structure[edit]

Keichō gold coinage: Ōban, Koban, Ichibuban, 1601-1695.

Tokugawa coinage worked according to a triple monetary standard, using gold, silver and bronze coins, each with their own denominations.[1] The systems worked by multiples of 4, and coins were valued according to the Ryō. One Ryō was worth 4 Bu, 16 Shu, or 4,000 Mon (a cheap bronze coin).

Ōban[edit]

The Ōban (大判) was a very large gold coin plate, equivalent to ten Ryōs, or ten Koban (小判) plates.

Koban[edit]

Main article: Koban (coin)

The Koban (小判) was a regular ovoid gold coin, equivalent to one Ryō. The initial Keichō Koban (minted from 1601) had a weight of 18.20g. The 1714 Sado Koban (佐渡小判金, 4th year of Shōtoku) also had a weight of 18.20g and was made with an alloy of typically 85.69% of gold and 14.25% of silver.[4]

Nibuban and Ichibuban[edit]

A Tenpō silver Ichibuban (1837-1854).

The Nibuban (二分判) was worth half a Koban and was rectangular gold coin.

The Ichibuban (一分判) could be either made of silver or gold, in which case it was a quarter of a Koban. The gold Ichibuban of 1714 (佐渡一分判金) had a weight of 4.5 g, with 85.6% of gold and 14.2% of silver. The silver Ichibuban from 1837 to 1854 (Tenpō Ichibugin, 天保一分銀, “Old Ichibuban”) weighed 8.66 g, with an alloy of 0.21% gold and 98.86% silver.[4]

Nishuban and Isshuban[edit]

There were then Nishuban (二朱判) and Isshuban (一朱判) small denominations of silver or gold, before getting to the Mon or Sen bronze coins.

From 1853 to 1865, the silver Isshuban (Kaei Isshugin, 嘉永一朱銀) weighed 1.88 g, with an alloy of 1.7% gold, 98.7% silver and 1.12% copper.[4]

Genroku gold Nishuban (1695-1710).

Bunsei gold Isshuban (1819-1828).

Kaei silver Isshuban (1853-1865).

Kan’ei tsūhō[edit]

Keichō tsūhō coin (慶長通宝), circa 1606.

Regarding copper coins, the Kan’ei tsūhō coin (寛永通宝) came to replace the Chinese coins that had been in circulation in Japan, as well as those that were minted privately, and became the legal tender.[5] This put an end to more than four centuries during which Chinese copper coins, obtained through trade or Wakō piracy, had been the main currency of Japan.[5]

Demise[edit]

Nibunkin (二分金) coins, packaged and certified for easy handling and authentification.

Hiding places for Tokugawa coinage.

From 1772, the silver coins had a denomination in function of their value in gold, and had significantly less silver than their face value (rather than being just silver-by-weight) so as to cover coinage expenses, a practice known as token or fiduciary coinage, and a characteristic of modern coinage.[6] This technique was introduced later in England, in 1816, with its adoption of the full gold standard.[6] At the market rates of 1858 10 silver units could be exchanged for 1 gold unit by weight, whereas the face value of silver units was only convertible at 5 to 1. This permitted an increase of monetary circulation without actual production of more bullion, and provided great profit (seigniorage) for the Bakufu.[6]

A Koban box (called Senryōbako, or “Box of 1,000 ryō“), used for transportation.

World ratios for silver and gold were significantly different, gold being generally valued much higher than silver, at about 15 to 16 weights of silver for 1 weight of gold. This difference motivated foreigners to bring silver to Japan, to exchange it for gold at a very interesting rate.[7]

In 1858, Western countries, especially the United States, France and Great Britain imposed through “unequal treaties” (Treaty of Amity and Commerce“) free trade, free monetary flow, and very low tariffs, effectively taking away Japanese control of its foreign exchange:[7] The 1715 export embargo on bullion was thus lifted:

“All foreign coin shall be current in Japan and pass for its corresponding weight of Japanese coin of the same description… Coins of all description (with the exception of Japanese copper coin) may be exported from Japan”

— Treaty of Amity and Commerce, 1858, extract[8]

A Keichō koban (minted 1601-1695), versus a Man’en koban (minted 1860-1867), shows the drastic reduction in gold weight of the koban denomination.

This created a massive outflow of gold from Japan, as foreigners rushed to exchange their silver for “token” silver Japanese coinage and again exchange these against gold, giving a 200% profit to the transaction. In 1860, about 4 million ryōs thus left Japan,[7] that is about 70 tons of gold. This effectively destroyed Japan’s gold standard system, and forced it to return to weight-based system with International rates. The Bakufu instead responded to the crises by debasing the gold content of its coins by two thirds, so as to match foreign gold-silver exchange ratios.[7]

As a consequence, the Bakufu lost the major profit source of recoinage (seigniorage), and was forced to issue unbacked paper money, leading to major inflation. This was one of the major causes of discontent during the Bakumatsu period, and one of the causes of the demise of the Shogunate.[7]

Other coins[edit]

Despite Tokugawa Ieyasu’s strong will to unify the currency, there were still some local exceptions, with locally made currency.

Silver koban of Sagami Province, called Odawara Hishi (小田原菱).

Silver Nanryō Ōban (南鐐大判).

Gold Genbun Inari Koban (元文稲荷小判).

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Metzler p.15
  2. ^ The Cambridge History of Japan: Early modern Japan by John Whitney Hall p.61 [1]
  3. ^ a b c d The political economy of Japanese monetary policy by Thomas F. Cargill p.13 [2]
  4. ^ a b c Toi Museum
  5. ^ a b Japan Currency Museum permanent exhibit.
  6. ^ a b c Metzler, p.16
  7. ^ a b c d e Metzler, p.17
  8. ^ Quoted in Metzler, p.17

Bibliography[edit]

Japanese currency

     
 

Topics

 
 

Coinage

Rin

 

Sen

 

Yen

 

Other

 

Banknotes

Sen

 

Yen

 

Military

 

 

 

 

 

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Japan Currency Museum permanent exhibit.

Sources[edit]

This article incorporates information from the Japanese Wikipedia.

  • Bank of Japan
  • 新井政義(編集者)『日本史事典』。東京:旺文社1987(p. 329)
  • 竹内理三(編)『日本史小辞典』。東京:角川書店1985(p. 290)

External links[edit]

 

Japanese currency

     
 

Topics

 
 

Coinage

Rin

 

Sen

 

Yen

 

Other

 

Banknotes

Sen

 

Yen

 

Military

 

 

         

Source

Wiki

Currency

From SamuraiWiki

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A Kan’ei tsûhô coin from the Edo period (date unknown, left), a replica Keichô koban (center), and a Meiji 14 (1881) one sen coin (right)

A number of different modes of currency were used throughout Japanese history, including, in the pre-modern period, the heavy use of Chinese coins. By the Edo period, a relatively standardized system of gold and silver coinage was in place, though it experienced dramatic inflation and devaluation, among other financial crises, at times. Systems which served as precursors for a “modern” system of banks and paper currency, along with futures markets and other such economic/financial developments, emerged in the 18th-19th centuries, and beginning in the Meiji period, “modern” systems based on the Western model were established.

Contents

 [hide

Early Coinage

It is widely believed that the first currency to be produced in Japan was minted in the Wadô era (708-715), an era named after the discovery of copper in Musashi province (Wadô 和銅 literally means “Japanese copper”). These coins, with a face value of one mon, were based on the kai yuan tong bao (開元通宝) coinage then circulating in Tang Dynasty China. These small round coins with square holes in the middle would serve as the standard model for the shape or form of coins in both China and Japan for many centuries. Recent discoveries since the 1990s, however, have unearthed earlier, unlabeled (mumon 無文) silver coins, as well as coins known as fuhonsen 富本銭. The latter seem to have emerged in the 680s, during the period of Fujiwara-kyô; in contrast to the mumon ginsen which were valued by their actual weight in silver, and which Emperor Temmu outlawed in 683, the fuhonsen were fiat money (face value).

After the so-called Wadô kaihô (“Wadô coins”), other currencies continued to be produced until the mid-10th century, each named after the Imperial reign era in which they were produced. These included the Mannen tsûhô, Jinkô kaihô, Ryûhei eihô, Fûju shinpô, Shôwa shôhô, Chônen taihô, Jôeki shinpô, Jôgan eihô, Kanpyô taihô, and Engi tsûhô.[1]

Coinage at this time was used only by the aristocracy or religious elites, while the rest of the population functioned on a barter system in which value or buying power tended to be expressed in terms of silk, cloth, or rice.[2] One hiki 疋 of silk was generally valued as equal to one koku of rice (1 koku = 10 to 斗 = 100 shô 升), though this varied. Still, on average, from the Heian period through the Sengoku period, one koku of rice was considered equivalent to one kanmon, or 1000 mon in coins; one hiki remained steadily equivalent to ten mon of coins through the Edo period.[3] The direct association of goods, especially rice, with value, would continue through the mid-19th century; in the Edo period (1600-1868), lands would be valued in terms of their agricultural production, taxes would be paid in rice (or equivalents), and samurai would be paid their stipends in rice.

These early currencies fell out of usage, however, in the tenth century. By the time of the issuing of the Engi taihô (901-923), the currency had become debased, meaning that a given coin, despite officially having a certain denomination, actually contained less precious metal than its nominal value. In other words, there was severe inflation, as a given amount of currency no longer had the value (or buying power) it once did. And so, people lost confidence in the currency, and the government stopped minting coins for a time.

Several centuries later, beginning in the 12th century, Song dynasty Chinese coins began to be imported in considerable volumes, as a natural result of increased trade with China. The Northern Song, in fact, minted more copper coins than any other Chinese dynasty, and though the export of coinage from China was banned, Chinese coins nevertheless flowed throughout the East Asia region.[4] The court noble Saionji Kintsune alone is known to have imported as much as 100,000 kan of Song coins, enough to fund the construction of a dozen or more buildings. Song coins circulated so widely that as early as 1240 the Kamakura shogunate had reversed its various bans on the usage of cash, permitting its use everywhere but in the northernmost provinces.[5]

Muromachi Period and Ming Trade

Chinese coins continued to be a major presence in Japanese markets – at least among the elites – into the Muromachi period (1333-1573). The Ashikaga shogunate entered into formal trade relations with Ming Dynasty China in the late 14th century, and maintained relations until the mid-16th. Coins associated with the reign of the Yongle Emperor (1403-1425) were particularly numerous in Japan due to the close Sino-Japanese relations during that period, under Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, but coins issued in the Hongwu (1368-98) and Xuande (1425-35) reigns in particular have also been found in considerable numbers. The export of gold, silver, and copper from China remained forbidden in this period, but copper coins ended up being taken back to Japan by the tribute envoys anyway, after selling their cargoes in China.

The use of currency expanded considerably in Japan in the Kamakura (1185-1333) and Muromachi periods. Taxes previously paid in rice or other crops were now increasingly paid in Chinese coinage (though payment in crops was still very common), and coins circulated more widely. Systems of moneylenders called kariage or dosô emerged. But the currency being used was almost exclusively Chinese coins.[6]

Japanese coins first began to re-appear, and the volume of Chinese coins in circulation in Japan to drop, in the mid-15th century. Due to price fluctuations, Japanese merchants / tribute envoys in China found it more profitable to purchase goods – such as silk – in China to resell in Japan, rather than bringing Chinese coin back. Some areas in western Japan even began minting their own coins in imitation of the Chinese ones, and sending traders with Japanese coins to China to buy Chinese goods. Chinese coins from the late 15th century, e.g. those minted in the Hongzhi (1488-1505) reign, are quite rare finds for archaeologists in Japan today, and those from later reigns are almost entirely absent.[6]

In the Sengoku period (1467-1600), and especially as Japan began to become more integrated in the mid-to-late 16th century, regional daimyô began to expand their mining efforts, and gold and silver came to be more widely circulated, and exported. Gold dust had long been a common element in gifts (tribute) paid by samurai lords and shogunates to the Imperial Court; bags of gold dust of a designated size, called (納), were valued at 20 ryô.[7] In the central regions of the country, where mining was most prevalent, taxes came to increasingly be paid in gold and silver; this was then exchanged for coins or rice. Kin’ya and gin’ya (gold and silver dealers) emerged and enabled these conversion (exchange) transactions. These dealers, along with firms officially licensed by the local lord, called ginza or tenbinza, also dealt in producing, and certifying, pieces of gold and silver with a designated level of refinement or quality. Certified pieces, called hankin or gokuin-gin would be marked with numbers, kanji, kaô (monograms), or crests, indicating the firm’s certification. The term hankin would later be used in the Edo period to refer chiefly to ôban coins, but in fact the term could be applied to all certified & marked pieces of gold.

In the Edo period, the ryô would become one of the more common monetary denominations, and would become intricately tied into the koku, a measure of rice. However, prior to that time, the ryô was more closely related to a Japanese adaptation of the Tang system of measuring precious metals. In Tang China, precious metals were measured in “big” chin (J: kin, 斤) and “small” chin, and in “big” liang (J: ryô) and “small” liang,[8] with the smaller denomination being one-third that of the “large” denomination.[7] In the Nara and Heian periods, Japan simply made use of the “small” Chinese denominations as a standard denomination, omitting the “small” designation. But by the end of the 13th century, the Japanese implemented their own system of denominations, equating one ryô of gold to four monme and five bu[9].

For the sake of convenience, the ryô was, for a time in the late 16th century, devalued to four monme four bu. Around the same time, the denomination mai, equal to ten ryô, was briefly used.

Coins were minted from time to time in the Sengoku period by various local/regional power-holders, including lesser daimyô, as well as the likes of Oda Nobunaga. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, after securing control over most of the archipelago, minted coins as well. The so-called Tenshô-hishi-ôban, an ôban coin shaped like a chestnut (hishi), was first minted in 1588, the sixteenth year of the Tenshô era; similar coins continued to be made for several years afterwards. However, the vast majority of such coins produced in the 16th century were ten ryô coins, produced to be given as gifts to loyal commanders, or for other similar purposes, and not for general circulation.[10]

Edo Period

Two ten ryô ôban, one five ryô ôban, and a one ryô koban coin, on display at the British Museum

Samurai stipends in the Edo period were paid out in koku, i.e. in rice. However, gold and silver coinage was used in everyday exchanges (especially among chônin/commoners – peasants, merchants, artisans, etc.). In Edo, gold was more widely circulated, while in Kamigata (the Kyoto-Osaka area), silver was more commonly the mode of exchange. Gold was exchanged in relatively standardized coins issued by the shogunate, known as koban, and worth one ryô apiece.

A ryô was considered to be roughly equal to one koku, which in turn is said to have been roughly the amount of rice needed to feed a man for a year. However, rice and gold prices fluctuated dramatically over the course of the period, with 19 separate incidents of currency devaluation between 1819 and 1837 alone,[11] and the exact amount of rice that comprised a koku is, in any case, a subject of debate. Over the course of the Edo period, the cost of rice dropped dramatically relative to the value of gold, making samurai (who relied on stipends paid in koku) less and less wealthy than members of the merchant class who earned their incomes in gold and silver.[12]

The use of the gold koban, however, was most common in and around Edo, and the farther one traveled from Edo, the less standard it became. At the beginning of the Edo period, there were over one hundred types of gold coins in circulation,[13] and so in many parts of the country, particularly the active commercial centers of Kyoto and Osaka, and other areas at a considerable distance from Edo, currency continued to be valued by weight, and not by face value. While gold coins were particularly standard in Edo, in the rest of the country, silver and copper coins remained quite common, and were valued by their weight, in momme. One momme of silver was a little less than 4 grams. The most common denomination of silver was a 43 momme nugget called a chôgin.[14] One hundred momme of copper coins were worth roughly one momme of silver, and one thousand momme was called one kanme. Weights, previously not fully standardized, were in the Edo period restricted to those produced by the Gotô school, whose weights were to be used in all transactions for weighing out, for example, gold or silver. (Rice was measured by volume, not by weight.) Gotô Tokujô, who produced weights and coins for Oda Nobunaga, and gold engraver Gotô Yûjô (1440-1512) were members/ancestors of this family.

The Edo period monetary system, or at least its foundations, was established quite early in the period. In 1601 (Keichô 6), the Tokugawa oversaw the minting of a series of coins, in fairly large quantities, explicitly for circulation. The largest was the Keichô ôban, worth 10 ryô; the Keichô koban and ichibuban, gold coins worth 1 ryô and 1 bu respectively, were “face value” coins, with the value of one bu dependent not directly on the weight of the gold coin, but rather tied to the rising or falling value of the koban. Silver chôgin and mameita-gin coins continued to be valued by weight, and circulated in paper wrappings.[15]

Regional currencies continued to be used for a time, along with hankin and gokuin-gin certified bullion. Merchants in the Ise-Yamada area began producing paper money as early as 1600. Many domains produced their own paper notes; the oldest known today in its original form was a variety produced in Fukui han in 1661.[16] Kaga han (Ishikawa prefecture), which is still known today for its precious metals, was one of a number of places which had its own systems of certified bullion (mainly in silver), including what was called shuhô-gin – certified silver in a vermillion wrapper. Bullion sent to Edo or other parts of the country from these mining areas was often stamped or otherwise designated by marking for that region. To take just one example, bars from Niigata were stamped with the character ei/sakae (栄, prosperity). Akita han was also a major mining and minting area, producing gold and silver sen (coins in the same form as copper coins traditionally), along with koban, crude silver ore (jô-gin), and certified silver (gokuin-gin). Akita employed its own producers of weights and scales.[17]

By the end of the 17th century, the shogunate took control of the silver mines and the minting of currency, and established shogunate-controlled ginza, kinza, and copper mints in Osaka and Edo. The Kan’ei tsûhô was first minted in 1670, and the system was standardized, eliminating regional variant currencies, at least in theory.[16] Though this might seem on the surface like it might stifle economic development, in fact, the opposite occurred, as regional differences in currency systems, and protective policies put in place by the various domains, were eliminated, allowing freer circulation of money and goods throughout the country, especially in and out of the major economic centers of Edo and Osaka.[18] Despite the shogunal ban, many domains continued to produce their own fiat money, at least at times. Akita han issued its own fiat money in 1755, in an effort to monopsonize rice; the project was short-lived, however, being shut down a mere two years later after tea merchants from Mino province complained to the shogunate about the non-convertible currency. In another example, Tokushima han issued paper money beginning in the 1680s in an effort to make up for an insufficient supply of silver. Most domainal efforts to print their own money resulted in unintended inflation.[19]

Meanwhile, precious metals, especially silver, flowed out of the country in great volume, especially through Nagasaki. In the 16th century Japanese silver mines had become much more productive just as Chinese ones began to wane, spurring this considerable outflow. Copper mines similarly saw a considerable increase in their output in the 17th century, but by the end of that century, Japan’s silver mines were already beginning to run dry. This led to dramatic devaluations in the coinage, and rampant inflation, at various times over the course of the Edo period, as the shogunate attempted to implement financial/monetary policies to address the declining supply of precious metal. The Keichô koban weighed four momme, eight fun, and was 862 parts gold to 132 parts silver. After 1695, it was debased to 564 parts gold to 432 parts silver, with the total weight of the coin remaining the same.[20] One of the most significant instances of this came in 1718, when the value of the gold ryô dropped by about 20 percent. One gold ryô had been equal to roughly 60 momme of silver, and was now worth roughly 50 momme;[14] one chôgin (43 momme), therefore, had been equivalent to roughly 71% of a gold ryô, but was now worth closer to 83% of a ryô.[21] Meanwhile, the Genroku-gin pieces of silver (issued 1695-1706), made of 646 parts silver to 352.6 parts copper and 1.4 parts gold, were replaced by the Hôeigin in 1706-1710, made up of 507 parts silver 490.6 parts copper and 1.2 parts gold.[22]

The debasement of coinage in the Genroku period was the first major debasement in the period;[16] the change to minting coins of only 57% gold and ingots of only 64% silver may have created as much as five million ryô in savings (or profits) for the shogunate, providing a much-needed boost to the shogunate’s finances.[23]

Prices

Though prices varied widely, of course, over time, from place to place, and depending on the quality of the goods or other factors, the following figures might provide a rough idea of prices (i.e. the value of the ryô) in the “high” Edo period (18th to early 19th centuries).

  • 8 mon – a single piece of relatively low-quality sushi.[24]
  • 16 mon – a bowl of soba.[24]
  • 2 or 3 momme – a cheap ukiyo-e print[25]
  • 300-500 mon – one night with a prostitute at a post-station or port town in the Kansai or Inland Sea regions.[24]
  • 20 momme – an ukiyo-e print of good quality.[25]
  • 32 momme – the cost of seeing a play at Ryôgoku in 1820.
  • 75 momme – the cost of the journey from Osaka to Nagasaki by boat (roughly 14-20 days).[25][14]
  • 90 momme – the cost of a multi-volume illustrated book, such as Soga Monogatari.[25]
  • 1 bu or 1/4 ryô – a night with a particularly expensive prostitute at a post-station near Edo.[24]
  • 1000 momme or 1/4 ryô – the cost of sending a child to terakoya (temple school) for a year
  • 1 ryô – the cost for a man’s formal kamishimo outfit, including hakama, haori, and kosode.
  • 1 ryô – the cost of commissioning a scroll painting by a well-known painter; a screen painting by the same painter might cost roughly 6-10 ryô.
  • 2-3 ryô – the cost of hiring a maid for a year (i.e. the income made by a maid in a year)
  • 4 ryô – the cost of a print imported from Europe[26]
  • 6 ryô – a typical annual wage for a laborer[25][14]
  • 6 to 10 ryô – the fee to commission a major artist for a single set of lavish byôbu (folding screen) paintings; could be as much as even 40 ryô depending.[25]
  • 10 ryô – the cost of a first visit to a Yoshiwara establishment, including tips for the nakai and taikomochi.[27]
  • 200 ryô – A month in the Yoshiwara could cost as much as this.[25]
  • 360 ryô – the cost of buying a small room (80 sq yards) in Edo.
  • 483 ryô – The annual salary of a typical hatamoto in 1711.[28]
  • 500 ryô – The cap on kabuki actors’ salaries, imposed by the Kansei Reforms in 1794.[28]
  • 800 ryô The salary of kabuki actor Ichikawa Danjūrō I (16601704) peaked at this amount.[28]
  • 1000 ryôYoshizawa Ayame I (16631729) was the first kabuki actor to attain an annual salary of this amount.[28]

Denominations Chart

Gold

1 ryô

4 bu

16 shu

1 koku of rice

1 bu

1/10 monme 匁

.375 grams

 

1 monme

10 bu

3.75 grams

 

Silver

     

1 kan

100 ryô

1000 monme

 

Copper

     

1 kanmon 貫文

1000 mon

   

Rice

     

1 koku

10 to

100 shô

1 ryô of gold

1 hiki of silk

Silk

       

1 hiki

1 koku of rice

     

Meiji Period

The Meiji government began printing its own money almost immediately, in 1868. These first notes were called Dajôkansatsu, after the Dajôkan (Imperial Council of State). A new Currency Act was passed in 1871, establishing the yen as the core denomination of currency. The first national bank notes to feature a person’s portrait depicted Empress Jingû, and came out in 1881.[16]

The Bank of Japan was established in 1882, and issued its first notes in 1885; these notes, known as Daikoku satsu, featured images of Daikoku, one of the Seven Lucky Gods. A Coinage Law passed in 1897 set the economy onto the gold standard.[16]

References

  • Crawcour, E.S. and Kozo Yamamura. “The Tokugawa Monetary System, 1787-1868.” Economic Development and Cultural Change 18:4, part 1 (1970). pp489-518.
  • Kobata Atsushi. “Coinage from the Kamakura Period through the Edo Period.” Acta Asiatica 21 (1971). pp98-108.
  1. Kobata. p98n1.
  2. When a good was used as payment, its value was often counted in terms of jun-kinu 準絹, jun-nuno 準布, or jun-kome 準米, that is, in terms of how much silk, cloth, or rice it would have been worth.
  3. Kobata. pp98-99.
  4. Kobata. p98.
  5. Kang, David C. “Hierarchy in Asian International Relations: 1300-1900.” Asian Security 1, no. 1 (2005), 65.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Kobata. pp99-100.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Kobata. p101.
  8. That is, da-chin 大斤 (J: dai-kin) and xiao-chin 小斤 (J: shô-kin), da-liang 大両 (J: dai-ryô) and xiao-liang 小両 (J: shô-ryô).
  9. With one monme being 3.75 grams, or ten bu.
  10. Kobata. p105.
  11. Conrad Schirokauer, David Lurie, and Suzanne Gay, A Brief History of Japanese Civilization, Wadsworth Cengage (2013), 153.
  12. Screech, Timon. “Owning Edo-Period Paintings.” in Lillehoj, Elizabeth (ed.) Acquisition: Art and Ownership in Edo-Period Japan. Floating World Editions, 2007. p34.
  13. Crawcour and Yamamura. p490.
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 Timon Screech, Obtaining Images, University of Hawaii Press (2012), 79.
  15. Kobata. p106.
  16. 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 Pamphlet, Currency Museum.
  17. Kobata. p107.
  18. Kobata. p108.
  19. Mark Ravina, Land and Lordship in Early Modern Japan, Stanford University Press (1999), 59-60.
  20. Arai Hakuseki, Joyce Ackroyd (trans.), Told Round a Brushwood Fire, University of Tokyo Press (1979), 296n239.
  21. Timon Screech (Obtaining Images, p79) cites the figures as 65% and 95%; however, calculating directly, using the figures 43, 50, and 60, results in the percentages 71 and 83.
  22. Hakuseki, 296n240.
  23. Robert Hellyer, Defining Engagement, Harvard University Press (2009), 59.
  24. 24.0 24.1 24.2 24.3 Amy Stanley, Selling Women: Prostitution, Markets, and the Household in Early Modern Japan, UC Press (2012), xxii.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 Screech, “Owning Edo-Period Paintings.” p26.
  26. Timon Screech, Obtaining Images, 325.
  27. Segawa Seigle, Cecelia. Yoshiwara. University of Hawaii Press, 1993.
  28. 28.0 28.1 28.2 28.3 Leiter, Samuel. “Edo Kabuki: The Actor’s World.” Impressions 31 (2010). pp114-131

Source samuwiki

 

 

USA

 

THE ZAIBATSU OF JAPAN

 

財閥
Financial Cliques

The zaibatsu (literally financial cliques) were the diversified family enterprises that rose to prominence in the Meiji Era. Some of the most important zaibatsu and their origins were:

Mitsui

Mitsubishi

Yasuda

Sumitomo

Okura

Furukawa

Kuhara

Suzuki

Fujita

Asano

Mitsui:

  • The founder of the Mitsui zaibatsu, Mitsui Hachirobei Takatoshi, established shops for dry goods in Kyoto (the old capital) and Edo (now Tokyo) in 1673 to sell high quality kimonos. Ten years later he and his sons established money changing shops which soon were carrying out exchange operations for the Tokugawa Shogunate, the government of Japan. One operation Mitsui performed for the Shogunate was to convert taxes which were paid in rice into money available in Edo. Osaka was the principal commercial center of Japan at the time and Mitsui sold in Osaka the rice collected as taxes. Mitsui handled the transfer of funds from Osaka to Edo. Transporting money itself from Osaka to Edo was dangerous and expensive so Mitsui instead bought the promissory notes Edo merchants gave to Osaka and Kyoto merchants and transferred these to Edo for collection. Mitsui did not charge a fee for these important services to the Shogunate but instead was compensated by having the use of government funds for a period of months. For those months between the receipt of the rice tax and the payment of money in Edo Mitsui had, in effect, an interest-free loan which it could lend at interest to other borrowers. Eventually these financial services businesses became more important than the dry goods shops which were the original business of the Mitsui family.
  • Although providing services for the Shogunate was profitable for Mitsui there were risks. When the Shogunate got into political difficulties and needed funds it squeezed the political merchants like Mitsui who had been making profits from its patronage. After demanding substantial comtributions in the 1864-65 period from Mitsui and other political merchants, in 1866 it demanded a payment from Mitsui alone which was more 50 percent larger than Mitsui’s operating assets.
  • Mitsui had to petition for a reduction in the amount the Shogunate was demanding. Mitsui founded a talented negotiator, Minokawa Rihachi, who had once been a servant of the Minister of Finance. Minokawa was uneducated and illiterate but he was a very sharp political operator. Minokawa got the payment demanded of Mitsui reduced by two-thirds. Furthermore the payment was split into three installments. Before the last two installments were due the Shogunate was overthrown.
  • However before its overthrow the Shogunate had asked that Mitsui set up in Yokohama a lending organization that would be funded by custom duties. Minokawa as a reward for his successful negotiation was selected to manage the Yokohama lending institution for Mitsui. Minokawa changed his name to Minomura for this new career.
  • When the Tokogawa Shogunate was overthrown Mitsui was selected by the new Meiji government to provide financial services and handle the creation of a new currency. Mitsui was also instructed to begin preparation for the creation of a central bank for Japan.
  • After Mitsui was well along in its plans to create a central bank the Meiji government changed its mind and called for Mitsui to collaborate with another business, Ono, in the formation of the central bank. Mitsui, Ono and Shamada were the three businesses which held government deposits and benefited from having the use of these funds interest free for a period of time. In October 1874 the government demanded that each of these three firms make a payment to the government equal to one-third of the amount that the government held with them. This payment was required within a couple of months which was too short a time for Ono and Shamada to collect on the loans they had out of government funds and they went bankrupt. Mitsui was able to survive because government funds were a smaller proportion of their holdings than they were for Ono and Shamada. Mitsui had also been more cautious in its lending than Ono and Shamada. But the key to Mitsui surviving is that its political operator, Minomura, had gotten advanced warning of the change in government policy and had longer to raise the payment required.
  • In 1876 Mitsui formed the Mitsui Bank, a major financial institution in Japan in the years ahead.

Mitsubishi:

  • Mitsubishi (Three Diamonds) was founded by Iwasaki Yataro of what is now Kochi Prefecture but was at the time Tosa domain, a samarai-controlled region. Iwasaki was selected to serve in the bureaucracy and later headed the Nagasalo office of the financial agency of the domain. The financial agency was charged with promoting the sale of domain products and using the proceeds to purchase ships and weapons from foreign merchants. The Meiji Revolution brought an end to his domain’s Nagasaki office and Iwasaki was transferred to Osaka in 1869. The trust and relationships Iwasaki developed with foreign merchants were important factors in his career. The Meiji government banned domain enterprises so the financial agency Iwasaki managed was transformed into a private business under Iwasaki’s management. Its primary activity was shipping.
  • In 1871 the Meiji government abolished the domain governments and put in their place the prefecture system. Iwasaki took over the managment of the privatized domain enterprises and assumed responsibility for the debts of the Tosa domain. This assumption of unpaid debt gave foreign merchants great confidence in Iwasaki’s integrity. Initially the new company was named Mitsukawa (Three Rivers) because three of the principle owners had “kawa” as part of their surnames. By 1873 Iwasaki had emerged as the dominant personality in the company and he renamed the company Mitsubishi Shokai.
  • The company headquarters was moved to Tokyo in 1874 and the name changed to Mitsubishi Steamship Company (Mitsubishi Jokisen Kaisha). In 1874 the Meiji government wanted transportation for a military expedition to Taiwan and foreign shipping firms refused to provide the ships. There was a national government enterprise, the Japan National Mail Steamship Company (YJK), from which the government sought transportation. YJK was not an efficiently managed enterprise and it also refused to provide the ships needed. In desperation the government turned to Mitsubishi for aid and Mitsubishi provided transport the government needed. Thereafter Mitsubishi gained favor and protection from the Meiji government. It subsequently changed its name to Mitsubishi Mail Steamship Company.
  • Mitsubishi started a Shanghai-Yokohama line and, with government backing, drove foreign ship lines out of the market. When the Meiji government needed military transport Mitsubishi provided it.

Yasuda

  • The Yasuda zaibatsu was founded by Yasuda Zenjiro at the end of the era of the Tokogawa Shogunate. Yasuda came from a poor samarai class family in what is now Toyama Prefecture. He migrated to Edo and worked in a money changing business until 1863, at age 25, he was ready to start his own money changing business. In 1867 Yasuda became a political merchant, carrying out financial operations for the Shogunate like overseeing the collection of gold and silver. Under the Meiji government Yasuda continued to provide financial services. Like other political merchants Yasuda handled tax collections and profited from the delay between collection and the time at which those funds had to be forwarded to the government. Yasuda bought up depreciated paper money which had been issued by the new regime. When the regime announced the paper money would be accepted at its face value in gold coin Yasuda made a fortune. In 1876 Yasuda founded the Third National Bank of Japan.

Sumitomo

  • The Sumitomo enterprise had its origins in mining and smelting. Soga Riemon learned copper smelting and processing in Osaka and then founded a copper refinery in Kyoto in 1590. Sumitomo Masatomo was a wealthy druggist and publisher in Kyoto. When the eldest son of Soga married the daughter of Sumitomo he adopted the Sumitomo surname. The copper business grew and the Sumitomo family became one of the companies allowed by the Shogun to trade in copper. Later the Sumitomo family enterprise was allowed to operate the Besshi copper mine owned by the Shogunate.
  • In the 1860’s the Sumitomo enterprises were experiencing financial difficulties which became catastrophic when the Shogun was overthrown. All the special privileges of Sumitomo were lost. The loans that Sumitomo had made to daimyo governments in the past were cancelled.The Meiji government intended to expropriate the Besshi copper mine as a property of the Shogunate government.
  • The mangager of the Besshi mine, Hirose Giemon, was able to make the case that the Shogunate had given Sumitomo the right to operate the Besshi mine in perpetuity and thus Besshi was really the property of Sumitomo. Hirose Giemon was made manager of the head office of Sumitomo and successfully negotiated some terms for the settlement of other financial obligations of Sumitomo. Hirose then began selling copper to foreign buyers and with the advice of a French mining engineer was able to expand production at the Besshi copper mine.

Okura:

  • In contrast to most of the zaibatsu, the Okura zaibatsu was founded by someone from the peasant class. Okura Kihachiro moved from what is now Niigata Prefecture on the north shore of Honshu to Edo and worked for three years before starting his own grocery store in 1857. After selling groceries for eight years he began to sell guns during the last days of the Shogunate.
  • In 1872 Okura traveled to Europe and the United States where he met members of a Meiji government mission who were also traveling there. After his return to Japan and he obtained government contracts as a result of the acquaintances of government people he made on that trip. Later he established a trading company with a branch in London but his profits came more from services he provided rather than the trading operations of the company. Okura also provided military supplies to the government.

Furukawa:

  • Ono was a political merchant company which held government funds on deposit and invested the idle funds in raw silk exporting and mining. When the Meiji government demanded a matching deposit Ono was not able to raise the funds and went bankrupt. Furukawa Ichibei was an employee of Ono when it collapsed. He founded a company to engage in the same activities as Ono. After Furukawa found raw silk exporting unprofitable he concentrated on mining ventures.
  • When the Ono bank collapsed depositors such as Furukawa lost their savings. Soma, a wealthy daimyo family also lost a large amount in the collapse of the Ono bank. Furukawa convinced the Soma family to relinquish its large claim for its lost deposits in return for the ownership of two mines which the Ono company had owned. Furukawa was to manage the mines for the Soma family.

Kuhara:

  • The Kuhara zaibatsu had its origins in the Fujita zaibatsu. Kuhara Fusanosuke was the nephew of the founder of Fujita. Kuhara became the manager of an unprofitable Fujita silver mine at Kosaka. Kuhara transformed the unprofitable Kosaka silver mine into a profitable copper mine by utilizing the low grade copper ore available there. The success of the Kosaka mine revived the Fujita zaibatsu. At the time the Fujita zaibatsu was a partnership of three brothers, but Fujita Denzaburo decided to buy out the interests of his two brothers’ heirs, which included Kuhara.
  • With his compensation from Fujita, Kuhara purchased a mine which he renamed Hitachi. Kuhara developed his operations into the third largest copper producer in Japan, exceeded only by Furukawa and Fujita.

Suzuki:

  • The Suzuki zaibatsu was founded by Suzuki Iwajiro of Kobe. Suzuki began as a sugar importer in 1874 but expanded to exporting camphor and mint. Suzuki marketed 65 percent of the camphor oil produced in Taiwan when it became a Japanese colony. In the early years of the twentieth century Suzuki moved into sugar refining and the processing of camphor and mint. It also built a steel mill, the Kobe Steelworks, and sought contracts to supply the Japanese navy.

Fujita:

  • Fujita Denzaburo capitalized upon his connections with government officials in Choshu to obtain government contracts for goods and civil engineering projects. The profits from being a political merchant far surpassed the earnings from the Fujita family brewery of soy sauce and saki in Choshu (now Yamaguchi Prefecture). Fujita was what Americans later called a “wheeler-dealer.” At one point Fujita spent four months in jail because of government suspicion that he was using counterfeit currency in his dealings. He and his two brothers later founded Fujita-gumi, a company that engaged in mining and drainage projects.

Asano:

  • The Asano zaibatsu had a quite different origin from the other zaibatsu, coming neither from a political merchant family business nor a family mining enterprise. The founder, Asano Soichiro, came to Tokyo with practically nothing. He progressed from a street vendor of sugar water through a variety of small businesses to retailer of firewood, charcoal and coal. One major use of coal at the time was to produce coal gas for gas light systems for homes and businesses. In producing coal gas coal is heated to a high temperature without burning and is turned into coke. Coke is valuable fuel and essential for smelting iron ore to produce iron, but at that time the coke was not being used for anything. Asano saw a use for the coke as fuel at the government-owned cement where cement was produced by heating clay and limestone to a high temperature. Asano was also able to induce a Tokyo paper manufacturer to use coke as fuel.
  • From his success in marketing coke as fuel Asano went on to capture a major share of the coal market through marketing the production of a government-run coal mine in Hokkaido. In 1884 he purchased a government cement plant and started his own shipping company to transport his coal and cement. Later he obtained from contacts in the government the exclusive rights to import kerosene from a Russian company.

The relative sizes of the zaibatsu changed somewhat over time. In 1895 the annual incomes of the various zaibatsu families were as follows.

Family

Annual
Income
1895
(000 yen)

Iwasaki
(Mitsubishi)

1,084

Mitsui

529

Sumitomo

156

Yasuda

94

Okura

65

Furukawa

62

Reference: Hidemasa Morikawa, Zaibatsu: The Rise and Fall of Family Enterprise Groups in Japan, University of Tokyo Press, 1992

 

 

The banknotes of the Japanese yen are part of the physical form of Japan‘s currency. The issuance of the yen banknotes began in 1872, two years after the currency was introduced. Throughout its history, the denominations have ranged from 0.05 yen to 10,000 yen.

Before World War II[edit]

1869

In 1869, the Ministry of Finance introduced notes in denominations between 10 sen and 100 yen. “Imperial Japanese Paper Currency” followed in 1873 in denominations of 1 yen up to 20 yen. “Imperial Japanese Paper Money” was issued between 1881 and 1883 in denominations between 20 sen and 10 yen.

1877

In 1877 and 1878, the Imperial Japanese National Bank issued 1 and 5 yen notes. In 1885, the Bank of Japan began issuing notes, in denominations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 yen. 20 yen notes were added in 1917, followed by 200 yen in 1927 and 1000 yen in 1945. [1]

Between 1917 and 1922, the government issued 10, 20 and 50 sen notes. 50 sen notes were reintroduced in 1938. In 1944, 5 and 10 sen notes were introduced by the Bank of Japan.

1930

Japan 1930 10 yen P 40a,PMG 64 FPO UNC IDR 1.157.894, 74

Dr Iwan comment

I found the near same PMG , I didinot nremember when and where I found this PMG

 

 

Allied forces notes[edit]

1945-1951

The Allies issued notes in denominations of 10 and 50 sen, 1, 5, 10, 20, 100 and 1000 yen between 1945 and 1951, during which time the Bank of Japan also issued notes. Banknotes below 1 yen became invalid on December 31, 1953 by the same legislation mentioned above.

 

P.O.W 1 yen Camp Chit Ticket for US Military (very rare) est price IDR 2.368.289,47

Australia actually made notes for the occupation as well and those can be seen at the Australian Reserve Bank website [2]

Regaining sovereignty[edit]

1950

By the early 1950s, notes below 50 yen had been replaced by coins, followed by those for 50 and 100 yen in the late 1950s.

1957-1958

In 1957 and 1958, 5000 and 10,000 yen notes were introduced.

1982

The 500 yen notes were replaced after 1982,

2000

while 2000 yen notes were introduced in 2000.

2016

100-1000 yen notes were introduced at July 2016 with small papermoney type.

Dr Iwan comment

I have   almost all of the above Japan PM type

 

except geometric patern 1946

200 yen 1946 ,

1000 yen 1986 (I found but I sold in 2000)

and

 

5000 yen 1956, I still hunting this rare bank note,

I found a rare catalogues of Japan Banknote with more older bank note which some I found in Jakarta, if the collectors and scholar want to look please visit my museum”Our Ancestor Museum WANLI SONS Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia.

Look the complete table of Japan papermoney at another page below

 

1946-48[edit]

Series A (1946–48)

Image

Value

Dimensions

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

expiration

   

¥0.05

94 × 48 mm

Prunus mume blossoms

Geometric patterns

May 25, 1948

December 31, 1953

June 30, 1954

   

¥0.1

100 × 52 mm

Pigeons

The Diet building

September 5, 1947

   

¥1

124 × 68 mm

Ninomiya Sontoku

Geometric patterns

March 19, 1946

October 1, 1958

Valid

   

¥5

132 × 68 mm

Geometric patterns

March 5, 1946

April 1, 1955

   

¥10

140 × 76 mm

The Diet building

February 25, 1946

   

¥100

162 × 93 mm

Prince Shōtoku, “Yumedono” (A hall associated with Prince Shōtoku in Hōryū-ji Temple)

Hōryū-ji Temple

February 25, 1946

July 5, 1956

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

   

1950-53[edit]

Series B (1950–53) [3]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥50

144 × 68 mm

Orange

Takahashi Korekiyo

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

December 1, 1951

October 1, 1958

   

¥100

148 × 76 mm

Brown-orange

Itagaki Taisuke

The Diet building

December 1, 1953

August 1, 1974

   

¥500

156 × 76 mm

Dark blue

Iwakura Tomomi

Mt. Fuji

April 2, 1951

January 4, 1971

   

¥1000

164 × 76 mm

Grey

Prince Shōtoku

“Yumedono”

January 7, 1950

January 4, 1965

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

   

The series B introduced a new high value banknote ¥1000.

1957-69[edit]

Series C (1957–69) [3]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥500

159 × 72 mm

Blue

Iwakura Tomomi

Mt. Fuji

November 1, 1969

April 1, 1994

   

¥1000

164 × 76 mm

Yellow-green

Itō Hirobumi

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

November 1, 1963

January 4, 1986

   

¥5000

169 × 80 mm

Green-brown

Prince Shōtoku

The headquarters of the Bank of Japan

October 1, 1957

January 4, 1986

   

¥10,000

174 × 84 mm

Brown-green

Prince Shōtoku

A pillar painting of Hōō in Byōdō-in Temple

December 1, 1958

January 4, 1986

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

The series C introduced two new high value banknotes ¥5000 and ¥10,000.

1984[edit]

Series D (1984) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

issue

issue suspension

   

¥1000

150 × 76 mm

Blue

Natsume Sōseki

Pair of cranes

November 1, 1984

April 2, 2007

   

¥5000

155 × 76 mm

Purple

Nitobe Inazō

Mt. Fuji, Lake Motosu and cherry blossoms

   

¥10,000

160 × 76 mm

Brown

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Pair of pheasants

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

Due to the discovery of a large number of counterfeit Series D banknotes at the end of 2004, all Series D banknotes except ¥2000 were virtually suspended on January 17, 2005,[5] and officially suspended on April 2, 2007.[6] According to a news release [7] from the National Police Agency, they seized 11,717 counterfeit Series D banknotes (excluding the ¥2000 denomination) in 2005. However, they seized only 486 counterfeit current issue banknotes, namely Series E ¥1000, ¥5000, ¥10000, and Series D ¥2000.

2000[edit]

Commemorative series D (2000) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of issue

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

   

¥2000

154 × 76 mm

Green

Shurei-mon

Scene from the Tale of Genji and portrait of Murasaki Shikibu

July 19, 2000

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

2000 yen note with The Tale of Genji and Murasaki Shikibu on the right corner

Dr Iwan comment

I found this papermoney at Seoul City at NamDaimon Market money changer in 2008.

This is the current issue. The 2000 yen note was first issued on July 19, 2000 to commemorate the 26th G8 summit in Okinawa and the 2000 millennium year as well. Pictured on the front of the note is Shureimon, a famous gate in Naha, Okinawa near the site of the summit. The other side features a scene from the The Tale of Genji and the author Murasaki Shikibu on the lower right corner. The motif of the scene was taken from the 12th century illuminated handscrolls of the novel kept at the Tokugawa Art Museum in Nagoya. The image of Murasaki Shikibu is taken from the Gotoh edition of the Murasaki Shikibu Diary Emaki held at the Gotoh Museum.

These notes are rare in the market, but at banks they are readily available. Many Japanese consider the 2000 yen note a novelty as it is the only Japanese denomination whose first digit is 2. To promote the circulation of the notes, some companies had started paying wages in them. The series D is the first to display the EURion constellation.

2004[edit]

Series E (2004) [4]

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Color

Description

Date of issue

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

   

¥1000

150 × 76 mm

Blue

Noguchi Hideyo

Mt. Fuji, Lake Motosu and cherry blossoms

November 1, 2004

   

¥5000

156 × 76 mm

Purple

Higuchi Ichiyō

“Kakitsubata-zu” (Painting of irises, a work by Ogata Kōrin)

   

¥10,000

160 × 76 mm

Brown

Fukuzawa Yukichi

Statue of hōō (phoenix) from Byōdō-in Temple

For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

This is the current issue. The EURion constellation pattern can be observed on the series E.

Source wiki

 

 

Lokk more info from E-Bay auction August 2016-08-15

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(3) WW ll era JAPANESE Bank note…10 YEN.

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o    45m left (Today 8:18PM)

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JAPANESE OCCUPATION $10 MALAYSIA CURRENCY

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40 BILLS World War II Japanese Military Yen Money Banknote NIPPON VINTAGE

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Japan banknote 10 yen (1946) B351 P-87 UNC-

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Japan P-106 2004 10000 Yen (Gem UNC)

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Japan banknote 1 yen (1916) B312 P-30 UNC-

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Japan Banknote “2th Kiyomaro 10yen” 1943 XF-condition

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Japan 10 Yen 1940’s Block {376} Circulated Banknote

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6 pc Japanese Government Currency WWII Invasion Occupation 32.50 Pesos U grade

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Bank of Japan 2th 1944y~ 100Yen Shotoku Block {150} aFine

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Japan banknote 50 yen (1951) B353 P-88 UNC

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Japanese banknote 5 yen military m 25 UNC 1938

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JAPAN, 10 YEN, P#40a,ND(1930)

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1000 Yen Nippon Ginko Japan Japanese Banknote Circulated

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References[edit]

  1. ^ “1000 Yen note 1945 prince Yamato Takeru”. World Banknotes. Retrieved 14 February 2015. 
  2. ^ http://www.rba.gov.au/Museum/Displays/_Images/1920_1960/100_yen_note_front_big.jpg
  3. ^ a b http://www.boj.or.jp/en/type/list/yuko/data/money01.pdf
  4. ^ a b c Currency in Use: Bank of Japan
  5. ^ http://www.boj.or.jp/type/release/zuiji/bnnew16.htm Archived August 8, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. ^ 一万円券、五千円券および千円券の今後の支払について:日本銀行
  7. ^ http://www.npa.go.jp/toukei/souni/gizou.htm Archived August 10, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]

 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Money of Japan.

Japanese currency

     
 

Topics

 
 

Coinage

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Other

 

Banknotes

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Source wiki

The End @ Copyright DR Iwan 2016

The E-book in CD-ROM Collections in 2016

tHE SAMPLE oF dRIWANCYBERMUSEUM E-bOOK IN cd rOKIM

THIS SAMPLE NOT COMPLE AND NOT CORRECTED,

If you want to buy this E-bbok in CD-ROmj in complete and very good and  woow collections, send email to iwansuwandy@gmail.com, with upload your Id D and Adfress comete with Phoned number. abour cost only RP 250.000,- per one question and the full info will dscuss later.

Sincerely

Dr iwan siw=uwnsady, MHA

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Adventurecandijiwa1

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DR Iwan Comment

I have some of this collections below (near same  or used condition)

 

 

 

 

Intro

THE ADVENTURE OF Dr IWAN TO CANDI JIWA WEST KRAWANG

I.August,16Th.2000

In this day with my loving Toyota Hardtop Lancruiser BJ 40, I went alone to Rengasdengklok to look at the historic house where Bung Karno and Bug Hata were” Keep ” by the young man 55 years ago inorder to aksed them to proclaimed the Indonesian Independent there (the complete story look at the Indonesian Independent war collections and Bung Hatta Collections in this blog or in my old bl9oc hhtp”//www.uniquecoleetion.wordpress.com-auth)

Very difficult to found the road to the Candi “Jiwa” (Ancient Soul -BudhishTemple), after enter the Rengasdengklok ,from the Jakarta Cikampek Toll Road, at West Cikampek I foun dthe sign

,then tern left and after the railways t’s turn to the right,

I came to the very crowded market

 

Then the turn right until at then of that market

,turn left near the small river, I drive straight until arrived the sign

, the Jiwa Temple at the right circa 40 km in very bad road,with very small arrow directions of Candi Jiwa , then turn to the right about 500 m.

I enter the broken candi Jiwa, and with the helping of the native peoples there I have seen other borken candi, they talled me about 24 candi beside Candi Jiwa there.

 

All the candi built frome “Bata” sands break.

At the small camp’s house there ,I saw the project map,and some artifact founding, like same small sand Tablet with Buddish’s relief ,and a broken earthenweare vessels (Kendi),and small jarlets(buli-buli) and some new ceramics, they said until now they still studied the earliest Candi which ever found in Java circa three or four century AD much older than the Ancient mataram kindom of Java, may be this candi built by the Ancient Tarumanegara Kingdom, no Ancient coins and Chinese ceramic found there. I took the adventure after read te magazine story about Mr Abu Ridho from National Centre Museum and Mrs Sumirah Adyatman of Adam Malik museum,s curator ever came there too.

  1. August.15th 2010

After ten years , I am asking my son Anton to take me with my wife with his Toyota Kinjang Innova to adventure agains to Rengas Dengklok in order to comemorate the 65 years of Indonesian Indenpent day.

After that we went to “Candi Jiwa “to look the progress of that Candi renovations, because I have read in Kompas Newspaper a week ago,that some foriegn’s arkeologist had found athe human skull and skelletons ,very long diameters about two meters long body-head with their ancient gold necklage and sword.

The Road still same but before the raillways ,there atre the new flyt over bridge wich made the road more closer, and still turn right strait to the Rengas Dengklok market but I didnnot met the Historic House anymore,

after arrive the market still the same turn to the right until the end of market near river turn left but the road more best with cement beton and smoe asphalt betons to cadi Jiwa, now there have two candi almost finished ,one cadi Jiwa and near that candi, new candi Blondongan are still in renovations ,

 

please look my profile at two candi Jiwa at Batujaya krawang west Java

 

This time I with my wife Lily and My son Anto, have made some interesting pictures of some artifact found

The picture of the candi Jiwan and Blondongan

 

2) The letest artifact have just founds, very pity the Ancient Gold were bring abroad by the archeoligt to studies .

3) the older foundings’s artifact.

 

An :Sebenarnya apa yang dimaksud dengan candi ?
Ark: Menurut Pak Soekmono (dia salah satu maestro arkelogi di Indonesia gan),candi adalah tempat memuliakan orang2 yang sudah meninggal.Ini masih ada kaitannya dengan asal kata “candi” itu sendiri,yaitu “candika”,nama lain dari Dewi Durga,dewi kematian.
namun masyarakat terkadang menggunakan istilah candi untuk menyebut bangunan peninggalan dari masa Hindu-Budha di Indonesia.Terkaadang juga digunakan untuk menyebut bangunan bersejarah agama Hindu-Budha di luar negeri seperti candi Angkor Wat di Kamboja dan candi Khajuraho di India.
Namun yang unik adalah dalam prasasti2 atau naskah2 kuno yang sudah ditemukan dan diterjemahkan,tidak ditemui istilah candi.Sebutan yang digunakan adalah Padharmaan,Dharma Haji,Dharma Lpas,Prasada,Bhavana,Vihara,Parahyangan,Pangastulan,Tirth,atau Patirthan.

Quote:An :Sejak kapan tradisi pembangunan candi masuk ke Nusantara?
Ark:Sebelum tradisi Hindu-Budha masuk ke Nusantara,tidak ada tradisi membangun bangunan dari batu.Jikapun ada,jumlahnya sedikit sekali.Ketika agama Hindu dan Budha masuk ke Nusantara,tempat pemujaan awalnya pun masih terbuat dari kayu.Kemudian digunakanlah batu sebagai bahan bangunan.Itupun masih berukuran kecil dan masih minim ornamen dan masih ada unsur Indianya.
Istimewanya candi di Nusantara menurut Bosch adalah dari segi teknis,mungkin tidak begitu mengagumkan,tapi dari segi seni,candi2 di Nusantara memiliki nilai yang tinggi.Hingga kini,bangunan candi tertua masih dilihat pada gugus candi Hindu di Dieng. 
Ada sebuah teori yang mengatakan bahwa raja2 Nusantara mendatangkan arsitek langsung dari India untuk memebangun candi,tapi teori ini masih lemah karena tidak ditemukan candi bercorak India,misalnya penggunaan pilar.Kemudian munculah teori baru bahwa arsitek Indonesialah yang membangun candi dan mereka membangun candi sesuai yang tertera dalam kitab Silpasastra (kitab yang berisi kaidah pembangunan candi).

Quote:An :Sebenarnya apa sih latar belakang orang zaman dahulu dalam membangun candi ?
Ark:Latar belakang candi dibangun adalah untuk Memuliakan orang yang meninggal atau sering disebut dengan didharmakan.Biasanya yang didharmakan adalah orang penting seperti raja,bangsawan,atau agamawan.Dalam tradisi Hindu Budha tidak mengenal tradisi penguburan,yang ada adalah pembakaran mayat yang kemudian abunya dilarung ke laut sebagai simbol terpisahnya roh dari unsur keduniawian yang selanjutnya akan menyatu dengan dewa yang dulu menitis pada seorang raja (mirip dengan konsep Avatar).Setelah melalui berbagai upacara,barulah didirkan candi untuk mendharamakan raja.Untuk candi Budha,
Candi dibangun sebagai tempat pemujaan atau sebagai biara.Abu jenazah biasanya disimpan di stupa2 dekat candi.Ketika candi dibangun,tanah didirikanya sebuah candi dijadikan sebuah Sima atau tanah perdikan (tanah bebas pajak) melalui berbagai upacara.Penetapan Sima ini biasanya dicatat pada sebuah prasasti.Candi memiliki konsepsi yang jauh lebih rumit daripada bangunan2 pada masa kini,konsepsi sebuah candi meliputi :
1.Candi merupakan tiruan dari gunung suci,yaitu Mahameru dan Kailasa,jadi banyak sekali ornamen tumbuhan yang ada dalam sebuah candi.
2.Sebuah candi harus memiliki konsep geometri suci atau dalam tradisi India disebut Mandala.
3.Candi merupakan simbol dari rahim atau Grbagrha.
4.Candi merupakan pusat dari peziarahan.
5.Candi merupakan imitasi dari surga,makanya banyak relief bidadari pada sebuah candi.
6.Sebuah candi merupakan penghubung antara surga dengan bumi.
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi

 
 
 


Denah Candi Borobudur yang melambangkan sebuah Mandala

Quote:An :Saya masih bingung bagaimana orang2 zaman dahulu membangun sebuah candi ?
Ark:Bagaimana orang2 zaman dahulu membangun candi juga masih menjadi pertanyaan bagi arkeolog karena tidak ditemukan alat2 untuk membangun candi.Teknik membangun candi tergantung dari bahannya sendiri.Untuk batu,biasanya digunakan susunan batu yang saling mengunci seperti pada mainan lego.Sedangkan untuk batu bata,biasanya batu bata akan direkatkan dengan cara digosok gosokan menggunakan air.
Yang jelas,dalam membangun candi harus memerhatikan hal2 yang ada dalam ilmu Vastusastra atau Silpasastra. Ilmu ini berisi berbagai hal mulai dari pemilihan jenis tanah,cara pengujian tanah,pembuatan diagram,detail bangunan,hingga pembagian kerjanya.

Quote:An:Terus adakah pembagian kerja dalam membangun sebuah candi ?
Ark:Tentu ! sebuah tentu membutuhkan pembagian kerja agar bisa berdiri dengan baik termasuk candi.Adapun pembagian kerja meliputi:
1.Yajamana : Yajamana adalah orang yang memerintahkan dan mendanai pembangunan sebuah candi.
2.Acharya : Imam,atau pendeta yang memimpin upacara pembuatan candi.
3.Sthapati : Arsitek,dipilih oleh Acharya.
4.Sutrhagin:Surveyor,bertugas untuk menentukan tanah tempat akan dibangunnya candi.
5.Taksaka : Tugasnya menghias candi dengan relief2 dan membuat arca.
6.Vardhakin:Orang yang tugasnya mirip pekerja kasar,misalnya mengangkat batu,membuat perancah,atau menyusun candi.

Quote:An :Seperti apa bentuk susunan pada sebuah candi ?
Ark:Susunan candi dibagi menjadi 3 bagian yaitu bagian yaitu:
1.Kaki candi merupakan bagian bawah candi. Bagian ini melambangkan dunia bawah atau bhurloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut kamadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan dunia hewan, alam makhluk halus seperti iblis, raksasa dan asura, serta tempat manusia biasa yang masih terikat nafsu rendah.
2.Tubuh candi adalah bagian tengah candi yang berbentuk kubus yang dianggap sebagai dunia antara atau bhuwarloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut rupadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan dunia tempat manusia suci yang berupaya mencapai pencerahan dan kesempurnaan batiniah. 
3.Atap candi adalah bagian atas candi yang menjadi simbol dunia atas atau swarloka. Pada konsep Buddha disebut arupadhatu. Yaitu menggambarkan ranah surgawi tempat para dewa dan jiwa yang telah mencapai kesempurnaan bersemayam.
Pada dasarnya,candi merupakan tempat bertemunya surga,bumi,dan dunia bawah.Untuk lebih jelas lihat gambar di bawah
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Susunan candi Prambanan

An :Apa aja sih yang ada pada bagian dalam candi ?
Ark: Dalam konsepsi India,bagian dalam candi melambangkan rahim atau disebut juga Grbhagrha.Pada bagian dalam candi Hindu biasanya kita akan temukan lingga,yaitu batu yang melambangkan dewa Siwa.Selain lingga,kita juga akan menemukan arca dewa yang merupakan penjelmaan seorang raja.Lalu pada bagian dasar candi,terdapat sumuran yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan peripih,yaitu kotak yang digunakan untuk menyimpan abu,entah abu jenazah atau abu hewan,serta lempengan emas yang bertuliskan mantra2,lalu ada permata,kaca,atau cangkang kerang.Pada bagian atas ruangan,terdapat rongga kosong yang fungsinya diyakini sebagai tempat bersemayamnya rohnya dewa.
Lalu untuk candi Budha,kita akan dapatkan patung Budha serta pengiringnya.

Quote:An :Terus apa sajakah yang ada pada bagian luar candi ?
Ark:Pada bagian luar candi terdapat relief2 yang menceritakan kisah tertentu.Pada candi Hindu,biasanya menceritakan kisah Mahabaratha atau Ramayana.Sedangkan pada candi Budha bisasanya menceritakan kisah perjalanan hidup sang Budha.Kemungkinan besar relief2 pada masa itu diberi warna,namun seiring zaman,warna2 tadi luntur.Ada juga antefix,yaitu hiasan segitiga pada bagian puncak dinding.Antefix dibuat untuk memberi kesan bangunan lebih tinggi daripada biasanya.Kemudia terdapat Jaladwara,yaitu semacam tempat pembuangan air hujan yang dihias sedemikian rupa.Selain itu,
masih terdapat kala makara.Kala adalah hiasan pada bagian atas pintu candi yang berbentuk seperti wajah Iblis atau raksaksa Kala.Adapun Makara adalah hiasan di kaki tangga candi,biasanya berbentuk hewan aneh.Kala Makara berfungsi untuk menakut nakuti roh jahat agar tidak masuk ke dalam candi.Kala sendiri adalah dewa waktu.Di Jawa Timur,kala digambarkan memiliki taring besar pada bagian atas dan bawah mulut,berbeda dengan di Jawa Tengah yang taringnya hanya pada bagian atas.Selain itu,terdapat pintu masuk candi yang dibedakan menjadi dua,yaitu candi bentar yang tidak memiliki atap,dan paduraksa yang memiliki
atap.

Quote:An :
Ark:Tata letak candi dibagi menjadi dua,yaitu secara konsentris,dan secara berurutan.Secara konsentris,posisi candi yang lebih besar dikelilingi oleh anak-anak candi yang lebih kecil (candi perwara),sehingga candi paling besar ada di tengah bangunan.Sistem ini dipengaruhi oleh tata letak mandala.Contohnya pada Candi Sewu dan Candi Prambanan.Secara paralel yaitu posisi candi perwara berada di depan candi induk. Ada yang disusun berurutan simetris, ada yang asimetris. 
Ada juga pola denah memanjang ke belakang.Urutan pengunjung memasuki kawasan yang dianggap kurang suci berupa gerbang dan bangunan tambahan, sebelum memasuki kawasan tersuci tempat candi induk berdiri. Sistem ini merupakan sistem tata letak asli Nusantara yang memuliakan tempat yang tinggi, sehingga bangunan induk atau tersuci diletakkan paling tinggi di belakang mengikuti topografi alami ketinggian tanah tempat candi dibangun.Ada juga yang dibangun secara tersebar.
Contohnya pada Candi Sukuh dan Pura2 di Bali.Arah hadap sebuah candi tergantung dari konsepsi dari tata ruangnya,secara kosmologis,candi menghadap ke arah barat atau timur.Candi terkadang menghadap ke arah gunung tertentu yang dianggap suci atau disebut dengan Chtonis.
Oh ya,hampir semua bagian tengah candi tidak berada tepat pada tengah bangunan,kecuali sebuah candi di Ngemplak,Sleman Yogyakarta.
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Denah Candi Sukuh yang memanjang ke belakang
Quote:Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Denaha Candi Prambanan yang konsentris

Quote:An :Terus dimanakah orang zaman dahulu memilih lokasi untuk membangun candi ?
Ark:Sesuai dengan kitab Silpasastra,masyarakat membangun candi berdekatan dengan air,jika tidak ditemukan air,maka akan dibuat sebuah kolam,karena air merupakan salah satu unsur upacara.Selain itu candi dibangun pada sebuah puncak gunung karena ada kepercayaan bahwa gunung merupakan tempat bersemayamnya dewa.Contoh candi yang dibangun di puncak gunung adalah candi yang ada di gunung Penanggunan.Jadi bikin candi itu gak asal2an kaya bangunan zaman sekarang.Semuanya ada konsepsinya.

Quote:An :Selama ini saya membaca buku sejarah,disebutkan bahwa candi memiliki dua langgam,yaitu langgam Jawa Tengah dan langgam Jawa Timur.Apakah itu sudah benar ?
Ark:Hal itu sebenarnya sudah benar,tapi ada catatan bahwa ada candi berlanggam Jawa Tengah tapi ada di Jawa Timur seperti Candi Badut,di Jawa Tengah juga ada candi berlanggam Jawa Timur seperti candi Sukuh dan Candi Cetho.
Oleh pak Soekmono,akhirnya pembagian candi didasarkan bukan berdasarkan lokasinya,tapi berdasarkan masanya,yaitu Masa Klasik Awal dan Masa Klasik Akhir.

Quote:An :Ada berapa candi dari ukuran, kerumitan, dan kemegahannya ? 
Ark:Candi dibagi menjadi 3 berdasarkan dari ukuran, kerumitan, dan kemegahannya candi yaitu :

1.Candi Kerajaan, yaitu candi yang digunakan oleh seluruh warga kerajaan, tempat digelarnya upacara-upacara keagamaan penting kerajaan. Candi kerajaan biasanya dibangun mewah, besar, dan luas. Contoh: Candi Borobudur, Candi Prambanan, Candi Sewu, dan Candi Panataran.
2.Candi Wanua atau Watak, yaitu candi yang digunakan oleh masyarakat pada daerah atau desa tertentu pada suatu kerajaan. Candi ini biasanya kecil dan hanya bangunan tunggal yang tidak berkelompok. Contoh: candi yang berasal dari masa Majapahit, Candi Sanggrahan di Tulung Agung, Candi Gebang di Yogyakarta, dan Candi Pringapus.
3.Candi Pribadi, yaitu candi yang digunakan untuk mendharmakan seorang tokoh, dapat dikatakan memiliki fungsi mirip makam. Contoh: Candi Kidal (pendharmaan Anusapati, raja Singhasari), candi Jajaghu (Pendharmaan Wisnuwardhana, raja Singhasari), Candi Rimbi (pendharmaan Tribhuwana Wijayatunggadewi, ibu Hayam Wuruk), Candi Tegowangi (pendharmaan Bhre Matahun), dan Candi Surawana (pendharmaan Bhre Wengker).

Quote:An :Terus apa saja fungsi dari sebuah candi ?
Ark:Macam2,mulai dari :

1.Candi Pemujaan: candi Hindu yang paling umum, dibangun untuk memuja dewa, dewi, atau bodhisatwa tertentu, contoh: candi Prambanan, candi Canggal, candi Sambisari, dan candi Ijo yang menyimpan lingga dan dipersembahkan utamanya untuk Siwa, candi Kalasan dibangun untuk memuliakan Dewi Tara, sedangkan candi Sewu untuk memuja Manjusri.
2.Candi Stupa: didirikan sebagai lambang Budha atau menyimpan relik buddhis, atau sarana ziarah agama Buddha. Secara tradisional stupa digunakan untuk menyimpan relikui buddhis seperti abu jenazah, kerangka, potongan kuku, rambut, atau gigi yang dipercaya milik Buddha Gautama, atau bhiksu Buddha terkemuka, atau keluarga kerajaan penganut Buddha. Beberapa stupa lainnya dibangun sebagai sarana ziarah dan ritual, contoh: candi Borobudur, candi Sumberawan, dan candi Muara Takus
3.Candi Pedharmaan: sama dengan kategori candi pribadi, yakni candi yang dibangun untuk memuliakan arwah raja atau tokoh penting yang telah meninggal. Candi ini kadang berfungsi sebagai candi pemujaan juga karena arwah raja yang telah meninggal seringkali dianggap bersatu dengan dewa perwujudannya, contoh: candi Belahan tempat Airlangga dicandikan, arca perwujudannya adalah sebagai Wishnu menunggang Garuda. Candi Simping di Blitar, tempat Raden Wijaya didharmakan sebagai dewa Harihara.
4.Candi Pertapaan: didirikan di lereng-lereng gunung tempat bertapa, contoh: candi-candi di lereng Gunung Penanggungan, kelompok candi Dieng dan candi Gedong Songo, serta Candi Liyangan di lereng timur Gunung Sundoro, diduga selain berfungsi sebagai pemujaan, juga merupakan tempat pertapaan sekaligus situs permukiman.
5.Candi Wihara: didirikan untuk tempat para biksu atau pendeta tinggal dan bersemadi, candi seperti ini memiliki fungsi sebagai permukiman atau asrama, contoh: candi Sari dan Plaosan
6.Candi Gerbang: didirikan sebagai gapura atau pintu masuk, contoh: gerbang di kompleks Ratu Boko, Bajang Ratu, Wringin Lawang, dan candi Plumbangan.
7.Candi Petirtaan: didirikan didekat sumber air atau di tengah kolam dan fungsinya sebagai pemandian, contoh: Petirtaan Belahan, Jalatunda, dan candi Tikus

Quote:An :Terakhir,apa saja bahan untuk membangun candi ?
Ark:Ada bermacam2 bahan yang digunakan untuk membangun sebuah candi,antara lain :

1. Batu andesit, batu bekuan vulkanik yang ditatah membentuk kotak-kotak yang saling kunci. Batu andesit bahan candi harus dibedakan dari batu kali. Batu kali meskipun mirip andesit tapi keras dan mudah pecah jika ditatah (sukar dibentuk). Batu andesit yang cocok untuk candi adalah yang terpendam di dalam tanah sehingga harus ditambang di tebing bukit.
2.Batu putih (tuff), batu endapan piroklastik berwarna putih, digunakan di Candi Pembakaran di kompleks Ratu Boko. Bahan batu putih ini juga ditemukan dijadikan sebagai bahan isi candi, dimana bagian luarnya dilapis batu andesit
3.Bata merah, dicetak dari lempung tanah merah yang dikeringkan dan dibakar. Candi Majapahit dan Sumatera banyak menggunakan bata merah.
4.Stuko (stucco), yaitu bahan semacam beton dari tumbukan batu dan pasir. Bahan stuko ditemukan di percandian Batu Jaya.
5.Bajralepa (vajralepa), yaitu bahan lepa pelapis dinding candi semacam plaster putih kekuningan untuk memperhalus dan memperindah sekaligus untuk melindungi dinding dari kerusakan. Bajralepa dibuat dari campuran pasir vulkanik dan kapur halus. Konon campuran bahan lain juga digunakan seperti getah tumbuhan, putih telur, dan lain-lain. Bekas-bekas bajralepa ditemukan di candi Sari dan candi Kalasan. Kini pelapis bajralepa telah banyak yang mengelupas.
6.Kayu, beberapa candi diduga terbuat dari kayu atau memiliki komponen kayu. Candi kayu serupa dengan Pura Bali yang ditemukan kini. Beberapa candi tertinggal hanya batu umpak atau batur landasannya saja yang terbuat dari batu andesit atau bata, sedangkan atasnya yang terbuat dari bahan organik kayu telah lama musnah. Beberapa dasar batur di Trowulan Majapahit disebut candi, meskipun sesungguhnya merupakan landasan pendopo yang bertiang kayu. Candi Sambisari dan candi Kimpulan memiliki umpak yang diduga candi induknya dinaungi bangunan atap kayu. Beberapa candi seperti Candi Sari dan Candi Plaosan memiliki komponen kayu karena pada struktur batu ditemukan bekas lubang-lubang untuk meletakkan kayu gelagar penyangga lantai atas, serta lubang untuk menyisipkan daun pintu dan jeruji jendela.

Quote:An :Oh ya saya hampir lupa,bagaimanakah seorang arkeolog memperlakukan sebuah candi ?
Ark:Pertanyaan yang sudah saya tunggu sejak awal,jadi begini seorang arkeolog memperlakukan sebuah candi sesuai dengan kode etik ilmu arkeologi.Jadi sebuah candi harus berdiri di tempatnya ditemukan (selama tidak ada proses tafonomi) dan jika harus disusun harus menggunakan batu aslinya.Jika candi benar2 runtuh dan batu aslinya belum ditemukan,maka bisa diganti dengan batu baru,tapi harus diberi tanda.Tujuannya jika batu aslinya ditemukan kembali,maka batu baru bisa diganti dengan batu asli.Jika anda melihat pada candi Prambanan ada beberapa batu yang tidak memiliki reliefnya dan berbeda sendiri,maka itu termasuk batu baru.
Karena apa ?Ketika batu baru diberi relief,maka akan menghilangkan kesan otentiknya.Pak Soekmono pernah memberi catatan ketika candi Prambanan akan direkonstruksi kembali bahwa Candi boleh dibangun kembali,asalkan batu baru tidak boleh lebih dari 30 % dari batu lama.Pak Soekmono sendiri lebih suka candi dibiarkan runtuh karena menambahkan kesan eksostisnya.Sama halnya pemerintah Kamboja membiarkan Candi Angkor Thom ditutupi semak belukar dan runtuh agar terlihat eksotis.
Quote:Sekedara tambahan :
Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Antefiks,hanya berfungsi sebagai hiasan

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Lingga Yoni,simbol dari kesuburan

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Jaladwara,fungsinya seperti saluran pembuangan air pada masa sekarang.

Anda Bertanya Arkeolog Menjawab :: Seputar Candi
Stupa,susunan batu yang berbentuk setenga lingkaran yang berfungsi untuk menyimpan relik atau abu.

Quote:Sumber :
Soekmono, 1974. Candi Fungsi dan Pengertiannya, UI Press.
George Michell,Hindhu Art & Architecture

(1) Eathenware Budhist Tablet astifact

(2) Earthenware Jar Kendi artifact

(3) Eatherware Jarlet buli-buli artfact

(4) other old artifact finding

 

Batujaya Museum

The Jokowi History Collection

Part One

Created By

DR Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-ROM

Special For Senior Collectors And Historian

Copyrighy @ Dr Iwan 2014

 

INTRODUCTION

Saya mulai tertarik dengan Jokowi saat pemimilu Daerah Gubernur DKI, dan kemudian saat Pilpres RI 2014 walaupun kemudian saya beralih ke capres PrabowoSubianto karena saya menginggat jasa ayahnya

Prof Sumitro mendirikan Fakultas Ekonomi di Padang sumatera Barat tempat kelahiran saya dan Prof Sumitro membantu perjuangan rakyat Sumatera Barat menentang Komunisme.

Kemudian saya kembali tertarik dengan Jokowi karena Prabo tidak mengakui hasil PIlpres dan mengugatnya di Makamah Konstitusi,sifatnya yang arogan membuat simpari saya menghilang walaupun saat Pemilu saya memilihnya.

Untuk mengrahui bagaimana perlkembangan peranan presiden Indonesia Ke 7 Joko Widodo dengan

wakilnya Moh Jusuf Kall(JK) saya akan mulai mengumpulkan informasi sejak kampanye Pemilu dimulai baik dari surat Kabar maupun dari internet,dan inilah hasilnya.

Semoga Karya Tulis ini dapat menjadi masukan bagi generasi penerus,dimasa mendatang.

Selamat Pak Jokowi dan JK kami mengharapkan anda berdua dapat meningkatkan peran dan keberhasilan Republik Indonesia baik dalam negeri maupun luar negeri seperti yang di diharapkan oleh seluruh rakyat Indonesia

Jakarta Agustus 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Presdien RI

Komentar Dr Iwan

Presiden Jokowi, hati-hati bila tanda tangan sesuatu, anda telah keliru menadatangani prasasasti huruf keliru

PELUMBACURAN yang seharusnya PELUNCURAN, jika Bapak telah lupa akn janji membuat telaga raksasa di Jakarta dan juga pembangunan lainnya nanti juga akan lupa, tentu anda seharusnya bersumpah demi nama allah untuk selalu meminta ILHAM dan KEPINTARAN untuk dapat memecahkan permasalahan didunia yang penunh tandatangan dan ancama,serta memberikan peneranga agar seluruh rakyat Indoensia waspada terhadap berbagai ancama, jika bapak laksanakan tentu Bapak akan dipilih pada prode berikutnya

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Konusltan Informasi

 

Hi Iwan

And I’m sorry, but it’s a tough one.

Who was the most important artist of the 1960s?

I know, I know.

What a ridiculous thing to ask.

How do you even answer that?

You’ve got all of the Beatles.

The Rolling Stones, the Grateful Dead…

There’s Jimi Hendrix,

Joni Mitchell and

Jim Morrison alongside countless others from

Ray Davies to

Brian Wilson.

Let’s not even start on

Motown.

I can hear you banging your head against your desk.

I’ve been banging mine for the past couple of hours.

But humour me.

Which one?

Who’s the one person to personify the spirit of the era?

Because if you asked me…

After a lot of thought…

And enough head banging to give me a mild concussion…

I would have to say

Bob Dylan.

Bob Dylan was the voice of his generation

AKA Robert Zimmerman.

The nobody from nowhere who arrived in New York in 1961, to pay his respects to

a dying Woody Guthrie…

Who passed him the torch of the great American folk tradition

Think about it.

Dylan revolutionised folk music, breathing life into a dying sound.

In his music we hear the voice of the new America.

The sound of changing times.

Author Joyce Carol Oates once wrote: “When we first heard this raw, very young, and seemingly untrained voice, frankly nasal, as if sandpaper could sing, the effect was dramatic and electrifying.”

His songs are eternal.

They speak to all ages and backgrounds.

Do you remember the first time you heard Blowing in the Wind?

I do

And so do millions of others.

In 100 years’ time people will still be listening to his music.

I’ve got something for you

It’s a set list signed by Dylan.

Bob Dylan Autographed Set List

For Sale: £2,950.00

  • Bob Dylan handwritten set list from a 2001 concert
  • Signed by the artist clearly in black pen
  • Lists some of his most famous songs

Bob Dylan (1941-) is one of the most influential musicians of all time, who has had a “profound impact on popular music and American culture, marked by lyrical compositions of extraordinary poetic power.” His career has spanned more than five decades, but nonetheless quality memorabilia remains extremely rare due to his private nature.

Dylan has handwritten and autographed this set list for a live concert performance in Seattle, Washington in 2001, “To Celery, Best wishes! Bob Dylan, 2001”. ‘Celery’ was a member of staff helping on the tour.

Each section of the show is divided into groups of songs, beginning with Shine the Light and ending with the enigmatic All Along the Watch Tower. Dylan’s autograph is placed on a blank section of this list.
The list is written in thick black marker, while Dylan’s signature is inscribed in fine black pen. There is some handwritten blue text on the back of the page. Some light folds and creases to the page, otherwise in excellent condition.

This item qualifies for our layaway plan

For Sale: £2,950.00


Stock Status:In Stock 
 
Product Code: PT620

 

From a gig in Seattle, Washington in 2001

5 things you never knew about Bob Dylan

  1. Dylan has worked under various aliases over the years, from Elston Gunn to Blind Boy Grunt.
    4. He’s the only rock musician ever awarded a Pulitzer Prize.
    3. In 1997 he performed for Pope John Paul II. 
    2. He’s released 36 studio albums over the years. 
    1. While he was born Jewish, he became an evangelical Christian in the 1970s.

Source

Paul

 

Source

Twitter

 

Hi iwan,

Welcome to your Paul Fraser Collectibles newsletter.

First for you this week:

Cold Blood

Have your read Truman Capote’s In Cold Blood, or seen the film? It is the account of the horrific murder of a Kansas family in 1959.

And now a guitar owned by one of the two men responsible is coming to auction at Guernsey’s in New York.

Capote mentions Smith’s guitar several times in his book

Perry Smith’s Gibson-made guitar auctions with a $175,000 high estimate at the end of the month. It is accompanied in the lot by the guitar played by

Robert Blake in the 1967 film adaptation.

Guernsey’s comments: “The In Cold Blood pair of guitars in the auction must constitute one of the most unusual musical offerings ever: those who vividly recall the legendary Truman Capote book and movie will remember that Perry Smith, the much-analyzed killer, toted his guitar everywhere.”

Che Guevara’s cigar box

Personal items connected with Che Guevara are rare. So you can be sure the auction of the revolutionary’s cigar box will cause excitement on March 1

 

Cuban history of this calibre is a rare find

It’s expected to make around £10,000-12,000 ($14,500-17,398).

“Items relating to this period of Cuban history rarely appear on the market. We have only handled one Che Guevara signed photo in the last 10 years,” says Ben Jones of Mullock’s –

 

Christmas tales

Rare Book Chrsimast Tale

short stories written

by Charles Dickens in the 1850s.

A unique Christmassy Christmas Gift

Before you say anything , I Know

I Know it’s only November 17 away

I know Christmas is more than five weeks But I make no apology for talking chrismas with you today

You need to know about this now

Because this is such a special Christmas gift for you and your family

 

 

Memorabilia3

Trade Card

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2015

 

 

 

 

Babe Ruth

In the week that Shakespeare’s will went on display in London, the will of another legendary artisan has come to light.

Babe Ruth’s last will and testament will auction on February 20 with a $150,000 estimate.

Babe Ruth memorabilia can sell for millions

Ruth (1895-1948) signed the will in 1933, two years before he played his last professional game.

Ruth artefacts are the most valuable in the sports memorabilia arena. His 1920 Yankees road jersey sold for $4.4 million in 2012 – a sports memorabilia record

 

 

 

Ty Cobs Card History Collections

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Consultan Information

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2016

 

I have seen a very rare Baseball Card Collections

 

Ty Cobb Baseball Cards and Autographs: A Peach of an Investment

Ty Cobb is synonymous with the dead ball era of baseball.  Most of his 22-year career was spent with the Detroit Tigers.  This Hall of Fame inductee had a very colorful life, both on and off the field.  Also, he was one of the few players, who performed the dual function of player and manager.  Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs are among the most sought after in the hobby.

Comment in google eksploration as upload below

Ty Cobb Baseball Cards and Autographs: A Peach of an Investment

Ty Cobb is synonymous with the dead ball era of baseball.  Most of his 22-year career was spent with the Detroit Tigers.  This Hall of Fame inductee had a very colorful life, both on and off the field.  Also, he was one of the few players, who performed the dual function of player and manager.  Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs are among the most sought after in the hobby.

Collecting Ty Cobb memorabilia

Cobb’s original baseball cards have been collected for decades.  Every generation of collector rightfully views him as one of the greatest baseball players of all-time.  Validating his popularity, Cobb was named to Major League Baseball’s All Century Team.

Because he excelled in so many areas of the game, many collectible subsets have him included.  Examples would be the following:  .300 batting club, 3,000 hit club,  Hall of Famers, stolen base leaders and many more.

Even though Cobb spent the 1927 and 1928 seasons with the Philadelphia Athletics, team collectors associate him with the Tigers and Detroit team collectors view Cobb as a pinnacle card in their team sets

1932 US Caramel Ty Cobb

Cobb’s personality, brash as it was during his playing days, probably helps his status.  He’s considered one of the game’s most feared tough guys.

Investment quality of Ty Cobb cards

Cobb, like stocks within the Dow Jones Industrial Average, is considered a blue-chip player and investment.  His cards steadily and consistently appreciate in value, especially when viewed over five and ten year time horizons.

There are enough issues of his cards to provide liquidity, while maintaining scarcity at higher grades.  For investors, who wish to add Cobb to their investment portfolios, they should look at both cards and autographs.  Each presents their own, unique opportunities.

Ty Cobb autographs

Cobb lived until 1961 and signed autographs for many years after his playing days, although he wasn’t exactly a man about town.  He was a prodigious letter writer and many Cobb letters have made their way into the marketplace (there are usually a few on eBay via this link and they are fascinating–even those simply responding to fans).   Prices vary dramatically.  Thhere are a lot of autographs in the market, but still not enough to keep up with collector and investor demand.  Be sure to buy with a certificate of authenticity from a leader in the field such as JSA or PSA.

A fairly large quantity of Cobb signed checks also exist and with forgery still an issue in the industry, a signed check is one way to collect authentic signatures without much worry.  Expect to pay at least $1,200-$2,000 for one.

Below are some of the most popular Cobb cards in the marketplace, although by no means does the list showcase all of those from his playing career.  Click the title of each to see that particular issue being offered by eBay sellers.

Top Ty Cobb Baseball Cards to Watch

1912 T202 Hassan Cobb and Jennings/Ty Cobb Steals Third– This card, like no other, captures the true grit and determination of the player.  The middle of the multi-player tobacco issue features a photo of Cobb sliding into third base.  With Hughie Jennings sharing space with Cobb on this rectangular issue, you can’t lose.  Cobb also appears on other combinations in the T202 set.

1914, 1915 Cracker JackThe 1914 Cracker Jack set is exceedingly rare but collectors can find 1915 Cracker Jack Ty Cobb cards in the market.  They’re still quite scarce and expensive.  However, the sets are very popular because of Cobb’s stature, the desirability of the set itself and Cracker Jack’s still iconic status in American culture

1911 T205 Gold Border – A lithograph portrait of Ty Cobb is featured on the front of the card.  The gold border gives this one an elegant quality but they are also prone to showing wear because of it. Like the T206 issue, these come with various cigarette brand ads on the back and the less common brands can command big money.  However, the best advice is to buy the best quality Cobb you can afford.  Mid-grade examples can be found for $2,000 and less but near mint issues will run into the tens of thousands.

1909 E95 Philadelphia Caramel – If you’re looking for the quintessential Cobb portrait, this might be it. The E95 baseball card set is attractive and popular but Cobb’s card is spectacular. Standing in the collared uniform with the famous Tigers cap on his head, Cobb’s lithograph portrait is set against a red background.  The card is a more economical alternative to the T206 issue and around ten can usually be found on eBay with prices reflecting the smaller number of cards available compared to T205 and T206 Cobb cards

1909-1911 T206 How popular was Cobb?  Popular enough to have four different card issued in this set, which was produced during the height of his career.  There are two portrait cards, one picturing him with a bat on his shoulder and another with the bat just off his shoulder.  T206 cards were produced with several different types of cigarette ads on the back and the most rare examples of these will command the highest prices and be in demand but so will higher grade T206 Cobbs, regardless of back.

Of course, the rarest Cobb card is the T206 style with the ‘Ty Cobb Tobacco’ back.  Issued only in tins of a brand of tobacco endorsed by Cobb, only a small number exist and they sell for huge prices.  In 2013, a PSA 1 example sold for $120,109 via Goldin Auctions.

Ty Cobb baseball cards and autographs have proven to be a worthy investment and it’s unlikely that will change.   Cobb’s status as one of the game’s greatest players remains intact.  You’ll have competition in the marketplace, but compare prices of completed sales and bid or buy accordingly.

Source

B.Cardin Inv.

More info look.

E-Book In CD-Rom

Ty cobs history collctions

By Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

Consultan information or in web blog Hhtp//www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Or via email iwansuwandy@gmail.com for mor information or coonsulation the the original or flase card and the value of the card original or repepro

 

 

 

 

o    IDR32,467,532.47

 

Memorabilia5

Magazine

 

intage magazines appeal to people who have a particular interest in old paper, to be sure, but they are also collected for the specific content on and between their covers.

For example,

those who have fond

memories of JFK may seek out copies of the November 29, 1963, issue of “Life,” with its formal portrait of the recently assassinated 35th president on its somber cover.

Serious Beatles fans almost certainly want a copy of the January 9, 1968, issue of “Look,” which included a quartet of full-page, psychedelic photos of John, Paul, George, and Ringo by Richard Avedon.

And military historians may collect copies of “Colliers” printed during World War II for its articles by Martha Gellhorn, who famously stowed away on a hospital ship so she could report on the D-Day landing at Normandy.

Not all magazine collectors are so high-minded. Year in and year out,

one of the most popular vintage-magazine titles has been “Playboy,” especially its undated first issue from December of 1953, which featured a Marilyn Monroe centerfold. For those who claim that they only read “Playboy” for the articles, there are numerous more literary issues to choose from,

including the March, April, and May editions from 1954, in which Ray Bradbury’s “Fahrenheit 451” was serialized in its entirety.

For art lovers, there are old copies of “The Saturday Evening Post,” which were famous for its covers by Norman Rockwell, and “Harper’s Weekly,” which occasionally had covers by Maxfield Parrish.

More recently, copies of “Oz,” a London music, fashion, and culture magazine from the late 1960s, have been in demand for the artwork created for it by Martin Sharp, who silkscreened posters of Bob Dylan on foil and made album covers for Cream.

Other magazines fall somewhere between comic books and science-fiction novels, such as issues of “Amazing Stories,” which, in the 1940s,

reprinted a number of Edgar Rice Burroughs’ tales of earthman John Carter’s adventures on Mars, or, as it was named by Burroughs, Barsoom. “Argosy” was also an outlet for Burroughs, serializing his “Tarzan” adventures in the 1920s and ’30s.

Finally, there are magazines that are infamous for being spot-on parodies of other magazines.

In 1972, the “Harvard Lampoon” produced its version of “Cosmopolitan,” which featured a nude centerfold of

Henry Kissinger, which was as disgusting as you might imagine it would be. Not to be outdone, in 1980, “New West” produced a slim but brilliant five-page parody of “Sunset” which it called “Sunsect,” featuring a family picnicking in the shadow of a nuclear power plant on the cover and articles such as “Mule trips into East Los Angeles–a guide” and “Tulips so big they eat meat” inside.

 The End @ Copyright Dr iwan 2016

INILAH KENANG-KENANGAN DARI dR iwan bagi seluruh teman-teman dan keluarga besar , dibuat saat setelah musim hujan yang penuh prihatin.

Saya harap kleuarga besar akan tetap meneruskan web blog ini apabila suatu waktu saya sudah taka da lagi didunia ini

 dan koleksi tersebut hendaknya tetap disimpan dlam museum leluhur kita WANLI di rumah yang sya peroleh s=dari ahsil penjualan koleksi saya.

yang saya kumpul sejak berumur sepuluh tahun (tahun 1955) sampai tahun 2016 ditambah koleksi yang akan dtang diperkirakan dua puluh tahun ;lagi (2036), saat ini entah dima a aku berada di gunung, dihutan,didasar laut , didlam sungai atau masih melayang0-melayang diudara, karena itu sya minta cucu saya antoni wiliam suwandy membacakan pesan saya terakhirr di saat jenazah saya dimakamkan secara militer saat trompet dan genderang dan temabakan diletuskan SAMBIL MENDEKAP PISTL MAINAN YANG oPA JANJIKAN YANG BELUM DISERAHKAN.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

If I told you, iwan.

That just minutes from now…

…you could own a piece of American folklore…

…would you believe me?

I don’t blame you if you’re sceptical.

But it’s true.

Because I have for you a piece of memorabilia from an American folk hero.

A folk hero as much an American legend as Daniel Boone, Johnny Appleseed or Davy Crockett.

A folk hero as much a part of the story of America as the Plymouth Rock, the US Constitution, or Ellis Island.

“Impossible Paul”

Impossible to own a piece that important? That legendary? That rare?

It’s not impossible.

This item is rare, yes. Hugely, rare. Which means these things appear for sale but seldom.

But it is possible.

And today is one of those rare occasions.

Are you ready?

This is a piece of paper.

A piece of paper bearing a letterhead from the Crosby House hotel, in Beaumont, Texas.

106 years ago, one of the legends of the Old West took out a pen…

…and wrote seven words on this piece of paper.

The folk hero who wrote these seven words is so celebrated…

…so much a part of American culture…

…that she is almost mythical.

“Did she really exist?” children ask, as though her feats were so legendary, she can’t have been real.

It’s why this piece of personal memorabilia is so exhilarating for you to own.

It’s the myth becoming a reality.

This woman was such a dead-eye shot she could:

  →  

Shoot a cigarette from your mouth at 50 paces 

  →  

Snuff out a candle’s flame with a single bullet 

  →  

Split a playing card in two along its edge

You’ve got it now, I’m sure.

We’re talking Annie Oakley. Who took on the men, and spanked their behinds.

The farm girl now a folk hero: Annie Oakley

The Annie Oakley who, besides being the finest shot around, was also:

America’s most famous woman: At 5 foot nothing, with a gun slung over her shoulder, and a femininity offset with a swagger that said “look but don’t touch”, her shows sold out in America and around the world.

A pioneer for women’s rights: Not only did she shoot guns for a living, Oakley taught 15,000 women to handle guns for self-defence. She once said: “I ain’t afraid to love a man. I ain’t afraid to shoot him either.”

Today, perhaps many know her story from the musical Annie Get Your Gun. Perhaps the true woman behind the legend is in danger of being lost.

But not for you.

Not when you own this striking rare autograph and inscription

I am thanking you!” writes Annie Oakley

This is a hand-signed note from Annie Oakley from 1910.

It reads “Annie Oakley Butler. I am thanking you!”

(Butler was her married name).

Who was the sharpshooter thanking on this day 106 years ago? We don’t know.

What we do know is that Annie’s signature is stunning

Crisp and confident: a gorgeous signature

Just look at the crispness. The confidence. This is a woman who knows she is good. And in 1910, she is at the top of her game.

What’s more, the autograph, inscription and piece of paper are in excellent condition. And that’s not all you get.

Because this note comes mounted and framed – along with a superb Annie Oakley photograph. It all makes for a stunning piece of American history

Annie Oakley Autographed Note

For Sale: £2,950.00

  • Note autographed by legendary sharpshooter Annie Oakley, star of Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show

Annie Oakley (1860-1926) was an American sharpshooter and exhibition shooter. Dubbed “Little Sure Shot” by Chief Sitting Bull, 5-foot-tall Annie rose to fame in her role in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show.

This item features Annie’s autograph, reading “Annie Oakley Butler. I am thanking you”, dated 1910, on headed stationary (7.5cm x 18.5xcm) from the ‘Crosby House Hotel” in Beaumont, Texas. The “Butler” element of her name comes after she marrised traveling show marksman and dog trainer Fracis E Butler in 1876. 

This wonderful autograph is in excellent condition and comes mounted, framed and glazed with an image of Oakley.

This item qualifies for our layaway plan

For Sale: £2,950.00

One you will love showcasing on your wall.

And if you’re still reading, I’m guessing you’d love to know its price.

Ann ie Oakley

1860: Born into a farming family in Ohio. Aged 8, Annie starts shooting game to support her family, and sells the animals to local shops and restaurants. By 15, Annie’s prowess has paid off the family mortgage on their farm. 
1876: Aged just 15, Annie beats renowned show marksman Frank E Butler in a shooting contest. Annie marries him the following year. 
1885: Joins the famous Buffalo Bill’s Wild West show and is the star attraction for the next 16 years. 
1890: While touring Germany, Oakley shoots the cigarette out of Kaiser Wilhelm II’s hand – missing the opportunity to prevent WWI. When war breaks out, Oakley writes to the Kaiser asking for a second shot. She receives no reply. 
1917: Turned down by the US government to head a women’s division of sharpshooters in WWI. Instead, Annie raises money for the Red Cross by putting on shooting displays for the troops. 
1926: Dies a legend

How much?

Remember.

Annie Oakley stuff is rare. Her autograph is rare. And collectors want it. Which means major auction prices. In recent years I’ve seen:

  →  

Annie’s shotgun sell for $240,000 

  →  

Annie’s Stetson hat auction for $15,000 

  →  

An Annie-signed photo make $11,000

So what price for this striking Annie Oakley handwritten note today?

£5,000 ($7,120)? No, lower.

£4,000 ($5,696)? No, lower.

£3,000 ($4,272) surely?

This is yours for just £2,950 ($4,200).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ice hockey

I don’t often get to talk ice hockey in these emails. But today is an exception. Because Classic Auctions’ winter auction took place earlier this week.

If you’re a connoisseur of the game, you’ll know the name Dave Keon, who was at the heart of the Toronto Maple Leafs team in the 60s and 70s.

Dave Keon played for the Toronto Maple Leafs the
last time they lifted the Stanley Cup – 1967

A jersey he wore in his rookie season was the top seller, making $52,360.

There was also a strong performance from Canada goalie Ed Belfour’s 2002 Winter Olympic medal. It made $25,015, while a Bobby Orr Boston Bruins “gamer” achieved $12,518.

Memorabilia19Tiger

 

Pre scandal

2009

 

Post Scandal

2010

For tweleve Year

 

The End @ Copyright Dr Iwan 2016

 

 

 

 

Source Paul

 

 

 

 

 

in small museums near candi Jiwa

 

Candi Jiwa yang pertama kali ditemukan di Situs Batujaya. Ada 24 candi di kompleks ini, di permukaan. Belum yang rata/ bawah permukaan tanah. Teridentifikasi 30 umur, seluas 5 km2

24 candi sekaligus. Itu baru di permukaan, belum yang di bawah permukaan. Bisa jadi yang terbesar di Asia Tenggara. ( kalau sabar, Allah takkan menyia-nyiakan kesabaran itu, kan ? Dihadiah full packed : candi, gerabah kuno, kerangka prasejarah, keramik, dll. You name it ). Situs Batujaya telah teridentifikasi 30 umur dengan luas sekitar 5 kilometer persegi. Dahulu di sepanjang pesisir Karawang berjejer bangunan tertua di Indonesia. Abad 4 Masehi. Warisan kerajaan Budha kuno, Tarumanegara

Source

http://anisavitri.wordpress.com/2010/05/19/situs-batujaya-prasejarah-tarumanagara-terbesar-di-asia-tenggara/

 

There is another candi at batujaya named Candi Cangkuang

Hasan Djafar , UI archaeologists , head of the excavation team Batujaya site , describes the discovery of coherent this site . Excavations have been going on for 22 years has resulted in many discoveries of artifacts : bongkah2 red brick which can then be reconstructed temples are quite large , pottery – pottery , beads , clay tablets and surprising and newly discovered in 2006 this ( mainly July 2006 ) is the discovery of dozens of human skeletons were still intact from the skull to the soles of the feet .


Two women archaeologists French and Dutch nationals specifically come to this site for skeletons excavated at the site Batujaya , take some samples of bones and teeth and will do a DNA study of the fossil bones and teeth in order to get the physical characteristics of the data are more complete . Latest methods in archeology is that a fossil specimen of the human race must be carried out by archaeologists from different races . Possible , to avoid contamination when sampling . Because the human skeleton race in Batujaya estimated from Indonesia , namely Mongolid , then who took the sample is orang2 of the European race ( Caucasian ) .
Research over the course of 20 years has produced some tentative conclusions , namely : ( 1 ) the site was on the verge of pre – history and history of Indonesia ( 4th century and 5th AD , the current limit of pre – history and history of Indonesia is AD 400 years ) , ( 2 ) temple Batujaya made ​​of batamerah and discrete Buddhist temple , ( 3 ) pottery and beads were found is from the Neolithic period , ( 4 ) votive tablets ( a kind of seal ) of baked clay bearing short posts in Pallava script .

The Beattles

History Collections

Edited By

Dr Iwan Suwandy<MHA

Consultan information

Copyright@2015

 

PART ONE

CHRONOLOGY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

Imagine, iwan.

You’ve bought an autograph. You love it.

You have it mounted and framed. You hang it on your wall. You show it off to friends, neighbours, the postman.

But then the doubts begin.

Perhaps you notice other autographs from this famous figure don’t match yours. Perhaps a friend asks “how do you know it’s real?” and it sets you thinking. Or perhaps something just doesn’t feel right.

So you send it to an expert for authentication.

The reply is everything you’ve feared.

“In our opinion this autograph is not genuine”.

It leaves you feeling stupid. A chump. Not to mention out of pocket.

Every time you see it you feel furious. Furious with the seller who swindled you. Furious at yourself for being scammed.

Think I’m scaremongering? Think it won’t happen to you?

Do you know what percentage of autographs on eBay are fakes?

An estimated 80%.

And if you own a signature from one of the 10 famous names on the list below, you’re in real danger.

Because this is autograph authenticator PSA/DNA’s latest list of the 10 most “dangerous” historical and entertainment autographs.

By “dangerous” they mean most likely to be forged.

The dangerous top 10

  1. Star Wars cast
  2. The Rolling Stones
  3. Jimi Hendrix
  4. Led Zeppelin
  5. Marilyn Monroe
  6. Michael Jackson
  7. John F Kennedy
  8. Neil Armstrong
  9. Elvis Presley
  10. The Beatles

“So what’s the answer Paul?”

Don’t run to the hills, vowing never to buy an autograph again.

INSTEAD.

Realise that you can enjoy the incredible hobby of autograph collecting withcomplete confidence.

How?

You have two options:

  1. Become an expert:This takes years of study and experience. There’s no shortcut. Few in the world can genuinely say they are.

Or.

  1. Buy from an expert you trust:I have been trading in autographs since 1977. That is 39 years. In those 39 years I’ve handled tens of thousands of signatures. I’ve seen it all, from terrible fakes to the almost superb.

My 39 years in the business mean I don’t get caught out.

Which means when you buy from me, you know you’re buying the real thing.

And you also get a further layer of security.

Because when you buy from me you get my Lifetime Moneyback Guarantee of Authenticity.

Which means if the autograph turns out to be fake in the future – I will give you your money back. Every penny.

I am happy to offer you this guarantee because I know you’ll never need to use it.

Want to own an autograph you know is genuine?

If you want to own an autograph on the “dangerous” list, but are scared you’re going to get stung, keep reading.

These are four genuine autographs from the “dangerous” list you can buy now at Paul Fraser Collectibles.

The Beatles

Danger alert.

The Beatles are the world’s most popular autograph. Which also makes them the most forged. Always be on your guard.

The most desirable Beatles autographs feature all four members. Autographs such as this:

Four genuine Beatles signatures: just £7,950 ($11,371)

This is a page from an autograph album, signed by John, Paul, George and Ringo in bright blue ink.

Look at the life in these autographs. The youthful excitement of the band and their fans leaps from the page. This piece of paper truly captures the essence of the Beatles and the Beatlemania era.

I’ve seen signed copies of the Beatles’ Sgt Pepper album sell for as much as $290,500. But there are still good deals available at Paul Fraser Collectibles.

This item does have mild staining to the bottom right. Which is why I’m offering you it for just £7,950 ($11,371)

 

1961

THE BEAT BROTHERS

The Beatles First Recorded In Hamburg Germany , Tony Sheridan’s On My Bonnie In 1961 with named “ The Beat Brother”

(part Of Contract)

Complete document look below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Original source

Paul

 

Cavern 1961

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1964

 

Meet The Beattles at Aintree Institue Invitation 1961

 

Top of Form

Earlier today, we posted about the 1962 Beatles poster, and ticket

The rebel Rouser ticket years (?)

 

 

 

Theter Ticket fil A Grand River Cruis 1962

Two Ticket 1962

Pier head Liverpool 1962

 

 

 

Winter Garden 1963

Odeon Romford 1st performance ticket year(?)

 

 

Bournemouth theater 1963

Mr Smith’s Nightclub 1963

Ticket 1963

 

Vintage Photo London 1963

 

 

 

 

 

TV scene Southampton 1963

Mersey View Ballrom A Dabnce ticet 1963

Juke box ticket 1963’

 

Royal Variety Performance 1963

Vintage Photo Forthlin Road 1963

Top of Form

The Beatles taking a break from recording `From Me To You’, `The One After 909′ and `Thank You Girl’ at Abbey Road Studios with George Martin, 5th March 1963

Bottom of Form

 

 

Let it be show at The London Pavilluion Picadilly Cirbus Ticket

 

Hyde Park 1964

Four types Ticket 1964

Two Vintgae Photo, Twickenham studio 1964

All I Need is Love,japan,1964

Don’t Buy My Love,Japan,1964

 

 

 

A Hard Day’s Night 1964 Nederland

 

At Bar 1964

 

I feel Fine-She’s AWomen Netherland 1964

Guiters Abey Road Photo 1964

 

Madame tussaud 1964

Ringo drummer 1964 at The rock and Roll Hall Of Fame 1964

Vintgae Photo Fans London 1964

 

EIGHTH ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

EIGHTH   ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

in 2016

Driwan Masterpiece uniquecollections :”The Limited JJ STokes Rugby(Football) Trade Card Collections”(koleksi Kartus rugby langka JJ Stokes)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :
The Driwan Masterpiece Uniquecollection Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya koleksi unik masterpiece Dr Iwan)

SHOWCASE :
THE LIMITED EDITION JJ STOKES RUGBY(FOOTBALL) TRADE CARD

FRAME ONE:
THE LIMITED 795 CARDS, AUTOPHONEX TEST ISSUE TRAD CARD
( Dr IWAN COLLECTIONS)
FRONTSIDE


BACKSIDE

FRAME TWO:
THE JJ STOKES BIOGRAPHY


J. J. Stokes Date of birth: October 6, 1972 (1972-10-06) (age 38)
Place of birth: San Diego, California
Career information
Position(s): Wide receiver
College: UCLA
NFL Draft: 1995 / Round: 1 / Pick 10
Organizations
As player:
1995-2002
2003
2003 San Francisco 49ers
Jacksonville Jaguars
New England Patriots
Playing stats at DatabaseFootball.com

Jeral Jamal Stokes (born October 6, 1972) is a former National Football League wide receiver. Stokes last played in the NFL in December 2003 for the New England Patriots.

Contents
1 High school
2 College career
3 NFL career
4 Outside the NFL

High schoolStokes began his football career at Point Loma High School in San Diego, CA, where he was part of a gifted team that included fellow wide-receiver Brett Callan, quarterback Dan White (later a UA star), and future-NFL lineman La’Roi Glover. The team was coached throughout Stokes’ four years by local legend Bennie Edens.

College careerWhile at UCLA, Stokes earned Pac-10 first-team honors as a sophomore. His breakout season came in his junior year when he was named the Conference’s Offensive Player of the Year. Stokes’ junior season was rewarded with a top ten finish in the balloting for that year’s Heisman Trophy, being the only junior recognized. Stokes’ junior season ended with first-team All-American recognition by The Sporting News, AP, UPI, and Kodak. Stokes’ senior year began as the nation’s leading Heisman contender but was quickly sidetracked by a severe upper thigh contusion suffered in the season’s first game. Stokes still holds UCLA school records for receiving touchdowns in a season (17 in 1993), receiving touchdowns in a career (28), receiving yards in a game (263 vs. USC in 1992) and receptions in a game (14 vs. Wisconsin, 1994 Rose Bowl), among others.

On October 9, 2009, Stokes was inducted into the UCLA Athletics Hall of Fame.

NFL careerStokes was selected with the tenth overall pick of the 1995 NFL Draft by the San Francisco 49ers, who traded up to the No. 10 spot in the first round to select Stokes as the successor to the team’s Hall of Fame receiver Jerry Rice.

After a slow start to his rookie season, the former Bruin, ultimately netting 38 receptions for 517 yards and four touchdowns, the last of which was tossed by Rice. During the 1996 season, Stokes suffered a broken hand and missed most of the season, leading to the emergence of the 49ers’ third round pick in the 1996 NFL Draft, wide receiver Terrell Owens. In 1997, with Rice sidelined with a torn ACL, Stokes and Owens formed a formidable tandem for quarterback Steve Young, with Stokes hauling in 58 passes for 733 yards and four touchdowns. Once Rice returned, Stokes’ production did not falter as he would achieve career highs in receptions (63), yards (770) and touchdowns (eight). Stokes was also the recipient of linebacker Bill Romanowski spitting in his face during a Monday Night Football game in December 1997.[1] Along with the rest of the team, Stokes’ production dropped in 1999 as a result of Young’s retirement. The 49ers released him in 2003 and he was initially signed by the Jacksonville Jaguars before going to New England. Stokes was rarely used in the Patriots offense, only contributing 15 catches for 154 yards during the 2003 campaign. New England released him and activated fullback Larry Centers near the end of the season.[2]

Outside the NFLHe currently works as a radio host for the ESPN radio affiliate based out of Modesto, California. Stokes nephew, Je’Ron Stokes, is currently a Wide-Receiver for the University of Michigan.

FRAME THREE:
THE SAN FRANSISCO 49ers RUGBY CLUB HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

San Francisco 49ers
Current season
Established 1946
Play in Candlestick Park
San Francisco, California
Headquartered in the Marie P. DeBartolo Sports Center
Santa Clara, California

Helmet Logo

League/conference affiliations
All-America Football Conference (1946–1949)

Western Division (1946–1949)

National Football League (1950–present)

National Conference (1950–1952)
Western Conference (1953–1969)
Coastal Division (1967–1969)
National Football Conference (1970–present)
NFC West (1970–present)

Current uniform

Team colors Primary:[1]
Scarlet
49ers Gold (Metallic)
Mascot Sourdough Sam
Personnel
Owner(s) Jed York[2]
Chairman Denise DeBartolo York and John York
CEO Jed York
President Jed York
General manager Trent Baalke
Head coach Jim Harbaugh
Team history
San Francisco 49ers (1946–present

Driwan stem cell information center(continiu)

FOUNDER
 
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
more infocontact
iwansuwandy@ gmail.com
all free of charge
this info to all human in the world
with
 
THE MIGHTY GOD BLESS
 
 
CELL
 
lets we look
how wonderfool and exciting
 
the mighty GOD CREATION
CELL NOT THE SMALLEST P;ART OF OUR BODY BUT
THE BIGGER IMPORTANCE PART OF OUR REGRERATIVE POTIAL
LOOK AND LEARN CAREFULLY
MANY APPARART INSIDE CELL
 
 
 
CELL CONSIST
 
CELL MEMBRANE
with microvilli,
phagocyte vesicle,
cillia and secrotory villia
 
CYTOPLASM
vesicles
peroxisomes
lysosome
lysosome fusin with incoming phagocyte vesicle
mitochondria
free rebosome
golgi apparatus
microtubule network
centrosome and centriole
 
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULYM
 
NUCLEUS
 
inside found
NUCLEOLI
 
INSIDE THE APPARAT CONSIST MANY CHEMICAL WHICH
CONTROL OUR REGRENATIVE FUNCTION TO PROTECT OUR CELL FROM
INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL EXPOSUE
CALL
DNA
CCONSIST
 
 
 
 
AGTC
 
ADENINE
 
GUANINE

Thymine

“Thymine (T, Thy)”  

Thymine Structure

Thymine

In our body’s cells, Thymine (T, Thy) is a Pyrimidine derivative, one of the Nitrogenous Bases (Nucleobases) in the Nucleic Acid (Polynucleotide) of DNA. 

Thymine (5-methyluracil)

Thymine (T) is also known as (5-methyluracil).

 

Protected: PROMOSI CD-ROM :” UPAYA PENANGULANGAN EFEK KELIANAN DIABETES MELITTUS TYPE 2 TERHADAP GINJAL”

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Protected: PROMOSI CD DR IWAN ; KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA AWAL ABAD KE DUA PULUH”(BERSAMBUNG)

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Protected: Promosi CD Dr Iwan :”Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia Awal Abad Kedua Puluh”

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PROMOSI BUKU ELEKTRONI DR IWAN :”THE RARE BOOK COLLECTIONS FOUND IN INDONESIA”

The Rare Book Collections

Found In Indonesia

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors And Scholars

Copyright @ 2014

KATA PENGANTAR

PREFACE

Dalam rangka memperingati ulang tahun saya yang ke tujuh puluh pada tanggal 9 Pebuari 2015 , dengan segalakerendahan hati saya menerbitkan buku panduan bagi para  kolektor Senior dan Mahasiswa yang saya beri judul alam bahasa Ingris

“The Rare Book Collections Found In Indonesia “

Mohon maaf apabila ada ejaan bahasa Ingris saya yang kurang tepat , karena sya belajar secara otodidak , dan terjemahan dengan bantuan Google Translate yang perlu mendapatkan koreksi , kandatipun demikian saya harap anda semua akan mengerti karena gaya bahsa Inggris saya adalah gaya Inggris Indonesia seperti yang anda sering dengar di Singapura  atau Malaysia.

Sudah banyak buku-buku langka koleksi saya yang saya upload di web blog saya baik Driwancybermuseum’Blog  atau Iwansuwandy’s blog , dari Buu-buku yang saya karang sendiri maupun karangan penulis terkenal yang banyak mendpatkan sorotan dari para pemirsa web blog saya anatara lain:

Motif Keramik Kerajaan  Tiongkok Yang Ditemukan di Indonesia dan

Koleksi Martavan Yang ditemukan di Indonesia sehingga telah banyak pemesannya ,tetapi hanya sebagian yang membeli mungkin dianggap mahal walaupun menurut ukuran saya masih murah hanya lima ratus ribu rupiah , dan bayak pedagang menginginkan buku ini tetapi saya tidak jual kepadanya sampai mereka marah dan memaki-maki saya sampai ada yang membuat email saya spam, saya tidak jual kepada pedagang saya takut nanti dikopi dan juga mereka akan jadi saingan saya sehingga harga dipasaran jadi naik dan saya jadi tidak sanggup membelinya , apalagi akhir-akhir ini banyak keramik antic asli maupun palsu banyak diperjual belikan di Jakarta.

Selain itu juga banyak komentar tentang buku saya lainnya seperti   ,

Buku  Koleksi Sejarah Minangkabau ,

buku Koleksi sejarah   Bali ,

buku Koleksi Sejarah Kerajaan kalimantan Barat

Buku Koleski sejarah wayang

Buku Koleksi  Sejarah Aceh ,

Buku sejarah Batak,Buku sejarah leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia Buku Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia Permulaan Abad Kedua Puluh, Buku Koleksi Sejarah Keramik Dinasti Tang , dinasti Sung, dinasti Yuan , Diansti Ming dan dinasti Qing ,

begitu juga dengan buku koleksi sejarah Koin Gobok Tiongkok dari seluruh dinasti.

Buku sejarah Perang Vietnam 945-1975

Buku Koleksi

sejarah Pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia,

 

Buku

Koleksi Sejarah Perang dunia Kedua di Eropa, Buku Sejarah Revolusi dan perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945-1950.

Koleksi Buku Langka yang  saya beri judul

The Rare Book Collections dan Bedah Buku Indonesia yang banyak juga mendapat sorotan dari pemirsa web blog saya.

Dalam CD-Rom ini anda aka dapat melihat cuplikan seluruh buku-buku elektronik dalam Cd-Rom tulisan saya , harganya tetap masing-masih satu Cd lima ratus ribu rupiah ,

 kecuali bila nanti ada devaluasi rupiah yang tambah tinggi harganya akan disesuaikan, seperti saat ini sebenarnya sudah enam ratus ribu tetapi saya tetap tidak menaikan harga mengiggat situasi Indonesia saat ini masih aman dan cerah sejak pimp[iannya bapak Jokowi .

Edisi terbatas paling banyak antara sepuluh sampai 20 Cd  saja. Juga dalam Cd-Rom ini akan saya tampilkan  cuplikan buku langka yang sudah saya upload di Web Blog saya.

Saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang tak dapat saya sebutkan satu persatu namanya , mereka telah banyak membantu saya dan membeli CD-Rom saya sehingga membuat saya tambah semangat, buku elektronik ini saya buat untuk menambah pengetahuan anda tentang buku-buku langka dan berapa nilai jualnya.

Sebenarnya anda bisa mencari sendri harganya liwat eksplorasi google dengan mencantumkan nama buku,pengarang,dan tahun edisinya, tetapi untuk menghemat waktu anda biarlah saya dengan susah payah, siang-malam mengerjakan buku ini dan membuka rahasianya bagi anda yang seluruhnya saya anggap teman baik saya dimanapun anda berada.

 

Bagi yang yang ingin memperoleh bku elektronikyang langka ini dan harap anda segera memesannya  karena diterbitkan harnya sepuluh CD- saja, Pemesan yang pertama sampai sepuluh akan saya urut sesuai dengan komunikasi anda melalui email saya

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

Jangan lupa mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkap rumah anda serta riwyata pekerjaan singkat, ini untuk mencegah penipuan yang banyyak terjadi aat ini yang dikenal dengan hijact internet atau spam.

Terima kasih atas kunjungan and adi web blog saya dan juga terimakasih atas pesanan anda,  Cd-Rom ini akan selesai pada bulan maret 2015.

 

 

THE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR HISTORY COLLECTION

PART

INTRODUCTION

BY

DR IWANSUWANDY,MHA

LIMITED E-BOOK IN CD ROM EDITION

SPECIAL FOR SENIOR COLLECTORS ONLY

COPYRIGHT @DR IWAN 2014

INTRODUCTION

Saya adalah putra kelahiran kota Padang Sumatra Barat tahun 1945 bulan pebruari,beberapa bulan sebelum proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Tidak terasa hapir 70 tahun yang lalu, dalam rangka memperinagati hari ulang tahun proklamasi Kemerdeaan Indonesia ke 70, saya tealah mempersiapkan sebuah  buku elektronik dalam CD Rom yang akan saya tampilkan pada agustus 2015 yang akan datang.

Saya mengumpulkan prangko sejak berumur 10 tahun tahun 1955, dan pada tahun 1957 saya banyak menemukan postal history Indonesia dari kantor-kantor pemerintah yang lokasi dekat rumah sata dari tempat sampah sedang dibakar.

Sungguh sangat beruntung koleksi tersebut tidak saya lepaskan dari sampul atau dokumennya,mulanya karena malas saja dan saat ini yang postally used on cover dan document sudah sangat langka.

Pada tahun 1980 saat saya mengunjungi kota Bandung, saya mampir di took prangko Go-Go shop di jalan Braga saat keluarga saya berbelanja di area tersebut.

Di Toko ini saya menemukan sebuah buku lelangan prangko dari Vic Esbensen Canada,dan saya diberi izin untuk memfoto kopinya,kemudia saya menghubungi Vic esbensen,dari dari dia saya diberikan buku katalogus  postal history proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia yang sampai saat ini masih ada pada saya,dan berdasarkan katalogus yang langka tersebut mulailah saya berburu koleksi.

Tahun 1982 saya sempat membeli suatu koleksi postal history dan juga dokumen milik

 Suwil St Bandaro,almarhum Bendahara kantor Pos Padang masa Revolusi dari Isteri dan anak-anaknya dengan menukarnya dengan sebuah rumah real estate di Tabing Padang.

Tahun 1985. P.R.Bulterman pemilik dan penerbit  katalogus belanda Indonesia,dan buku DEI Postmark kerumah saya di kota Padang,ia sangat terkejut melihat koleksi saya, dan membeli beberapa koleksi postal stationer pendudukan Jepang untuk bahan katalogus yang di buatnya,tetapi saya larang nama saya dicantumkan,karena saya sebagai Perwira Polri mersa perlu hat-hati karena dsaat tersebut dokumen sejarah Indonesia dilarang untuk disimpan.say hanya jual pendudukan jepang ssja.

Tahun 1986 saya menjual beberapa koleksi revolusi saya kepa Karel dengan syarat tidak dimual kelur negeri, tetapi ternyata kemudian dijual juga  liwat Tangera Auction TAM dan Belanda, untuk ko9leksi dokumen asli bekas milik Suwawil Dr Bandaro masih ada sampai sekarang.

Koleksi saya jual karena membutuhkan biaya

untuk membeli rumah di Kelapa Gading Jakarta

dan biaya sekolah saya, isteri dan kedua anak saya serta membeli mobil pada tahun 1989.

Pada tahun 1995 saat pameran filateli hari kemerdekaan Indonesia 1950 sebenarnya saya sudah mempersiapkan untuk memamerkan koleksi dan membuat pertunjukan tetapi oleh karena berbagai hal terpaksa di Tunda.

Setah pak Harto turun tahun 1998,koleksi filateli mengaklami kemunduran yang luar biasa, baru tahun 2008 koleksi filatemi terutama postal history jadi hebat lagi, selamay koleksi filateli sepi saya sempat membeli koleksi postal historu revolusi ke,erdekaan Indonesia dari pulau jawa,dan kemudian membuat buku elektronil dam CD-Rom yang saya upload tahun 1945 saja di web blog saya.

Saya hanya jual satu CD-ROM saja yaitu ke Pad Tono R.Putranto semarang, dan saya tidak mau jual kepada pedagang karena banyak ditemukan koleksi Asli tetapi palsu(fake) terutama dari kota Medan,mereka marah kepada saya karena pernah saya memberikan komentar di facebook.

Tahun 2014,ternyata Pak Tono dan dua orang lagi memperoleh medali Mas dari Philakorea 2014,termasuk koleksi revolusi milik pak Agus,yang memiliki 5 prangko militer Surakarta.

 

Bagi yang ingin memiliki CD-ROM ini,harap memnghubungi saya liwat emaikl

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

dan khusu bagi yang membeli CD-ROM edisi terbatas ini hanya 100 buah, nanti akan mendapat undangan gratis untuk menyaksikan pertunjukan yang saya laksanakan bulan agustu 2016.

Terima kasih atas segala bantuan yang saya rtelah terima khususnya almarhum Vic Esbensen,Ramkema,P>R>Bulterman,Pak Untung, Suwito, Harri siregar,Herry dan Pak Tono dan masih banyak lagi yang namanya tidak dapat saya tulis disini.

Jakarta Agustus 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Senior Superintendant®

Kombespol Purnawirawan

 

 

English version

INTRODUCTION

I was born in the city of Padang in West Sumatra month of February 1945, several months before the proclamation of Indonesian independence.

Nothing feels hapir 70 years ago, in order memperinagati birthday proclamation Kemerdeaan Indonesia to 70, I tealah prepare an electronic book on CD Rom which I will show at the upcoming August 2015.

Collecting stamps since I was 10 years old in 1955, and in 1957 I found many Indonesian postal history of government offices that location near the sata from trash being burned.

It is very fortunate that collection I did not remove it from the cover or the document, initially just being lazy and this time the postally used on covers and a document has been extremely rare.

In 1980 when I visited the city of Bandung, I stopped at the shop stamp Go-Go shop at the Braga family when I was shopping in the area.

In this shop I found a book of stamps auction Vic Esbensen Canada, and I was given permission to photograph his coffee, later I contacted Vic esbensen, from of him I was given a book catalogs the proclamation of Indonesian independence postal history that is still available to me, and based on the catalog of the rare collections began my hunt.

In 1982 I had bought a collection of postal history and also documents belonging Suwil Dr. Bandaro, late Treasurer of the Revolution Padang Post office of his wife and children by exchanging with a home real estate in Tabing Padang.

1985 PRBulterman owner and publisher catalogs Dutch Indonesia, and book DEI PostMark my house in the city of Padang, he was surprised to see my collection, and bought some postal stationary collection for the Japanese occupation of the catalog material is in him, but I forbid my name listed , because I am a police officer need a hat Mersa careful because it documents the history of Indonesia dsaat forbidden to sell only disimpan.say ssja Japanese occupation.

In 1986, I sold some of my collection kepa Karel revolution on condition dimual kelur country, but it was later sold also through Tangera TAM Auction and Dutch, for ko9leksi original documents used to belong Suwawil Dr. Bandaro still there today.

Selling my collection because it cost money to buy a house in Kelapa Gading Jakarta and school fees both wife and my son and bought a car in 1989.

In 1995 when the Indonesian independence day philately exhibition in 1950 in fact I’ve been preparing to showcase a collection and make the show but because of various things forced on Pause.

Setah Pak Harto down in 1998, a collection of philatelic mengaklami tremendous setback, the new 2008 collection of postal history filatemi especially so powerful, quiet selamay philatelic collection I had bought a collection of postal historu revolution, erdekaan Indonesia on the island of Java, and then make a book elektronil dam CD-Rom which I uploaded in 1945 alone in my web blog.

I only sell one CD-ROM course is to Pad Tono R.Putranto Semarang, and I do not want to sell to traders because many found a collection of original but fake (fake) primarily from the city of Medan, they are angry with me because I never leave a comment on facebook .

In 2014, it turns out Mr. Tono and the other two medal Mas from Philakorea 2014, including the collection belongs pack revolution Agus, who has 5 military stamps Surakarta.

 

For those who want to have a CD-ROM, please memnghubungi me through emaikl

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

and khusu for those who buy the limited edition CD-ROM is only 100 pieces, later will receive a free invitation to watch the show that I carried out in agustu 2016.

 

Thank you for all the help I received, especially the late Vic  Esbensen, Ramkema, P. R. Bulterman, Mr. Untung, Suwito, Harri Siregar, Herrera and Mr. Tono and many more whose names I can not write here.

Jakarta in August 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

senior Superintendant®

Retired Kombespol

Note

For foreign collectors please aks helping from Indonesian collectors if you want to by the CD-Rom because difficult and high cost to send the CD abroad.

SIX ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

SIX  ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

in 2013

This The sample Of Dr Iwan CD-ROM To Be Continued

The Bali History Collections

 Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

Bali In

15th  Century

In the 5ear 1489, Nirartha
is a Buddhist priest who was then a priest Shiva. He was also named MPU Dwijendra and dubbed Rauh Wawu Rawuh, he is also known as a man of letters.

 
In Dwijendra Tattwa recounted as follows:

“In The Kingdom of Majapahit in East Java, there was a Bhagavan named

 
Dang Hyang Dwi Jendra.
He was honored for his dedication to a very high against the king and the people through spiritual teachings, increase prosperity and tackle the problems of life.

 
He is known in spreading the teachings of Hinduism with the name “Dharma Yatra”.

 
 In Lombok he called “Mr. Sumeru” or teacher of Semeru, the name of a mountain in East Java. “
With supernatural abilities and his heart’s eyes, he saw the seeds of the collapse of the Hindu kingdom in Java.
 Intentions about to break up the warring parties, but will not be able to resist the will of the Creator, is characterized by a variety of natural disasters that allegedly participated in the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom contribution (one of which is a natural disaster “Newer Mountains”).

Finally he got a clue to move to an island that is still under the control of Majapahit, the island of Bali.

Before going to the island of Bali, Dang Hyang Nirartha moved to Daha (Kediri), then to Pasuruan and then to Blambangan.

 
He first arrived in Bali from Blambangan Caka circa 1411 or 1489 AD when the Kingdom of Bali Dwipa led by Dalem Waturenggong.

He was a revelation in
 
 Purancak,

 
 Jembrana

that need to be developed in Bali Tripurusa understand that worship Hyang Widhi in his manifestation as Shiva, Sada Shiva, and Parama Shiva.

Dang Hyang Nirarta also nicknamed Rauh Wawu Rawuh because he has the supernatural ability that makes Dalem Waturenggong was amazed that he was appointed as Bhagawanta (royal priest).

When it reaches the golden era Dwipa Bali, because all areas of people’s lives is well laid out.

Rights and obligations of the nobility regulated, legal and judicial customary / religious enforced,

 inscriptions containing the ancestral lineage of each Soroh / bali organized clan.

Awig awig Pekraman Balinese traditional village is created, fostered and promoted subak organizations and religious activities improved. In addition, he also encouraged the creation of literary works of high quality in writing manuscripts, chanting or kekawin.

Pretends to adore him in the place where he never lived to guide the people are: Purancak, Hair siwi, Pakendungan, Ulu Watu, Bukit Gong, Mount Umbrella, Sakenan, Air Oranges, Tugu, Tengkulak, Gowa Lawah, Ponjok Stone, Suranadi (Lombok ), Pangajengan, Masceti, Peti Tenget, Amertasari, Melanting, Pulaki, Bukcabe, Dalem Gandamayu, Pucak asp, and others.
 
Dang Hyang Nirartha finally disappeared unseen (moksha) at Uluwatu Temple. (Moksha = union of Atman with Brahman / Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, died without leaving a body).

 .

original info

1489

Danghyang Nirartha

adalah seorang pendeta Budha yang kemudian beralih menjadi pendeta Syiwa. Beliau juga diberi nama Mpu Dwijendra dan dijuluki Pedanda Sakti Wawu Rawuh, beliau juga dikenal sebagai seorang sastrawan.

Dalam Dwijendra Tattwa dikisahkan sebagai berikut :

 

“Pada Masa Kerajaan Majapahit di Jawa Timur, tersebutlah seorang Bhagawan yang bernama

Dang Hyang Dwi Jendra.

Beliau dihormati atas pengabdian yang sangat tinggi terhadap raja dan rakyat melalui ajaran-ajaran spiritual, peningkatan kemakmuran dan menanggulangi masalah-masalah kehidupan.

Beliau dikenal dalam menyebarkan ajaran Agama Hindu dengan nama “Dharma Yatra”.

Di Lombok Beliau disebut “Tuan Semeru” atau guru dari Semeru, nama sebuah gunung di Jawa Timur.”

Dengan kemampuan supranatural dan mata bathinnya, beliau melihat benih-benih keruntuhan kerajaan Hindu di tanah Jawa. Maksud hati hendak melerai pihak-pihak yang bertikai, akan tetapi tidak mampu melawan kehendak Sang Pencipta, ditandai dengan berbagai bencana alam yang ditengarai turut ambil kontribusi dalam runtuhnya kerajaan Majapahit

 

(salah satunya adalah bencana alam “Pagunungan Anyar”). Akhirnya beliau mendapat petunjuk untuk hijrah ke sebuah pulau yang masih di bawah kekuasaan Majapahit, yaitu Pulau Bali. Sebelum pergi ke Pulau Bali, Dang Hyang Nirartha hijrah ke Daha (Kediri), lalu ke Pasuruan dan kemudian ke Blambangan.

Beliau pertama kali tiba di Pulau Bali dari Blambangan sekitar tahun caka 1411 atau 1489 M ketika Kerajaan Bali Dwipa dipimpin oleh Dalem Waturenggong. Beliau mendapat wahyu

di Purancak,

 

KISI INFO NAPAK TILAS SEJARAH INDONESIA(BERSAMBUNG)

Napak Tilas

tIMBUL DAN Runtuhnya timor timur

OLEH

Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

PENEMU DAN PRESIDEN PERTAMA

PERHIMPUNAN

KISI

(KOLEKSTOR INFORMASI SEJARAH INDONESIA)

TAHUN 2013-2020

SEJEN KISI

LILI WIDJAJA,MM

DEWAN KEHORMATAN

KETUA

Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

ANGGOTA

ALBERT SUWANDY DJOHAN OETAMA,ST,GEA

ANTON JIMMI SUWANDY ST.MECH.

 

ANNGOTA KEHORMATAN

GRACE SHANTY

ALICE SUWAMDY

ANNABELA PRINCESSA(CESSA(

JOCELIN SUWANDY(CELINE)

ANTONI WILLIAM SUWANDY

ANNGOTA

ARIS SIREGAR

HANS van SCHEIK

 

MASA JABATAN PREDIDEN DAN SEKJEN HANYA SATU KALI SELAMA TUJUH TAHUN, PENGANTINYA AKAN DIPILIH OLEH DEWAN KEHORMATAN

BAGI YANG BERMINAT MENJADI ANGGOTA KISI

MENDAFTAR LIWAT  EMAIL KISI

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

dengan syarat

mengirimkan foto kopi KTP(ID )terbaru dan melunasi sumbangan dana operasional KISI untuk seumur hidup sebanyak US50,-

HAK ANGGOTA

SETIAP BULAN AKAN DI,KIRIMKAN INFO LANGSUNG KE EMAILNYA

DAPAT MEMBELI BUKU TERBITAN KISI YANG CONTOHNYA SUDAH  DIUPLOAD DI

hhtp”//www. Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

dengan memberikan sumbangan biaya kopi dan biaya kirim

TERIMA KASIH SUDAH BERGABUNG DENGAN KISI

SEMOGA KISI TETAP JAYA

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS

KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

Copyright @ 2013

INI ADALAH CUPLIKAN DAN CONTOH BUKU KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA HASIL PENELITIAN Dr  IWAN , HANYA DITAMPILKAN SEBAGIAN INFO DAN ILUSTRASI TAK LENGKAP.

BUKU YANG LENGKAP TERSEDIA BAGI YANG BERMINAT HUBUNGGI LIWAT KOMENTAR(COMMENT) DI WEB BLOG INI

sORRY FOR THE UNEDITED ARTICLES BELOW,I DID  TO PROTEC T AGAINST THE COPY WITHOUT PERMISSSION

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 

Copyrught @ Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA 2013

Forbidden to copy without written permission by the author

BAGIAN kEDUA

Napak Tilas

TIMBULNYA TIMOR TIMUR

OLEH Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MhA

FILM DOKUMENTER

 DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Masterpiece  Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Unique Queen Elizabeth II Davil hair Canada Paper Money Collections 

Frame One:

Dr Iwan collections This unique papermoney were out of circulations because the queen davil hair, and issuen the new design with normal hair.

Frame Two:

The International collections

1.Devils Head / Devils Face Bills from Canada

As some of you may or may not know, in 1954 the Bank of Canada produced an issue of banknotes, from $1 to $1000, which came to be known as the Devil’s Head issue of banknotes. These bills featured the face of Queen Elizabeth II on the right hand side of the face. Ofcourse, the Queen herself was not the devil being addressed here. The Devil’s Head feature of this banknote is featured in her hair. Can you find it on the banknote below?

Canadian $10 bill from 1954, pick 69a Canadian $10 bill from 1954, pick 69a

Well, if you weren’t able to find it, I have circled it here:

Canadian p69a, featuring the Devil's Face Canadian p69a, featuring the Devil’s Face

Regardless of the circling, pointing, and explaining, however, a lot of people still have a hard time seeing this Devil’s face. Probably something to do with pre-conceived notions. So I have decided to take the mystery out of the face altogether. To avoid any confusion and debate, I have colored in the face for all to see:

Devils Head Revealed Devils Head Revealed

After this printing mishap(?) the Bank of Canada re-issued the series, with some modifications to the highlights of the Queen’s hair, and so the banknotes were fixed. Anyways, maybe I am bad at explaining things, but I hope this clears up the mystery for those who I tried to show in person, and who still left confused as to the face.

1954 Bank of Canada $5 Dollar Bills
Beattie & Coyne
These are known as Devil’s Face as seen in the curls of the queen’s hair.
Condition is EF +  

Bank of Canada 1954 ‘Devil’s Face’ Notes


               

(Driwan Vietnam War  Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Vietnam War Document

       and

    Postal History

       1969-1975

THE VIETNAM WAR 1971

d. Vietnam liberation war in 1971

_____________________________________

1)January 1971

 (1) The native  vietnam best stamps collector , Nguyen Bao Tung best seller book is “20 years of the Vietnamese Philately”(1951-1971) written in four language (Vietnamese, English, French and Chinese) Published by South Vietnamese Ministry of Cultural Affairs in 1971. This book gives a brief  history of philately followed by a  short account old Indochinese stamps from 1886. It lists special flights and cahects before catalogueing the stamp.

Technical and topical are through. Part two in English, it contains a foreword on the Geography, history , religions and customs of Viet-Nam, following which there is a simplified listing of the stamps and their topical motifs. The French parts contains an introduction somewhat similar to english section, and the fourth part is in Chinese . Finally the stamps are list for a third time cross referenced by Scott and Yvert catalogue numbers. ( If somone had this book please comment to compared with my informations because Tung only stamps, no revenue ,photo and document history –auth)

 2) February 1971

(1)A major test of “Vietnamization” took place in South Vietnamese Forces in this month, when South Vietnamese Forces invaded Lao without American adviser .

       They performed poorly . The Life photographer who had been covering Vietnam for a decade , was killed during the operation.

 3)March 1971

no info

 4)April 1971

     (1) April, 12th,1971

     The reciept of Tax by Buu-Bien Vietnam Cong Hoa, Nhan Cua O Ytauy Thai ,so tien la 8875 signed by truong ty, with revenue type Nha truoc va coniem 5$00 and Stamps 2 X 10 d.

(the only one Stamps used as revenue because the shortage of 10$00 revenue, and the situation very bad, -auth)

(2)April ,24th.1971

Trich Luc Bo Khai Sanh certificate with local saigon revenue

 5) May 1971

 (1)May,3rd,1971

Legalization Chung Chi Tinh Trang Quan Dich Certificate with local saigon revenue

(2)May,5th.1971

Giao Keo document with Stamp used as revenue

 (3)May,31th.1971

The rare “Huyen Trin Qui” free military postal vietnam Map with paralel line cover, send from Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966 (2nd Battalion, unknown location)  with red KBC Stamped 3966 and Quan Buu date stamped 31-7.1971, send via KBC 3328 (Naval Headquaters saigon) by DVD (?)  HQ 503 ( LST-Landing Ship Transport NVH Navy at Vung Tua),

 inside Chinese langguage latter.

 The same type of cover send  in June,7th.1971 and October ,5th.1971 .

6) June 1971

(1)June,9th.1971

The decision was further reinforced when President Nguyen van Thieu pressed through an election lam on June,9.1971, which would limit the number of presidential candidates.  

The bill-disigned to cut the number of presidential candidates to give the winner a more convincing majority-stilpulated that prospective presidential candidates must have then nomination papers endorsed either by 40 deputies or senators or by 100 members of elected provincial councils.

Presiident Thieu consequently entered the South Vietnamese presidential elections with only one opponent former general Duong van Minh, who later withdrew.

  (2)June,19th.1971

The Military and Naval operation on Vietnam coast stamps were issued , the uncommon mint with ace  40pi ( I found this stamps in HCM city-auth)

(3) June.25th 1971

The Civil covers send  from CDS Qui Nhon 25-6- 1971 with chinese char letter, to Saigon with rate 2×1 dong + 4 dong stamp(6 Dong), with propaganda stamped “In International aid day 22.08.1971”  with  chinese char letter inside,(PH)

 7)July 1971

 (1)July,8th.1971

The reciept of Tax by BuuBien Vietnam cong Hoa, nhan cua O tang Tai, so tien la 11.825 with rare ravenue 3 X 10$00 and common 2X 080 (rate 21$60),

(the last serial reciept of Tax paid via Buu Bien during the escalation of vietnam liberation war-auth)

(2)July 14th 1971

The rare”Huyen Trin Qui “ free military  city’s dot of Vietnamese map cover with  paralel line border trade mark  two peagons and red-blue line via airmail , postally used with Quan Buu cds 14.1.1971, and red KBC 3966 , Free airmail covers from Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966 (SECOND ARMY BATTALION LOCATION ?) TO DVH Vung tau HQ 503 (LST –Long Ship transport NVN-Navy) via KBC 3328(Naval fleet Headquaters Saigon) 

 

     (The same type of Covers send with Quan Buu Stamped 14.5.1971 and 31.9. 1971 from the same sander and recievers address.

          From this three cover were found only two letter in chinese character, my  best friend have tranlated

(a) The letter send  31.5.1971

 

FIFTH ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

FIFTH  ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

in 2012

The Liechtenstein Collections Exhibition at Driwancybermuseum Blog

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

   

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

The Liechtenstein Collections Exhibition

Frame One :

The Liechtenstein Collections

1.Postal History

2.Numismatic

3.Pictures

 

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-book In Cd-rom “The Mistery Of Celadon Ceramic”

THE COMPLETE CD WITH FULL ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Mistery Of Celadon ceramic

The study Report Of

Celadon artifact found In Indonesia

 

 

By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

Introductions

I have found some artifact of celadon ceramic In Indonesia, and I met the difficulty in identification the source of that celadon artifact because near same in colour and design

 

 

 especially the incised decoration of the imperial celadon from China during sung dynasty, Yuan dynasty and early ming dynasty.

 

 

 

The Qing dynasty

and

 

Korean celadon more common and easty to identification due to the typical colour nad desaign  will not included  in this study.

The same colour and decorations of the early china celadon  with The Royal high quality Thailand celadon   during Sincanalai, sukhotai and sawankhalok era and from Vietnam during anamis era  made me difficult to identification 

 

type=text
 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif

After study from literature especially the report of Marine Archeologist from the shipwreck ceramin which found in Asean and the sample from celadon ceramic auction in the world, I have succeeded to open the mistery.

 And this are the report of the study special for senior collector s and historian to heklp them in identification their collections and artifact which found in their researching area.

This study still many lack and not complete that is why more info and correction ,also suggestion still need.

Jakarta October 2012

 Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

The Best Information Collections

Of

Driwan web blog

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member Collectors

Copyright@2012

 

 

FORWARD

I have collected the archived collections from 1955 during young boy until now,

Some of the collections have upload in my web blog

Hhtp://http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

Hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Almost 400.000 collectors visit this web blog

I have million informations of rare old archives now, and if the scientist ,journalist or collectors want to have the rare archives’s informations and illustrations please contact me via comment, but before you must subscribed via comment to be my blog premium member.

I hope my bigger project to collect the informations from rare old archives will help everybody from all over the world.

I have met the the archives scholar from KTLV(Koninjkijl Tropen Leiden Vereneging) ,the Dutch archived of tropic area at Leiden Netherland who came to Indonesia to seeking the rare old archives,many Indonesian scholar visit KTLV to found informations related with their thesis because KTLV and also their Netherland tropen museum archives collectiosn cann’t copy because the protect with copyright.

.

I will show the best Informations Collections from this web and The Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM  edition produces by Driwancybermuseum.

, I hope with this info everybody will know and contact me via comment what info of rare archives they need.

 Jakarta,May.2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

A. The Driwancybermuseum Home office Profile

B.THE BEST INFO COLLECTIONS  

OF

 Dr Iwan web Blog

1.hhtp://http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

 

  • Sesuai dengan persyaratan untuk mendaptakan sponsor iklan ., dengan ini dilaporkan kemajuan web Blog uniquecollection.wordpress.com BlogBy Dr Iwan sebagai berikut …

    uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/19 · Cached page

THE KOREA UNIQUE COLLECTION BOOK TWO “THE KOREAN WAR”
Posted on October 4, 2010 by iwansuwandy

*ill 001

CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

Palestina Book 1938

Ababa-Jerusalem-Cairo

AdisAbaba-Cairo

Marakecch-AddisAbaba

Madrid-Marrakech

PalestineWar Map

Jerusalem at night

Jerusalem morning

Jerusalem Picture

Jerusalem Map

Jerusalem Map

Jerusalem city

Jaffa city

Islamic Jerusalem

Hulda

Jews Colonies

Talpiot Tomb

Aim Harod

Cave Tel Aviv

Palestine Post Jerusalem

Mufti Jerusalem

King Ibn Saud

Balfour declaretion

Mr Balfour

British Indian soldier

British Australian Troops

Vintage Hebron picture

Jews Independent Proclamation

The Value Of Modern Russia Coins

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                     

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

 

The Value Orf Russia Modern Coin

1.2002 mintage   5.0000.0000  UNC US$ 3.00

2.2002 sp mintage 5.000.000. UNC US$3.00

3.2003 Sp mintage 5.000.000 UNC US$ 3.00

4.2004 Mintage 5.000.000 UNC US#3.00

Head  side

Ring Composituion Brass center center compositionCooper-nicvkel

Tails Side

1.2002 city arms above walled city view.

2.2002 sp Cityarm and cathedral

3.2003 ap crown doubled headed  aegle with round breast shield

4.2004sp coat of arm aboved  walled city

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Rare Dragon Handle Yuan Qingbay Ewer found In Indonesia

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                     

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

THE RARE DRAGON HANDLE YUAN QINGBAY EWER FOUND IN INDONESIA

I HAVE FOUND IN iNDONESIA THE RARE DRAGON HANDLE YUAN QINGB AY EWER, THE BODY  AND HANDLE FROM ACEH. THE SPOUT AND COVER FROM WEST BORNEO(Dr Iwan Note)

 

THE REFERENCES FROM SHOTEBY

HK0371_39_lr_1

HK0371_39_lr_2

A rare Qingbai Ewer and Cover. Yuan Dynasty. Photo Sotheby’s

well potted, the pear-shaped body rising to a tall flared neck, supported on a splayed foot with a prominent flange, the body set with a slender curved spout issuing from the mouth of a dragon, connected to the body by an elaborate S-shaped bridge, set opposite with a curved handle formed by the scaly body of a fish-dragon with the opened mouth swallowing the top of the handle, its mane forming a small loop for attaching the cover, its tail fanning out into a large trefoil motif applied in relief, the body decorated on either side with a phoenix in flight with upturned scrolling tail and a cloud motif, cut from thin sheets of clay and applied with incised details, above a band of upright lappets containing ruyi heads, the neck collared by a key-fret band of pearl strings and slip-painted upright petal lappets containing scroll motifs, all beneath an icy blue-green transparent glaze, fitted with a stepped domed cover and a small eyelet for attachment to the ewer, surmounted by a seated lion delicately modelled with a thick beard, long mane, and bushy tail bent to one side, its left foreleg resting on a ball with thin freely modelled ribbons and a bell tied around its neck, overall 34 cm., 13 3/8 in. Estimate 1,200,000—1,500,000 HKD. Lot Sold  4,220,000 HKD

THIS THE SAMPLE OF CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH FULL ILLSUTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMEBR.PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Rare Antique Picture CD

Created by Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

 Copyright@ 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introductions

Paul fraser have sent me the information about rare art photography collections

About Us

5 unique items not to be missed…

Photography is perhaps the most important art form of the 20th century.

Like no other, it transformed the way we see the world around us and captured the immediacy of modern life.

Today photography is growing quickly into what Christie’s has described as a “highly competitive” market.

Now recognised by galleries and major auction houses around the world, photography prices are increasing as both traditional art collectors and dedicated photography collectors battle it out for the most important and iconic works.

This effect can be clearly seen in auction results from the past 12 months:

In June 2011,

the only known photograph of the infamous outlaw Billy the Kid smashed its estimate of $300,000 to sell for an amazing $2.3 million.

 

Read more info

William Koch buys portrait of Billy the Kid for $2.3

A member of the infamous modern gangster Koch family, William Koch, has purchased the only known photograph of wild west gangster Billy the Kid.

I would say there’s a certain symmetry here but that would be redundant.

 

 

In November 2011,

 

 Andreas Gursky’s image ‘Rhein II’ became the world’s most expensive photograph when it sold for a World record price of $4.33 million. It was the second time the record had been broken in the space of just six months.

he Riouw archiphelago History collections

THIS TH4E SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUMMMEMBER

The Riau Archiphelago

Postal History and Related Collections

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition E-Book In CD Rom Edition

Copyright@2012

 

 

Forward

Until this day not many Indonesian scholar made study of the Riouw Archiphelago,especially the Postal History.

I am starting to collected the postal history of Riouw Arciphelago almost 50 years and the basic RIOUW overprint stamps which issued during 1960-11970  co0mplete,also the postmark from all area near complete.

The ealiest postmark during Colonial time very difficult ot founf,I have the earliest RIOUW postmark date  17.3.1901,

After made stuidy ,Ihave found more informations , many early Riauw archiphelaho manuscript bought by Malaysian beacaus emany related with the Malay kingdom in that country.

I  understand that this study still lack many 9nformations,that is why I hope corrections and added info from the scholar and another reader.

The Last Princess Deokhye Of Korea Art Photography

 

 

THE LAST PRINCESS DEOKHYE OF KOREA

ART PHOTOGRAPHY COLLECTIONS

 

CREATED BY

 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM

Copyright@2012

THIS THE SAMPLE OF CD_ROM,THE COMPLETE INFO EXIST,BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

THE  LAST KOREA ‘S EMPEROR

1852

EMPEROR GOJONG

Gojong and the Korean Empire

26th king of the Joseon Dynasty, King Gojong,

moved into the palace in 1897,

where he proclaimed the Great Korean Empire in an effort to assert the nation’s independence from China, Japan, and Russia. However, rather than actually strengthening the nation’s military, Emperor Gojong (1852-1919) would instead spend much of his time and energy renovating and expanding this palace.

He resided here until abdication to his son, Emperor Sunjong, in 1907, when the palace was renamed Doeksugung. When the Japanese occupation began in 1910, Emperor Gojong was placed under house arrest in Doeksugung, where he eventually died in 1919.

Emperor Gwangmu

We go back four generations because the demise of Korea’s royal family arguably starts in 1907. While Korea officially disappeared in 1910, in practicality Korea lost is sovereignty in 1905, when the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905 was entered into. Under the treaty, Korea became Japan’s “protectorate,” and lost the ability to conduct its own foreign affairs. A governor from Japan was sent to Korea to conduct Korea’s foreign affairs instead. It goes without saying that the treaty was not entered into in a fair manner — dozens of armed Japanese soldiers were staring down the emperor and the officials when the treaty was signed.

 
Emperor Gwangmu

Emperor Gwangmu (also known as Gojong) of Korea could plainly see where this was going. Although the 1905 Treaty stripped his ability to conduct foreign affairs, the emperor sent secret envoys to 17 major powers, including United Kingdom, France and Germany, to protest the forcible signing of the 1905 Treaty. The highlight of this effort was in 1907, when three Korean envoys were sent to the Second International Peace Convention at the Hague. Although Japan froze out the envoys from attending the convention, Yi Wi-Jong, one of the three envoys, managed to give a speech imploring for help in a separate conference. (The speech fell on deaf ears.)

The three secret envoys to the Hague: 
Yi Sang-Seol, Yi Joon, Yi Wi-Jong

Although the emperor’s efforts did not create any result, Imperial Japan did not take kindly to Emperor Gwangmu’s extracurricular activity, and demanded that he abdicate his throne. The emperor acquiesced, giving way to his son, Emperor Yunghui (also known as Soonjong) — who would become the last emperor of Korean Empire.  Former Emperor Gwangmu died in 1919. Although this is not certain, there are ample indications that he was poisoned.

More after the jump.

Got a question or a comment for the Korean? Email away ataskakorean@gmail.com.


Second Generation:  Emperor Yunghui, King Euichin, King Yeongchin, Princess Deokhye

Emperor Gwangmu had 13 children, but only four survived into adulthood — three sons and a daughter. And they were survivors in the truest sense. Even as the empire was in precipitous decline, the palace intrigue did not stop. Emperor Gwangmu’s oldest son, born from his third wife, is rumored to have been poisoned by Empress Myeongseong, the emperor’s main wife. The second son, born from Empress Myeongseong, died young. The Emperor’s father may have poisoned him. The crown prince — the third son who would become Emperor Yunghui– was also poisoned in his youth, but barely survived. It was rumored that because of the lingering effects of the poisoning, the crown prince did not have full mental capacity.

 
The last royal family. From the left: King Euichin, Emperor Yunghui, 
King Yeongchin, Emperor Gwangmu, with Princess Deokhye in front

In 1910, Emperor Yunghui signed over his empire to Imperial Japan, ending the 600-year dynasty headed by his family. Emperor Yunghui was demoted to a king, subordinate to the Japanese emperor. Korea’s royal family as a whole became Japanese nobility. The policy of Imperial Japan toward Korea’s royal family was clear: the royal family will be either assimilated or killed. The first to go was the Emperor Gwangmu, as described above. Emperor Yunghui did not last much longer — he died in 1926, at age 53.

Perhaps the most interesting figure in this drama is Yi Gang (also known as King Euichin,) second surviving son of Gwangmu. Yi Gang studied in Roanoke College in Virginia and was an officer of Korean imperial military when his older brother signed over the empire. Yi Gang silently assisted Korea’s independence movement, signing petitions and sending funds to support Korean independence fighters and schools. He attempted to flee Korea and join the provisional government in Shanghai, but was arrested in the process and lost his nobility status. Since then, he evaded Imperial Japan’s surveillance by engaging in profuse boozing and whoring while continuing to support the independence movement. During the course of his independence movement, he expressed that he would abdicate his royal status and submit to the rule of the democratic government. He led a quiet life after the independence, and died in 1955 at age 79.

Emperor Yunghui died without a son, and King Euichin was not favored by the Japanese because of his involvement in Korea’s independence movement. Therefore, Gwangmu’s youngest surviving son, King Yeongchin, succeeded the throne. Yi Eun, also known as King Yeongchin, was born in 1897. At age ten, he was taken to Japan to “study” under the patronage of the Japanese governor of Korea — essentially being held as a hostage. As the contemporary Japanese nobility did, Yi Eun was forced to attend the military academy. He became an officer of the Japanese military, and was forced to married Nashimotonomiya Masako, a member of the Japanese royal family. He became the king of Korea after his father died in 1926, but only visited Korea briefly to accept the crown. He became a general of the Japanese army in 1938. He would see the end of World War II in Japan.

 
Young Yi Eun with his Japanese “patron,”
Governor-General Ito Hirobumi
 
After the war, Yi Eun lost his nobility status, which pushed his family into dire poverty. He would scrape by with the financial help from the very few remaining Korean royalists. His wife also had to work, notwithstanding her royal family status. He attempted to return to Korea, but was rebuffed — that he served in the Japanese military and married a Japanese royal family did not play well with the newly established Korean government. He suffered a stroke in 1961 in Hawaii while visiting his son; he was allowed to return to Korea in 1963, and lived in the Changdeok Palace with his aunt. He passed away in 1970.
 
It is a cruel irony of history that the only person who came out of this drama with a shred of dignity was Yi Eun’s wife, Masako. After returning to Korea in 1963, she changed her name to a Korean-style name Yi Bang-Ja and focused her energy on charity work, establishing schools for children with disabilities despite living off the meager government pension. She received numerous medals and awards for her volunteer work. She passed away in 1989.

Princess Deokhye, Gwangmu’s youngest daughter who was born in 1912, is probably the most tragic figure. She was forcibly moved to Japan and attended a university, where she developed schizophrenia. In 1931, she married a Japanese nobleman in an arranged marriage, and had a daughter. She survived the war, but lost her only daughter in the process. She was abandoned by her husband in 1953 as her schizophrenia worsened. For the next nine years, she would go from mental hospital to mental hospital in Japan. Korean government heard about her in 1962. and President Park Chung-Hee passed the law providing for pension for the former royal family in response. Princess Deokhye returned to Korea, and lived in Changdeok Palace until 1989 when she passed away.

Third and Fourth Generations: Yi Gu and King Euichin’s 21 Children

Yi Eun and Masako had two sons, but the older son died at less than one year old. The last official crown prince of Korean royal family is Yi Gu, born in 1931. He had spent his entire life in Japan, and he worked as a clerk for a company in Tokyo after World War II. In 1953, he moved abroad to study in MIT, and met his future wife — a white American woman named Julia Murlock. Yi Gu married Murlock in 1959 in New York, and he worked for the architectural company of I.M. Pei.

He was also allowed to return to Korea in 1963, and lectured architecture in universities. But he could not adjust to the life in Korea. Although Korea was no longer a monarchy, the Jeonju Yi (Lee) lineage society took (and still takes) its royal family line very, very seriously. Yi Gu received pressure as a crown prince within his family, and that he married a white woman who could not get pregnant only intensified the pressure. Yi Gu separated from Murlock in 1977, and returned to Japan in 1979. He would visit Korea from time to time, but refused to settle down in Korea. He died alone in 2005 in a hotel in Tokyo; apparently Yi Gu favored the hotel because it overlooked his old birthplace. He was buried in a royal garb; his funeral was attended by the prime minister of Korea (equivalent to American vice president) and 1,000 people.

 
Yi Gu’s funeral
 

This means that the only surviving royal family in Korea are the descendants of King Euichin, the rebel prince. Remarkably, he had 12 sons and 9 daughters from 13 different women — as far as we know. Fate was not kind to them either. For example, Yi Geon, the oldest son of King Euichin, became a naturalized Japanese citizen in 1947 and severed his ties with Korea completely. Reportedly, before he naturalized, he brought all of his (step-)brothers and sisters together and asked them all to forget about the fact that they belong to the royal family. He died in 1991. Yi Wu, the second son, died in Hiroshima as the officer of the Japanese military when the city was hit by the nuclear bomb. The rest scattered into Korea and America, and led more or less unremarkable lives. Out of the 21 children of King Euichin, ten (four sons, six daughters) are still alive. They live in Korea, New York, Los Angeles and San Jose. After Yi Gu passed away, the Jeonju Yi lineage society established the son of King Euichin’s ninth son to be the crown prince — a man named Yi Sang-Hyup, 50 years old.

*                *               *
 
What do contemporary Koreans think about the royal family? Yi Gu’s death in 2005 served as a reminder to Korean people that Korea in fact had a royal family. This acted as a catalyst for the royal family fad in Korea. In a survey conducted in 2006, 54.4% was in favor of “restoring the royal family,” although no one in Korea is quite sure what that means. In a survey conducted in 2010, the number dropped significantly to 40.4% in favor, but still outpaced the 23.4% against. But it would be wise not to put too much stock in those numbers, because the restoration of the royal family is a pipe dream as of now. The numbers will likely change dramatically when people start thinking about the concrete details — for example, will the royal family have any kind of political power? Will they take back any part of their formerly vast property around the nation?

Dr Iwan CD-ROM”The Euro World War II In April 1945″

this is the sample  of Dr Iwan E-Book In Cd-Rom limited edition without illustrations, the complete info with illustrations and editing exist but only for Premiuum member,please subcribed via comment

 

The Euro world War II

In April 1945

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors Copyright@2012

April 45

 

April,1st

.1945

1945

Today German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, Japanese Emporer Hirohito, Russian Kommisar Joeseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt gathered in Berne Switzerland and agreed to call off World War Two. Sources close the the conferance speculate that an unannounced release of Oleg Maddox’s 4.0 Patch for Forgotten Battles/Aces Expansion Pack/Pacific Fighters was the primary reason for the unexpected turn of events in world history. In a post meeting press conference all participants claimed that the new patch made their counties respective aircraft superior to all others. Each was quoted as saying “I p’owned them all!”

More as the story develops.

 

1945 (Apr) cover and letter from ‘Pte HJ Pavey, RASC HQ, Force 135, APO England’ with d/r. FPO 836 p/m. and shield censor 10444 h/s. ‘Force 135’ located at Plymouth to liberate Jersey, Channel Islands May 1945.

£60.00

 

Soviet soldiers engaged in bitter street fighting to finish off the remnants of the German resistance in Vienna. April 1945

 

April,1st.1945

1945


In Italy…

 British Guards and Commando units attack over the River Reno between Lake Comachio and the sea

April,2nd.1945

1945 Air Mail cover from CHILE to ‘Sub Lieutenant Alastair Heffer, Volunteer Santiago de Chile, River Plate House, London’ [Undercover address – South American Volunteers with British Forces] and redirected to ‘LCI (L) 285, c/o GPO London’ with “Ship” in mss. [Landing Craft Infantry (Large)] Also PC 90 OBE 2585 label. Roughly opened

 

April,2nd.1945

 

1945
On the Western Front…

The British 2nd Army continues its advance north of the Ruhr River. Munster is taken. The Canadian 1st Army also begins to move north and east from between Nijmegen and Emmerich.

On the Eastern Front… In southeast Hungary, Magykanizsa falls to the Soviet advance while in Slovakia, Kremnica is captured.

2: Soviets launch Vienna Offensive against German forces in and around the Austrian capital city.

2nd

: German armies are surrounded in the Ruhr region.

April,3rd.1945


1945


On the Eastern Front…

In Austria,

the Soviet forces take

Wiener Neustadt. Almost all of Hungary is now clear of Axis troops while in Czechoslovakia

 

Bratislava is besieged

Postally used Cover from Bratislav in 1945

April,4th.1945

1945
On the Eastern Front…

Bratislava falls to troops of the Soviet 2nd Ukrainian Front.

On the Western Front…

British and Canadian units take

 

Osnabruck

and move on

Minden.

US 9th Army units have reached the river Weser opposite Hameln. Troops from US 3rd Army capture Kassel while other units take Gotha and advance near Erfurt. French units take Karlsruhe. The Nazi gold reserves are captured in the salt mine at Merkers

 

In Algiers… Free French leader, Charles de Gaulle, announces changes to the Committee of National Liberation. Two communists are appointed and de Gaulle is made head of the armed forces. General Giraud is being sidelined.

In Egypt… A Greek brigade mutinies under the leadership of Communists. British troops blockade the camp until April 24th. The Greeks kill 1 British officer.

In Occupied France… Members of the French resistance halt production at the Bronzavia aircraft components plant near Paris.

Over Romania… The Bucharest marshalling yards are bombed by heavily escorted bombers of the US 15th Air Force. A total of 20 aircraft are lost. Civilian casualties are reported to amount to 2942 killed and 2126 injured.

‘Unconscious humour’,

4 April 1945.

 

Photograph by Sergeant Travis, Army Film and Photographic Unit, World War Two, North West Europe, 1945.

Sergeant J. D. Eilbeck writes ‘No Way Out’ on a portrait of Adolf Hitler in order to provide a ‘no exit’ sign at 156th Brigade Headquarters. When this photograph was taken the brigade, part of 52nd (Lowland) Division, had just crossed the Rhine (24 March 1945) and was pushing on towards Bremen in the face of bitter German resistance.

From a collection of 23 official photographs

4: Bratislava, the capital of the Slovak Republic, is overrun by advancing Soviet forces. The remaining members of Prime MinisterJozef Tiso‘s pro-German government fled to Austria.

4: Ohrdruf death camp is liberated by the Allies.

5th

: Po Valley Campaign begins in northern Italy.

 

Ohrdruf sub-camp of Buchenwald

 

Colonel Hayden Sears poses with Ohrdruf survivors, April 8, 1945 

On April 4, 1945, American soldiers of the 4th Armored Division of General Patton’s US Third Army were moving through the area south of the city of Gotha in search of a secret Nazi communications center when they unexpectedly came across the ghastly scene of the abandoned Ohrdruf forced labor camp.

A few soldiers in the 354th Infantry Regiment of the 89th Infantry Division of the US Third Army reached the abandoned camp that same day, after being alerted by prisoners who had escaped from the march out of the camp, which had started on April 2nd. Prior to that, in September 1944, US troops had witnessed their first concentration camp: the abandoned Natzweiler camp in Alsace, which was then a part of the Greater German Reich, but is now in France.

Ohrdruf, also known as Ohrdruf-Nord, was the first Nazi prison camp to be discovered while it still had inmates living inside of it, although 9,000 prisoners had already been evacuated from Ohrdruf on April 2nd and marched 32 miles to the main camp at Buchenwald. According to the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, the camp had a population of 11,700 prisoners in late March, 1945 before the evacuation began.

The photograph at the top of this page, taken at Ohrdruf on April 8, 1945, shows survivors who had escaped during the evacuation of the camp, but came back after the American liberators arrived.

One of the American liberators who saw the Ohrdruf camp on April 4, 1945 was Bruce Nickols. He was on a patrol as a member of the I & R platoon attached to the Headquarters company of the 354th Infantry Regiment of the 89th Infantry Division, Third US Army. According to Nickols, there were survivors in the barracks who had hidden when the SS massacred 60 to 70 prisoners on the roll call square before they left the camp on April 2nd. The body of a dead SS soldier lay at the entrance to the camp, according to Nickols.

 

Dead prisoners at Ohrdruf forced labor camp 

In the photo above, the prisoners have been partially covered by blankets because their pants had been pulled down, an indication that these men might have been killed by their fellow prisoners after the Germens left. The first Americans on the scene said that the blood was still wet. The liberators all agreed that these prisoners had been shot, although some witnesses said that they had been shot in the neck, while others said that they had been mowed down by machine gun fire.

The American soldiers were told by Ohrdruf survivors that these prisoners had been shot by the SS on April 2nd because they had run out of trucks for transporting sick prisoners out of the camp, but there were sick prisoners still inside the barracks when the Americans arrived.

Among the soldiers who helped to liberate Ohrdruf was Charles T. Payne, who is Senator Barak Obama’s great uncle, the brother of his maternal grandmother. Charles T. Payne was a member of Company K, 355th Infantry Regiment, 89th Infantry Division.

According to an Associated Press story, published on June 4, 2009, Charles T. Payne’s unit arrived at the Ohrdruf camp on April 6, 1945.

The following is an excerpt from the Associated Press story:

“I remember the whole area before you got to the camp, the town and around the camp, was full of people who had been inmates,” Payne, 84, said in a telephone interview from his home in Chicago.

“The people were in terrible shape, dressed in rags, most of them emaciated, the effects of starvation. Practically skin and bones.”

When Payne’s unit arrived, the gates to the camp were open, the Nazis already gone.

“In the gate, in the very middle of the gate on the ground was a dead man whose head had been beaten in with a metal bar,” Payne recalled. The body was of a prisoner who had served as a guard under the Germans and been killed by other inmates that morning.

“A short distance inside the front gate was a place where almost a circle of people had been … killed and were lying on the ground, holding their tin cups, as if they had been expecting food and were instead killed,” he said. “You could see where the machine gun had been set up behind some bushes, but the Germans were all gone by that time.”

He said he only moved some 200-300 feet (60-100 meters) inside of the camp. But that was enough to capture images so horrible that Gen. George S. Patton Jr. ordered townspeople into Ohrdruf to see for themselves the crimes committed by their countrymen – an order that would repeated at Buchenwald, Dachau and other camps liberated by U.S. soldiers.

“In some sheds were stacks of bodies, stripped extremely – most of them looked like they had starved to death. They had sprinkled lime over them to keep the smell down and stacked them several high and the length of the room,” Payne said.

On April 11, 1945, just a week after the discovery of the Ohrdruf camp, American soldiers liberated the infamous Buchenwald main camp, which was to become synonymous with Nazi barbarity for a whole generation of Americans. Buchenwald is located 5 miles north of the city of Weimar, which is 20 miles to the east of Gotha, where General Dwight D. Eisenhower had set up his headquarters.

The Ohrdruf forced labor camp was a sub-camp of the huge Buchenwald camp. Ohrdruf had been opened in November 1944 when prisoners were brought from Buchenwald to work on the construction of a vast underground bunker to house a new Führer headquarters for Hitler and his henchmen. This location was in the vicinity of a secret Nazi communications center and it was also near an underground salt mine where the Nazis had stored their treasures.

A. C. Boyd was one of the soldiers in the 89th Infantry Division who witnessed the Ohrdruf “death camp.” In a recent news article, written by Jimmy Smothers, Boyd mentioned that he saw bodies of prisoners who had been gassed at Ohrdruf.

The following quote is from the news article in The Gadsden Times:

On April 7, 1945, the 89th Infantry Division received orders to move into the German town of Ohrdruf, which surrendered as the Americans arrived. A mile or so past this quaint village lay Stalag Nord Ohrdruf.

[…]

When regiments of the 89th Division got to the camp, the gates were open and the guards apparently all had gone, but the doors to the wooden barracks were closed. Lying on the ground in front were bodies of prisoners who recently had been shot.

“When I went into the camp I just happened to open the door to a small room,” recalled Boyd. “Inside, the Germans had stacked bodies very high. They had dumped some lime over them, hoping it would dissolve the bodies.

[…]

“I still have vivid memories of what I saw, but I try not to dwell on it,” Boyd continued. “We had been warned about what we might find, but actually seeing it was horrible. There were so many dead, and some so starved all they could do was gape open their mouths, feebly move their arms and murmur.

“There were ditches dug out in the compound and we could see torsos, lots of arms, severed legs, etc., sticking out. Many had been beaten to death, and bodies were still in the ‘beating shed’. Many had been led to the ‘showers,’ where they were pushed in, the doors locked and then gassed.”

One of the survivors of Ohrdruf was Rabbi Murray Kohn, who was then 16 years old. He was marched from Ohrdruf on April 2nd to the main camp at Buchenwald and then evacuated by train to Theresienstadt in what is now the Czech Republic.

The following quote is from a speech that Rabbi Kohn made on April 23, 1995 at Wichita, Kansas, at a gathering of the soldiers of the 89th Division for the 50ieth anniversary of the liberation of the camps:

It has been recorded that in Ohrdruf itself the last days were a slaughterhouse. We were shot at, beaten and molested. At every turn went on the destruction of the remaining inmates. Indiscriminant criminal behavior (like the murderers of Oklahoma City some days ago). Some days before the first Americans appeared at the gates of Ohrdruf, the last retreating Nazi guards managed to execute with hand pistols, literally emptying their last bullets on whomever they encountered leaving them bleeding to death as testified by an American of the 37th Tank Battalion Medical section, 10 a.m. April 4, 1945.

Today I’m privileged thanks to God and you gallant fighting men. I’m here to reminisce, and reflect, and experience instant recollections of those moments. Those horrible scenes and that special instance when an Allied soldier outstretched his arm to help me up became my re-entrance, my being re-invited into humanity and restoring my inalienable right to a dignified existence as a human being and as a Jew. Something, which was denied me from September 1939 to the day of liberation in 1945. I had no right to live and survived, out of 80 members of my family, the infernal ordeal of Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Ohrdruf, and its satellite camp Crawinkel and finally Theresienstadt Ghetto-Concentration Camp.

I must tell you something about Crawinkel, just outside Ohrdruf. It was recently discovered after the reunification of east and West Germany that in nearby Crawinkel, the Nazis were preparing the Führerbunker, the final headquarters of Hitler from where he planned to strike a deal with the Americans to join in fighting the Red Army. We worked around the clock, the project was known as the Olga Project. We were excavating inside the hills a bunker. Ten thousand people died there and it was completed with rivers of blood right down to the cutlery to embellish Hitler’s table.

When in Auschwitz my eyes witnessed the gassed transports of Jews at the Birkenau Crematories. My own eyes have witnessed Buchenwald terror and planned starvation. My body was decimated, starved and thrashed to the point of no return in Ohrdruf for stealing a piece of a potato, and my flickering life was daily, and hourly on the brink of being snuffed out from starvation or being clubbed for no reason or literally being pushed off a steep cliff over a yawning ravine at Crawinkel.

[….]

The war was intrinsically a war against the shallowness of a civilization which had evidently so little moral depth, a nation which can acquiesce in such a short time to the demagoguery of a “corporal” and accept the manifesto of racial superiority, entitled to destroy their supposed inferior enemies, as a moral right. World War II was by far not a testing ground of arms or strategic skills and sophistication, but A MORAL WAR, which declared that human rights, freedom and the equality of all men and women are the highest divine commandment, the supreme commandment to deny the Nazi racists and their cohorts any victory. My friends, many of your comrades (a half million Americans lost their lives to declare eternal war against inhumanity). Six million innocent Jews, five million Christians and some 27 million plus, lost their lives to secure finally that humanity is never to rest until crimes against humans have been eradicated.

The American military knew about the Nazi forced labor camps and concentration camps because Allied planes had done aerial photographs of numerous factories near the camps in both Germany and Poland, and many of these camps, including Buchenwald, had been bombed, killing thousands of innocent prisoners. In fact, General George S. Patton bragged in his autobiography about the precision bombing of a munitions factory near the Buchenwald concentration camp on August 24, 1944 which he erroneously claimed had not damaged the nearby camp. Not only was the camp hit by the bombs, there were 400 prisoners who were killed, along with 350 Germans.

On Easter weekend in April 1945, the 90th Infantry Division overran the little town of Merkers, which was near the Ohrdruf camp, and captured the Kaiseroda salt mine.

Hidden deep inside the salt mine was virtually the entire gold and currency reserves of the German Reichsbank, together with all of the priceless art treasures which had been removed from Berlin’s museums for protection against Allied bombing raids and possible capture by the Allied armies. According to the US Holocaust Memorial Museum web site, the soldiers also found important documents that were introduced at the Nuremberg IMT as evidence of the Holocaust.

All of America’s top military leaders in Europe, including Generals Eisenhower, Bradley and Patton, visited the mine and viewed the treasure.

The photo below shows General Dwight D. Eisenhower as he examines some paintings stored inside the Kaiseroda salt mine, which he visited on April 12, 1945, along with General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton, and other high-ranking American Army officers before going to see the Ohrdruf camp. The Nazis had hidden valuable paintings and 250 million dollars worth of gold bars inside the salt mine.

 

General Eisenhower on visit to salt mine near Ohrdruf 

 

General Dwight D. Eisenhower examines Nazi treasure in salt mine 

The soldier on the far left is Benjamin B. Ferencz. In the center is General Eisenhower and behind him, wearing a helmet with four stars is General Omar Bradley. In 1945, Ferencz was transferred from General Patton’s army to the newly created War Crimes Branch of the U.S. Army, where his job was to gather evidence for future trials of German war criminals. A Jew from Transylvania, Ferencz had moved with his family to America at the age of 10 months.

General Patton, left, and General Bradley, center, at Ohrdruf, 12 April 1945 

On the same day that the Generals visited the salt mine, they made a side trip to the Ohrdruf forced labor camp after lunch. The photo above was taken at Ohrdruf. Except for General Patton, who visited Buchenwald on April 15, 1945, none of the top American Army Generals ever visited another forced labor camp, nor any of the concentration camps.

One of the first Americans to see Ohrdruf, a few days before the Generals arrived, was Captain Alois Liethen from Appleton, WI. Liethen was an interpreter and an interrogator in the XX Corp, G-2 Section of the US Third Army. On 13 April 1945, he wrote a letter home to his family about this important discovery at Ohrdruf. Although Buchenwald was more important and had more evidence of Nazi atrocities, it was due to the information uncovered by Captain Liethen that the generals visited Ohrdruf instead.

The following is a quote from his letter in which Captain Alois Liethen explains how the visit by the generals, shown in the photo above, came about:

Several days ago I heard about the American forces taking a real honest to goodness concentration camp and I made it a point to get there and see the thing first hand as well as to investigate the thing and get the real story just as I did in the case of the Prisoner of War camp which I described in my last letter. This camp was near the little city of OHRDRUF not far from GOTHA, and tho it was just a small place — about 7 to 10000 inmates it was considered as one of the better types of such camps. After looking the place over for nearly a whole day I came back and made an oral report to my commanding general — rather I was ordered to do so by my boss, the Col. in my section. Then after I had told him all about the place he got in touch with the High Command and told them about it and the following tale bears out what they did about it.

The photograph below was contributed by Mary Liethen Meier, the niece of Captain Liethen. The man standing next to General Eisenhower, and pointing to the prisoner demonstrating how the inmates were punished at Ohrdruf, is Alois Liethen, her uncle. Left to right, the men in the front row are Lt. General George S. Patton, Third U.S. Army Commander; General Omar N. Bradley, Twelfth Army group commander; and General Dwight D. Eisenhower, Supreme Allied Commander. This photo was published in an American newspaper above a headline which read: U.S. GENERALS SEE A “TORTURE” DEMONSTRATION

 

Generals watch a demonstration of the whipping block 

In the photo above, an ordinary wooden table is being used to demonstrate punishment on a whipping block. By order of Reichsführer Heinrich Himmler, whipping prisoners on a wooden block was discontinued in 1942, so no whipping block was found at Ohrdruf.

The first photo below shows another demonstration at Ohrdruf on a reconstructed wooden whipping block. The second photo below shows the whipping block that was found at Natzweiler by American troops in September 1944.

 

Ohrdruf survivors demonstrate the whipping block for the Americans 

Whipping block used at Natzweiler 

All punishments in the concentration camps had to be approved by the head office in Oranienburg where Rudolf Hoess became a member of the staff after he was removed as the Commandant of Auschwitz at the end of December 1943. According to the testimony of Rudolf Hoess on April 15, 1946 at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal, this punishment was rarely used and it was discontinued in 1942 because Heinrich Himmler, the head of the concentration camp system, had forbidden the SS guards to strike the prisoners. Some of the prisoners at Ohrdruf, who had previously been at the Buchenwald main camp for a number of years, were familiar with this punishment device and were able to reconstruct it.

Captain Liethen’s letter, dated 13 April 1945, continues as follows:

Yesterday I had the honor of being the interpreter for such honorable gentlemen as Gen EISENHOWER, Gen BRADLEY, Gen PATTON and several lesser general officers, all in all there were 21 stars present, Eisenhower with 5, Bradley with 4, Patton 3, my own commanding general with 2 and there were several others of this grade as well as several one star generals. Since I had made the investigation with some of the men who had escaped from the place the day that we captured it I was more or less the conductor of the tour for this famous party. There were batteries of cameras that took pictures of us as we went about the whole place and as I made several demonstrations for them — hell I felt like Garbo getting of (sic) a train in Chicago.

Now about this concentration camp. It was evacuated by the germans when things got too hot for them, this was on the night of April 2. All the healthy ones were marched away in the night, and those who were sick were loaded into trucks and wagons, and then when there was no more transportation available the remainder — about 35 were shot as they lay here waiting for something to come to take them away. Too, in another building there were about 40 dead ones which they did not have the time to bury in their hasty departure.

One of the survivors of Ohrdruf was Andrew Rosner, a Jewish prisoner who had escaped from the march out of the camp and was rescued by soldiers of the 89th Division in the town of Ohrdruf.

The following is a quote from Andrew Rosner on the occasion of a 50ieth anniversary celebration of the liberation of the camp, held on 23 April 1995 at Wichita, Kansas:

At the age of 23, I was barely alive as we began the death march eastward. All around me, I heard the sound of thunder – really the sound of heavy artillery and machinery. I looked for any opportunity to drop out of the march. But, any man who fell behind or to the side was shot instantly by the Nazis. So, I marched on in my delirium and as night fell, I threw myself off into the side of the road and into a clump of trees. I lay there — waiting — and waiting — and suddenly nothing! No more Nazis shouting orders. No more marching feet. No more people. Alone. All alone and alive — although barely.

I moved farther into the woods when I realized I was not really left behind. I slept for awhile as the darkness of night shielded me from the eyes of men. But, as the light of dawn broke, I heard shooting all around me. I played dead as men ran over me, stumbling over me as they went. I lay there as bullets passed by me and Nazis fell all around me. Then all was quiet. The battle was over. I waited for hours before I dared to move. I got up and saw dead German soldiers laying everywhere. I made my way back toward the road and started walking in the direction of a small village, which I could see in the distance. As I approached the village two Germans appeared. One raised his gun toward me and asked what I was doing there. I told him I was lost from the evacuation march. He told me that I must have escaped and I knew he was about to shoot me when the other German told him to let me be. It would not serve them well to harm me now. They allowed me to walk away and as I did, I said a final prayer knowing that a bullet in the back would now find me for sure. It never did!

In the small village I was told to go farther down the road to the town of Ohrdruf from where I had come three days before. There, I would find the Americans. And so I did.

As I entered the outskirts of the town of Ohrdruf two American soldiers met me and escorted me into town. I was immediately surrounded by Americans and as their officers questioned where I had been and what had happened to me, GIs were showering me with food and chocolate and other treats that I had not known for almost five years.

You were all so kind and so compassionate. But, my years in the camps, my weakened state of health, the forced death march, and my escape to freedom was more than a human body could bear any longer and I collapsed into the arms of you, my rescuing angels.

When the generals and their entourage toured the Ohrdruf-Nord camp on April 12th, the dead bodies on the roll-call square had been left outside to decompose in the sun and the rain for more than a week. The stench of the rotting corpses had now reached the point that General Patton, a battle-hardened veteran of 40 years of warfare, the leader of the American Third Army which had won the bloody Battle of the Bulge, and an experienced soldier who had seen the atrocities of two World Wars, threw up his lunch behind one of the barracks.

The photo below shows the naked bodies of prisoners in a shed at Ohrdruf where their bodies had been layered with lime to keep down the smell.

 

Corpses sprinkled with lime in shed at Ohrdruf-Nord camp 

General Eisenhower was not as easily sickened by the smell of the dead bodies. Although he didn’t mention the name Ohrdruf in his book entitled “Crusade in Europe,” Eisenhower wrote the following about the Ohrdruf camp:

I visited every nook and cranny of the camp because I felt it my duty to be in a position from then on to testify at first hand about these things in case there ever grew up at home the belief or assumption that ‘the stories of Nazi brutality were just propaganda.’ Some members of the visiting party were unable to go through with the ordeal. I not only did so but as soon as I returned to Patton’s headquarters that evening I sent communications to both Washington and London, urging the two governments to send instantly to Germany a random group of newspaper editors and representative groups from the national legislatures. I felt that the evidence should be immediately placed before the American and British publics in a fashion that would leave no room for cynical doubt.

General Patton wrote in his memoirs that he learned from the surviving inmates that 3,000 prisoners had died in the camp since January 1, 1945. A few dozen bodies on a pyre, constructed out of railroad tracks, had recently been burned and their gruesome remains were still on display. According to General Patton, the bodies had been buried, but were later dug up and burned because “the Germans thought it expedient to remove the evidence of their crimes.” But after all that effort to cover up their crimes, the SS guards had allegedly shot sick prisoners when they ran short of transportation to move them out of the camp, and had left the bodies as evidence.

The first news reel film about alleged German war-time atrocities, that was shown in American movie theaters, referred to the Ohrdruf labor camp as a “murder mill.” Burned corpses were shown as the narrator of the film asked rhetorically “How many were burned alive?” The narrator described “the murder shed” at Ohrdruf where prisoners were “slain in cold blood.” Lest anyone should be inclined to assume that this news reel was sheer propaganda, the narrator prophetically intoned: “For the first time, America can believe what they thought was impossible propaganda. This is documentary evidence of sheer mass murder – murder that will blacken the name of Germany for the rest of recorded history.”

The documentary film about all the camps, directed by famed Hollywood director George Stevens, which was shown on November 29, 1945 at the Nuremberg International Military Tribunal, claimed that the Germans “starved, clubbed, and burned to death more than 4,000 political prisoners over a period of 8 months” at Ohrdruf-Nord. These atrocities allegedly took place while the Nazis were desperately trying to finish building a secret underground hideout for Hitler who was holed up in Berlin.

 

Ohrdruf-Nord survivor shows shallow grave to Generals 

In the photo above, the soldier on the far right, holding a notepad in his hand, is Benjamin B. Ferencz, who was at Ohrdruf to gather evidence of Nazi atrocities for future war crimes trials.

Five years after seeing the Ohrdruf camp, General Bradley recalled that “The smell of death overwhelmed us even before we passed through the stockade. More than 3,200 naked, emaciated bodies had been flung into shallow graves. Others lay in the streets where they had fallen. Lice crawled over the yellowed skin of their sharp, bony frames.” The presence of lice in the camp indicates that there was probably an epidemic of typhus, which is spread by lice.

In his letter to his family, written 13 April 1945, Alois Liethen wrote the following regarding the burial pit:

Then, about 2 kilometers from the enclosure was the ‘pit’ where the germans had buried 3200 since December when this camp opened. About 3 weeks ago the commandant of the camp was ordered to destroy all of the evidence of the mass killings in this place and he sent several hundred of these inmates out on the detail to exhume these bodies and have them burned. However, there wasn’t time enough to burn all of the 3200 and only 1606 were actually burned and the balance were still buried under a light film of dirt. I know that all of this may seem gruesome to you, it was to me too, and some of you may think that I may have become warped of mind in hatred, well, every single thing that I stated here and to the generals yesterday are carefully recorded in 16 pictures which I took with my camera at the place itself.

Both General George S. Patton and General Dwight D. Eisenhower referred to the Ohrdruf-Nord camp as a “horror camp” in their wartime memoirs. Eisenhower wrote the following in his book, “Crusade in Europe” about April 12, 1945, the day he visited the salt mines that held the Nazi treasures:

The same day, I saw my first horror camp. It was near the town of Gotha. I have never felt able to describe my emotional reactions when I first came face to face with indisputable evidence of Nazi brutality and ruthless disregard of every shred of decency. Up to that time I had known about it only generally or through secondary sources. I am certain, however that I have never at any other time experienced an equal sense of shock.

Eisenhower did not take the time to visit the main camp at Buchenwald, which was in the immediate area and had been discovered by the American army just the day before.

The Ohrdruf camp did not have a crematorium to burn the bodies. Instead, the bodies were at first taken to Buchenwald for burning, but as the death rate climbed, the bodies were buried about a mile from the camp. During the last days before the camp was liberated, bodies were being burned on a pyre made from railroad tracks. The rails were readily available because the underground bunker that was being built by the Ohrdruf prisoners featured a railroad where a whole train could be hidden underground.

In the photo below, the man on the far right wearing a dark jacket is a Dutch survivor of the camp who served as a guide for the American generals on their visit. The second man from the right is Captain Alois Liethen, who is interpreting for General Bradley to his left and General Eisenhower in the center of the photo. The man to the left of General Eisenhower is Benjamin B. Ferencz, who is taking notes. On the far left is one of the survivors of Ohrdruf.

Gen. Eisenhower views burned bodies, April 12, 1945 

NI HANYA ILUSTRASI TANPA SAMPLEW, THE COMPLETE e-book di cd-rom ADA, TAPI HANYA UNTUK ANGGOTA PREMIUM, HARAP COMMENT VIA berlangganan.

Het Paleis het interieur van van de Gouverneur-Generaal di Nederlands Indië-di Buitenzorg

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda
 

Daftar Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda dan tahun-tahun pelayanan mereka

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda mewakili pemerintahan Belanda di Hindia Belanda antara 1610 dan pengakuan Belanda kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1949.

Yang pertama Gubernur-Jenderal yang diangkat oleh Belanda East India Company (VOC). Setelah VOC resmi dibubarkan pada tahun 1800, [1] harta teritorial VOC dinasionalisasi di bawah Pemerintah Belanda sebagai Hindia Belanda, sebuah koloni Belanda. Gubernur-Jenderal ditunjuk oleh pemerintah Belanda.

Di bawah kendali Inggris periode (1811-1816), posisi setara adalah Letnan-Gubernur, di antaranya yang paling terkenal adalah Thomas Stamford Raffles. Antara 1942 dan 1945, sementara Hubertus Johannes van Mook nominal Gubernur Jenderal, daerah itu di bawah kontrol Jepang, dan diatur oleh urutan dua gubernur, di Jawa dan Sumatera. Setelah 1948 dalam negosiasi untuk kemerdekaan, posisi setara bernama Komisaris Tinggi Mahkota di Hindia Belanda.

Daftar Gubernur Jenderal
Perusahaan India Timur Belanda
 

Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda (1610-1709)

1610-1614: Pieter Both


Pieter Both
Artikel ini adalah tentang yang pertama Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda. Untuk gunung bernama setelah dia, melihat Pieter Both (gunung).

Pieter Both
 
  
Potret Pieter Both
 
1 Gubernur-Jenderal Hindia Belanda
 
Di kantor
19 Desember 1610 – 6 November 1614
 
Didahului oleh
 Tidak ada
 
Digantikan oleh
 Gerard Reynst
 
Pribadi rincian
 
Lahir
 1568
Amersfoort, Belanda Republik
 
Meninggal
 6 Maret 1615
Samudera Hindia (dekat Mauritius)
 

Pieter Both (1568, Amersfoort – 6 Maret 1615, Mauritius) adalah Gubernur Jenderal-pertama dari Hindia Belanda.

Tidak banyak yang diketahui dari awal tahun. Pada 1599, Keduanya sudah menjadi admiral di Perusahaan Baru, atau Brabant. Pada tahun itu, ia melakukan perjalanan ke Hindia Timur dengan empat kapal. Ketika Belanda baru didirikan East India Company membentuk pemerintah untuk Hindia Belanda, Pieter Both diundang untuk menjadi Gubernur Jenderal. Dia memegang posisi itu dari 19 Desember 1610 to 6 November 1614. Selama periode itu ia menyimpulkan kontrak dengan Maluku, menaklukkan Timor, dan mengusir Spanyol dari Tidore.

Setelah ia melepaskan jabatannya sebagai Gubernur Jenderal Gerard Reynst, ia berangkat ke Belanda dengan empat kapal. Dua kapal itu terdampar dekat Mauritius, dan Pieter Keduanya tenggelam.

Gunung tertinggi kedua Mauritius bernama Pieter Both setelah dia.

 

1614-1615: Gerard Reynst


Gerard Reynst
 

 

Potret Gerard Reynst

Gerard Reynst (Amsterdam, -? Jakarta, 7 Desember 1615) adalah seorang saudagar Belanda, ayah dari seorang kurator museum, dan kemudian yang kedua Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda.

The Driwan’s Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION & WAR 1945-1950

Based On Dr Iwan Postal And Document Collection

CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

Limited edition 100 expls

Private Publication Special for Collectors member

Jakarta,2012

  DNHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Natural History  Cybermuseum)

SHOWCASE :

 

The Indonesian Natural History cybermuseum 

(Museum dunia Maya Sejarah  Alam semesta Indonesia )

 Frame One :

The Indonesian Butterflies Collections

( Dr Iwan collections)

THE RARE BUTTERFLIES COLLECTIONS

                                      

____________________________________________________________________
INTRODUCTION

I write this e-book special for the Butterflies collector all over the world, free e-book, I hope many collectors from Indonesia will contact me and send his rare collections to add my informations especially from Molucca ternate area and Papua ,also Borneo Sarawak, because this time nor many collectors exist, only some who protect the rare butterflies , I have only 5 years collecting butterflies after that Iam very busy with my job and never collecting anymore. Please look some photos realted with my butterflies collections:

a.My profile during catching the Butterflies in West Sumatra 1975

                        
b.My Son Albert SDO with the collections at Solok city West Sumatra in 1977.

                           

c.THE VERY RARE NEVER REPORT BUTTERFLY I HAVE CATCHED AT WEST SUMATRA, BECAUSE NO NAME, I GIFT THE ENTHOMLOGY NAME OF THE BRUTTERFLIE BELOW :
TROIDES   WHITE  HEAD  IWANENSIS

                          

CHAPTER ONE:.Dr IWAN S ADVENTURED TO CATCH THE BUTTERFLIES

1.Between 1975-1979 during my job at Solok city,every sunday I with all my family visit my father and mother in law at Padang Panjang. After my two sons playing with Tok In -my mother in law housekeeping, I and my wife Lily take a sport at the beautiful Anai Valley because my father in law have a restaurant there and
I saw a Japaneseman catcher the butterflies there with mthern net and he told me that in that place there were some very rare butterflies, and I made the traditinal catcher from Bamboo and ring from copper wire with the net from gordijn
(look at the picture of Anei valley with my father in law profile and his restaurant)
a.THE RESTAURANT AND ANAI WATERFALL VINTAGE PHOTO 1976

                              
b. THE RESTAURANT WITH NATIVE MINANGKABAU (BULL HORN ) TOP VINTAGE PHOTO 1976

                           

C.The location where I catch Butterflies in 1975,now forbidden because the protect area(cagar Alam)

                                 

2. After four years , I have catched some veryrare butterflies and I made the photos and conservated that butterflies but in 10 years all the collections were broken because not god weather and conservations,but the informations picture still keep until now and we will compare with the veryrare butterflies collections of Mr W.A. Fleming in his vintage Book Butterflies of West Malaysia and Singapore ,the same area with West Sumatra.Thisbook I bought at Michaels Bookshp,22 rchad Road,Cold Strage Shopping Centre Singapore during visit that city in 1974, I THINK THIS SHOP DIDNOT EXIST ANYMORE.Please collectors comment..
After 1979, forbidden to catched the butterflies in that area because protect by law at the restricted area until now.
Very fresh and healthy air and wheater there made me very happy ,and take a delicious native Minangkabau Rice Chicken randang which I still remember until now,this time the restaurant have sold after my father and mther in law were pass away.
During the last bigger eartquaked in 2009 these area still in good situation not broken.

3. During my Job tour area in South Celebes between 1995-1996 ,one of my junior officer ,the native celebes, bring me to Butterflies conservations at Bantimurung Waterfalls, and he bought for me as a present some rare butterflies which still intact in my collections, we will compare with the picture in vintage Protected Butterflies In Indonesia Books 1990.
Many of very rare South celebes and Papua I have found at Bantimurung ,very difficult to found now, I keep with best conservations which made the collections still intact.please look the picture of Bantimurng waterfall , butterflies on the gound and the butterflies gate there below:

Please the collectors look that very rare butterflies in next chapter .
4. During the 50th years anniversary of Indonesian Independent Days in 1965, at the native stands I bought some very rare Butterflies from the native West Java conservations.


a.kupu-kupu betina Rajah Brooke ditemukan di Jkarta tahun 1996(5. In 1996, I bought at Jakarta a veryrare female Brookiana, very difficult to catch in Indonesia, many in sarawak that is why the name of Rajah Brooke were given to that butterflies.

B. Kupu-kupu Lembah Anai Padang Panjang SUMBAR 1978(THE VERY RARE BUTTERFLIES CATCHED BY Dr IWAN S IN WEST SUMATRA )
ANAI VALLEY PADANGPANJANG
Dr iwan S Anai Valley and waterwall west Sumatra painting 1939
a. The road and Railway brigde at Anai valley

a1. Family Papilionidae
(1) Trogonoptera Brookiana
a. Male


b. Famale

(3) Graphium empedovana


(4) Meandrusa Payeni (catch by the Japanese)


(5) Mycalesis or Troides whitehea iwanensis ( not list in the catalogue, mycalesis with White Head female,that is why I put my name,please international entomology association approve this name ,thanks-Dr iwan s )


a2. Family Nymphalidae
only one very rare butterflies cathced in this family. Charaxes Durnfordi .the butterflies flies very fast and difficult to catch..

2. Kupu-kupu Langka ditangkap di Padang Sibusuk Sijunjung(AT PADANG SIBUSUK SAWAHLUTO-SIJUNJUNG)
In the hill near this village , I found the nest of the Bird Fying Butterflies in the family of Papilionidae, genus Troides, many types never report from the small until bigger types , during this time I bring my elder son Albert with me during my dury tours to Sawahlunto and sijunjung Indonesia National Police Resort between 1976-1978.
( from the vintage books there were twenty subspesies troides,
(1) Troides hyplitus hiplitus
(2) Troides amphrysus: amphrysus,miranda,cuneifera,andromache
(3) Troides helena : helena,oblngmaculatus,darsius,riedelli,vandepoli,halipron,criton,
plato, aecus,minos,rhadamantus,plateni and dohertyl.
(4) Troides magellanus: magelanuss, prattorum.
(please Mr Hunianto,help me to search the name of troides I have found at Padang Sibusuk sawahlut Sijunjung west sumatra. may be new subspecies which be in my name,thankyou.Dr Iwan s)

2a. TROIDES 1
2B. TROIDES 2


2C TROIDES 3


2D. TROIDES 4


2E TROIDES 5


2F TROIDES 6 (Miranda)

D. Kupu-kupu langaka di Bantimurung SULSEL 1997(THE VERYRARE BUTTERFLIES FOUND AT BANTIMURUNG SOUTH CELEBES ).
1. Family Papilionidae
(1) Ordo Lepidoptera
(a)ORNITHPTHERA AESACUS.
(a1) male


(a2) female


(b) TROIDES CRITON


E.koleksi kupu yang ditemui di kemaoryan saat hari ultah Kemerdekaan RI 2005(THE RARE BUTTERFLIES BOUGHT AT THE STAND KEMAYORAN DURING INDONESIA INDEPENDENT ANNIVERSARY )
1. Papilio carna


2. Other types I donnot know the name.

F. Koleksi Kupu-kupu langka  Indoenesia INDONESIA COLLECTORS BEST BUTTERFLIES COLLECTION
(courtecy A.H.Hunianto, kompas,mei.25th 2010)


Mr Hunianto collection(from  Kompas newspaper).

 

 

FOURTH ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

FOURTH  ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

in 2012

The Best Information Collections

Of

Driwan web blog

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member Collectors

Copyright@2012

 

 

FORWARD

I have collected the archived collections from 1955 during young boy until now,

Some of the collections have upload in my web blog

Hhtp://http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

Hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Almost 400.000 collectors visit this web blog

I have million informations of rare old archives now, and if the scientist ,journalist or collectors want to have the rare archives’s informations and illustrations please contact me via comment, but before you must subscribed via comment to be my blog premium member.

I hope my bigger project to collect the informations from rare old archives will help everybody from all over the world.

I have met the the archives scholar from KTLV(Koninjkijl Tropen Leiden Vereneging) ,the Dutch archived of tropic area at Leiden Netherland who came to Indonesia to seeking the rare old archives,many Indonesian scholar visit KTLV to found informations related with their thesis because KTLV and also their Netherland tropen museum archives collectiosn cann’t copy because the protect with copyright.

.

I will show the best Informations Collections from this web and The Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM  edition produces by Driwancybermuseum.

, I hope with this info everybody will know and contact me via comment what info of rare archives they need.

 Jakarta,May.2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

A. The Driwancybermuseum Home office Profile

B.THE BEST INFO COLLECTIONS  

OF

 Dr Iwan web Blog

1.hhtp://http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

 

  • Sesuai dengan persyaratan untuk mendaptakan sponsor iklan ., dengan ini dilaporkan kemajuan web Blog uniquecollection.wordpress.com BlogBy Dr Iwan sebagai berikut …

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THE KOREA UNIQUE COLLECTION BOOK TWO “THE KOREAN WAR”
Posted on October 4, 2010 by iwansuwandy

*ill 001

CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

Palestina Book 1938

Ababa-Jerusalem-Cairo

AdisAbaba-Cairo

Marakecch-AddisAbaba

Madrid-Marrakech

PalestineWar Map

Jerusalem at night

Jerusalem morning

Jerusalem Picture

Jerusalem Map

Jerusalem Map

Jerusalem city

Jaffa city

Islamic Jerusalem

Hulda

Jews Colonies

Talpiot Tomb

Aim Harod

Cave Tel Aviv

Palestine Post Jerusalem

Mufti Jerusalem

King Ibn Saud

Balfour declaretion

Mr Balfour

British Indian soldier

British Australian Troops

Vintage Hebron picture

Jews Independent Proclamation

Palestine Book 1938

THE RARE PALESTINA BOOK 1938
Created by Dr iwan S. based on the vintage Book written by Pierre van Passei, Days of our Years 1903-1938. arranged in chrnologic historic information added UCM collections illustration(The writer only told the story and Dr Iwan S. arranged chronologic historic in systematic informations,please colectors read before The British Prtectorate Palestine War Collections.)

  •  

     

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The Silent Film and Early Film Historic Collections 1877-1930

The Silent film Historic Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited Private E-book In CD-ROM

Please look The Sample below and The complete CD-ROM only for premium member,please subscribed via comment)

This book dedicated

 to my grandgrandpa Tan G.L.who built  the first silent film cinema Scalabio at Padang City West Sumatra Indonesia and My Friend Ang T.L(Wirako) who Grandpa also built the silent and first speaking film Cinema at the same city.

Introduction

 
 
 

Scene from the 1921 Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, one of the highest-grossing silent films.

A silent film is a film with no synchronized recorded sound, especially with no spoken dialogue. In silent films for entertainment the dialogue is transmitted through muted gestures, pantomime andtitle cards.

Chronologic Historic Collections

 

1877-1887

 muybridge_occident_trotting.

 Muybridge’s initial attempts failed and it wasn’t until 1877

 eadweard_muybridge.

The first projected sequential proto-movie was made by Eadweard Muybridge some time between 1877 and 1880

 

1888

. The first narrative film was created by Louis Le Prince in 1888.

  The first narrative film was created by Louis
 

It was a two-second film of people walking in Oakwood streetsgarden, entitled Roundhay Garden Scene.[1]

 

Roundhay Garden Scene 1888, the first known celluloid film recorded.

 

1892

 West Orange, New Jersey, used December 1892

Edison Studios were first in West Orange, New Jersey (1892),

 1892

The Black Maria, Edison's first motion picture studio

The Black Maria, Edison's first motion picture studio
The Black Maria, Edison’s First Motion Picture Studio,
West Orange, New Jersey,
used between December 1892 and January 1901.
Inventing Entertainment: the Early Motion Pictures and Sound Recordings of the Edison Companies

Edison and Dickson continued to experiment with motion pictures in the late 1880s and into the 1890s. Dickson designed the Black Maria, the first movie studio, which was completed in 1893. The name was derived from the slang for the police paddy wagons that the studio was said to resemble. Between 1893 and 1903, Edison produced more than 250 films at the Black Maria, including many of those found in the Edison Motion Pictures collection of the Library of Congress. Most of the films are short, as it was believed that people would not stand the “flickers” for more than ten minutes.

Turn-of-the-century copyright law provided protection for photographs but not for motion pictures. Therefore, a number of early film producers protected their work by copyrighting paper contact prints (paper prints) of the film’s individual frames.

1894

Edison Kinetoscopic Recording of a Sneeze
Edison Kinetoscopic Recording of a Sneeze,
copyright January 9, 1894.
American Treasures of the Library of Congress

View the film which was reconstructed from the paper print.
Edison Kinetoscopic Record of a Sneeze
by W. K. L. Dickson, one of Edison’s assistants,
January 7, 1894.

 

edison_home_kine. 

Thomas Edison with his Home Kinetoscope, introduced 1912

1894

TINTING

 
 

Scene from Broken Blossoms starring Lilian Gish and Richard Barthelmess, an example of sepia-tinted print.

With the lack of natural color processing available, films of the silent era were frequently dipped in dyestuffs and dyed various shades and hues to signal a mood or represent a time of day. Blue represented night scenes, yellow or amber meant day. Red represented fire and green represented a mysterious mood. Similarly, toning of film (such as the common silent film generalization of sepia-toning) with special solutions replaced the silver particles in the film stock with salts or dyes of various colors. A combination of tinting and toning could be used as an effect that could be striking.

Some films were hand-tinted, such as Annabelle Serpentine Dance(1894), from Edison Studios. In it, Annabelle Whitford,[13] a young dancer from Broadway, is dressed in white veils that appear to change colors as she dances.

 

the+great+train+robbery+last+scene

Georges Méliès, the first truly great director in movie

Hand coloring was often used in the early “trick” and fantasy films of Europe, especially those by Georges Méliès.

 
 
1895
 
  
 

 The art of motion pictures grew into fullShowings of silent films almost always featured live music, starting with the pianist at the first public projection of movies by the Lumière Brothers on December 28, 1895 in Paris.[4]

 

1897

Edison Receives Patent for Kinetographic Camera

On August 31, 1897, Thomas Edison received a patent for the kinetographic camera, “a certain new and useful Improvement in Kinetoscopes,” the forerunner of the motion picture film projector. Edison and his assistant, W. K. L. Dickson, had begun work on the project—to enliven sound recordings with moving pictures—in hopes of boosting sales of the phonograph, which Edison had invented in 1877. Unable to synchronize the two media, he introduced the kinetoscope, a device for viewing moving pictures without sound—on which work had begun in 1889. Patents were filed for the kinetoscope and kinetograph in August 1891.

The kinetoscope (viewer), which Edison initially considered an insignificant toy, had become an immediate success about a decade earlier. The invention was soon replaced, however, by screen projectors that made it possible for more than one person to view the novel silent movies at a time.

 

1899 

sample frames from Edison film 'Three acrobats'
Three Acrobats,
Thomas A. Edison, Inc.,
copyright March 20, 1899.
The American Variety Stage: Vaudeville and Popular Entertainment, 1870-1920

1910

Unidentified silent film 1910

1912

By the time that the law was amended in 1912, some 3,500 paper prints had been deposited for copyright registration. This practice proved fortuitous, as many early films have been lost due to disintegration and the high combustibility caused by early film’s nitrate base. Many of these paper contact prints were converted back to film in the 1950s, and hundreds were digitized in the 1990s.

, 1933-Present to see photos and written historical and descriptive data of the Edison’s laboratories in New Jersey.

 

 1904

  
A film of a re-enactment of a naval battle, depicting Russians firing at a Japanese ship with a cannon

An early film, depicting a re-enactment of the Battle of Chemulpo Bay (Film produced in 1904 by Edison Studios)

PAMERAN KOLESKI BUNG KARNO Januari 2011 Di Driwancybermuseum Blog

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

   

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

                                                             WELCOME TO

                                                    HALL OF  FAME

              !!!!!forbidden to tag,pgoto or repro@copyright Dr Iwan S 2011 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!

                                                           SHOWCASE

                           FAMOUS LEADER COLLECTIONS :”BUNG KARNO”

                          

        The Indonesian Independence proclamator and the first indonesia president”

SHOWCASE ONE: VINTAGE BUNG KARNO BOOKS COLLECTIONS

1. CIKINI AFFAIR BOOK 1958

2. BUNG KARNO VISIT USA

 

3 BUNG KARNO BAPAK MARHEINIS

PS KOLEKSI LENGKAP LIHAT DI Driwancybermuseum Blog,SILAHKAN KLIK hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Dr IWAN BOOK’S INTRODUCTIONS “THE DAI NIPPON WAR “(BUKU PERANG DAI NIPPON)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                     

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Dai Nippon Cybermuseum)

Showroom :

The Driwan Dai Nippon War’s book

(Buku Karangan Dr Iwan “Perang Dai Nippon)

 

Frame One:

Introductions

1.I have the complete collection of postal and ocument history during Dai Nippon Occupations Java Island 1942-1945, chronology day per day from the Capitulation day on March,8th.1945 to August,17th,1945(2605) ,also until The Japanese Army back Home to their homeland Dec.1945 but the Dai nippon revenue still used by Republic Indonesai until 1947.

2. Now I only add the 1942(2602) Collections, and if the collectors want the look the complete collections ,not only from Java island  but also from sumatra Island, please subscribe as the blog premium member via comment,and we will contack you via your airmail. We will help you to arranged the very rare and amizing collections of Dai Nippon Occupations Indonesia postal and document special for you.

3.I had add in my block the articles odf Dai nippon war from all east asia countries, many collectors and friend asking me to edited  that all information in one book, and now I have finish that amizing book.

4.Not many Historic Pictures durting this period, if we found always in bad condition and black  _white  as the book illustrations, I hope someday the best colour pictures will exist to add in the book.

5.This book is the part of the Book :”THE DAI NIPPON WAR”

6. My Collections still need more info and corrections from the collectors of all over the world,thanks for your partcipatnt to make this collections more complete.

Jakarta, April 2011

Greatings From

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Perkenalan
1.Saya  memiliki koleksi lengkap sejarah pos dan dokumen serta gambar  selama Dai Nippon Menduduki Pulau Jawa  1942-1945  berupa kronologi hari per hari dari hari kapitulasi pada Maret, 8th.1945 sampai Agustus, 17, 1945 (2605), juga sampai Jepang Tentara kembali ketanah airnya , sampai untuk Dec.1945 Tentara Dai nippon masih memiliki kekuasaan yang dberikan oleh Sekutu sehingga prangko dan meterainya masih digunakan oleh Republik Indonesai hingga 1947.

2. Sekarang aku hanya menambahkan 1942 (2602) Koleksi, dan jika kolektor ingin terlihat koleksi lengkap, tidak hanya dari pulau Jawa tetapi juga dari Pulau sumatra, silakan berlangganan sebagai anggota premium blog melalui komentar, dan kami akan contack Anda melalui Anda pos udara. Kami akan membantu Anda untuk mengatur koleksi sangat langka dan amizing Dai Nippon Pekerjaan Indonesia pos dan dokumen khusus untuk Anda.

3.saya  telah menambahkan di blok saya, artikel perang Dai nippon dari seluruh negara asia timur, banyak kolektor dan teman meminta saya untuk mengedit  seluruh informasi tersebut dalam sebuah  buku, dan sekarang saya sudah menyelesaikan BUKU yang menarik ini.
4.Gambar  sejarah selama  periode ini,  kami ditemukan selalu dalam kondisi buruk dan  hitam putih dari  ilustrasi buku, saya berharap suatu hari nanti gambar warna terbaik akan ada untuk menambahkan dalam buku ini.
5.Tulisan ini  adalah bagian dari buku karangan saya : ” PERANG DAI NIPPON (THE DAI NIPPON  WAR)”
6. Koleksi saya masih perlu info dan koreksi dari kolektor di seluruh dunia, terima kasih atas partisipasit Anda untuk membuat koleksi ini lebih lengkap.7. terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang telah membantu sya sehingga buku ini dapat terwijud, maaf namanya tidak saya tampilkan satu persatu.

Jakarta, April 2011

Salam  Dari

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 
_________________________________________________________________________________________ 

Table Of Content

Part One:

The Dai Nippon war In Indonesia

1.Chapter One :

The dai nippon war In Indonesia 1942. 

2.Chapter Two:The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia 1945

Part Two.:

The Dai Nippon War In Korea

Part Three:

The Dai Nippon war In China

 Part Four :

The Dai Nippon War In Malaya Archiphelago ,Malayan Borneo and Singapore

Part five :

The Dai Nippon War In Burma and Vietnam

Part six:

The Dai Nippon War Homeland Preparation

 Part seven:

The Dai Nippon Pasific War

__________________________________________________________________________

Showcase:

The Dai Nippon(imperial Japan) Military Postcard(Koleksi Kartupos Militer Balatentara Nippon)

Frame One:

The Dai Nippon Military Postcard(Dr Iwan Collections)

Please the native collectors help me to translate the postcard ‘s info from native Nippon katakana  or hiragana langguage to english languague thank(Dr Iwan S.)

A Japan

B.Occupation Indonesia

1.October 26th 2602(1942),Tamanan Gun Cho(Tamanan was  an area  at East java -military Command),used DEI postal Stationer because this time  Dai Nippon Military Postalcard  not exist.

2.February.12th.03(1943),Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)

3.Military Postcard send via military courier from Magelang to Djatinegara.Read the translate .

Rare Dai Nippon Guntjo Pos Losarang with house of delivery(Rumah Pos) Stamped on postal stationer card 2603(1943)

Semarang Kezeibu Official CDS Semarang 27.12.03 card to Kudus

Frontside

Backside

Tekisan Kanribu(Dai Nippon Enemy Property Control) Bandung official Postal Used lettersheet homemade ,4.9.03(Sept.4th,1943)

C.Occupation South Korea

D.Occupation China

E.Occupation Malaya

F.Occupation Myanmar(Burma)

G.Occupation Phillipine

Frame Two:

The Dai Nippon Military Picture Postcard Found In Indonesia (Dr Iwan Collections)

A.The Central Museum Jakarta Indonesia Ethnic Pictures

1.the Picture postcard cover

Gunseikanbu(Dai Nippon Military Office) Moesioem Jakarta(Jakarta Museum)

2.The Indonesia Ethnic Picture

B.The Japanese Military Propaganda Pictures

FrameThree:The after of Dai Nippon War in Thailand

 Liberation and Heartbreak (August 1945 – May 1946)

 
Prisoner no more!
A jubilant Han Samethini symbolically tramples his POW identification tag
Caricature by J. Chevallier
Han Samethini Collection [1]

As Java plunged into revolutionary chaos in August 1945, Thailand was undergoing an orderly transfer of power. Incoming British troops quickly relieved the Japanese of their posts and weapons, while the RAPWI [2] organization began the formidable task of recovering thousands of Allied prisoners of war. Most of them were moved to large transit camps around Bangkok. Slowly at first, then more rapidly as logistics improved, survivors of the Burma Railway filtered through the city to board transport aircraft for the first stage of their long journey home: Rangoon for the Americans and the British, Singapore for the Australians. The POWs from these nations were repatriated by the end of October. [3]

Disarmed and humbled, Japanese military police and Kempei-tai await
outbound trains in the Bangkok railway station
Australian War Memorial

MONTHLY ARCHIVES: MAY 2011

Anomali Medis Neurofibromatosis(Kelainan Tumor Jinak Yang Dapat Bersifat Ganas Pada Jaringan Saraf Yang Merusak Postur Manusia)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                     

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan Health Cybermuseum

Buku Karangan Dr Iwan Suwandy:

 Anomaly Medis Neurofibromatosis(Kelainan Tumor Jinak yang bersifat ganas Jaringan Saraf Dengan Keruskan postur Manusia)

KATA PENGANTAR(Preface)

Neurofibromatosis adalah suatu kelainan(anomali atau Osis) Medis akibat pertumbuhan jaringan(fibro) saraf(neuro) baru (neoplasma atau tumor) yang abnormal ,walaupun bersifat jinak,tetapi kerusakan yang ditimbulkannya bersifat ganas karena  merusak postur tubuh dan wajah penderita.

Tanpa melihat pasien secara langsung , pasti anda tidak akan dapat membayangkan bagaimana penampilan penderita , bagi yang ringan saya sudah pernah lihat seperti tubuh dengan pembengkakan  jaringan kulit yang sangat banyak ibarat seperti pohon dengan buah yang bergantungan, tetapi pada kasus yang ekstrim terlihat seperti seorang manusia monster, kasus ini baru saja dilaporkan oleh para dokter ahli tumor(Onkologi) dari Rumah Sakit(Hospital) di Amerika Serikat, ada dua kasus yang dilaporkan.

Apabila ada yang melihat kasus seperti ini di lingkungan kediamannya ,harap dapat membantu saya dengan mengirimkan foto pasien tersebut dengan riwayat singaktnya.

Saya harap tulisan ini, yang merupakan bagian dari buku karangan saya yang berjudul” MENGENAL DAN MENGATASI ANOMALI MEDIS”

SEHARUSNYA ,KASUS SEPERTI INI TIDAK PERLU TERJADI,APABILA  MASYARAKAT MENGETAHUI PERKEMBANGAN PENYAKIT(PATOGENESIS) DAN UPAYA MEDIS YANG DAPAT DILAKSANAKAN.

Saya harap tulisan ini dapat menambaH wawasan pembaca,sekaligus mencegah kelainan menjadi anomali yang sangat parah seperti yang dilaporkan oleh sejawat dari Amerika Serikat.

Jakarta .Juni 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

ENGLISH VERSION:

Neurofibromatosis is a disorder (anomaly or Osis) Medical from the growing  tissue (fibro) nerve (neuro) new (neoplasms or tumors) are abnormal, though it may be benign, but malignant demaged caused the  body and face posture ‘s demage .Without view the patients directly, you definitely will not be imaging  how the appearance of the patient, for a light I’ve ever seen as the body with swelling of skin tissue that is very much like a like a tree with hanging fruit, but in extreme cases look like a human monster, the case This new  reported by the physician experts tumor (Oncology) from the Hospital (Hospital) in the United States, there are two reported cases.

If anyone sees a case like this in his home environment, I hope to help by submitting photos of patients with a short history

I hope this paper, which is part of my essay book entitled “KNOW AND OVERCOMING MEDICAL ANOMALY”

SHOULD, LIKE THIS CASE DOES NOT NEED TO HAPPEN, IF PEOPLE KNOW PERKEMABNAGN DISEASE (PAOGENESIS) MEDICAL AND EFFORT THAT CAN BE EXECUTED.

I hope this article can menambas insightful readers, and prevent the disorder becomes severe anomalies as reported by colleagues from the United States.

Jakarta. June 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

CHAPTER ONE:

 STUDI KASUS(CASE STUDY) 1. JENIS KELAINAN(ANOMALIES TYPE)

(1)KASUS SATU(CASE ONE)

 (2).CASE TWO(KASUS DUA)

 2.PERKEMBANGAN KELAINAN(ANOMALIES DEVELOPMENT) A.CASE ONE

(1) ANAK(CHILDREN)

 

2. REMAJA(TEANS)

 3.DEWASA (ADULT)

B.CASE TWO

(1) ANAK(CHILDREN)

2. REMAJA(TEANS)

 3.DEWASA (ADULT)

3.MEDICAL OPERATION(TINDAKAN OPERASI) 

 

 

THIRD ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

THIRD  ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

in 2011

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                     

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Qillin decoration
Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard
 Library
Meeting room
working room
dragon boat mini musuem
Ceramic Collection
Ceramic Collections 2
VOC ship tile
VOC Tile&Token
Ngoc San Hanoi tile
Ancient Wayang Petruk
Ancient Wayang semar manuscript

The Embroidery Collections New Year 2011 Exhibition at Driwancybermuseum Blog

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

*ill 001

*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

THE FOUNDER AND ALL STAFF WISH YOU A MERRY CHRISTMAS AND HAPPY NEW YEAR 2011
We hope the next Year all of the collectors all over the world will Found more interesting collections and always visit this interesting and amizing blog
Showcase :
The Embroidery (Sulaman) Collections New Year 2011 Exhibition
Frame One:
The Dr Iwan Embroidery Collections Foun in Indonesia.
1.Minangkabau Handmade
1)Kristik

2)native embroidery

3)Bead Embroidery

2.Machinal embroidery
1) Vintage Mechanical embroidery Book(Bordir)

2)Indonesian Kebaya(Bordir Kebaya)

The Royal Prince William Wedding Ceremony and Honeymoon Art Photography

.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

 

Showcase:

The Royal Prince William Wedding and Honeymoon Art Photography Collection

 
 

Frame One :

1.The wedding ceremony Plan

(1)The wedding ceremony to be held in Wesminster Abbey.

Their love story began in St. Andrews University when they were students. Now, everything will be settled for this century’s much awaited wedding ceremony to be held in Westminster Abbey which is a bigger venue than past traditional royal weddings.

Prince William Kate Middleton wedding 1 Prince William and Kate Middleton Royal Wedding Plans Revealed

Miss Middleton will pass by the Abbey by car instead of the traditional glass carriage which is a mark for this kind of event. The ceremony will begin at 1100 BST to be led by Archbishop of Canterbury to marry the couple;

 Dean of Westminster to lead the event;

 and the Bishop of London to give the address.

Prince William and Miss Middleton will go back at the Buckingham Palace by glass carriage passing by The Mall, Parliament Square, Horse Guards Parade, and Whitehall.

(2) In details released on Wednesday,St James Palace revealed the basic structure of the wedding.

(a) Miss Kate Middleton will travel to westminter Abbey by Car rather than Glass carriage(this break the tradition.) via The Mall

,Horse Guards

 and Parliament Square.

(b) The Ceremony will begin at 11.00 BST

(c) The Dean of Wesminster will conduct the service, the Archbishop of Cantebury will marry William and Kate address.at Westminter Abbey

(d) After the service the coule will travel in a glass carriage procession  to Buckingham Palace

 along the same route taken earlier by Miss Middleton.There will then be a reception,hosted by the queen,for gueat from the congregation, representing the couple’s official and privateslives.

(e) in the evening the prince of Wales will host a private dinner

 at Buckingham Palace

 followed by dancing for couples plus closed friends and family.

prince william's wedding party prince william’s wedding party

Only 1,900 individuals had been really invited to the Royal Wedding. 600 of those are also invited to a dinner hosted by the Queen, and 300 men and women are invited to a reception hosted by the father of the groom, Prince Charles. The rest of the world will likely be glued to their televisions watching the wedding in real time. If you miss the wedding due to time zone conflicts, you can make sure that replays of the royal wedding video will be offered for your enjoyment on the internet.

It is not often that a real Prince and Princess gets married. This genuinely seems like a fairy tale come accurate, and we sincerely hope that William and Kate live happily ever after. The world thought that Diana and Charles would be happy forever, and we all know how that turned out. Let us hope and pray that they will love 1 yet another, be faithful to one another, and have several years of joy together. We’re eager to see the next generation of royalty, as they’re positive to be excellent looking little young children!

prince william's wedding party prince william’s wedding party

 

WEDDING PARTY STORIES

Mar 15
wedding party ideaswedding party ideas

The market is flooded with books and guides about how to plan a wedding. These books are great if you have the money to spend on them, and you have an unlimited budget. If you are a bride that does not quite fit the traditional mold, or if you just like to do things your own way, you may want to make your own wedding planning book.

Wedding planning is not a complicated process, but it is time-consuming and requires you to wade through and process a great deal of information. Keeping the information organized and in one place is essential. Certain books on the market promise to help you with this task, but I found them to be expensive and not organized the way that I thought would be helpful to me. After being disappointed by commercial wedding planning books, I decided to make my own wedding planning book.

wedding party ideas wedding party ideas

I took an ordinary three-ring binder and divided the binder into several sections. The sections are labeled in bright construction paper and tabbed. If you already have your theme picked for your wedding, you could even use your wedding colors. At the front of my binder, I made a section for my budget, where I kept a list of everything I wanted for the wedding ceremony, reception, and honeymoon and the total dollar amount I estimated each one would cost. At the top of the page, I put my wedding planning budget in big, bold numbers so that I would always have it in mind while shopping. I also kept notes in this section about when vendor payments would be due when I made the payments.

The next section in my wedding planning book was for contracts. Each time I made an agreement with a vendor for my wedding ceremony or reception I put a copy of the contract in the binder. If I made any changes to the contract, such as special requests or add-ons, I put the contract addendum into the contracts section. If a question came up about what was promised, I had an easy place to look in my wedding planning book.

wedding party ideas wedding party ideas

The next sections in my binder were either for a particular vendor that I chose or ideas for items that I was still looking for. For instance, when I chose our reception site, I interviewed a number of vendors. For each vendor, I kept information in a section called “Reception.” When I chose a vendor, I added a new section under that vendor’s name with the different packages offered, the additional items offered by the site, and ideas for the options we were considering at the reception location.

Wedding party ideasWedding party ideas

I also had sections for florists, the rehearsal dinner, wedding party gifts, bridesmaid dresses, party favors, and invitations. As you plan for your wedding, you will get ideas for other items as well, like engraved flutes for your first toast, cake servers, ring pillows, candle pillars, and other odds and ends.

You may want to add your own sections for things you think are important. For instance, you can add pockets to keep cards of the vendors you are considering, extra pages to jot notes when you visit vendors, or pictures of the dresses, flowers, or cakes you see in magazines or while you are out shopping that you like. You can even take the book with you to bridal fairs to store your ideas in as you go. The beauty of being your own wedding planner and creating your own wedding planning book is that the options are limitless.

2.The Wedding Planner: Happy birthday, Your Majesty!

 

 
Queen Elizabeth II leaves the Royal Maundy Day Service at Westminster Abbey, April 21, 2011, in London.(Credit: Getty)

(CBS) CBS News royals contributor Victoria Arbiter, reporting from London, will be giving CBSNews.com readers daily updates on plans for the April 29 royal wedding. 

Her Majesty, the Queen,  turns 85 Thursday and her birthday kicks off what promises to be a spectacular 10 days for the royal family and the country as a whole.

It’s incredible to think that of the Queen’s 85 years, 59 have been spent as our reigning monarch. That’s especially impressive when you consider that at the time of her birth, she wasn’t destined for the throne.

The Queen has remained the one constant throughout her family’s trials and tribulations, and generally the British are fiercely loyal and proud of her. She consistently demonstrates the very best of the British from her stoicism to her dedication to her country, and we are all the better for having her.

There are, of course, the naysayers who think we should get rid of the monarchy but I just can’t imagine a Britain without them. The anti-monarchists quibble about the expense to the taxpayer and yet the royal family only costs each individual about a $1 a year. Most people have more than that between their sofa cushions. Our royals represent a vibrant and staggering history and I firmly believe that they are as relevant today as they were 1,000 years ago.

Since arriving in England, I have had the good fortune to see the Queen drive by on several occasions, always in a green Jaguar, and each time I have felt awe-inspired by even a brief glimpse. I can’t wait to see her lead her family out onto the balcony at Buckingham Palace on April 29 to celebrate William and Kate’s marriage.

It’s been a long time since the Queen has had the opportunity to see an adoring crowd at the gates to the palace. Although the people will be there for the wedding, I can guarantee that the cheers will boom when the public lays eyes on the Queen. How joyous it will be for her to look out over her people and see the flags being waved with vigorous enthusiasm.

William and Kate’s wedding has brought a much needed boost of optimism to the royal family and it couldn’t be coming at a better time. What a glorious birthday gift to the Queen. So on behalf of all of us, happy birthday, Ma’am, and God Save the Queen!

Until next time, royalphiles, keep calm and carry on.

2a.The royal prince of wales and diana wedding ceremony invitation

3.Prince William and Kate’s Royal Wedding Invitation

 

1,900 people received their invitations to the Royal wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton at London’s Westminster Abbey on April 29. The heavy card bearing the engraved gold insignia of the Queen of England was delivered to various VIPs from kings to charity leaders, close family and university friends, old schoolmates and prime ministers around the world, People reports. The edges of the card, which is about 10 in. by 6 in., are beveled and then gilded. The simple wording reads that the Lord Chamberlain has been “commanded by the Queen” to invite the holder to the ceremony. Guests are asked to wear military uniform, a morning coat or a “lounge” suit. 600 of the 1,900 invitees have also been invited by the Queen to a reception immediately following the ceremony, and 300 of those are also invited to a dinner hosted by William’s father, Prince Charles.

The special guest which attend the wedding ceremony :

 Prince William & Kate’s Wedding attend by President  Obama ?

What else could explain the snobby snub of President Obama and First ladyMichelle? I don’t care how much William and Kate Middleton want to have more of a “people’s wedding.” I don’t care that William’s not a sovereign or a direct heir to the throne. I don’t care that the wedding will be smaller and less ostentatious than Prince Charles‘ wedding to Princess Diana.

None of that, in my opinion, can excuse the biggest potential rift between Great Britain and the U.S. since, well, the War of Independence!

I mean come on William- your St. James Palace spokesman said “it is certainly not the case that all foreign heads of the state will be excluded. The guest list is still being drawn up and could change, but as things stand it’s right (to say the Obamas will not be invited).”

Ewww! That’s a double diss. You and Kate will find room for other heads of state like French President Nicholas Sarkozy and his wife Carla Bruni, but not the President of The United States???

Why are they more worthy? Are you afraid that they’ll chunnel into Westminister Abbey no matter what? Do you not realize that the U.S. is Great Britain’s biggest ally? Don’t you remember William how your mother Princess Diana loved coming to America because she felt more free here?

Or is this payback for Michelle Obama breaking with precedent and hugging the Queen on her first visit to England? Are you afraid that The First Lady might get to touchy, feely again?

Or is this finally an even bigger diss, a more historic payback for America breaking free of Great Britain’s sovereignty? William- have you secretly been really pissed off that America is no longer part of your kingdom?

Prince William and Kate Middleton, I urge you to rethink and redraw your guest list. You can still have lots of charity workers attend your wedding. Surely there’s some duke or dutchess that can be cut. It’s only two seats!

But they are the two most important seats that need to be filled by our President and our First Lady. Snub them and you snub 310 million of us

THE BECKHAMS AND ELTON JOHN TO ATTEND THE ROYAL WEDDING

 

They’re considered the King and Queen of soccer so it’s no surprise that Davidand Victoria Beckham have received their official invite to Prince Williamand Kate Middleton’s April 29 wedding. Wills, who is the president of the English Football Association, became friends with Becks when England lost the bid to host the 2018 World Cup, while Victoria has previously revealed that she would send over some of her dresses for the future princess to wear.

The highly-anticipated wedding will take place at London’s Westminster Abbey followed by a lavish lunchtime buffet for 600 people at Buckingham Palace. However, David and Victoria unfortunately were not one of the 300 to be exclusively invited to the following dinner dance hosted by Prince Charles.

1900 guests have been invited to the wedding ceremony and courtiers have revealed that there a “small number” of A-list stars will be seated alongside more than 1000 friends and family and 80 charity workers to reflect the prince’s “fairly ordinary life” living in North Wales.
Notably absent from the royal guest-list are US President Barack Obama and his wife and Sarah Ferguson, Prince Andrew’s ex-wife. Prince William recently revealed that his brother Prince Harry will be the best man, while Kate’s sister, Pippa Middleton, will be the Maid of Honour.

Elton John and the crown prince of Bahrain will attewnd the  wedding ceremony.

 

Marriage lottery: 100 winners to attend Prince William and Kate Middleton’s wedding

 
Very much in charge . . . Prince William and his fiances.Prince William and Kate Middleton will welcome 100 strangers to their wedding. Photo: AP

One hundred ordinary people will reportedly attend the wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton with royal officials conducting a lottery to determine who is invited.

Britain’s Sun newspaper said those lucky enough to secure an invite would only find out when it dropped into their letterbox.

The paper said Buckingham Palace is planning a number of festivities around the April 29 wedding including a rock concert and street parties.

 

4.The prince William Kate wedding Gown

PRINCE WILLIAM TO WEAR MILITARY UNIFORM FOR ROYAL WEDDING

 
Prince William is expected to follow royal tradition and marry in military dress like his father Prince Charles and uncle Prince Andrew.His RAF uniform will be most likely be the military uniform selected. Savile Row tailors Gieves & Hawkes, who supplies suits to the royal family, is said to be chosen to make Prince William’s outfit. The starting price for a Gieves & Hawkes RAF uniform is £2,800, can take up to ten weeks to make.
The prince’s father and grandfather, the Prince of Wales and Duke of Edinburgh respectively both wore
Royal Navy dress on their royal wedding. Prince William is an RAF officer serving as a helicopter pilot with the Search and Rescue Force (Sarf).

William is a Knight of the Order of the Garter and on his wedding day is likely to wear the Order’s blue sash, with its attached badge, and star. He will be expected to wear his Queen’s Golden Jubilee Medal.
There is still no word on who will be doing Kate Middleton’s wedding dress.Theroyal wedding of Prince William and Kate Middleton will be on April 29, 2011at London’s Westminster Abbey.
 Prince Charles wore  his Royal Navy uniform to marry Diana in 1981

Now we can officially start discussing, naturally with breathless anticipation, the impending Royal Wedding! First up: What should she wear? We’ve already asked top wedding dress designers to come up with an original design for Kate Middleton, in a Project Princess face-off. Here are the results.

The Big Players
From left: Amsale, Angel Sanchez

kate-middleton-wedding-dress-pictures2.jpg 

British Favorites
From left: Temperley London, Augusta Jones

kate-middleton-wedding-dress-pictures1.jpg 

American Classics
From left: Melissa Sweet, Priscilla of Boston

kate-middleton-wedding-dress-pictures3.jpg 

 

 

The Bride hand Flower

3.Prince William And Kate Middleton Plan Cheap Honeymoon

Prince William and Kate Middleton are expected to take a cheap honeymoon in recognition of the current economic climate. It’s been reported that the couple has made a shortlist of British destinations, with the Scilly Isles tipped as their honeymoon of choice.

Beach scene, Isles Of Scilly

The last time Prince William went to the isles on holiday, it was 1989, and he was with his father Prince Charles, mother Princess Diana and brother Prince Harry. He was only 7 years old at the time but has fond memories of the place.

It was first believed that the couple would go to Kenya, where the prince proposed to Kate last year. However, a Royal source says that they have been talking about possibly taking their honeymoon somewhere in Britain in respect of recent austerity measures. they are aware that being seen taking a luxury honeymoon wouldn’t look good and send the wrong message. there are several options being considered, which suit their non-lavish tastes. after the attack on Prince Charles and Camilla, his wife, a domestic holiday will also make it easier to be sure they are secure, the insider added, while the final destination they choose won’t be announced.

The news of a domestic holiday destination for the couple’s honeymoon is consistent with the rest of their wedding. Instead of getting wedding gifts from their guests, they are considering asking them to donate to charity. Also, instead of being taken to Westminster Abbey for the ceremony on April 29 by carriage, Kate will be driven in a car.

(3)Prince Harry will become Prince William Bestman

The Royal Wedding Count Down

Pressure On as Wedding Day Draws Near for Prince Will and Kate Middleton

 

 

Hallo Collector

SECOND ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

SECOND ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

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Untuk itu anda harus mengupload kopi KTP,alamat lengkap dan riwayat pekerjaan singkat,dan khusus untuk konsultasi kesehatan

riwayat penyakit termasuk penyakit keluarga(turunan), dikirim ke email saya

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Hallo My friend from all over the world, you can aks any information related with yourself,family,and related to history,collection and also about your or your family health, upload your ID Copy  ,short working history , and for health consultation please upload   helath or disease history  and send to my email

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Indonesia early 20th Century History Collections(continue Sample)

Thsi is only sample

Info before asking by the leiden university reseacheres, Bdega, dan before I send to her complete info she asking to stop the project

di the siruartion I upload in my Book , look the sample below, I hope  badega give me permission to write this info,vbecause she didnot need this info and i think this importantantto know,(Dr Iwan commet0

1910

Kathe Haase(?)

Paul Johan Seelig

(1876-1945)

Music and dramatic society “Braga” in 1910 with, amongst others, Paul Seelig on cello.

Publication Seelig / Matatani

Muziek en toneelvereniging “Braga” in 1910 met o.a. Paul Seelig cello

    Source

Indischmuziekleven

Found by Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

In December 1910,

 

the American Deli Tobacco Company foreclosed on the mortgage, and at a sheriff’s sale (James P.S. Houston [photo on right from Florida State Archives],

  a son of Patrick and Martha Houston then being sheriff),

In June 1907, George B. Perkins, a founder of the American Sumatra Tobacco Company,

acquired control of the central portion of the Houston Plantation by assuming a lease purchase agreement originally given by Patrick Houston’s widow, Martha E. Bradford Houston (in rattan chair – photo from Florida State Archives), a granddaughter John Branch, Florida’s last Territorial Governor (served 1844-45 – photo from Florida State Archives). 

 

The actual purchase in November 1907 for $10,000.00, was by the American Sumatra Tobacco Company, with a life estate retained by Martha Bradford Houston.  In December 1910, the American Deli Tobacco Company foreclosed on the mortgage, and at a sheriff’s sale (James P.S. Houston [photo on right from Florida State Archives],  a son of Patrick and Martha Houston then being sheriff), and 1911 and 1912 Perkins acquired all of the property that he developed into Woodland Drives subdivision from 1926 to 1930.  George B. Perkins and members of his family, sold 33 acres of land in the northwest quarter of Section 6 (T1S,R1E) to Ralph H. (“Hutch”) Gibson, for the sum of $30,000.00.  That 33 acres were developed by Gibson into Country Club Estates, now a part of the Myers Park neighborhood.  Gibson was a native of Attapulgas, Georgia, who had moved to Tallahassee in 1924.  The Tallahassee Daily Democrat, in 1926, called Gibson “a big naval stores operator and developer.”  The subdivision was surveyed and platted and lots in it went on sale in February 1926.  As an inducement to sales, Gibson offered five lots free to anyone who would build a house costing at least $5,000.00 on them immediately.  He actually gave away four lots under this offer. That lots purchased in the development must be built upon with a dwelling, duplex or apartment costing at least $4,000.00 was a requirement of sale, and the property was advertised as “restricted” which meant that lots were not to be sold except to persons of “Caucasian” descent (of course this was a historic requirement with no current validity).  The land in the development was taken off of the market in April 1926.  At that time 64 lots had been sold.  To some extent development in Tallahassee reflected the South Florida land boom of the 1920s, which went “bust” several years before the “Great Depression” began in 1929.  An April 8, 1926 news article said that, “Some of the most prominent and conservative people in the City of Tallahassee have purchased property in Country Club Estates and most of these people will construct an attractive home on their lots in the near future.”  Yet the development remained sparsely settled for some time.  In 1936 only 37 homes were listed in Country Club Estates.  This reflected a gradual shift of Tallahassee’s population to various surrounding subdivisions, and a slowdown of construction through the Depression and the Second World War.

 

1910


Khouw Kim An (1910-1918 , reappointed 1927-1942 ) .

 

 

Portrait of Majoor Khouw Kim An’s grandsons, Yan and Coen (by Charles Sayers, circa 1937).

Majoor Khouw Kim An

Voorsitter Khouw Kim An (Majoor de Chinesen 3 februari 1937)

etc…etc…etc

Mayor Khow Khim An’s house

Which became

Candranaya building

now

During colonial era was named Sin Ming Hui

At Gajah Mada street (Jakarta),

 

 

1908

On May 20, 1908 he and students formed the Budi Utomo, which means “beautiful endeavor.” Indonesians celebrate this date as National Awakening Day. By July they had 650 members, and non-students began to join. Their membership reached a peak of 10,000 in 1909, but it did not appeal to the lower classes.

The radical doctor Tjipto Mangunkusumo wanted to make it into a political party to lift up the masses and spread it beyond Java and Madura to all of Indonesia, and he was supported by

Dr. Radjimam Wediodiningrat, who had been influenced by Theosophy and western philosophy.

1909

Tjipto defied the aristocrats and resigned from the board in 1909. In December

the Governor-General van Heutsz declared the Budi Utomo a legal organization, and it was a quasi-official party for the government.

1909

In 1909 the OSVIA graduate Tirtoadisurjo founded

the Islamic Commercial Union (Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah) in Batavia to support Indonesian merchants. Other branches formed; Haji Samanhudi organized a Javanesebatik traders’ cooperative, and

H. O. S. Tjokroaminoto became the leader in Surabaya.

 

1909

 

The first government vocational schools opened in Batavia, Semarang, Surabaya in 1909, but most of their graduates worked for European firms. etc…etc…etc..

1909

Uang Imperial Bank Ningpo

Five dollars

1909

1909–1916: 

Gubernur Jenderal Hindia Belanda

Alexander Willem Frederik Idenburg

 

 

1909

Mereka yang tlah menamatkan pendidikannya, tidak dapat tidak merasa ekonominya trjamin , kareena pendapatan mereka mencukupi walaupun jauh dari kemewahan. Sesudah sekian tahun bekerja untuk Pemerintah , mereka dapat memasuki usha swasta dimana mereka akan mendapat imbalan uang yang lebih besar .

Akan tetapi semua ini belum tentu member kepuasan, hidup menurut syarat-syarat dn menciptakan masalah-masalah yang tak dapat dipenuhi oleh stabilitas ekonomi.

Tata cara Brat yang amat dipaksakan pada asas ke-Timuran mengundang pertikaian.

etc…etc…etc..

 

1909

Budi Utomo muncul dalam pentas Indonesia sebagai organisasi yang didasarkan atas usaha-usaha individu-individu yang bebas dan sadar akan persatuan. Dengan mengusahakan legalisasi ( Yang diperoleh pada tahun 1909 ) , perkumpulan ini telah berdiri di hadapan pengadilan Hindia Belanda dalam kedudukan yang sama dengan seorang sipil Eropa.

Perkumpulan ini mengembangkan sebuah program dan tujuan yang berada diluar segala sesuatu yang terdapat di dalam cakrawala Jawa , atau untuk Kebudayaan Tradisional Jawa. Keanggotaannya dipilih dan sangat sedikit didasarkan pada Ikatan Kesukuan kecuali tentutnya, bahwa pada tahun-tahun permulaannya Organisasi ini didominasi oleh kaum intelektual .

Organisasi ini menunjukkan ,sekurang-kurangnya dari luar , pengaruh usaha-usaha Barat untuk mengubah kehidupan social dan ekonomi Indonesia. Adalah masuk akal kalau keanggotaannya benar-benar terdiri atas orang-orang yang erat hubungannya dengan berfikir dan bertindak secara Barat.

Susah untuk menentukan sejauh mana peraturan-peraturan didalam Organisasi dengan gaya seperti ini , bahwa konsep Barat telah berpengaruh kepada banyak pendiri Oraganisasi yang merasa bahwa supaya berhasil , suatu Organisasi harus mengikuti pola Barat .

Barangkali dengan tumbuhnya desentralisasi orang Indonesia mendapat kesempatan yang banyak untuk menyaksikan pembentukan dan perluasan organisasi-organisasi Barat yang didirikan untuk mengembangkan suatu tujuan.

Selanjutnya hokum dan konsep-konsep legal Barat merupakan sarana untuk kelahiran maupun untuk pemeliharaan yang baik dari kehidupan organisasi dan menciptakan suatu usasana yang cocok dalam menyebarkan cita-cita ke atas dank e luar lingkungan setempat.

Didalam pengakuannya Budi Utomo pada pokoknya adalah pendudkung kebudayaan Jawa. Ia cenderung dan mengembangkan orang Jawa ( yang dianggapnya masuk dalam kelompok yang berbahasa Jawa, Sunda dan Madura , yang keseluruhannya telah melebur ke dalam suatu bentuk kebudayaan jawa ) menuju kepada kepada suatu perkembangan yang harmonis.

Perkumpulan ini brusaha untuk member kekuatan kepada mereka dalam menghadapi kehidupan modern dengan meremajakan kebudayaan Jawa. Selama hidupnya ( Budi Utomo kehilangan identitas formalnya di tahun 1955) perkumpulan ini tidak pernah kehilangan peranan kebudayaannya , tetapi ada masa-masanya ketika pengaruh lain menentang tujuan utama ini.

 

Peristiwa ini terjadi sekali pada periode pembinaan dalam eksistensi Budi Utomo dan yang mengambarkan sentiment yang hidup di dalam masyarakat Indonesia itu.

Pekerjaan untuk pembersihan dalam Budi Utomo dilakukan oleh seoramg dokter Jawa,

 

Sumber foto generusindonesia

Mas Wahidin Sudiro Husodo ,

etc…etc…

1910

Sin Po first went into print in 1910

Source wiki

 

1910

Letnan Kolonel H.N.A. Swart, Gubernur sipil dan militer di Aceh, dengan istri dan anak perempuannya untuk pesanggrahan di Bireuen selama perjalanan di sepanjang jalan yang baru selesai antara Gajo ke Takengon

1910
Tapi pengejaran pasukan Belanda yang sangat intensif membuatnya tidak bisa menghindar lagi. Rahasia tempat persembunyiannya terbongkar.

Dalam suatu pengepungan yang rapi dan ketat pada tanggal 24 Oktober 1910,

Tjut Nyak Meutia berhasil ditemukan.
Walaupun pasukan Belanda bersenjata api lengkap tapi itu tidak membuat hatinya kecut.

Dengan sebilah rencong di tangan, dia tetap melakukan perlawanan.

Namun tiga orang tentara Belanda yang dekat dengan melepaskan tembakan. Dia pun gugur setelah sebuah peluru mengenai kepala dan dua buah lainnya mengenai dadanya. Cut Nyak Meutia gugur sebagai pejuang pembela bangsa.

Atas jasa dan pengorbanannya, oleh negara namanya dinobatkan sebagai Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional yang disahkan dengan SK Presiden RI No.107 Tahun 1964, tanggal 2 Mei 1964

etc…etc…etc

 

1910

Pada tahun 1910, Sekolah THHK Mojokerto sempat mengundang seorang pujangga dan sastrawan terkenal dari Tiongkok untuk mengajar di Mojokerto.

Su Manshu,

sastrawan yang didatangkan oleh para pengurus THHK Mojokerto mengajar selama 6 bulan saja.

Ia sempat ditawari menjabat kepala sekolah di Sekolah THHK Mojokerto karena keilmuannya yang tinggi, namun Su Manshu menolak dan memutuskan untuk pindah.

Di Sekolah THHK Mojokerto, Su Manshu mengajar bahasa Inggris dan bahasa Kuo Yu.

Keadaan politik di Tiongkok serta keadaan di Mojokerto sendiri yang tidak stabil menyebabkan pasang surut terhadap kegiatan pendidikan Sekolah THHK Mojokerto.

etc…etc…etc

1911

Paul Johan Seelig

(1876-1945)

 

In 1911 he leaves for Siam (Thailand). There he becomes conductor and musical advisor of the Royal Orchestra of Bangkok. At that time, he noted down a large number of Siamese folk-melodies and he also composed the national anthem of Siam. A large collection of songs, recorded from native singers of Central Java, would also appear in print afterwards.

The compositions of Seelig display an intriguing combination of eastern and western elements, the structure always betraying the craftsman. Much of his voluminous, practically undated oeuvre has, apart from the Indies themselves, also been performed in Germany, France, Austria, America and Japan, but strangely enough hardly ever in our country.

    Source

Indischmuziekleven

Found by Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 etc…etc…etc

1911

Sumber foto Dr Rivai : Suryadi

Rivai balik ke Indonesia pada 1911 dan ditempatkan di Cimahi sebagai Officier vanGezonheid. Tahun 1912 ia dipindahkan ke Padang.

Karena tidak suka diatur-atur orang Belanda, ia keluar dari pekerjaan dinas dan buka praktek di Jalan Gereja.

“Dr. A. Rivai. Arts. Djoega Penjakit Mata dan penjakit perempoean. Spreekuur: PAGI poekoel 7-9, SORE poekoel 4-6. Telefoon No. 66. Kerkstraat”, demikian bunyi iklannya yang dimuatSinar Sumatra edisi Januari 1914.

Pada 1917 Rivai pindah ke Surabaya, lalu ke Semarang. 

Sumber suryadi

etc…etc..etc..

1911

Sumber fot google

Pada tahun 1911 Pangeran Notoprojo dilantik menjadi Ketua Budi Utomo . Dalam proses penentuan semula bukan regen-regen yang konservatif saja sebagai satu-satunya kelompok yang meninggalkan organisasi ini.

Apa yang dianggap sangat radikal bagimereka adalahsangat konservatif bagi kelompok radikal yang diketuaioleh Suwardi ( Ki Hjar dewantoro) dan Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo . Meraka pun keluar dari Budi utomo untuk mencari pengikut yang lebih radikal di tempat lain.

Mereka tidak jauh-jauh mencari . Penyokong terhadap tujuan-tujuan yang lebih radikal dari pemuda-pemuda Jawa ini datang dari seorang Indo-eropa, W.F.E. Douwes Dekker.

Sumber foto W.F.E. Douwes Dekker

kaskus.co.id

Pada saat didirikannya Budi Utomo , Douwes dekker bergabung pada Bataviaansch Nieuwblad (majalah berita Batavia) . Ia bertanggung jawab secara luar biasa secara luas atas Surat Kabar yang dianggap sbagai suara Jong Java di dalam kalangan bangsa eropa.

Douwes dekker adalah seorang petualang yang belum melewatisetengah-jalan dari hidup yang aktif selama tujuhpuluh tahun.

Ia adalah seorang keluarga jauh Multatuli yang terkenal tetapi tidak memiliki saraf yang kuat dan kepintaran yang mendorong yang dimiliki Leluhurnya itu

Sumber

Robert,58

Komentar r Iwan

Masih banyak info lagi tentang

Douwes dekker dalam buku

Robert van Niel, tetapi tidak dicuplik secara lengkap, nanti pembaca awam akan bosan, dan anda bisa baca dari bukunya, nanti saya diprotes jadi palgiat. Ini adlah hasil penelitian untuk kepentingan seluruh rakayat Indonesia .

Nanti akan saya terbitkan sebuah buku yang koleksinya adalh 100 % milik sya, wlaupun pengantarnya masih dari hasil penelitian orng lain. Hari sudah malam nanti anda bosah, ayo tidur lagi , bobok dimalam minggu sedap.

etc…etc…etc..

Pada tahun 1912

pelatihan dokter kedua di Surabaya dibuka,

 

 

Sekolah Kedokteran Hindia belanda (NIAS) 1912 .

 

Kedua sekolah (Medical School dan NIAS) dibuka untuk semua orang dan bagi perempuan. Hal ini tidak mustahil bahwa itu diharapkan oleh kelompok-kelompok baru – anak perempuan dan non-pribumi – mengakui, kekurangan dokter dalam pengurangan koloni. Sekarang semua populasi dirawat, mengubah judul dokter dokter India asli [ii].

 

Meskipun gadis yang mengikuti program tersebut, tetapi mereka memiliki pelatihan mereka sendiri dan membayar untuk akomodasi mereka sendiri selama studi yang bersangkutan. \

 

Siswa laki-laki diberi uang saku dan tinggal di sebuah pondok pesantren. Sebagai gantinya, mereka memiliki kontrak yang disebut mortgage bond.

 

etc…etc…etc

Dr Muwardi

Muwardi dilahirkan pada tanggal 30 Januari 1907 sebagai putra ketujuh dari 11 orang putra-putri M. Sastrowardoyo, Mantri guru Jakenan, Pati, Jawa Tengah.
Ayahnya mencita-citakan agar putra-putrinya menjadi orang pandai dan berkedudukan melebihi sang Ayah. Maka setelah tamat ELS (Europeesche Lagere School, Sekolah rendah berbahasa Belanda), Muwardi dikirim ke Jakarta untuk meneruskan pelajarannya di Sekolah Dokter STOVIA. Usaha orang tuanya itu tidak sia-sia, Muwardi lulus dari STOVIA dan menjadi dokter pada tanggal 1 Desember 1933.

Sumber

pahlawancenter.

18 November 1912

Pada tanggal 18 November 1912, Perserikatan 6yang diberi nama Muhamaddijah(sekarang Muhamadiyah) didirikan ,

dengan maksud dan tujuan ialah menegakkan dan mendukung tinggi Agama Islam, sehingga dapat mewujudkan nasyarakat Islam yang sebenar-beanrnya.

Keterangan lebih lanjut baca Anggaran Dasar Muhamaddiyah.

(sumber: Alamanak Muhamadiyah 1959)

 

 

 

21 Juli 1913

Saya menemukan arsip surat kabar Der Leeuwarder Courant (surat kabar yang terbit sejak 1752) yang melaporkan tentang Sekolah Kartini pada edisi Minggu, 21 Juli 1913.

Tak tanggung-tanggung, laporan berjudul “Kartini Scholen” itu nyaris memakan satu halaman penuh — dan itu diterbitkan di halaman muka. Di sana dituliskan betapa Yayasan Kartini akan menjadi organisasi menyebar di seluruh negeri untuk memajukan pendidikan di negeri terjajah.

Sejak itulah Kartini sebagai narasi mulai mencuat. Buku surat-surat Kartini diterbitkan terus-menerus dan juga terus diperbincangkan. Yayasan Kartini di Belanda bekerja dengan bagus untuk mempopulerkan narasi tentang Kartini ini.

dst….dst…st

 

1913

Akhirnya pada tahun 1913, diubahlah kata Inlandsche (pribumi) menjadi Indische (Hindia) karena sekolah ini kemudian dibuka untuk siapa saja, termasuk penduduk keturunan “Timur Asing” dan Eropa, sedangkan sebelumnya hanya untuk penduduk pribumi. Pendidikan dapat diperoleh oleh siapa saja yang lulus ujian dan masuk dengan biaya sendiri

Pemeintah Hindia Belanda , cukup beralasan untuk cenderung melihat berbagai segi program Indische Partij ini dengan hati kurang senang . Partai ini revolusioner . Tidak mengherankan bila permohonan partai untuk diakui secara sah telah ditolak Gubernur Jenderal.

Hal ini tidak menghentikan arus propaganda yang disebarkan oleh pemimpin-pemimpin partaimelalui penerbitan partai , De Express.

Aksi Komite Bumi Putera mencapai puncaknya pada 19 Juli 1913, ketika harian De Express menerbitkan suatu artikel Suwardi Suryaningrat yang berjudul “Als Ik Nederlands Was” (Andaikan Saya Seorang Belanda).

Pada hari berikutnya dalam harian De Express Cipto menulis artikel yang mendukung Suwardi untuk memboikot perayaan kemerdekaan Belanda.

Tulisan Cipto dan Suwardi sangat memukul Pemerintah Hindia Belanda, pada 30 Juli 1913 Cipto dan Suwardi dipenjarakan,

 

Untuk menghentikan ini Pemerintah mengadili Daouwes Dekker,

Dr Cipto dan Suwardi atas tuduhan “Penyimpangan-penyimpangan dalam jurnalistik “ dan membuang ketiganya keluar dari Hindia belanda tahun 1913

Pada 18 Agustus 1913 keluar surat keputusan untuk membuang Cipto bersama Suwardi Suryaningrat dan Douwes Dekker ke Belanda karena kegiatan propaganda anti Belanda dalam Komite Bumi Putera

 

Tiga sekawan Dr Ciptomangunkusumo,Douwes dekker dan Suwanrdi Suryaningrat pad atahun 1913 ditahan belanda dan dipenjarakan, dan pada 18 Agustus 1913 keluar surat keputusan untuk membuang Cipto bersama Suwardi Suryaningrat dan Douwes Dekkerkenegri Belanda

Pada Nopember 1913,

Belanda memperingati 100 tahun kemerdekaannya dari Perancis. Peringatan tersebut dirayakan secara besar-besaran, juga di Hindia Belanda .

Perayaan tersebut menurut Cipto sebagai suatu penghinaan terhadap Rakyat Bumi putera yang sedang dijajah. Cipto dan Suwardi Suryaningrat kemudian mendirikan suatu komite perayaan seratus tahun kemerdekaan Belanda dengan nama Komite Bumi Putra.

 

Dalam komite tersebut Cipto dipercaya untuk menjadi ketuanya. Komite tersebut merencanakan akan mengumpulkan uang untuk mengirim telegram kepada Ratu Wihelmina, yang isinya meminta agar pasal pembatasan kegiatan politik dan membentuk parlemen dicabut.

Komite Bumi Putra juga membuat selebaran yang bertujuan menyadarkan rakyat bahwa upacara perayaan kemerdekaan Belanda dengan mengerahkan uang dan tenaga rakyat merupakan suatu penghinaan bagi bumi putera.

Sumber info :
 
http://bit.ly/copy_win

cst…dst…dst

 

1916

 

1916–1921:

Johan Paul van Limburg Stirum

 

dst…dst…st

1916

Goveurnur General Van Limburg stirum visit Padang with Insulinde Ship at the Emma Haven (now Teluk Bayur)

 

Governier general Van Limburg Stirum at the Resident Palace Padang in 1916(now West Sumatra Governur Palace).please look the Car that time

The interior of west Sumatra resident house in 1916

 

Welcome * Wel Kom) to Padang at the bridge from emma haven to Padang during the Guvernor genera van limburg stirum Visit Padang in 1916

Tread related info

Gaba-gaba menyambut Tuan Limburg Stirum di Padang

In March 1916

the Governor General of the Dutch East Indies Johan Earl Paul van Limburg Stirum official visit to Sumatra’s Westkust.

Van Limburg Stirum was Governor of the Dutch East Indies in 1916-1921. Important group of people that got Emmahaven Batavia (now: Gulf Bayur) by ship ‘Insulinde’.

They greeted like a king and was hailed by the subjects. Governor-General Van Limburg Stirum stay a few days in Padang before continuing his official trip to Tapanuli with rising auto overland through Pasaman

etc…etc…etc..

1917

Sin Po newspaper began gaining momentum as the leading advocate of Chinese political nationalism in 1917. The ethnic Chinese who followed its stream of thought refused any involvement with local institutions and would only participate in politics relating to mainland China.[36]

 A second stream was later formed by wealthy ethnic Chinese who received an education at Dutch-run schools.

Source-wiki

 

 

1917

Sumber foto Ade Muhd Djoen : google

Pada tahun 1917 Masehi Wakil Penembahan Ade Muhd. Djoen membuat suatu gagasan untuk mendirikan 2 (dua) buah Rumah Sekolah  yaitu: Holland Inlandse School ( H.I.S ) dan sekolah rakyat 5 (lima) tahun untuk memberi pendidikan anak-anak Negeri Sintang sehingga pengertahuannya sejajar dengan daerah lain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Istana kerajaan sintang Kalimantan Barat

Stempel Kerajaan Sintang

Sumber : Google

 

1918

Uang Kertas dasri ztiongkok yang dibawa oleh pedatang Tionghoa dari Tanah leluhurnya,dan tetap disimpan sampai mati dan dijual oleh ahliwarisnya karena kesulitan ekonomi tahun 1998.

etc…etc…etc

1918

Sumber foto Dr Rivai : Suryadi

Pada 1918 ia terpilih jadi anggotaVolksraad. Tapi ia mendapat penyakit gula, yang mendorongnya mengambil verlof ke Eropa pada Agustus 1919. Tahun 1920 Rivai balik lagi ke Indonesia dan pada tahun itu dia terpilih kembali menjadi anggota Volksraad. Sementara itu ia tetap buka praktek di Semarang. Tahun 1926 ia berhenti jadi anggota Voksraad, kemudian pergi lagi ke Eropa.Ia kembali ke Indonesia tahun 1932 dan tinggal di Batavia. Tahun 1933 ia pindah ke Bandung.

etc…etc..etc

1908

Dr Roland Tumbelaka
Doctor Roland Tumbelaka dilahirkan pada 7 Djoeli 1880 di Amoerang, Menado. Pada October 20 tahoen telah diangkat pada pendjabatan dahoeloe sebagai tabib Djawa (inlands art).

Pada tahoen 1908, beliau dilepaskan dengan hormat dari Djabatan Negeri oentoek mentjahari idjazah tabib (arts) di negeri Belanda disamping idjazah Sekolah Tabib Djawa (N.I.A.S.) jg. telah diperolehnja.

etc…etc..

Kathe haasse , Diehm Wizenholer

Componist and pianist van NIROM

(info from Lilian muklder,Leiden,2015)

1904-1916

 

Live Concert in Indonesia (Ned.Indie)

Batavian Staff Orchestra

Orchestras in the Dutch East Indies

For a long time music-lovers depended on ad hoc ensembles that were expanded to form an orchestra if the need arose. Foreign opera companies touring the region often brought their own orchestras, sometimes these were supplemented with local musicians or good amateurs.

 

When conductor Nico Gerharz took up residence in Batavia he created a fully-fledged symphony orchestra made up of about 20 strings and a wind group, forces with which the standard orchestral repertoire could be performed.

The orchestra flourished in particular in the years 1904-1916. They even went on tour, performing in the major venues on Java.

At the time the young Käthe Haasse, mother of the well-known Dutch novelist Hella Haasse, gave concerts with works by Beethoven,

Grieg and

Paul Seelig.

A talented pianist, Haasse also composed songs for mixed choir. No sooner had the Japanese occupation ended or concert life was resumed, albeit on a modest scale.

Concerts took place in the Schouwburg, featuring the so-called Station Orchestra (AFRIB) and broadcast by the Allied Forces Radio in Batavia.

On the initiative of Theo van der Bijl and the Pickler Trio an orchestra was formed by combining several smaller groups. This orchestra would later become the Radio NIROM Orchestra and captured listeners all over the archipelago. Broadcasts took place through various relay stations.

Their first conductor of merit was Frits Hinze.

Smaller regional amateur orchestras were founded in places like Surabaya (Loo Vincent), Malang, Makassar, Bandung and Medan. Artist Walter Spies and musician Paul Seelig were invited by the sultan in Yokgyakarta to form a court orchestra.

Last but not least, the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra was created by local musicians and Dutch and Hungarian players.

 

1950

After 1950 a small formation remained in Djakarta conducted by Henk te Strake.

source

Indischmuziekleven

 

1915

 

Bali cock figter 1915

di Bali permainan sabung ayam disebut Tajen. Tajen berasal-usul dari tabuh rah, salah satu yadnya (upacara) dalam masyarakat Hindu di Bali. Tujuannya mulia, yakni mengharmoniskan hubungan manusia dengan bhuana agung. Yadnya ini runtutan dari upacara yang sarananya menggunakan binatang kurban, seperti ayam, babi, itik, kerbau, dan berbagai jenis hewan peliharaan lain.

Persembahan tersebut dilakukan dengan cara nyambleh (leher kurban dipotong setelah dimanterai). Sebelumnya pun dilakukan ngider dan perang sata dengan perlengkapan kemiri, telur, dan kelapa

. Perang sata adalah pertarungan ayam dalam rangkaian kurban suci yang dilaksanakan tiga partai (telung perahatan), yang melambangkan penciptaan, pemeliharaan, dan pemusnahan dunia. Perang sata merupakan simbol perjuangan hidup.

 

FIRST ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

FIRST ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

in

9th February 2009

The Introduction From The Founder of Driwancybermuseum Web Blog

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                     

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Qillin decoration
Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard
 Library
Meeting room
working room
dragon boat mini musuem
Ceramic Collection
Ceramic Collections 2
VOC ship tile
VOC Tile&Token
Ngoc San Hanoi tile
Ancient Wayang Petruk
Ancient wayang Semar

Hallo Collector
THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem:

1. The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2. The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :
(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1 and 2)
(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)
(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles), VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).
(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

 B.Introduction
a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, andSAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.

THE SAMPLE OF EXHIBTION IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG DI RUANG PAMERAN KHUSUS

SHOWCASE :

RUANG PAMERAN :

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

 

 

History of China

History of China

 
 
 
 
 
  *wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
     
     
 
 
 
 
 
   
 

The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng) refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644, Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty, breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands. Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.

 

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :
The Driwan’s
Indonesian Postal History Cybermuseum

(Museum Dunia Maya Koleksi Benda Pos bersejarah RI)

Private Cybermuseum and The Illustrations special For premium member(please subscribed via comment)
Museum Dunia Maya Pribadi Khusus Untuk anggota Premium
E-BOOK

THE MYSTERY OF INDONESIAN VIENNA PRINTING STAMP
1949-1950

Dr Iwan s Creations
Based on His Own Postal and Document History Collections
Limited Private Edition 100 expl
Special For Premium Member
Jakarta,April. 2011
________________________________________________________________________________

THE MYSTERY OF INDONESIAN VIENNA PRINTING STAMP

1949-1950

Edisi Terbatas 100 eksp

Publikasi Pribadi Khusus untuk Kolektor postal Histori

Penulis : Dr Iwan S

Editor : Anton J.S.

Penyunting : Lily W.

Photographer : Albert SDO

NAMA PEMILIK: Dr Iwan S

NO. PERCOBAAN 001

@Copyright Dr Iwan S 2011

_____________________________________________________________

Introduction
(KataPengantar)
1.This Information still not complete,please all the colectors from all over the world to add the informations,thank .
informasi ini masih banyak kekurangannya ,harap komentar dan saran perbaikan dan tambahan informasi dari seluruh kolektor didunia

2.All my vienna printing stamps found in the Direction general RIS PTT souvernier book during IHFBC 1950 Florence conference.
‘Seluruh koleksi cetak wina milik saya berasal dari buku kenangan dari Dirjen PTT RIS pada IHFB conference Florence 1950.

3.The illustration special for premium member.
Ilustrasi khusus hanya untuk anggota premium.
_________________________________________

A. Chapter One :

The vienna printing stamps Repoeblik Indonesia prepare to sale in Dec.1st .1949
A.Introduction
1. The Indonesia vienna printing still mistery until this day,because not exist the history of this stamps issued at Jogya Post Office in 1949-1950 . Many fact must still mistery like :

Misteri dari prangko Indonesia Cetak wina 1949-1950 sampai saat ini masih menjadi suatu misteri, karena sejarah tentang penerbitan prangko ini di Jogya masih belum terungkap, antara lain

:(1)The stamps issued by whom.(prangko ini diterbitkan atas gagasan siapa)

(a) The name of Indonesia Postal Telephon Telegram(PTT) fo Jogya still didn’t knew . only the information from the introduction ,Minkus Worldwide postage stamp Catalogue 1972. “The following stamps were printed abroad during the blockage of republic of Indonesia by the Netherlands. According to the PTT of Indonesia, a great part of the documents relating to the stamps were lost during that turbulent time. The stamps inscribed REPORBLIK were prepared for sale Dec.15th,1948 (the nemae of republic was NRI Negara Republic Indonesia of the state of republic Indonesia why vienna printing stamp used Reporblik Indonesia withou the state still confuced, NRI didn’t join UPU that was why cannot send latter by international postal Unuion, the NRI stamps used only local in the NRI area only, I have the postally used cover with lo9cal NRI stamps and also Revenue NRI until December,10th.1948 but vienna printing never seen in thousand postal used cover from Jogya area, please comment.Dr Iwan S)

and reported issued Aug.17,1949 in UNION POSTALE,UPU bulletin of August,1951.This name bulletin listed stamps inscribed REPUBLIK and the UPU series as issued Aug.17.1949 and DEc.1.1949 reprectively.

(The vienna printing s stamps cannot used because in Dec ,27th.1949 Indonesian became The united states of Republic Indonesia “Republik Indonesia Serikat or RIS” the stamp used from Indonesia federal stade(NICA) with and without overprint, I have found in De,29th.1949 the Indonesia federal states stamp with Queen Juliana stamps still used on cover send from Bangka tanjung Pandan to Jakarta, the earliest used the overprint RIS in March 1950 and overprint RIS still used until 1952. my conclution The Indonesia Vienna printing stamps only the propaganda label ,special for USA and other foreign countries. Dr Iwan S.)

Following establistment of United States of Indonesia,the post offices were informed by telegraph under number 19119/A4 of Feb,20.1950:”Provisionally the following stamps are valid”B”.The postage stamps of the PTT services of the Republic Of Indonesia,printed abroad with several drawings ands value probably these stamps will no more be used for prepayment by public.

Stamps mentioned under “B” were valid only for ordinary Inland or foreign postage for airmail registration,etc. had to be prepaid by other contemporary stamps mentioned in remaining parts of the telegraphed massage.The UPU comemoratives were to remain valid for prepayment [postage until the end of July,1950(August,17.1950 RIS became NKRI Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia, the ordinary overprinted RIS stamps still valid until 1952,and listed on the the Tjontoh or Sample stamps list issued by the Indonesian Post Office ,found by the chief master og Bengkulu city Post officed during he work there,now in my Collections-Dr Iwan S)

nama pejabat PTT RI yang membuat gagasan tidak diketahui, hanya ada info dari kata pengantar katalog Minkus 1972 bahwa prngko dicetak diluar negeri selama blokade dari Republik Indoseia oleh Belanda. Karena sebagian besar dokumen yang berhubungan dengan prangko telah hilang saat masa kacau . Prangko dengan tulisan ejaan lama Repoeblik dipersiapkan untuk dijual pada tanggal 15 bulan desember 1948 dan juga dilaporkan penerbitan tanggal 17 agustus 1949 dalam Union Postale,UPU bulletin of August,1951. Buletin yang sama mencantumkan prangko dengan tulisan ejaan baru REPUBLIK dan seri UPU yang diterbitkan oleh RIS, menurut informasi telegram nomor 19119/ tanggal 20 pebuari 1950.yang berbunyi Prangko ini berlaku secara local provinsi “B” Prangko dari pos dalam pelayanan PTT Republik Indonesia,ditjetak diluar negeri dengan beberapa lukisan dan nominal.Mungkin prangko ini tidak akan di pergunakan untuk prabayar bagi masyarakat.Prangko dengan kode “B” hanya berlaku untuk prangko kontenporer untuk dalam negeri atau untuk pos udara ,registrasi dan sebagainya. untuk pra bayar dengan prangko kontemporer lainnya sebagai bagian tersisa dari pesan telegram . Prangko UPU tetap valid untuk prangko prabayar sampai akhir juli 1950.(Saya memiliki prangko dengan cetak tindih Tjontoh yangd iterbitkan tahun 1951,prangko cetak wina tidak tercantum dalam lembaran prangko contoh tersebut-Dr Iwan S)

(2)Who painted the stamp’s design ( siapa yang mengambar desain prangko ini,)Under the pictorial stamps ,written the name of the painter SCROME ,please who have another name report via comment.thanks.

dibawah prangko serial lukisan pictorial ,bungkarno dan bung hatta ada nama pelukisnya yaitu SCHROM.sedangkan yang definitif tidak ada namanya.lihatillustrasi dibawah ini.

, sedangkan lainnya tidak ada.saya harap yang m nama lain agar melaporkannya kepada saya terim aksih sebelumnya.

(3) Are this stamp issued ,by sold in the post office and use on cover postally(Apakah Prangko ini pernah dijual diloket kantor pos jogya dan dipergunakan untuk pengiriman surat ?) Until this day I had nevers een the guinine postal used cover, only CTO Cover exist. ( sampai saat ini saya belum pernah melihat prangko cetak wina yang terkirim liwat pos, yang ada dalam bentu CTO saja.)

B.Type of prepaid stamps 1949
1.stamp
(1)Indonesia Leader
(a)Bung Karno
(a1) low nominal 2s Bung karno with Soldier
(a2) Bung karno and Whasington 1 R(not yet found)
(a3) President Sukarno 25R
(b)Bung Hatta
(b1)40s with Abe Lincoln(not yet found)
(b2) high values vice president Hatta 10 R
(2) Pictorial :
(a)The low nominal from 1sen to 80 Sen

(b)The high nominal from 60 Sen to 5 R
2.porto not yet found
3.Air Mail stamps
(1)10s,15 SEN ,20 s,30 s two type ,50 s,75 sen ,IR, 1 half R, 4 and half R two type,4 and half R and 7 and half R
(2)airoplane 2 and half R
(3) Bung Hatta 10 R
(4)Bung Karno 25 R
5.UPU
(1) Perforated
(a) 10s
(b) 20 S
(c) 50 S (not yet found,sample look RIS Merdeka ovpt)
(d) 1 R

(2) unperforated
6.Express 10s ,no other nominal value found
7.Resmi Overprint(official)
(1)2s,5s,15 S,30 s 10 s
(2)10s,30s,50 s and 1 R
8.souvenir sheet
(1)Bung Karno
(a)1 R not yet found
(b) Pictorial 1 R not yet found

PS APABILA KOLEKTOR INDONESIA INGIN MEMEPROLEGH BOOK DAN ILLUSTRASI YANG LENGKAP HARAP MENDAFTA MENJADI ANGGOTA PREMIUM WEB BLOG INI LIWAT KOMENTAR DENGAN MEN ADD FOTOKPI KTP UNTUK SEKURITI. SELANJUTNYA AND AKAN DIHUBUNGI LIWAT EMAIL ANDA. ANDA AKAN MEMEPROLEH INFORMAIS YANG DAPAT MENGUKAPAKAN MISTERI PRANGKO CETAKL WINA, APAKAH PRANGKO INI ASLI ATAU PLASU, APAKAN ADA YANG TERKR8I LIWAT POS ATAU HANYA PRANGKO PROPAGANDA SAJA.

the end @ copyright Dr iwan Suwandy 2011

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MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :
The Driwan’s Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Please Enter

DVWC SHOWROOM
(Driwan Vietnam War Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Vietnam War Document
and
Postal History
1969-1975
THE VIETNAM WAR 1974
Vetnam War in 1974

_____________________________________
APAKAH ANDA SUDAH MELIHAT PAMERAN PERANG VIETNAM 1968-1975
DI Driwan Cybermuseum , bila belum segera klik
hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
lihatlah salah satu frame pameran perang vietnam 1974. dibawah ini

January 1974

(a)Nguyen Cong Hoan story :

“While the 1973 Paris agreement was going on,the Communist were stepping up their military attack.By 1974 there really wasn’t anything left of thatagreement.There was just no hope.There was no move the regime and no way to stop the Front.

(b)American service men , 110.000 had burnst their draftcard and 40.000 young men had evaded call-up by leaving for neighbouring Canada and for Europe.(D)

(c)January.30th1974

(a)Air mail covers from Indonesian KONGA V/ICCS Region V Saigon send to SKOMDAK III (West Sumatra Police Headquaters ) Padang-Sumbar, overprint INDONESIA , with stamps rate 81 Dong (7 stamps) with CDS TAN AN 30-1-1974 ( My first Postal History of Vietnam war was Given by Police Mayor. Suroto to me as Medical Police Inspectur in 1975, from this postal history I started to collect Vietnam war Postal history –auth)

(b) ICCS Communications Center Ton Son Nhut, the photo of Indonesian Garuda Mission army and Police in the front of that centers (This photo was given to me from Indonesia national Police Captain “red arrow” who joined the Garuda IV Indonesia ICCS Vietnam auth)

(c) Unused Free Port Special letter sheet Garuda IV Indonesia ICCS Vietnam, Garuda was “Eagle” Indonesia National emblem.(PH)

(d)Indonesian Mayor General Wiyogo Atmodarminto , commander of the Ivth Garuda Mission to Vietnam inspecting his men

(e)The Indonesia participation in Upholding World Order ICCS in Vietnam 1973.-1975 under Garuda IV,V and VII.

In performing its task, ICCS met many difficulties due to the fact that certain points of the parisb Agreement on ending the war between the US and Vietnam, were conraversial. This led Indonesia to pull out GARUDA VII from Saigon in April,27,1975 the annexation of South Vietnam by North Vietnam waas the reason for the first Asean Summit in Bali to stress again the urgency to preserve political stability in South east Asia.

(f) The ICCS Vietnam plaque of Garuda IV Mission in Vietnam (Memorabilia)

FEBRUARY 1974 NO INFO

March 1974

March,8th 1974. Trich Luc Bo Khai San Saigon Documenty with local Saigon minh thue revenue 1974 5 D and 10 D.


MORE INFORMATIONS AND COLLECTIONS LOOK AT DrIWANCYBERMUSEUM,PLEASE CLICK
hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com.
You will seen another collections like :
1.The President south vietman Nguyen van Thiue Stamp used on cover

2.The war pictures

the ned @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

 

SEVENTH ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

SEVENTH   ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

IN 2o15

Driwan stem cell information center(continiu)

FOUNDER
 
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
more infocontact
iwansuwandy@ gmail.com
all free of charge
this info to all human in the world
with
 
THE MIGHTY GOD BLESS
 
 
CELL
 
lets we look
how wonderfool and exciting
 
the mighty GOD CREATION
CELL NOT THE SMALLEST P;ART OF OUR BODY BUT
THE BIGGER IMPORTANCE PART OF OUR REGRERATIVE POTIAL
LOOK AND LEARN CAREFULLY
MANY APPARART INSIDE CELL
 
 
 
CELL CONSIST
 
CELL MEMBRANE
with microvilli,
phagocyte vesicle,
cillia and secrotory villia
 
CYTOPLASM
vesicles
peroxisomes
lysosome
lysosome fusin with incoming phagocyte vesicle
mitochondria
free rebosome
golgi apparatus
microtubule network
centrosome and centriole
 
ROUGH ENDOPLASMIC RETICULYM
 
NUCLEUS
 
inside found
NUCLEOLI
 
INSIDE THE APPARAT CONSIST MANY CHEMICAL WHICH
CONTROL OUR REGRENATIVE FUNCTION TO PROTECT OUR CELL FROM
INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL EXPOSUE
CALL
DNA
CCONSIST
 
 
 
 
AGTC
 
ADENINE
 
GUANINE

Thymine

“Thymine (T, Thy)”  

Thymine Structure

Thymine

In our body’s cells, Thymine (T, Thy) is a Pyrimidine derivative, one of the Nitrogenous Bases (Nucleobases) in the Nucleic Acid (Polynucleotide) of DNA. 

Thymine (5-methyluracil)

Thymine (T) is also known as (5-methyluracil).

 

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PROMOSI BUKU ELEKTRONI DR IWAN :”THE RARE BOOK COLLECTIONS FOUND IN INDONESIA”

The Rare Book Collections

Found In Indonesia

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors And Scholars

Copyright @ 2014

KATA PENGANTAR

PREFACE

Dalam rangka memperingati ulang tahun saya yang ke tujuh puluh pada tanggal 9 Pebuari 2015 , dengan segalakerendahan hati saya menerbitkan buku panduan bagi para  kolektor Senior dan Mahasiswa yang saya beri judul alam bahasa Ingris

“The Rare Book Collections Found In Indonesia “

Mohon maaf apabila ada ejaan bahasa Ingris saya yang kurang tepat , karena sya belajar secara otodidak , dan terjemahan dengan bantuan Google Translate yang perlu mendapatkan koreksi , kandatipun demikian saya harap anda semua akan mengerti karena gaya bahsa Inggris saya adalah gaya Inggris Indonesia seperti yang anda sering dengar di Singapura  atau Malaysia.

Sudah banyak buku-buku langka koleksi saya yang saya upload di web blog saya baik Driwancybermuseum’Blog  atau Iwansuwandy’s blog , dari Buu-buku yang saya karang sendiri maupun karangan penulis terkenal yang banyak mendpatkan sorotan dari para pemirsa web blog saya anatara lain:

Motif Keramik Kerajaan  Tiongkok Yang Ditemukan di Indonesia dan

Koleksi Martavan Yang ditemukan di Indonesia sehingga telah banyak pemesannya ,tetapi hanya sebagian yang membeli mungkin dianggap mahal walaupun menurut ukuran saya masih murah hanya lima ratus ribu rupiah , dan bayak pedagang menginginkan buku ini tetapi saya tidak jual kepadanya sampai mereka marah dan memaki-maki saya sampai ada yang membuat email saya spam, saya tidak jual kepada pedagang saya takut nanti dikopi dan juga mereka akan jadi saingan saya sehingga harga dipasaran jadi naik dan saya jadi tidak sanggup membelinya , apalagi akhir-akhir ini banyak keramik antic asli maupun palsu banyak diperjual belikan di Jakarta.

Selain itu juga banyak komentar tentang buku saya lainnya seperti   ,

Buku  Koleksi Sejarah Minangkabau ,

buku Koleksi sejarah   Bali ,

buku Koleksi Sejarah Kerajaan kalimantan Barat

Buku Koleski sejarah wayang

Buku Koleksi  Sejarah Aceh ,

Buku sejarah Batak,Buku sejarah leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia Buku Koleksi Sejarah Indonesia Permulaan Abad Kedua Puluh, Buku Koleksi Sejarah Keramik Dinasti Tang , dinasti Sung, dinasti Yuan , Diansti Ming dan dinasti Qing ,

begitu juga dengan buku koleksi sejarah Koin Gobok Tiongkok dari seluruh dinasti.

Buku sejarah Perang Vietnam 945-1975

Buku Koleksi

sejarah Pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia,

 

Buku

Koleksi Sejarah Perang dunia Kedua di Eropa, Buku Sejarah Revolusi dan perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945-1950.

Koleksi Buku Langka yang  saya beri judul

The Rare Book Collections dan Bedah Buku Indonesia yang banyak juga mendapat sorotan dari pemirsa web blog saya.

Dalam CD-Rom ini anda aka dapat melihat cuplikan seluruh buku-buku elektronik dalam Cd-Rom tulisan saya , harganya tetap masing-masih satu Cd lima ratus ribu rupiah ,

 kecuali bila nanti ada devaluasi rupiah yang tambah tinggi harganya akan disesuaikan, seperti saat ini sebenarnya sudah enam ratus ribu tetapi saya tetap tidak menaikan harga mengiggat situasi Indonesia saat ini masih aman dan cerah sejak pimp[iannya bapak Jokowi .

Edisi terbatas paling banyak antara sepuluh sampai 20 Cd  saja. Juga dalam Cd-Rom ini akan saya tampilkan  cuplikan buku langka yang sudah saya upload di Web Blog saya.

Saya ucapkan terima kasih kepada berbagai pihak yang tak dapat saya sebutkan satu persatu namanya , mereka telah banyak membantu saya dan membeli CD-Rom saya sehingga membuat saya tambah semangat, buku elektronik ini saya buat untuk menambah pengetahuan anda tentang buku-buku langka dan berapa nilai jualnya.

Sebenarnya anda bisa mencari sendri harganya liwat eksplorasi google dengan mencantumkan nama buku,pengarang,dan tahun edisinya, tetapi untuk menghemat waktu anda biarlah saya dengan susah payah, siang-malam mengerjakan buku ini dan membuka rahasianya bagi anda yang seluruhnya saya anggap teman baik saya dimanapun anda berada.

 

Bagi yang yang ingin memperoleh bku elektronikyang langka ini dan harap anda segera memesannya  karena diterbitkan harnya sepuluh CD- saja, Pemesan yang pertama sampai sepuluh akan saya urut sesuai dengan komunikasi anda melalui email saya

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

Jangan lupa mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkap rumah anda serta riwyata pekerjaan singkat, ini untuk mencegah penipuan yang banyyak terjadi aat ini yang dikenal dengan hijact internet atau spam.

Terima kasih atas kunjungan and adi web blog saya dan juga terimakasih atas pesanan anda,  Cd-Rom ini akan selesai pada bulan maret 2015.

 

 

THE INDONESIAN INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR HISTORY COLLECTION

PART

INTRODUCTION

BY

DR IWANSUWANDY,MHA

LIMITED E-BOOK IN CD ROM EDITION

SPECIAL FOR SENIOR COLLECTORS ONLY

COPYRIGHT @DR IWAN 2014

INTRODUCTION

Saya adalah putra kelahiran kota Padang Sumatra Barat tahun 1945 bulan pebruari,beberapa bulan sebelum proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Tidak terasa hapir 70 tahun yang lalu, dalam rangka memperinagati hari ulang tahun proklamasi Kemerdeaan Indonesia ke 70, saya tealah mempersiapkan sebuah  buku elektronik dalam CD Rom yang akan saya tampilkan pada agustus 2015 yang akan datang.

Saya mengumpulkan prangko sejak berumur 10 tahun tahun 1955, dan pada tahun 1957 saya banyak menemukan postal history Indonesia dari kantor-kantor pemerintah yang lokasi dekat rumah sata dari tempat sampah sedang dibakar.

Sungguh sangat beruntung koleksi tersebut tidak saya lepaskan dari sampul atau dokumennya,mulanya karena malas saja dan saat ini yang postally used on cover dan document sudah sangat langka.

Pada tahun 1980 saat saya mengunjungi kota Bandung, saya mampir di took prangko Go-Go shop di jalan Braga saat keluarga saya berbelanja di area tersebut.

Di Toko ini saya menemukan sebuah buku lelangan prangko dari Vic Esbensen Canada,dan saya diberi izin untuk memfoto kopinya,kemudia saya menghubungi Vic esbensen,dari dari dia saya diberikan buku katalogus  postal history proklamasi kemerdekaan Indonesia yang sampai saat ini masih ada pada saya,dan berdasarkan katalogus yang langka tersebut mulailah saya berburu koleksi.

Tahun 1982 saya sempat membeli suatu koleksi postal history dan juga dokumen milik

 Suwil St Bandaro,almarhum Bendahara kantor Pos Padang masa Revolusi dari Isteri dan anak-anaknya dengan menukarnya dengan sebuah rumah real estate di Tabing Padang.

Tahun 1985. P.R.Bulterman pemilik dan penerbit  katalogus belanda Indonesia,dan buku DEI Postmark kerumah saya di kota Padang,ia sangat terkejut melihat koleksi saya, dan membeli beberapa koleksi postal stationer pendudukan Jepang untuk bahan katalogus yang di buatnya,tetapi saya larang nama saya dicantumkan,karena saya sebagai Perwira Polri mersa perlu hat-hati karena dsaat tersebut dokumen sejarah Indonesia dilarang untuk disimpan.say hanya jual pendudukan jepang ssja.

Tahun 1986 saya menjual beberapa koleksi revolusi saya kepa Karel dengan syarat tidak dimual kelur negeri, tetapi ternyata kemudian dijual juga  liwat Tangera Auction TAM dan Belanda, untuk ko9leksi dokumen asli bekas milik Suwawil Dr Bandaro masih ada sampai sekarang.

Koleksi saya jual karena membutuhkan biaya

untuk membeli rumah di Kelapa Gading Jakarta

dan biaya sekolah saya, isteri dan kedua anak saya serta membeli mobil pada tahun 1989.

Pada tahun 1995 saat pameran filateli hari kemerdekaan Indonesia 1950 sebenarnya saya sudah mempersiapkan untuk memamerkan koleksi dan membuat pertunjukan tetapi oleh karena berbagai hal terpaksa di Tunda.

Setah pak Harto turun tahun 1998,koleksi filateli mengaklami kemunduran yang luar biasa, baru tahun 2008 koleksi filatemi terutama postal history jadi hebat lagi, selamay koleksi filateli sepi saya sempat membeli koleksi postal historu revolusi ke,erdekaan Indonesia dari pulau jawa,dan kemudian membuat buku elektronil dam CD-Rom yang saya upload tahun 1945 saja di web blog saya.

Saya hanya jual satu CD-ROM saja yaitu ke Pad Tono R.Putranto semarang, dan saya tidak mau jual kepada pedagang karena banyak ditemukan koleksi Asli tetapi palsu(fake) terutama dari kota Medan,mereka marah kepada saya karena pernah saya memberikan komentar di facebook.

Tahun 2014,ternyata Pak Tono dan dua orang lagi memperoleh medali Mas dari Philakorea 2014,termasuk koleksi revolusi milik pak Agus,yang memiliki 5 prangko militer Surakarta.

 

Bagi yang ingin memiliki CD-ROM ini,harap memnghubungi saya liwat emaikl

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

dan khusu bagi yang membeli CD-ROM edisi terbatas ini hanya 100 buah, nanti akan mendapat undangan gratis untuk menyaksikan pertunjukan yang saya laksanakan bulan agustu 2016.

Terima kasih atas segala bantuan yang saya rtelah terima khususnya almarhum Vic Esbensen,Ramkema,P>R>Bulterman,Pak Untung, Suwito, Harri siregar,Herry dan Pak Tono dan masih banyak lagi yang namanya tidak dapat saya tulis disini.

Jakarta Agustus 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Senior Superintendant®

Kombespol Purnawirawan

 

 

English version

INTRODUCTION

I was born in the city of Padang in West Sumatra month of February 1945, several months before the proclamation of Indonesian independence.

Nothing feels hapir 70 years ago, in order memperinagati birthday proclamation Kemerdeaan Indonesia to 70, I tealah prepare an electronic book on CD Rom which I will show at the upcoming August 2015.

Collecting stamps since I was 10 years old in 1955, and in 1957 I found many Indonesian postal history of government offices that location near the sata from trash being burned.

It is very fortunate that collection I did not remove it from the cover or the document, initially just being lazy and this time the postally used on covers and a document has been extremely rare.

In 1980 when I visited the city of Bandung, I stopped at the shop stamp Go-Go shop at the Braga family when I was shopping in the area.

In this shop I found a book of stamps auction Vic Esbensen Canada, and I was given permission to photograph his coffee, later I contacted Vic esbensen, from of him I was given a book catalogs the proclamation of Indonesian independence postal history that is still available to me, and based on the catalog of the rare collections began my hunt.

In 1982 I had bought a collection of postal history and also documents belonging Suwil Dr. Bandaro, late Treasurer of the Revolution Padang Post office of his wife and children by exchanging with a home real estate in Tabing Padang.

1985 PRBulterman owner and publisher catalogs Dutch Indonesia, and book DEI PostMark my house in the city of Padang, he was surprised to see my collection, and bought some postal stationary collection for the Japanese occupation of the catalog material is in him, but I forbid my name listed , because I am a police officer need a hat Mersa careful because it documents the history of Indonesia dsaat forbidden to sell only disimpan.say ssja Japanese occupation.

In 1986, I sold some of my collection kepa Karel revolution on condition dimual kelur country, but it was later sold also through Tangera TAM Auction and Dutch, for ko9leksi original documents used to belong Suwawil Dr. Bandaro still there today.

Selling my collection because it cost money to buy a house in Kelapa Gading Jakarta and school fees both wife and my son and bought a car in 1989.

In 1995 when the Indonesian independence day philately exhibition in 1950 in fact I’ve been preparing to showcase a collection and make the show but because of various things forced on Pause.

Setah Pak Harto down in 1998, a collection of philatelic mengaklami tremendous setback, the new 2008 collection of postal history filatemi especially so powerful, quiet selamay philatelic collection I had bought a collection of postal historu revolution, erdekaan Indonesia on the island of Java, and then make a book elektronil dam CD-Rom which I uploaded in 1945 alone in my web blog.

I only sell one CD-ROM course is to Pad Tono R.Putranto Semarang, and I do not want to sell to traders because many found a collection of original but fake (fake) primarily from the city of Medan, they are angry with me because I never leave a comment on facebook .

In 2014, it turns out Mr. Tono and the other two medal Mas from Philakorea 2014, including the collection belongs pack revolution Agus, who has 5 military stamps Surakarta.

 

For those who want to have a CD-ROM, please memnghubungi me through emaikl

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

and khusu for those who buy the limited edition CD-ROM is only 100 pieces, later will receive a free invitation to watch the show that I carried out in agustu 2016.

 

Thank you for all the help I received, especially the late Vic  Esbensen, Ramkema, P. R. Bulterman, Mr. Untung, Suwito, Harri Siregar, Herrera and Mr. Tono and many more whose names I can not write here.

Jakarta in August 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

senior Superintendant®

Retired Kombespol

Note

For foreign collectors please aks helping from Indonesian collectors if you want to by the CD-Rom because difficult and high cost to send the CD abroad.

SIX ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

SIX  ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

in 2013

This The sample Of Dr Iwan CD-ROM To Be Continued

The Bali History Collections

 Dienstmeisje van kunstschilder Lemajeur, Bali, Indonesie (1947-1953)

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

Bali In

15th  Century

In the 5ear 1489, Nirartha
is a Buddhist priest who was then a priest Shiva. He was also named MPU Dwijendra and dubbed Rauh Wawu Rawuh, he is also known as a man of letters.

 
In Dwijendra Tattwa recounted as follows:

“In The Kingdom of Majapahit in East Java, there was a Bhagavan named

 
Dang Hyang Dwi Jendra.
He was honored for his dedication to a very high against the king and the people through spiritual teachings, increase prosperity and tackle the problems of life.

 
He is known in spreading the teachings of Hinduism with the name “Dharma Yatra”.

 
 In Lombok he called “Mr. Sumeru” or teacher of Semeru, the name of a mountain in East Java. “
With supernatural abilities and his heart’s eyes, he saw the seeds of the collapse of the Hindu kingdom in Java.
 Intentions about to break up the warring parties, but will not be able to resist the will of the Creator, is characterized by a variety of natural disasters that allegedly participated in the collapse of the Majapahit kingdom contribution (one of which is a natural disaster “Newer Mountains”).

Finally he got a clue to move to an island that is still under the control of Majapahit, the island of Bali.

Before going to the island of Bali, Dang Hyang Nirartha moved to Daha (Kediri), then to Pasuruan and then to Blambangan.

 
He first arrived in Bali from Blambangan Caka circa 1411 or 1489 AD when the Kingdom of Bali Dwipa led by Dalem Waturenggong.

He was a revelation in
 
 Purancak,

 
 Jembrana

that need to be developed in Bali Tripurusa understand that worship Hyang Widhi in his manifestation as Shiva, Sada Shiva, and Parama Shiva.

Dang Hyang Nirarta also nicknamed Rauh Wawu Rawuh because he has the supernatural ability that makes Dalem Waturenggong was amazed that he was appointed as Bhagawanta (royal priest).

When it reaches the golden era Dwipa Bali, because all areas of people’s lives is well laid out.

Rights and obligations of the nobility regulated, legal and judicial customary / religious enforced,

 inscriptions containing the ancestral lineage of each Soroh / bali organized clan.

Awig awig Pekraman Balinese traditional village is created, fostered and promoted subak organizations and religious activities improved. In addition, he also encouraged the creation of literary works of high quality in writing manuscripts, chanting or kekawin.

Pretends to adore him in the place where he never lived to guide the people are: Purancak, Hair siwi, Pakendungan, Ulu Watu, Bukit Gong, Mount Umbrella, Sakenan, Air Oranges, Tugu, Tengkulak, Gowa Lawah, Ponjok Stone, Suranadi (Lombok ), Pangajengan, Masceti, Peti Tenget, Amertasari, Melanting, Pulaki, Bukcabe, Dalem Gandamayu, Pucak asp, and others.
 
Dang Hyang Nirartha finally disappeared unseen (moksha) at Uluwatu Temple. (Moksha = union of Atman with Brahman / Sang Hyang Widhi Wasa, died without leaving a body).

 .

original info

1489

Danghyang Nirartha

adalah seorang pendeta Budha yang kemudian beralih menjadi pendeta Syiwa. Beliau juga diberi nama Mpu Dwijendra dan dijuluki Pedanda Sakti Wawu Rawuh, beliau juga dikenal sebagai seorang sastrawan.

Dalam Dwijendra Tattwa dikisahkan sebagai berikut :

 

“Pada Masa Kerajaan Majapahit di Jawa Timur, tersebutlah seorang Bhagawan yang bernama

Dang Hyang Dwi Jendra.

Beliau dihormati atas pengabdian yang sangat tinggi terhadap raja dan rakyat melalui ajaran-ajaran spiritual, peningkatan kemakmuran dan menanggulangi masalah-masalah kehidupan.

Beliau dikenal dalam menyebarkan ajaran Agama Hindu dengan nama “Dharma Yatra”.

Di Lombok Beliau disebut “Tuan Semeru” atau guru dari Semeru, nama sebuah gunung di Jawa Timur.”

Dengan kemampuan supranatural dan mata bathinnya, beliau melihat benih-benih keruntuhan kerajaan Hindu di tanah Jawa. Maksud hati hendak melerai pihak-pihak yang bertikai, akan tetapi tidak mampu melawan kehendak Sang Pencipta, ditandai dengan berbagai bencana alam yang ditengarai turut ambil kontribusi dalam runtuhnya kerajaan Majapahit

 

(salah satunya adalah bencana alam “Pagunungan Anyar”). Akhirnya beliau mendapat petunjuk untuk hijrah ke sebuah pulau yang masih di bawah kekuasaan Majapahit, yaitu Pulau Bali. Sebelum pergi ke Pulau Bali, Dang Hyang Nirartha hijrah ke Daha (Kediri), lalu ke Pasuruan dan kemudian ke Blambangan.

Beliau pertama kali tiba di Pulau Bali dari Blambangan sekitar tahun caka 1411 atau 1489 M ketika Kerajaan Bali Dwipa dipimpin oleh Dalem Waturenggong. Beliau mendapat wahyu

di Purancak,

 

KISI INFO NAPAK TILAS SEJARAH INDONESIA(BERSAMBUNG)

Napak Tilas

tIMBUL DAN Runtuhnya timor timur

OLEH

Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

PENEMU DAN PRESIDEN PERTAMA

PERHIMPUNAN

KISI

(KOLEKSTOR INFORMASI SEJARAH INDONESIA)

TAHUN 2013-2020

SEJEN KISI

LILI WIDJAJA,MM

DEWAN KEHORMATAN

KETUA

Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MHA

ANGGOTA

ALBERT SUWANDY DJOHAN OETAMA,ST,GEA

ANTON JIMMI SUWANDY ST.MECH.

 

ANNGOTA KEHORMATAN

GRACE SHANTY

ALICE SUWAMDY

ANNABELA PRINCESSA(CESSA(

JOCELIN SUWANDY(CELINE)

ANTONI WILLIAM SUWANDY

ANNGOTA

ARIS SIREGAR

HANS van SCHEIK

 

MASA JABATAN PREDIDEN DAN SEKJEN HANYA SATU KALI SELAMA TUJUH TAHUN, PENGANTINYA AKAN DIPILIH OLEH DEWAN KEHORMATAN

BAGI YANG BERMINAT MENJADI ANGGOTA KISI

MENDAFTAR LIWAT  EMAIL KISI

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

dengan syarat

mengirimkan foto kopi KTP(ID )terbaru dan melunasi sumbangan dana operasional KISI untuk seumur hidup sebanyak US50,-

HAK ANGGOTA

SETIAP BULAN AKAN DI,KIRIMKAN INFO LANGSUNG KE EMAILNYA

DAPAT MEMBELI BUKU TERBITAN KISI YANG CONTOHNYA SUDAH  DIUPLOAD DI

hhtp”//www. Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

dengan memberikan sumbangan biaya kopi dan biaya kirim

TERIMA KASIH SUDAH BERGABUNG DENGAN KISI

SEMOGA KISI TETAP JAYA

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS

KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

Copyright @ 2013

INI ADALAH CUPLIKAN DAN CONTOH BUKU KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA HASIL PENELITIAN Dr  IWAN , HANYA DITAMPILKAN SEBAGIAN INFO DAN ILUSTRASI TAK LENGKAP.

BUKU YANG LENGKAP TERSEDIA BAGI YANG BERMINAT HUBUNGGI LIWAT KOMENTAR(COMMENT) DI WEB BLOG INI

sORRY FOR THE UNEDITED ARTICLES BELOW,I DID  TO PROTEC T AGAINST THE COPY WITHOUT PERMISSSION

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 

Copyrught @ Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA 2013

Forbidden to copy without written permission by the author

BAGIAN kEDUA

Napak Tilas

TIMBULNYA TIMOR TIMUR

OLEH Dr IWAN SUWANDY,MhA

FILM DOKUMENTER

 DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Masterpiece  Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Unique Queen Elizabeth II Davil hair Canada Paper Money Collections 

Frame One:

Dr Iwan collections This unique papermoney were out of circulations because the queen davil hair, and issuen the new design with normal hair.

Frame Two:

The International collections

1.Devils Head / Devils Face Bills from Canada

As some of you may or may not know, in 1954 the Bank of Canada produced an issue of banknotes, from $1 to $1000, which came to be known as the Devil’s Head issue of banknotes. These bills featured the face of Queen Elizabeth II on the right hand side of the face. Ofcourse, the Queen herself was not the devil being addressed here. The Devil’s Head feature of this banknote is featured in her hair. Can you find it on the banknote below?

Canadian $10 bill from 1954, pick 69a Canadian $10 bill from 1954, pick 69a

Well, if you weren’t able to find it, I have circled it here:

Canadian p69a, featuring the Devil's Face Canadian p69a, featuring the Devil’s Face

Regardless of the circling, pointing, and explaining, however, a lot of people still have a hard time seeing this Devil’s face. Probably something to do with pre-conceived notions. So I have decided to take the mystery out of the face altogether. To avoid any confusion and debate, I have colored in the face for all to see:

Devils Head Revealed Devils Head Revealed

After this printing mishap(?) the Bank of Canada re-issued the series, with some modifications to the highlights of the Queen’s hair, and so the banknotes were fixed. Anyways, maybe I am bad at explaining things, but I hope this clears up the mystery for those who I tried to show in person, and who still left confused as to the face.

1954 Bank of Canada $5 Dollar Bills
Beattie & Coyne
These are known as Devil’s Face as seen in the curls of the queen’s hair.
Condition is EF +  

Bank of Canada 1954 ‘Devil’s Face’ Notes


               

(Driwan Vietnam War  Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Vietnam War Document

       and

    Postal History

       1969-1975

THE VIETNAM WAR 1971

d. Vietnam liberation war in 1971

_____________________________________

1)January 1971

 (1) The native  vietnam best stamps collector , Nguyen Bao Tung best seller book is “20 years of the Vietnamese Philately”(1951-1971) written in four language (Vietnamese, English, French and Chinese) Published by South Vietnamese Ministry of Cultural Affairs in 1971. This book gives a brief  history of philately followed by a  short account old Indochinese stamps from 1886. It lists special flights and cahects before catalogueing the stamp.

Technical and topical are through. Part two in English, it contains a foreword on the Geography, history , religions and customs of Viet-Nam, following which there is a simplified listing of the stamps and their topical motifs. The French parts contains an introduction somewhat similar to english section, and the fourth part is in Chinese . Finally the stamps are list for a third time cross referenced by Scott and Yvert catalogue numbers. ( If somone had this book please comment to compared with my informations because Tung only stamps, no revenue ,photo and document history –auth)

 2) February 1971

(1)A major test of “Vietnamization” took place in South Vietnamese Forces in this month, when South Vietnamese Forces invaded Lao without American adviser .

       They performed poorly . The Life photographer who had been covering Vietnam for a decade , was killed during the operation.

 3)March 1971

no info

 4)April 1971

     (1) April, 12th,1971

     The reciept of Tax by Buu-Bien Vietnam Cong Hoa, Nhan Cua O Ytauy Thai ,so tien la 8875 signed by truong ty, with revenue type Nha truoc va coniem 5$00 and Stamps 2 X 10 d.

(the only one Stamps used as revenue because the shortage of 10$00 revenue, and the situation very bad, -auth)

(2)April ,24th.1971

Trich Luc Bo Khai Sanh certificate with local saigon revenue

 5) May 1971

 (1)May,3rd,1971

Legalization Chung Chi Tinh Trang Quan Dich Certificate with local saigon revenue

(2)May,5th.1971

Giao Keo document with Stamp used as revenue

 (3)May,31th.1971

The rare “Huyen Trin Qui” free military postal vietnam Map with paralel line cover, send from Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966 (2nd Battalion, unknown location)  with red KBC Stamped 3966 and Quan Buu date stamped 31-7.1971, send via KBC 3328 (Naval Headquaters saigon) by DVD (?)  HQ 503 ( LST-Landing Ship Transport NVH Navy at Vung Tua),

 inside Chinese langguage latter.

 The same type of cover send  in June,7th.1971 and October ,5th.1971 .

6) June 1971

(1)June,9th.1971

The decision was further reinforced when President Nguyen van Thieu pressed through an election lam on June,9.1971, which would limit the number of presidential candidates.  

The bill-disigned to cut the number of presidential candidates to give the winner a more convincing majority-stilpulated that prospective presidential candidates must have then nomination papers endorsed either by 40 deputies or senators or by 100 members of elected provincial councils.

Presiident Thieu consequently entered the South Vietnamese presidential elections with only one opponent former general Duong van Minh, who later withdrew.

  (2)June,19th.1971

The Military and Naval operation on Vietnam coast stamps were issued , the uncommon mint with ace  40pi ( I found this stamps in HCM city-auth)

(3) June.25th 1971

The Civil covers send  from CDS Qui Nhon 25-6- 1971 with chinese char letter, to Saigon with rate 2×1 dong + 4 dong stamp(6 Dong), with propaganda stamped “In International aid day 22.08.1971”  with  chinese char letter inside,(PH)

 7)July 1971

 (1)July,8th.1971

The reciept of Tax by BuuBien Vietnam cong Hoa, nhan cua O tang Tai, so tien la 11.825 with rare ravenue 3 X 10$00 and common 2X 080 (rate 21$60),

(the last serial reciept of Tax paid via Buu Bien during the escalation of vietnam liberation war-auth)

(2)July 14th 1971

The rare”Huyen Trin Qui “ free military  city’s dot of Vietnamese map cover with  paralel line border trade mark  two peagons and red-blue line via airmail , postally used with Quan Buu cds 14.1.1971, and red KBC 3966 , Free airmail covers from Dai Doi 3/2 KBC 3966 (SECOND ARMY BATTALION LOCATION ?) TO DVH Vung tau HQ 503 (LST –Long Ship transport NVN-Navy) via KBC 3328(Naval fleet Headquaters Saigon) 

 

     (The same type of Covers send with Quan Buu Stamped 14.5.1971 and 31.9. 1971 from the same sander and recievers address.

          From this three cover were found only two letter in chinese character, my  best friend have tranlated

(a) The letter send  31.5.1971

 

FIFTH ANNIVERSARY Driwancybermuseum

FIFTH  ANNIVERSARY

Driwancybermuseum

in 2012

The Liechtenstein Collections Exhibition at Driwancybermuseum Blog

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

   

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

The Liechtenstein Collections Exhibition

Frame One :

The Liechtenstein Collections

1.Postal History

2.Numismatic

3.Pictures

 

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-book In Cd-rom “The Mistery Of Celadon Ceramic”

THE COMPLETE CD WITH FULL ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Mistery Of Celadon ceramic

The study Report Of

Celadon artifact found In Indonesia

 

 

By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

Introductions

I have found some artifact of celadon ceramic In Indonesia, and I met the difficulty in identification the source of that celadon artifact because near same in colour and design

 

 

 especially the incised decoration of the imperial celadon from China during sung dynasty, Yuan dynasty and early ming dynasty.

 

 

 

The Qing dynasty

and

 

Korean celadon more common and easty to identification due to the typical colour nad desaign  will not included  in this study.

The same colour and decorations of the early china celadon  with The Royal high quality Thailand celadon   during Sincanalai, sukhotai and sawankhalok era and from Vietnam during anamis era  made me difficult to identification 

 

type=text
 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif

After study from literature especially the report of Marine Archeologist from the shipwreck ceramin which found in Asean and the sample from celadon ceramic auction in the world, I have succeeded to open the mistery.

 And this are the report of the study special for senior collector s and historian to heklp them in identification their collections and artifact which found in their researching area.

This study still many lack and not complete that is why more info and correction ,also suggestion still need.

Jakarta October 2012

 Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

The Best Information Collections

Of

Driwan web blog

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member Collectors

Copyright@2012

 

 

FORWARD

I have collected the archived collections from 1955 during young boy until now,

Some of the collections have upload in my web blog

Hhtp://http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

Hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Almost 400.000 collectors visit this web blog

I have million informations of rare old archives now, and if the scientist ,journalist or collectors want to have the rare archives’s informations and illustrations please contact me via comment, but before you must subscribed via comment to be my blog premium member.

I hope my bigger project to collect the informations from rare old archives will help everybody from all over the world.

I have met the the archives scholar from KTLV(Koninjkijl Tropen Leiden Vereneging) ,the Dutch archived of tropic area at Leiden Netherland who came to Indonesia to seeking the rare old archives,many Indonesian scholar visit KTLV to found informations related with their thesis because KTLV and also their Netherland tropen museum archives collectiosn cann’t copy because the protect with copyright.

.

I will show the best Informations Collections from this web and The Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM  edition produces by Driwancybermuseum.

, I hope with this info everybody will know and contact me via comment what info of rare archives they need.

 Jakarta,May.2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

A. The Driwancybermuseum Home office Profile

B.THE BEST INFO COLLECTIONS  

OF

 Dr Iwan web Blog

1.hhtp://http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com

 

  • Sesuai dengan persyaratan untuk mendaptakan sponsor iklan ., dengan ini dilaporkan kemajuan web Blog uniquecollection.wordpress.com BlogBy Dr Iwan sebagai berikut …

    uniquecollection.wordpress.com/page/19 · Cached page

THE KOREA UNIQUE COLLECTION BOOK TWO “THE KOREAN WAR”
Posted on October 4, 2010 by iwansuwandy

*ill 001

CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

Palestina Book 1938

Ababa-Jerusalem-Cairo

AdisAbaba-Cairo

Marakecch-AddisAbaba

Madrid-Marrakech

PalestineWar Map

Jerusalem at night

Jerusalem morning

Jerusalem Picture

Jerusalem Map

Jerusalem Map

Jerusalem city

Jaffa city

Islamic Jerusalem

Hulda

Jews Colonies

Talpiot Tomb

Aim Harod

Cave Tel Aviv

Palestine Post Jerusalem

Mufti Jerusalem

King Ibn Saud

Balfour declaretion

Mr Balfour

British Indian soldier

British Australian Troops

Vintage Hebron picture

Jews Independent Proclamation

The Value Of Modern Russia Coins

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                     

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

 

The Value Orf Russia Modern Coin

1.2002 mintage   5.0000.0000  UNC US$ 3.00

2.2002 sp mintage 5.000.000. UNC US$3.00

3.2003 Sp mintage 5.000.000 UNC US$ 3.00

4.2004 Mintage 5.000.000 UNC US#3.00

Head  side

Ring Composituion Brass center center compositionCooper-nicvkel

Tails Side

1.2002 city arms above walled city view.

2.2002 sp Cityarm and cathedral

3.2003 ap crown doubled headed  aegle with round breast shield

4.2004sp coat of arm aboved  walled city

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Rare Dragon Handle Yuan Qingbay Ewer found In Indonesia

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                     

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

THE RARE DRAGON HANDLE YUAN QINGBAY EWER FOUND IN INDONESIA

I HAVE FOUND IN iNDONESIA THE RARE DRAGON HANDLE YUAN QINGB AY EWER, THE BODY  AND HANDLE FROM ACEH. THE SPOUT AND COVER FROM WEST BORNEO(Dr Iwan Note)

 

THE REFERENCES FROM SHOTEBY

HK0371_39_lr_1

HK0371_39_lr_2

A rare Qingbai Ewer and Cover. Yuan Dynasty. Photo Sotheby’s

well potted, the pear-shaped body rising to a tall flared neck, supported on a splayed foot with a prominent flange, the body set with a slender curved spout issuing from the mouth of a dragon, connected to the body by an elaborate S-shaped bridge, set opposite with a curved handle formed by the scaly body of a fish-dragon with the opened mouth swallowing the top of the handle, its mane forming a small loop for attaching the cover, its tail fanning out into a large trefoil motif applied in relief, the body decorated on either side with a phoenix in flight with upturned scrolling tail and a cloud motif, cut from thin sheets of clay and applied with incised details, above a band of upright lappets containing ruyi heads, the neck collared by a key-fret band of pearl strings and slip-painted upright petal lappets containing scroll motifs, all beneath an icy blue-green transparent glaze, fitted with a stepped domed cover and a small eyelet for attachment to the ewer, surmounted by a seated lion delicately modelled with a thick beard, long mane, and bushy tail bent to one side, its left foreleg resting on a ball with thin freely modelled ribbons and a bell tied around its neck, overall 34 cm., 13 3/8 in. Estimate 1,200,000—1,500,000 HKD. Lot Sold  4,220,000 HKD

THIS THE SAMPLE OF CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH FULL ILLSUTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMEBR.PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Rare Antique Picture CD

Created by Dr iwan suwandy,MHA

 Copyright@ 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introductions

Paul fraser have sent me the information about rare art photography collections

About Us

5 unique items not to be missed…

Photography is perhaps the most important art form of the 20th century.

Like no other, it transformed the way we see the world around us and captured the immediacy of modern life.

Today photography is growing quickly into what Christie’s has described as a “highly competitive” market.

Now recognised by galleries and major auction houses around the world, photography prices are increasing as both traditional art collectors and dedicated photography collectors battle it out for the most important and iconic works.

This effect can be clearly seen in auction results from the past 12 months:

In June 2011,

the only known photograph of the infamous outlaw Billy the Kid smashed its estimate of $300,000 to sell for an amazing $2.3 million.

 

Read more info

William Koch buys portrait of Billy the Kid for $2.3

A member of the infamous modern gangster Koch family, William Koch, has purchased the only known photograph of wild west gangster Billy the Kid.

I would say there’s a certain symmetry here but that would be redundant.

 

 

In November 2011,

 

 Andreas Gursky’s image ‘Rhein II’ became the world’s most expensive photograph when it sold for a World record price of $4.33 million. It was the second time the record had been broken in the space of just six months.

he Riouw archiphelago History collections

THIS TH4E SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUMMMEMBER

The Riau Archiphelago

Postal History and Related Collections

 

Created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

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Until this day not many Indonesian scholar made study of the Riouw Archiphelago,especially the Postal History.

I am starting to collected the postal history of Riouw Arciphelago almost 50 years and the basic RIOUW overprint stamps which issued during 1960-11970  co0mplete,also the postmark from all area near complete.

The ealiest postmark during Colonial time very difficult ot founf,I have the earliest RIOUW postmark date  17.3.1901,

After made stuidy ,Ihave found more informations , many early Riauw archiphelaho manuscript bought by Malaysian beacaus emany related with the Malay kingdom in that country.

I  understand that this study still lack many 9nformations,that is why I hope corrections and added info from the scholar and another reader.

The Last Princess Deokhye Of Korea Art Photography

 

 

THE LAST PRINCESS DEOKHYE OF KOREA

ART PHOTOGRAPHY COLLECTIONS

 

CREATED BY

 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

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Copyright@2012

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THE  LAST KOREA ‘S EMPEROR

1852

Emperor Gojong

Gojong and the Korean Empire

26th king of the Joseon Dynasty, King Gojong,

moved into the palace in 1897,

where he proclaimed the Great Korean Empire in an effort to assert the nation’s independence from China, Japan, and Russia. However, rather than actually strengthening the nation’s military, Emperor Gojong (1852-1919) would instead spend much of his time and energy renovating and expanding this palace.

He resided here until abdication to his son, Emperor Sunjong, in 1907, when the palace was renamed Doeksugung. When the Japanese occupation began in 1910, Emperor Gojong was placed under house arrest in Doeksugung, where he eventually died in 1919.

Emperor Gwangmu

We go back four generations because the demise of Korea’s royal family arguably starts in 1907. While Korea officially disappeared in 1910, in practicality Korea lost is sovereignty in 1905, when the Japan-Korea Treaty of 1905 was entered into. Under the treaty, Korea became Japan’s “protectorate,” and lost the ability to conduct its own foreign affairs. A governor from Japan was sent to Korea to conduct Korea’s foreign affairs instead. It goes without saying that the treaty was not entered into in a fair manner — dozens of armed Japanese soldiers were staring down the emperor and the officials when the treaty was signed.

 
Emperor Gwangmu

Emperor Gwangmu (also known as Gojong) of Korea could plainly see where this was going. Although the 1905 Treaty stripped his ability to conduct foreign affairs, the emperor sent secret envoys to 17 major powers, including United Kingdom, France and Germany, to protest the forcible signing of the 1905 Treaty. The highlight of this effort was in 1907, when three Korean envoys were sent to the Second International Peace Convention at the Hague. Although Japan froze out the envoys from attending the convention, Yi Wi-Jong, one of the three envoys, managed to give a speech imploring for help in a separate conference. (The speech fell on deaf ears.)

The three secret envoys to the Hague: 
Yi Sang-Seol, Yi Joon, Yi Wi-Jong

Although the emperor’s efforts did not create any result, Imperial Japan did not take kindly to Emperor Gwangmu’s extracurricular activity, and demanded that he abdicate his throne. The emperor acquiesced, giving way to his son, Emperor Yunghui (also known as Soonjong) — who would become the last emperor of Korean Empire.  Former Emperor Gwangmu died in 1919. Although this is not certain, there are ample indications that he was poisoned.

More after the jump.

Got a question or a comment for the Korean? Email away ataskakorean@gmail.com.


Second Generation:  Emperor Yunghui, King Euichin, King Yeongchin, Princess Deokhye

Emperor Gwangmu had 13 children, but only four survived into adulthood — three sons and a daughter. And they were survivors in the truest sense. Even as the empire was in precipitous decline, the palace intrigue did not stop. Emperor Gwangmu’s oldest son, born from his third wife, is rumored to have been poisoned by Empress Myeongseong, the emperor’s main wife. The second son, born from Empress Myeongseong, died young. The Emperor’s father may have poisoned him. The crown prince — the third son who would become Emperor Yunghui– was also poisoned in his youth, but barely survived. It was rumored that because of the lingering effects of the poisoning, the crown prince did not have full mental capacity.

 
The last royal family. From the left: King Euichin, Emperor Yunghui, 
King Yeongchin, Emperor Gwangmu, with Princess Deokhye in front

In 1910, Emperor Yunghui signed over his empire to Imperial Japan, ending the 600-year dynasty headed by his family. Emperor Yunghui was demoted to a king, subordinate to the Japanese emperor. Korea’s royal family as a whole became Japanese nobility. The policy of Imperial Japan toward Korea’s royal family was clear: the royal family will be either assimilated or killed. The first to go was the Emperor Gwangmu, as described above. Emperor Yunghui did not last much longer — he died in 1926, at age 53.

Perhaps the most interesting figure in this drama is Yi Gang (also known as King Euichin,) second surviving son of Gwangmu. Yi Gang studied in Roanoke College in Virginia and was an officer of Korean imperial military when his older brother signed over the empire. Yi Gang silently assisted Korea’s independence movement, signing petitions and sending funds to support Korean independence fighters and schools. He attempted to flee Korea and join the provisional government in Shanghai, but was arrested in the process and lost his nobility status. Since then, he evaded Imperial Japan’s surveillance by engaging in profuse boozing and whoring while continuing to support the independence movement. During the course of his independence movement, he expressed that he would abdicate his royal status and submit to the rule of the democratic government. He led a quiet life after the independence, and died in 1955 at age 79.

Emperor Yunghui died without a son, and King Euichin was not favored by the Japanese because of his involvement in Korea’s independence movement. Therefore, Gwangmu’s youngest surviving son, King Yeongchin, succeeded the throne. Yi Eun, also known as King Yeongchin, was born in 1897. At age ten, he was taken to Japan to “study” under the patronage of the Japanese governor of Korea — essentially being held as a hostage. As the contemporary Japanese nobility did, Yi Eun was forced to attend the military academy. He became an officer of the Japanese military, and was forced to married Nashimotonomiya Masako, a member of the Japanese royal family. He became the king of Korea after his father died in 1926, but only visited Korea briefly to accept the crown. He became a general of the Japanese army in 1938. He would see the end of World War II in Japan.

 
Young Yi Eun with his Japanese “patron,”
Governor-General Ito Hirobumi
 
After the war, Yi Eun lost his nobility status, which pushed his family into dire poverty. He would scrape by with the financial help from the very few remaining Korean royalists. His wife also had to work, notwithstanding her royal family status. He attempted to return to Korea, but was rebuffed — that he served in the Japanese military and married a Japanese royal family did not play well with the newly established Korean government. He suffered a stroke in 1961 in Hawaii while visiting his son; he was allowed to return to Korea in 1963, and lived in the Changdeok Palace with his aunt. He passed away in 1970.
 
It is a cruel irony of history that the only person who came out of this drama with a shred of dignity was Yi Eun’s wife, Masako. After returning to Korea in 1963, she changed her name to a Korean-style name Yi Bang-Ja and focused her energy on charity work, establishing schools for children with disabilities despite living off the meager government pension. She received numerous medals and awards for her volunteer work. She passed away in 1989.

Princess Deokhye, Gwangmu’s youngest daughter who was born in 1912, is probably the most tragic figure. She was forcibly moved to Japan and attended a university, where she developed schizophrenia. In 1931, she married a Japanese nobleman in an arranged marriage, and had a daughter. She survived the war, but lost her only daughter in the process. She was abandoned by her husband in 1953 as her schizophrenia worsened. For the next nine years, she would go from mental hospital to mental hospital in Japan. Korean government heard about her in 1962. and President Park Chung-Hee passed the law providing for pension for the former royal family in response. Princess Deokhye returned to Korea, and lived in Changdeok Palace until 1989 when she passed away.

Third and Fourth Generations: Yi Gu and King Euichin’s 21 Children

Yi Eun and Masako had two sons, but the older son died at less than one year old. The last official crown prince of Korean royal family is Yi Gu, born in 1931. He had spent his entire life in Japan, and he worked as a clerk for a company in Tokyo after World War II. In 1953, he moved abroad to study in MIT, and met his future wife — a white American woman named Julia Murlock. Yi Gu married Murlock in 1959 in New York, and he worked for the architectural company of I.M. Pei.

He was also allowed to return to Korea in 1963, and lectured architecture in universities. But he could not adjust to the life in Korea. Although Korea was no longer a monarchy, the Jeonju Yi (Lee) lineage society took (and still takes) its royal family line very, very seriously. Yi Gu received pressure as a crown prince within his family, and that he married a white woman who could not get pregnant only intensified the pressure. Yi Gu separated from Murlock in 1977, and returned to Japan in 1979. He would visit Korea from time to time, but refused to settle down in Korea. He died alone in 2005 in a hotel in Tokyo; apparently Yi Gu favored the hotel because it overlooked his old birthplace. He was buried in a royal garb; his funeral was attended by the prime minister of Korea (equivalent to American vice president) and 1,000 people.

 
Yi Gu’s funeral
 

This means that the only surviving royal family in Korea are the descendants of King Euichin, the rebel prince. Remarkably, he had 12 sons and 9 daughters from 13 different women — as far as we know. Fate was not kind to them either. For example, Yi Geon, the oldest son of King Euichin, became a naturalized Japanese citizen in 1947 and severed his ties with Korea completely. Reportedly, before he naturalized, he brought all of his (step-)brothers and sisters together and asked them all to forget about the fact that they belong to the royal family. He died in 1991. Yi Wu, the second son, died in Hiroshima as the officer of the Japanese military when the city was hit by the nuclear bomb. The rest scattered into Korea and America, and led more or less unremarkable lives. Out of the 21 children of King Euichin, ten (four sons, six daughters) are still alive. They live in Korea, New York, Los Angeles and San Jose. After Yi Gu passed away, the Jeonju Yi lineage society established the son of King Euichin’s ninth son to be the crown prince — a man named Yi Sang-Hyup, 50 years old.

*                *               *
 
What do contemporary Koreans think about the royal family? Yi Gu’s death in 2005 served as a reminder to Korean people that Korea in fact had a royal family. This acted as a catalyst for the royal family fad in Korea. In a survey conducted in 2006, 54.4% was in favor of “restoring the royal family,” although no one in Korea is quite sure what that means. In a survey conducted in 2010, the number dropped significantly to 40.4% in favor, but still outpaced the 23.4% against. But it would be wise not to put too much stock in those numbers, because the restoration of the royal family is a pipe dream as of now. The numbers will likely change dramatically when people start thinking about the concrete details — for example, will the royal family have any kind of political power? Will they take back any part of their formerly vast property around the nation?

Dr Iwan CD-ROM”The Euro World War II In April 1945″

this is the sample  of Dr Iwan E-Book In Cd-Rom limited edition without illustrations, the complete info with illustrations and editing exist but only for Premiuum member,please subcribed via comment

 

The Euro world War II

In April 1945

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors Copyright@2012

April 45

 

April,1st

.1945

1945

Today German Chancellor Adolf Hitler, Japanese Emporer Hirohito, Russian Kommisar Joeseph Stalin, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and American President Franklin Delano Roosevelt gathered in Berne Switzerland and agreed to call off World War Two. Sources close the the conferance speculate that an unannounced release of Oleg Maddox’s 4.0 Patch for Forgotten Battles/Aces Expansion Pack/Pacific Fighters was the primary reason for the unexpected turn of events in world history. In a post meeting press conference all participants claimed that the new patch made their counties respective aircraft superior to all others. Each was quoted as saying “I p’owned them all!”

More as the story develops.

 

1945 (Apr) cover and letter from ‘Pte HJ Pavey, RASC HQ, Force 135, APO England’ with d/r. FPO 836 p/m. and shield censor 10444 h/s. ‘Force 135’ located at Plymouth to liberate Jersey, Channel Islands May 1945.

£60.00

 

Soviet soldiers engaged in bitter street fighting to finish off the remnants of the German resistance in Vienna. April 1945

 

April,1st.1945

1945


In Italy…

 British Guards and Commando units attack over the River Reno between Lake Comachio and the sea

April,2nd.1945

1945 Air Mail cover from CHILE to ‘Sub Lieutenant Alastair Heffer, Volunteer Santiago de Chile, River Plate House, London’ [Undercover address – South American Volunteers with British Forces] and redirected to ‘LCI (L) 285, c/o GPO London’ with “Ship” in mss. [Landing Craft Infantry (Large)] Also PC 90 OBE 2585 label. Roughly opened

 

April,2nd.1945

 

1945
On the Western Front…

The British 2nd Army continues its advance north of the Ruhr River. Munster is taken. The Canadian 1st Army also begins to move north and east from between Nijmegen and Emmerich.

On the Eastern Front… In southeast Hungary, Magykanizsa falls to the Soviet advance while in Slovakia, Kremnica is captured.

2: Soviets launch Vienna Offensive against German forces in and around the Austrian capital city.

2nd

: German armies are surrounded in the Ruhr region.

April,3rd.1945


1945


On the Eastern Front…

In Austria,

the Soviet forces take

Wiener Neustadt. Almost all of Hungary is now clear of Axis troops while in Czechoslovakia

 

Bratislava is besieged

Postally used Cover from Bratislav in 1945

April,4th.1945

1945
On the Eastern Front…

Bratislava falls to troops of the Soviet 2nd Ukrainian Front.

On the Western Front…

British and Canadian units take

 

Osnabruck

and move on

Minden.

US 9th Army units have reached the river Weser opposite Hameln. Troops from US 3rd Army capture Kassel while other units take Gotha and advance near Erfurt. French units take Karlsruhe. The Nazi gold reserves are captured in the salt mine at Merkers

 

In Algiers… Free French leader, Charles de Gaulle, announces changes to the Committee of National Liberation. Two communists are appointed and de Gaulle is made head of the armed forces. General Giraud is being sidelined.

In Egypt… A Greek brigade mutinies under the leadership of Communists. British troops blockade the camp until April 24th. The Greeks kill 1 British officer.

In Occupied France… Members of the French resistance halt production at the Bronzavia aircraft components plant near Paris.

Over Romania… The Bucharest marshalling yards are bombed by heavily escorted bombers of the US 15th Air Force. A total of 20 aircraft are lost. Civilian casualties are reported to amount to 2942 killed and 2126 injured.

‘Unconscious humour’,

4 April 1945.

 

Photograph by Sergeant Travis, Army Film and Photographic Unit, World War Two, North West Europe, 1945.

Sergeant J. D. Eilbeck writes ‘No Way Out’ on a portrait of Adolf Hitler in order to provide a ‘no exit’ sign at 156th Brigade Headquarters. When this photograph was taken the brigade, part of 52nd (Lowland) Division, had just crossed the Rhine (24 March 1945) and was pushing on towards Bremen in the face of bitter German resistance.

From a collection of 23 official photographs

4: Bratislava, the capital of the Slovak Republic, is overrun by advancing Soviet forces. The remaining members of Prime MinisterJozef Tiso‘s pro-German government fled to Austria.

4: Ohrdruf death camp is liberated by the Allies.

5th

: Po Valley Campaign begins in northern Italy.

 

Ohrdruf sub-camp of Buchenwald

 

Colonel Hayden Sears poses with Ohrdruf survivors, April 8, 1945 

On April 4, 1945, American soldiers of the 4th Armored Division of General Patton’s US Third Army were moving through the area south of the city of Gotha in search of a secret Nazi communications center when they unexpectedly came across the ghastly scene of the abandoned Ohrdruf forced labor camp.

A few soldiers in the 354th Infantry Regiment of the 89th Infantry Division of the US Third Army reached the abandoned camp that same day, after being alerted by prisoners who had escaped from the march out of the camp, which had started on April 2nd. Prior to that, in September 1944, US troops had witnessed their first concentration camp: the abandoned Natzweiler camp in Alsace, which was then a part of the Greater German Reich, but is now in France.

Ohrdruf, also known as Ohrdruf-Nord, was the first Nazi prison camp to be discovered while it still had inmates living inside of it, although 9,000 prisoners had already been evacuated from Ohrdruf on April 2nd and marched 32 miles to the main camp at Buchenwald. According to the US Holocaust Memorial Museum, the camp had a population of 11,700 prisoners in late March, 1945 before the evacuation began.

The photograph at the top of this page, taken at Ohrdruf on April 8, 1945, shows survivors who had escaped during the evacuation of the camp, but came back after the American liberators arrived.

One of the American liberators who saw the Ohrdruf camp on April 4, 1945 was Bruce Nickols. He was on a patrol as a member of the I & R platoon attached to the Headquarters company of the 354th Infantry Regiment of the 89th Infantry Division, Third US Army. According to Nickols, there were survivors in the barracks who had hidden when the SS massacred 60 to 70 prisoners on the roll call square before they left the camp on April 2nd. The body of a dead SS soldier lay at the entrance to the camp, according to Nickols.

 

Dead prisoners at Ohrdruf forced labor camp 

In the photo above, the prisoners have been partially covered by blankets because their pants had been pulled down, an indication that these men might have been killed by their fellow prisoners after the Germens left. The first Americans on the scene said that the blood was still wet. The liberators all agreed that these prisoners had been shot, although some witnesses said that they had been shot in the neck, while others said that they had been mowed down by machine gun fire.

The American soldiers were told by Ohrdruf survivors that these prisoners had been shot by the SS on April 2nd because they had run out of trucks for transporting sick prisoners out of the camp, but there were sick prisoners still inside the barracks when the Americans arrived.

Among the soldiers who helped to liberate Ohrdruf was Charles T. Payne, who is Senator Barak Obama’s great uncle, the brother of his maternal grandmother. Charles T. Payne was a member of Company K, 355th Infantry Regiment, 89th Infantry Division.

According to an Associated Press story, published on June 4, 2009, Charles T. Payne’s unit arrived at the Ohrdruf camp on April 6, 1945.

The following is an excerpt from the Associated Press story:

“I remember the whole area before you got to the camp, the town and around the camp, was full of people who had been inmates,” Payne, 84, said in a telephone interview from his home in Chicago.

“The people were in terrible shape, dressed in rags, most of them emaciated, the effects of starvation. Practically skin and bones.”

When Payne’s unit arrived, the gates to the camp were open, the Nazis already gone.

“In the gate, in the very middle of the gate on the ground was a dead man whose head had been beaten in with a metal bar,” Payne recalled. The body was of a prisoner who had served as a guard under the Germans and been killed by other inmates that morning.

“A short distance inside the front gate was a place where almost a circle of people had been … killed and were lying on the ground, holding their tin cups, as if they had been expecting food and were instead killed,” he said. “You could see where the machine gun had been set up behind some bushes, but the Germans were all gone by that time.”

He said he only moved some 200-300 feet (60-100 meters) inside of the camp. But that was enough to capture images so horrible that Gen. George S. Patton Jr. ordered townspeople into Ohrdruf to see for themselves the crimes committed by their countrymen – an order that would repeated at Buchenwald, Dachau and other camps liberated by U.S. soldiers.

“In some sheds were stacks of bodies, stripped extremely – most of them looked like they had starved to death. They had sprinkled lime over them to keep the smell down and stacked them several high and the length of the room,” Payne said.

On April 11, 1945, just a week after the discovery of the Ohrdruf camp, American soldiers liberated the infamous Buchenwald main camp, which was to become synonymous with Nazi barbarity for a whole generation of Americans. Buchenwald is located 5 miles north of the city of Weimar, which is 20 miles to the east of Gotha, where General Dwight D. Eisenhower had set up his headquarters.

The Ohrdruf forced labor camp was a sub-camp of the huge Buchenwald camp. Ohrdruf had been opened in November 1944 when prisoners were brought from Buchenwald to work on the construction of a vast underground bunker to house a new Führer headquarters for Hitler and his henchmen. This location was in the vicinity of a secret Nazi communications center and it was also near an underground salt mine where the Nazis had stored their treasures.

A. C. Boyd was one of the soldiers in the 89th Infantry Division who witnessed the Ohrdruf “death camp.” In a recent news article, written by Jimmy Smothers, Boyd mentioned that he saw bodies of prisoners who had been gassed at Ohrdruf.

The following quote is from the news article in The Gadsden Times:

On April 7, 1945, the 89th Infantry Division received orders to move into the German town of Ohrdruf, which surrendered as the Americans arrived. A mile or so past this quaint village lay Stalag Nord Ohrdruf.

[…]

When regiments of the 89th Division got to the camp, the gates were open and the guards apparently all had gone, but the doors to the wooden barracks were closed. Lying on the ground in front were bodies of prisoners who recently had been shot.

“When I went into the camp I just happened to open the door to a small room,” recalled Boyd. “Inside, the Germans had stacked bodies very high. They had dumped some lime over them, hoping it would dissolve the bodies.

[…]

“I still have vivid memories of what I saw, but I try not to dwell on it,” Boyd continued. “We had been warned about what we might find, but actually seeing it was horrible. There were so many dead, and some so starved all they could do was gape open their mouths, feebly move their arms and murmur.

“There were ditches dug out in the compound and we could see torsos, lots of arms, severed legs, etc., sticking out. Many had been beaten to death, and bodies were still in the ‘beating shed’. Many had been led to the ‘showers,’ where they were pushed in, the doors locked and then gassed.”

One of the survivors of Ohrdruf was Rabbi Murray Kohn, who was then 16 years old. He was marched from Ohrdruf on April 2nd to the main camp at Buchenwald and then evacuated by train to Theresienstadt in what is now the Czech Republic.

The following quote is from a speech that Rabbi Kohn made on April 23, 1995 at Wichita, Kansas, at a gathering of the soldiers of the 89th Division for the 50ieth anniversary of the liberation of the camps:

It has been recorded that in Ohrdruf itself the last days were a slaughterhouse. We were shot at, beaten and molested. At every turn went on the destruction of the remaining inmates. Indiscriminant criminal behavior (like the murderers of Oklahoma City some days ago). Some days before the first Americans appeared at the gates of Ohrdruf, the last retreating Nazi guards managed to execute with hand pistols, literally emptying their last bullets on whomever they encountered leaving them bleeding to death as testified by an American of the 37th Tank Battalion Medical section, 10 a.m. April 4, 1945.

Today I’m privileged thanks to God and you gallant fighting men. I’m here to reminisce, and reflect, and experience instant recollections of those moments. Those horrible scenes and that special instance when an Allied soldier outstretched his arm to help me up became my re-entrance, my being re-invited into humanity and restoring my inalienable right to a dignified existence as a human being and as a Jew. Something, which was denied me from September 1939 to the day of liberation in 1945. I had no right to live and survived, out of 80 members of my family, the infernal ordeal of Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Ohrdruf, and its satellite camp Crawinkel and finally Theresienstadt Ghetto-Concentration Camp.

I must tell you something about Crawinkel, just outside Ohrdruf. It was recently discovered after the reunification of east and West Germany that in nearby Crawinkel, the Nazis were preparing the Führerbunker, the final headquarters of Hitler from where he planned to strike a deal with the Americans to join in fighting the Red Army. We worked around the clock, the project was known as the Olga Project. We were excavating inside the hills a bunker. Ten thousand people died there and it was completed with rivers of blood right down to the cutlery to embellish Hitler’s table.

When in Auschwitz my eyes witnessed the gassed transports of Jews at the Birkenau Crematories. My own eyes have witnessed Buchenwald terror and planned starvation. My body was decimated, starved and thrashed to the point of no return in Ohrdruf for stealing a piece of a potato, and my flickering life was daily, and hourly on the brink of being snuffed out from starvation or being clubbed for no reason or literally being pushed off a steep cliff over a yawning ravine at Crawinkel.

[….]

The war was intrinsically a war against the shallowness of a civilization which had evidently so little moral depth, a nation which can acquiesce in such a short time to the demagoguery of a “corporal” and accept the manifesto of racial superiority, entitled to destroy their supposed inferior enemies, as a moral right. World War II was by far not a testing ground of arms or strategic skills and sophistication, but A MORAL WAR, which declared that human rights, freedom and the equality of all men and women are the highest divine commandment, the supreme commandment to deny the Nazi racists and their cohorts any victory. My friends, many of your comrades (a half million Americans lost their lives to declare eternal war against inhumanity). Six million innocent Jews, five million Christians and some 27 million plus, lost their lives to secure finally that humanity is never to rest until crimes against humans have been eradicated.

The American military knew about the Nazi forced labor camps and concentration camps because Allied planes had done aerial photographs of numerous factories near the camps in both Germany and Poland, and many of these camps, including Buchenwald, had been bombed, killing thousands of innocent prisoners. In fact, General George S. Patton bragged in his autobiography about the precision bombing of a munitions factory near the Buchenwald concentration camp on August 24, 1944 which he erroneously claimed had not damaged the nearby camp. Not only was the camp hit by the bombs, there were 400 prisoners who were killed, along with 350 Germans.

On Easter weekend in April 1945, the 90th Infantry Division overran the little town of Merkers, which was near the Ohrdruf camp, and captured the Kaiseroda salt mine.

Hidden deep insid