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VOC JAVA Bonk Coin 1800
Gouden Dukaat 1800 (Sch. 16 / Delm. 1171A /R3) – ZF /klemspoortjes / hoogst zeldzaam est price Euro 200.-
1800 (ca.), WÜRZBURG INCOMING MAIL an „…L’ ARMEE GALLO-BATAVE…”, wohl eine der ungewöhnlichsten Postanschriften Bayerns mit folgendem Hintergrund: In der Spätphase des Zweiten Koalitionskrieges war Franken mit Würzburg seit Sommer 1800 unmittelbares Kriegsgebiet. Das mindermächtige fränkische Hochstift hatte sich mit dem militärisch äußerst geschwächten habsburgischen Kaiserreich zusammengetan, – auf der Gegenseite stand Napoleon. Dieser raffte seine verbliebenen Kräfte zusammen, u.a. Hilfstruppen der sog. “Batavischen Republik„, einem auf dem Gebiet der heutigen Niederlande gegründeten “Satellitenstaat”, welcher eine Division von 6000 Mann bereitstellte, die sich im Raum Aschaffenburg/Würzburg mit den dort bereits stationierten französischen Truppen zur ”Armée Gallo-Batave” formierte. Die Briefhülle trägt den Taxis-Einzeiler „Von Frankfurt”, rückseitig Teil eines Lacksiegels ”Legation de Suisse„
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Balinese kingdoms, ca 1800
To the east of Bali lies the long chain of islands known as the Lesser Sundas or Nusatenggara (Southeastern Islands). For the most part, these islands were involved only peripherally in the trade and civilization of the western archipelago until the colonial area.
Although the Nagarakertagama (Desawarnyana) lists Timor and Sumba as tributaries of 14th -century Majapahit, Javanese culture has left at the most only scattered traces in the region.
No significant local inscriptions have been found to attest to the existence of early kingdoms and Chinese records are vague. The region’s economic relations with the outside world seem to have been based on the export of sandalwood, especially from Timor, a trade which may have begun in the 7th century.
Lombok and Sumbawa, ca 1800
Balinese rule on Lombok was turbulent. By the middle of the 18th century, they had subdued the Sasak aristocracy in the east of the island. A few decades later, however, disunity led them to split into four separate kingdoms, while the Sasak domains in the east regained much of their independence. Even in times of Balinese control, the east of the island was often restive.
Evidence from the earliest European visitors to the Nusatenggara region suggests that the normal state of affairs was one of division into a large number of small polities, which were linked into larger confederacies or empires whose significance was sometimes political and economic but more often symbolic. Timor produced sandalwood, which was valued for trade to China, and management of this trade necessarily meant a relationship between port towns such as Sorbian, Insana and Dili, and the polities of the interior. In the centre and east of the island, the ruler of Wehale (Belu), sometimes based in the port of Dili, sometimes based in the interior, claimed a hegemony over some forty-six liurai or ‘kings’ along the coast and the interior. In the west the confederacy of Sonba’i (Sonnebait), sometimes based in Sorbian, claimed a similar hegemony over sixteen liurai. The port of Kupang seems to have been independent of both of these power centres.
BORNEO CA 1800
1801: II became Sultan Sulaiman Saidullah Banjar XV until 1825.
Zilveren Dukaat 1801 Utrecht (Sch. 70 / Delm. 982) – UNC- / schitterend exemplaar met 2 gietgalletjes aan de rand
Bid Info: Price: € 200.00
Gouden Dukaat 1801 Enkhuizen mmt. Ster (Sch. 25A/RRR / Delm. 1171B/RRR / CNM 2.28.54) – ZF/PR / uiterst zeldzaam / de in Enkhuizen geslagen Gouden Dukaten met Ster zijn enorm zeldzaam – alleen het jaar 1802 komt met enige regelmaat voor
Bid Info: Price: € 750.00
Treaty of Amiens restored these territories to the Dutch.
NETHERLANDS EAST INDIES: AR 1/8 gulden, 1802, KM-80, Sch-494c, Batavian Republic issue, sailing ship series, some obverse flan roughness, Very Fine. Estimated Value: $ 150 – 200
Batavia(Jakarta) In 1802
1802: Jonathan D. Lewis to Dr. John Vaughan
The Island of Trinidad off the coast of Venezuela
This letter was written by Jonathan D. Lewis, to his brother-in-law, Dr. John Vaughan (1775-1807), who is credited with performing
the first vaccination in Delaware in 1802.
John Vaughan was educated in Chester, Pennsylvania, and in 1793 and 1794, while studying to be a doctor, attended lectures on medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Vaughan practiced medicine in Delaware, first in Christiana Bridge and later in Wilmington. He was a member of several professional organizations, including the Philadelphia Academy of Medicine, the Medical Society of Philadelphia, the American Medical Association, and the Delaware Medical and Philosophical societies. Vaughan was a prolific author, lending his pen to topics of medical and scientific importance. He kept his “Medical Diary No. 3″ before and during the serious yellow fever epidemic of 1802. Vaughan died in 1807 of typhoid fever.
Vaughan was an assiduous observer of Wilmington’s climate conditions, often listing the daily temperature, wind direction, and weather. He believed that these conditions influenced the occurrence of diseases at certain times of the year. Thus, on one group of pages Vaughan recorded weather information for a given month, and on another group he noted what his patients suffered from during the same period.
Occasionally, Vaughan broke this pattern to copy an article that he had read, something he had heard, or a letter that he had either written or received about a medical matter. One of his correspondents was Dr. Benjamin Rush. A man of science and medicine, Vaughan wrote perhaps in amusement to substantiate his theory on the influence of weather on disease: “Mr. Alrichs, an ingenious watch maker, informed me that sickly seasons were always characterized by the breaking of watch springs — that the fact was so well established as to be proverbial & that it was peculiarly so this season.” On August 26, 1800, Vaughan said: “Bad accounts from Baltimore & Norfolk — yellow fever spreading with great mortality.”
In 1802 a severe yellow fever epidemic broke out in Wilmington. Vaughan is reputed to have been the only doctor to have remained in town to administer to those who had contracted the dreaded disease. One year later, the American Philosophical Society requested that he write a pamphlet about the incident. A Concise History of the Autumnal Fever which Prevailed in the Borough of Wilmington in the Year 1802 resulted. Vaughan’s manuscript diary features the author’s immediate and private observances of the spread of the disease. In the pamphlet Vaughan detailed why he thought the yellow fever epidemic started, how he thought it spread, and what he thought had to be done to eradicate it. In his diary Vaughan recorded his early visit with Ann Davidson, whom he later identified as the initial carrier of the disease, and noted the conditions in the house neighboring the Davidson’s:
“Hadley’s cellar, adjoining Davi[d]sons has been for a long time full of water — & the common receptacle of every filth … oft condemned as a nuisance by the corporation, but neglected. Wm. Cloud complained of its being very offensive to them.”
Vaughan wrote of the activities of Wilmington residents on September 13: “3/4 of the people left the lower parts of the town — below second street — great alarm. Board of Health disorganized in effect — some resigned — President fled — are not mankind reverting to Barbarism.”
Vaughan probably used his diary, serving as it did as a chronological record and source of valuable details, to construct the narrative of his pamphlet. On September 23, for example, Vaughan wrote a letter on the status of the disease to the president of the Board of Health, Isaac Dixon; he copied this letter into his diary, and it appeared subsequently in the circular. At the end of his pamphlet, Vaughan listed the people who died from the epidemic; in his diary he recorded the names and addresses of those stricken and noted whether they recovered or died.
Vaughan never totally abandoned the original intent of his diary — to demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship between weather conditions and the incidence of disease — to write about the outbreak of yellow fever in Wilmington. There are, in fact, numerous references to weather conditions during the epidemic, and the concept plays an important role in his Concise History.
Addressed to John Vaughan, M.D., Wilmington, State of Delaware
Port of Spain [Trinidad]
July 13, 1802
By the late arrivals from Europe &c., I learn that this island is much spoken of and is in most places considered a great acquisition to England. I know that such an opinion prevailed in Philadelphia previous to my departure. I shall therefore make Trinidad the subject of the present communication from a conviction that you will be pleased to receive advice that may be relied on. Before I enter on the subject, permit me to state that I have been in all the richest valleys from the Port de Mona beyond the River Anna and was 7 days in a boat visiting the Trinidad Margin on the Gulph (Paria or Ballena). The latter was performed at the evident risque of my life as in many instances, night came on before I could land, which was done above my knees in mud in an unfriendly climate. In a word, I have been on most of the estates in cultivation and have seen nearly all the best lands which are wild and susceptible of improvement.
The geographical function, and extent of the island may be always seen by having reference to a map. The population agreeably to the last Census taken in October 1801 was about 39,000 souls. _______ of every Colour. More than half the totality of whites are French and the English are more numerous than the Spaniards. There are here a number of M______, Corsicans, Italians, & people from nearly all the Nations in Europe with Creoles from all the Islands in the West Indies.
Batavia (now Jakarta), Java — a wretched reputation for crime and pestilence.
The climate is the most pestilential of any that I was ever in. If Batavia in Java has been heretofore called the Grave of European, the appellation will apply here with much greater force. I can speak respecting the two places in the comparative way from a trifling portion of experience. Certainly Batavia was never so sickly from what I have been able to learn, as Port of Spain has been during the last 2 months. Almost every European is dead that arrived with an intention of permanent residence since the 1st April last (the day I landed). If I should ever have the happiness of seeing you, I will give a detail on this subject that will almost stagger credibility.
The soil is fertile in the valleys and a greater portion of the island is in flat land than perhaps any other in the West Indies. No attention has been paid to manure, which is a strong evidence of fertility, notwithstanding which I have seen cane from the 9th Ratoons as fine as ever grew. Much of the Island may be termed virgin land — not being ever cleared.
The Gulph of Paria certainly offers a base of fine retreat during the hurricane month and is not subject to hurricanes. Violent gales or _____ of wind. I cannot, however, agree with the ____ ____ English journals in attaching such wonderful importance to it. It will be never resorted to as a place of safety except during the Hurricane month and then only by vessels in a windward station.
War ships to leeward, say on the Jamaica Station, where the great force is generally, will never think of coming here & the distance being so great, and be it remembered that the West Indies are not afflicted with a severe Hurricane oftener than once in 7 years on an average. Vessels of commerce may come here but to no great extent. Merchants will pursue commerce during the Hurricane months. They will not allow their vessels to lay up this ____.
We shall now consider the interior commerce of Trinidad and I think I can clearly prove that the great bulk of commercial men in Europe & America have allowed themselves to be deceived. The ministry of Great Britain have continually represented the value of the Island in a great degree to derive from its proximity to the main. From that simple circumstance, they have promised the Nation a most flourishing contraband commerce with the Spaniards. Let us examine the position that part of the Main which his from _____ to ____ of the River & to the Boca Passages is without ______ more convenient to Trinidad than to any other Island. This Port does and will enjoy almost exclusive trade with that port. But in what does the trade consist? In poultry and vegetables, & cocao from the O. I see the vessels as they arrive and depart and consequently given the fact from a primitive knowledge. All that coast described within the limits above is miserably poor — the Spaniards from ______ have introduced less money & have taken _____. We have their purchase been at all considerable. In a word, they have been much greater disservice than benefit to the island.
The main ports on the Main from which an influence of wealth could rationally be expected, are Cumana & Laguina — the former is nearest. From that port the Spaniards can go to various islands with greater facility than they can come here. They can go to Antigua and Curacao particularly with much greater ease. Other Islands could be named. I will now ask whether the system of advantages so frequently held out from ____ is nor totally destroyed. If the Spaniards can go to those places with only the same convenience that they can come here, can they there find the kind of goods wanted? They can. In M & C already mentioned, they are at all times certain of finding the very articles they wish. Dutch, French & German ____ have always pleased the Spaniards but make it the intent of a Spaniard or any other person to presume a particular knowledge of trade and he will pursue it.
What is the object of trade? In addition to what has been said, it may be further observed that French & Spanish habits are congenial to each other. Most of the Spaniards speak spanish and no contemptible number of the latter speak ____.
Lately it has been said that France is to have a direct trade from her ports in Europe to those on the Main. If this be true, no island can enjoy a smuggling trade to any extent. In which case Trinidad can promise herself very little.
I am happy in declaring to you that I have been treated very politely here by many very respectable characters.
I am not finally determined respecting the place of my residence. Would to God I could fix it in America. Wealth there is the only criterion of mint. If I could get forward here, I would agree to undergo any and every kind of hardship & sickness for the purpose of doing something for my brothers. I have not yet heard of old _____. It is the single circumstance that keeps me in the dark.
I am with esteem, your obedient servant, — Jonathan D. Luiz
Remember me Mrs. Vaughan. I am sorry to tell you that Jim is a confirmed thief & liar. All the ______ mint I have been able to inflict has provided no change of conduct respecting the f____ he was sold for. I know not what to do with him. If I sell him here, I am fearful that you or I — perhaps both — may be introduced to trouble. I mean if I sell in time. If an opportunity exists of writing to me, do say whether I can with property dispose of his time provided. Make a Bond opportunity for his delivery at 21 years.
Spare and Shared
Old Letter spared from obscurity
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India Batavia republic cast coin 1803
Zilveren Dukaat 1805 (Sch. 74 / Delm. 982) – ZF-
Bid Info: Price: € 60.00
Fine condition E 150
no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade,
Battle of Bergen (1799)
The Battle of Bergen, also called the Battle of Bergen-Binnen, was fought on 19 September 1799, and resulted in a French-Dutch victory under General Brune and General Daendels against the Russians and British under the Duke of York who had landed in North Holland
VOC papermoney 1799
Noncolour embosed VOC revenue sheet
Kingdom of Holland 1806
After the founding of the Kingdom of Holland, King Louis Napoleon him the country’s service. The appointments and promotions now followed each other in quick succession.
Muhammad Jamalul Alam I to the Sultan of Brunei until 1807.
1806: August 11, 1806 changed its name from the royal palace Banjar Kencana into Earth Good Earth.
In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother, Louis to the Dutch throne which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.
Monete e Medaglie Estere. Olanda-Indie Orientali. Repubblica Batava (1795-1806). Duit 1806. KM 76. CU. g. 2.82 BB+.
Bid Info: Price: € 30.00
A painting by Thomas Whitcombe depicting Batavia harbour in 1806. 27 November 1806,British victory
The Raid on Batavia of 27 November 1806
was an attempt by a large British naval force to destroy the Dutch squadron based on Java in the Dutch East Indies that posed a threat to British shipping in the Straits of Malacca.
The British admiral in command of the eastern Indian Ocean, Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, led a force of four ships of the line, two frigates and brig to the capital of Java at Batavia (later renamed Djakarta),
in search of the squadron, which was reported to consist of a number of Dutch ships of the line and several smaller vessels. However the largest Dutch ships had already sailed eastwards towards Griessie over a month earlier, and Pellew only discovered the frigate Phoenix and a number of smaller warships in the bay, all of which were driven ashore by their crews rather than engage Pellew’s force.
The wrecks were subsequently burnt and Pellew, unaware of the whereabouts of the main Dutch squadron, returned to his base at Madras for the winter.
The raid was the third of series of actions intended to eliminate the threat posed to British trade routes by the Dutch squadron: at the Action of 26 July 1806 and the Action of 18 October 1806,
British frigates sent on reconnaissance missions to the region succeeded in attacking and capturing two Dutch frigates and a number of other vessels. The raid reduced the effectiveness of Batavia as a Dutch base, but the continued presence of the main Dutch squadron at Griessie concerned Pellew and he led a second operation the following year to complete his defeat of the Dutch.
In early 1806,
Pellew was relieved by the news that a large French squadron under Rear-Admiral Charles Linois had sailed out of the Indian Ocean and into the Atlantic.
The departure of Linois after three years of operations in eastern waters freed Pellew’s small squadron based at Madras for operations against the Dutch East Indies. Pellew’s particular target was the island of Java, where the principal Dutch squadron and their base at Batavia were located.
The Dutch Kingdom of Holland was a French client state under Emperor Napoleon‘s brother Louis Bonaparte and Batavia had been used by Linois in his preparations for the Battle of Pulo Aura, in which a valuable British convoy came under attack, and its position close to the Straits of Malacca threatened British trade with China.
Pellew’s departure for the East Indies was delayed by the Vellore Mutiny in the spring, and instead he sent frigates to reconnoitre the situation of the Dutch forces in the region.
HMS Greyhound under Captain Edward Elphinstone cruised in the Molucca Islands and captured a Dutch convoy at the Action of 26 July 1806 off Celebes. T
hree months later another frigate, HMS Caroline under Captain Peter Rainier, cruised successfully
in the Java Sea and managed to capture a Dutch frigate at the Action of 18 October 1806 from the entrance to Batavia harbour. Shortly before Rainier’s engagement, the principal ships of the Dutch squadron, the two ships of the line Pluto and Revolutie, had sailed westwards towards the port of Griessie, Rear-Admiral Hartsink seeking to divide his forces in preparation for the coming British attack to prevent their complete destruction.
Pellew sailed from Madras in the early autumn of 1806,
expecting the full Dutch squadron to be present and preparing accordingly with the ship of the line HMS Culloden under Captain Christopher Cole as his flagship, accompanied by HMS Powerful under Captain Robert Plampin, HMS Russell under Captain Thomas Gordon Caulfield and HMS Belliqueux under Captain George Byng. The ships of the line were accompanied by the frigate HMS Terpsichore under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, Admiral Pellew’s son, as well as the brig HMS Seaflower under Lieutenant William Fitzwilliam Owen.
By 23 November,1806
Pellew’s squadron was approaching the Sunda Strait from the southwest when he encountered the British frigate HMS Sir Francis Drake, which he attached to his force.
Three days later, the squadron passed the port of Bantam and seized the Dutch East India Company brig Maria Wilhelmina, continuing on to Batavia during the night.
At the approaches to the port, the squadron separated, with the frigates and brig passing between Onrust Island and the shore while the ships of the line took a longer route through deeper water.
Although Terpsichore was able to surprise and capture the corvette William near Onrust Island, the main body of the squadron was spotted by Dutch lookouts from a distance, who initially mistook the approaching vessels for a French squadron.
The Dutch officers, led by Captain Vander Sande on the frigate Phoenix, decided that resistance against such a large British squadron was useless: the only warships remaining in the harbour were the Phoenix and six small armed ships, none of which could contend with the approaching British force.
In an effort to dissuade the British from pressing their attack, the Dutch captains all drove their vessels ashore, joined by the 22 merchant vessels that were anchored in the harbour.
Determined to prevent the Dutch from refloating the grounded ships, Admiral Pellew ordered landing parties to assemble in the boats of his squadron alongside Terpsichore.
From there, under distant covering fire from the British frigates, Fleetwood Pellew led the boats against Phoenix, coming under fire from the grounded vessels and gun batteries ashore. Passing through the bombardment from the shoreline,
Pellew’s men boarded Phoenix to find that the Dutch crew had just abandoned the vessel, scuttling the frigate as they departed.
Although now useless as a ship, Phoenix‘s guns were turned on the other beached vessels to cover the British boats as they spread out to board and burn them.
This operation was followed by the destruction of 20 grounded merchant ships in the harbour, although two others were successfully refloated and captured. In a final act before withdrawing to the squadron offshore,
Captain Pellew set fire to the wreck of Phoenix, burning the ship to the waterline. The entire operation was conducted under heavy fire from the shore, but British casualties were only one Royal Marine killed and three men wounded.
Without sufficient troops to attempt a landing at Batavia itself, Admiral Pellew withdrew from the harbour.
Preparing his prizes for the return to Madras, he ordered all prisoners taken from the captured and burnt ships returned to shore under condition of parole.
The captured William was found to be in such a poor state of repair that it was not worth keeping the corvette and Admiral Pellew ordered the ship burnt, noting in his official report that Lieutenant Owen, who as senior lieutenant would otherwise have been placed in command, should be recompensed with another command as reward for his services in the engagement. With his preparations complete, Pellew then ordered his squadron to disperse, Culloden sailing to Malacca.
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Ben (5) H.E.Wieseman
Ben (5) H.E.Wieseman
Foreigners in Mughal Era India
D u t c h p a i n t e r s
1621 – DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY
Dutch East and West India Company (VOC, WIC)
Hudson River Valley Dutch
1621 – DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY
Commonwealth Stamp Store On Line
Zuid Africa Suid Africa RSA
Indonesia culture history and colonial times
Indonesian Colonial Era -YUSIKOM-
~Vintage Lady M~
~Vintage Lady M~
VOC, WIC & exotische planten
Dutch Exploration of the New World
Holland through History
East India Company
Indonesian Colonial Era -YUSIKOM-
Foreigners in Mughal Era India
Indonesia where I now live🙂 Now..Then..And way Back Then🙂
Die BOERVOLK….….The BOERS (“Uit die chaos van die eeue,….
GORDEL VAN SMARAGD
The British raid on Batavia had destroyed 28 vessels. In addition to Phoenix, William and the merchant ships, Pellew’s squadron had burnt the 18-gun brigs Aventurier and Patriot, the 14-gun Zee-Ploeg, the 10-gun Arnistein, the 8-gun Johanna Suzanna and the 6-gun Snelheid. Just three ships were captured: two merchant vessels and Maria Wilhelmina.
The elimination of the smaller vessels of the Dutch squadron was an important victory for Pellew, leaving only the larger ships of the line at large.
These ships were old and in poor condition, limiting the threat they posed to British trade routes.
Imprinted French period / Droogstempel Franse overheersing
(From 1808 till 1811 or 1812?)
French occupation of Netherlands India
Marshal Daendels in the service of King Louis Napoleon
Back to home
St = Stuivers (nickels) = 5 cent (0.05 G)
LN = Louis Napoleon
A red asterisk * means that this revenue is not in my collection.
6 stuivers 18?? In a part of a document *
12 stuivers in document April 11th 1812, Surabaya *
Source Hans van Scheik
Nevertheless, Pellew returned to the Java Sea in 1807
in search of the warships, destroying them at the Raid on Griessie in November, a year after the success at Batavia. A lack of resources in the region and the threat posed by the French Indian Ocean island bases delayed larger scale British operations against the East Indies until 1810, when a series of invasions rapidly eliminated the remaining Dutch presence in the Pacific
The energetic Herman Willem Daendels, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1808 to 1811, had ordered the construction of Die Groete Postweg, the “great post way,” a highway traversing Java and recalled by this roadside monument. van Holland
Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
Java Great Post Road, commissioned by Daendels.
Louis Bonaparte made Daendels colonel-general in 1806 and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807.
After a long voyage, he arrived in the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) on 5 January 1808 and relieved the former Governor General, Albertus Wiese. His primary task was to rid the island of Java of the British Army, which he promptly achieved. He built new hospitals and military barracks, a new arms factories in Surabaya and Semarang, and a new military college in Batavia.
He demolished the Castle in Batavia and replaced it with a new fort at Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara), and built Fort Lodewijk in Surabaya. However, his best-known achievement was the construction of the Great Post Road (Indonesian: Jalan Raya Pos) across northern Java. The road now serves as the main road in the island of Java, called Jalur Pantura. The thousand-kilometre road was completed in only one year, during which thousands of Javanese forced labourers died.
He displayed a firm attitude towards the Javanese rulers, with the result that the rulers were willing to work with the British against the Dutch. He also subjected the population of Java to forced labour (Rodi). There were some rebellious actions against this, such as those in Cadas Pangeran, West Java.
There is considerable debate as to whether he increased the efficiency of the local bureaucracy and reduced corruption, although he certainly enriched himself during this period.
Daendels’ postroad on Java
The Great Post Road is the road stretched from west to east at northern part of Java from Anyer to Panarukan along 1,000km. Initaded by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels, this road is passing through Serang, Tangerang, Jakarta, Bogor, Sukabumi, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang, Cirebon, Brebes, Tegal Pemalang, Pekalongan, Kendal, Semarang, Demak, Kudus, Rembang, Tuban, Gresik, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Pasuruan, Probolinggo dan Situbondo.
Daendels was a marshal appointed as governor general of East Indies by Lodewijk Napoleon who ruling Holland at that time. The ultimate aim was handling military preparation in anticipating British Navy attack that had blockaded Java Island. Daendels landed in Anyer in 1808 after routing a long trip from Cadiz in southern Spain, Canary Islands and then departing from New York using American vessel.
Daendels’s most important military project in defending Java from British attack was constructing a highway connecting west and east corner of this island. The road was built by means of obliging indigenous rulers to mobilize people along the route to work it by force.
This road had sacrificed thousands life in nearly a year of its building process. Later, the road was renowned as the Great Post Road (De Groote Postweg) since Daendels also set off post and telegraph services at the moment of the making..
Under French domination during the Napoleonic years in Europe, the Dutch authorities appointed Marshal H. W. Daendels as Governor-General in 1808. He sought both to reform the corrupt administrative practices that had brought down the VOC and to prepare for the defence of Java against an expected British attack. Amongst his measures was to construct a post-road the full length of the island of Java, from Anyer to Panarukan, to improve communications and the movement of troops. Constructed mainly with forced labour working to a tight timetable, the road earned Daendels a reputation for dictatorial cruelty
Power in the archipelago then taken over by the Government of the Netherlands East Indies with the first Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1808-1811).
Herman Willem Daendels’s career was very eventful. Political developments in the Netherlands around 1800 were certainly the reason for this.
Within a short space of time there were a large number of changes of rulers. Daendels’s career appeared to survive these changes. He was first and foremost a soldier.
In 1808 he was appointed Governor General of the Asian colonies.
In line with change of power in the Dutch East Indies, Bandung regency circumstances change.
Changes in the first place is to transfer the capital district of the southern region Krapyak in Bandung to Bandung, which was; etak in the middle area of the district.
1808: Sharif Kasim became the Sultan of Pontianak Alkadrie II until 1819.
Governor-General of Dutch East Indies (1807 – 1811)
Louis Napoleon in 1807 to Daendels appointed governor-general of Dutch East Indies.
It was a hard task, which Daendels’s shoulders was laid. The remains of the old Company area, Java, Timor, part of the Moluccas and Bandjermasin was the Dutch authorities declined to an alarming manner. Shipment of troops, money and material from the mother country was impossible, since the British ruled the seaways. It was not easy even for Daendels are employed to reach Batavia.
Reorganizations and reforms
His main task was the Dutch colonies against the British. He therefore began a reorganization of the army and filled it with native volunteers.
In Weltevreden, a suburb of Batavia, he built a then modern hospital in Surabaya, the capital of Austria, Java, a construction shop, a cadet school in Semarang and Batavia a cannon foundry. The old unhealthy castle at this place he demolished and replaced by a fortified camp at Meester Cornelis. Surabaya became the Fort Louis.
The most popular work of Daendels, the great highway of Carnation to Panaroekan, was primarily a military objective, rapid troop movements. The construction of a military port in the Bay Gulls (Sunda Strait), he had, because of the disastrous climate, obstruction of Bantam, give up.
Administrative and legal Daendels organized in a modern way, and thereby cleared numerous abuses and abuses of time on the Company. However, all these innovations earned him the hatred and opposition of the old party-guests, who many complaints and accusations against him sent to Napoleon.
Hispan 8 real silver coin carolus IIII found at bukittinggi(provenance Dr Iwan)
an extremely rare 1809 handwritten Ambon bank note
Since its operation in 1809, the road formerly intended for military purpose had become a main transportaion infrastructure in Java Island. This highway had witnessed traffice of commodities coveyed over it since colonial era till now. The road has play important role as one of crucial veins of Indonesian economy today
1807: Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei Kanzul until the year 1829.
Between January 1800 to end December 1807
in the archipelago in general and in Java in particular, occur foreign power vacuum (invaders), because although the Governor-General of the Company is still there, but he had no power.
For the regents, during the vacuum power means the loss of the burden of obligations to be fulfilled for the benefit of a foreign ruler (invaders). Thus, they can devote attention to the interests of local governments respectively. This would occur also in Bandung Regency.
According to the script of The Bandung History , Bandung in 1809 Regent Wiranatakusumah II along with a number of people moved from Karapyak to the area north of the land going to the capital.
At that time the land would Bandung still forested, but in the north existing settlements, namely Kampung Cikapundung conservative, Kampung Cikalintu, and Villages Bogor. According to the script, the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II moved to the city of Bandung after he settled in temporary shelters for two and a half years.
Originally regents living in Cikalintu (Cipaganti area) and then he moved Balubur Downstream.
When Deandels Cikapundung inaugurate the construction of the bridge (bridge at Jl. Asia Africa Building near PLN now), Regent of Bandung was there.
Deandels with Regent over the bridge and then they walk eastward to one place (in front of the Office of Public Works Jl. Asia Africa now).
In that place deandels plugging rod and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (Try, if I come back here, a city has built! “. Apparently Deandels wants city center was built in the place.
info source: Rob Huisman
an extremely rare handwritten VOC bank note of 100 rijksdaalders dating from 1809 and issued in Ambon. “This piece of paper is literally of great value. After 1795 no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade, resulting in a severe deficiency in coins and coin materials. The Dutch authorities therefore resorted to issuing paper money. In 1808 Governor General H.W. Daendels decided that an additional three hundred thousand guilders needed to be printed in Ambon. These notes varied in value from 1 to 1,000 silver rijksdaalders. They were widely used in the Moluccas, but could also be exchanged for real money in Batavia. It is conspicuous that this piece of paper mentions the Dutch East India Company, even though the VOC had been nationalized in 1799. The most notable detail however is that only the one hundred rijksdaaldersnote exists as a written currency; the remainder of the issue was printed. An extremely rare piece of paper, which is mentioned in the paper currency catalogue of Mevius, but of which no image has been printed as yet.”
a high resolution scan, which a great privilege to be able to see this note in great detail and share it through this website. This note has never been published in the past
Daendels Palace (1809)
Weltevreden/Jakarta, Indonesia(now the Office Of republic Indonesia Finance Menistry)
Construction of this architectural gem was commissioned by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels. As a governor general, Daendels stimulated the move southwards of Batavia;
the densely populated walled city was unhealthy and many inhabitants suffered from malaria and cholera.
The area of Weltevreden, several kilometres south of Batavia, originally a country estate, was developed and would turn into a highly fashionable area. Halfway Batavia and Weltevreden, the new accommodation for the club Harmonie was constructed.
on the Paradeplaats, a new Government House was erected; since Daendels did not wish to inhabit the old country estate (known as the Van der Parra estate), officially assigned to the governors general. The Government House is a building constructed in the period 1809-1
827 in Batavia, ‘capital’ of the Dutch colony in the East-Indies. Construction was ordered by governor general H.W. Daendels (1808-1811) and completed by governor general L.P.J. du Bus de Ghisignies (1826-1830).
The building has been preserved and is located on present Lapangan Banteng, Jakarta Pusat, which was known in the nineteenth century as Paradeplaats and since 1828 as Waterlooplein.
Modelled in the Empire style, the proportionate Witte Huis (White House) measures 160 meters lengthwise.
The pillars on the first story are Doric, whereas those on the second level are Ionic in style. In the past, the building hosted many state functions and even served as a post office, a printing office and a high court. Today, it houses the Indonesian Ministry of Finance.
[IMG]www.geheugenvannederland.nl[/IMG]The Supreme Court (left) and the Daendels Palace at the Waterloo Square. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, compl. by J. Tromp, 1809)
Picture by De Rooij Fotografie
Read more info
In 1809 begon Daendels dus aan zijn plan voor wat de geschiedenis zou ingaan als het Paleis van Daendels, en ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd. Pas in 1827 zou het voltooid worden.
Alhoewel groots van opzet
(Daendels dacht altijd in het groot)
is het dus nooit als Paleis gebruikt. In het Groote Huis zijn altijd overheidsinstellingen ondergebracht, zoals de Raad van Indië, het Departement van Onderwijs en
en het Departement van Financiën. Ook werd het gebruikt als centraal magazijn bijvoorbeeld voor schoolmaterialen. Ook het Departement van Oorlog was hier ooit gevestigd.
Bijzonder aan het Paleis is wel dat hier na verloop van tijd alle portretten naar toe verhuisd zijn van alle Gouverneurs-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië. In 1949 werden de portretten van de Gouverneurs-Generaal vanuit het Paleis van Daendels rechtstreeks overgebracht naar het Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, waar je ze nog steeds kunt bewonderen.
Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia
ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd
Voor het Paleis van Daendels:
het standbeeld van Jan Pietersz Coen in Bataviatot 1942…..
As a follow-up of his word, Deandels asked Regent Bandung and Parakanmuncang to move the capital of each district to the nearby Jalan Raya Pos.(Postal Highway Road)Deandels request was submitted by letter dated May 25, 1810.
Beauty of the city of Bandung Regency Bandung in conjunction with the appointment of Raden Suria became Patih Parakanmuncang. Both momentum is confirmed by besluit (decree) dated September 25, 1810.
This date is also the date of Decree (besluit), the formal judicial (dejure) designated as the City Anniversary Bandung
Perhaps the regents began domiciled in Bandung after there in the first district where the building marquee. Certainly the marquee district is the first building constructed for the central government activities Bandung regency.
1810: British occupy Banjarmasin. 
1810: Sultan Alimuddin became the first sultan Sambaliung Sultanate, the Sultanate of Berau fractions are divided by two.
General in Napoleon’s Grande Armée
When the Kingdom of Holland was incorporated into France in 1810, Daendels returned to Holland. He was appointed a Divisional General (Major General) and commanded the 26th Division of the Grande Armée in Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.
1809: Dutch Banjarmasin release of its colonies. 
British possessions in Indonesia, 1810-1817
Javanese territories ceded to the colonial governments of Daendels and Raffles, 1808-1812
Both Daendels and Raffles radically restructured the administration of the island, reducing the power of the bupati, changing the taxat
ion system and turning the village into the basic administrative unit. Raffles in particular emphasized that ‘native welfare’ should be an aim of the colonial government, and he introduced a form of land tax, called land rent, in an effort to develop a money economy on the island.
The Dutch-held islands of Amboyna, Harouka, Saparua, Nasso-Laut, Buru, Manipa, Manado, Copang, Amenang, Kemar, Twangwoo and Ternate had surrendered to a force led by Captain Edward Tucker in 1810, while Captain Christopher Cole captured the Banda Islands, completing the conquest of Dutch possessions in the Maluku Islands.
Java became the last major colonial possession in the East not under British control, and its fall marked the effective end of the war in these waters. Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Java.
He ended Dutch administrative methods, liberalized the system of land tenure, and extended trade.
British order of battle
Stopford’s fleet on his arrival on 9 August to assume command of the expedition, consisted of the following ships, dispersed around the Javanese coast:
The British Army troops attached to the force included 12,000 soldiers from the 22nd Light Dragoons; 14th Foot; 59th Foot; 69th Foot; 78th Foot; 89th Foot; 102nd Foot.
There were also contingents of the Royal Marines, and several regiments of Madras Native Infantry and Bengal Native Infantry, with half of the overall troop strength consisting of Indian troops of the East India Company. General Samuel Auchmuty was the overall commander, but he delegated the field command to Major General Rollo Gillespie.
In addition to the official navy forces, the East India Company provided the services of several of their ships, led by the Malabar under Commodore John Hayes. These were the Ariel; Aurora; Mornington; Nautilus; Psyche; Thetis; Vestal. With the transport vessels, and several gunboats captured as the campaign progressed, Stopford commanded nearly a hundred ships.
In the time of British rule in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies the Royal British achievement should have been used. No examples of this achievement from Dutch East Indian soil are known however
The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles
“Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”
malay bencoolen sumatra
Vinict Amor Patriae Half – Penny Token 1811 (1110B)
1811 MEXICO SPANISH FERDINAND VII 2 REALES ~ SILVER
France Napoleon Bonaparte 20 Francs ☤ 1811 W Gold
In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor.
After heavy criticism of his leadership, Daendels was replaced in 1811. He then became an officer in the French army. King William I appointed Daendels Governor General of the Dutch Colonies on the west coast of Africa.
Three years later, with the French driven out of the western Indian Ocean, British forces in the region were strong enough to prepare an expeditionary force against the Dutch East Indies, which effectively ended the war in the east.
The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:
“Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief
Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”
1811: Sultan Ibrahim became Sultan of Sand Alamsyah until 1815.
Herman William Deandels was dismissed. Three months later, British forces occupied Java.
British troops landed near Batavia in August 1811
and the Dutch forces surrendered to them at Salatiga six weeks later. Thomas Stamford Raffles took over as Lieutenant Governor and began a vigorous programme of reform in the hopes of convincing the British government to retain Java permanently as a colony (as it was to do with the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon).
Raffles’ authority was quickly challenged by the sultan of Yogyakarta, but in 1812 British forces attacked, plundered the court of Yogyakarta and sent the sultan into exile, replacing him with his pliable son.
To keep the court weak, Raffles also created a new principality within it, the Pakualaman, with a lesser status similar to that of the Mangkunegaran within Surakarta.
The Navy was active off the Javanese coastline before and during the expedition.
On 23 May 1811
a party from HMS Sir Francis Drake attacked a flotilla of 14 Dutch gunvessels off Surabaya, capturing nine of them. Marrack, in north-western Java, was attacked and the fort defending the town largely demolished by a party from HMS Minden and HMS Leda
on 30 July, 1811
while that same day a fleet of six Dutch gunboats flying French colours was attacked by HMS Procris, capturing five and destroying the sixth.
The British force was assembled at bases in India in early 1811,
initially overseen by Vice-Admiral William O’Bryen Drury, and then after his death in March, by Commodore William Robert Broughton.
The first division of troops, under the command of Colonel Rollo Gillespie, left Madras on 18 April,
escorted by a squadron under Captain Christopher Cole aboard the 36-gun HMS Caroline.
They arrived at Penang on 18 May,
were joined on 21 May
by the second division, led by Major-General Frederick Augustus Wetherall,
which had left Calcutta on 21 April,
escorted by a squadron under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, aboard the 38-gun HMS Phaeton.
The two squadrons sailed together, arriving at Malacca on 1 June,
where they made contact with a division of troops from Bengal under Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, and Commodore Broughton aboard the 74-gun HMS Illustrious.
Auchmuty and Broughton became the military and naval commanders in chief respectively of the expedition. With the force now assembled Auchmuty had roughly 11,960 men under his command, the previous strength having been reduced by approximately 1,200 by sickness.
Those too ill to travel on were landed at Malacca, and on 11 June the fleet sailed onwards. After calling at various points enroute, the force arrived off Indramayu on 30 June.
There the fleet waited for a time for intelligence concerning the strength of the Dutch. Colonel Mackenzie, an officer who had been dispatched to reconnoitre the coast, suggested a landing site at Cilincing, an undefended fishing village 12 miles east of Batavia.
The fleet anchored off the Marandi River on 4 August,
and began landing troops at 14:00. The defenders were taken by surprise, and nearly six hours passed before Franco-Dutch troops arrived to oppose the landing, by which time 8,000 British troops had been landed. A brief skirmish took place between the advance guards, and the Franco-Dutch forces were repulsed.
Fall of Batavia
On learning of the successful British landing, Janssens withdrew from Batavia with his army, which amounted to between 8,000 and 10,090 men, and garrisoned themselves in Fort Cornelis.
The British advanced on Batavia, reaching it on 8 August
and finding it undefended. The city surrendered to the forces under Colonel Gillespie, after Broughton and Auchmuty had offered promises to respect private property.
The British were disappointed to find that part of the town had been set on fire, and many warehouses full of goods such as coffee and sugar had been looted or flooded, depriving them of prize money.
On 9 August 1811
Rear-Admiral Robert Stopford arrived and superseded Commodore Broughton, who was judged to be too cautious.
Stopford had orders to supersede Rear-Admiral Albemarle Bertie as commander in chief at the Cape, but on his arrival he learnt of Vice-Admiral Drury’s death, and the planned expedition to Java, and so travelled on.
General Janssens had always intended to rely on the tropical climate and disease to weaken the British army rather than oppose a landing.
The British now advanced on Janssens’s stronghold, reducing enemy positions as they went.
The Dutch military and naval station at Weltevreeden fell to the British after an attack on 10 August. British losses did not exceed 100 while the defenders lost over 300.
In one skirmish, one of Janssens’s French subordinates, General Alberti, was killed when he mistook some British troops in green uniforms for Dutch troops. Weltevreeden was six miles from Fort Cornelis and on 20 August the British began preparing fortifications of their own, some 600 yards from the Franco-Dutch positions.
Siege of Fort Cornelis(now Jatinegara)
Diagram of Fort Cornelis, Batavia.
Fort Cornelis measured 1 mile (1,600 m) in length by between 600 yards (550 m) and 800 yards (730 m) in breadth.
Two hundred and eighty cannon were mounted on its walls and bastions. Its defenders were a mixed bag of Dutch, French and East Indies troops. Most of the locally raised East Indian troops were of doubtful loyalty and effectiveness, although there were some determined artillerymen from Celebes.
The captured station at Weltevreeden proved an ideal base from which the British could lay siege to Fort Cornelis.
On 14 August1811
the British completed a trail through the forests and pepper plantations to allow them to bring up heavy guns and munitions, and opened siege works on the north side of the Fort.
For several days, there were exchanges of fire between the fort and the British batteries, manned mainly by Royal Marines and sailors from HMS Nisus.
A sortie from the fort early on the morning of 22 August1881
briefly seized three of the British batteries, until they were driven back some of the Bengal Sepoys and the 69th Foot.
The two sides then exchanged heavy fire, faltering on 23 August,1881
resuming on 24 August.
The Franco-Dutch position worsened when a deserter helped General Rollo Gillespie to capture two of the redoubts by surprise.
Gillespie, who was suffering from fever, collapsed, but recovered to storm a third redoubt.
The French General Jauffret was taken prisoner. Two Dutch officers, Major Holsman and Major Muller, sacrificed themselves to blow up the redoubt’s magazine.
The three redoubts were nevertheless the key to the defence, and their loss demoralised most of Janssens’s East Indian troops.
Many Dutch troops also defected, repudiating their allegiance to the French. The British stormed the fort at midnight on 25 August, capturing it after a bitter fight.
The siege cost the British 630 casualties. The defenders’ casualties were heavier, but only those among officers were fully recorded. Forty of them were killed, sixty-three wounded and 230 captured, including two French generals.
Nearly 5,000 men were captured, including three general officers, 34 field officers, 70 captains and 150 subaltern officers. 1,000 men were found dead in the fort, with more being killed in the subsequent pursuit.
Janssens escaped to Buitenzorg with a few survivors from his army, but was forced to abandon the town when the British approached.
Total British losses in the campaign after the fall of Fort Cornelis amounted to 141 killed, 733 wounded and 13 missing from the Army, and 15 killed, 45 wounded and three missing from the Navy; a total of 156 killed, 788 wounded and 16 missing by 27 August 1881 .
Royal Navy ships continued to patrol off the coast, occasionally making raids on targets of opportunity.On 4 September. two French 40-gun frigates, the Méduse and the Nymphe attempted to escape from Surabaya.
They were pursued by the 36-gun HMS Bucephalus and the 18-gun HMS Barracouta, until Barracouta lost contact.
Bucephalus pursued them alone until 12 September, when the French frigates came about and attempted to overhaul her. Bucephalus‘s commander, Captain Charles Pelly, turned about and tried to lead the pursuing French over shoals, but seeing the danger, they hauled off and abandoned the chase, returning to Europe.
On 31 August a force from the frigates HMS Hussar, HMS Phaeton and HMS Sir Francis Drake, and the sloop HMS Dasher captured the fort and town of Sumenep, on Madura Island in the face of a large Dutch defending force.
The rest of Madura and several surrounding islands placed themselves under the British soon afterwards.
Suspecting Janssen to be in Cirebon, a force was landed there from HMS Lion, HMS Nisus, HMS President, HMS Phoebe and HMS Hesper on 4 September, causing the defenders to promptly surrender. General Jamelle, a member of Janssens’s staff, was captured in the fall of the town. The town and fort of Taggal surrendered on 12 September after HMS Nisus and HMS Phoebe arrived offshore.
While the navy took control of coastal towns, the army pushed on into the interior of the island. Janssens had been reinforced on 3 September by 1,200 mounted irregulars under Prince Prang Wedono and other Javanese militia.
On 16 September 1811
Salatiga fell to the British. Janssen attacked a British force under Colonel Samuel Gibbs that day, but was repulsed. Many of the native militia killed their Dutch officers in the ensuing rou
t. With his effective force reduced to a handful of men, Janssens surrendered two days later, on 18 September.
Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius Captain in the French Army
Imprinted British rule / Droogstempel Engelse overheersing
(From September 11th 1811 till 18 th Augustus 1816)
Occupation of Netherlands India
(Lieutenant-Governor Raffles: September 11th 1811 – March 11th 1816)
(Raffles continue to stay in Benkulu – Sumatera and in some RIAU islands like Bintan and Lingga till 1824)
(Lieutenant-Governor Fendall: March 11th 1816 – Augustus 18th 1816)
From 1816 the British Occupation ended.
Back to home
English East India Company JAVA
Srs = Stuivers (nickels) = 5 cent (0.05 G)
A red asterisk * means that this revenue is not in my collection.
6 Stuivers in document 1813 JAVA
6 Stuivers in document 1815 JAVA *
6 Stuivers in document 1816 JAVA *
1817 This document is signed on 6-3-1817 in Surabaya but not used by Stamford *
12 Stuivers in document 1814 JAVA *
1 Rix-daalders = 40 Stuivers =
2,50 G in document 1814
4 Rix-daalders = 160 Stuivers =
10 G in document,
Hans van Scheik
1812: Alexander Hare became resident-commissioner for the British government in Yogyakarta. 
1811/ 1813 Raden Demang Anggadipa (1807-1811/1813) dicopot dari kedudukannya oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda karena menolak penanaman paksa nila sebagai pengganti beras.
Beliau keberatan dengan kebijakan Belanda itu karena akan mengakibatkan rakyat kelaparan
. Akibat pembangkangan itu, Kadipaten Sukapura sementara waktu dihapuskan dan diserahkan pemerintahannya pada Limbangan di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wangsareja (1805-1811).
EIC Indies lead coin 1814
Raffles’ rule, however, was only brief. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain’s policy was to strengthen the Netherlands as a European counterweight to France
Queen Imanuddin move the administrative center of Kotawaringin Old Kingdom Kotawaringin to Pangkalan Bun.
Muhammad Ali Syafeiuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until the year 1828.
Britain returned Java and other East Indian possessions to the newly independent United Kingdom of the Netherlands under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1814.
However, the Anglo-Dutch Convention of 1814 was not completely clear, especially on the issue of certain possessions such as Padang.
The Convention of 1814
only returned Dutch territory that was held before 1803, which did not include Padang.
Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau.
Yet, as Raffles confirmed with the sultan regarding the absolute British influence of the area, he realized that the local rulers had only limited power over the well-cultivated and civilized country, and the treaty was largely symbolic and had little actual force.
Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius Captain in Netherlands Army
There were legitimate complaints. The most serious was the manner in which Daendels enriched themselves. Moreover witnessed his performance against the local rulers of little tact and knowledge of their manners and customs. Shortly after the incorporation of the mother Daendels Napoleon called back and instructed the government on May 16, 1811 the emperor appointed by the General Janssens.
Governor-General of Guinea
After the fall of Napoleon asked Daendels King William I, son of his old adversary William V, a new appointment. Understandably trusted the Orange Frost the former revolutionary not too much, but asked him to lock it in October 1815 as Governor General of Guinea (Ghana), on the Gold Coast in West Africa, a very unhealthy and very little meaning area.
1815: Sultan Mahmud became the Sultan Han Alamsyah Sand until 1843.
After the defeat of Napoleon the Sovereign Principalityof the Netherlands prepared the restoration of Dutch rule in the Indies. This meant also the restoration of the old symbols of sovereignty.
By royal resolution of 8 November 1815 nr. 39 the introduction of new currency was provided for. The design for a 1 guilder-piece shows the Dutch Virgin on the obverse and the crowned ancient arms of the States General and the Executive on the reverse. From this guilder only one minted coin is known.
Nederlandsch Oost-Indië, 1 gulden, 1815 Æ 31 mm.
At the date of the Royal Resolution the coat of arms of the Sovereign Principality of 14 January 1814 was already substituted by Royal Resolution of 24 August 1815. The new coat of arms, amended in 1816, was used in the Colonies throughout the nineteenth century and was changed again in 1907. )
A picture of this coat of arms was in the Audience Hall above the seat of the Governor General in Batavia.
The seal for the Dutch Indies showed this coat of arms with the legend DEPARTEMENT VAN KOLONIËN (until 1848) and MINISTERIE VAN KOLONIËN until 1945
to the Memory of
the Honourable THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES
And its Dependancies
Who departed this life
The 26th day of November 1814
Raffles went on from Java to found Singapore. Any tiredness I had felt before had instantaneously disappeared. Here it was, right before my eyes, a fragment of our colonial past.
the tomb with renewed vigour, snapping away as we circled the majestic final resting place of Olivia Mariamne Raffles. Thoughts filled up our mind. What if Olivia Raffles did not fall victim to her illness during her stay in Java? What if she had followed Raffles to Singapore? What changes would she have implemented as the First Lady of the founder of Singapore?
Unusual 1816, entire from the Master of the East India Company ship ”Batavia” at Madeira to Limerick, with black framed ”DEAL / SHIPLETTER”
1816: Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin be Kutai XVI until the year 1845.
Age of Dutch East Indies
restored Java to Dutch rule; the outer territories were restored
1816 Dutch control was restored in 1816
1817: On January 1, British Borneo Banjarmasin and handed back to the Dutch, then on the day it was made Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman I of Banjar with the Dutch East Indies represented Boekholzt Resident Aernout van.
1817: King Tidung Amiril Tadjoeddin served until 1844. In Kotawaringin, Prince Queen Imanuddin ruled until 1855 
After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.
Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast
After the fall of Napoleon, king Willem I and the new Dutch government feared that Daendels could become an influential and powerful opposition leader and effectively banned him from the Netherlands by appointing him Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast (now part of Ghana).
In the aftermath of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, Daendels tried to redevelop the rather dilapidated Dutch possessions as an African plantation colony driven by legitimate trade.
Drawing on his experience from the East Indies, he came up with some very ambitious infrastructural projects, including a comprehensive road system, with a main road connecting Elmina and Kumasi in Ashanti.
The Dutch government gave him a free hand and a substantial budget to implement his plans. At the same time, however, Daendels regarded his governorship as an opportunity to establish a private business monopoly in the Dutch Gold Coast.
At The dutch colonies on Westcoast of Africa, There Herman William daendels died of yellow fever in 1818.
William Herman passed away on May 2, 1818 due to yellow fever and was buried in the fort Elmina
Eventually none of the plans came to fruition, as Daendels died of malaria in the castle of St. George d’Elmina, the Dutch seat of government, on 8 May 1818.
His body was interred in the central tomb at the Dutch cemetery in Elmina town. He had been in the country less than two years
Bencoolen has become well -known fort the fact that sin Thomas stamford Raffles was the last lieutenant governor from 1818-1824 when the settlements reverted to the dutch. it was from bengkulu,
Raffles arrived in Bencoolen in 1818 and immediately applied his enligh ened style of government which he had demontrated to great effec during his time as lieutenent Govenor of java from 1811-1816.
Towards the end of the Napoleoonic wars, java had been captured from the french in a short, sharp campaign bastion at cornelis, now covered by Manggrai, within present day jakarta.
With greatly improved relation with the local rules, Raffles was able to begin the run down og the Bencoolen settlement and to reduce the high cost of maitaining a large garrison force.
the fomaus the bengkulu Flower, Rafflesia anorldi wich Rafflesia nemed wideh his great friend, botanish Dr, Joseph Arnold.
Raffles in 1817
als Raffles arrived in Bencoolen (Bengkulu) on 19 March 1818.
Despite the prestige connected with the title, Bencoolen was a colonial backwater whose only real export was pepper and only the murder of a previous Resident, Thomas Parr, gained it any attention back home in Britain.
Raffles found the place wrecked, and set about reforms immediately, mostly similar to what he had done in Java – abolishing slavery and limiting cockfighting and such games.
To replace the slaves, he used a contingent of convicts, already sent to him from India. It is at this point when he realized the importance of a British presence that both challenged the Dutch hegemony in the area and could remain consistently profitable, unlike Bencoolen or Batavia.
However, the strategic importance of poorly-maintained but well-positioned British possessions such as Penang or Bencoolen made it impossible for the British to abandon such unprofitable colonies in such close proximity to the Dutch in Java.
The competition in the area, between Raffles and the aggressive Dutch de jure Governor, Elout, certainly led at least in part to the later Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Raffles looked into alternatives in the area – namely Bangka, which had been ceded to the Dutch after its conquest by the British during its occupation of Java.
Bintan was also under consideration. Despite the fact that Warren Hastings overlooked the island before settling upon Penang in 1786, the Riau Archipelago was an attractive choice just to the south of the Malay Peninsula, for its proximity to Malacca.
In his correspondences with Calcutta, Raffles also emphasized the need to establish a certain amount of influence with the native chiefs, which had greatly waned since the return of the Dutch.
Raffles sent Thomas Travers as an ambassador to the Dutch, to possibly negotiate an expansion of British economic interests. When this failed, and when Raffles’ own expeditions into his new dominion found only treacherous terrain and few exportable goods, his desire to establish a better British presence was cemented.
Gouverneur van Elmina
, waar hij in 1818 overleed en werd begraven.
Daendels ging naar Elmina met het idee van Elmina e.o. iets te maken als Nederlands-Indië, maar al zijn brieven met plannen werden door het moederland niet beantwoord, men was blij van Daendels verlost te zijn.
Op 3 Meij 1818 werd den Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels ten 4 uur des namiddags in de Tombe gezet, doende het Hoofdkasteel van Elmina bij die gelegenheid 15 schoten
werd op het Waterlooplein een zuil gebouwd met daar bovenop een Leeuw. Helaas was de Leeuw wat klein uitgevallen t.o.v. de zuil en werd al spoedig
Het Hondje van Jan Pietersz Coen genoemd
Voor het Paleis van Daendels:
het standbeeld van Jan Pietersz Coen in Batavia
Waarom? Het leek net of Jan Pietersz Coen voor het paleis van Daendels zijn hondje riep dat bovenop een paal was gesprongen….
De naam Koningsplein kan worden herleid naar Koning-Stadhouder Willem III.
Koning-Stadhouder Willem III
In het oosten van de oude benedenstad van Batavia lag het Buffelveld, rond 1690
werd het Buffelveld omgedoopt tot Koningsplein. In de nieuwe bovenstad van Batavia werd rond 1818 het nieuwe centrale plein ten westen van het Waterlooplein ook weer Koningsplein genoemd. Niet alleen ter ere van Koning-Stadhouder Willem III, maar natuurlijk ook voor Koning Willem I.
Koning Willem I
Tot slot nog een paar schitterende prenten van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg, ook daarover zullen we het in de toekomst nog eens verder hebben wellicht.
Het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg
Toen en nu
Het (ex) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg
Het interieur van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg
“Daar staat, breed en wit en behagelijk laag gebouwd, het paleis van Zijne Excellentie den Hollandschen Gouverneur-Generaal. Ziedaar een van de machtigste mannen der wereld, die te beschikken heeft over leven en dood van 55 millioen bruine menschen in Insulinde. De “Raad van Indië” beredeneert en beraadslaagt, maar zijn wil is macht !
Vijf jaren resideert een Gouverneur-Generaal in dit witte paleis. …..met nu en dan oproer en schietpartijen, weliswaar nog maar lage bergvormingen boven de kalme zee der Hollandsche koloniale politiek, doch hier en daar aan de randen reeds rood geverfd door het bloed der blanken……edoch de inheemschen hier zijn vreedzaam en onderworpen. Zij dienen de blanken met glimlachend geduld…….in afzienbaren tijd kunnen de inlanders de Hollandschen overheersching niet missen………kleurlingen “Westersch” opvoeden beteekent : den val van de Westersche wereldheerschappij verhaasten…..Azië ontwaakt ? Neen, Europa slaapt in!
Een rijke toekomst kan men de Nederlandsche Oost-Indische kolonie voorspellen, in geval er over honderd jaar nog koloniën bestaat. Waaraan getwijfeld mag worden.” Citaat uit 1933
1819-62 stampless letters, group of 25, mostly to London, markings include “Zee Bried Franco,” some with framed “Singapore,” Sourabaya” large oval strikes, local usages Samarang to Batavia, Passaroeang, Soebang, Tanguagong, Fjilankid, Cheribon plus others, some markings in red, mostly fine
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