the Indonesian Dandaels ‘s Napoleon Army Historic Collections exhibiton

 

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SHOWCASE : THE NAPOLEON ARMY IN INDONESIA LEAD BY GOUVERNOUR GENERAL  HERMAN WILLEM DANDEALS HISTORIC  COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION

FAME ONE : INTRODUCTIONS

FRAME TWO : Dr IWAN DANDAELS COLLETIONS

1. WHEN,  THE BROTHER OF NAPOLEON I, LOUIS NAPOLEON BECAME THE KING OF HOLLAND., HE POINTED DANDELS AS THE GOUVENOR GENERAL IN INDONESIA ARCHIPHLEGO, WITH THE REPUBLIC INDIA BATAV. 

1) THE OLD DESIGN VOC DOEIT WERE USED IN INDONESIA ARCHIPHELAGO. 

Half Doeit 1770-special   
Half Doeit 1750   
1 doeit 1792   
1 doeit special design 1793   
1 doeit 1805 Dandaels   
2) DAANDEAL ISSUED THE LODEWIJK NAPOLEON COPPER COIN
(1) L.N COIN
LN Lodewijk Napoleon 1 doeit  
(2) ANTIQUE LN COPPER COINS 
antique char.L.Napoleon   
1/2 St L.Napoleon  
 
RAFLESS COINS
1) LEAD  COIN EIC JAVA
 1814 EIC leads Raffles 
EARLIER DUTCH  INDIE COIN
1)  IN STUIVER NOMINAL 
DEI 5 1/32   
India Batav 1821 
  
DEI 5 1/16   
DEI 1/8 St.   
DEI 1/4 St. 
 
 2) IN 1955 THE FIRST NED INDIE ONE CENT AND HALF CENT  COINS
Half cent 1855(?)   
One cent 1855    
rare Half Doeit 1770   
one Stuiver 1800   

one doeit 1790 the last VOC coin prepared and used after VOC dismished, many coins with other year stil uncommon this day (not illustrated).
The Rare copper coin illsutrated :   

I. During VOC still exist
(1) half doeit 1750 and 1770
(2) one doeit 1792 and 1793   

II. After VOC dismished
(1) DEI Bar token 2ST1801 , 1 st 1800,
(2)Lodewijk Napoleon Copper coin ; one doeit LN common and antique , 5 1/16 ,half stuiver, and one Stuiver.
(3) EIC Lead coin
(4) DEI : 51/32, 1/8 St, 1/4 St, Half cent 1858(the rare 1855 I dont have), one cent 1855 best condition, two and half cent(bengol) 1898.   

Please the collector who have half cent 1855 to show his collections. BECAUSE I DONNOT HAVE THIS RARE COIN.    

Half Doeit 1770-special   
Half Doeit 1750  
AFTER VOC BANKRUPT ,DUTCH REP.BATAAV STILL ISSUED VOC COIN 
1 doeit 1792   
1 doeit special design 1793 
DANDAELS VOC COIN   
1 doeit 1805 Dandaels
RARE NED INDIE  BENGOL TWO AND HALF CENT ,RARE DATE 1896   
1896 21/2 cent  
 

FRAME THREE : NAPOLEON ARMY HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

I.Herman Willem Daendels history

Herman Willem Daendels

Herman Willem Daendels

Herman Willem Daendels (Hattem, Gelderland, October 21, 1762 – St. George d’Elmina (Dutch Gold Coast, now part of Ghana), May 2, 1818) was a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 – 1811.[1]

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Early life

Born in Hattem, Netherlands, on the 21 October 1762, he was the son of Burchard Johan Daendels, the mayoral secretary, and Josina Christina Tulleken. He studied law at the University of Harderwijk, acquiring his doctorate on 10 April 1783.

Political Activity

In 1785, he sided with the Patriots, who had seized power in several Dutch cities. In 1786 he defended the city of Hattem against stadholderian troops. In 1787, he defended Amsterdam against the Prussian army that invaded the Netherlands to restore William V of Orange. After William V was in power again, he fled to France because of a death sentence. Daendels was close witness to the French revolution.

He returned to the Netherlands in 1794, as a general in the French revolutionary army of general Charles Pichegru and commander of the Batavian Legion. Daendels helped unitarian politician Pieter Vreede to power in a coup d’état on 25 January 1798. The group behind Vreede was dissatisfied with the conservative-moderate majority in parliament, which tried to prevent the formulation of a more democratic, centralistic constitution. The reign of Vreede did not bring the expected results, however, and Daendels supported another coup d’état against Vreede on 14 June 1798. In the Batavian Republic Daendels occupied several political offices, but he had to step down when he failed to prevent the Anglo-Russian Invasion of Holland in 1799, and became a farmer in Heerde, Gelderland.

 Military and colonial career

Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Java Great Post Road, commissioned by Daendels.

Louis Bonaparte made him colonel-general in 1806 and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807. After a long voyage, he arrived in the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) on the 5 January 1808 and relieved the former Governor General, Albertus Wiese. His primary task was to rid the island of Java of the British Army, which he promptly achieved.[citation needed] He built new hospitals and military barracks, a new arms factories in Surabaya and Semarang, and a new military college in Batavia. He demolished the Castle in Batavia and replaced it with a new fort at Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara), and built Fort Lodewijk in Surabaya. However, his best-known achievement was the construction of the Great Post Road (Indonesian: Jalan Raya Pos) across northern Java. The road now serves as the main road in the island of Java, called Jalur Pantura. The thousand-kilometre road was completed in only one year, during which thousands of Javanese forced labourers died.[2]

He displayed a firm attitude towards the Javanese rulers, with the result that the rulers were willing to work with the British against the Dutch. He also subjected the population of Java to forced labour (Rodi). There were some rebellious actions against this, such as those in Cadas Pangeran, West Java.

There is considerable debate as to whether he increased the efficiency of the local bureaucracy and reduced corruption, although he certainly enriched himself during this period.[citation needed]

 General in Napoleon’s Grande Armée

When the Kingdom of Holland was incorporated into France in 1810, Daendels returned to Holland. He was appointed a Divisional General (Major General) and commanded the 26th Division of the Grande Armée in Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

 Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast

After the fall of Napoleon, king Willem I and the new Dutch government feared that Daendels could become an influential and powerful opposition leader and effectively banned him from the Netherlands by appointing him Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast (now part of Ghana). In the aftermath of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, Daendels tried to redevelop the rather dilapidated Dutch possessions as an African plantation colony driven by legitimate trade. Drawing on his experience from the East Indies, he came up with some very ambitious infrastructural projects, including a comprehensive road system, with a main road connecting Elmina and Kumasi in Ashanti. The Dutch government gave him a free hand and a substantial budget to implement his plans. At the same time, however, Daendels regarded his governorship as an opportunity to establish a private business monopoly in the Dutch Gold Coast.

Eventually none of the plans came to fruition, as Daendels died of malaria in the castle of St. George d’Elmina, the Dutch seat of government, on 8 May 1818. His body was interred in the central tomb at the Dutch cemetery in Elmina town. He had been in the country less than two years.

 References

  1. ^ The only complete biography of Daendels is the now rather dated publication by Paul van ‘t Veer, Daendels, maarschalk van Holland (Zeist/Antwerpen: De Haan-Standaard Boekhandel 1963).
  2. ^ Pramoedya sheds light on dark side of Daendels’ highway. The Jakarta Post 8 January
Preceded by
Albertus Wiese
Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
1808 – 1811
Succeeded by
Jan Willem Janssens
Preceded by
Abraham de Veer
Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast
1816 – 1818
Succeeded by
Frans Christiaan Eberhard Oldenburg

II. Napoloeon french occupation Indonesia

The French and the British in Java, 1806–15

The fall of the Netherlands to France and the dissolution of the company led in due course to significant changes in the administration of the East Indies. Under Napoleon I the Batavian Republic became the Commonwealth of Batavia and then the Kingdom of Holland, with one of Napoleon’s marshals, Herman Willem Daendels, serving as governor-general. Daendels strengthened Javanese defenses, raised new forces, built new roads within Java, and improved the internal administration of the island. He attempted to formalize the position of the Javanese regents, subordinating them to Dutch prefects and emphasizing … (100 of 42798 words)

2. DANDAELS WAR ROAD ANYER PENARUKAN.

North Coast Road (Java)

The North Coast Road (Indonesian: Jalur Pantai Utara (Jalur Pantura)), is the name for the road, 1,430 km in length [1], that connects Merak and Banyuwangi on the northern beach of Java, particularly between Jakarta and Surabaya. It was built during the reign of governor-general of the Dutch East Indies Herman Willem Daendels (1808–1811) and was originally known as the Great Post Road (Indonesian: Jalan Raya Pos Dutch: De Grote Postweg)[2]

//

Construction

Java Great Post Road, span from Anjer (Anyer) to Panaroecan (Panarukan).

La Grande Route, as Daendels called it, was a military road which was laid down under the order of King Lodewijk Napoleon who ruled Holland at that time.[3] France was at war with England and the road was intended to ease military support, e.g. transfer of soldiers, in order to defend Java. Before the road was constructed, connections existed between BataviaSemarang and between Semarang — Surabaya in 1750.[4] North-south connection between Semarang, Surakarta and Yogyakarta was also available at that time. However, these connection paths were not easily passable as heavy tropical rainfall frequently destroyed them.

Daendels faced difficult conditions in Dutch East Indies when he was starting the road construction. The financial situation in the colony was so tight that the minister of Colonial Affairs in Holland sent him a letter emphasizing the difficult financial situation and the need to reduce expenditures.[3] English was surely a big threat, there were uprisings in Bantam and Cirebon, and some of Daendels opponents, who were alienated from him, took a negative side against him. Daendels then decided to use most of the heavy works from the Javanese unpaid forced labors which resulted in thousand of deaths due to unhealthiness of the forests, marshes and the labor conditions.

Many of Daendels’ opponents became historical sources of the harsh condition during the road construction. Major William Thorn wrote that about 12,000 natives have perished during the construction.[5] Nicolaus Engelhard, who was a governor over most of Java and who had to give up his position to Daendels, stated that 500 workers had died in Megamendung area nearby Buitenzorg (the present-day of Bogor), excluding the number of people who died as the result of illness. Furthermore Engelhard criticized Daendels of the thousand of casualties resulting from the road construction in the woods of Weleri in Pekalongan region.[6]

The Java Great Post Road consist the most parts of present Java North Coast Road. However the original post road is runs through Preanger (Priangan, West Java) highland, from Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara) went south to Buitenzorg (Bogor), and went east to Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang, and Cirebon. The current north coast road runs through coastal northern West Java which built later after the construction of Daendels’ post road. It connects Bekasi, Karawang, Pamanukan, and Cirebon.

 Extent

Java’s North Coast Road

The road originally ran from Anyer, present day Banten, but formerly West Java to Panarukan, East Java, but later was extended to Banyuwangi.[3] In its current form the North Coast Road extends through five provinces: Banten, DKI Jakarta, West Java, Central Java and East Java. The western end begins at the port of Merak, connecting with Bakauheni in Sumatra, the southern end of the Trans-Sumatran Highway. The eastern end begins at Ketapang, connecting with Gilimanuk in Bali. Sections of the North Coast Road are going to be part of the 13,177 km AH2 route of the Asian Highway Network route, which links Denpasar, Bali with Khosravi, Iran, [7] since some of the AH2 is still under construction. AH2 is a freeway which is limited only for vehicles having ≥ 4 tires. Beside of that, North Coast Road also comprises the National Highway Nasional1.png which opens to any vehicles

In 1809, Louis Napoleon, the ruler of the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to increase the defense system of Java island against British from the Malaysian peninsula. Daendels built the great post road, stretch about 1000km from the west coast to the east cost of Java. Since the northern part of West Java at that time was only swamp and marsh, the road was diverted through Bandung. The Great Postweg (now Jalan Asia-Afrika) was built in Bandung and because Bandung lowland, that is surrounded by mountains, is strategically advantegous for military defense, Daendels ordered the capital to move from Batavia to Bandung.

Military barracks were built and Bupati Wiranatakusumah II, the chief administrator of that area, built his dalem (palace), Masjid Agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (meeting place) in the usual orientation of classical alun-alun (city square) orientation near a pair of holy city wells (Sumur Bandung). The pendopo has an interesting position that faces mystical Tangkuban Perahu mountain. Now, alun-alun has changed dramatically into a major shopping center area.

By the influence of major plantations (cinchona or kina, grown for its malaria-treating quinine, as well as tea and coffee) in the highland areas surrounding Bandung in the 19th century, Bandung has developed itself into an exclusive European resort style with hotels, cafes and shops. The Preanger Hotel and Savoy Homann are the two major art-deco style hotels. Jalan Braga was famous with European exclusive shops and cafes and became the famous promenade street in Bandung. The Concordia Society, now Gedung Merdeka, was built with a large ball room as a club for rich Europeans at the weekends.

Pasopati bridge flyover, a new landmark of Bandung.
Enlarge

Pasopati bridge flyover, a new landmark of Bandung.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung was developed. It gave a high boost of light industry in Bandung. Chinese who had never lived in that area before flocked in to help run the facilities, services and vendor machines. Small old chinatown district in Bandung can still be recognized in the vicinity of the railroad station.

In 1809, Louis Napoleon, the ruler of the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to increase the defense system of Java island against British from the Malaysian peninsula. Daendels built the great post road, stretch about 1000km from the west coast to the east cost of Java. Since the northern part of West Java at that time was only swamp and marsh, the road was diverted through Bandung. The Great Postweg (now Jalan Asia-Afrika) was built in Bandung and because Bandung lowland, that is surrounded by mountains, is strategically advantegous for military defense, Daendels ordered the capital to move from Batavia to Bandung.

Military barracks were built and Bupati Wiranatakusumah II, the chief administrator of that area, built his dalem (palace), Masjid Agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (meeting place) in the usual orientation of classical alun-alun (city square) orientation near a pair of holy city wells (Sumur Bandung). The pendopo has an interesting position that faces mystical Tangkuban Perahu mountain. Now, alun-alun has changed dramatically into a major shopping center area.

By the influence of major plantations (cinchona or kina, grown for its malaria-treating quinine, as well as tea and coffee) in the highland areas surrounding Bandung in the 19th century, Bandung has developed itself into an exclusive European resort style with hotels, cafes and shops. The Preanger Hotel and Savoy Homann are the two major art-deco style hotels. Jalan Braga was famous with European exclusive shops and cafes and became the famous promenade street in Bandung. The Concordia Society, now Gedung Merdeka, was built with a large ball room as a club for rich Europeans at the weekends.

Pasopati bridge flyover, a new landmark of Bandung.
Enlarge

Pasopati bridge flyover, a new landmark of Bandung.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung was developed. It gave a high boost of light industry in Bandung. Chinese who had never lived in that area before flocked in to help run the facilities, services and vendor machines. Small old chinatown district in Bandung can still be recognized in the vicinity of the railroad station.

the edn@copyright Dr Iwan S 2010

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2 responses to “the Indonesian Dandaels ‘s Napoleon Army Historic Collections exhibiton

  1. walah pasopati terkenal juga ya?

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