WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD
SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN
AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM
DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR
*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001
THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)
WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA”
SHOWCASE : THE NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION
FRAME ONE: INTRODUCTION
Many collectors asked me to show the natural history collections from Indonesia and related internatonianl museum collections. In Indonesia many rare botany,zoology, geology collections also from Britain and USA. I hope more collections will put at this exhibtion form other collectors from all over the world.
Greating from the founder of the cybermuseum
Dr Iwan suwandy
FRAME TWO : THE INDONESIAN NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS
1)Rafflesia Arnoldi Flower
3)Kantong Semar Orchid
3)RHINOCHORUS ONE HORN (BADAK CULA SATU)
4)MURAI BATU BIRD
5)LONG TAIL COCK
|Silver arowana, Osteoglossum bicirrhosum|
Arowanas are freshwater bony fish of the family Osteoglossidae, also known as bonytongues. In this family of fishes, the head is bony and the elongate body is covered by large, heavy scales, with a mosaic pattern of canals. The dorsal and the anal fins have soft rays and are long based, while the pectoral and ventral fins are small. The name “bonytongues” is derived from a toothed bone on the floor of the mouth, the “tongue”, equipped with teeth that bite against teeth on the roof of the mouth. The fish can obtain oxygen from air by sucking it into the swim bladder, which is lined with capillaries like lung tissue. The arowana is an “obligatory air breather”
Classification and distribution
Osteoglossids are basal (primitive) fish from the lower Tertiary and are placed in the actinopterygiid order Osteoglossiformes. There are ten described living species: three from South America, one from Africa, four from Asia, and the remaining two from Australia.
Osteoglossidae is the only exclusively freshwater fish family found on both sides of the Wallace Line. This may be explained by the fact that Asian arowanas (S. formosus) diverged from the Australian Scleropages, S. jardinii and S. leichardti, about 140 million years ago, making it likely that Asian arowanas were carried to Asia on the Indian subcontinent.
Osteoglossids are carnivorous, often being specialized surface feeders. They are excellent jumpers; it has been reported that Osteoglossum species have been seen leaping more than 6 feet (almost 2 metres) from the water surface to pick off insects and birds from overhanging branches in South America, hence the nickname “water monkeys”. Arowanas have been rumored to capture prey as large as low flying bats. All species are large, and the arapaima is one of the world’s largest freshwater fish, at 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in length. Arowana species typically grow to around 3 to 4 feet in captivity.
Several species of osteoglossid exhibit extensive parental care. They build nests and protect the young after they hatch. Some species are mouthbrooders, the parents holding sometimes hundreds of eggs in their mouths. The young may make several tentative trips outside the parent’s mouth to investigate the surroundings before leaving permanently.These fishes are best kept with live feed and they easily outgrow the tank within a span of 8/10 months. Always preferred in a large type aquarium.
In the aquarium
Arowanas tend to merge in groups of five to eight; any fewer may show an excess of dominance and aggression. Some compatible fish often partnered with this fish are clown knifefish, pacu, oscars, plecostomus, jaguar cichlids, green terrors, gar and any other semi-aggressive fish that cannot fit in the arowana’s mouth.
The family contains two subfamilies, Heterotidinae and Osteoglossinae, with all but two of the ten extant species being members of the latter. Species are given with one or more prominent common names.
- Subfamily Heterotidinae
- Subfamily Osteoglossinae
- Genus Osteoglossum (Cuvier, 1829)
- Genus Scleropages
- Red-tailed golden arowana Scleropages aureus (Pouyad, Sudarto & Teugels, 2003)
- Green arowana or gold crossback arowana, Scleropages formosus (Schlegel & Müller, 1844)
- Gulf saratoga, red saratoga or northern spotted barramundi, Scleropages jardinii ‡ (Saville-Kent, 1892)
- Red arowana, super red arowana, or chili red arowana, Scleropages legendrei (Pouyad, Sudarto & Teugels, 2003)
- Saratoga, silver saratoga or spotted barramundi, Scleropages leichardti ‡ Günther, 1864
- Silver Asian arowana, Scleropages macrocephalus (Pouyad, Sudarto & Teugels, 2003)
‡This species is one of two sometimes called the Australian arowana or Australian bonytongue.
A genetic study shows that the lineage leading to the arapaima and African arowana diverged about 220 million years ago, during the Late Triassic; the lineage leading to the silver and blackish blue arowanas of South America diverged about 170 million years ago, during the Middle Jurassic. The lineage leading to the Australian arowanas diverged from that leading to the Asian arowanas about 140 million years ago, during the Early Cretaceous.
At least five extinct genera, known only from fossils, are classified as Osteoglossids; these date back at least as far as the Late Cretaceous. Other fossils from as far back as the Late Jurassic or Early Cretaceous are widely considered to belong to the arowana superorder Osteoglossomorpha. Osteoglossomorph fossils have been found on all continents except Antarctica. These fossil genera include Brychaetus, Joffrichthys, and Phareodus.
1) Dr Iwan Rare butterfly collections
THE RARE BUTTERFLIES COLLECTIONS
I write this e-book special for the Butterflies collector all over the world, free e-book, I hope many collectors from Indonesia will contact me and send his rare collections to add my informations especially from Molucca ternate area and Papua ,also Borneo Sarawak, because this time nor many collectors exist, only some who protect the rare butterflies , I have only 5 years collecting butterflies after that Iam very busy with my job and never collecting anymore. Please look some photos realted with my butterflies collections:
a.My profile during catching the Butterflies in West Sumatra 1975
c.THE VERY RARE NEVER REPORT BUTTERFLY I HAVE CATCHED AT WEST SUMATRA, BECAUSE NO NAME, I GIFT THE ENTHOMLOGY NAME OF THE BRUTTERFLIE BELOW :
TROIDES WHITE HEAD IWANENSIS
CHAPTER ONE:.Dr IWAN S ADVENTURED TO CATCH THE BUTTERFLIES
1.Between 1975-1979 during my job at Solok city,every sunday I with all my family visit my father and mother in law at Padang Panjang. After my two sons playing with Tok In -my mother in law housekeeping, I and my wife Lily take a sport at the beautiful Anai Valley because my father in law have a restaurant there and
I saw a Japaneseman catcher the butterflies there with mthern net and he told me that in that place there were some very rare butterflies, and I made the traditinal catcher from Bamboo and ring from copper wire with the net from gordijn
(look at the picture of Anei valley with my father in law profile and his restaurant)
a.THE RESTAURANT AND ANAI WATERFALL VINTAGE PHOTO 1976
C.The location where I catch Butterflies in 1975,now forbidden because the protect area(cagar Alam)
2. After four years , I have catched some veryrare butterflies and I made the photos and conservated that butterflies but in 10 years all the collections were broken because not god weather and conservations,but the informations picture still keep until now and we will compare with the veryrare butterflies collections of Mr W.A. Fleming in his vintage Book Butterflies of West Malaysia and Singapore ,the same area with West Sumatra.This book I bought at Michaels Bookshp,22 rchad Road,Cold Strage Shopping Centre Singapore during visit that city in 1974, I THINK THIS SHOP DIDNOT EXIST ANYMORE.Please collectors comment..
After 1979, forbidden to catched the butterflies in that area because protect by law at the restricted area until now.
Very fresh and healthy air and wheater there made me very happy ,and take a delicious native Minangkabau Rice Chicken randang which I still remember until now,this time the restaurant have sold after my father and mther in law were pass away.
During the last bigger eartquaked in 2009 these area still in good situation not broken.
3. During my Job tour area in South Celebes between 1995-1996 ,one of my junior officer ,the native celebes, bring me to Butterflies conservations at Bantimurung Waterfalls, and he bought for me as a present some rare butterflies which still intact in my collections, we will compare with the picture in vintage Protected Butterflies In Indonesia Books 1990.
Many of very rare South celebes and Papua I have found at Bantimurung ,very difficult to found now, I keep with best conservations which made the collections still intact.please look the picture of Bantimurng waterfall , butterflies on the gound and the butterflies gate there below:
Please the collectors look that very rare butterflies in next chapter .
4. During the 50th years anniversary of Indonesian Independent Days in 1965, at the native stands I bought some very rare Butterflies from the native West Java conservations.
a.kupu-kupu betina Rajah Brooke ditemukan di Jkarta tahun 1996(5. In 1996, I bought at Jakarta a veryrare female Brookiana, very difficult to catch in Indonesia, many in sarawak that is why the name of Rajah Brooke were given to that butterflies.
B. Kupu-kupu Lembah Anai Padang Panjang SUMBAR 1978(THE VERY RARE BUTTERFLIES CATCHED BY Dr IWAN S IN WEST SUMATRA )
ANAI VALLEY PADANGPANJANG
Dr iwan S Anai Valley and waterwall west Sumatra painting 1939
a. The road and Railway brigde at Anai valley
a1. Family Papilionidae
(1) Trogonoptera Brookiana
(5) Mycalesis or Troides whitehea iwanensis ( not list in the catalogue, mycalesis with White Head female,that is why I put my name,please international entomology association approve this name ,thanks-Dr iwan s )
2. Kupu-kupu Langka ditangkap di Padang Sibusuk Sijunjung(AT PADANG SIBUSUK SAWAHLUTO-SIJUNJUNG)
In the hill near this village , I found the nest of the Bird Fying Butterflies in the family of Papilionidae, genus Troides, many types never report from the small until bigger types , during this time I bring my elder son Albert with me during my dury tours to Sawahlunto and sijunjung Indonesia National Police Resort between 1976-1978.
( from the vintage books there were twenty subspesies troides,
(1) Troides hyplitus hiplitus
(2) Troides amphrysus: amphrysus,miranda,cuneifera,andromache
(3) Troides helena : helena,oblngmaculatus,darsius,riedelli,vandepoli,halipron,criton,
plato, aecus,minos,rhadamantus,plateni and dohertyl.
(4) Troides magellanus: magelanuss, prattorum.
(please Mr Hunianto,help me to search the name of troides I have found at Padang Sibusuk sawahlut Sijunjung west sumatra. may be new subspecies which be in my name,thankyou.Dr Iwan s)
D. Kupu-kupu langaka di Bantimurung SULSEL 1997(THE VERYRARE BUTTERFLIES FOUND AT BANTIMURUNG SOUTH CELEBES ).
1. Family Papilionidae
(1) Ordo Lepidoptera
F. Koleksi Kupu-kupu langka Indoenesia INDONESIA COLLECTORS BEST BUTTERFLIES COLLECTION
(courtecy A.H.Hunianto, kompas,mei.25th 2010)
2) Other Insect collections
The Geology of Indonesia
This is the embryo of the online book about the geology of Indonesia. This wiki books means to be collaborated approach to acquire maximum knowledge available about the subject. This book is a collaborative approach of Indonesia geologists. Intended to compile the current technical knowledge on the geology of Indonesia. The subject is ranging from tectonics, structural geology, and stratigraphy. Because Indonesia is a vast region, the general geology for each region is described separately under the Regional Geology chapter.
The book also covers the geological application for the petroleum, natural resources and geological hazards. The geological hazard will also cover the recent development of earthquake, tsunami, and other hazards in Indonesia. Indonesia is located on the Pacific Ring of Fire with extensive volcanic network which give rise to the recent earthquake.
The tectonics of Indonesia are very complex, as it is a meeting point of several tectonic plates. Indonesia is located between two continental plates: the Eurasian Plate (Sunda Shelf) and Australian Plate (Sahul Shelf); and between two oceanic plates: the Indian Plate and Pacific Plate. The Indian oceanic plate subducts beneath the Eurasian continental plate formed the volcanic arc in western Indonesia. This chain of active volcanoes formed Sumatra, Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara islands. The Pacific and Australian plate movements controlled the tectonic of eastern portion of Indonesia.
The tectonics processes in Indonesia formed major structures in Indonesia. The most prominent fault in the west of Indonesia is the Semangko Fault, a dextral strike-slip fault along Sumatra Island. The formation of this fault zone is related to the subduction zone in the west of Sumatra.
Palu-Koro fault is another major structural feature formed in the central part of Indonesia. This fault has similar orientation as the Semangko fault, extend from Koro in central part of Sulawesi, to Palu in the west coast of Sulawesi and extend across the Makassar strait to East Kalimantan.
The stratigraphy of the western part of Indonesia is relatively young, ranging in age from Paleogene to Quaternary. Eastern Indonesia has older stratigraphy compared to the western part. The stratigraphy ranges from Triassic to Tertiary. Devonian limestones were found in Telen River, East Kalimantan, as fragments within Paleogene clastic sediments. Ichthyosaur fossils were found in the mud volcanoes in Kai Island, indicated Mesozoic deposition in the subsurface.
- Java & Java Sea
- Makassar Strait
- Sulawesi Sea
- The lesser Sunda Islands
- Banda Arc
- Arafura Sea
|Elevation||1,731 m (5,679 ft)|
|Listing||List of volcanoes in Indonesia|
|Location||East Java, Indonesia|
|Coordinates||7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E / 7.93°S 112.308°E / -7.93; 112.308Coordinates: 7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E / 7.93°S 112.308°E / -7.93; 112.308|
|Volcanic arc/belt||Pacific Ring of Fire|
Kelud (Klut, Cloot, Kloet, Kloete, Keloed or Kelut) is a volcano located in East Java on Java in Indonesia. Like many Indonesian volcanoes and others on the Pacific Ring of Fire, Kelud is known for large explosive eruptions throughout its history. More than 30 eruptions have occurred since 1000 A.D.
On May 19, 1919, an eruption at Kelud killed an estimated 5,000 people, mostly through hot mudflows (also known as “lahars”). More recent eruptions in 1951, 1966, and 1990 have altogether killed another 250 people. Following the 1966 eruption, the Ampera Tunnel was built on the southwestern side of the crater to reduce (not drain out to empty) the water of crater lake and thus reduce the lahar hazard.
A strong and explosive eruption on early February 1990 produced a 7 kilometres (4 mi) high column of tephra, heavy tephra falls and several pyroclastic flows. More than thirty people were killed. Workers continued to quarry the Ampera Tunnel despite the still-hot (90–400 °C / 194–752 °F) pyroclastic flow deposits which reached as high as 25 m (82 ft) and buried the tunnel’s mouth.
On October 16, 2007, Indonesian authorities ordered the evacuation of 30,000 residents living near Kelud, after scientists placed the volcano on the highest alert level, meaning that they expected an imminent eruption.
Kelud erupted at about 3 p.m. local time on Saturday, November 3, 2007. The eruption was confirmed by the Indonesian government’s Centre for Vulcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation. Although no visual confirmation was possible when the eruption began because the volcano’s peak was shrouded by clouds, Indonesian government volcanologists said seismic readings showed an eruption was under way. More than 350,000 people lived within 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) of the volcano. Surabaya, Indonesia’s second-largest city and home to one of the country’s busiest airports, is 90 kilometres (56 mi) to the northwest. Although local inhabitants were ordered to leave their homes in mid-October, many either did not evacuate or returned in the interim. Many villagers were reported fleeing the area in panic after reports of the eruption. But by early Saturday evening, Indonesian officials said the eruption that day had not been very large at all. Seismological equipment near the volcano’s crater was still operating, and scientists said that indicated a small eruption at best.
However, early Sunday morning, November 4, Mount Kelud spewed ash 500 metres into the air, indicating a full eruption was taking place. “The eruption isn’t over,” Saut Simatupang, head of Indonesian Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation Agency, said. Seismologists monitoring the crater said surface temperatures in Mount Kelud’s crater lake rose on November 4 to 60.7 °C (141.3 °F) from 43.9 °C (111.0 °F) on November 3. At a depth of 15 metres (49 ft), the temperature jumped to 66.1 degrees Celsius on November 4 from 45.9 degrees Celsius on November 3. The extreme heat created a cloud of steam and smoke 488 metres (1,601 ft) high.
On November 5, new columns of smoke and steam erupted from the crater. Boiling water cascaded down the flanks of the mountain from the crater lake, and seismological equipment near the crater ceased working. Indonesian authorities said about 25,000 people remained in the danger zone, ignoring evacuation orders.
The following day, a lava dome rose through the center of the crater lake atop the mountain. Closed-circuit television cameras showed the 100-metre (330 ft) long oblong island had pushed about 20 metres (66 ft) above the surface of the lake. The volcano continued to emit smoke, with plumes reaching a kilometre (3,280 feet, or six-tenths of a mile) into the atmosphere.
But after 48 hours of smoke and ash but no lava, Indonesian officials declared on November 8 that no eruption was immediate. Officials said the volcano was experiencing a “slow eruption” and was unlikely to explode as it had done many times in the past century.
By November 12, Mount Kelud began spewing lava into its crater lake. The lava dome, which had expanded to 250 metres (roughly 275 yards) long and 120 metres (131 yards high), cracked open and lava began oozing into the surrounding water. Smoke rose more than two kilometres (1.2 miles) into the air, and ash dusted several villages around the volcano. On November 14, smoke billowed 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) into the air, and light ash covered villages 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) away
Mount Merapi Of Central Java
Merapi, July 2005
|Elevation||2,968 m (9,738 ft) |
|Prominence||1,392 m (4,567 ft) |
|Translation||Mountain of Fire (Indonesian)|
|Coordinates||7°32′26.99″S 110°26′41.34″E / 7.5408306°S 110.4448167°E / -7.5408306; 110.4448167Coordinates: 7°32′26.99″S 110°26′41.34″E / 7.5408306°S 110.4448167°E / -7.5408306; 110.4448167|
|Age of rock||400,000 years|
|Last eruption||11 November 2010.|
Mount Merapi, Gunung Merapi (literally Fire Mountain in Indonesian/Javanese), is an active stratovolcano located on the border between Central Java and Yogyakarta, Indonesia. It is the most active volcano in Indonesia and has erupted regularly since 1548. It is located approximately 28 kilometres (17 mi) north of Yogyakarta city, and thousands of people live on the flanks of the volcano, with villages as high as 1,700 metres (5,600 ft) above sea level.
The name Merapi could be loosely translated as ‘Mountain of Fire’. The etymology of the name came from Meru-Api; from the Javanese combined words; Meru means “mountain” refer to mythical mountain of Gods in Hinduism, and api means “fire”. Smoke can be seen emerging from the mountaintop at least 300 days a year, and several eruptions have caused fatalities. Hot gas from a large explosion killed 27 people on November 22 in 1994, mostly in the town of Muntilan, west of the volcano. Another large eruption occurred in 2006, shortly before the Yogyakarta earthquake. In light of the hazards that Merapi poses to populated areas, it has been designated as one of the Decade Volcanoes.
On 25 October 2010 the Indonesian government raised the alert for Mount Merapi to its highest level and warned villagers in threatened areas to move to safer ground. People living within a 20 km (12.5 mile) zone were told to evacuate. Officials said about 500 volcanic earthquakes had been recorded on the mountain over the weekend of 23–24 October, and that the magma had risen to about 1 kilometre (3,300 ft) below the surface due to the seismic activity. On the afternoon of 25 October 2010 Mount Merapi erupted lava from its southern and southeastern slopes.
Merapi is the youngest in a group of volcanoes in southern Java. It is situated at a subduction zone, where the Indo-Australian Plate is sliding beneath the Eurasian Plate. It is one of at least 129 active volcanoes in Indonesia, part of the Pacific Ring of Fire – a section of fault lines stretching from the Western Hemisphere through Japan and South East Asia. Stratigraphic analysis reveals that eruptions in the Merapi area began about 400,000 years ago, and from then until about 10,000 years ago, eruptions were typically effusive, and the out flowing lava emitted was basaltic. Since then, eruptions have become more explosive, with viscous andesitic lavas often generating lava domes. Dome collapse has often generated pyroclastic flows, and larger explosions, which have resulted in eruption columns, have also generated pyroclastic flows through column collapse.
Typically, small eruptions occur every two to three years, and larger ones every 10–15 years or so. Notable eruptions, often causing many deaths, have occurred in 1006, 1786, 1822, 1872, and 1930—when thirteen villages were destroyed and 1400 people killed by pyroclastic flows.
A very large eruption in 1006 is claimed to have covered all of central Java with ash. The volcanic devastation is claimed to have led to the collapse of the Hindu Kingdom of Mataram; however, there is insufficient evidence from that era for this to be substantiated.
In April 2006, increased seismicity at more regular intervals and a detected bulge in the volcano’s cone indicated that fresh eruptions were imminent. Authorities put the volcano’s neighboring villages on high alert and local residents prepared for a likely evacuation. On April 19 smoke from the crater reached a height of 400 metres (1,300 ft), compared to 75 metres (246 ft) the previous day. On April 23, after nine surface tremors and some 156 multifaced quakes signalled movements of magma, some 600 elderly and infant residents of the slopes were evacuated.
By early May, active lava flows had begun. On May 11, with lava flow beginning to be constant, some 17,000 people were ordered to be evacuated from the area and on May 13, Indonesian authorities raised the alert status to the highest level, ordering the immediate evacuation of all residents on the mountain. Many villagers defied the dangers posed by the volcano and returned to their villages, fearing that their livestock and crops would be vulnerable to theft. Activity calmed by the middle of May.
On May 27, a 6.3 magnitude earthquake struck roughly 50 km (30 miles) southwest of Merapi, killing at least 5,000 and leaving at least 200,000 people homeless in the Yogyakarta region, heightening fears that Merapi would “blow”. The quake did not appear to be a long-period oscillation, a seismic disturbance class that is increasingly associated with major volcanic eruptions. A further 11,000 villagers were evacuated on June 6 as lava and superheated clouds of gas poured repeatedly down its upper slopes towards Kaliadem, a location that was located southeast of Mt. Merapi. The pyroclastic flows are known locally as “wedhus gembel” (Javanese for “shaggy goat”). There were two fatalities as the result of the eruption.
In late October 2010 the Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Geological Agency (CVGHM), (Indonesian language—Pusat Vulkanologi & Mitigasi Bencana Geologi, Badan Geologi-PVMBG), reported that a pattern of increasing seismicity from Merapi had begun to emerge in early September.
On 13 September 2010 white plumes were observed rising 800 metres (2,600 ft) above the crater. Lava dome inflation, detected since March, increased from background levels of 0.1 millimetres (0.0039 in) to 0.3 millimetres (0.012 in) per day to a rate of 11 millimetres (0.43 in) per day on 16 September.
On 19 September 2010 earthquakes continued to be numerous, and the next day CVGHM raised the Alert Level to 2 (on a scale of 1–4). Lava from Mount Merapi in Central Java began flowing down the Gendol River on 23–24 October signalling the likelihood of an imminent eruption.
On 25 October 2010 the Indonesian government raised the alert for Mount Merapi to its highest level (4) and warned villagers in threatened areas to move to safer ground. People living within a 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) zone were told to evacuate. The evacuation orders affected at least 19,000 people; however, the number that complied at the time remained unclear to authorities. Officials said about 500 volcanic earthquakes had been recorded on the mountain over the weekend of 23–24 October, and that the magma had risen to about 1 kilometre (3,300 ft) below the surface due to the seismic activity
After a period of multiple eruptions considered to exceed the intensity and duration of those in 1872 on 10 November 2010 the intensity and frequency of eruptions was noticed to subside. By this time 153 people had been reported to have been killed and 320,000 were displaced.
On Monday afternoon 25 October 2010 Merapi erupted three times, spewing lava down its southern and southeastern slopes. Three major eruptions were recorded at 14:04, 14:24 and 15:15. On 25 October 222 volcanic seismic events and 454 avalanche seismic events were recorded by Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation monitoring staff at Merapi.
The eruptions on 26 October started at 17:02. By 18:54 pyroclastic activity had begun to subside following 12 eruption associated events being recorded by CVGHM monitors. In the 24 hours of 26 October 232 volcanic seismic events, 269 avalanche seismic events, 4 lava flow seismic events and 6 heat clouds were recorded by Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation monitoring staff at Merapi. The eruptive events of 26 October were classified as an explosive event with volcanic bursts of ejected material, visible flame and pyroclastic hot air flows. A column of smoke rose from the top to a vertical distance of 1.5 kilometres (0.93 mi) from the summit of the Mount Merapi.
On Friday 29 October eruptive activity included lava ejection with hot ash clouds reported to be flowing 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) down the slopes of the mountain and lasting four to nine minutes. Ash falls reached as far as the Central Java town of Magelang. Scientists monitoring the volcano including Surono, chief of the Volcanology and Geological Disaster Mitigation Center (PVMBG) were optimistic that the volcanic activity should decrease following the release of lava. Safari Dwiyono, a scientist monitoring Mt. Merapi for 15 years, said the volcanic activity appeared to be easing pressure behind a lava dome that had formed in the crater.
By early on the morning of Saturday 30 October the volcano was erupting again. Sri Sumarti, head of the Merapi section at the Volcano Investigation and Technology Development Institution (BPPTK), reported the eruptions were louder and stronger than the eruptions of the 26 October. Those earlier eruptions on the previous Tuesday killed 34 people. Ash from the eruptions on 30 October fell more than 30 kilometres (19 mi) away and now included ash falls upon the city of Yogyakarta. Soldiers and police posted nearest the volcano were seen fleeing along with hundreds of residents quickly clogging roads with cars and motorcycles. Black soot fell across a vast area. The morning eruptions lasted for 22 minutes and heat clouds flowed into the Krasak and Boyong Rivers also rising 3.5 kilometres (11,000 ft) into the air, westward toward Magelang. Yogyakarta’s Adisucipto Airport was temporarily closed from 05:00 to 07:00. On 30 October, Subandrio, head of the BPPTK, suggested there would be further eruptions as lava continued to push its way up into the volcano’s lava dome.
On 3 November heat clouds travelled up to 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away from the eruption forcing the government to evacuate people from within the refugee camps set up to accommodate those already dislocated by the volcano. Eruptions on the afternoon of Wednesday 3 November followed a morning eruption that sent hot gas clouds down the volcano’s slopes. The volcano spewed clouds of ash and gas 5 kilometres (16,000 ft) into the sky for more than an hour on 3 November. The eruptions of that day were reported as being the largest since the eruptions commenced.
Surono, head of Indonesia’s volcanology agency announced on 3 November that he was moving the shelters to 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) away from the summit. Speaking on Indonesia’s Metro TV network he said, “this is the first time that the eruption has continued for more than an hour, so I decided to move the shelters to 15 km away from the summit”. The shelters had previously been set up 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) away. Surono added that the energy from the eruption on 3 November was three times greater than that of the first eruption in the previous week. Bambang Ervan, a spokesman from the Transportation Ministry, said an official warning had been issued to all airlines to “use alternative routes for safety reasons due to the volcanic ash.” From 2 November several airlines including Garuda, AirAsia and Silkair international flights to both Yogyakarta and Solo were either suspended or re-routed due to the eruptive activity.
Heavy rain during the night of 3–4 November triggered lahars with mixtures of water and rock debris cascading down the Kuning, Gendol, Woro, Boyong, Krasak and Opak rivers on the slopes of the volcano. A bridge was destroyed and riverbanks damaged. The eruption at 05:55 on the morning of 4 November was reported as being five times stronger than the initial eruption on 26 October 2010. On 4 November Merapi had been erupting for 24 hours without stopping. Heat clouds of 600 to 800 degrees Celsius spread as far as 11.5 kilometers from the crater reaching toward the edge of the then 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) exclusion zone, and lava flowed into the mountain’s rivers.
Merapi erupted early on Friday 5 November 2010. Volcanic ash fell at Cangkringan village and its surroundings 10 kilometres (6.2 mi). Due to continuous large eruptions, the government extended the safety zone to 20 kilometres (12 mi) radius and Yogyakarta’s airport was closed again for 3 hours in the morning. Volcanologists reported the eruptions of Friday 5 November to be the biggest since the 1870s and officials announced by loudspeaker that the mountain’s danger zone had been expanded to 20 kilometers from the crater. Bronggang, a village 15 kilometers from the crater, had streets blanketed by ash up to 30-centimeters deep. By 5 November more than 100,000 people had been evacuated and the scientists monitoring the events were withdrawn from their posts to a safer distance.
By Saturday, 6 November the eruptions and ash falls in the surrounding area of Central Java had led to the increase in prices of many vegetables, such as potatoes and water spinach . Schools were reported closed up to 120 kilometres (75 mi) west of Yogyakarta. The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation observation outposts reported high intensity ash falls on the slopes of Mt Merapi. At 23:51 a flash of smoke, hot air winds and flames as high as 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) occurred to the west, north and to the east. The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation observation outposts reported high intensity ash falls on the slopes of Mt Merapi.
On Sunday, 7 November at 03:02 hot ash clouds flowed in the direction Gendol and Woro rivers. Volcanic earthquake and hot ash cloud events were reported to have increased from the previous day.
The eruptive events continued into Monday and on Tuesday, 9 November BNPB announced that they considered the eruptive activities of 2010 to have exceeded the activities of the mountains eruption in 1872. Based on historical records, the eruption of Merapi in 1872 was recorded for 120 hours, while the eruption of 2010 had already presented five days of relentless activity since Thursday 4 November and up until the 8 November had erupted for more than 120 hours or more without pause. Subandriyo, head of the Volcano Investigation and Technology Development Institution (Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kegunungapian) (BPPTK) in Yogyakarta revealed that hot ash clouds during the eruptions of 138 years ago had a maximum reach of only 11–12 km, whilst the current eruptions were reaching 14.5 km. The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (PVMBG) Geological Agency, head officer, Dr Surono announced on 9 November that during the hours of 06:00 to 12:00 eruptive events were continuing with sequential volcanic earthquakes, tremors, avalanches fast moving clouds were still travelling as far as 4 km toward the southwest. Yogyakarta residents and evacuees were reminded that the threat of pyroclastic as clouds and lahar floods remained. The people of Yogyakarta were also reminded to observe the instructions to remain outside a radius of 20 km from the peak of Merapi.
On 9 November a 5.6 magnitude earthquake was felt in Yogyakarta at 14:03:27. The epicenter was 125 kilometers southwest of Bantul, precisely at 8.98 south latitude coordinates (LS) and 110.08 east longitude (BT) at a depth of 10 kilometers. The quake’s epicenter was at sea and had no tsunami potential. This type of tectonic earthquake was not sourced from the volcanic activity of Mount Merapi. On the night of 9 November there was a burst of ash reaching up to 1.8 kilometres (1.1 mi) vertically,
On 10 November 2010 the eruptive intensity was noticed to subside, however the volcano’s activity remained high and it was still emiting heat clouds. The exclusion zone remained at 20 kilometres (12 mi)
Observations on 11 November by CVGHM (PVMPG) indicated the eruptive activities continued but at a level of decreased intensity. 17 Avalanches were recorded, 1 hot ash eruption and 1 volcanic earthquake. The volcano remained a level 4 alert but with a recommendation of “Caution” level being adopted with refugees to remain at a distance of greater than 20 kilometres (12 mi).
On 26 October at least 113 people, including one 2-month old baby, were found dead due to burns and respiratory failure caused by hot ashes from the eruption. Thousands were evacuated within a radius of 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) around the slopes of the volcano.
By Wednesday 27 October the death toll had risen to at least 25. The death toll included an elder, Mbah Maridjan (grandfather Marijan), known as the volcano’s spiritual guardian who was found dead at his home approximately 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the peak. The Yogyakarta Palace subsequently confirmed his death
The 10 kilometres (6.2 mi) exclusion zone remained in place at the volcano with evacuation and ongoing search and rescue activities continuing at the site in an attempt to locate further victims of the previous days eruptions.
Later reports on the 27 October revised the toll upward to 30 persons recorded at Yogyakarta’s Dr. Sardjito Hospital with 17 hospitalized, mostly with burns, respiratory problems and other injuries. Earlier on 27 October two of the 28 bodies at the hospital had been identified. Yuniawan Nugroho, an editor with the vivanews.com news portal, was reported to have been killed while conducting reportage on the night of Tuesday 26 October, the other was later identified as Tutur Priyanto Indonesian, a 36 year man working for the Red Cross as a volunteer on the mountain. Tutur Priyanto had been retrieving and escorting residents from the slopes of the mountain. After making many trips he returned for a further ascent at 15:00 to assist others to come off the mountain and died during one of the subsequent eruptive events. As of 1 November 2010, the death toll from Mount Merapi’s blasts had climbed to 38. As of 5 November 2010, the death toll had climbed over 120.
By 5 November at 15:00 the Indonesian National Disaster Management Agency was reporting 122 deaths attributable to the Merapi eruptions, primarily from the area of residents from Sleman Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta with an additional 151 injured people admitted to four Yogyakarta hospitals. Soldiers joined rescue operations in Bronggang to assist in recovering bodies from the village. At least 78 bodies were removed. They were killed when hot ash clouds from the crater had travelled down the mountain in pyroclastic flows at speeds of up to 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) and engulfed their village. Many of the dead on Friday 5 November were children from Argomulyo village, 18 kilometres (11 mi) from the crater, according to emergency response officials and witnesses.
On the morning of 6 November BNPB provided a victim report. At that time there were 198,488 refugees, 218 people were injured, and 114 people had been recorded as having died. All the victims came from the districts of Sleman, Magelang, Klaten and Boyolaliin.
On Saturday, 7 November President Yudhoyono opened a limited cabinet meeting at the Presidential Palace, the Great House of Yogyakarta, to address the emergency response to the eruptions of Mount Merapi. At the meeting he reaffirmed his support of the Badan Koordinasi Nasional Penanganan Bencana-(Indonesian Disaster Management Office) and their administration and control of the disaster response. At 03:02 hot ash clouds flowed in the direction of the Gendol and Woro rivers. Volcanic earthquake and hot ash cloud events were reported to have increased from the previous day. Police stationed on the slopes complained that they were having considerable difficulties stopping people entering the exclusion zone and putting their lives at risk on the mountains slopes.
The JakartaGlobe reported on 8 November that that at least 135 people had died on Merapi’s slopes over the previous two weeks, and that authorities were still struggling on Sunday to help those injured from Friday’s massive eruption. The bodies of four members of the Indonesian Disaster Response Team were recovered from the slopes of Mount Merapi on Monday, 8 November. However rescue officials had to retreat as eruptive activity made their further presence on the slopes too dangerous. State news agency Antara reported that a total of six bodies were recovered from the village of Glagaharjo in Sleman, Yogyakarta. The bodies of another two members of the response team, known as Tagana, are yet to be found or recovered. They have been missing since Thursday and are presumed dead.
The death toll was reported to be over 153 by 9 November with at least 320,000 people reported to have been evacuated to emergency shelters. One hospital recorded 12 more bodies brought its morgue on 9 November, including seven pulled from a destroyed village. Another five people who were being treated for burns died.Some victim were in the massal cofin. look the illustration below
The National Disaster Management Agency announced on 11 November that the death toll since the first eruption on October 26 had climbed to 194, three quarters of those from searing heat blasts during the biggest eruptions and included deaths from respiratory problems, heart attacks and other illnesses related to the eruptions.
Lava Dome deformation
During the 4th week of October 2010 deformation measurements were performed by Electric Distance Measurement (EDM), utilising reflectors mounted around the summit of Mount Merapi. The measurement results indicated a rapidly increasing rate of growth of the lava dome in the build up to the eruptive events of 25–26 October 2010.
At the end of September 2010, the peak inflation rate of the lava dome at Mount Merapi was measured by EDM at an average growth rate of 6 millimetres (0.24 in). The subsequent rate of inflation up until October 21, 2010 reached 105 millimetres (4.1 in) per day. The inflation rate then increased very sharply, reaching 420 millimetres (17 in) per day by 24 October 2010. By the 25 October the average grow rate, measured from 6 EDM points over 24–25 October had risen to 500 millimetres (20 in) per day.
The information gathered at the site indicated that the distension of the mountain’s slopes was much more rapid this during the current event than that observed during the 2006 event.
On 26 October the head of the Indonesian Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Surono, repeated his earlier statements that the greatest concern was the pressure building behind a massive lava dome that has formed near the tip of the crater. “The energy is building up. … We hope it will release slowly,” he said. “Otherwise we’re looking at a potentially huge eruption, bigger than anything we’ve seen in years”. Surono also said that said the distension of the mountain’s slopes was much more rapid this time around, indicating a higher-pressure build-up of gas and hence a much more explosive eruption and speculated that Merapi may erupt explosively, as it did in 1930, and not just eject gas as in 2006 eruptions.
By 5 November following a week of ongoing explosive eruptions experts monitoring Merapi were reported as being “baffled” as despite earlier predictions that the eruptions following the initial blast in the prior week would ease pressure building up behind a magma dome instead the eruptions intensified. An estimated 50 million cubic meters of volcanic material had been released by 5 November, “it was the biggest in at least a century”, said Gede Swantika, a state volcanologist, commenting on the eruptions of 5 November as plumes of smoke rose up more than 10,000 meters.
Volcanic ash plume
The eruptions and subsequent volcanic ash plumes caused disruption to aviation movements across central and western Java in early November. Some flights to and from Bandung, Jakarta and Solo were effected and some international and domestic airlines suspended operations into and from those cities. Yogyakarta’s Adisucipto International Airport was closed to flight operations on many occasions in early November due to limited visibility and ash falls upon the runway, taxiway and terminal aprons. Adisucipto International Airport is the third busiest airport on the island of Java. An Airbus A300-300 flight operated for Garuda Airlines as a Hajj pilgrimage from Solo to Jeddah (Saudi Arabia) was reported to have suffered from ash related engine damage on 28 October. It was however later reported to have suffered from blade tip rubbing and was not apparently damaged by volcanic ash ingestion.
On Thursday 11 November, ash continued to spread over western Java and was falling just short of Jakarta according to the Volcanic Ash Advisory Center in Darwin, Australia. Flight activity at Jakarta’s airport was normal and Yogyakarta’s airport was closed until Monday 15 November. On the morning of 11 November the volcano was ejecting ash 1,000 metres (3,300 ft) into the air. High level clouds were observed over the Indian ocean and were thought to be volcanic ash bearing. A code red aviation alert was continued and at 16:41 a volcanic ash plume was seem to be extending to 25,000 feet (7,600 m) -FL250 extending to 150 nautical miles 240 kilometres (2.4×1011 ml) to the west. It had been observed earlier that day travelling 150 nautical miles 240 kilometres (2.4×1011 ml) to the north west as it had the day prior. The volcano was observed on 4–8 November by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on NASA’s Aura spacecraft and imagery indicated that a sulfur dioxide plume had been released into the upper troposphere. Sulfur dioxide, is a colorless gas that can harm human health and cool earth’s climate. Besides elevating the risk of acid rain, the ions can also react to form particles that reflect sunlight. On November 9, 2010, the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre in Darwin, Australia, also reported a sulfur dioxide cloud over the Indian Ocean between 12,000 and 15,000 meters (40,000 and 50,000 feet), in the upper troposphere.
Mount Merapi is the site of a very active volcano monitoring program. Seismic monitoring began in 1924, with some of the volcano monitoring stations lasting until the present. The Babadan (northwest location), Selo (in the saddle between Merbabu and Merapi), and Plawangan monitoring stations have been updated with equipment over the decades since establishment. During the 1950s and early 1960s some of the stations were starved of equipment and funds, but after the 1970s considerable improvement occurred with the supply of new equipment. Some of the pre-1930 observation posts were destroyed by the 1930 eruption, and newer posts were re-located. Similarly after the 1994 eruption, the Plawangan post and equipment were moved into Kaliurang as a response to the threat of danger to the volcanological personnel at the higher point.
The eruption of 1930 was found to have been preceded by a large earthquake swarm. The network of 8 seismographs currently around the volcano allow volcanologists to accurately pinpoint the hypocentres of tremors and quakes.
A zone in which no quakes originate is found about 1.5 km below the summit, and is thought to be the location of the magma reservoir which feeds the eruptions.
Other measurements taken on the volcano include magnetic measurements and tilt measurements. Small changes in the local magnetic field have been found to coincide with eruptions, and tilt measurements reveal the inflation of the volcano caused when the magma chambers beneath it is filling up.
Lahars (a type of mudflow of pyroclastic material and water) are an important hazard on the mountain, and are caused by rain remobilizing pyroclastic flow deposits. Lahars can be detected seismically, as they cause a high-frequency seismic signal. Observations have found that about 50 mm of rain per hour is the threshold above which lahars are often generated.
Merapi continues to hold particular significance for the Javanese beliefs: it is one of four places where officials from the royal palaces of Yogyakarta and Solo make annual offerings to placate the ancient Javanese spirits.
To keep the volcano quiet and to appease the spirits of the mountain, the Javanese regularly bring offerings on the anniversary of the sultan of Yogyakarta’s coronation. For Yogyakarta Sultanate, Merapi holds significant cosmological symbolism, because it is forming a sacred north-south axis line between Merapi peak and Southern Ocean (Indian Ocean). The sacred axis is signified by Merapi peak in the north, the Tugu monument near Yogyakarta main train station, the axis runs along Malioboro street to Northern Alun-alun (square) across Keraton Yogyakarta (sultan palace), Southern Alun-alun, all the way to Bantul and finally reach Samas and Parangkusumo beach on the estuary of Opak river and Southern Ocean. This sacred axis connected the hyangs or spirits of mountain revered since ancient times—often identified as “Mbah Petruk” by Javanese people—The Sultan of Yogyakarta as the leader of the Javanese kingdom, and Nyi Roro Kidul as the queen of the Southern Ocean, the female ocean deity revered by Javanese people and also mythical consort of Javanese kings.
In 2004 an area of 6,410 hectares around Mount Merapi was established as a national park. The decision of the Ministry of Forestry to declare the park has been subsequently challenged in court by The Indonesian Forum for Environment, on grounds of lack of consultation with local residents. During the 2006 eruption of the volcano it was reported that many residents were reluctant to leave because they feared their residences would be confiscated for expanding the national park.
An early 19th-century illustration of Krakatau
|Elevation||813 m (2,667 ft)|
|Prominence||813 m (2,667 ft)|
|Location||Sunda Strait, Indonesia|
|Coordinates||6°06′07″S 105°25′23″E / 6.102°S 105.423°E / -6.102; 105.423Coordinates: 6°06′07″S 105°25′23″E / 6.102°S 105.423°E / -6.102; 105.423|
Krakatau (Indonesian: Krakatau), often mispelled Krakatoa, is a volcanic island made of a’a lava in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Java and Sumatra in Indonesia. The name is used for the island group, the main island (also called Rakata), and the volcano as a whole. The island exploded in 1883, killing approximately 40,000 people, although some estimates put the death toll much higher. The explosion is still considered to be the loudest sound ever heard in modern history, with reports of it being heard nearly 3,000 miles from its point of origin. The shock wave from the explosion was recorded on barographs around the globe.
 Historical significance
An 1888 lithograph of the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa
With a Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) of 6, the eruption was equivalent to 200 megatons of TNT (840 PJ) — about 13,000 times the nuclear yield of the Little Boy bomb (13 to 16 kt) that devastated Hiroshima, Japan, during World War II and four times the yield of the Tsar Bomba (50 Mt), the largest nuclear device ever detonated.
The cataclysmic explosion was distinctly heard as far away as Perth in Western Australia, about 1,930 miles (3,110 km) away, and the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius, about 3,000 miles (5,000 km) away.
Near Krakatau, according to official records, 165 villages and towns were destroyed and 132 seriously damaged, at least 36,417 (official toll) people died, and many thousands were injured by the eruption, mostly from the tsunamis that followed the explosion. The eruption destroyed two-thirds of the island of Krakatoa.
Eruptions at the volcano since 1927 have built a new island in the same location, named Anak Krakatau (Indonesian: “Child of Krakatoa“). This island currently has a radius of roughly 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) and a high point around 300 metres (980 ft) above sea level, growing 5 metres (16 ft) each year.
 Etymology and orthography
Although there are earlier descriptions of an island in the Sunda Strait with a “pointed mountain”, the earliest mention of Krakatoa by name in the Western world was on a 1611 map by Lucas Janszoon Waghenaer, who labeled the island “Pulo Carcata”. (Pulo is a form of pulau, the Indonesian word for “island”.) About two dozen variants have been found, including Crackatouw, Cracatoa, and Krakatao (in an older Portuguese-based spelling). The first known appearance of the spelling Krakatau was by Wouter Schouten, who passed by “the high tree-covered island of Krakatau” in October 1658.
The origin of the Indonesian name Krakatau is uncertain. The main theories are:
- Onomatopoeia, imitating the noise made by cockatoos (Kakatoes) which used to inhabit the island. However, Van den Berg points out that these birds are found only in the “eastern part of the archipelago” (meaning the Lesser Sundas, east of Java). (See Wallace Line).
- From Sanskrit karka or karkata or karkataka, meaning “lobster” or “crab“. (Rakata also means “crab” in the older Javan language.) This is considered the most likely origin.
- The closest Malay word is kelakatu, meaning “white-winged ant“. Furneaux points out that in pre-1883 maps, Krakatoa does somewhat resemble an ant seen from above, with Lang and Verlaten lying to the sides like wings.
- Van den Berg (1884) recites a story that Krakatau was the result of a linguistic error. According to the legend, a visiting ship’s captain asked a local inhabitant the island’s name, and the latter replied, “Kaga tau” (Aku nggak tau)—a Jakartan/Betawinese slang phrase meaning “I don’t know”. This story is largely discounted; it closely resembles other linguistic myths about the origin of the word kangaroo and the name of the Yucatán Peninsula.
The Smithsonian Institution‘s Global Volcanism Program cites the Indonesian name, Krakatau, as the correct name but says that Krakatoa is often employed. This has been attributed to a subeditor at The Times (who may have typographically swapped the ‘a’ and ‘o’ of the Portuguese spelling) interpreting telegraphic reporting on the massive eruption of 1883. Also, like Egypt a couple of decades earlier, Polynesia (South Pacific) was in vogue in the late 19th century, and the Polynesian-like suffix -oa (as in Samoa) may have caught on as a result. While Krakatoa is more common in the English-speaking world, the Indonesian Krakatau tends to be favored by others, including geologists. Rogier Verbeek seems to have started the modern convention of using Krakatau for the island proper and reserving Rakata for the main cone.
 Geographical setting
Indonesia has over 130 active volcanoes, the most of any nation. They make up the axis of the Indonesian island arc system, which was produced by northeastward subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate. A majority of these volcanoes lie along Indonesia’s two largest islands, Java and Sumatra. These two islands are separated by the Sunda Straits, which are located at a bend in the axis of the island arc. Krakatoa is directly above the subduction zone of the Eurasian Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate where the plate boundaries make a sharp change of direction, possibly resulting in an unusually weak crust in the region.
Before the 1883 eruption, Krakatoa comprised three main islands: Lang (“long”, now called Rakata Kecil, or Panjang), and Verlaten (“forsaken” or “deserted”, now Sertung), which were edge remnants of a previous very large caldera-forming eruption; and Krakatoa itself, an island 9 km (5.6 mi) long by 5 km (3.1 mi) wide. Also there was a tree-covered islet near Lang named Poolsche Hoed (“Polish Hat”, apparently because it looked like one from the sea) and several small rocks or banks between Krakatoa and Verlaten. There were three volcanic cones on Krakatoa: Rakata, (820 m/2,690 ft) to the south; Danan, (450 m/1,480 ft) to the north; and Perboewatan, (120 m/390 ft) to the north (Danan may have been a twin volcano).
 Pre-1883 history
At some point in prehistory, an earlier caldera-forming eruption occurred, leaving as remnants Verlaten, Long, Poolsche Hoed, and the base of Rakata. Later, at least two more cones (Perboewatan and Danan) formed and eventually joined with Rakata, forming the main island of Krakatoa. The dating of these events is currently unknown; the Sunda Strait was first mentioned by Arab sailors around 1100 AD.
 416 AD event
A thundering sound was heard from the mountain Batuwara [now called Pulosari, an extinct volcano in Bantam, the nearest to the Sunda Strait] which was answered by a similar noise from Kapi, lying westward of the modern Bantam [Bantam is the westernmost province in Java, so this seems to indicate that Krakatoa is meant]. A great glowing fire, which reached the sky, came out of the last-named mountain; the whole world was greatly shaken and violent thundering, accompanied by heavy rain and storms took place, but not only did not this heavy rain extinguish the eruption of the fire of the mountain Kapi, but augmented the fire; the noise was fearful, at last the mountain Kapi with a tremendous roar burst into pieces and sank into the deepest of the earth. The water of the sea rose and inundated the land, the country to the east of the mountain Batuwara, to the mountain Rajabasa [the most southerly volcano in Sumatra], was inundated by the sea; the inhabitants of the northern part of the Sunda country to the mountain Rajabasa were drowned and swept away with all property … The water subsided but the land on which Kapi stood became sea, and Java and Sumatra were divided into two parts.
There is no geological evidence of a Krakatoa eruption of this size around that time; it may describe loss of land which previously joined Java to Sumatra across what is now the narrow east end of the Sunda Strait; or it may be a mistaken date, referring to an eruption in 535 AD, for which there is some corroborating historical evidence.
 535 AD event
David Keys, Ken Wohletz, and others have postulated that a violent volcanic eruption, possibly of Krakatoa, in 535 may have been responsible for the global climate changes of 535–536. Keys explores what he believes to be the radical and far-ranging global effects of just such a putative 6th-century eruption in his book Catastrophe: An Investigation into the Origins of the Modern World. Additionally, in recent times, it has been argued that it was this eruption which created the islands of Verlaten, Lang, and the beginnings of Rakata—all indicators of early Krakatoa’s caldera‘s size. To date, however, little datable charcoal from that eruption has been found.
Thornton (p. 47) mentions that Krakatoa was known as “The Fire Mountain” during Java’s Sailendra dynasty, with records of seven eruptive events between the 9th and 16th centuries. These have been tentatively dated as 850, 950, 1050, 1150, 1320, and 1530 (all AD).
…I saw with amazement that the island of Krakatoa, on my first trip to Sumatra [June 1679] completely green and healthy with trees, lay completely burnt and barren in front of our eyes and that at four locations was throwing up large chunks of fire. And when I asked the ship’s Captain when the aforementioned island had erupted, he told me that this had happened in May 1680 … He showed me a piece of pumice as big as his fist.
Vogel spent several months in Batavia, returning to Sumatra in November 1681. On the same ship were several other Dutch travelers, including Elias Hesse, who would be called a travel writer nowadays. Hesse’s journal reports that on
the 19th [of November 1681] we again lifted anchor and proceeded first to the north of us to the island of Sleepzie [ Sebesi ], uninhabited, …[here he tells of a legend about crying ghosts, which actually were orangutangs ], and then still north of the island of Krakatou, which erupted about a year ago and also is uninhabited. The rising smoke column of this island can be seen from miles away; we were with our ship very close to shore and we could see the trees sticking out high on the mountain, and which looked completely burned, but we could not see the fire itself.
Vogel returned to Amsterdam in 1688 and published the first edition of his journal in 1690.
These reports of an eruption in 1680–81 pose something of a puzzle. These are the only two reports of an eruption that have been found to date, yet at the time, the Sunda Strait was one of the heaviest-traveled waterways in the world. Records for this time period are particularly detailed, because there was an intense effort to wipe out pirates that were preying on vessels in the Strait. Neither Vogel nor Hesse mention Krakatoa in any real detail in their other passings, and no other travelers at the time mention an eruption or evidence of one. (In November 1681, a pepper crop was being offered for sale.) Both Van den Berg and Verbeek conclude from this that Vogel must have exaggerated the extent of the eruption he saw. Even so, there must have been an eruption around this time, since in 1880, Verbeek investigated a fresh unweathered lava flow at the northern coast of Perboewatan, which could not have been more than a couple of centuries old.
 Visit by HMS Discovery
In February 1780, the crews of HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery, on the way home after Captain James Cook‘s death in Hawaiʻi, stopped for a few days on Krakatoa. They found two springs on the island, one fresh water and the other hot. They described the natives who then lived on the island as “friendly” and made several sketches. (In his journal, John Ledyard calls the island “Cocoterra”.)
 Dutch activity
In 1620 the Dutch set up a naval station on the islands and somewhat later a shipyard was built. Sometime in the late 17th century an attempt was made to establish a pepper plantation on Krakatoa but the islands were generally ignored by Dutch colonial authorities. In 1809 a penal colony was established at an unspecified location which was in operation for about a decade. By the 1880s the islands were without permanent inhabitants; the nearest settlement was the nearby island of Sebesi (about 12 km away) with a population of about 3,000.
Several surveys and charts were made, but mainly for the purpose of mariners, and the islands were little explored or studied. An 1854 map of the islands was used in an English chart, which shows some difference from a Dutch chart made in 1874. In July 1880, Rogier Verbeek made an official survey of the islands but he was only allowed to spend a few hours there. He was able to collect samples from several places and his investigation proved important in judging the geological impact of the 1883 eruption.:9
 The 1883 eruption
While seismic activity around the volcano was intense in the years preceding the cataclysmic 1883 eruption, a series of lesser eruptions beginning in mid-June 1883 led up to the disaster. The volcano released huge plumes of steam and ash lasting until late August.
On August 27, a series of four huge explosions almost entirely destroyed the island. The explosions were so violent that they were heard 3,500 km (2,200 mi) away in Perth, Western Australia and the island of Rodrigues near Mauritius, 4,800 km (3,000 mi) away. The pressure wave from the final explosion was recorded on barographs around the world, which continued to register it up to 5 days after the explosion. The recordings show that the shockwave from the final explosion reverberated around the globe 7 times in total. Ash was propelled to a height of 80 km (50 mi).
The combined effects of pyroclastic flows, volcanic ashes, and tsunamis had disastrous results in the region. The official death toll recorded by the Dutch authorities was 36,417, although some sources put the estimate at more than 120,000. There are numerous documented reports of groups of human skeletons floating across the Indian Ocean on rafts of volcanic pumice and washing up on the east coast of Africa, up to a year after the eruption.
Average global temperatures fell by as much as 1.2 degrees Celsius in the year following the eruption. Weather patterns continued to be chaotic for years and temperatures did not return to normal until 1888.
 Subsequent volcanism
 Anak Krakatau
Verbeek, in his report on the eruption, predicted that any new activity would manifest itself in the region which had been between Perboewatan and Danan. This prediction came true on 29 December 1927, when evidence of a submarine eruption was seen in this area (an earlier event in the same area had been reported in June 1927). A new island volcano, named Anak Krakatau or Child of Krakatoa rose above the waterline a few days later. The eruptions were initially of pumice and ash, and that island and the two islands that followed were quickly eroded away by the sea. Eventually a fourth island named Anak Krakatau broke water in August 1930, and produced lava flows faster than the waves could erode them. Of considerable interest to volcanologists, this has been the subject of extensive study.
 Current activity
Anak Krakatau has grown at an average rate of five inches (13 cm) per week since the 1950s. This equates to an average growth of 6.8 metres per year. The island is still active, with its most recent eruptive episode having begun in 1994. Quiet periods of a few days have alternated with almost continuous Strombolian eruptions since then, with occasional much larger explosions.
The most recent eruption began in April 2008, when hot gases, rocks, and lava were released. Scientists monitoring the volcano have warned people to stay out of a 3 km zone around the island. There are several videos of Krakatoa uploaded onto YouTube showing recent footage of it erupting, and inside its crater filmed at the edge of the volcano rim.
 Biological research
The islands had been little explored or surveyed before the 1883 catastrophe—only two pre-1883 biological collections are known: one of plant specimens and the other part of a shell collection. From descriptions and drawings made by the HMS Discovery, the flora appears to have been representative of a typical Javan tropical climax forest. The pre-1883 fauna is virtually unknown but was probably typical of the smaller islands in the area.
 The Krakatau problem
Biologically, the Krakatau problem  refers to the question of whether the islands were completely sterilized by the 1883 eruption or whether some life survived. When the first researchers reached the islands in May 1884, the only living thing they found was a spider in a crevice on the south side of Rakata. Life quickly recolonized the islands, however; Verbeek’s visit in October 1884 found grass shoots already growing. The eastern side of the island has been extensively vegetated by trees and shrubs, presumably brought there as seeds washed up by ocean currents or carried in birds’ droppings (or brought by natives and scientific investigators). It is, however, in a somewhat fragile position, and the vegetated area has been badly damaged by recent eruptions.
 Handl’s occupancy
A German, Johann Handl, obtained a permit to mine pumice in October 1916 . His lease was for 8.7 square kilometres (3.4 sq mi), which was basically the eastern half of the island, for 30 years. He occupied the south slope of Rakata from 1915 to 1917, when he left due to “violation of the terms of the lease.” (Winchester gives the date of Handl’s leaving as late 1917–1921.) Handl built a house and planted a garden with “4 European families and about 30 coolies”. He is also believed to have introduced Rattus rattus (Black Rat). He also found unburned wood below the 1883 ash deposits when digging, and fresh water was found below 18 feet (5.5 m).
*ill courtecy Albert Suwandy STGea, T-Rex dinosaurus museum geologi Bandung
FRAME THREE: THE INDONESIAN MUSEUM INFO
1. GEOLOGY MUSEUM BANDUNG INFO
Museum Geologi Bandung
Museum Geologi didirikan pada tanggal 16 Mei 1928. Museum ini telah direnovasi dengan dana bantuan dari JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency). Setelah mengalami renovasi, Museum Geologi dibuka kembali dan diresmikan oleh Wakil Presiden RI, Megawati Soekarnoputri pada tanggal 23 Agustus 2000. Sebagai salah satu monumen bersejarah, museum berada di bawah perlindungan pemerintah dan merupakan peninggalan nasional. Dalam Museum ini, tersimpan dan dikelola materi-materi geologi yang berlimpah, seperti fosil, batuan, mineral. Kesemuanya itu dikumpulkan selama kerja lapangan di Indonesia sejak 1850.
Masa Penjajahan Belanda Keberadaan Museum Geologi berkaitan erat dengan sejarah penyelidikan geologi dan tambang di wilayah Nusantara yang dimulai sejak pertengahan abad ke-17 oleh para ahli Eropa. Setelah Eropa mengalami revolusi industri pada pertengahan abad ke-18, Eropa sangat membutuhkan bahan tambang sebagai bahan dasar industri. Pemerintah Belanda sadar akan pentingnya penguasaan bahan galian di wilayah Nusantara. Melalui hal ini, diharapkan perkembangan industri di Negeri Belanda dapat ditunjang. Maka, pada tahun 1850, dibentuklah Dienst van het Mijnwezen. Kelembagaan ini berganti nama jadi Dienst van den Mijnbouw pada tahun 1922, yang bertugas melakukan penyelidikan geologi serta sumberdaya mineral.
- Hasil penyelidikan yang berupa contoh-contoh batuan, mineral, fosil, laporan dan peta memerlukan tempat untuk penganalisaan dan penyimpanan,sehingga pada tahun 1928 Dienst van den Mijnbouw membangun gedung di Rembrandt Straat Bandung. Gedung tersebut pada awalnya bernama Geologisch Laboratorium yang kemudian juga disebut Geologisch Museum.
- Gedung Geologisch Laboratorium dirancang dengan gaya Art Deco oleh arsitek Ir. Menalda van Schouwenburg, dan dibangun selama 11 bulan dengan 300 pekerja serta menghabiskan dana sebesar 400 Gulden. Pembangunannya dimulai pada pertengahan tahun 1928 dan diresmikan pada tanggal 16 Mei 1929.
- Peresmian tersebut bertepatan dengan penyelenggaraan Kongres Ilmu Pengetahuan Pasifik ke-4 (Fourth Pacific Science Congress) yang diselenggarakan di Bandung pada tanggal 18-24 Mei 1929.
Masa Penjajahan Jepang
Sebagai akibat dari kekalahan pasukan Belanda dari pasukan Jepang pada perang dunia II, keberadaan Dienst van den Mijnbouw berakhir. Letjen. H. Ter Poorten (Panglima Tentara Sekutu di Hindia Belanda) atas nama Pemerintah Kolonial Belanda menyerahkan kekuasaan teritorial Indonesia kepada Letjen. H. Imamura (Panglima Tentara Jepang) pada tahun 1942. Penyerahan itu dilakukan di Kalijati, Subang. Dengan masuknya tentara Jepang ke Indonesia, Gedung Geologisch Laboratorium berpindah kepengurusannya dan diberi nama KOGYO ZIMUSHO. Setahun kemudian, berganti nama menjadi CHISHITSU CHOSACHO.
Selama masa pendudukan Jepang, pasukan Jepang mendidik dan melatih para pemuda Indonesia untuk menjadi: PETA (Pembela Tanah Air) dan HEIHO (pasukan pembantu bala tentara Jepang pada Perang Dunia II). Laporan hasil kegiatan di masa itu tidak banyak yang ditemukan, karena banyak dokumen (termasuk laporan hasil penyelidikan) yang dibumihanguskan tatkala pasukan Jepang mengalami kekalahan di mana-mana pada awal tahun 1945.
Setelah Indonesia merdeka pada tahun 1945, pengelolaan Museum Geologi berada dibawah Pusat Djawatan Tambang dan Geologi (PDTG/1945-1950). Pada tanggal 19 September 1945, pasukan sekutu pimpinan Amerika Serikat dan Inggris yang diboncengi oleh Netherlands Indiës Civil Administration (NICA) tiba di Indonesia. Mereka mendarat di Tanjungpriuk, Jakarta. Di Bandung, mereka berusaha menguasai kembali kantor PDTG yang sudah dikuasai oleh para pemerintah Indonesia. Tekanan yang dilancarkan oleh pasukan Belanda memaksa kantor PDTG dipindahkan ke Jl. Braga No. 3 dan No. 8, Bandung, pada tanggal 12 Desember 1945. Kepindahan kantor PDTG rupanya terdorong pula oleh gugurnya seorang pengemudi bernama Sakiman dalam rangka berjuang mempertahankan kantor PDTG. Pada waktu itu, Tentara Republik Indonesia Divisi III Siliwangi mendirikan Bagian Tambang, yang tenaganya diambil dari PDTG. Setelah kantor di Rembrandt Straat ditinggalkan oleh pegawai PDTG, pasukan Belanda mendirikan lagi kantor yang bernama Geologische Dienst ditempat yang sama.
Di mana-mana terjadi pertempuran. Maka, sejak Desember 1945 sampai dengan Desember 1949, yaitu selama 4 tahun berturut-turut, kantor PDTG terlunta-lunta berpindah-pindah dari satu tempat ke tempat lainnya.
Pemerintah Indonesia berusaha menyelamatkan dokumen-dokumen hasil penelitian geologi. Hal ini menyebabkan dokumen-dokumen tersebut harus berpindah tempat dari Bandung, ke Tasikmalaya, Solo, Magelang, Yogyakarta, dan baru kemudian, pada tahun 1950 dokumen-dokumen tersebut dapat dikembalikan ke Bandung.
Dalam usaha penyelamatan dokumen-dokumen tersebut, pada tanggal 7 Mei 1949, Kepala Pusat Jawatan Tambang dan Geologi, Arie Frederic Lasut, telah diculik dan dibunuh tentara Belanda. Ia telah gugur sebagai kusuma bangsa di Desa Pakem, Yogyakarta.
Sekembalinya ke Bandung, Museum Geologi mulai mendapat perhatian dari pemerintah RI. Hal ini terbukti pada tahun 1960, Museum Geologi dikunjungi oleh Presiden Pertama RI, Ir. Soekarno.
Pengelolaan Museum Geologi yang semula berada dibawah PUSAT DJAWATAN TAMBANG DAN GEOLOGI (PDTG), berganti nama menjadi: Djawatan Pertambangan Republik Indonesia (1950-1952), Djawatan Geologi (1952-1956), Pusat Djawatan Geologi (1956-1957), Djawatan Geologi (1957-1963), Direktorat Geologi (1963-1978), Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Geologi (1978 – 2005), Pusat Survei Geologi (sejak akhir tahun 2005 hingga sekarang)
Seiring dengan perkembangan zaman, pada tahun 1999 Museum Geologi mendapat bantuan dari Pemerintah Jepang senilai 754,5 juta Yen untuk direnovasi. Setelah ditutup selama satu tahun, Museum Geologi dibuka kembali pada tanggal 20 Agustus 2000. Pembukaannya diresmikan oleh Wakil Presiden RI pada waktu itu, Ibu Megawati Soekarnoputri yang didampingi oleh Menteri Pertambangan dan Energi Bapak Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono.
Dengan penataan yang baru ini peragaan Museum Geologi terbagi menjadi 3 ruangan yang meliputi Sejarah Kehidupan, Geologi Indonesia, serta Geologi dan Kehidupan Manusia. Sedangkan untuk koleksi dokumentasi, tersedia sarana penyimpan koleksi yang lebih memadai. Diharapkan pengelolaan contoh koleksi di Museum Geologi akan dapat lebih mudah diakses oleh pengguna baik peneliti maupun grup industri.
Sejak tahun 2002 Museum Geologi yang statusnya merupakan Seksi Museum Geologi, telah dinaikkan menjadi UPT Museum Geologi. Untuk menjalankan tugas dan fungsinya dengan baik, dibentuklah 2 seksi dan 1 SubBag yaitu Seksi Peragaan, Seksi Dokumentasi, dan SubBag Tatausaha. Guna lebih mengoptimalkan perananya sebagai lembaga yang memasyarakatkan ilmu geologi, Museum Geologi juga mengadakan kegiatan antara lain penyuluhan, pameran, seminar serta kegiatan survei penelitian untuk pengembangan peragaan dan dokumentasi koleksi.
Pergeseran fungsi museum, seirama dengan kemajuan teknologi, menjadikan museum geologi sebagai :
- Tempat pendidikan luar sekolah yang berkaitan dengan bumi dan usaha pelestariannya.
- Tempat orang melakukan kajian awal sebelum penelitian lapangan. Dimana Museum Geologi sebagai pusat informasi ilmu kebumian yang menggambarkan keadaan geologi bumi Indonesia dalam bentuk kumpulan peraga.
- Objek geowisata yang menarik.
Pembagian Lantai dan Ruangan
Museum Geologi terbagi menjadi beberapa ruang pamer yang menempati lantai I dan II. Berikut ini merupakan ruangan-ruangan yang berada di kedua lantai Museum Geologi serta fungsi dan isi dari ruangan tersebut.
Terbagi menjadi 3 ruang utama : Ruang orientasi di bagian tengah, Ruang Sayap Barat dan Ruang Sayap Timur. Ruang Orientasi berisi peta geografi Indonesia dalam bentuk relief layar lebar yang menayangkan kegiatan geologi dan museum dalam bentuk animasi, bilik pelayanan informasi museum serta bilik pelayanan pendidikan dan penelitian. Sementara, Ruang Sayap Barat, dikenal sebagai Ruang Geologi Indonesia, yang terdiri dari beberapa bilik yang menyajikan informasi tentang :
- Hipotesis terjadinya bumi di dalam sistem tata surya.
- Tatanan tektonik regional yang membentuk geologi Indonesia; diujudkan dalam bentuk maket model gerakan lempeng-lempeng kulit bumi aktif
- Keadaan geologi sumatera,Jawa, Sulawesi, Maluku dan Nusa Tenggara serta Irian Jaya
- Fosil fosil serta sejarah manusia menurut evolusi Darwin juga terdapat di sini
Selain maket dan panel-panel informasi, masing-masing bilik di ruangan ini juga memamerkan beragam jenis batuan (beku, sedimen, malihan) dan sumber daya mineral yang ada di setiap daerah. Dunia batuan dan mineral menempati bilik di sebelah baratnya, yang memamerkan beragam jenis batuan, mineral dan susunan kristalografi dalam bentuk panel dan peraga asli. Masih di dalam ruangan yang sama, dipamerkan kegiatan penelitian geologi Indonesia termasuk jenis-jenis peralatan/perlengkapan lapangan, sarana pemetaan dan penelitian serta hasil akhir kegiatan seperti peta (geolologi, geofisika, gunung api, geomorfologi, seismotektonik dan segalanya) dan publikasi-publikasi sebagai sarana pemasyarakan data dan informasi geologi Indonesia. Ujung ruang sayap barat adalah ruang kegunung apian, yang mempertunjukkan keadaan beberapa gunungapi aktif di Indonesia seperti : Tangkuban Perahu, Krakatau, Galunggung, Merapi dan Batu. Selain panel-panel informasi ruangan ini dilengkapi dengan maket kompleks Gunungapi Bromo-Kelut-Semeru. Beberapa contoh batuan hasil kegiatan gunung api tertata dalam lemari kaca.
Ruang Sayap Timur Ruangan yang mengambarkan sejarah pertumbuhan dan perkembangan makhluk hidup, dari primitif hingga modern, yang mendiami planet bumi ini dikenal sebagai ruang sejarah kehidupan. Panel-panel gambar yang menghiasi dinding ruangan diawali dengan informasi tentang keadaan bumi yang terbentuk sekitar 4,5 milyar tahun lalu, dimana makhluk hidup yang paling primitiv pun belum ditemukan. Beberapa milyar tahun sesudahnya, disaat bumi sudah mulai tenang, lingkungannya mendukung perkembangan beberapa jenis tumbuhan bersel-tunggal, yang keberadaan terekam dalam bentuk fosil Reptilia bertulang-belakang berukuran besar yang hidup menguasai Masa Mesozoikum Tengah hingga Akhir (210-65 juta tahun lalu) diperagakan dalam bentuk replika fosil Tyrannosaurus Rex Osborn (Jenis kadal buas pemakan daging) yang panjangnya mencapai 19 m, tinggi 6,5 m dan berat 8 ton. Kehidupan awal di bumi yang dimulai sekitar 3 milyar tahun lalu selanjutnya berkembang dan berevolusi hingga sekarang. Jejak evolusi mamalia yang hidup pada zaman Tersier (6,5-1,7 juta tahun lalu) dan Kuarter (1,7 juta tahun lalu hingga sekarang) di Indonesia terekam baik melalui fosil-fosil binatang menyusui (gajah, badak, kerbau, kuda nil) dan hominid yang ditemukan pada lapisan tanah di beberapa tempat khususnya di Pulau Jawa.
Kumpulan fosil tengkorak manusia-purba yang ditemukan di Indonesia (Homo erectus P. VIII) dan di beberapa tempat lainnya di dunia terkoleksi dalam bentuk replikanya. Begitu pula dengan artefak yang dipergunkan, yang mencirikan perkembangan kebudayaan-purba dari waktu ke waktu. Penampang stratigrafi sedimen Kuarter daerah Sangiran (Solo, Jawa Tengah), Trinil dan Mojokerto (Jawa Timur) yang sangat berarti dalam pengungkap sejarah dan evolusi manusia-purba diperagakan dalam bentuk panel dan maket.
Sejarah pembentukan Danau Bandung yang melegenda itu ditampilkan dalam bentuk panel di ujung ruangan. Fosil ular dan ikan yang ditemukan pada lapisan tanah bekas Danau Bandung serta artefak diperagakan dalam bentuk aslinya. Artefak yang terkumpul dari beberapa tempat di pinggiran Danau Bandung menunjukkan bahwa sekitar 6000 tahun lalu danau tersebut pernah dihuni oleh manusia prasejarah. Informasi lengkap tentang fosil dan sisa-sisa kehidupan masa lalu ditempatkan pada bilik tersendiri di Ruang Sejarah Kehidupan. Informasi yang disampaikan diantaranya adalah proses pembentukan fosil, termasuk batubara dan minyak bumi, selain keadaan lingkungan-purba.
Terbagi menjadi 3 ruangan utama: ruang barat, ruang tengah dan ruang timur
Ruang barat (dipakai oleh staf museum)
Sementara ruang tengah dan ruang timur di lantai II yang digunakan untuk peragaan dikenal sebagai ruang geologi untuk kehidupan manusia.
Ruang Tengah Berisi maket pertambangan emas terbesar di dunia, yang terletak di Pegunungan Tengan Irian Jaya. Tambang terbuka Gransberg yang mempunyai cadangan sekitar 1,186 milyar ton; dengan kandungan tembaga 1,02%, emas 1,19 gram/ton dan perak 3 gram/ton. Gabungan beberapa tambang terbuka dan tambang bawahtanah aktif di sekitarnya memberikan cadangan bijih sebanyak 2,5 milyar ton. Bekas Tambang Ertsberg (Gunung Bijih) di sebelah tenggara Grasberg yang ditutup pada tahun 1988 merupakan situs geologi dan tambang yang dapat dimanfaatkan serta dikembangkan menjadi objek geowisata yang menarik. Beberapa contoh batuan asal Irian Jaya (Papua) tertata dan terpamer dalam lemari kaca di sekitar maket. Miniatur menara pemboran minyak dan gas bumi juga diperagakan di sini.
Ruang Timur Terbagi menjadi 7 ruangan kecil, yang kesemuanya memberikan informasi tentang aspek positif dan negatif tataan geologi bagi kehidupan manusia, khususnya di Indonesia.
- Ruang 1 menyajikan informasi tentang manfaat dan kegunaan mineral atau batu bagi manusia, serta panel gambar sebaran sumberdaya mineral di Indonesia.
- Ruang 2 menampilkan rekaman kegiatan eksplorasi dan eksploitasi sumberdaya mineral
- Ruang 3 berisi informasi tentang pemakaian mineral dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, baik secara tradisional maupun modern.
- Ruang 4 menunjukkan cara pengolahan dan pengelolaan komoditi mineral dan energi
- Ruang 5 memaparkan informasi tentang berbagai jenis bahaya geologi (aspek negatif) seperti tanah longksor, letusas gunungapi dan sebagainya.
- Ruang 6 menyajikan informasi tentang aspek positif geologi terutama berkaitan dengan gejala kegunungapian.
- Ruang 7 menjelaskan tentang sumberdaya air dan pemanfaatannya, juga pengaruh lingkungan terhadap kelestarian sumberdaya tersebut.
2.JAKARTA MUSEUM INFO
National Museum of Indonesia in Central Jakarta
The Jakarta Old Town contains museums that are former institution buildings of Colonial Batavia. Some of these museums are Jakarta History Museum (former City Hall of Batavia), Wayang Museum (former Church of Batavia), the Fine Art and Ceramic Museum (former Court House of Justice of Batavia), Maritime Museum (former Sunda Kelapa warehouse), Bank Indonesia Museum (former Javasche Bank), and Bank Mandiri Museum (former Nederlandsche Handels Maatschappij).
Several museums that are clustered in central Jakarta around the Merdeka Square area are National Museum of Indonesia, Monas (National Monument), Istiqlal Islamic Museum in Istiqlal mosque, and Jakarta Cathedral Museum on second floor of Jakarta Cathedral. Also in central Jakarta area the Taman Prasasti Museum (former cemetery of Batavia), and Textile Museum in Tanah Abang area.
The recreational area of Taman Mini Indonesia Indah in East Jakarta contains fourteen museums such as Indonesia Museum, Purna Bhakti Pertiwi Museum, Asmat Museum, Bayt al-Qur’an Islamic Museum, Pusaka (heirloom) Museum, and other science-based museum such as Research & Technology Information Centre, Komodo Indonesian Fauna Museum, Insect Museum, Petrol and Gas Museum, also Transportation Museum.
FRAME FOUR :FOREIGN COUNTRIES NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS
`1.AMERICAN NATURAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS
American Museum of Natural History
- American Museum of Natural History is at coordinates 40°46′52″N 73°58′27″W / 40.781033°N 73.974174°W / 40.781033; -73.974174 (American Museum of Natural History)Coordinates: 40°46′52″N 73°58′27″W / 40.781033°N 73.974174°W / 40.781033; -73.974174 (American Museum of Natural History)
|American Museum of Natural History|
|Location||Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY|
|Visitor figures||About 4 million visits annually|
|Director||Ellen V. Futter|
|Public transit access||B, C, M7, M10, M11, M79|
The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH), located on the Upper West Side, Manhattan, New York, USA, is one of the largest museums in the world. Located on park-like grounds, the museum is made of 25 interconnected buildings that house 46 permanent exhibition halls, research laboratories, and its renowned library. The collections contain over 32 million specimens of which only a small fraction can be displayed at any given time. The museum has a scientific staff of more than 200, and sponsors over 100 special field expeditions each year.
2.THE BRITISH NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM
Natural History Museum
|Natural History Museum|
|Location||Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, England|
|Visitor figures||4,105,106 (2009)|
|Director||Dr Michael Dixon|
|Public transit access||South Kensington|
The Natural History Museum is one of three large museums on Exhibition Road, South Kensington, London, England (the others are the Science Museum, and the Victoria and Albert Museum). Its main frontage is on Cromwell Road. The museum is an exempt charity, and a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
The museum is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 70 million items within five main collections: Botany, Entomology, Mineralogy, Palaeontology and Zoology. The museum is a world-renowned centre of research, specialising in taxonomy, identification and conservation. Given the age of the institution, many of the collections have great historical as well as scientific value, such as specimens collected by Darwin. The Natural History Museum Library contains extensive books, journals, manuscripts, and artwork collections linked to the work and research of the scientific departments. Access to the library is by appointment only.
The museum is particularly famous for its exhibition of dinosaur skeletons, and ornate architecture — sometimes dubbed a cathedral of nature — both exemplified by the large Diplodocus cast which dominates the vaulted central hall.
Originating from collections within the British Museum, the landmark Alfred Waterhouse building was built and opened by 1881, and later incorporated the Geological Museum. The Darwin Centre is a more recent addition, partly designed as a modern facility for storing the valuable collections.
History and architecture
The foundation of the collection was that of the Ulster doctor Sir Hans Sloane (1660–1753), who allowed his significant collections to be purchased by the British Government at a price well below their market value at the time. This purchase was funded by a lottery. Sloane’s collection, which included dried plants, and animal and human skeletons, was initially housed in Montague House in Bloomsbury in 1756, which was the home of the British Museum.
Most of the Sloane collection had disappeared by the early decades of the nineteenth century. Sir George Shaw (Keeper of Zoology 1806-13) sold many specimens to the Royal College of Surgeons. His successor William Elford Leach made periodical bonfires in the grounds of the museum. In 1833 the Annual Report states that, of the 5,500 insects listed in the Sloane catalogue, none remained. The inability of the natural history departments to conserve its specimens became notorious: the Treasury refused to entrust it with specimens collected at the government’s expense. Appointments of staff were bedevilled by gentlemanly favoritism; in 1862 a nephew of the mistress of a Trustee was appointed Entomological Assistant despite not knowing the difference between a butterfly and a moth.
J.E. Gray (Keeper of Zoology 1840-74) complained of the incidence of mental illness amongst staff: George Shaw threatened to put his foot on any shell not in the 12th edition of Linnaeus’ Systema Naturae; another had removed all the labels and registration numbers from entomological cases arranged by a rival. The huge collection of conchologist Hugh Cuming was acquired by the museum, and Gray’s own wife had carried the open trays across the courtyard in a gale: all the labels blew away. That collection is said never to have recovered.
The Principal Librarian at the time was Antonio Panizzi; his contempt for the natural history departments and for science in general was total. The general public was not encouraged to visit the Museum’s natural history exhibits. In 1835 to a Select Committee of Parliament, Sir Henry Ellis said this policy was fully approved by the Principal Librarian and his senior colleagues.
Many of these faults were corrected by Richard Owen, appointed Superintendent of the natural history departments of the British Museum in 1856. His changes led Bill Bryson to write that “by making the Natural History Museum an institution for everyone, Owen transformed our expectations of what museums are for”.
Owen saw that the natural history departments needed more space, and that implied a separate building as the British Museum site was limited. Land in South Kensington was purchased, and in 1864 a competition was held to design the new museum. The winning entry was submitted by civil engineer Captain Francis Fowke who died shortly afterwards. The scheme was taken over by Alfred Waterhouse who substantially revised the agreed plans, and designed the façades in his own idiosyncratic Romanesque style. The original plans included wings on either side of the main building, but these plans were soon abandoned for budgetary reasons. The space these would have occupied are now taken by the Earth Galleries and Darwin Centre.
Work began in 1873 and was completed in 1880. The new museum opened in 1881, although the move from the old museum was not fully completed until 1883.
Both the interiors and exteriors of the Waterhouse building make extensive use of terracotta tiles to resist the sooty climate of Victorian London, manufactured by the Tamworth-based company of Gibbs and Canning Limited. The tiles and bricks feature many relief sculptures of flora and fauna, with living and extinct species featured within the west and east wings respectively. This explicit separation was at the request of Owen, and has been seen as a statement of his contemporary rebuttal of Darwin’s attempt to link present species with past through the theory of natural selection .
The central axis of the museum is aligned with the tower of Imperial College London (formerly the Imperial Institute) and the Royal Albert Hall and Albert Memorial further north. These all form part of the complex known colloquially as Albertopolis.
Separation from the British Museum
Even after the opening, legally the NHM remained a department of the British Museum with the formal name British Museum (Natural History), usually abbreviated in the scientific literature as B.M.(N.H.) or BMNH. A petition to the Chancellor of the Exchequer was made in 1866, signed by the heads of the Royal, Linnean and Zoological Societies as well as naturalists including Darwin, Wallace and Huxley, asking that the museum gain independence from the board of the British Museum, and heated discussions on the matter continued for nearly one hundred years. Finally, with the British Museum Act 1963, the British Museum (Natural History) became an independent museum with its own Board of Trustees, although – despite a proposed amendment to the act in the House of Lords – the former name remained. Only with the Museums and Galleries Act 1992 did the Museum’s formal title finally change to the Natural History Museum.
In 1986, the museum absorbed the adjacent Geological Museum of the British Geological Survey, which had long competed for the limited space available in the area. The Geological Museum became world-famous for exhibitions including an active volcano model and an earthquake machine (designed by James Gardiner), and housed the world’s first computer-enhanced exhibition (Treasures of the Earth). The museum’s galleries were completely rebuilt and relaunched in 1996 as The Earth Galleries, with the other exhibitions in the Waterhouse building retitled The Life Galleries. The Natural History Museum’s own Mineralogy displays remain largely unchanged as an example of the 19th-century display techniques of the Waterhouse building.
The central atrium design by Neal Potter overcame visitors’ reluctance to visit the upper galleries by “pulling” them through a model of the Earth made up of random plates on an escalator. The new design covered the walls in recycled slate and sandblasted the major stars and planets onto the wall. The Museums ‘star’ geological exhibits are displayed within the walls. Six iconic figures are the backdrop to discussing how previous generations have viewed Earth.
The Darwin Centre
The newly-developed Darwin Centre (named after Charles Darwin) is designed as a new home for the museum’s collection of tens of millions of preserved specimens, as well as new work spaces for the museum’s scientific staff, and new educational visitor experiences. Built in two distinct phases, with two new buildings adjacent to the main Waterhouse building, it is the most significant new development project in the museum’s history.
Phase one of the Darwin Centre houses the Zoological department’s ‘spirit collections’ — organisms preserved in alcohol. Phase Two was unveiled in September 2008 and opened to the general public in September 2009. It was designed by Danish architecture practice C. F. Møller Architects in the shape of a giant, eight-story cocoon and houses the entomology and botanical collections — the ‘dry collections’.
Arguably the most famous creature in the centre is the 8.62 metre long Giant Squid, affectionately named Archie ().
The Attenborough Studio
As part of the museum’s remit to communicate science education and conservation work, a new multimedia studio will form an important part of Darwin Centre Phase 2. In collaboration with the BBC’s Natural History Unit — holder of the largest archive of natural history footage available — the Attenborough Studio — named after the venerable broadcaster and presenter Sir David Attenborough — will provide a unique multimedia environment for educational events. The studio will continue the daily webcast lectures and demonstrations that were previously based within the Phase 1 building, featuring museum scientists and guests.
Major specimens and exhibits
One of the most famous and certainly most prominent of the exhibits — affectionately known as Dippy — is a 105-foot (32 m) long replica Diplodocus carnegii skeleton, situated within the central hall. The cast was given as a gift by the Scottish American industrialist Andrew Carnegie, after a discussion with King Edward VII, then a keen trustee of the British Museum. Carnegie arranged for the cast to be created at his own considerable expense of £2,000, copying the original held at the Carnegie Museum. The pieces were sent to London in 36 crates, and on 12 May 1905, the exhibit was unveiled, to great public and media interest (the real fossil had yet to be mounted, as the Carnegie Museum of Natural History in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, was still being constructed to house it). As word of “Dippy” spread, Mr Carnegie paid to have additional copies made for display in most of the major European capitals and in Latin and South America, making Dippy the most-seen dinosaur skeleton in the world. The dinosaur quickly became an iconic representation of the museum, and has featured in many cartoons and other media, including the 1975 Disney comedy One of Our Dinosaurs Is Missing.
Another iconic display is the parallel skeleton and model of a blue whale. The display of the skeleton, weighing 10 tons and some 25 m long, was only made possible in 1934 with the building of the New Whale Hall (now the Large Mammals Hall), though it had been in storage for 42 years since its stranding on sandbanks at Wexford Bay. Discussion of the idea of a life-size model also began around this time, and work was undertaken within the Whale Hall itself. Since taking a cast of such a large animal was deemed prohibitively expensive, scale models were used to meticulously piece the structure together. During construction, workmen left a trapdoor within the whale’s stomach, which they would use for surreptitious cigarette breaks. Before the door was closed and sealed forever, some coins and a telephone directory were placed inside — this soon growing to an urban myth that a time capsule was left inside. The work was completed — entirely within the hall and in full view of the public — in 1938. At the time it was the largest such model in the world, at 28.3 m in length, though the construction details were later borrowed by several American museums, who scaled the plans further.
The Darwin Centre is host to Archie, an 8 metre long giant squid taken alive in a fishing net near the Falkland Islands in 2004. The squid is not on general display, but stored in the large tank room in the basement of the Phase 1 building. On arrival at the museum, the specimen was immediately frozen while preparations commenced for its permanent storage. Since few complete and reasonably fresh examples of the species exist, ‘wet storage’ was chosen, leaving the squid undissected. A 9.45 m acrylic tank was constructed (by the same team that provide tanks to Damian Hirst), and the body preserved using a mixture of formalin and saline solution.
The museum holds the remains and bones of the River Thames Whale that lost its way on 20 January 2006 and swam into the Thames. Although primarily used for research purposes, and held at the museum’s storage site at Wandsworth, the skeleton has been put on temporary public display. 
- Red Zone
This is the zone that can be entered from Exhibition Road, on the East side of the building. It is a gallery themed around the changing history of the Earth.
The Earth Lab is a gallery that centres around geology, and contains specimens of fossils, minerals and rocks. The “Lab Area” is only open to reserved groups and allows an interactive approach to the gallery, allowing the use of microscopes. It is currently the only gallery in the red-zone without step free access. Earth’s Treasury shows specimens of rocks, minerals and gemstones behind glass in a dimly lit gallery. Lasting Impressions is a small gallery containing speciments of rocks, plants and minerals, of which most can be touched.
- Earth Lab
- Earth’s Treasury
- Lasting Impressions
- Restless Surface
- Earth Today and Tomorrow
- From the Beginning
- The Power Within
- Visions of Earth
- Green zone
- Creepy Crawlies
- Fossil Marine Reptiles
- Giant Sequoia and Central Hall
- The Vault
- Our Place in Evolution
- Plant Power
- Blue zone
- Fishes, Amphibians and Reptiles
- Human Biology
- Marine Invertebrates
- Mammals (Blue Whale)
- Nature Live
- Orange zone
- Wildlife Garden
- Darwin Centre
Education and public engagement
The museum runs a series of educational and public engagement programmes. These include for example a highly praised “How Science Works” hands on workshop for school students demonstrating the use of microfossils in geological research. The museum also played a major role in securing designation of the Jurassic Coast of Devon and Dorset as a UNESCO World Heritage site and has subsequently been a lead partner in the Lyme Regis Fossil Festivals.
In 2005, the museum launched a project to develop notable gallery characters to patrol display cases, including ‘facsimiles’ of luminaries such as Carl Linnaeus, Mary Anning, Dorothea Bate and William Smith. They tell stories and anecdotes of their lives and discoveries and aim to surprise visitors.
Formerly called Darwin Centre Live, the Nature Live programme of free events gives visitors an opportunity to meet and talk with the scientists who work behind the scenes at the museum. Live events take place every day at 12.30 GMT, with subjects from evolution and climate change, to biodiversity and space. Visitors can ask questions, see specimens that are not normally on public display, and participate in video link-ups to laboratory spaces and field work sites around the world. The events are also webcast live on the museum’s website, and online viewers can participate by emailing in questions or comments. Previous events are archived online.
Location and access
|London Buses||Kensington Museums 360
Victoria and Albert Museum 14, 74, 414, C1
|London Underground||South Kensington|
The closest London Underground station is South Kensington — there is a tunnel from the station that emerges close to the entrances of all three museums. Admission is free, though there are donation boxes in the foyer.
Times and dates
The Natural History Museum is a National Museum and has offered free entry since 2001. However, there is an entry charge for some temporary exhibitions. The Museum is open every day (except 24–26 December) from 10:00. Last entry is at 5:30 and the Museum closes at 5:50.
Natural History Museum at Tring
The NHM also has a sister museum, located at Tring, Hertfordshire. Built by local eccentric Lionel Walter Rothschild, the NHM took ownership in 1938. In 2007, the museum announced the name would be changed to the Natural History Museum at Tring, though the older name, the Walter Rothschild Zoological Museum is still in widespread use.
Hanging skeletons enliven the ceiling on the balcony area of the Central Hall.
The Museum is a prominent setting in Charlie Fletcher‘s children’s book about unLondon Stoneheart. George Chapman, the hero, sneaks outside when punished on a school trip; he breaks off a small dragon’s stone head from a relief and is chased by a pterodactyl which comes to life from a statue on the roof.
The museum also features in the Anthony Horowitz Power of Five book, Ravens Gate.
The Museum plays an important role in the London-based Disney live-action feature One of Our Dinosaurs Is Missing; the eponymous skeleton is stolen from the museum, and a group of intrepid nannies hide inside the mouth of what is supposed to be the Blue Whale model (in fact a specially-created prop – the nannies peer out from behind the whale’s teeth, but a real Blue Whale is a baleen whale and has no teeth). Additionally, the film is set in the 1920s, before the Blue Whale model was built.
the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2010