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Pameran Keramik Langka Produksi De Hua
Frame satu : Pengantar
Pabrik keramik De Hua lokasinya di propinsi Fukien,dekat kota Changzhou(Tjiangtjioe) tanah kelahiran Kakek saya.
Tahun 2008 saya sempat mengunjungi kota tersebut dan melihat temple Kai Yuan yang sangat indah dan menyaksikan tanah kelahiran suku hokian termasuk wilayah kelahiran kakek saya, lihat di webblok saya
,silahkan klik hhtp://www.uniquecollections.wordpress.com)sayang karena keterbatasan waktu saya tidak berhasil menemukan lokasi pabrik tersebut.apakah mungkin berada diprovinsi lain,harap yang pernah ke pabrik De Hua berkenan memberikan info.
Artifact keramik De Hua yang bewarna putih dengan atau tanpa dekorasi ditemukan di Indonesia,keramik ini tergolong langka .
Silahkan melihat koleksi pribadi saya dibawah ini.
Salam dari penemu Cybermuseum blog
Dr Iwan Suwandy
Frame dua : De Hua Biru Putih
Frame tiga :
De Hua Putih “Blanc de Chine”
1.DE HUA SUNG DINASTY
2.DEHUA MING DYNASTY
LIHATLAH SEBUAH MANGKUK DE HUA PUTIH DENGAN RELIEF DELAPAN DEWA, BARU DITEMUKAN SATU MANGKUK DENGAN EMPAT DEWA,SEDANGKAN PASANGANNYA DENGAN EMPAT DEWA LAGI BELUM KETEMU. kOLEKSI PRIBADI DR IWAN INI SANGAT LANGKA HANYA SATU SAJA YANG BARU KETEMU DIDUNIA(ONLY ONE EXIST IN THE WORLD) , LIHATLAH ILLUSTRASI YANG DIAMBIL DARI BEBERAPA ARAH,MULAI DARI PANTATNYA,DAN SETIAP DEWA SATU ILLUSTRASI,HARAP YANG MEMILIKI MANGKUK DELAPAN DEWA INI UNTUK MELAPORKAN PENEMUANNYA (WHO HAVE THE SAME EIGHT IMMORTAL CUP PLEASE TELL ME INCLUDING ALL THE MUSEUM ALL OVER THE WORLD,THANKS)
2.DEHUA QING DINASTY
Statue of Guan Yin, Ming Dynasty (Shanghai Museum)
Blanc de Chine (French for “Chinese white”) is the traditional European term for a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province, otherwise known as Dehua porcelain or similar terms. It has been produced from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese Export Porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere. It was also exported to Japan in large quantities.
Dehua porcelain, Wade-Giles romanization Te-hua, Chinese porcelain made at Dehua in Fujian province. Although the kiln began production some time during the Song period (960–1279), most examples of the porcelain are attributed to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The characteristic product of Dehua was the white porcelain known to the French as blanc de chine, which had the appearance of blancmange, or milk jelly. Figures of Buddhist deities, vases, and stoves with molded reliefs of plum blossom were common forms. Dehua ware was exported in large quantities to Southeast Asia and, starting in the 18th century, to Europe, where it .
The first Dehua Kiln, whose white porcelain became a representative genre of the Chinese porcelain industry, was a famous kiln that specialized in white porcelain making. Its sites spread about within the scope of today’s Dehua County, in East China’s Fujian Province.
Dehua County in central Fujian Province is known as one of the Three Porcelain Capitals in China, together with Jingdezhen in East China’s Jiangxi Province and Liling in Central China’s Hunan Province.
Dehua porcelain dates back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Solid and smooth, Dehua porcelain is resistant to both heat and cold. One type of “Jianbai” porcelain in particular has a sparkle and luster even more stunning than white jade, and its ivory-white color and superb workmanship make it a favorite of art lovers.
The body of its white porcelain was low in iron but high in potassium, while the color of the glazed surface was of a bright, smooth luster, as milky as frozen fat. It was thus often called “lard white” or “ivory white.” Dehua white porcelain used to be one of the major export varieties in various dynasties. In the West it was called the “Chinese white porcelain” or “Marco Polo porcelain.”
The most common objects of Dehua porcelain were a burner, cup, bottle, plate, tin, Zun (a kind of wine vessel), and Ding (an ancient cooking vessel), which were often decorated with appliqués (kinds of ornament) and stamps; the porcelain figurine was also remarkably exquisite. In fact, the masterpiece of Dehua porcelain was the white porcelain figure of Buddha.
Among Dehua porcelains, white Buddha figures, the most famous, represented the highest firing technique of Dehua kilns at that time. With a refined design and an elegant touch, the white porcelain of Dehua kilns became a representative genre of Chinese porcelain industry in that period and was reputed as the Bright Pearl of Porcelain in the World.
Although by the Song and Yuan dynasties (960-1368), Dehua porcelains were already being exported to other countries and regions, it was during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) that Dehua porcelain gradually developed its own techniques and styles and enjoyed great development.
In modern times, quite a few Dehua porcelains of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) have won gold prizes in expositions held both at home and abroad, such as Shanghai (East China), Taiwan Province, Japan, and Britain; in addition, Dehua porcelain is one of the main products of the national porcelain export, being exported to more than 80 countries and regions.
Keramik Yang ditemukan dari Kapal Karam Termasuk dari De Hua
The number of ceramic pieces of each type recovered from the Desaru ship is listed at the end of this section.
Type number & description
|1: Lion dog dish
Large porcelain dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue and copper red, and depicts a lion dog playing with a brocade ball. Four bands of stylised Tibetan characters decorate the cavetto. The lion dog, or dog of fu, is the Buddhist guardian lion; it looks like a Pekinese dog with a brushy tail. It is often shown playing with a ball and ribbons. It appears in the Ming dynasty but also used in Qing dynasty. The base is unglazed.
Size: 27-29 cm diameter.
|2 & 2.1: Flower dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemum blossoms amidst scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship, associated with a life of ease and retirement. The flower can be used as a tonic or cosmetic. It appears in decorations from the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) onwards.
2 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
2.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
|3 & 3.1: Longevity dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue. It shows the Chinese character shou (for long life) at the centre with bands of a stylised Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable) on the cavetto. The longevity mark promises a long happy life, full of good luck and happy circumstances.
3 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
3.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
|4: Small flower dish
Small dish with rounded sides and a well-made low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemums altering with various scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.
|5: Character dish
Small dish with rounded sides and low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features the Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable), and three tiers of a stylised version of the same character on the cavetto. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.
|7: Flower plate
Small well-made dish with flat rim, decorated in cobalt blue oxides, with a stylised chrysanthemum flower surrounded by a flower spray in the medallion. The plate is probably made in the Jingdezhen area. The base, which is low and well-mended, is glazed, and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 18-21 cm diameter.
|8: Flower saucer
Similar design as the above flower plate: exterior decorated in cobalt blue with a lingzhi fungus motif connected by a scroll of fungus. The base is glazed and shows the mark of its manufacturer.
Size: 9-11 cm diameter.
|9: Flower bowl
Bowl with everted mouth rim, decorated with cobalt blue oxide, showing a lingzhi fungus motif at the centre bottom, a fungus scroll at the mouth rim, and lotus scroll above a band of lotus panels on the exterior. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s name.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
|10: Lotus-shape flower bowl
Blue and white decorated bowl with straight mouth rim. The decoration, a lotus flower and scrolls, is drawn only in outline, not filled with the traditional wash. The foot-ring is well-mended, glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in the glazed base.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
|11: Celadon-white bowl
Chinese bowl from the Jingdezhen area with a translucent glaze on the interior and celadon glaze on the exterior. The foot-ring and manufacturer’s mark are similar to those of the bowls listed above.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
|12: Qing bowl
Chinese bowl from Guangdong province. The underglaze blackish-blue decoration includes floral motifs equally spaced round the exterior. The interior has an unglazed stacking ring.
Size: 13-15cm diameter.
More than 50,000 spoons were found on the ship. There were three main designs and qualities. The ‘nice’ spoon was perfectly moulded and finished, and decorated with a finely drawn floral motif. Another design included the Chinese symbols for yin and yang. Most spoons however were decorated with a simple floral scroll. The base is usually rather rough and has a low unglazed foot-ring.
Size: 10-11 cm long.
|14: Covered bowl
Chinese blue and white covered bowl from Jingdezhen. This example is decorated with four double-happiness characters, alternating with geometric motifs, equally spaced around the exterior of the body. Other covered bowls of the same size and form have similar exterior decoration featuring various flower motifs. The base is very low and glazed but does not show any mark of the manufacturer. The foot-ring is thin and free from glaze and grits.
Size: 10-12 cm high.
|15, 15.1 & 15.2: Yixing teapot
Chinese Yixing teapots from Jiangsu province. Various potters’ marks and seals appear on the base. These pots are handmade and beaten into the desired shape, usually by famous potters specializing in teapot making.
15 – Small: 4-6 cm high.
15.1 – Medium: 8-10 cm high.
15.2 – Large: 10-12 cm high.
|16: Teapot with cover
Chinese blue and white teapot with recessed lid, probably made at one of the Jingdezhen kilns. The clay is white, glaze is clear and transparent, and the foot-ring is low but well mended. Decorations around the body are made within a centralized band of medallions, separated by two bands of stylized lappets. The missing handle was probably made of double brass wires, fitting into the double bracket. The base is glazed but shows no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 16-18 cm high.
|17: Black-glazed basin
‘Flowerpot’ from southern China, thrown on a wheel. A number of carved, horizontal lines high on the body terminate at the rounded mouth rim. Black-glazed, with no other decoration. These pots were fired on spur discs; many show spur marks from rectangular discs.
Size: 12-14cm high.
|18: Black-glazed covered box
Yixing covered boxes: in sets of four, of different sizes, fitting one inside the other. Originally green-glazed, many of the boxes had turned black due to oxidation. These pots are light due to their porous clay and thin walls. They are handmade in traditional Yixing manner. The box and lid form imitate ‘Jun’ ware dating from the Song dynasty.
Size: 9-22cm high.
|19: Brown-glazed basin
Brown-glazed garden pot from southern China, made of coarse clay thrown on a wheel in diminishing sizes (sets of three). The exterior is decorated with various stamped motifs. A light brownish glaze ends well above the foot-ring. The mouth rim and foot-ring are cut flat.
Size: 7, 10 and 11 cm high.
|20: Brown-glazed bowls
Garden pots made from Yixing clay. These pots, like all other Yixing wares, are assembled from a round handmade base and rectangular side pieces, assembled into a desired shape and then beaten into the final form. These pots are extremely light in weight. The joint between the side and bottom piece can often be seen.
Size: 11- 24 cm diameter.
|21: Brown-glazed jar
Brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. Jars of this type were stored below deck, and accommodated smaller pots of various types. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines.
Size: 18-20 cm high.
|22: Brown-glazed storage jar
Larger brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. Jars of this type were stored below deck, and accommodated smaller pots of various types. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines.
Size: 49-51cm high.
|23: Brown-glazed urn
Smaller brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. These jars were stored below deck, filling the cargo space between larger jars. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines. The glaze ends above the base.
Size: 15-17 cm high.
|24: Brown-glazed kendi
Unusual type of kendi, apparently of the same rough clay as the storage jars and probably made in southern China. The kendis are likely to have been used for wine or other relatively valuable drinks, rather than water. These kendis belong to the same group as the brown-glazed urns (32) and ring-handled spouted jar (33).
Size: 24 cm high.
|25: ‘Guan’ covered jar
This type of jar is often referred to as a Kamcheng and was made at Jingdezhen. The lid handle is moulded in the form of a Buddhist lion (lion dog or ‘dog of fu’), and the cobalt blue decoration includes sweet pea blossoms on a ground of sweet pea foliage. Pairs of small handles are set below the shoulder. The form of the Kamcheng is derived from the ‘Guan’ shaped jar of the Yuan dynasty.
Size: 20-25 cm high.
|26: Enamel-decorated covered bowl
Thin-walled white porcelain bowl, made at Jingdezhen, and often used for serving wine. The lid is ‘reversible’ and can be used to serve smaller dishes. The bowl has an overglaze enamel motif, depicting anything from bamboo to dragons. A few of these bowls show calligraphic characters often quoting famous Chinese poems.
Size: 8.5cm high.
|27: Water pot
Yixing chamber pot or water pot assembled from handmade pieces of clay. The colour of the clay, as with other Yixing wares, varies greatly. Water pots seen elsewhere are mostly green-glazed, while many pots on the Desaru ship were black-glazed. The green-glazed pots are often oxidized, appearing black.
Size: 13.5 cm high.
|28: Spouted jar
Brown-glazed spouted jar made at Yixing, assembled from individual pieces of clay, and used to store and serve wine. Four lug handles are distributed evenly around the flattened shoulder. These jars are most commonly black-glazed, and have no decoration of any kind.
Size: 14cm high.
|29: Tall basin
Yixing jar, unusual for the carved vertical striations on the exterior. These basins were found with lids, stored in separate areas. As with other Yixing wares, the basins are assembled from individual pieces of clay. Originally covered with green and black glaze, some of the green-glazed basins appear black due to oxidation.
Size: 22cm high.
|30: Wine cup
Wine or tea cup from Dehua or other Fukien kilns. The sides are straight with a rounded mouth rim. Geometric motifs are painted in cobalt oxide. The base is glazed, with no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 4 -5 cm high.
|31: Tea bowl
Teacup from Dehua or other Fukien kilns. The sides are everted and end with a slightly rounded attachment to the foot-ring. The bowls are plain or show light cobalt blue decorations. The base is unglazed, with no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 4-5 cm high.
|32: Brown-glazed spouted jar
These urns of rather rough clay are probably made in southern China and belong to the same group as the brown-glazed kendis (24) and ring-handled spouted jar (33). The spout resembles the traditional Arabic style, but is crudely attached to the body. The glaze ends well above the base.
Size: 25 cm high.
|33: Ring-handled spouted jar
One of these jars was found. It probably comes from southern China, and is of the same group as the brown-glazed urns (32) but with a refinement: an additional pad below the handles, attached high on the shoulder. The glaze terminates in the middle of the body. The jar is likely to have been used to hold and serve water.
Size: 25 cm high.
|34: Shanghai jar
The ‘Shanghai jars’, actually made at Suzhou, are of coarse clay, similar to that used in the brown-glazed kendis and urns. The exterior is glazed in yellow-brown slip over hand-formed and carved motifs which include flowers, birds, bamboo and dragons. A key fret normally decorated the shoulder. Jars of this type were once used to store preserved eggs.
Size: 75 cm high.
|35: Green-glazed storage jar
These storage jars are of a clay apparently identical to that of the Shanghai jars, so are probably from Suzhou. They were originally green-glazed, and have no decoration.
Size: 75 cm high.
|36: Large beaker
These beakers are made from coarse clay with frequent grits of stones. They probably come from southern China, and are rather heavy for wheel-thrown pots. They have no decoration, but the mouth rim is well mended.
Size: 47 cm diameter.
|37: Gunpowder urn
Globular, black-glazed stoneware jar with short neck and four small lug handles placed high on the shoulder. Two were found; they are thought to have contained gunpowder.
Size: 35 cm high.
|38: Spring dish
These dishes, made at Jingdezhen, are decorated with blue cobalt oxide and red copper oxides below a clear glaze. The design features birds and prunus blossoms against a backdrop of a lake and what may be a pavilion in the foreground.
Size: 24.5 cm diameter.
|39: Mineral water bottle
Light-brown stoneware bottle. On the shoulder is a stamped medallion showing a lion rampant encircled by the letters ‘SELTERS’. This may be the name of the German manufacturer. Under this is a horizontal inscription ‘HERZUGTHUM NASSAU’. The bottle is dated to c.1800(1).
Size: 29 cm high.
The area along the Fujian coast was traditionally one of the main ceramic exporting centers. Over one-hundred and eighty kiln sites have been identified extending in historical range from the Song period to present. The two principal kiln sites were those of Qudougong 屈斗宫 and Wanpinglun 碗坪仑. The Wanpinglun site is the older of the two and manufactured pressed wares and others. The kilns of Dehua also produced other ceramic wares, including some with under glaze blue decoration.
From the Ming period porcelain objects were manufactured that achieved a fusion of glaze and body traditionally referred to as “ivory white” and “milk white.” The special characteristic of Dehua porcelain is the very small amount of iron oxide in it, allowing it to be fired in an oxidising atmosphere to a warm white or pale ivory color. This color makes it instantly recognizable and quite different from the porcelain from the Imperial kilns of Jingdezhen, which contains more iron and has to be fired in reduction (i.e., an atmosphere with carbon dioxide) if it is not to appear an unpleasant straw color.
The unfired porcelain body is not very plastic but vessel forms have been made from it. Donnelly lists the following types of product: figures, boxes, vases and jars, cups and bowls, fishes, lamps, cup-stands, censers and flowerpots, animals, brush holders, wine and teapots, Buddhist and Taoist figures, secular figures and puppets. There was a large output of figures, especially religious figures, e.g. Guanyin, Maitreya, Lohan and Ta-mo figures. Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy, was particularly revered in Fujian and there exist innumerable figures of her. Donnelly says, “There is no doubt that figures constitute the great glory of blanc de Chine.” Some have been produced with little modification from the late 16th or early 17th century. Crisply modeled figures with a smooth white glaze were popular as were joss-stick holders, brush pots, Dogs of Fo, libation cups and boxes.
The devotional objects produced at Dehua (incense burners, candlesticks, flower vases and statuettes of saints) “conformed to the official stipulations of the early Ming period, not only in their whiteness but also in imitating the shape of archaic ritual objects”. They were probably used in the domestic shrines that every Chinese home possessed. However, one Confucian polemicist, Wen Zhenheng (1585–1645), specifically forbade the use of Dehua wares for religious purposes, presumably for their lack of antiquity: “Among the censers the use of which should be specifically forbidden are those recently made in the kilns of Fujian (Dehua).”
The numerous Dehua porcelain factories today make figures and tableware in modern styles. During the Cultural Revolution “Dehua artisans applied their very best skills to produce immaculate statuettes of the Great Leader and the heroes of the revolution. Portraits of the stars of the new proletarian opera in their most famous roles were produced on a truly massive scale.” Mao figures later fell out of favor but have been revived for foreign collectors.
Precise dating of blanc de Chine of the Ming and Qing (1644–1911) dynasties is often difficult because the conservatism of the Dehua potters led them to produce similar pieces for decades or even for centuries. There are blanc de Chine figures being made in Dehua today (e.g. the popular Guanyin and Maitreya figures) little different from those made in the Ming dynasty.
Notable artists in blanc de Chine, such as the late Ming period He Chaozong, signed their creations with their seals. Wares include crisply modeled figures, cups, bowls and joss stick-holders.
Many of the best examples of blanc de Chine are found in Japan where they are used in family altars (butsudan) and other funerary and religious uses. In Japan the white variety was termed hakugorai or “Korean white”, a term often found in tea ceremony circles. The British Museum in London has a large number of blanc de Chine pieces, having received as a gift in 1980 the entire collection of P.J.Donnelly.
Dehua white porcelain in Japan was traditionally known among Japanese as hakugorai or “Korean White Ware.” Although Korai was a term for an ancient Korean kingdom, the term also functioned as a ubiquitous term for various products from the Korean peninsula.
This is not to suggest that historically Japanese were entirely oblivious to the existence of the Fujian province kilns and their porcelain, now known as Dehua or Blanc de Chine ware. The Dehua kilns are located in Fujian province opposite the island of Taiwan. Coastal Fujian province was traditionally a trade center for the Chinese economy with its many ports and urban centers. Fujian white ware was meant for all of maritime Asia.
However a large quantity of these ceramics was intended for a Japanese market before drastic trade restrictions by the mid 17th century. Items were largely Buddhist images and ritual utensils utilized for family altar use. Associations with funerals and the dead have perhaps led to a certain disinterest in this ware among present day Japanese, despite an intense interest in other aspects of Chinese ceramic culture and history.
Many examples of great beauty of this ware have made their way to collections in the west from Japan. Among the countless Buddhist images meant for the Japanese market are those that with strongly stylized robes that show an influence from the Kano School of painting that dominated Tokugawa Japan. It seems a certainty that Dehua white ware was made with Japanese tastes in mind.
Perhaps also likely is Japanese taste in the very plain white incense tripods and associated objects for Japanese religious and ritual observance. Of interest also are the Buddhist Goddesses of Mercy with child figures that close resembled Christian figurines. Such figurines were known as Maria Kannon or “Blessed Virgin Goddesses of Mercy” and were part of the “hidden Christian” culture of Tokugawa Japan which had strictly banned the religion.
White porcelain Buddhist statuary was extensively produced in Japan at the Hirado kilns and elsewhere. The two wares can be easily distinquished. Japanese figures are usually closed on the base and a small hole for ventilation can be seen. Hirado Ware also displays a slightly orange tinge on unglazed areas.
- Ayers, J and Kerr, R., (2000), Blanc de Chine Porcelain from Dehua, Art Media Resources Ltd.
- Moujian, S., (1986) An Encyclopedia of Chinese Art, p. 292.
- Shanghai Art Museum, Fujian Ceramics and Porcelain, Chinese Ceramics, vol. 27, Kyoto, 1983.
- Kato Tokoku, Genshoku toki daijiten (A Dictionary of Ceramics in Color), Tokyo, 1972, p. 777.
- ^ Wood, N., Chinese Glazes: Their Chemistry, Origins and Re-creation, A & C Black, London, and University of Pennsylvania Press, USA, 2007
- ^ Donnelly, P.J., Blanc de Chine, Faber and Faber, London, 1969
- ^ a b c Ayers, J. and Bingling, Y., Blanc de Chine: Divine Images in Porcelain, China Institute, New York, 2002
- ^ Harrison-Hall, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, British Museum, London, 2001
the end@ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2010