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The Jerusalem Collections Exhibition
Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (audio) (help·info), Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس (audio) (help·info), al-Quds al-Sharif, “The Holy Sanctuary”)[ii] is the capital of Israel, though not internationally recognized as such.[iii] If the area and population of East Jerusalem is included, it is Israel’s largest city in both population and area, with a population of 763,800 residents over an area of 125.1 km2 (48.3 sq mi).[iv] Located in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern edge of the Dead Sea, modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the boundaries of the Old City.
Jerusalem is a holy city to the three major Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity and Islam. In Judaism, Jerusalem has been the holiest city since, according to the Torah, King David of Israel first established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel in c. 1000 BCE, and his son Solomon commissioned the building of the First Temple in the city. In Christianity, Jerusalem has been a holy city since, according to the New Testament, Jesus was crucified in c. 30 CE and 300 years later Saint Helena found the True Cross in the city. In Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city. It became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (Salah) in 610 CE, and, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later. As a result, and despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi), the Old City is home to sites of key religious importance, among them the Temple Mount, the Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque.
During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times. The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE, making Jerusalem one of the oldest cities in the world. The old walled city, a World Heritage site, has been traditionally divided into four quarters, although the names used today—the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters—were introduced in the early 19th century. The Old City was nominated for inclusion on the List of World Heritage Sites in Danger by Jordan in 1982.
Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. After the 1967 Arab Israeli War, Israel annexed East Jerusalem (which was controlled by Jordan) and considers it a part of Israel, although the international community has rejected the annexation as illegal and considers East Jerusalem to be Palestinian territory held by Israel under military occupation. The international community does not recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and most foreign embassies are located in Tel Aviv and its suburbs. According to Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics 208,000 Palestinians live in East Jerusalem, which is sought as a future capital of a future Palestinian state. Israel, however, considers the entire city to be a part of Israel following its annexation of East Jerusalem through the Jerusalem Law of 1980.
All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel’s parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister and President, and the Supreme Court. Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book. The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo has ranked consistently as Israel’s top tourist attraction for Israelis.
A city called Rušalimum or Urušalimum (Foundation of Shalem) appears in ancient Egyptian records as the first two references to Jerusalem, in c. 2000 BCE and c. 1330 BCE respectively. The form Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in the Bible, in the book of Joshua. This form has the appearance of a portmanteau (blend) of Yireh (an abiding place of the fear and the service of God) and the original root S-L-M and is not a simple phonetic evolution of the form in the Amarna letters. The meaning of the common root S-L-M is unknown but is thought to refer to either “peace” (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion.
Typically the ending -im indicates the plural in Hebrew grammar and -ayim the dual thus leading to the suggestion that the name refers to the fact that the city sits on two hills. However the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the Septuagint.
The tradition names the oldest settled neighborhood of Jerusalem the City of David. “Zion” initially referred to part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a whole and as a metophor for the Biblical Land of Israel. In Greek and Latin the city’s name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Ἱεροσόλυμα), although the city was renamed Aelia Capitolina for part of the Roman period of its history. In Arabic, Jerusalem is most commonly known as القُدس, transliterated as al-Quds and meaning “The Holy”.
Given the city’s central position in both Israeli nationalism (Zionism) and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarise more than 5,000 years of inhabited history is often influenced by ideological bias or background (see Historiography and nationalism). For example, the Jewish periods of the city’s history are important to Israeli nationalists (Zionists), whose discourse suggests that modern Jews descend from the Israelites and Maccabees, whilst the Islamic, Christian and other non-Jewish periods of the city’s history are important to Palestinian nationalism, whose discourse suggests that modern Palestinians descend from all the different peoples who have lived in the region. As a result, both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city, and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city’s history.
Overview of Jerusalem’s historical periods
Stepped Stone Structure, City of David
Ceramic evidence indicates the occupation of City of David, within present-day Jerusalem, as far back as the Copper Age (c. 4th millennium BCE), with evidence of a permanent settlement during the early Bronze Age (c. 3000–2800 BCE). The Execration Texts (c. 19th century BCE), which refer to a city called Roshlamem or Rosh-ramen and the Amarna letters (c. 14th century BCE) may be the earliest mention of the city. Some archaeologists, including Kathleen Kenyon, believe Jerusalem as a city was founded by Northwest Semitic people with organized settlements from around 2600 BCE. According to Jewish tradition, the city was founded by Shem and Eber, ancestors of Abraham. In the biblical account, Jerusalem (“Salem”) when first mentioned is ruled by Melchizedek, an ally of Abraham (identified with Shem in legend). Later, in the time of Joshua, Jerusalem lay within territory allocated to the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua 18:28), but continued to be under the independent control of the Jebusites until it was conquered by David and made into the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (c. 11th century BCE).[v] Recent excavations of a Large Stone Structure and a nearby Stepped Stone Structure are widely believed to be the remains of King David’s palace. The excavations have been interpreted by some archaeologists as lending credence to the biblical narrative.
According to Hebrew scripture, King David reigned until 970 BCE. He was succeeded by his son Solomon, who built the Holy Temple on Mount Moriah. Solomon’s Temple (later known as the First Temple), went on to play a pivotal role in Jewish history as the repository of the Ark of the Covenant. For more than 400 years, until the Babylonian conquest in 587 BCE, Jerusalem was the political capital of the united Kingdom of Israel and then the Kingdom of Judah. During this period, known as the First Temple Period, the Temple was the religious center of the Israelites. On Solomon’s death (c. 930 BCE), the ten northern tribes split off to form the Kingdom of Israel. Under the leadership of the House of David and Solomon, Jerusalem remained the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.
When the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BCE, Jerusalem was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the northern kingdom. The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as the Babylonians conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon’s Temple. In 538 BCE, after 50 years of Babylonian captivity, Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple. Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple. In about 445 BCE, King Artaxerxes I of Persia issued a decree allowing the city and the walls to be rebuilt. Jerusalem resumed its role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship. When Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire, Jerusalem and Judea came under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the Ptolemaic dynasty under Ptolemy I. In 198 BCE, Ptolemy V lost Jerusalem and Judea to the Seleucids under Antiochus III. The Seleucid attempt to recast Jerusalem as a Hellenized city-state came to a head in 168 BCE with the successful Maccabean revolt of Mattathias the High Priest and his five sons against Antiochus Epiphanes, and their establishment of the Hasmonean Kingdom in 152 BCE with Jerusalem again as its capital. In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great intervened in a Hasmonean struggle for the throne and captured Jerusalem, incorporating Judea into the Roman Republic.
As Rome became stronger it installed Herod as a Jewish client king. Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and beautifying the city. He built walls, towers and palaces, and expanded the Temple Mount, buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone weighing up to 100 tons. Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount doubled in size. Shortly after Herod’s death, in 6 CE Judea came under direct Roman rule as the Iudaea Province, although Herod’s descendants through Agrippa II remained client kings of neighbouring territories until 96 CE. Roman rule over Jerusalem and the region began to be challenged with the First Jewish–Roman War, which resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Jerusalem once again served as the capital of Judea during the three-year rebellion known as the Bar Kokhba revolt, beginning in 132 CE. The Romans succeeded in suppressing the revolt in 135 CE. Emperor Hadrian romanized the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina, and banned the Jews from entering it. Hadrian renamed the entire Iudaea Province Syria Palaestina, after the biblical Philistines, in an attempt to de-Judaize the country. The enforcement of the ban on Jews entering Aelia Capitolina continued until the 4th century CE.
In the five centuries following the Bar Kokhba revolt, the city remained under Roman then Byzantine rule. During the 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine I constructed Christian sites in Jerusalem, such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem reached a peak in size and population at the end of the Second Temple Period, when the city covered two square kilometers (0.8 sq mi.) and had a population of 200,000. From the days of Constantine until the 7th century, Jews were banned from Jerusalem.
The eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, maintained control of the city for years. Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem shifted from Byzantine to Persian rule and returned to Roman-Byzantine dominion once more. Following Sassanid Khosrau II‘s early 7th century push into Byzantine, advancing through Syria, Sassanid Generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin attacked the Byzantine-controlled city of Jerusalem (Persian: Dej Houdkh). They were aided by the Jews of Palestine, who had risen up against the Byzantines.
In the Siege of Jerusalem (614), after 21 days of relentless siege warfare, Jerusalem was captured. The Byzantine chronicles relate that the Sassanid army and the Jews slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the city, an episode which has been the subject of much debate between historians. The conquered city would remain in Sassanid hands for some fifteen years until the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius reconquered it in 629.
Dome of the Rock viewed through Cotton Gate
Jerusalem is considered Islam’s third holiest city after Mecca and Medina. Among Muslims of an earlier era it was referred to as Bayt al-Maqdes; later it became known as al-Quds al-Sharif. The Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A.H. (620 CE), when Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according to Muslim religious tradition, Muhammad’s night journey and ascension to heaven took place. After 16 months, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca. In 638 the Islamic Caliphate extended its dominion to Jerusalem. With the Arab conquest, Jews were allowed back into the city. The Rashidun caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab signed a treaty with Monophysite Christian Patriarch Sophronius, assuring him that Jerusalem’s Christian holy places and population would be protected under Muslim rule. When led to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the holiest site for Christians, the caliph Umar refused to pray in the church so that Muslims would not request converting the church to a mosque. He prayed outside the church, where the Mosque of Umar (Omar) stands to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf, who lived in Jerusalem from 679 to 688, the Mosque of Umar was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000 worshipers. When the Muslims went to Bayt Al-Maqdes for the first time, They searched for the site of the Far Away Holy Mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Aqsa) that was mentioned in Quran and Hadith according to Islamic beliefs. They found the site full of rubbish, they cleaned it and started using it for prayers thereafter. The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of the Dome of the Rock in the late 7th century. The 10th century historian al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the shrine in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem’s monumental churches. Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem’s prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control.
Crusader, Ayyubid, and Mamluk period
In 1099, The Fatimid ruler expelled the native Christian population before Jerusalem was conquered by the Crusaders, who massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants when they took the solidly defended city by assault, after a period of siege; later the Crusaders created the Kingdom of Jerusalem. By early June 1099 Jerusalem’s population had declined from 70,000 to less than 30,000.
In 1187, the city was wrested from the Crusaders by Saladin who permitted Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city. Under the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin, a period of huge investment began in the construction of houses, markets, public baths, and pilgrim hostels as well as the establishment of religious endowments. However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem declined to the status of a village due to city’s fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles.
In 1244, Jerusalem was sacked by the Khwarezmian Tartars, who decimated the city’s Christian population and drove out the Jews. The Khwarezmian Tartars were driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. From 1250 to 1517, Jerusalem was ruled by the Mamluks. During this period of time many clashes occurred between the Mamluks on one side and the crusaders and the Mongols on the other side. The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black plague.
In 1517, Jerusalem and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who generally remained in control until 1917. Jerusalem enjoyed a prosperous period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent – including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the Old City. Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between Damascus and Cairo. However, the Muslim Turks brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by the various consulates; the use of the wheel for modes of transportation; stagecoach and carriage, the wheelbarrow and the cart; and the oil-lantern, among the first signs of modernization in the city. In the mid 19th century, the Ottomans constructed the first paved road from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and by 1892 the railroad had reached the city
With the annexation of Jerusalem by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1831, foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the city. In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem’s Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva. In the 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine, Qasim al-Ahmad led his forces from Nablus and attacked Jerusalem, aided by the Abu Ghosh clan, entered the city on May 31, 1834. The Christians and Jews of Jerusalem were subjected to attacks. Ibrahim’s Egyptian army routed Qasim’s forces in Jerusalem the following month.
Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from Algiers and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers. In the 1840s and 1850s, the international powers began a tug-of-war in Palestine as they sought to extend their protection over the region’s religious minorities, a struggle carried out mainly through consular representatives in Jerusalem. According to the Prussian consul, the population in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans. The volume of Christian pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling the city’s population around Easter time.
In the 1860s, new neighborhoods began to develop outside the Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. The Russian Compound and Mishkenot Sha’ananim were founded in 1860. In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem of ‘above’ 15,000. With 4,000 to 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims. Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Christian Pilgrims.
British Mandate and 1948 War
”The British Mandate Palestine War Collections”
THE BRITISH MANDATE PALESTINE WAR COLLECTIONS
UCM -uniquecollection.wordpress.com CyberMuseum
special show in chronologic historic collections related
during Palestine under British occupation created by
@copyright Dr Iwan S. compile from UCM vintage books
postal, revenue and numismatic collections.
The first and best showed in the Cyber space.
I. PRE WORLD WAR II
(1)The World War I 1914-1918 , Gaza fell to British Forces and becomes a
part of the British Mandate of Palestine.
(2)in 1914 WW I , Turkey (Ottoman) vs Germany as a result it was embroiled in a conflict to realese Palestine from the control
of the Ottoman Empire , let the Jewish population and the Arab population in Palestine to support the aligument of the United Kingdom , France and Russia during WW I.
(look the illustrations of the last ottoman King stamps and the earliest Ottoman Palestine stamps)
(1)The Anglo-French Skyes-Picot agreement allocated the British empire the area of present day Jordan (that time Transjordan), the area between Jordan river , the mediteranian sea and Iraq.
(UCM have Transjordania Postally used cover, if collectors want to see please asking via comment.
(2) The vintage Gaza and Jerusalem Map 1916 collections
(look the map illustration combined with the vintage city photo , Postally used cover via or from the City with cancellation postmark)
(1)The Mandated formalized British rules in Palestine, the bounderies
of the new states laid down within the territory of the Mandate Palestine, Transjordania and French territory in Middle East
(look at the British Mandate of Palestine Map 1917-1922 illustr. and Tranjodarnia Postally used covers 1948)
(2)The British Forces managed to defeat the Ottoman Turkyes forces and Occupied Palestine, and that area reamined under British Military Administrations until the WW I end.
(3) Balfour declaration
This declaration to favour establisment in palestine of a national home for the Jeiwsh people but that nothing should be done to prejudice the cure and religion right to the existing non Jewish communication in Palestina. This declaration was seen by Yewish Nationalist as the conerstone of a future Jewish Homeland.
The Faizal-Weizman Agreement for Arab-Jewish cooperation in which Faizal(King of Iraq) conditionally accepted the Balfour declaration.
(look the postal used cover of King Faizal iraq 1938 illustration)
(2) After WW I and the Collaps of the Ottoman empire, in this year the League of Nation formally assigned the Palestine mandate to United Kingdom.
(1) Palestine Riots in Jaffa
(2) The Haganah was fourted a defence Forces for the Jewish population at the British Mandate of Palestine.
(3) From this year until 1948, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem , Amin al Husaeni became the leader of the Palestinean National Movement and played a key role in the Palestinean opposition.
(1) The British Mandate of Palestine was a legal instrument for
administration of Plaestine formally approved by The Leaguaed
Nation base on a draft by the principal Allied and associated
power after WW I.
(2) The British Mandate Palestine Map collection (ill caption
Map 1917-1922) with the border of Franch Mandate Libanon and British Mandate Egypt.
Look at the France Mandate Libanon stamps , and Libanon postally used cover after the war 1950.
From 1919 until 1926 90.000 Jewish immigrant arrived in Palestine.
look the illustration of Jewish immigrant Pasport.
Palestine Arab Riots.
In this religious-Nationalist riots, Yew were massacred in Hebron and the survivors were expelled from the town . Devastation also
took place in Safed and Jerusalem.
Visit Palestine picture postcard collection (ill.caption Visit Palestine Card 1930)
British mandate Palestine Coin 1931(ill capt. Palestine coin 1931)
British Mandate Palestine fair at Tel Aviv in this year, look at the Tel Aviv Fair flying Label collection (ill cap. Palestine label 1934)
Palestine Medal 1935
Arab Revolt in Palestine from 1936 until 1939..
As the Europe was preparing for war, the Supreme Muslim Council in Palestine led by Amin al Hussaeni instigated his Arab revolt. This revolt were made by the Arab leader in Palestine and the Nazi Movement in Germany.
(Look illustration of Al Huseini profile and Hitler with him photo).
The Peel proposed accepted in this year which included a Jewish state in Part of Palestine.
Postally used cover send from Iraq with King Faizal stamp, postal cacelletion (marK) CDS Baghdad Sep.10.38 to Palestine. In 1919 the King Faizal agree with The Arab-Jewish cooperation of Faizal-Weizman Balfour declaration. (Ironically later Sadam Husein after beat Faizal and he was against the Israel Jews)
(1)The White paper of 1939.
The British respond to the ooutbreaks of Violent with white paper, sought a One State Solution. established a quota for Jewish imigration set by the British in the short term and by the Arab population in the long term placed restriction on the rights of Jews to buy land from Arab in attempt to limit the Social Political demage.
These restriction reamined until the end of the Mandate period which occured in paralel WW II and the holocaust during which many Jewish refugee tried to escape from Europe.
As a resultduring 1930-1940 the leader of Yishui arranged a couple of illegal immigration waves of Jews to the British Mandate of Palestine.
(2) Ben Gurion, the famous Jews leader, said he wanted to concentrated the masses of his Jews people in this country (Palestine) and its environments.(look at Ben Gurion profile vintage photo ills.)
II. DURING WORLD WAR II
The Kingdom of Italy declared war on the French Republic and
the United Kingdom.
During the battle of Franch, the French country had already beaten by the German Hitler Nazi soldiers, and at that time
Italy Mossulini soldiers joined the war.The Italy invasion French was short time life.
(look the Mussolini and Hitler photo illustration)
The British and the Force of the Commonwealth nation joined
the war in Middle east.
( look The British and Commenwealth nation Forces postally used
cover to Middle east including Palestine, during the WWII in Middles east including Palestine :
b1. The postally military covers from Tanganjika African forces
b.2. The postally used Free Military postal cover from British Middle east Forces send registered from Cairo.
b.3. The postally used Military cover from British India forces
b.4. The postally used cover from British Canada Forces
b.5. The Postally used cover from British Australia Forces
(3) July 1940
Italian bombing British Mandate Palestine centered on tel Aviv and Haifa such Acre and Jaffa also suffered.
(look at the Tel Aviv vintage picture, palestine stamp postally used CDS Tel Aviv 1945, Haifa and Jaffa vintage picture illustr.)
Mid 1940, Italian also bombing America operated oil refineries in the British Protectorated Bahrain.
(1)The connections led to cooperation between Palestinian National Movement and the Axis Hitler Germany powers during WWII .
(2) May 1941
Amin al Husayani issued a Fatwa for a holy war against British Forces. During his meeting with Adolf Hitler, Amin asked Germany to opposed, as part of the Arab struggle for independence.
He recieved a promise from Hitler that Germany would eliminate the existing Jews foundation in Palestine after the German would gain Victory in the WW II.During the WWII Amin joined the Nazis ,serving with the Wafen SS in Bosnia.
(3) The establisment of a Jewish National home in Palestine.
The very rare Australia YMCA NGO organization official free
postal cover send to Tiberias, via CDS Gaza and Jaffa. 13.AUG.42.
(look at the vintage map 1916 and picture illustration of the Palestine city Gaza,Jaffa,Tiberias and jerusalem )
(1)British Mandate Palestine stamp still used CDS Tel Aviv 10.JY.45.
(illustration Tel Aviv CDS 10.JY.45 and Tel Aviv vintage Photo illustrations.)
(2) As a result of the British policies ,the Jewish Resistance Organization united and established the the Jewish Resistance Movement with coordinated armed attack against the British military which took place between 1945-1946.
III. AFTER WORLD WAR II
The British Mandate Palestine stamp still used CDS Tel Aviv 10 JY 45. (illustrated)
(1)Following the King David Hotel Jerusalem bombing, in which the irgun blew up this hotel, the Head Quaters of British Administration , have Shocked the public because of the death of many innocent Civilian.
(2) In this year the Jewish Resistance Movement was disassambled . The leader of the Yishui decided instead to concentrate their effort on the illegal immigration and began to organized a massive Jewish immigration of European Jewuh refugee to Palestina using small boat operating in secrecy, many of which imprisoned in Camps on Cyprus. (UCM have the Cyprus pstally used cover during WW II, asked the ill. via comment)
(3) Details of the Holocaust had a major effect on the situation in Palestine and propelled large support for the Zionist cause in addition.(look illustration of Holocaust photo)
(4) The newly formed United Nation recommanded that Mandate Palestine WILL SPLIT INTO THREE PARTS :
(a) A Jewish State with a majority Jewish population
(b) An Arab State with a majority Arab population
(c) An International Zone comprising Jerusalem and the surrounding area where the Jews and Arab population would be roughly equal.
(d) The British government which tried to resolve the issued throughout the years, in the means of diplomacy eventually decided to return the written Mandate of Palestine to the Council of the United Nation.
(1)A previous phase of Civil war in Middle east including Palestine between 1947-1948 because Arab rejection of the 1947 United nation Petition plan of Palestine. UN General Assembly Resolution 181 that woud have created an Arab state and a Jewish State side by side, five Arab states invaded the territory of the former British mandate palestine.
(2)May ,14th 1947
One day before the British Mandate expired, DAVID BEN GURION declared the establisment of the State of Israel. Declaration refined to the decission of the UN General assembly as a legal justification for thr Establisment of the State of Israel.
(look The Irael Proclamation vintage picture and the news papers about this Independence proclamation.)
(1)May 14th 1948
In this day the termination of the British Mandate of Palestine over and the declaration of the establisment of the State of Israel by Israel first leader Ben Gurion and this declaration sparked a full scale war.
(Look illustration of the local news paper about The New Israel state is born , combined with Vintage Ben Guiron photo and painted label.)
(2) May 15th 1948
Arab Israel war was erupted the four armiest of Jordan,Egypt and Iraq invaded the newly self-declared State (Israel) followed not long after by units from Lebanon.
The war resulted in an Israeli victory with Israel annexing territories beyond the partition borders for a proposed Jewish State and into the orders for a proposed Palestinian Arab State Jordan,syria and Lebanon.
(3)During Arab Israel war about 856.000 Jews fled or were expelled from their homes in Arab countries , and most were forced to abandon their property .Jews from libya , Iraq ,Yemen ,Syria, Lebanon and North Africa left due to physical and Political insecurity.
After the war, some of the Palestinian refugee whom lived in Camps in the West bank within Jordan, controlled territory, and the Gaza strip Egyptian controlled territory
(look Egypt stamps overprint Palestina were used in this area ill) Syria tried to return by infiltration into the Israeli territory.
The rare Postally Used Amman Registered cover send just after the Arab-Israel war and the Jews living in the camp at the Westbank Palestine near Transjordan, send from Transjordnan to United stated Salem city with via several city postmarked CDS Amman 30 July 48,Amman sencored stamped, CDS Bairout (lebanon) 2.8.48 and CDS Salem (USA) 10.8.48.
This cover was sent between two Arab-Israel war in Mei 1948 and 1949.
(1)Egypt ,Iraq,Jordan, Lebanon and Syria attacked the State of Israel, leading to fight mostly on the former territory of the British mandate Palestine and for a short time also on the Sinai Penisulla and southern Lebanon.
The war concluded with the 1949 Armistice Agreement but it didnot mask the end of Arab-Israel conflict.
(2) Arab Egypt signed the 1949 Armistice Agreement with Israel. The remaining territories, the Gaza strip and the west Bank, were occupied by Egypt and TRansjordania.
(look at the Egypt stamps overprint Palestine ill and the very rare vintage book With palestine gaza and Jerusalem Map ,and the vintage picture photo book illustration of Jerusalem, and other holy city Tabor ,Samaria , Nazareth ,Bethelhem , Jericho , Kapernaun , hebron, Juda, Garizim, Ebal, Jesreel, and Karmel .(illustration only Jerusalem and Bethelhem , the other will installed if the collectors asked via comment).
The installed still in processing, after 100% installed will
anounced at The UCN-uniquecollection Cyber News.UCM
informations. after this will show The Palestine Liberation
After this year 1950-2000, please look at The Palestine Liberation War Collection will installed later.
In 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem, the British Army, led by General Edmund Allenby, captured the city, and in 1922, the League of Nations at the Conference of Lausanne entrusted the United Kingdom to administer the Mandate for Palestine, the neighbouring mandate of Transjordan to the east across the River Jordan, and the Iraq Mandate beyond it.
From 1922 to 1948 the total population of the city rose from 52,000 to 165,000 with two thirds of Jews and one-third of Arabs (Muslims and Christians). The situation between Arabs and Jews in Palestine was not quiet. At Jerusalem, in particular riots occurred in 1920 and in 1929. Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city and institutions of higher learning such as the Hebrew University were founded
:”The Rare Palestina Book 1938″ March 22, 2010 by uniquecollection
THE RARE PALESTINA BOOK 1938
Created by Dr iwan S. based on the vintage Book written by Pierre van Passei, Days of our Years 1903-1938. arranged in chrnologic historic information added UCM collections illustration(The writer only told the story and Dr Iwan S. arranged chronologic historic in systematic informations,please colectors read before The British Prtectorate Palestine War Collections.)
I.PALESTINE AND MIDDLE EAST 1914-1921
In the country where Mark Twain saw nothing but sackcloth and ashes, and where in 1907 the Prime Minister of Holand, Dr Abraham Kuyper wept over the poverty and the godforsaken loneliness of the Landscape.
The general atmosphere here in Jerusalem is reminiscent of 1914 behind the lines in the cities of France and Belgium.
3.Turkey attack n the Suez Canal in 1915
Jemal Pashas attack n the Suez Canal in 1915 at the head f a german-Turkish army and the Turkish commanders declaratin that after the war he prpsed to return to Constantineple via Alexandria made the bjective of the Central Pwers in the part of the world perilously clear. The Germano-Turkish campaign on the brders of the Red Sea was nt primarily a manuever to lessen British power f resistent n the Westren frnt: it was a threat to the mst vulnerable link in Britains imperial line of cmmunication.
4.The Allenbys gesture 1917
I could well understand Allenby gesture in 1917 when he and his officers walked bareheaded through the gates of Jerusalem.
5. Jerusalem 1921
Those who remembered what had happened eight years earlier realized at once the party of Arab Landlords, headed by the Mufti of Jerusalem who had been sentenced to ten years of hard labor in 1921 for incitement to riot and soon thereafter amnestied by a Jewish High Commisioner, had returned to the attack. The flag-waving incident at the Wall had been as good a device as any to throw sand in the eyes of public opinion. Clever propagandist sould easily-and did-magnify this intrinsically insignifivant demonstration on the part of children into a challenge of jewish chauvinists.
5.The Riot 1921 and King Feisal.
The riots of 1921 had given a first intimation the certain influential Palestinian Arabs were not in agreement with King Feisal of Iraq, who, as chief spokesman of the Arabic peoples at the peace Conference in Paris, had expressed his entire satisfaction with the International plan to set aside Palestina as a national home for the Jews people. Feizal,who was unquestionably the ablest of the Arab chiefs, had welcomed the Jew back to the near East, convinced that his return would prove a real blessing to the Arabs.Scarcely had Feisal spoken when the Palestinian Arab rioted.
II.THE FIRST VISIT TO PALESTINE IN 1926
1.The First Visit to Palestine in 1926
On my first visit to Palestine in 1926 , I raced over the splendid asphalt road which links the Mediterranean with Jerusalem, and covered in less that two hours what took Chanteaubriand nearly a week of travel. That road was built by Jewish pioneers. It is part of a system of modern highways that cover the Holy Land like a net-all of it work of the last fifteen years. There stand today a living monument to the revival of JUdaism- a land of pleasant gardens interspersed with cities teeming with every bracnch of modern human endeavor.
The transformation of Palestine is one of the wnder of our age.The all-engulfing desert had been pushed back : the wasteland have been reclaimed , and the sick soil has been nourish back to health. It is a miracle of creative love. For with that rare selfless devotion to which mas has risen in great moment of history, bands of Jewish boy and girls from the squalid ghettos of eastren Europre have redeemed for the coming generations of their people what had been lost for centuries.
When I landed,dynamos were zooming their deep basso on the spot where Jonah took ship in Jaffa. An entire city, Tel Aviv, spot less and white , had sprouted from the barren aand dunes to the north. in the seaboard region I walked through an endless array of of orange groves whose parfume in springtime mingled with that of the rose field of Sharon.
Olive skinned jewish boys were dragging baskets of earth up the mountain slopes and restoring the vine terraces and the hanging gardens of Solomon.
A hydraulic pump plunked out its rhytmic singsong at that ford on the Yarmuk river where, the legend says, the Majestic figure of Abraham entere history. There where wheat fields on Armagedon , a diary farm in bogs below Gilboa where disaster overtook Saul and Jonathan, prospectors at work in the blood -drenched land of the Philistines, surveyrs setting up their instrument in Ramoth Gilead, telephone wires being strung out to Jerico, a hydroelectric station rearing its steel towers where the Baptist met Jesus. There was talk of a real-estate boom in Sodom. Costly machinery was being installed on the shores of the Dead Sea to extract the sixteen-billion-dolars chemical treasure in the accured lake.That was the Palestine I saw.
2.Travel Around The Holyland
(1)Travel in Holyland does not mean the same thing to everybody. In our time, to feel that there is a tie which binds all of us Westren-ers to that little notch of land on the eastren shore of the Mediterranean. Yet, it was in this insignificant country,from the heart of an insignificant tribe of nomads, that there sprang the impulse which gave humanity a new hope and a new vision , annihilating the ancients gruesme wheel of fate and put in its place the conception of the oneness, the holiness and the abso-luteness God, which is the final condition of the oneness of man and the vital source of History wherein grows the root of freedom and humanity.
It was not Palestines natural beauty which attracted me, the amizing white light of the sun, the magic night when the stars swayed to and fro like lightships dancing on the swell of darkened sea and heaven seemed so near that you felt like reaching out and touching it with your fingers.It was the mystery of it all-the mysery of Israel, the mystery of taht people whose history is a series of Gesta Dei per Hebraeos, a people, as Danis de Rouge-mont said, Like no other in that it has sacrificed philosophy, fine arts , sciense, industry , all culture, in fact, for the accomp-lishments of one thing, a spiritual vocation. If the Palestine is the Jews national home , it is my spiritual home.
The Alps are undoubtedly more impressive than Hermon and the Lebanon. The Jordan cannot be compared with the majesty of the Danube, the mississippi or Rhine. By the side of Baalbek and the Acropolis, the Holylands ruin are lowly heaps of dust. I met tourists, among the Jews, to whom a visit to palestine seemed a waste of time and money. They found that there was little to please the eye and yet. Jerusalem was and remains the city of cities, the Holy City, the heart and soul of humanity. Deeper than any other motif, that of religion has been woven into the texture of mankinmds evolution. That motif came from Jerusalem.
(2) I went the rounds of the holy places like any other pilgrim. Their gaudiness dismayed me. The commercialization of sacred shrines of dubious authenticity . A Franciscan monk led me, half-a;dollar taper in gand, up a stairway in the basilica of the Tomb and said we stood on Calvary. I saw a goat nibbling grass next t the chapel erected on the spot where once, my guide explained , stood the veritable cross. An Abyssinian priest, sutprised in his morming ablutions on the roof, grinned in a friendly fashion and dressed hastilly to collect a few coppers.
Through the thorns and weed of Gethsemane’s garden, I waded to a cave said to be The Real Grave prepared by Joseph f Arimathea. I put my hand, for half a shilling, on an imprint in a wall on the Via Dolorosa where Christ supported himself on the way to Golgotha.
I saw Greek and Latin monk chase each other around with brooms in the holiest shrine of Christendoom. I sat with a local English official who explained his presence in the basilica as the end of a search for the coolest place in twn ; I attended a Mass celebrated by the Latin Patriach and heard the Greek clergy, before the Patriach had intoned the Ite,Missa est, start a racket with bells and gongs because the Latin service had that day impinged for half a minute on the time allotted the Eastren rite.
I stuck it out to the bitterend and viewed the basin made in Germany, in which Jesus was said to have washed the feet of his diciples at the Last Supper; I beheld the saddle-yes,the saddle- on which He rode into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, and I came away with the coin (sold to me by a sly Arab for ten Piasters) lost by the women in the parable. When I scraped the dirt off it later, I saw the rubiscund effigy of King Carlos of Portugal and the date 1898.
That was the Old city, the Jerusalem of the past, of moldering ruins and sacred sites, f fakirs and beggars, pilgrims and tourists, crumbling synagogues monasteries, of the Wailing Wall and the multitudinus bazaars. There, in a perpetual twilight, in the Stables of Solomon, brown men and Black men, men with green turbans and dirty headclthes, men with fuzzy bonners of rabbitskin-all push and stumble their way foward over the slippery cobblestone in a Labyrinthine maze f alleys, rubbing elbow with English soldier in tropical uniform.
Greek priests with parasols and cylindrical hats, Protestant pastords with Roman collars, Dominican monks with Bombay hats, veiled women in soiled clothes that drag in the filth, half naked camel drivers, Badouin peasants, Chasidic rabbis, Mohammedan ulemas (Ulama), blind mendicants rattling jingling silver bells, hashis peddlers. Levantine guides , Russian nuns, Syrian money-changers, Ethiopian manuscript writers, Turkish dragonmans, Arabian Sheiks, Greek tourist agent, Armenian prelated and egyptian porters.
Every second hole in the wall is a refresment parlor with a gramaphone going full blast. From an early hour the bazaar roars with the shouting and bellwing of Marchants, huckters and beggars. Each guild or confraternity has its own destinctive call. A camel drivers demand for passage in an unerthly searching yell, a blind man announces his approach with the monotonous singsong call of the hoot owl, while the porters , bent low under staggering lads, emit growls like wild beast if they do not simply rely n bumping thei way through.
Every transaction before the vegetable stalls make you think of preliminary sparring in a prize fight. instead of the American rule that the customer is alway right, the bazaars fundamental principle seems to require a demonstration of blazing enmity towards a prospective client,
A Policeman elbows his way through the crwd and traffics begins to mve again. Life ges on , Moslem, Believers. beloved of Allah, take a look at these gift from God. They can he had for asking. Brighten the eyes of your spuses. Take a pound of grapes from my stores.
4.Under the Jaffa Gate
Under the high vault of the Jaffa Gate, acoal-black storyteller hunched down, put his begging bowl in front on the flagstone and waits for some customers to collect. Presently a group of strolling Bedouins , on a visit to Jerussalem, click their coins in the box and squat down in a semicircle arun the Nubian. He begins talking to them in a whisper so that they have to bend their heads fward to catch his word.That story will be retold tonight in the villages of the Plain.
5.Watch a cockfighting
On a quet side street men and women are squatting in a circle to watch a cockfight. They laungh like happy children as one rooster picks out his opponents left eye.The spectacle is interrupted by the arrival of individual who is rolling ver the ground.
6.The boy and a Islamic Holy man
A boy calls out that we are in the presence of a holy man. He expects to roll all the way to Mecca. The holy roller bellows at the top of his voice that Allah is God and Mohammed Gods prophet. He has accumulated so much dirt n his garment that he looks like animated bale of dung. His wife brings up the rear guard, clinking the collection box and toting a sleeping baby on her back. The child is almst hidden under a quivering mass of verdigris -flies.
7. Call to prayer
Just before sunset, when the muezzins sing out theirulutating call to prayer, the bazaar suddenly grows silent as a tmb. In less tha an hour all activities ceases, the shop are made invisible by the row of shutters, and the only sound in the night is the echo of the slow step of the military watchmen in the vaulted passages.
III.Palestina in 1929
1. The New Jerusalem
The new jerusalem lies outside the walls.Spread out over a dozen hills, it has grown far beyond the limits of the city of both the Solomonian or the Herodian epoch. Brand-new suburbs encompass it. These are inhabited by the jewish intelligensia, the modern businessman and officialdom. Jaffa road, with its European cafes, restaurants, movies, concert halls, bookshops, bankimg houses, art exhibits and shop, is the central artery where a cosmoplitan night life is developing. In daytime this district is teeming with activity. A distinctive Hebraic style of architecture had not yet made its appearance. The influence of Le Corbusier and Berlage was predominant in the suburbs, while in the more elaborate ediffices culd be detected. Building, making room,redeeming the soil , creating possibilities for the steady flow of newcomers, setting up new industies-these were the major objectives when first i visit the land in 1926.
3.Visit to Hulda
In the mnth f June,1929, the gvernment’s inspectr came n his usual mnthly visit t Hulda and tld the headman of the clny :’I have rders to take these rifles away’ “Why,? asked the Jews.’Did we ever misuse them?’ ‘No, I d not think you ever took them out of the box except n the occasion when I came here to inspect them’ replied the inspector,’But it is a general rule. All these armories are to be called in’ ‘But’ , stameed the Jew,’these guns are our nly guarantee of security. The Arabs in the neighbring villages knw ftheir presence. If they get t knw that the guns are gne, we will be in danger. No! I will not give up these riffles withut a written rder frm the chief of the military department in Jerusalem.’
‘The Inspector shrugged his shulders. But on his next visit, he had the written rder from the government , signed by the chief inspector of His Majesty’s military frces in palestine. “If yu must tahe away is ur nly prtectin.’ sain the Jew to the englishman,’please take them away in the night so that the Arabs ut there in the surrunding villages will nt know they have been remved. Desd that sund fair t yu?’ “Very fair’ said the Inspector.
4.Visit the Zionist colonies
The Zionist or Jewish colonization wrk in Palestine was distinguished frm all other enterprises of a similar character in the wrld by the daring nature and the greet freedom of it social and ecnomic experiment. Man may make his chice f a half dozen different scialist and c-perative formulas before entering as established colony or founding a new settlement.
5.Arabs Attack Talpiot
We fund work going n normally in the colonies. The Arabs had only attacked places where they knew that n or little resistance culd be offered, for instance in Talpiot, aresidential suburb of Jerusalem, where many of the professrs f the Hebrew university lived.
6.Village Aim Harod
The central village, Ain Harod, which gives its name t the cantn, is the largest single socialistic agricultural experiment carried n in Palestine. In 1929 Ain Harod was already entirely self-sustaining and self-sufficinet. It pssessed a small canning plant, a shoe factry, abrick factry, acommunal bakery and a clothing factory. At Aim Harod we found the ancient Tomb of Harod
7. Habima the National Hebrew Theater
The Habima, the national Hebrew theater, agrup f the mst talented artist in the world , fmerly of Moscw aaand Paris, andnow established in Tel Aviv, gave regular performances in thecommunal halls f thse colonies in Esdraelon, where lecture cuorses on every conceivable subject in the world wre currently given.
8.Jews al cafes of Tel Aviv
When this type of Jewish burgeis consents to visit Palestine-for in the end they all cme, he prefered to sit in the boardwalk cafes of Tel Aviv and discuss the fall and rise of real estate, the perfrmance of the habima Theater and the latest developments of the Arab question.
9.The Christian Pilgrim
Tourist seldom visit those Socialist clnies, Christian pilgrimages t the holy land nt at all. The pilgrims, of whom there are still thousands going to the Holy land each year in spite of Russia’s elimination frm the pius traffic, spend a few dayss around the holy places; Naxareth, Bethany, Bethlehem, Eammaus. They never bother to look at one of the most modernistic colonization schemes in the world. And this is nt merely indifference. Many of the leaders f pilgrimage, whether frm France, Belgium, Ireland, Germany and Pland, I met on boats caoming from or ging t the Holyland on my annual visits t Palestine were deeply indignant over the fact that Jews were fishing in the Lake of Tiberias, fr instance, or that adiary farm had been laid ut r a hydroelectric statin put up near sme spot were christ nce lingered. Galilee, intheir idea , should have remained as it was , undisturbed and petic, as in the days when the Lord walked n earth.
10.Hotel Amdursky in Jerusalem
AsI alighted from my car ne evening, shaking the dust off my feet in front of the Hotel Amdursky in Jerusalem after a sizzlingly hot trip frm Galilee, the proprietor of the establishment, an old man with a beard like Aarn’s, wh was of the establisment, an old of evening n the prch with some fellw patriarchs, walked up t me swiftly and, talking me aside with a great ado of mystery, whispered in my ear,’There are a cuple of Jews waiting t see you’
“What? A cuple of Jews in Jerusalem ? surely that is nothing t get excited about.
“Wait till you see this delegation and yu will change your opinion’ he assure me.
‘Where are they?’
“In the parlr n the first flor. They have been waiting since eleven ‘clck this morning. They say they must see you n a most urgent matter’ He chuckeld and ndded his head meaningfully as he stumbled up the stairs in his embridered slippers to annunce my arrival. We followed the proprietor t the parlor, Marek Schwartz and i.
two men rse frm the red plush divan as we entered the room. They came fward, bowing several times in grave salutain :’Shalom! peace upon You!’ One was a youth with a cal-black beard and hollow cheeks. He had the largest pair f eyes I ever saw in ahuman being, except the Negus of Ethipia-the kind of eyes Max Band likes to paint : shimmering pol f Jet with a flame in the pupils. I nticed that he kept his hands in the sleeves of his violet caftan like a Chines mandarin.
Kis cmpanion was an old man who n a stick and whose beard almost came down to his waist. Bth wre the fuzzy bonnets which the CHasidim have brught with them from carpatho-Russia: those strange cntraptions f yellow bushy fur which seemed the most incongruos headgear a man could possibly wear in the blistering heat f a Judean summer.
“Please be seated, Father’ Marek Schwartz , who was to serve as interpreter, said in Hebrew.
The oldman looked at him reproachfully ‘ We do not use the holy language in day life’ he said “we are nt Zinist!’
“That makes it easier, for then we’ll all speak yiddish’ I interupted. ‘Kabbalist’ whispered Marek. “what can I do for you,sir?’ I asked , when the ldman refused a glass of tea, althugh he must have been starving. He signified his intentin to remain standing during the interview.
‘Are yu Mr van Paasen?’ he began. “That is my name’.”Yu are a friend f the Jewish people?’ ‘I dnot like the expression, Master’ I said.”Has anyone ever heard f afriend f the bulgarian peple r f a friend f Albania.There t ften an element f cndescensin in that term” ‘ Yu have spken well’ he answered,’But yu are nevertheless a friend. Were yu not instrumental in having some Jews set free from Jail’. ‘ I may have had smething to do with that.’ ‘yu are a friend f Israel then. We cannt repay you fr yur arvices.’ ‘h, that is all right,Father. I have dne nothing-I only wish i culd…’ ‘The Eternal ne, blessed be He, will himself reward yu. It is said: the holy nes amongst the Gentliles…..’
‘Please , Master, d nt include me in their cmpany. I assue yu I am nt worthy’ ‘ Yu are in positin t do smething for Israel.’ he resumed after pause. ‘ I would be most happy to do that.’ ‘It may be difficult for yu, for I do nt know yur circumstances.’ He went n’ But we think yu can be f immense services to us the Jews here in Palestine and to all the world.You must leave the Holuland at nce!” ‘Leave Palestine?At nce?’ I gasped i n amazement.” How can I be f the slightest service to yu if I leave this cunty. D yu mean that I shuld go to England r Geneva and relate the plight f the Jews?’
The oldman made a gesture of annyance.’God forbid!’ he said, thrwing up his hand.” That wuld be wrse than remaining here.’ ‘The what is it?’ “Yu see , it is this way.’ he said, moving a little clser and talking with great earnestness.”We are Kabbalists. We have a hly bk called Zar, the bok f light. Now there is a prophecy in that bok which has bearing n the very time we are living. The prphecy says that there will cme a day when three rabbis wil be slain in a city f the south’ He came still closer until ur faces were but a few inches apart.’ Now, in the book f Zar it is further said that seven times seven weeks after the slaying f these Rabonim , Messiah will come.’
‘Yes?’ ‘ But in the interval the Jews must suffer and suffer as they have never suffered befre. They must suffer till their cries f pain are heard in heaven, till the external ne blessed be HE, takes pity n them’. He paused a mment and lked at me appealingly.’Donnot you see.’ He said.’ what you are doing? If you succeed, yu delay the coming of Messiah. You see ? wonnot you plese go away, leave this country s that yu will nt to be tempted t help the jews. The best way to help the jewish peple is to let them suffer. You would not stand in the way f Messiah , wuld you?. “God frbid!’ I said in turn.’ I prmise yu t leave in a few days!’ The yungman kissed my hands in gratitude,
10.The Palestine Post of Jerusalem
By a freak f circumstances I was the nly correspondent whose reports and observatin on the disturbances in Palestie were published in Jerusalem itself. They were relayed from Newyork to London , whence a syndicate distributed them t its member papers in Europe and asia , of which The Palestine Post of Jerusalem was one. Every word I wrote therefre culd be srutinized daily by Arab, Jews and british alike.
11.Omar Mosque Jerusalem
Falsified photgraphs showing the mar mosque of Jeusalem in ruins, with an inscriptin that the edifice had been bombed by the Zionist, were handed out to the Arabs of Hebron as they were leaving their place of worship n Friday evening. August the twentythird. a Jew passing by n his way to the synagogue was stabbed to death. When he learned f the murder, Rabbi Slonim, a man born and bred in the city and afriend of the Arab ntables, notified the British Police commander that the Arabs seemed t be strangely excited.He was told t mind his own bussiness. An hur later the synagogue was attacked by a mob, and the Jews at preywr were slaughtered. n the saturday morning following, the Yeshiva r theological seminary, which stand away from the center of the town on the road to Jerusalem, was put to the sack, and thestudents were slain. A delegation of Jewish citizen thereuponset out to visit the police station, but was met by the Lynchers. The jews returned and tok refuge in the huse of Rabbi Slonim, where they remained until evening, when the mob appeared before the door. Unable to batter it down, the Arabs climbed up the trees at the rear f the huse and, dropping onto the balcony,entered through the windows on the first floor.
Mounted police-Arab troopers in the service of the government- had appeared outside by this time, and sme of the Jews ran down the stairs of Slonims house and out into the roadway. They implored the policemen to dismount and protect their friends and realtives inside the house and clung around the necks of the horses. From upper windows came the terrifying screms of the old people, but the police galloped off, leaving the boys in the road to be cut down by Arabs arriving frm all side for the orgy of blood. When I visited the place in the company f captai marek Schwarts, a former Austrian artilerry officer and Mr Erns Davies ,correspondent of the ld Berliner Tageblatt, the blood stdnin ahuge on the slightly stonefloor of the house. Clocks,crockery, tables and windows had beens smasahed to smithereens. Of the unlted articles, not a single item had been left intact except a large black-and-white photograph f Dr Theodore Herzl, the founder of plitical Zionism. Around the pictures frame the murderes had draped the blood-drenched underwear of a women,
We stod silently contemplating the scene of slaughter when the door was flung open bu a British soldier with fixed bayonet. (oh my God why must that happened between the same humans, only because the different religious , I prayed to God with hope no more murdered anymore in Palestine)
IV The meeting with el HUSSEINI MUFTI OF JERUSALEM
(1)Ai Hameen el Husseini,Grand Mufti f Jerusalem proved to be an amiable youngmab with a sikken red beard, a disharming smile and big blue saucer-eyes. Ein gemutlichcher Viennese one might have said, had he been dressed in a frock cat striped trosers. Only he was not attired in the European stylist. He wore a gown of dark red silk and on his head a white cloth wrapped around a green fez, in token of an accomplished pilgrimage to Mecca. His strinkingly Nordic features clothes in that Oriental costume made him look like a European dressed up for a masquerade ball. I had waited for ten minutes in an antechamber where a mixed crowd of ulemas, eunuchs, beggars and bodyguards was poosted to impress the stranger with the importance of the man who was about to recieve me in audience.Before being ushered into a high-ceilinged chamber overlooking the garden of the mosque of Omar.
(2)I had also been prompted to address the Grand Mufti with the title of Eminence. The advice came from Jamal el Husseini, the Grand Muftis cousin and chief secretary. Once inthe great mans presence, I was informed by Jamal that His Eminence was a direct lineal descendant of Mohammeds only daughter, Fatima , and a prospective candidate for the office of Khalif-ul-Islam.
When I opened my eyes rather incredulously at this startling announcement, the secretary went on to say that it was generally recognized in the Mohammedan world that since the apostasy of Kemal Pasha and his deposition of the Turkish Sultan, the office of supreme spiritual head of islam should be more suitable for the positian than -? He bowed in the direction of his smiling cousin. I also bowed. I coul seen Ai Hameen liked the Idea tremendously.
(3) But, I asked naively, isnot His Majesty Ibn Saud of the Wahabites also candidate? But that is neither here nor there, the mufti interupted in a pompous Levantine French. He wanted to know where I was staying. He hoped that I had found confertable quaters, for my stayin in the Holyland, he thought,was going to be a long one. We were in for quite a spell of restlessmess- in fact, the disturbances, he brusquely announced, wouldnot terminate till both the Jews and the English had evacuated Palestine. When I said that I was stopping atvthe Hotel Allenby, the two cusin threw up their hand in consternation and said, What, in a Jewish Hotel? In that breeding nest of anti Arabic intreque?. I ttold him that all the correspondents I knew were staying there and that we had the acting High Commissioner for dinner on the previous evening.
‘Incredible!, came the reply. ‘What seems more incredible to me’I said. ‘is that your Eminence should think that the English are ever going to go home or that the Zionist will give up their plan for redeeming the land of Israel’.
‘There will be no peace in this country until they go’,declared the Mufti.’In the English we recognize our real enemies. It is the British government and not the Jews who have foisted the snadalous Balfour declaration on us. It is Ramsay Mac Donald who has misrepresented the situation in this Holy Land in his book Palestine. We have clearly shown the world out attitude in this issue and we are determined t fight in ut to the end’ , he added,
‘The British will have to put a soldier with a bayonet in front of every Jews if they want peace without a whlesale oxodus of the jews. Our peple are at the end of their patience. They cannot bear the sight of the Jews any longer’
“The outbreaks are to be taken as an organized attempt on the part of the arabs, under the leadership of Your Eminence, to
thwart the establishment of a Jewish home in Palestine?’ I asked.
Hameen was on the point of replying in this question, when Jamal stayed him. The two cousins exchanged a few remarks in Arabic.
At the end of their consultation Jamal informed me that His Eminence was going to furnish me with a written declaration at the close of the audience. I wan now asked tohonor him by accepting a cup of coffee.
(4) The Grand Mufti was toying with a gold box of cigarettes. He eyed me from the side, but when I turned my head and loked him in the face he smiled-the same candid baby smile he had worn when I entered. He asked me to step over to the open window to take a look at the garden while a black servant in awhite gown arranged the trays on the low table of carved ivory
(5)’Please tell me’,resumed the Grand Mufti, when we had taken our seat again and he hat lit a fresh cigaret,’What is the general impression in the world on the present deplrable situation in Palestine/what is your personal view? You have been in Palestine before; I understand you live in Paris. Surely, you have formed an opinion? Who is held responsible for these horrible outbreaks? the French people do understand, I trust!’
‘It is my personal opinin’I said. ‘that these riot were an attept to strike terror in the hearts of the Zionists at amoment when they had secured the co-operatin of an influential section of Jewry to speed up Palestines industrial and agricultural develpment.This bloodshed was intended t patalyze the process of building a Jewish National Home.Am I right?’
The Mufti did not reply,’cntinuez, je vous prie’ he said.
‘As to the respnsibility’Icontinued,’for what Your Wminence calls these horrible utbreaks, public pinion in france and in America, I am sorry to say, points directly to yourself and nt only in those distant countries, the most influential newspaper in Egypt, La Bourse Egyptiene, inone of its latest issues to arrive here in Jerusalem, declares that the murder of the Palestine Jews in an echo of the Muftis inflmmatory exhorations in themosque’.
At these words the grandon of the Prophet jumpede up from the divan, threw his cigaret away, and quickly walked toward
s me, his eyes blazing with anger, Jamal casually uncovered his belt so that two silver-handled daggers came into view. The Mufti was striding up and down the room with quick nervous steps. His fury made him gnash his teeth.’Your Eminence asked me a question’I said, ‘ I answered truthfully. Why grow angry? I came here to find out to what extent the foreign public opinion is in terror’.
His Eminence calmed dwn at once.He lit a new cigaret,’Lok at these hands’ he said dramatically, stretching ut his rose-perfumed palms,’These is no blood n these hands. I declare before God that I have n share in the shedding f Jewish blood.Moreover’, he went on,’it is nt true that foreign public pinion favors the Jews. We have distinct evidence to the contrary. We have telegrams from Moscow upholding our stand. nly this morning we had awire from henri Barbusse, president of the Antiimperialist League in Paris, assuring us of the sympathy of the members of his organization in our struggle agains the Balfur declaration and Jews usurpation.Why,’ He went on,’the whole Moslem world is solidity behind the Arab people of Palestine. Mass demonstrations of prtest are held every day in the large egyptian cities. I have a telegraphic offer from his Majesty,King Ibn Saud of Hejaz, so send an army of a hundred thousand men across Trans-Jordan to chase the Jews out of Palestine.’
‘However, we donot need the Kings aid’ the Mufti went on,’We will win by means of an economic bycott. The Jewish industries in Palestine cannot exist without the market of the surrounding Arabic countries. We have proclaimed a world boycott against Jewish goods. That boyctt is growing tighter every day. we will nt rest till the Jewish industries are broken and the English, in pity, tke their Jewish proteges away on thei battleships’
‘It is a horrible shame t put responsibility of these riots at the feet of the Arabs. it is crime. a dstardly ignominy. The Arab is a kind and loyal creature. The Jews, frtunetely, cannot easily forget what Colonel Lawrence has said of the Arabs. We are not murderers or fiends. I would have you understand, Why do you say Arabs are responsible for this slaughter?’
‘Did those Jewish women , children and old men in Hebron , Lifta and Safed commitsuicide ?’ I asked.
‘No’, snapped the Mufti,’we were provoked . We were challenged in our hliest pssesions. The Hebron Arabs learned that the Jews had decided to drive them out, to push them into the sea. The Jews are syealing our land. They want everythng we have’ The Mufti broke down and buried his head in his hands,’My country is being runined by the Jews,’ he turned up a dramatically tearful face,’ My country,Palestine, just when we had shaken off the Turkish yoke and turned up the rad of freedom’
‘The Turkish yoke?’ Iasked,’ Did your Eminence not serve a volunteer in the Turkish army?
At this question the Mufti looked straight at his cusin, said something in Arabic, and left the room.
‘Could I see the telegram from Barbuse and from King Ibn Saud?’ Iasked Jamal.”Cpies will be attached to the document yu will find at your hotel later in the day’,he replied.
‘one more question pleas ‘, I said, turning to Jamal:’on that fateful Friday in august, when the rioting broke out in Jerusalem after the morning service in the msque, where was His Eminence?’
‘He was in Amman ,capital of TransJordan . Why do yu asked?’
‘The Egyptian press avers that His Eminence applied for a visa to go to Syria to escape a possible accusation that his sermon that mrning had incited the Moslems to draw the sword, but he was refused by the French authorities’.
‘ His Eminence was in Amman, I tell you. Why do yu pay attention to the gossip column in an egyptian newspaper? I thought you had cometo find out the truth’
“Quite,’ I said,’that is what I have come for, but it is true, is it not, that alarge number of out-of-town Moslems attended the service in te mosque that morning?’ “There were some,ndoubt’ ,’Peasant frm the Muftis family estates?’ “I cannt tell, why do you aske?’ “I ask because the sentence f seven years at hard labor which the gvernment of Palestine impsed his Eminence in 1920 was to punish him fr previous seditious sermon in which he called upon village leaders to bring their men into Jerusalem to exterminate the jews’
‘His eminence never was in prison’. ‘I know that he fled to damascus. It was sir Herbert Samuel wh amnestied him two years later.’
‘You ught to be careful’ warned Jamal, as i wnet out,’that you do not get poisoned in that Jewish hotel’
‘Or shot frmambush on the road t Bethelhem?’ I retorted,
V.LONDON TIMES INFO
1.The Balfour declaration
Why were these bloody outbreaks agains the Jews inPalestine occuring at almost regular intervals? Who was the Mufti ? Why did England permit this upstart madman, who was a government officeholder, to wreck a scheme that England had promised to bring to a successful isue? Were the Zionist trying to force something down the Arabs throat?Was the Jew pushing the Arab off the land/ And If so, was the british overlord permitting that in justice to be perpetrated on the original inhibitants ofthe country, the people whose civic and religious rights he was pledge to protect undre the very terms of the balfour Declaration? What role was England playing in Palestine/ and finally,was british power,which hold miilions in India within bounds of law and order, insufficient to cople with a few thousand riots Arabs in Palestine? I had been sent to investigate the questions in 1929. I admit that I was symphatic to the aims of the Jewish national movement of which the rebuilding of Palestine is the central motif. The idea of Palestines redemption seemed a fascinating adventure to me. To behold the land of Jesus rise again from the dust was something to which I looked foward with anticipation. In order to wrest this land from the hands of the Moslem, all Christendom had once faced East. Of course, I wa not looking foward to a new Crusade. I entertained no feeling f antipathy towards the Arabs. On the contrary, I commiserated deeply with their hard lot under Turkish domination and under a rapacious landlord class of feudal nobles.BUt I agreed with Lord Cecil, Smuts, and Lloyd George that Palestines liberation from the tUrkish yoke was one of the few relly wort-while things horn out of the Great War. As the son of a Bible people, I looked foward with lively anticipation towards the fulfillment of the age-old dream of the jewish people. But I was upwilling that the Hebraic Renaissance should come about at the expense of the palestinian Arabs. If Jewish nationalism should have attempted to grow strong by discriminating against the Arabs, I would have been willing to champion the cause of the Arabs.
It will perhaps be argued that the objectivity of my approach to the Plaestinian problem was vitiated by a pre-existent symphaty with the aims of the Jewish national movement. The Arab leader took this view at once when they became aware of the nature of my published observation in the American press. The Mufti of jerusalem led off with a vehement denuciation in the Arabic newspapers of Palestine ,Syria and Egypt. I was called a hireling of the jews who had been sent to concoct anti Arabic propaganda. The press campaign for my expulsion from the holy Land was too clearly an attempt to divert public attention from the implications of the murderous assault upo peaceful Jewish settlements to have merited a refutation. Not my journalistic activity in the holyland, but, rather, the muftis personal share of responsibility in the massacre wa one of the things that required investigation. I would therefore not have paid the slightest notice to the personages verbal fuminations,considering that I had merely done my duty in pointing to him as the evil puppeteer in the bloody disturbance, if it were not that I began to recieve telephone calls and anonymous letters threating me with violence and even death.There were not idle thraets,either.On two occasions I was fired on by Arab snipers. I oqed my life the presnce of mind of my friend, Captai Marck Schwartz and his chauffeur, Menachen Katan, who had managed to circumvent one ambush which had been prepared in ths neighborhood of Lifta and another one near bethelhem. On bth occasions we had come safely through the shower of bullets that bet downon our car. But when I reported the second attack to the commander of the british police post in Hebron, this gentleman, a certain Captain Saunders, remarked : I should think that half the fun of being a journalist is to go about unarmed and still comethrough these scrapes unscathed. Moreever, he added, Why do these thing happen to you ? I have recieved no complaints from your colleagues ofthe press in jerusalem.
upon my return to Jerusalem that day something flew past my head as I was about to enter the hotel. I saw a dagger quivering in the doorpst. Had it not been that some boys ofthe Haganah, the Jewish self-defense Corps, voluntarily constituted themselves into abodyguard, the intimation ofthe palestine government that my further presence in Palestine was undesirable would, I feel , have been quite unnecesssary.
I believe my offense was that I tok either the jewish or the Arabic propaganda bureus. I questioned everybody, from the Mufti down to the mst destitue Arabic peasants in the country and the murderous hooligans in the jails of hebron and jerusalem who had been caught, their blooddripping knives in hand. Only when I refused to accepttbthe explanations of a spontaneous uprising aginst the Jews, with which the Mufti and his agents and spokeman sought to impress foreign correspondents, in several instances quite successfylly, did the mufti denounce me as a hireling of the Jews and did I become persona non grata at Govermen House. The conincidence was significant!.
(The Balfour declaration informations, please click The Bristish Mandate Palestine War in this blog)
2.Britain parried that threat with a concentartion in Egypt of Indian and Australian Troops
Britain parried the threat of The Germano Turkish army with a concentratin in Egypt of Indian and Australian trops, who first repulsed the Turkish attack and the crossed to the Arabian penisula where, two year later, after certain Arabic tribes had been persuaded by Colonel T.E.Lawrence, on the prmise of boundless lot, t revolt against the Turk, the age-old Ottoman dminion over Arabia was brken by General Allenby. In this campaign Palestine fell into British hand in the latter part f 1917, ahortly after lord balfour, the British Foreingn Secretatry. made public his famous note , known as the balfour Declaration, whein the British gvernemnt declare itself favrly disposed towards the establisment of a National Home for the Jewish people in Palestine.
The Holyland ccupation by the British armies was the culmination f a struggle for supremacy between rival imperialism in the Near and Middle East.
At the request of the Jewish people, represent by the Zionist rganization, Britain was charged by the League of Nations t assume the mandate over the Holyland. at the cnference of San Remo in 1920, the mandate was ratified by all the Leagues members, fifty-three states in all, and subsequently under the terms f a saparate diplmatic instrument by the USA. Befre ratifying, the then Secretary f States, Mr Bainbridge Colby, specifically asked Britain whar her intentions were in the Hly Land, and the answer Lord Curzn gave was that England had but ne objective-the facilitatin of the building of a National Home for the Jewish people. However,even before the ratification of the mandate, Britain had taken charge of Palestine and had placed the administratin f the cuntry in the hands of the Colnial Office, instead of the Foreign ffice as France had done in the case Syria.
2. Mossulini occupation Ethopia
For Mussolini’s conquest of Ethopia has made f Eritrea a most frmidable ptential threat to British communication with India, the far East and the antipodean dominins of Australia and New zealand. Before Ethiopia passed into Italian hands the value of Eritre as a military and naval basa on the Red Sea was nullified by an Ethiopia that was friendly to Britain and that could, in the event of a war between Britain and Italy, be quickly militarized thrugh Kenya and the Sudan, and thus become a threat in Mussolini’s Back (click The British Mandate palestine in this blg thoe lok at the illustration of British Kenya Army . British Australia and India army postal History).
Mossulini was therefore nt wrng when he denunced the Ethiopian Empire as a menace to Italy’s imperium, and his ccupation of that land was amaster stroke f imperialist maneuvering. Furthermore , the installatin of Italian gun emplacements at Ceuta n the North Afican coast opposite Gibraltar has seriusly dimished the value f that ancient rck as a key position of British imperial power, it become clear that palestine and Cyprus are britain’s nly remaining bases for the naval, aerial and land defense of the Suez Canal.
VI. THE JEWS INFO
1.The Peel Commision’sInvetigatin 1937
Without a word of warning, Britain cut down the propsal f a Jewish state in a partitioned Palestine, made by and adopted by Briatin after the Peel Commision’s inverstigatin in 1937- a scheme under which the Jews were to contrl no mre that four hundred square miles. Not only did this encourage the Arab natinalist t keep up the campaign of terrorism but it may well have provoked the jews, in turn, to measures f violence. A full-fledged civil war in Palestine wuld given Britain the excuse to say that neither f the two parties is mature for self-gvernment-and the Jewish Natinal Hme shuld be allowes t stagnate.
2. THE JEWS BUIlD THEIR NATIONAL HOME
Of an abandonment or even a curtailment f the scpe of the Jewish nationalHome, by a cessatin or a limitation f Jewish immigartion into Palestine, there must be and there can be n quesrion. It is true that if brstruction be England’s plan-all signs point t such an eventuality-the Zinist mvement and the Jewish peple will probably have neither the strength nor the plitical influence to parry so cruel and so undeserved a blow. But other have. And ther must act. for the Jewish problem, of which Palestine is the kernel, in no longer an academic question on which men can afford t debate and discourse at Leissure. By their stracism of the Jew, the Fascist states have made of the Jewish question an integral and inseparable part of the greater problem confrontating civilization one that can no longer solved by the establisment of partial or rtemprary havens of refuge.
3. Not All Jewish People were expect to come to Palestine
Not all Jewish people were expected to come to Palestine because the geographical limits f the cuntry wuld nt have permitted the settlement of so great a number. nly a kernel f the jewish people,withdrawn from the galuth, wa to there build a civilizatin marked by the ethos f the hebraic spirit and make a cntribution t the sum ttal f human civilization in accordance with the natinal character and the natinal genius of the Jewish people.
As the British Mandate for Palestine was expiring, the 1947 UN Partition Plan recommended “the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum under the administration of the United Nations.” The international regime (which also included the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for a period of ten years, whereupon a referendum was to be held in which the residents were to decide the future regime of their city. However, this plan was not implemented, as the 1948 war erupted, while the British withdrew from Palestine and Israel declared its independence. The war led to displacement of Arab and Jewish populations in the city. The 1,500 residents of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the Arab Legion captured the quarter on 28 May. The Arab Legion also attacked Western Jerusalem with snipers.
Division and reunification 1948–1967
The war of 1948 resulted in Jerusalem being divided, with the old walled city lying entirely on the Jordanian side of the line. A no-man’s land between East and West Jerusalem came into being in November 1948: Moshe Dayan, commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with his Jordanian counterpart Abdullah el Tell in a deserted house in Jerusalem’s Musrara neighborhood and marked out their respective positions: Israel’s position in red and Jordan’s in green. This rough map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final line in the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which divided the city and left Mount Scopus as an Israeli exclave inside East Jerusalem. Barbed wire and concrete barriers ran down the center of the city, passing close by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the old walled city, and a crossing point was established at Mandelbaum Gate slightly to the north of the old walled city. Military skirmishes frequently threatened the ceasefire. After the establishment of the State of Israel, Jerusalem was declared its capital. Jordan formally annexed East Jerusalem in 1950, subjecting it to Jordanian law. Only the United Kingdom and Pakistan formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis. Also, it is dubious if Pakistan recognized Jordan’s annexation.
After 1948, since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east of the armistice line, Jordan was able to take control of all the holy places therein, and contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, Israelis were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were desecrated. 34 of the 35 synagogues in the Old City ,including the Hurva and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue, were destroyed over the course of the next 19 years, either razed or used as stables and hen-houses. Many other historic and religiously significant buildings were replaced by modern structures.
In 1967, the Six-Day War saw hand to hand fighting between Israeli and Jordanian soldiers on the Temple Mount, and it resulted in Israel capturing East Jerusalem. Hence Jewish and Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored, while the Temple Mount remained under the jurisdiction of an Islamic waqf. The Moroccan Quarter, which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was vacated and razed to make way for a plaza for those visiting the wall. Since the war, Israel has expanded the city’s boundaries and established a ring of Jewish neighbourhoods on land east of the Green Line. Since 1967, Israel has gone to considerable lengths to make the sections of Jerusalem it captured in the Six Day War more Jewish.
However, the takeover of East Jerusalem was met with international criticism. Following the passing of Israel’s Jerusalem Law, which declared Jerusalem, “complete and united”, the capital of Israel, the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution that declared the law “a violation of international law” and requested all member states to withdraw all remaining embassies from the city.
The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core issue in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Israeli government has approved building plans in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while prominent Islamic leaders have made claims that Jews have no historical connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,500-year old Western Wall was constructed as part of a mosque. Palestinians envision East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state, and the city’s borders have been the subject of bilateral talks. A strong longing for peace is symbolized by the Peace Monument (with farming tools made out of scrap weapons), facing the Old City wall near the former Israeli-Jordanian border and quoting from the book of Isaiah in Arabic and Hebrew.
Jerusalem is situated on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives (East) and Mount Scopus (North East). The elevation of the Old City is approximately 760 m (2,490 ft). The whole of Jerusalem is surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds (wadis). The Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem. The Kidron Valley runs to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine associated in biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna or Hell. The Tyropoeon Valley commenced in the northwest near the Damascus Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus). Today, this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the centuries.
In biblical times, Jerusalem was surrounded by forests of almond, olive and pine trees. Over centuries of warfare and neglect, these forests were destroyed. Farmers in the Jerusalem region thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem landscape.
Jerusalem is 60 kilometers (37 mi) east of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers (22 mi) away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of water on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include Bethlehem and Beit Jala to the south, Abu Dis and Ma’ale Adumim to the east, Mevaseret Zion to the west, and Ramallah and Giv’at Ze’ev to the north.
The city is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Snow usually occurs once or twice a winter, although the city experiences heavy snowfall every three to four years on average. January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F); July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 24.2 °C (75.6 °F), and the summer months are usually rainless. The average annual precipitation is around 550 mm (22 in), with rain occurring mostly between October and May.
Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem comes from vehicular traffic. Many main streets in Jerusalem were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city.
|[hide]Climate data for Jerusalem (1881-2007)|
|Record high °C (°F)||23.4
|Average high °C (°F)||11.8
|Daily mean °C (°F)||9.1
|Average low °C (°F)||6.4
|Record low °C (°F)||-6.7
|Rainfall mm (inches)||133.2
|Avg. rainy days||12.9||11.7||9.6||4.4||1.3||0||0||0||0.3||3.6||7.3||10.9||62|
|Source: Israel Meteorological Service |
In December 2007, Jerusalem had a population of 747,600—64% were Jewish, 32% Muslim, and 2% Christian. At the end of 2005, the population density was 5,750.4 inhabitants per square kilometer (14,893.5/sq mi). According to a study published in 2000, the percentage of Jews in the city’s population had been decreasing; this was attributed to a higher Muslim birth rate, and Jewish residents leaving. The study also found that about nine percent of the Old City’s 32,488 people were Jews.
In 2005, 2,850 new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the United States, France and the former Soviet Union. In terms of the local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number of incoming residents. In 2005, 16,000 left Jerusalem and only 10,000 moved in. Nevertheless, the population of Jerusalem continues to rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the Arab and Haredi Jewish communities. Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem (4.02) is higher than in Tel Aviv (1.98) and well above the national average of 2.90. The average size of Jerusalem’s 180,000 households is 3.8 people.
In 2005, the total population grew by 13,000 (1.8%)—similar to Israeli national average, but the religious and ethnic composition is shifting. While 31% of the Jewish population is made up of children below the age fifteen, the figure for the Arab population is 42%. This would seem to corroborate the observation that the percentage of Jews in Jerusalem has declined over the past four decades. In 1967, Jews accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for 2006 is down nine percent. Possible factors are the high cost of housing, fewer job opportunities and the increasingly religious character of the city, although proportionally, young Haredim are leaving in higher numbers. Many people are moving to the suburbs and coastal cities in search of cheaper housing and a more secular lifestyle.
In 2009, the percentage of Haredim in the city is increasing. As of 2009, out of 150,100 schoolchildren, 59,900 or 40% are in state-run secular and National Religious schools, while 90,200 or 60% are in Haredi schools. This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi families.
While many Israelis see Jerusalem as poor, rundown and riddled with religious and political tension, the city has been a magnet for Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any city in the West Bank or Gaza Strip. Palestinian officials have encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their claim. Palestinians are attracted to the access to jobs, healthcare, social security, other benefits, and quality of life Israel provides to Jerusalem residents. Arab residents of Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier to find work. Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare and social security benefits Israel provides its citizens. Arabs in Jerusalem can send their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood has one, and universities. Israeli doctors and highly regarded hospitals such as Hadassah Medical Center are available to residents.
Demographics and the Jewish-Arab population divide play a major role in the dispute over Jerusalem. In 1998, the Jerusalem Development Authority proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more areas heavily populated with Jews.
Criticism of urban planning
Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in Israel say that government planning policies are motivated by demographic considerations and seek to limit Arab construction while promoting Jewish construction. According to a World Bank report, the number of recorded building violations between 1996 and 2000 was four and half times higher in Jewish neighborhoods but four times fewer demolition orders were issued in West Jerusalem than in East Jerusalem; Arabs in Jerusalem were less likely to receive construction permits than Jews, and “the authorities are much more likely to take action against Palestinian violators” than Jewish violators of the permit process. In recent years, private Jewish foundations have received permission from the government to develop projects on disputed lands, such as the City of David archaeological park in the 60% Arab neighborhood of Silwan (adjacent to the Old City), and the Museum of Tolerance on Mamilla cemetery (adjacent to Zion Square). Opponents view such urban planning moves as geared towards the Judaization of Jerusalem.
Safra Square, Jerusalem City Hall
The Jerusalem City Council is a body of 31 elected members headed by the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints six deputies. The former mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski, was elected in 2003. In the November 2008 city elections, Nir Barkat came out as the winner and is now the mayor. Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. The longest-serving Jerusalem mayor was Teddy Kollek, who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public. Within the city council, religious political parties form an especially powerful faction, accounting for the majority of its seats. The headquarters of the Jerusalem Municipality and the mayor’s office are at Safra Square (Kikar Safra) on Jaffa Road. The municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993. The city falls under the Jerusalem District, with Jerusalem as the district’s capital.
The Knesset Building in Jerusalem, home to the legislative branch of the Israeli government
Under the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine passed by the United Nations in 1947, Jerusalem was envisaged to become a corpus separatum administered by the United Nations. While the Jewish leaders accepted the partition plan, the Arab leadership (the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine and the Arab League) rejected it, opposing any partition. In the war of 1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by Jordan. The international community largely considers the legal status of Jerusalem to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty in the city.
On December 5, 1949, the State of Israel’s first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, and since then all branches of the Israeli government—legislative, judicial, and executive—have resided there, except for the Ministry of Defense, located at HaKirya in Tel Aviv. At the time of the proclamation, Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan and thus only West Jerusalem was considered Israel’s capital. Immediately after the 1967 Six-Day War, however, Israel took control of East Jerusalem, making it a de facto part of the Israeli capital. Israel enshrined the status of the “complete and united” Jerusalem—west and east—as its capital, in the 1980 Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel.
The status of a “united Jerusalem” as Israel’s “eternal capital” has been a matter of immense controversy within the international community. Although some countries maintain consulates in Jerusalem, all embassies are located outside of the city proper, mostly in Tel Aviv. Due to the non-recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, non-Israeli press use Tel Aviv as a metonym for Israel.
The non-binding United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, passed on August 20, 1980, declared that the Basic Law was “null and void and must be rescinded forthwith.” Member states were advised to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city as a punitive measure. Most of the remaining countries with embassies in Jerusalem complied with the resolution by relocating them to Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution 478. Currently there are no embassies located within the city limits of Jerusalem, although there are embassies in Mevaseret Zion, on the outskirts of Jerusalem, and four consulates in the city itself. In 1995, the United States Congress had planned to move its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem with the passage of the Jerusalem Embassy Act. However, former U.S. President George W. Bush has argued that Congressional resolutions regarding the status of Jerusalem are merely advisory. The Constitution reserves foreign relations as an executive power, and as such, the United States embassy is still in Tel Aviv.
Israel’s most prominent governmental institutions, including the Knesset, the Supreme Court, and the official residences of the President and Prime Minister, are located in Jerusalem. Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem served as the administrative capital of the British Mandate, which included present-day Israel and Jordan. From 1949 until 1967, West Jerusalem served as Israel’s capital, but was not recognized as such internationally because UN General Assembly Resolution 194 envisaged Jerusalem as an international city. As a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, the whole of Jerusalem came under Israeli control. On June 27, 1967, the government of Levi Eshkol extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments. In 1988, Israel ordered the closure of Orient House, home of the Arab Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization, for security reasons. The building reopened in 1992 as a Palestinian guesthouse. The Oslo Accords stated that the final status of Jerusalem would be determined by negotiations with the Palestinian National Authority, which regards East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state. Mahmoud Abbas has said that any agreement that did not not include East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine would be unacceptable.
The Western Wall, known as the Kotel
The al-Aqsa Mosque, a sacred site for Muslims
Jerusalem plays an important role in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city. Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and controversy.
Jerusalem has been sacred to the Jews since King David proclaimed it his capital in the 10th century BCE. Jerusalem was the site of Solomon’s Temple and the Second Temple. It is mentioned in the Bible 632 times. Today, the Western Wall, a remnant of the wall surrounding the Second Temple, is a Jewish holy site second only to the Holy of Holies on the Temple Mount itself. Synagogues around the world are traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem, and Arks within Jerusalem face the “Holy of Holies”. As prescribed in the Mishna and codified in the Shulchan Aruch, daily prayers are recited while facing towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Many Jews have “Mizrach” plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the direction of prayer.
Christianity reveres Jerusalem not only for its Old Testament history but also for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to the New Testament, Jesus was brought to Jerusalem soon after his birth and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple. The Cenacle, believed to be the site of Jesus’ Last Supper, is located on Mount Zion in the same building that houses the Tomb of King David. Another prominent Christian site in Jerusalem is Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. The Gospel of John describes it as being located outside Jerusalem, but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city. The land currently occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past two thousand years.
The Temple Mount
Jerusalem is considered by some as the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam. For approximately a year, before it was permanently switched to the Kabaa in Mecca, the qibla (direction of prayer) for Muslims was Jerusalem. The city’s lasting place in Islam, however, is primarily due to Muhammad‘s Night of Ascension (c. CE 620). Muslims believe Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from Mecca to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet previous prophets of Islam. The first verse in the Qur’an’s Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad’s journey as al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque, in assumed reference to the location in Jerusalem. Today, the Temple Mount is topped by two Islamic landmarks intended to commemorate the event—al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur’an, and the Dome of the Rock, which stands over the Foundation Stone, from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven.
Although Jerusalem is known primarily for its religious significance, the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The Israel Museum attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately one-third of them tourists. The 20-acre (81,000 m2) museum complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and extensive collections of Judaica, archaeological findings, and Israeli and European art. The Dead Sea scrolls, discovered in the mid-20th century in the Qumran caves near the Dead Sea, are housed in the Museum’s Shrine of the Book. The Youth Wing, which mounts changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is visited by 100,000 children a year. The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden, and a scale-model of the Second Temple. The Rockefeller Museum, located in East Jerusalem, was the first archaeological museum in the Middle East. It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate.
Yad Vashem, Israel’s national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, houses the world’s largest library of Holocaust-related information, with an estimated 100,000 books and articles. The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the Holocaust and an art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished. Yad Vashem also commemorates the 1.5 million Jewish children murdered by the Nazis, and honors the Righteous among the Nations. The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western Jerusalem.
The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, established in the 1940s, has appeared around the world. Other arts facilities include the International Convention Center (Binyanei HaUma) near the entrance to city, where the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra plays, the Jerusalem Cinemateque, the Gerard Behar Center (formerly Beit Ha’am) in downtown Jerusalem, the Jerusalem Music Center in Yemin Moshe, and the Targ Music Center in Ein Kerem. The Israel Festival, featuring indoor and outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts, plays and street theater, has been held annually since 1961; for the past 25 years, Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event. The Jerusalem Theater in the Talbiya neighborhood hosts over 150 concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas. The Khan Theater, located in a caravansarai opposite the old Jerusalem train station, is the city’s only repertoire theater. The station itself has become a venue for cultural events in recent years, as the site of Shav’ua Hasefer, an annual week-long book fair, and outdoor music performances. The Jerusalem Film Festival is held annually, screening Israeli and international films.
The Ticho House, in downtown Jerusalem, houses the paintings of Anna Ticho and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who opened Jerusalem’s first eye clinic in this building in 1912. Al-Hoash, established in 2004, is a gallery for the preservation of Palestinian art.
Jerusalem was declared the Capital of Arab Culture in 2009. Jerusalem is home to the Palestinian National Theatre, which engages in cultural preservation as well as innovation, working to rekindle Palestinian interest in the arts. The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music sponsors the Palestine Youth Orchestra which toured the Gulf states and other Middle East countries in 2009. The Islamic Museum on the Temple Mount, established in 1923, houses many Islamic artifacts, from tiny kohl flasks and rare manuscripts to giant marble columns. While Israel approves and financially supports Arab cultural activities, Arab Capital of Culture events were banned because they were sponsored by the Palestine National Authority. In 2009, a four-day culture festival was held in the Beit ‘Anan suburb of Jerusalem, attended by more than 15,000 people
The Abraham Fund  and the Jerusalem Intercultural Center] (JICC)  promote joint Jewish-Palestinian cultural projects. The Jerusalem Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance  is open to Arabs and Jews, and offers workshops on Jewish-Arab dialogue through the arts. The Jewish-Arab Youth Orchestra performs both European classical and Middle Eastern music.
Hadar Mall, Talpiot
Historically, Jerusalem’s economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of Jaffa and Gaza. Jerusalem’s religious landmarks today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of tourists visiting the Western Wall and the Old City, but in the past half-century it has become increasingly clear that Jerusalem’s providence cannot solely be sustained by its religious significance.
Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since 1967 East Jerusalem has lagged behind the development of West Jerusalem. Nevertheless, the percentage of households with employed persons is higher for Arab households (76.1%) than for Jewish households (66.8%). The unemployment rate in Jerusalem (8.3%) is slightly better than the national average (9.0%), although the civilian labor force accounted for less than half of all persons fifteen years or older—lower in comparison to that of Tel Aviv (58.0%) and Haifa (52.4%). Poverty in the city has increased dramatically in recent years; between 2001 and 2007, the number of people below the poverty threshold increased by forty percent. In 2006, the average monthly income for a worker in Jerusalem was NIS5,940 (US$1,410), NIS1,350 less than that for a worker in Tel Aviv. During the British Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of Jerusalem stone in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic character of the city. Complementing this building code, which is still in force, is the discouragement of heavy industry in Jerusalem; only about 2.2% of Jerusalem’s land is zoned for “industry and infrastructure.” By comparison, the percentage of land in Tel Aviv zoned for industry and infrastructure is twice as high, and in Haifa, seven times as high. Only 8.5% of the Jerusalem District work force is employed in the manufacturing sector, which is half the national average (15.8%). Higher than average percentages are employed in education (17.9% vs. 12.7%); health and welfare (12.6% vs. 10.7%); community and social services (6.4% vs. 4.7%); hotels and restaurants (6.1% vs. 4.7%); and public administration (8.2% vs. 4.7%). Although Tel Aviv remains Israel’s financial center, a growing number of high tech companies are moving to Jerusalem, providing 12,000 jobs in 2006. Northern Jerusalem’s Har Hotzvim industrial park is home to some of Israel’s major corporations, among them Intel, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ophir Optronics and ECI Telecom. Expansion plans for the park envision one hundred businesses, a fire station, and a school, covering an area of 530,000 m² (130 acres).
Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national government has remained a major player in Jerusalem’s economy. The government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs, and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups.
Jerusalem’s Central Bus Station
The airport nearest to Jerusalem is Atarot Airport, which was used for domestic flights until its closure in 2001. Since then it has been under the control of the Israel Defense Forces due to disturbances in Ramallah and the West Bank. All air traffic from Atarot was rerouted to Ben Gurion International Airport, Israel’s largest and busiest airport, which serves nine million passengers annually.
Egged Bus Cooperative, the second-largest bus company in the world, handles most of the local and intercity bus service out of the city’s Central Bus Station on Jaffa Road near the western entrance to Jerusalem from highway 1. As of 2008, Egged buses, taxicabs and private cars are the only transportation options in Jerusalem. This is expected to change with the completion of the Jerusalem Light Rail, a new rail-based transit system currently under construction. According to plans, the first rail line will be capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily, and will have 24 stops. It is scheduled for completion in 2010.
Another work in progress is a new high-speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which is scheduled to be completed in 2011. Its terminus will be an underground station (80 m (262.47 ft) deep) serving the International Convention Center and the Central Bus Station, and is planned to be extended eventually to Malha station. Israel Railways operates train services to Malha train station from Tel Aviv via Beit Shemesh.
Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem’s major north-south thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city, merging in the north with Route 443, which continues toward Tel Aviv. Route 60 runs through the center of the city near the Green Line between East and West Jerusalem. Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer (22-mile) ring road around the city, fostering faster connection between the suburbs. The eastern half of the project was conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is still mixed.
Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities offering courses in Hebrew, Arabic and English. Founded in 1925, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has been ranked among the top 100 schools in the world. The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish intellectuals as Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud. The university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew University include Avram Hershko, David Gross, and Daniel Kahneman. One of the university’s major assets is the Jewish National and University Library, which houses over five million books. The library opened in 1892, over three decades before the university was established, and is one of the world’s largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel. The Hebrew University operates three campuses in Jerusalem, on Mount Scopus, on Giv’at Ram and a medical campus at the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital.
Al-Quds University was established in 1984 to serve as a flagship university for the Arab and Palestinian peoples. It describes itself as the “only Arab university in Jerusalem”. New York Bard College and Al-Quds University agreed to open a joint college, to operate in a building originally build to house the Palestinian Parliament and Yasir Arafat’s office. The college is scheduled to open in fall 2010 and also have plans to provide a master of arts in teaching (M.A.T.) degree. Al-Quds University resides southeast of the city proper on a 190,000 square metres (47 acres) Abu Dis campus. Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem are the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design, whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew University.
The Jerusalem College of Technology, founded in 1969, combines training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish studies program. It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies. Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot, including some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron, Midrash Shmuel and Mir, are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva claiming to be the largest. There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003–2004 school year. However, due to the large portion of students in Haredi Jewish frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took matriculation exams (Bagrut) and only thirty-seven percent were eligible to graduate. Unlike public schools, many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests. To attract more university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem.
Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem and other parts of Israel have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students. While many schools in the heavily Arab East Jerusalem are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality is currently building over a dozen new schools in the city’s Arab neighborhoods. Schools in Ras el-Amud and Umm Lison opened in 2008. In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. A budget of 4.6 billion shekels was allocated for this project. In 2008, Jewish British philanthropists donated $3 million for the construction of schools in Arab East Jerusalem. Arab high school students take the Bagrut matriculation exams, so that much of their curriculum parallels that of other Israeli high schools and includes certain Jewish subjects.
The two most popular sports are football (soccer) and basketball. Beitar Jerusalem Football Club is one of the most well-known in Israel. Fans include political figures who often attend its games. Jerusalem’s other major football team, and one of Beitar’s top rivals, is Hapoel Jerusalem F.C. Whereas Beitar has been Israel State Cup champion seven times, Hapoel has only won the Cup once. Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel never succeeded. Beitar plays in the more prestigious Ligat HaAl, while Hapoel is in the seconed division Liga Leumit. Since its opening in 1992, Teddy Kollek Stadium has been Jerusalem’s primary football stadium, with a capacity of 21,600.
The popular Palestinian football team is called Jabal Al-Mokaber (since 1976) which plays in West Bank Premier League. The team hails from Mount Scopus at Jerusalem, part of the Asian Football Confederation, and plays at the Faisal Al-Husseini International Stadium at Al-Ram, across the West Bank Barrier.
The Jerusalem Half Marathon is an annual event in which runners from all over the world compete on a course that takes in some of the city’s most famous sights. In addition to the 21.1 km (13.1 miles) Half Marathon, runners can also opt for the shorter 10 km (6.2 miles) Fun Run. Both runs start and finish at the stadium in Givat Ram.