The Jordania Collections Exhibition

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Showcase :

The Jordania Collections Exhibtion

Frame One:

The Jordania collections

1.Postal History

2.Numismatic History

The House of Hashim, or the Hashemite dynasty, is the royal family that had ruled Jordan since its inception in 1921. The Hashemites claim descent from the prophet Muhammad through his daughter Fatima, and as such carry some heavy credentials. What follows is a little history lesson.

In 1908, the Sublime Porte of the Ottoman Empire appointed the Hashemite notable Hussein bin ‘Ali Sharif of Mecca and Emir of the Hejaz. During the first World War, Hussein initially supported his Ottoman overlords and their ally Germany, but once he discovered that the Ottomans were planning to depose him after the war, he turned on his superiors and is now rightly hailed as the leader of the great Arab Revolt of 1916.

This is Sharif Hussein as he appears on the one Jordanian dinar note:

Sharif Hussein was promised, in his wartime correspondence with Britain’s High Commissioner Henry McMahon, a post-war Arab kingdom encompassing everything that lies between Egypt and Persia, excepting a few already-extant Middle Eastern possessions of the British Empire. He and his family were instrumental in dismantling the Ottoman Empire’s possessions in the Arab world; his son Faisal (later king of Syria and Iraq) aided the allies in the conquest of Medina and Damascus, and led the Arab delegation to the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, where he and his friends T.E. Lawrence and Gertrude Bell expected to see, as promised, an ennobling reward for the Arabs who had helped so crucially in winning the war. The promise was, obviously, not kept. Although the Ottoman Empire was dismantled, the Arab world was divided almost entirely into British and French mandates, which is, as you may imagine, not the kind of “independence” Sharif Hussein and his progeny were looking for.

In 1917, Sharif Hussein had declared himself the king of Hejaz, a declaration that was internationally recognized. At the same time, he declared himself the King of all Arabs, which ticked off his rivals to the East, the Wahhabi royal house of Abdul aziz ibn Saud. In 1924, when Sharif Hussein declared himself Caliph, this was the last straw for the Saudis, and later that year the Saudis attacked the Hejaz. Despite his having fought half a world war on behalf of Great Britain, and despite the support they had shown him in the past, the British decided not to intervene in this conflict, and ibn Saud took the Hejaz, forcing Sharif Hussein to abdicate to Cyprus, and later here, to Amman, where he died in 1931.

Meanwhile, in March, 1920, the Syrian National Congress proclaimed Prince Faisal as the king of an independent kingdom of Greater Syria. However, after the San Remo conference a month later, Syria became the property of France, which led to conflict between the French and Faisal’s nationalist army (The Battle of Maysalun). Faisal was expelled from Syria by the victorious French, and fled to the United Kingdom. At the news of his younger brother’s dishonorable discharge from his throne, Prince Abdullah mobilized his own forces in the Hejaz, preparing to launch an attack on Syria to remove the French. Winston Churchill got wind of Abdullah’s plans, and invited him to tea, where he convinced the prince to abandon his likely doomed campaign. Abdullah agreed, and as a reward, a protectorate was set up in Transjordan under his control.

Meanwhile, the British were failing badly in their attempt to directly administer the government of Iraq, and, in the face of unrest there and waning domestic support for the occupation (sound familiar?), they decided in 1921 to abandon direct administration and hand the territory to an Arab monarch; after a plebiscite indicating overwhelming support for this option in Iraq, this job was given to Faisal.

Back in Transjordan, Abdullah ruled over a semi-autonomous entity known as the Emirate of Transjordan, although the British still had a hand in its administration. The British mandate did not actually end until 1946, at which point Abdullah was crowned king of the now-independent Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan.

King Abdullah on the fiver
King Abdullah I on the fiver.

King Abdullah I was something of a maverick among Arab monarchs, a tradition continued by his progeny. In the 1930s and 1940s, Abdullah was to his contemporaries what John McCain was to the Republican party in the 1990s (and would like us to think he still is today, despite all evidence to the contrary, but I digress). He held faster to the dream of a united Arab state than his power-preoccupied colleagues, and was unique in his willingness to accept the partition of Palestine and to make peace with the nascent state of Israel. In 1948, Jordan participated in the war against the new Zionist entity, but reluctantly, and only after significant pressure from other Arab states.

Most likely as a result of his pro-Western and insufficiently anti-Zionist attitudes, Abdullah was assassinated by a young Palestinian in 1951 while attending Friday prayers at the al-Aqsa mosque in Jerusalem in the company of his grandson, Prince Hussein. The assassin fired upon the young Hussein as well, but as the story goes, a medal pinned to his chest by his grandfather deflected the bullet and saved his life. Abdullah was succeeded by his schizophrenic son Talal, who was instrumental in the drafting of Jordan’s constitution and in the mellowing of relations with Egypt and Saudi Arabia, but was forced to abdicate in 1952 on account of his poor mental health in favor of his 17-year-old son, the selfsame Prince Hussein. Because Hussein was not yet an adult, he was officially enthroned a year later in 1953.

King Talal on the tenner
King Talal on the tenner.

In 1958, following the union of Egypt and Syria into the United Arab Republic, King Hussein and his cousin Faisal II in Iraq formed a similar alliance, the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan. This federation ended only a few months later, however, when the 23-year-old Faisal was executed along with his family during a coup d’etat. Following this, Iraq became a republic and Hussein was left as the last Hashemite royal still in power.

King Hussein on the 20
King Hussein on the twenty.

King Hussein, in the model of his grandfather, was a uniquely progressive Arab leader, and was known to his people as Al-Malik al-Insan (“the humane king”). Favoring peace over conflict whenever possible–and it was by no means always possible–he guided his country through decades of extreme adversity, Jordan to emerge the most stable (if not exactly the wealthiest) country in the region. Not once during his reign, which spanned the duration of the Cold War, did Jordan succumb to Soviet influence. (Granted, Hussein’s staunchly pro-Western posture was well paid for in cash and expensive automobiles by the United States during the 1950s.) He was also an avid sportsman and an amateur radio operator who loved to race cars, drive motorcycles, and fly airplanes and helicopters.

King Hussein's phat ride (one of many)
King Hussein’s 1974 Ferrari 365 GT.

During King Hussein’s reign, Jordan saw conflict with both Israel (the 1967 war, in which Jordan lost control of the West Bank) and the PLO (The 1970 conflict known as Black September, in which the organization was expelled from Jordan). During the turmoil of 1970, King Hussein at one point requested Israeli assistance to prevent a Syrian incursion into the north of his country. In September, 1973, King Hussein met secretly with Golda Meir to warn Israel of an impending Egyptian-Syrian attack; after the devastating losses of 1967, King Hussein did not wish his country to become involved in the conflict, but was ultimately pressured by Syria and Egypt into providing a small quantity of support to the invasion. Jordan began peace negotiations with Israel in the 1970s, culminating in the peace treaty of 1994 between King Hussein and Israeli PM Yitzhak Rabin. Jordan was the second Arab country (after Egypt) to make peace with the Jewish state.

King Hussein ruled for a total of 46 years, up until his death from lymphoma in 1999. Shortly before his death, he made a change to his will, disinheriting his brother Hassan for his eldest son Abdullah, who ascended to the throne in 1999 as King Abdullah II.

3.Travel around with Pictures Collections

4.Native Art Collections

Frame Two :

The Jordania Historic collections

Jordan (/ˈdʒɔrdən/  ( listen)), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan, and also known as the JK (short for The Jordanian Kingdom), is a kingdom on the East Bank of the River Jordan in Western Asia. It borders Saudi Arabia to the south-east, Iraq to the east, Syria to the north and West Bank and Israel to the west, sharing control of the Dead Sea. Jordan’s only port is at its southern tip, at the Gulf of Aqaba, which is shared with Israel, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. Much of Jordan is covered by the Arabian Desert. However, the north-western part of Jordan is part of the Fertile Crescent. The capital city is Amman.

During its history, Jordan has seen numerous civilizations, including Ancient Near Eastern ones as the Canaanite and later other Semitic peoples such as the Edomites, and the Moabites. Other civilizations possessing political sovereignty and influence in Jordan were: Akkadian, Assyrian, Israelite/Judean, Babylonian, and Persian empires. The lands of Jordan were for a time under the rule of Pharaonic Egypt, composed part of the greater Kingdom of Israel (including the later Judaean Kingdom, Hasmonaen Kingdom of Israel and Herodian Dynasty), and notably, the region of Jordan also gave birth to the Nabataean civilization which left rich archaeological remains at Petra, one of the New Seven Wonders of the World located in the Ma’an Governorate. Cultures further west also left their mark, such as the Macedonian/Greek/Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Turkish empires. Since the seventh century, the area has been under the primary rule of Muslim and Arab cultures, with the exceptions briefly for the area in Western Jordan during the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, and for the entire region during the early-mid twentieth century under British rule which led to Jordan’s establishment as an autonomous state.

The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan is a constitutional monarchy with representative government. The reigning monarch is the chief executive and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The king exercises his executive authority through the prime ministers and the Council of Ministers, or cabinet. The cabinet, meanwhile, is responsible before the democratically elected House of Deputies which, along with the House of Notables (Senate), constitutes the legislative branch of the government. The judicial branch is an independent branch of the government.

Modern Jordan is predominantly urbanized. Jordan is classified as a country of “high human development” by the 2010 Human Development Report.[5] Furthermore, The Kingdom has been classified as an emerging market with a free market economy by the CIA World Fact Book. It has more Free Trade Agreements than any other country in the region. It has a pro-Western regime with very close relations with the United Kingdom and the United States. It also became a major non-NATO ally of the United States in 1996, and is one of only two nations in the region, the other being Egypt, that have diplomatic relations with Israel.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13] It is a founding member of the Arab League,[14] the WTO,[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] the AFESD,[24] the Arab Parliament,[25] the AIDMO,[26] the AMF,[27] the IMF,[28][29] the International Criminal Court,[30] the UNHRC,[31] the GAFTA, the ESCWA,[32] the ENP[33][34][35] and the United Nations.[36] Jordan is also currently undergoing close integration with the European Union and the Gulf Cooperation Council. Jordan enjoys “advanced status with the European Union.[37]

==Josh Fat==

The ancient city of Petra, one of the New Seven Wonders of the World.

The Mesha stele as photographed circa 1891. The stele describes the wars of king Mesha of Moab against the Israelites.

The Roman Oval Piazza in the ancient city of Jerash

The Roman temple of Hercules in ancient Philadelphia (Amman)

Main article: History of Josh Hough

Basically, he fat. During the Greco-Roman period of influence, a number of semi-independent city-states also developed in the region of Jordan under the umbrella of the Decapolis including: Gerasa (Jerash), Philadelphia (Amman), Raphana (Abila), Dion (Capitolias), Gadara (Umm Qays), and Pella (Irbid).

Later, the lands of Jordan became part of the Islamic Empire across its different Caliphates’ stages, including the Rashidun Empire, Umayyad Empire and Abbasid Empire. After the decline of the Abbasid, the region of Jordan was ruled by several conflicting powers including the Mongols, the Christian Crusaders, the Ayyubids and the Mamluks until it became part of the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1516.[38]

Ancient history

A castle in the Jordanian desert, 40km south of Amman

Evidence of human activity in Transjordan dates back to the Paleolithic period (500000 – 17000 BC). While there is no architectural evidence from this era, archaeologists have found tools, such as flint and basalt hand-axes, knives and scraping implements.

An old Roman Temple in Erak al Amir

In the Neolithic period (8500-4500 BC), three major shifts occurred. First, people became sedentary living in small villages and concurrently, new food sources were discovered and domesticated, such as cereal grains, peas and lentils, as well as goats. The population increased reaching tens of thousands of people.

Second, the shift in settlement patterns was catalyzed by a marked change in the weather, particularly affecting the eastern desert, which grew warmer and drier, eventually becoming entirely uninhabitable for most of year. This watershed climate change is believed to have occurred between 6500 and 5500 BC.

Third, between 5500 – 4500 BC pottery from clay, rather than plaster, began to be produced. Pottery-making technologies were likely introduced to the area by craftsmen from Mesopotamia. The largest Neolithic site is at Ein Ghazal in Amman. There are many buildings, divided into three distinct districts. Houses were rectangular with several rooms, and some of them had plastered floors. Archaeologists have unearthed skulls covered with plaster and with bitumen in the eye sockets at sites throughout Jordan, Israel and Syria. A statue was also discovered at Ein Ghazal that is thought to be 8,000 years old. Just over one meter high, it depicts a woman with huge eyes, skinny arms, knobby knees and a detailed rendering of her toes.

History of the Levant
Stone Age
Kebaran culture · Natufian culture
Halafian culture · Ghassulian culture  · Jericho
Ancient history
Sumerians · Ebla · Akkadian Empire
Canaan · Phoenicians · Amorites
Aramaeans · Edomites · Hittites
Nabataeans · Palmyra · Philistines
Israel and Judah
Assyrian Empire · Babylonian Empire
Achaemenid Empire · Seleucid Empire
Hasmonean kingdom
Roman Empire · Byzantine Empire
Middle Ages
Rashidun · Umayyads
Abbasids · Fatimids
Crusades · Ayyubids · Mamluks
Modern history
Ottoman Empire
British Mandate of Palestine
Cyprus
Syria · Lebanon · Jordan · Iraq
Israel · Palestinian territories

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It was during the Chalcolithic period (4500-3200 BC) that copper was first smelted and used to make axes, arrowheads and hooks. The cultivation of barley, dates, olives and lentils, and the domestication of sheep and goats predominated over hunting. In the desert, the lifestyle was probably very similar to that of modern Bedouins.

Tuleitat Ghassul is a large Chalcolithic era village located in the Jordan Valley. Houses were made of sun-dried mud bricks and roofs of wood, reeds and mud. Some were based on stone foundations, and many planned around large courtyards. The walls are often painted with bright images of masked men, stars and geometric motifs, that were perhaps connected to religious beliefs.[1]

During the Early Bronze Age (3200-1950 BC), many villages were built that included defensive fortifications, most likely to protect against marauding nomadic tribes. Simple water infrastructures were also constructed.

At Bab al-Dhra in Wadi ‘Araba, archaeologists discovered over 20,000 shaft tombs with multiple chambers as well as houses of mud-brick containing human bones, pots, jewelry and weapons. Hundreds of dolmens scattered throughout the mountains have been dated to the late Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Ages.

While in Egypt and Mesopotamia, writing developed before 3000 BC, writing was not really used in Transjordan, Canaan and Syria until some thousand years later, even though archeological evidence indicates that the Transjordanian population was in fact trading with Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Between 2300 – 1950 BC, many of the large, fortified hilltop towns were abandoned in favor of either small, unfortified villages or a pastoral lifestyle. There is no consensus on what caused this shift, though it is thought to be combination of climatic and political changes that brought an end to the city-state network.

During the Middle Bronze Age (1950-1550 BC), migration patterns in the Middle East increased. Trading continued to develop between Egypt, Syria, Arabia, Canaan and Transjordan, resulting in the spread of civilization and technology. Bronze forged out of copper and tin resulted in the production of more durable axes, knives and other tools and weapons. Large and distinct communities seem to have arisen in northern and central Jordan, while the south was populated by a nomadic, Bedouin-type of people known as the Shasu.

New fortifications appeared at sites like Amman’s Citadel, Irbid, and Tabaqat Fahl (or Pella). Towns were surrounded by ramparts made of earth embankments and the slopes were covered in hard plaster, making it slippery and difficult to climb. Pella was enclosed by massive walls and watch towers.

Archaeologists usually date the end of the Middle Bronze Age to about 1550 BC, when the Hyksos were driven out of Egypt during the 17th and 18th Dynasties. A number of Middle Bronze Age towns in Canaan and Transjordan were destroyed during this time.

The most prominent Iron Age kingdoms in what is now Jordan were Ammon, Moab, and Edom [1] . The Ammonites had their capital in Rabbath Ammon which is present day Amman. The Moabites settled in present-day Kerak Governorate with their capital at Kir of Moab (Kerak) [2], and the kingdom of Edom settled in southern Jordan and southern Palestine, and their capital was in Bozrah in Tafilah Governorate. The kingdom of Ammon maintained its independence from the Assyrian empire, unlike all other kingdoms in the region which were conquered [3].

Later antiquity saw the rise of the Nabatean kingdom with its capital at Petra, which was a border, client state of the Roman Empire absorbed into theEmpire in 103 CE, and the ancient city of Saltus. During the Greco-Roman period of influence, a number of semi-independent city-states also developed in Jordan, grouped as a Decapolis including: Gerasa (Jerash), Philadelphia (Amman), Raphana (Abila), Dion (Capitolias), Gadara (Umm Qays), and Pella (Irbid).

Islamic History

Later, Jordan became integrated into the new Arab-Islamic Umayyad Empire (the first Muslim dynasty) which ruled much of the Middle East from 661 until 750 CE. At the time, Amman, the capital of modern-day Jordan, became a major town in “Jund Dimashq” (the military district of Damascus) and became the seat of the provincial governor. In fact, the name “Al-Urdun” (Jordan) was used on Umayyad post-reform copper coins beginning in the early 8th century and represent the earliest official usage of the name for the modern nation-state. Additionally, lead seals with the Arabic phrase “Halahil Ardth Al-Urdun” (Master of the Land of Jordan), dating from the late 7th to early 8th century CE, have been found in Jordan as well. Additionally, Arab-Byzantine “Standing Caliph” coins minted under the Umayyads also have been found bearing the mint-mark of “Amman.” Thus, usage of the names Al-Urdun/Jordan and Amman date back, to at least, the early decades of the Arab-Muslim takeover of the region.

Under the Umayyad’s successors, the Abbasids (750-1258), Jordan was neglected and began to languish due to the geo-political shift that occurred when the Abassids moved their capital from Damascus to Kufa and later to Baghdad. After the decline of the Abbasids, parts of Jordan were ruled by various powers and empires including the Mongols, the Crusaders, the Ayyubids, the Mamlukes as well as the Ottomans who captured major parts of the Arab World around 1517.
Pictured below is an Umayyad post-reform fals minted within the first quarter of the 8th century bearing the mint name “Al-Urdun” (Jordan). According to most numismatists, this particular coin bearing the name of the Umayyad “jund” (military district) of Jordan, was probably struck in Tabariyya (Tiberias), the former capital of the province.

Al Urdun Coin.jpg

 1920s to 1930s

With the break-up of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I, the League of Nations and the occupying powers were required to redraw the borders of the Middle East. The ensuing decisions, most notably the Sykes–Picot Agreement gave birth to the French Mandate of Syria and British Mandate of Palestine. More than 70% of the British Mandate of Palestine was east of the Jordan river and was known as “Transjordan“. Part of the British purpose in separating the mandate along the Jordan River was to create an Arab territory east of the river form which Jews would be excluded.[4] The Permanent Court of International Justice and an International Court of Arbitration established by the Council of the League of Nations handed down rulings in 1925 which determined that Palestine and Transjordan were newly-created successor states of the Ottoman Empire as defined by international law [5]

 1940s

Main articles: 1940s in Jordan, 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and 1949 Armistice Agreements

The mandate over Transjordan ended on May 22, 1946; on May 25, the country became the independent Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan. Transjordan was one of the Arab states opposed to the second partition of Palestine and creation of Israel in May 1948. It participated in the war between the Arab states and the newly founded State of Israel. The Armistice Agreements of April 3, 1949 left Jordan in control of the West Bank and provided that the armistice demarcation lines were without prejudice to future territorial settlements or boundary lines.

In March 1949, Transjordan announced its annexation of what is now commonly known as the West Bank,[citation needed] renaming it the West Bank, a reference to its location west of the Jordan River. Only two countries, however recognized this annexation: Britain and Pakistan. It is unknown why Pakistan recognized this annexation.

1950s

Main article: 1950s in Jordan

In 1950, the country was renamed “the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan” to include officially those portions of Palestine annexed by King Abdullah. While recognizing Jordanian administration over the West Bank[citation needed], the United States, other Western powers and the United Nations maintained the position that ultimate sovereignty was subject to future agreement.

On July 20, 1951, King Abdullah I was shot dead in Jerusalem while visiting the Al Aqsa Mosque. His assassin, a Palestinian from the Husseini clan, was apparently concerned that Jordan and Lebanon were discussing a separate peace with Israel. Abdullah’s grandson, Prince Hussein Ibn Talal was with him at the time and was hit too. King Abdullah’s eldest son, Talal Ibn Abdullah, was proclaimed king but he was deposed in 1952 because of a mental illness. His son Hussein Ibn Talal became king on his eighteenth birthday, in 1953.

Jordan ended its special defense treaty relationship with the United Kingdom in 1957. In February 1958, following announcement of the merger of Syria and Egypt into the United Arab Republic, Iraq and Jordan announced the Arab Federation of Iraq and Jordan, also known as the Arab Union. The Union was dissolved in August 1958.

The 1950s is often referred to “Jordan’s Experiment with Liberalism”. Freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and freedom of association were guaranteed in the newly written constitution as with the already firmly established freedom of religion doctrine. Jordan had one of the freest and most liberal societies in the Middle East and in the Greater Arab World during the 1950s and early 1960s.

 Jordan in the Cold War

Main articles: Six Days War, Black September, 1970s in Jordan, and 1980s in Jordan

A memorial for all the Jordanian soldiers in Al-Karameh

Image showing the approximate land exchanged between Jordan (gaining green) and Saudi Arabia (gaining red).

Jordan signed a mutual defense pact in May 1967 with Egypt, and it participated in the June 1967 war between Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Egypt, and Iraq. During the war, Israel gained control of the West Bank and East Jerusalem. The 1967 war led to a dramatic increase in the number of Palestinians living in Jordan. Its Palestinian refugee population—700,000 in 1966—grew by another 300,000 from the West Bank. The period following the 1967 war saw an upsurge in the power and importance of Palestinian militants (fedayeen) in Jordan. The heavily armed fedayeen constituted a growing threat to the sovereignty and security of the Hashemite state, and open fighting erupted in June 1970.

Jordan was ruled under martial law throughout most of the Cold War period, particularly starting in 1967 when tensions between the Hashemites and the Palestinian majority eventually led to a bloody civil war in 1970. The 1980s in particular were ruled in a repressive manner with many of the freedoms established in the 1950s suspended or severely curtailed.

Other Arab governments attempted to work out a peaceful solution, but by September, continuing fedayeen actions in Jordan—including the destruction of three international airliners hijacked and held in the desert east of Amman—prompted the government to take action to regain control over its territory and population. In the ensuing heavy fighting, a Syrian tank force took up positions in northern Jordan to support the fedayeen but was forced to retreat. By September 22, Arab foreign ministers meeting at Cairo had arranged a cease-fire beginning the following day. Sporadic violence continued, however, until Jordanian forces won a decisive victory over the fedayeen in July 1971, expelling them from the country. No fighting occurred along the 1967 Jordan River cease-fire line during the October 1973 Arab-Israeli war, but Jordan sent a brigade to Syria to fight Israeli units on Syrian territory.

In 1965 Jordan and Saudi Arabia concluded a bilateral agreement that realigned and delimited the boundary. The realignment resulted in some exchange of territory, and Jordan’s coastline on the Gulf of Aqaba was lengthened by about eighteen kilometers. The new boundary enabled Jordan to expand its port facilities and established a zone in which the two parties agreed to share petroleum revenues equally if oil were discovered. The agreement also protected the pasturage and watering rights of nomadic tribes inside the exchanged territories.

Jordan witnessed some of the most severe protests and social upheavals in its history during the 1980s, protests in Jordanian universities especially Yarmouk University and urban areas protested inflation and lack of political freedom. A massive upheaval occurred in the southern city of Ma’an.

In 1988, Jordan renounced all claims to the West Bank but retained an administrative role pending a final settlement.

In 1989, martial law was lifted and a period of rapid political liberalization occurred creating once again the region’s most liberal and dynamic society. Parliament was restored and thirty political parties including the Islamic Action Front were created.

1990s to 2000s

Jordan did not participate directly in the Gulf War of 1990–1991, but it broke with the Arab majority and supported the Iraqi position of Saddam Hussein. This position led to the temporary repeal of U.S. aid to Jordan. After the Iraqi defeat in 1991, Jordan, along with Syria, Lebanon, and Palestinian representatives, agreed to participate in direct peace negotiations with Israel sponsored by the U.S. and Russia. Eventually, Jordan negotiated an end to hostilities with Israel and signed a declaration to that effect on July 25, 1994; the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty was concluded on October 26, 1994.

Following the outbreak of Israeli-Palestinian fighting in September 2000, the Jordanian government offered its help to both parties. Jordan has since sought to remain at peace with all of its neighbours.

In the late 1990s, Jordan’s unemployment rate was almost 25%, while nearly 50% of those who were employed were on the government payroll.

King Abdullah II succeeded his father King Hussein in 1999.

Jordan’s rapid reinstitution of political and civil liberty continued throughout the 1990s and the 2000s. Economic liberalization policies were especially introduced by King Abdullah II creating one of the freest economies in the Middle East. Political liberalization is occurring but at a slower pace than 1989 and the early 1990s. Liberal policies continue to be predominate in King Abdullah II’s reign with economic reforms being the dominate.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

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