The Monaco Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

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Showcase :

The Monaco Collections Exhibition

Frame One:

The Monaco Collections

1.Postal History

2.Numismatic Collections

Monaco – Euro Coin Sets

Monaco Started Using The Euro on January 1st 2002:

General Introduction:
On new year’s day 2002, Monaco, like the other 11 members of the Eurozone, started using Euro notes and Euro coins for cash transactions. Within a few months, the old coins and banknotes in Lire were withdrawn. We have uncirculated sets from each of the twelve countries in stock now for immediate delivery. Images and descriptions of Monaco coins are shown below.

Packaging & Presentation:
We have uncirculated official mint sets of coins from all 12 Euro zone countries in stock during 2002, plus the three minor states including Monaco. Our Monaco Euro sets are packaged in an attractive card within a 2-sided plastic case so that the coins can be viewed from both sides or removed if required. We have information about official issue mint or proof sets. All of the countries will issue uncirculated sets, but many will not issue proof sets.

Official Sets Only:
For the 12 main countries, we have arranged supplies of coins to reach us in January 2002, and can therefore offer both our own sets and the official mint sets. For the three minor states including Monaco, the situation is different. For Monaco we can currently offer both the official sets, and our own unofficial sets, as shown below.

2002 – Monaco Euro Coin Set:

Reverse side Front side Description
2 Euro:
The center of the coin depicts the right profile of H.S.H. The Sovereign Prince Rainier III. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, year and the hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars divided between the right and left sides. Engraved on the edge of the coin is a series of two stars repeated six times positioned alternatively right side up and up side down.
1 Euro:
The center of the coin depicts the right profiles of LL. AA. SS. The Sovereign Prince and The Hereditary Prince Albert. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and the hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars divided between the right and left sides.
50 Euro Cents:
The center of the coin bears the Grimaldi seal. It is a seal of the founders of Monaco, Admiral Rainier Grimaldi and Charles Grimaldi, the first Seigneur of Monaco. This seal has appeared since 1950 on the coins of H.S.H. Sovereign Prince Rainier III. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars divided between the right and left sides.
20 Euro Cents:
The center of the coin bears the Grimaldi seal. It is a seal of the founders of Monaco, Admiral Rainier Grimaldi and Charles Grimaldi, the first Seigneur of Monaco. This seal has appeared since 1950 on the coins of H.S.H. Sovereign Prince Rainier III. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars divided between the right and left sides.
10 Euro Cents:
The center of the coin bears the Grimaldi seal. It is a seal of the founders of Monaco, Admiral Rainier Grimaldi and Charles Grimaldi, the first Seigneur of Monaco. This seal has appeared since 1950 on the coins of H.S.H. Sovereign Prince Rainier III. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars divided between the right and left sides.
5 Euro Cents:
The center of the coin bears the Grimaldi coat of arms. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and the hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars divided between the right and left sides
2 Euro Cents:
The center of the coin bears the Grimaldi coat of arms. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and the hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars divided between the right and left sides
1 Euro Cent:
The center of the coin bears the Grimaldi coat of arms. Around the perimeter of each coin the inscription MONACO is printed on the top, the year and the hallmark on the bottom, and twelve stars divided between the right and left sides


Availability & Prices:
We have at last obtained supplies of the official Monaco mint sets. Availability and pricing as shown.

Date Description Status Availability Price £ Price $ Price €
2001 Official Uncirculated Sold Out Sold Out £550 $775 €795
2001 Sold Out Sold Out N/A £N/A $N/A €N/A
2002 Unofficial Uncirculated Available Now £195 $275 €285
2002 Official Uncirculated Available Now £395 $555 €575
2002 Sold Out Sold Out N/A £N/A $N/A €N/A


3.Travel Around with Pictures collections

 4.native art

Frame Two:

The Monaco Historic collections

Postage stamps and postal history of Monaco

1891 issued 2 centieme stamp

A Monaco postage stamp of Princess Grace, which was issued as part of the 1996 Europa postage stamp series honoring famous women.

The postal history of Monaco can be traced to the principality’s first postmark in 1704. Stampless covers are known with both manuscript and handstamp postmarks for Monaco and Fort d’Hercule (1793-1814 French occupation); as the principality was once much larger, postmarks of the communes of Menton and Roquebrune prior to their 1848 secession might also be included. Monaco used Sardinian stamps from 1851 until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice and relinquished its protectorate over Monaco; French stamps with Monaco or Monte-Carlo postmarks were used thereafter. Two forms of cancellation are known for the French period. With the first, the postmark is on the cover away from the stamps; an obliterator with an identifying post office number 4222, or later 2387, inside a diamond of ink dots cancelled the actual stamps. The second applied the postmark directly on the stamps, as both a date stamp and cancel. All of these postal forerunners, particularly usages of Sardinian stamps with Monaco cancels, are far more valuable than the same stamps postally used in the issuing countries.[1]

The first Monegasque postage stamps were issued on July 1, 1885, and featured the image of Prince Charles III of Monaco.[2]

In 1937, the principality responded to a growing interest from philatelists by creating a Stamp Issuing Office.[2] The 1949 accession of Prince Rainier III led to increased importance for the principality’s philatelic issues. During his reign, the prince was personally involved in all aspects of the design and format of the principality’s philatelic issues, and he was quoted as stating that stamps were “the best ambassador of a country.”[3] The prince was a noted philatelist and his collection was the basis of Monaco’s Museum of Stamps and Coins.

Rainier created a postal museum in 1950 by using the collections of Albert I and Louis II. Since 1996 this museum has been called Musée des timbres et monnaies.

Le Musée des Timbres

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Ce musée abrite la collection particulière du Prince Rainier III.Créé selon sa volonté, ce musée fait appel aux techniques les plus modernes pour présenter un patrimoine d’une valeur inestimable. Ainsi le délicat problème de l’éclairage a été résolu grâce à la fibre optique qui évite l’échauffement des documents et favorise un excellent rendu des couleurs.

Le Musée des Timbres et des Monnaies se compose de deux grands espaces :
– la Grande Salle d’Exposition
– la Salle des Timbres rares

La Grande Salle d’Exposition permet au visiteur de découvrir deux expositions fixes, celle des pièces et monnaies de Monaco et celle de la production philatélique monégasque des origines (1885) à nos jours. La partie gauche de cette salle est réservée à des expositions ponctuelles qui permettent au public de mieux connaître les multiples facettes de la philatélie monégasque. Ainsi la première exposition a été consacrée au Prince Rainier III, fondateur du musée, où tous les timbres à Son Effigie mis en circulation depuis Son accession au trône, toutes les maquettes et essais de couleur retraçant leur réalisation, y sont présentés.

Dans cette salle, les visiteurs peuvent également admirer :
– une rotative en taille douce (impression des timbres par poinçon d’acier gravé) ayant servi, durant plus ou moins cinquante ans, à imprimer les timbres de Monaco ;
– divers poinçons de timbres et monnaies ;
– une presse à bras avec laquelle des artistes invités, lors d’animations régulières, pourront faire des épreuves de poinçons ou de gravures qui seront ensuite vendues aux visiteurs.

La Salle des Timbres Rares constitue le haut-lieu du Musée où sont exposées des pièces d’une valeur inestimable, dont “une bande de 5 du 5 francs CHARLES III” ou bien encore une enveloppe expédiée de Menton le 12 avril 1851 avec un exemplaire de la première émission du timbre Sarde, alors utilisé en Principauté.

L’origine de la Collection Privée des Princes de Monaco est tout à fait surprenante. A la fin du siècle dernier, un pasteur anglais, le Révérend G.G. BARBIER, grand habitué de la Principauté, avait rassemblé une importante collection spécialisée de Monaco qui comprenait, outre les émissions classiques d’alors, quelques timbres sardes antérieurs à 1860. Le Prince Albert Ier fit procéder, à la mort du pasteur, au rachat de la collection qui fut enrichie de façon considérable par Louis II. Lorsqu’il en hérita, le Prince Rainier III la compléta par de nombreux achats de timbres anciens faisant encore défaut.

Ouvert tous les jours
Du 1er octobre au 30 juin, de 10 h à 17 h
Du 1er juillet au 30 septembre, de 10 h à 18 h.

Durée de la visite : 1 heure.

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Creator of the philatelic Club de Monte-Carlo in 1997, he organized with its members some exhibitions of rare and exceptional postage stamps and letters.

Throughout his reign, Rainier surveyed all the process of creation of Monaco stamps. He liked stamps printed in intaglio and the art of engraver Czesław Słania.

[4]

Monaco joined the Universal Postal Union in 1955 and PostEurop in 1993[2]. Monaco’s postage stamps, which are tied to French postal rate, continue to be popular among collectors and are considered to be a source of revenue for the principality

Map of the territory of the “Free cities of Mentone & Roccabruna” (light blue) and the territory of Monaco (orange) in 1848. Those territories were the Principality of Monaco from the Renaissance until that year.[1]

Coat of Arms of Monaco

History of Monaco
Coat of Arms of Monaco
 


Rock of Monaco
House of Grimaldi
(List of rulers)
Franco-Monegasque Treaty

 

The early history of Monaco is primarily concerned with the protective and strategic value of the Rock of Monaco, the area’s chief geological landmark, which served first as a shelter for ancient peoples and later as a fortress. Part of Liguria‘s history since the fall of the Roman Empire, from the 13th to the early 15th century the area was contested for primarily political reasons. Since that point, excepting a brief period of French occupation, it has remained steadily under the control of the House of Grimaldi.[2]

Contents

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Early history and Ligurian settlement

The Rock of Monaco served as a shelter for the area’s early inhabitants from the end of the Paleolithic period, approximately 300,000 BC, evidence of which has been found in a cave in St. Judist’s Gardens. According to the accounts of historian Diodorus Siculus and geographer Strabo, the area’s first permanent settlers were the mountain-dwelling Ligures, who emigrated from their native city of Genoa, Italy. However, the ancient Ligurian language, which probably was Indo-European, is not directly connected to the Italian dialect spoken by the modern inhabitants of Liguria, nor to the modern Monegasque language.

 Greek colonization and Herculean legend

The Phocaeans of Massalia founded the colony of Monoikos, named for its Ligurian inhabitants, in the 6th century B.C. in the area now known as Monaco. Monoikos was associated with Hercules, venerated in this location alone as Hercules Monoecus (i.e. the lone-dweller). According to the “travels of Hercules” theme, also documented by Diodorus Siculus and Strabo, both Greeks and native Ligurian people asserted that Hercules passed through the area.

The modern port is still sometimes called the “Port of Hercules”. The 1907 Catholic Encyclopedia wrote, “From ancient times until the nineteenth century the port of Monaco was among the most important of the French Mediterranean coast, but now it has lost all commercial significance.”

Roman rule

After the Gallic Wars, Monoecus, which served as a stopping-point for Julius Caesar on his way to campaign in Greece, fell under Roman control as part of the Maritime Alps province (Gallia Transalpina).

The Roman poet Virgil called it “that castled cliff, Monoecus by the sea” (Aeneid, VI.830). The commentator Servius’s use of the passage (in R. Maltby, Lexicon of Ancient Latin Etymologies, Leeds) asserts, under the entry portus, that the epithet was derived:

dictus autem Monoecus vel quod pulsis omnibus illic solus habitavit (“either because Hercules drove off everyone else and lived there alone”), vel quod in eius templo numquam aliquis deorum simul colitur (“or because in his temple no other of the gods is worshipped at the same time”).

No temple to Hercules has been found at Monaco (see also Lucan 1.405.), although the rocky ground and dense conurbation make future excavations unlikely.

The port is mentioned in Pliny the Elder‘s Natural History (III.v) and in TacitusHistories (III.42), when Valens was forced to put into the port (Fabius Valens e sinu Pisano segnitia maris aut adversante vento portum Herculis Monoeci depellitur).

 Middle Ages

Monaco remained under Roman control until the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in 476, from which point the area was ravaged by Saracens and various barbarian tribes. Though these raids left the area almost entirely depopulated, the Saracens were expelled in 975, and by the 11th century the area was again populated by Ligurians.

In 1191, Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI granted suzerainty over the area to the city of Genoa, the native home of the Ligurians. On June 10, 1215, a detachment of Genoese Ghibellines led by Fulco del Cassello began the construction of a fortress atop the Rock of Monaco. This date is often cited as the beginning of Monaco’s modern history.

As the Ghibellines intended their fortress to be a strategic military stronghold and center of control for the area, they set about creating a settlement around the base of the Rock to support the garrison; in an attempt to lure residents from Genoa and the surrounding cities, they offered land grants and tax exemption to new settlers.

Rise of the Grimaldis

The Grimaldis, descended from Otto Canella and taking their name from his son Grimaldo, were an ancient and prominent Guelphic Genoese family.

Memorial of François Grimaldi guised as a monk with a sword under his frock

Members of this family, in the course of the civil strife in Genoa between the Guelphs and Ghibellines, took refuge in Monaco, accompanied by various other Guelphic families, most notably the Fieschis.

François Grimaldi seized the Rock of Monaco in 1297, starting the Grimaldi dinasty, under the sovereignty of the Republic of Genoa. The Grimaldis acquired Menton in 1346 and Roquebrune in 1355, enlarging their possessions.

Since then the area remained under the control of the Grimaldi family to the present day, except when under French control from 1793 to May 17, 1814.

 Protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia

The principality was re-established in 1814, only to be designated a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815. Monaco remained in this position until 1860, when by the Treaty of Turin, Sardinia ceded to France the surrounding county of Nice (as well as Savoy).

With the protectorate, that lasted nearly half a century, Italian was the official language of Monaco.

During this time there was unrest in the towns of Menton and Roquebrune, which declared independence, hoping for annexation by Sardinia and participation in the Italian Risorgimento. The unrest continued until the ruling prince gave up his claim to the two towns (some 95% of the country), and they were ceded to France in return for four million francs. This transfer and Monaco’s sovereignty was recognised by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861.

Sovereignty

Designated as a protectorate of the Kingdom of Sardinia in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna after Napoleon’s defeat, Monaco’s sovereignty was confirmed by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. France accepted the existence of the Principality of Monaco, but annexed 95% of its former territory (the areas of Menton and Roquebrune). Monaco’s military defense since then has been the responsibility of France.

The Prince of Monaco was an absolute ruler until the Monegasque Revolution of 1910 forced him to proclaim a constitution in 1911.

An enlargeable map of the actual Principality of Monaco

The famous Casino of Monte Carlo opened in 1863, organized by the Societé des Bains de Mer (“Sea-bathing Society”), which also ran the “Hotel de Paris”; taxes paid by the S.B.M. have been plowed into Monaco’s infrastructure. Economic development was spurred in the late 19th century with a railway link to France. In July 1918, a treaty was signed providing for limited French protection over Monaco. The treaty, written into the Treaty of Versailles, established that Monegasque policy would be aligned with French political, military, and economic interests. One of the motivations for the treaty was the upcoming Monaco Succession Crisis of 1918.

While Prince Louis II‘s sympathies were strongly pro-French, he tried to keep Monaco neutral during World War II but supported the Vichy French government of his old army colleague, Marshall Philippe Pétain.

Nonetheless, his tiny principality was tormented by domestic conflict partly as a result of Louis’ indecisiveness, and also because the majority of the population was of Italian descent; many of them supported the fascist regime of Italy’s Benito Mussolini.

In November 1942, the Italian Army invaded and occupied Monaco, setting up a fascist puppet government. Soon after in September 1943, following Mussolini’s fall in Italy, the German Army occupied Monaco and began the deportation of the Jewish population.

Among them was René Blum, founder of the Opera, who died in a Nazi concentration camp. Under Prince Louis’ secret orders, the Monaco police, often at great risk to themselves, warned in advance those people whom the Gestapo planned to arrest.[citation needed] The country was liberated as German troops retreated.

The current ruler, Prince Albert II, succeeded his father Prince Rainier III in 2005. Prince Rainier, in turn, had acceded to the throne following the death of his grandfather, Prince Louis II, in 1949.

The revised Constitution of Monaco, proclaimed in 1962, abolished capital punishment, provided for female suffrage, established a Supreme Court to guarantee fundamental liberties and made it difficult for a French national to transfer his or her residence there.

In 1993, Monaco became an official member of the United Nations with full voting rights. In 2002, a new treaty between France and Monaco clarifies that if there are no heirs to carry on the dynasty, the Principality will remain an independent nation, rather than be annexed by France. Monaco’s military defense, however, is still the responsibility of France.

The principality’s mild climate, attractive scenery, and gambling facilities have made Monaco world famous as a tourism and recreation centre.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

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