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Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)
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The Tunisia Collections Exhibition
The Tunisia Collections
after move to Jakrta in 1990 I found a postal used cover from Tunisia at waste paper trader (lapak) at Cikini railways(now didnot exist anymore)
and later in 1995 I found another postal used fragmen cover from cikini postal office phillatelich center(now ome to Phillatelic Center Pasarbaru Jakarta),CDS Tuni Belverde,look the collections with map and city pictures up and below(Dr Iwan note)
3.Travel Around with Pictures collections
The Tunisia Historic collections
History of Tunisia
|ANCIENT HISTORY OF TUNISIA|
|Berber origins, culture, religion, society, language|
|Phoenicia, City of Carthage; Berbers; Romans|
|Berber kings; Africa Province; Vandals; Byzantines|
|MEDIEVAL HISTORY OF TUNISIA|
|Early Islamic Era|
|Ifriqiya: Umayyad, Aghlabid; Berbers; Fatimid|
|Berber states: Zirid, Almohad, Hafsid; Ibn Khaldun|
|Pasha & Dey; Muradid, Husaynid; Modern reform|
|MODERN HISTORY OF TUNISIA|
|Protectorate; Independence movement|
|Republic: Bourghiba, Ben Ali; Society & culture|
The History of Tunisia :
- Early History of Tunisia
- History of Punic era Tunisia
- History of Roman era Tunisia
- History of early Islamic Tunisia
- History of medieval Tunisia
- History of Ottoman era Tunisia
- History of French era Tunisia
- History of modern Tunisia
Tunisia, al-Jumhuriyyah at-Tunisiyyah, is a sovereign republic. Since the name used for the country has changed several times over the centuries, such terms as “ancient Tunisia” are anachronistic; nonetheless, “Tunisia” will be used throughout this history for the sake of continuity.
Undoubtedly, the most ancient Berbers had various names for their land and settlements here, one early Punic-era Berber name being Numidia. When the Phoenicians arrived, their city of Carthage came to dominate the region and much of the western Mediterranean; Carthage gave its name to the region. Next the Romans established here their Province of Africa, taking its name from a Berber word for ‘the people’, the Roman capital being the rebuilt city of Carthage. After the Arab and Muslim conquest, this name continued in use, as the region was called Ifriqiya, but its capital was relocated to the newly-built city of Kairouan. The Fatimids later moved the capital of Ifriqiya to Mahdia, a city they founded, but then the Zirids returned it to Kairouan.
In the twelfth century the Berber Almohads conquered the country and began to rule it from Tunis, an ancient but until-then unimportant city, which thus rose to become the capital. The entire country then came to be called Tunis after this city (near the ruins of ancient Carthage). Tunis continued as the capital under Turkish rule, and remains so today. Only in the last years of the nineteenth century, under the French protectorate, did the current name Tunisie or Tunisiyya (Eng: Tunisia) come into common use. During these millennia of history, the names for the country included Numidia, Carthage, Africa, Ifriqiya, Tunis, Tunisia.
Its long history may be very briefly outlined or summarized. Here a reverse chronological order is employed. |8| The two presidential regimes of independent Tunisia have fostered and steered the country’s economic development, and navigated the state in the once bipolar now post-cold war world. Tunisia has retained close ties both to Arab countries and to the West. |7| Earlier the French had incorporated Tunisia into their sphere (1881–1956), preceded by many Italian settlers, merchants and farmers. Modernizing of methods in business and industry was achieved. |6| Before that, Tunisia was under the Ottoman Turks who had seized lasting control in 1574 after a brief Spanish occupation. The Ottomans eventually held Tunisia indirectly, through the Muradid and Husaynid Beys. The Ottoman Empire used the Turkish language; with it arrived a multi-ethnic influx. |5| Prior to the Turkish era, the long medieval period had seen a cultural renaissance under the rule of native Berbers, already Arabized. First the Zirids (973-1160) had ruled as vassals of the Fatimids who had relocated along the Nile; later the Zirids established an independent Ifriqiya, by breaking with the Fatimids. Next the Almohad movement succeeded in uniting the entire Maghrib, including Ifriqiya. Then the local Hafsid dynasty (1227-1574) of Tunis followed, ruling for many centuries during times both prosperous and lean, contested and peaceful. Their lands stretched form Constantine to Tarabulus.
|4| The Islamic era had opened with the arrival of the Arabs (late seventh century). The Arabs brought their language and the religion of Islam, and its new calendar. The Arabs also renewed the region’s cultural ties with the Semitic east. Later the Fatimids, a Shi’a state, arose in Ifriqiya, circa 909; the Fatimds eventually conquered and ruled Egypt. |3| During the last pre-Islamic centuries the Byzantines ruled, along with Berbrer vassals, and before them the Vandals (439-533). Over two thousand years ago the Romans had arrived, initially allied with Berber kingdoms; their cosmopolitan Empire long governed this Africa region as part of an integrated Mediterranean world. |2| Before the Romans, came the Phoenicians, by sea from the eastern Mediterranean about three thousand years ago. The Phoenicians founded here the celebrated city of Carthage. Punic culture interacted continuously with the native Berbers, but the two did not then merge. |1| Earlier came migrations from surrounding territories including the north, the east, and the Sahel region of Africa. Perhaps eight millennia ago, already there were peoples established here, among whom the proto-Berbers (coming overland generally from the east) mingled and mixed, and from whom the Berbers would spring, during an era of their ethno-genesis.
Throughout its recorded history the physical features and environment of the land now called Tunisia have remained fairly constant; however, there were differences, e.g., the northern forests during ancient times grew more abundantly, the land being more watered. Earlier in an era of prehistory the Sahara region to the south was not an arid desert, but rather in places grasslands grew with seasonal lakes, and corresponding flora and fauna.
Weather in the far north is temperate, enjoying a Mediterranean climate, with mild rainy winters and hot dry summers, the natural terrain often being wooded, e.g., with cork, oak, and pine. Bizerta on the north coast has a large, developed harbor. The fertile river valley of the Medjerda (Wadi Majardah) (anciently called the Bagradas) flows eastward and empties into the sea north of Tunis. Throughout history the Medjerda and vicinity have been very productive and today remain valuable farmland. Grain is grown in the upper Medjerda, while on the lower Medjerda and surrounding Tunis, vinyards and vegetables. Along the eastern sea coast the sahel enjoys a moderate climate, less rainfall but with heavy dew; these coastlands currently support orchards (predominately olive, also various fruit trees), and livestock grazing. The port cities of Hammamet, Sousse, Monastir, Mahdia are here; further south are Sfax, Gabès, and the island of Djerba. Mineral wealth, e.g., phosphates and hydrocarbons, is extracted from various sites. Near the mountainous Algerian border to the west rises Tunisia’s highest point, Jebel ech Chambi at 1544 meters. From this area the high tell descends northeastward to the coast, continuing through Cape Bon, east of Tunis. The Dorsale, Tunisia’s mountain range, is interrupted by several passes, including the Kasserine. Between sahel and mountain lies the bled, often parched plains that are sparsely populated, but where the sacred city of Kairouan is found. In the near south, an east-west belt of salt lakes (called chotts or shatts) cut across the low-lying country. This region forms the Djerid; quality dates are cultivated here, due to subsurface aquifers. Further south lies the Sahara desert; here Tunisia touches the eastern edge of vast sand dunes comprising the Grand Erg Oriental.
The present day Republic of Tunisia includes over ten million inhabitants, almost all of Arab-Berber descent. The Mediterranean Sea lies to the north and east, Libya extends to the southeast, and Algeria is west. The capital Tunis is located near the coast between the mouth of the Medjerda river to the north and Cap Bon (Watan el-Kibli). With a population now of about 800,000, it has been the principal city in the region for over eight centuries.
The end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011