The Equatorial Guinea (Fernado Poo)Collections

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Showcase :

The  Equatorial Guinea (Fernando Poo)  Collections Exhibition

Frame One :

The  Equatorial Guinea collections

1.Dr Iwan s Note

1.In 1988 I have send a leter to St Isabela San fernando,(but this time the name were changed to Bioko,please look the picture of that island and map below)

 but tis time this country have independent(maybe because  the old edition of international  postal adress book at Padang city Postoffice)  , after one years this aerogram had around the world first to Isabela Phillipine,then to USA and at Least to south africa and back to sender me , please look the very rare postal history  return to sender aerogam below.if someone have more post mark than this unique aerogram please show us.

I didnot understand why three bigger country postal services USA,Phillipine and South Africa diddnot know about this st Isabela fernado poo have changed to be Bioko Equatorial guenia, and they send back the aerogram back to me.

1) sent from Padang West Sumatra INDONESIA September,5 th, 1988

2) The aerogram around the world from Indonesia to USA,Phillipines and South Africa then back to Indonesia from Sept to Dec 1988.

a) first send to USA CDS Van Nuys California 9 Sept 1988 (4days)

b) second ,from USA to Phillipines with three CDS arrive 8 Nov, sortir i5 Nov and send to South africa 21 Nov 1988,

c) third from phillipnes to Johanesberg South africa CDS December 21th 1988

d) Back to indonesia with full of arrival CDS and handwritten direction note and back to sender handchoped.

2, Later I have found a book written by Sundiata ,Equatorial Ginea,Colonialism Sate Teror and The search fro Stability,Boulder San Fransisco and Oxford,Westren Press Inc,1990

this rare book had   gave me info that  the new name of this state San Fernado or fernado poo became Rio Muni and later became  Equatorial Guinea. Please look the rare collections from this country.

3.Based on that litaerature and more info from google exploration I had starting written about that country and now with new info the historic collections have finished and I will add in my cybermuseum blog.

4.The recent info from this country (google exploration)

1471—Portuguese navigator Fernao do Po sights the island of Fernando Poo, which is now called Bioko.

1477—Portugal cedes Fernando Poo to Spain.

1844—Spanish settle in what became the province of Rio Muni—mainland Equatorial Guinea.

[Malamboimage identifier]

Malabo:
Capital on the rim of a sunken volcano
Population: 60,065
Called Santa Isabel until 1973

1904—Fernando Poo and Rio Muni become the Western African Territories, later renamed Spanish Guinea.

1968—Spanish Guinea granted independence and becomes the Republic of Equatorial Guinea with Francisco Macias Nguema as president.

Francisco Macias NguemaFrancisco Macias Nguema(1924-1979) first President of Equatorial Guinea, 1968-1979Macías Nguema Biyogo Masie was born in Nsegayong, Rio Muni. Little else about his early life is known.Nguema began his rise through the political ranks as a civil employee for the Spanish colonial government through the 1950’s and early 1960’s. Most important of his positions during this period were a stint as Mayor of the City of Mongamo and as a member of the Provincial Parliament. In 1964, he was elected Vice-President of the local government of Equatorial Guinea.In March 1968, the Spanish government announced that Equatorial Guinea would be granted full independence upon ratification of a constitution, which occured on August 11, 1968. Nguema, representing the left-wing, ran for President against Bonifacio Ondo Edu, who had been President under Spanish administration from 1964 to 1968; he won the election and, in October 1968, became the first President of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea.His PresidencyThe early stages of Nguema’s presidency were marked by increasingly worsened relations with Spain. He accused Spanish businessmen of a variety of crimes against the government and waged a campaign of intimidation against the 70,000 Spanish nationals living in the country. This escalated into the eventual expulsion of the Spanish ambassador, which in turn resulted in the mobilization of the Spanish Army in the area. At this point, Nguema declared a state of emergency.

By July 1970, Nguema had created a single party state, by May 1971 parts of the Constitution had been eliminated, and by 1972 Nguema had declared himself “President for Life.” His rule only got worse from there.

All government social services were eliminated in favor of internal security. Roads, water supplies, basic health care, electricity transmission, and even public eduation all suffered from lack of funding. Nguema’s paranoia led to extensive purges that allowed him to install many friends and family members into government positions, as well as to the death or expulsion of one third of the country’s population. Conditions got so bad that, in 1976, Nguema’s wife even fled the country.

It was about this same time that Nguema africanised his name to Masie Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong.

On August 3, 1979, Nguema’s nephew, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, led a military coup d’etat against him. Nguema was located in a jungle hideout a couple of weeks later; he was subsequently arrested and charged with genocide. He was executed on September 29, 1979.

1972—Nguema becomes president for life.

1979—Nguema ousted in military coup led by his nephew, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo.

Elections boycott

1993—First multiparty elections take place but are generally condemned as fraudulent and are boycotted by the opposition.

1996 February—President Obiang Nguema wins 99% of votes in election amid reports of widespread irregularities.

1996 March—Mobil oil corporation announces it has discovered sizeable new oil and gas reserves.

Poor human rights record

1998 January—Amnesty International reports the arrest of scores of people—mostly from the Bubi minority—in the wake of attacks on military posts on Bioko island.

1998 June—Military tribunal sentences 15 people to death for separatist attacks on Bioko island.

1999 March—Ruling Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea wins majority of seats in parliamentary elections condemned as fraudulent. Dozens of members of main opposition Popular Union are arrested.

Oil boost

2001—Economy emerges as one of world’s fastest-growing because of oil exploitation. Opposition says trickle-down effect of growth is too slow, too small.

2001 March—Eight exiled opposition parties form a coalition in Spain to overhaul politics at home, saying democracy under Obiang is a sham.

2001 July—Exiled politician Florentino Ecomo Nsogo, head of the Party of Reconstruction and Social Well-Being (PRBS), returns home as the first opposition figure to respond to an appeal by President Obiang Nguema, who wants opposition parties to register.

2002 June—Court jails 68 people for up to 20 years for alleged coup plot against President Obiang Nguema. They include main opposition leader Placido Mico Abogo. EU is concerned that confessions were obtained under duress. Amnesty International says many defendants showed signs of torture.2002 December—President Obiang Nguema re-elected. Authorities say he won 100% of the vote. Opposition leaders had pulled out of the poll, citing fraud and irregularities.2003 August—Exiled opposition leaders form self-proclaimed government-in-exile in Madrid, Spain.Opposition leader Placido Mico Abogo and 17 other political prisoners released.2004 March—Alleged coup attempt: President Obiang says 15 mercenaries arrested; group is linked to suspected mercenaries detained in Zimbabwe. Crackdown on immigrants ensues; hundreds of foreigners deported.2004 April—Parliamentary, municipal elections: President Obiang’s Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea (PDGE) and allied parties take 98 of 100 seats in parliament and all but seven of 244 municipal posts. Foreign observers criticise both poll and result5. I hope all collecdtosr all over the world especially from Africa will enjoy to look this historic collections exhibitions,please donnot copy without permisssion,honor my copyright 2011. thanksJakarta Jan 2011

the blog founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

2.Postal History of Fernando poo

  1. Issues of 1868: Queen Isabella, typographed, perforated 14
  2. Issues of 1879: King Alfonso XII, denominated in centimos de peseta
  3. Issues of 1882: King Alfonso XII, denominated in centavos de peso
  4. Issues of 1884: King Alfonso XII, denominated in centimos de peseta, Overprinted Habilitado Para Correos 50 cent-Pta
  5. Issues of 1887: King Alfonso XII, denominated in centimos de peseta, Overprinted Habilitado Para Correos 50 cent-Pta
  6. Issues of 1889: King Alfonso XII, denominated in centavos de peso
  7. Issues of 1894: King Alfonso XIII infant
  8. Issues of 1895: King Alfonso XII, denominated in centimos de peseta, Overprinted Habilitado Para Correos 50 cent-Pta
  9. Issues of 1895: King Alfonso XIII infant
  10. Issues of 1896: King Alfonso XIII infant
  11. Issues of 1897: King Alfonso XIII infant
  12. Issues of 1896-8: King Alfonso XIII infant, overprinted HABILITADO 5 C. DE PESO
  13. Issues of 1896-8: King Alfonso XIII infant, overprinted 5 Cen. in circle
  14. Issues of 1897-8: revenue stamps overprinted
  15. Issues of 1898-9: King Alfonso XII, denominated in centimos de peseta, Overprinted Habilitado Para Correos 50 cent-Pta
  16. Issues of 1899: revenue stamp overprinted/H3>
1899YYXX01 15c on 10c green with black overprint overprinted HABILITADO/PARA/CORREO 15 C/DE PESO
1899YYXX02 10c on 25c green with black overprint overprinted Fernando Poo 1899/CORREOS (diagonally)/ 10 Cent. de Peso
1899YYXX03 15c on 25c green with black overprint overprinted Fernando Poo 1899/Habilitado/para/Correos/15 Cent de Peso
1899YYXX04 15c on 25c green with red overprint overprinted CORREOS/15/CENTAVOS
1899ZZXX01 1m orange brown
1899ZZXX02 2m orange brown
1899ZZXX03 3m orange brown
1899ZZXX04 4m orange brown
1899ZZXX05 5m orange brown

  1. Issues of 1899: King Alphonso XIII
1868XXXX01 20c brown
1879XXXX01 5c green
1879XXXX02 10c rose
1879XXXX03 50c blue
1882XXXX01 1c green
1882XXXX02 2c rose
1882XXXX03 5c gray blue
1884XXXX01 50c on 2c rose
1887XXXX01 50c on 5c blue
1889XXXX01 10c dark brown
1894XXXX01 10c brown violet
1895XXXX01 50c on 1c green
1895YYXX01 10c lake
1896XXXX01 1/8c slate
1896XXXX02 2c rose
1896XXXX03 6c dark violet
1896XXXX04 10c orange brown
1896XXXX05 12 1/2c dark brown
1896XXXX06 20c slate blue
1896XXXX07 25c claret
1897XXXX01 5c blue green
1898XXXX01 5c on 2c rose with blue overprint  
1898XXXX02 5c on 10c brown violet with blue overprint  
1898XXXX03 5c on 12 1/2c brown with bue overprint  
1898XXXX01 5c on 1/8c slate with black overprint  
1898XXXX02 5c on 2c rose with blue overprint  
1898XXXX03 5c on 5c green with red overprint  
1898XXXX04 5c on 6c dark violet with red overprint  
1898XXXX05 5c on 10c orange brown with black overprint  
1898XXXX06 5c on 12 1/2c brown with red overprint  
1898XXXX07 5c on 20c slate blue with red overprint  
1898XXXX08 5c on 25c claret with black overprint  
1898YYXX01 5c on 10c rose overprinted CORREOS/ 5 /CENTAVOS
1895YYXX01 10c rose overprinted HABILITAD0/PARA/CORREOS
1899XXXX01 50c on 2c rose  
1899XXXX02 50c on 10c brown violet  
1899XXXX03 50c on 10c lake  
1899XXXX04 50c on 10c orange brown  
1899XXXX05 50c on 12 1/2c green  

2Numismatic Collections

3.Pictures Collections

Frame two:

The Guinea Equatorial(Fernado poo) Historic collections

1Postal History

 

  
  A 1903 stamp of Fernando Poo.

A 1924 stamp of Spanish Guinea.

A 1999 stamp of Equatorial Guinea typical of the colourful modern issues of this country.

This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Equatorial Guinea, formerly known as Spanish Guinea.

 
     
 
Table of Contents
1 First stamps
2 Fernando Poo
3 Rio Muni
4 Independence
5 References
6 External links
 
     

 

First stamps

The first stamps of Spanish Guinea were issued in 1902.[1]

Fernando Poo

The first stamps of the island of Fernando Poo (San Fernando or Bioko island) were issued in 1868 by the Spanish colonial authorities in the capital Santa Isabel(now Malabo),259 km from Bata,the capital of Rio Muni which then becama Equatorial Guinea.look the map below..

Issues continued for a century until 1968 when the colony was incorporated into Spanish Guinea. Fernando Poo (since renamed Bioko) is now part of Equatorial Guinea.

Rio Muni

From 30 July 1959 to 11 October 1968 Rio Muni was treated as a separate overseas province of Spain until it combined again with Fernando Poo to form Equatorial Guinea on 12 October 1968. The first stamps of Rio Muni were issued on 27 April 1960.[1]

Residents of Río Muni originally used the postage stamps of Spanish Guinea until 1960 when the Spanish government decreed the use of separate issues for Río Muni and Fernando Po (Bioko). The first definitive series appeared in that year, consisting of nine values, 25 c to 10 p, all with the same design showing a missionary and a native boy reading, and inscribed “RIO MUNI”.

Issues from 1961 on added the inscription “ESPAÑA”; typically two to three issues per year, consisting of two to four stamps each, and usually depicting local plants and animals. Another definitive series appeared in 1964, also with nine values.

The last issue of Río Muni was a set of three signs of the zodiac issued on 25 April 1968.

Independence

Spanish Guinea became an independent republic on 12 October 1968 and its first stamps as such were issued on that date.[1]

Many colourful stamps have been issued since then, usually designed more to appeal to overseas stamp collectors than for domestic use

2.THE EQUATORIAL GUINEA HISTORY COLLECTIONS

Pre-colonial history

The first inhabitants of the region that is now Equatorial Guinea are believed to have been Pygmies, of whom only isolated pockets remain in northern Rio Muni. Bantu migrations between the 17th and 19th centuries brought the coastal tribes and later the Fang. Elements of the latter may have generated the Bubi, who emigrated to Bioko from Cameroon and Río Muni in several waves and succeeded former Neolithic populations. It is said the Igbo of Nigeria (mostly Aro) slave traders arrived and founded very few tiny settlements in Bioko and Rio Muni which expanded the Aro Confederacy in the 18th and 19th centuries. The Annobon population, native to Angola, was introduced by the Portuguese via São Tomé.

The Portuguese explorer, Fernão do Pó, seeking a route to India, is credited with having discovered the island of Bioko in 1471. He called it Formosa (“beautiful [isle]”, a name later applied to Taiwan), but it quickly took on the name of its European discoverer, albeit spelt “Fernando Po”. The islands of Fernando Po and Annobón were colonized by the Portuguese in 1474. The Portuguese retained control until 1778, when the island, adjacent islets, and commercial rights to the mainland between the Niger and Ogooué Rivers were ceded to Spain in exchange for territory in South America (Treaty of El Pardo).

In 1772 the Govenor of Sao Tome and Principe sent his son ,Manuel gomes da Silva, to recon nocter the island. Spain cailmed San Fernando(nowBioko) in 1778,but it was not until 1910 that Spanish sovereig nity was recognized throughtout the island.

In 1777 Spain purchhased San Fernado and the other island nearest Bioko,Annabon and Corisco which given the success of Sao tome and principe,Spain thought to use Fernado poo (Bioko) as a entreport for direct African Slaving. The desire for an African base an early indication of the Channelisation of Spanish Capital into the trade, a tendency that became more marked in the next century.

In 1758-1786 Jose de Galvez,Marques de Sonora,contempleted another colony on San fernando(Bioko).Spanish investors in the Cracas Company(Venezuela) organized the Phillipinen Company with the Marquest patronage and were gwen an exclusive Asiento for slave trading with the newly acquared island.Full scale plans were cut short by Galvves death, the initiative was shoet lived and the company never supplied any slaves. Unfortunately for slaving interset, the disruption of the napoleon war militated against the maintenance of permanent factories.

In the period of British antislaveving activity after 1807, Corisco and the sorrounding are increased in importance.

In 1817 Anglo-spanish treaty, Spain agreed to suppress the trade north of the Equator immediately and to abolish all spanish Slaving in 1820.

In the late 19th century a new Crop,Cacao, was increasingly important. Cacao was brought to Sao Tome from Brazil in 1822.Sao tome pods was first taken to fernando POO(Bioko) fourteen years laters, from here the crops may have diffused to other parts of west Africa such as Ghana.Spain experienced a spasm of imperialisation in the mid 19th century,colonial adventures were undertaken in Marocco,Indochina,Santo domingo and Peru. In keeping with the Colonila upsurge, the Government decided to occupy Fernando Po(Bioko) and part of the Coast.

From 1827 to 1843, Britain established a base on the island to combat the slave trade. The mainland portion, Río Muni, became a protectorate in 1885 and a colony in 1900. Conflicting claims to the mainland were settled in 1900 by the Treaty of Paris, and periodically, the mainland territories were united administratively under Spanish rule. Between 1926 and 1959 they were united as the colony of Spanish Guinea. During the First World War, German troops retreated into this territory from Kamerun because Spain was neutral during the war.

Colonial era

In 1858,eighty years after claiming the island, Madrid sent the Forst Spanish born Gouvernor, Captain Carlos Chacon. The English Baptish missionary were expelled to Victoria(Limbe) in Cameron and  Spanish Jesuit introduced. There was some hope that colonization and the Protection of Tropical Produce might create a Cuba African.

In 1859 , in spite of the record of Fernado Po past insaluority,European Colonization was begun. Circulain were sent to the Spanish provinces , encouraging emigration and promising free pasage. A new Gouvenor Jose d e le Grandara arrive with 128 colonist and 166 military personel. Fernado po(bioko) didnot became another Canaries or, at the minimum,another San tome mis nineteenth century ,Spanish settlers met the same epidemiological barrien as Carisco, Yellow fever was brougght from Havana in March 1862 and inn two month, 78 out of 25o whites died.

In the early 1860, a steram of Royal decrees called for the used of black Cubans. One decree proposed enlisting and sending 75 or 80 emancipated cuban to replace half or a white infantry Company sen in 1859. Although emancipated emigration recieved a further blow in Sept 1866 when it was prohibited to transport freeman Overseas, the idea reamined in 1872, when the Ley Moret, which partially abolished Cuban Slavery, went into effect, it gave the freedman the choice of remaining in Cuba or going to Spanish Africa. The cersation of the emigration of freed Black didnot mean the Cessation of Cuba Emigration.

In 1866,39 political prisoner arrived as consequewnce of areputation and socialed movement in Andalucia. Over 100 political depature also arrive from Havana in 1866, two hunderd and fifty Cuban Rebels arrived in May 1869. The penal Scheme for Fernando Po ended the same years

The Sub Sahara territory ere retained . A Colonial Decree fused he Office of Gouvernor and Chief of the Naval Station done an attampt at economy. A small administration Staff was maintainance on Fernando Poo. Loading at situation, o9ne official commented : ‘How could we have competed withthe English influence in Fernado poo, if far from resisting it in our Spain, it is dominating us moer and more every day to battle against England on anymatter in spain would be grand and patriotic, but to battle her here (in Africa) is pityfully rediculous”

in 1880 English shipping arrived four times per month and often stopped ar San carlos(now Luba) and conception bays to take the Island produce to Great britain.

The GermanLine arrived, at most, twice monthly, except for Naval Vessles, the Island was seldom visited by spanish ship

In 1881 Elias Zerolo, the Director of the Revisia de Canarias note that “Spain post there ,besides the Island of the Fernado Poo,Annabon,Corisco,Elobey Grande and Elobey Peguens, the immediate Cost of no small area’

Spain formeost Tropical Traveller Manual Iradient Y Bulfy(1854-1911) made the Trips to africa but had troubled persuading his compatriots to occupy the territories claimed. In 1875 the visited fernando poo. Then, in the wake of the spanish-america War, Spain was left with a tiny enclaved almost surrounding by French Gabon.

Africanist gongress, which met in Madrid in 1907 and 1910, in Saragossa in 1908 an valencia 1910 attempted to keep the Colonial flame alive.

Spain developed large cacao plantations for which thousands of Nigerian workers were imported as laborers.

At the beginning of the Spanish Civil War the colony remained loyal to the Republican government. On July 24, 1936, the Republican cruiser Méndez Núñez arrived at Santa Isabel; on its way back to Spain the officers planned to join the rebellion, but the Spanish government, knowing this, ordered the ship to go back to the colony; on August 14 the Méndez Núñez was back in Fernando Poo, where the sailors took control of her; on September 21 the ship arrived in Málaga (Republican Spain). On September 19 the Colonial Guard and the Civil Guard began the rebellion and took control of the island of Fernando Poo, while the rest of the colony remained loyal to the Republic. On September 22 a clash took place between a rebel group from Kogo and a loyal detachment from Bata. Finally, on October 14 a force of 200 rebels arrived in the merchant Ciudad de Mahón and took control of Bata and the rest of the colony.

In 1941 10.000 Nigerian already on Fernado poo(Bioko). In 1954 new Agreement signed to improve the Education and welfare services. In 1957 the spanish open a primary School and orphan for Nigerian child.

At independence in 1968 Equatorial Guinea had one of the highest per capita incomes in Africa (332 USD).[1] The Spanish also helped Equatorial Guinea achieve one of the continent’s highest literacy rates[1] and developed a good network of health care facilities.[1] However at the time of independence, the number of native doctors and lawyers was in the single digits.[1]

In 1959, the Spanish territory of the Gulf of Guinea was established with the same status as the provinces of metropolitan Spain. As the Spanish Equatorial Region, it was ruled by a governor general exercising military and civilian powers. The first local elections were held in 1959, and the first Equatoguinean representatives were seated in the Cortes Generales (Spanish parliament). Under the Basic Law of December 1963, limited autonomy was authorized under a joint legislative body for the territory’s two provinces. A paradoxical effect of this autonomy was that Guineans could choose among several political parties while metropolitan Spaniards were under a single party regime. The name of the country was changed to Equatorial Guinea. Although Spain’s commissioner general had extensive powers, the Equatorial Guinean General Assembly had considerable initiative in formulating laws and regulations.

In 1960, Mako continued a saparate national tradition in books.in 1963,autonom Referendum,autonom Gouvernment was installed. In 1964 ,election by the abscence of Ndongo.Moniuge and Ipge join new armed Forces (FRENPO)

Independence

In March 1968, under pressure from Equatoguinean nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announced that it would grant independence to Equatorial Guinea. A constitutional convention produced an electoral law and draft constitution. In the presence of a UN observer team, a referendum was held on August 11, 1968, and 63% of the electorate voted in favor of the constitution, which provided for a government with a General Assembly and a Supreme Court with judges appointed by the president.

In September 1968, Francisco Macías Nguema was elected first president of Equatorial Guinea, and independence was granted in October.

Francisco Macias Nguema

In July 1970, Macias created a single-party state and by May 1971, key portions of the constitution were abrogated. In 1972 Macias took complete control of the government and assumed the title of President for Life. The Macias regime was characterized by abandonment of all government functions except internal security, which was accomplished by terror; this led to the death or exile of up to one-third of the country’s population. Due to pilferage, ignorance, and neglect, the country’s infrastructure—electrical, water, road, transportation, and health—fell into ruin. Religion was repressed, and education ceased. The private and public sectors of the economy were devastated. Nigerian contract laborers on Bioko, estimated to have been 60,000, left en masse in early 1976. The economy collapsed, and skilled citizens and foreigners left.

All schools were ordered closed in 1975, and the country’s churches were closed in 1978. Nguema introduced a campaign of ‘authenticity,’ replacing colonial names with native ones: the capital Santa Isabel became Malabo, the main island of Fernando Poo was renamed Masie Nguema Biyogo after himself, and Annobón became Pagalu. As part of the same process, Nguema also ordered the entire population to drop their European names and adopt African ones. His own name underwent several transformations, so that by the end of his rule he was known as Masie Nguema Biyogo Ñegue Ndong.

In August 1979 Macias’ nephew from Mongomo and former director of the infamous Black Beach Prison, Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo, led a successful coup d’état; Macias was arrested, tried, and executed. Obiang assumed the Presidency in October 1979. The islands were renamed Bioko and Annobón. The new ruler faced the challenge of restoring order in a country that was in shambles—by the end of Masie Nguema’s dictatorship, the state coffers were empty and the population had been reduced to only one-third of what it was at independence.

1990s-2000s

Although President Obiang signed a national anti-torture decree in 2006 to ban all forms of abuse and improper treatment in Equatorial Guinea and commissioned the renovation and modernization of Black Beach prison in 2007 to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners,[2] human rights abuses continue.Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International among other non-governmental organizations have documented severe human rights abuses in prisons, including torture, beatings, unexplained deaths and illegal detention.[3][4]

According to a March 2004 BBC profile,[5] politics within the country are currently dominated by tensions between Obiang’s son, Teodorin, and other close relatives with powerful positions in the security forces. The tension may be rooted in power shift arising from the dramatic increase in oil production which has occurred since 1997.

The unsuccessful “Wonga Coup” was attempted by European and South African mercenaries in 2004 with the goal of replacing Obiang with a puppet ruler who would open the country’s mineral wealth to the plotters[citation needed]. British aristocrat Simon Mann, a former officer in the Special Air Service, led the plot, which also included former members of the South African Army 32 Battalion. Financial backers included Sir Mark Thatcher, son of former British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and possibly the British novelist Jeffrey Archer. Somewhere between $3 million and $20 million was expended on the failed coup, which is said to have had the tacit support of some Western governments and international corporations.[6]

the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

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