The Tristan Da Cunha Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

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                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

The Tristan da Cunha Collections Exhibition

Dr Iwan Notes

In 1988 I had sent an aerogram to this unknow country, and almost one years I had recieved a very beautiful and rare postal used cover from this country,please look the illustration below

. Tristan da Cunha was a small island at Africa, and that time still difficult to enter rthe island because no flight ,and must waiting the good seasons by ship that was why almost one year I had recieved this letter . If Someone have the postally used cover from this country please show used because not many postal used cover found from Tristan da Cunha.

Frame One :

The Tristan da Cunha Collections

1.Postal History

2.Numismatic History

3.Travel around with Picture Collections

 4.Native art

 FRAME TWO : 

The Tristan da Cunha Historic Collections

Tristan da Cunha
Flag Coat of arms
MottoOur faith is our strength
AnthemGod Save the Queen
Capital
(and largest city)
Edinburgh of the Seven Seas
37°4′S 12°19′W / 37.067°S 12.317°W / -37.067; -12.317
Official language(s) English
Demonym Tristanian
Government Part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
 –  Monarch Elizabeth II
 –  Governor Andrew Gurr
 –  Administrator Sean Burns
First inhabited 1810 
 –  Dependency of Cape Colony (to UK) 1816 
 –  Dependency of St Helena 12 January 1938 
 –  Current constitution 1 September 2009 
Population
 –   census 264 (2010 figures) 
 –  Density 1.3/km2 
3.4/sq mi
Currency Pound sterling (£) (GBP)
Time zone GMT (UTC+0)
Internet TLD none
(.sh or .uk can be used)
Calling code 290

Tristan da Cunha (pronounced /ˈtrɪstən də ˈkuːnə/) is a remote volcanic group of islands in the south Atlantic Ocean, and also the name of the main island of that group. It is the most remote inhabited archipelago in the world,[1] lying 2,816 kilometres (1,750 mi) from the nearest land, South Africa, and 3,360 kilometres (2,088 mi) from South America. It is part of the British overseas territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha [2] which also includes Saint Helena 2,430 kilometres (1,510 mi) to its north, and equatorial Ascension Island even farther removed, grouping the British South Atlantic islands into one far-flung centrally administered aggregate. Tristan da Cunha is said to be the “most remote inhabited location on Earth.”[3] It has a population of 275 (2009 figures).[4]

The territory consists of the main island of Tristan da Cunha itself and the name Cunha from the explorer Huno Cunha

, which measures about 11.27 kilometres (7.0 mi) across and has an area of 98 square kilometres (37.8 sq mi), along with the uninhabited Nightingale Islands and the wildlife reserves of Inaccessible Island and

Gough Island.

Contents

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History

The islands were first sighted in 1506 by Portuguese explorer Tristão da Cunha, although rough seas prevented a landing. He named the main island after himself, Ilha de Tristão da Cunha, which was later anglicised to Tristan da Cunha Island.

The first survey of the archipelago was made by the French frigate L’Heure du Berger in 1767. Soundings were taken and a rough survey of the coastline was made. The presence of water at the large waterfall of Big Watron and in a lake on the north coast were noted, and the results of the survey were published by a Royal Navy hydrographer in 1781. The first permanent settler was Jonathan Lambert, from Salem, Massachusetts, United States, who arrived at the islands in December 1810.[5] He declared the islands his property and named them the Islands of Refreshment. Lambert’s rule was short-lived, as he died in a boating accident in 1812.

In 1816 the United Kingdom formally annexed the islands, ruling them from the Cape Colony in South Africa. This is reported to have primarily been a measure to ensure that the French would not be able to use the islands as a base for a rescue operation to free Napoleon Bonaparte from his prison on Saint Helena. The occupation also prevented the United States from using Tristan da Cunha as a base, as they had during the War of 1812. Attempts to colonise Inaccessible Island failed.

The islands were occupied by a garrison of British Marines, and a civilian population was gradually built up. Whalers also set up on the islands as a base for operations in the Southern Atlantic. However, the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869, together with the gradual move from sailing ships to coal-fired steam ships, increased the isolation of the islands, as they were no longer needed as a stopping port for journeys from Europe to the Far East.

Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, Tristan da Cunha.

In 1867, Prince Alfred, Duke of Edinburgh and second son of Queen Victoria, visited the islands. The main settlement, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, was named in honour of his visit. Lewis Carroll‘s youngest brother, the Rev. Edwin H. Dodgson, served as an Anglican missionary and school teacher in Tristan da Cunha in the 1880s. The second Duke of Edinburgh, the husband of Queen Elizabeth II, visited the islands in 1957 as part of a world tour onboard the royal yacht Britannia.

On 12 January 1938, by Letters Patent, the islands were declared a dependency of Saint Helena. Prior to this, passing ships stopped irregularly at the island for a period of mere hours.[6]

Tristan da Cunha

 
Politics and government of
Tristan da Cunha


During World War II, the islands were used as a top secret Royal Navy weather and radio station codenamed HMS Atlantic Isle, to monitor U Boats (which needed to surface to maintain radio contact) and German shipping movements in the South Atlantic Ocean. The only currency in use on the island at this time was the potato,[citation needed] and islanders labouring to construct the station were paid in kind with naval supplies for their own use, such as wood, paint and tea. Money was introduced the following year, as was the island’s first newspaper, The Tristan Times. The first Administrator was appointed by the British government during this time.

In 1958, as part of Operation Argus, the United States Navy exploded an atomic bomb 200 kilometres (124.3 mi) high in the upper atmosphere, 115 kilometres (71.5 mi) southeast of the main island.

In 1961, a volcanic eruption forced the evacuation of the entire population to wooden huts in the disused Pendell Army Camp in Merstham, Surrey, England, before moving to a more permanent site at a former Royal Air Force station in Calshot near Southampton, England, living mainly in a road called Tristan Close. In 1962, a Royal Society expedition went to the islands to assess the damage, and reported that the settlement Edinburgh of the Seven Seas had been only marginally affected. Most families returned in 1963 led by Willie Repetto (head of the ten-person island council) and Allan Crawford (the former island welfare officer).

In 2005, the islands were given a United Kingdom post code (TDCU 1ZZ) to make it easier for the residents to order goods online.

The St Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha Constitution Order 2009 was made by HM the Queen and the Privy Council on 8 July and is expected to come into operation shortly thereafter. The new Constitution replaces the 1988 version and among other changes limits the Governor’s powers, includes a Bill of Rights, establishes independence of the judiciary and the public service and formally designates the Governor of St Helena as, concurrently, the Governor for Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. It also ends the “dependency” status of Ascension and Tristan da Cunha on St Helena

Recent events

On 4 December 2007 an outbreak of an acute virus-induced asthma was reported. This outbreak was compounded by Tristan’s lack of suitable medical supplies.[7] The British coastguard in Falmouth co-ordinated international efforts to get appropriate medicines to Tristan in order to treat the virus. Tristan’s elderly population and the very young were most at risk; however, only four elderly people were hospitalised. Royal Fleet Auxiliary Vessel RFA Gold Rover upon reaching the island with the required medical supplies found no emergency and the islanders in good general health.

On February 13, 2008, fire destroyed the fishing factory and the two generators that supply power to the island. Backup generators were used to power the hospital and give power for part of the day to the rest of the island. Power was on during the day and early evening and candlelight was used the rest of the time. On March 14, 2008, new generators were installed and uninterrupted power was restored. This fire was devastating to the island because fishing is a mainstay of the economy. Royal Engineers from the British Army are working on the harbour to help maintain it as everything comes and goes by sea.

Politics and law

Executive authority is vested in the Queen, who is represented in the territory by the Governor of Saint Helena.[8] As the Governor resides permanently in Saint Helena, an Administrator is appointed to represent the Governor in the islands. The Administrator acts as the local head of government, and takes advice from the Island Council, made up of eight elected and three appointed members. Policing in Tristan da Cunha is undertaken by one full-time police officer and three special constables. Tristan da Cunha has its own legislation, but the law of Saint Helena applies to the extent that it is not inconsistent with local law, insofar as it is suitable for local circumstances and subject to such modifications as local circumstances make necessary.

Geography

Map of Tristan da Cunha group (including Gough Island).

The name “Tristan da Cunha” is also used for the archipelago, which consists of the following islands:

Inaccessible Island and the Nightingale Islands are located 35 kilometres (21.7 mi) southwest of the main island, while Gough Island is located 395 kilometres (245.4 mi) south-southeast. The main island is quite mountainous; the only flat area is the location of the capital, Edinburgh of the Seven Seas, on the northwest coast. The highest point is a volcano called Queen Mary’s Peak 2,062 metres (6,765.1 ft); it is covered by snow in winter. The climate is marine subtropical with small temperature differences between summer and winter and between day and night. The other islands of the group are uninhabited, except for the weather station on Gough Island, which has been operated by South Africa since 1956 (since 1963 at its present location at Transvaal Bay on the southeast coast), with a staff of six. Tristan da Cunha is the nesting place of Tristan Albatrosses.

Tristan da Cunha is thought to have been formed by a long-lived centre of upwelling magma called the Tristan hotspot.

Flora and Fauna

Gough Island, Tristan da Cunha.

Numerous flora and fauna occur in Tristan da Cunha. Many of these have a broad circumpolar distribution in the South Atlantic and South Pacific Oceans. Thus many of the species that occur in Tristan da Cunha appear as far away as New Zealand. For example, the species Nertera depressa was first collected in Tristan da Cunha,[9] but has since been recorded in occurrence as far distant as New Zealand.[10]

Tristan is primarily known for its wildlife. There are 13 known species of breeding seabirds on the island and two species of resident land birds. The seabirds include: Northern Rockhopper Penguin (Eudyptes moseleyi), Atlantic yellow-nosed albatross (Thalassarche chlororhynchus), Sooty Albatross (Phoebetria fusca), Atlantic petrel (Pteradroma incerta), Great-winged Petrel (Pteradroma macroptera), Soft-plumaged Petrel (Pteradroma mollis), Broad-billed Prion (Pachyptila vittata), Grey Petrel (Procellaria cinerea), Great Shearwater (Puffinus gravis), Sooty Shearwater (Puffinus griseus), Tristan Skua (Catharacta antarctica hamiltoni), Antarctic Tern (Sterna vittata tristanenis), and Brown Noddy (Anous stolidus). Tristan and Gough Islands are the only known breeding sites in the world for the Atlantic petrel.

The endemic Tristan thrush (Nesocichla eremita) or starchy occurs on all of the northern islands and each has its own subspecies, with Tristan birds being slightly smaller and duller than those on Nightingale and Inaccessible. In 1956 eight Gough moorhens (Gallinula comeri) were released at Sandy Point, on Tristan, and have subsequently colonised the island.

Economy

All Tristan families are farmers, owning their own stock. All land is communally owned. Livestock numbers are strictly controlled to conserve pasture and to prevent better-off families from accumulating wealth. No outsiders are allowed to buy land or settle on Tristan.[11]

The islands’ main source of foreign income is the lobster factory and the sale of postage stamps and coins to overseas collectors. Most people have dual occupations, often working for the local government. Many inhabitants have plots of land (at the patches) on which they grow potatoes.

The 1961 volcanic eruption destroyed the Tristan da Cunha canned crayfish (spiny lobster) factory, which was rebuilt a short time later. The crayfish farmers work for the South African company Ovenstone, which has an exclusive contract to sell crayfish to the United States and Japan. Even though Tristan da Cunha is a UK overseas territory, it is not permitted direct access to European Union markets. Recently the decline in interest in Tristan crayfish in the United States has meant that the islanders have had to borrow from their reserves. The islands’ financial problems may cause delays in updating communication equipment and improving education on the island.

The fire of February 13, 2008, (see history above) has resulted in major economic disruption.

Although Tristan da Cunha is part of the same overseas territory as Saint Helena, it does not use the local Saint Helena pound. Instead, the island uses the United Kingdom issue of the pound sterling. The Bank of Saint Helena was established on Saint Helena and Ascension Island in 2004. Although this bank does not have a physical presence on Tristan da Cunha, the residents of Tristan are entitled to use its services.[12]

Education

The school on the island is the St. Mary’s School, which has children from ages three to sixteen. The current facility, which opened in 1975, has five classrooms, a kitchen, a stage, a computer room, and a craft and science room.[13]

Demographics

The islands have a population of 264 people.[14] The main settlement is Edinburgh of the Seven Seas (known locally as “The Settlement”). The only religion is Christianity, with denominations of Anglican and Roman Catholic. There are instances of health problems attributed to endogamy, including asthma and glaucoma.

The current population is thought to have descended from 15 ancestors, eight males and seven females, who arrived on the island at various times between 1816 and 1908. The male founders originated from Scotland, England, The Netherlands, the USA and Italy.[15] There is a very high incidence of asthma among the population and research by Dr. Noe Zamel of the University of Toronto has led to discoveries about the genetic nature of the disease.[16] Three of the original settlers of the island were sufferers.[17]

Transport

The remote location of the islands makes transport to the outside world difficult. There is no airport, so the islands can be reached only by ship. Fishing boats from South Africa regularly service the islands. The RMS Saint Helena connects the main island to St Helena and South Africa only once during its February voyage. There is no direct service to Ascension Island and the United Kingdom, without flying from Cape Town to London or a short stay on St Helena, since the March voyage of the RMS St Helena continues to Ascension and Portland.

 Society

Housing in Tristan da Cunha.

On Tristan da Cunha the population of 264 people share just eight surnames: Glass (Scottish), Green (Dutch), Hagan (Irish), Lavarello (Italian, a typical Ligurian surname), Repetto (Italian, another typical Ligurian surname), Rogers (English), Swain (English), and Patterson (English).[18] The addition of the eighth surname, Patterson, occurred recently when a Tristanian married an Englishman and returned to settle on Tristan.[18] There are 80 families on the island.

Health care is free, but, with just one resident doctor from South Africa and five nurses, the delivery and surgery are limited and serious injury can necessitate sending signals to passing fishing vessels, so that the injured person can be transferred to Cape Town. As of late 2007 IBM and Beacon Equity Partners, co-operating with Medweb, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center and the government of Tristan da Cunha on “Project Tristan”, has availed the island doctor with access to long distance tele-medical help, making it possible to send EKG and x-ray pictures to doctors in other countries for instant consultation.

Television did not arrive on the island until 2001, and the sole channel available is the British Forces Broadcasting Service from the Falkland Islands. Education is rudimentary; children leave school at fifteen, and although it is possible to take GCSEs a year later, results are poor.[19][20]

Tristan da Cunha’s isolation has led to an unusual, patois-like dialect of English. Bill Bryson documents some examples of the island’s dialect in his book, The Mother Tongue.

“Recipes from Tristan da Cunha: Simple Food for all to Enjoy”, a book by Dawn Repetto published in 2010, details the unique cuisine and rich cultural heritage of Tristan da Cunha

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

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