PAMERAN KERAMIK INGGRIS(BRITISH PORCELAIN EXHIBITION)

 

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SHOWCASE :

 PAMERAN KERAMIK ANTIK INGGRIS (British Early porcelain Exhibition)

FRAME SATU :

Royal Worcester Porcelain

1.Royal Wocester Porcelain

1) Jug

2) Blue Mug and plate 

3)Figurine

 

 

2.Royal Wocester Porcelain History

 

Tea canister, about 1768, Worcester porcelain factory V&A Museum no. 1448&A-1853.

Royal Worcester manufactures bone china and in particular porcelain.

Contents

 

 Early history

Dr John Wall, a physician, and William Davis, an apothecary, developed a unique method for producing porcelain and, in 1751, persuaded a group of 15 businessmen to invest in a new factory at Warmstry House, Worcester, England, on the banks of the River Severn. Dr Wall secured the sum of £4500 from the partners to establish the factory, known then as “The Worcester Tonquin Manufactory” – the original partnership deeds are still housed in the Museum of Worcester Porcelain

The Flight and Barr partnerships

In 1783, the factory was purchased by Thomas Flight – the former London sales agent for the concern – for £3,000. He let his two sons run the concern, with John Flight taking the lead role till his father’s death in 1792. In 1788 George III, following a visit to the company, granted it a royal warrant, and it became known as the “Royal Porcelain Works”.[3] Knowledge of this period is largely a result of the excellent diary that John Flight kept from 1785–1791. This is discussed in detail in Appendix III of Flight & Barr Worcester Porcelain by Henry Sandon.

During this period, the factory was in poor repair. Production was limited to low-end patterns of mostly Blue and White porcelains after Chinese porcelain designs of the period. It was also pressured by competition from inexpensive Chinese export porcelains, and from Thomas Turner’s Caughley (pronounced “Calf-ley”) Factory.

Female side of Aesthetic teapot designed by R. W. Binns and modeled by James Hadley, 1881.

Martin Barr joined the firm as a partner in 1792; porcelains of this period are often identified by an incised capital “B” and, later, by more elaborate printed and impressed marks.

Thomas Flight died in 1800, leaving the factory in the hands of his son Joseph Flight and Martin Barr. Barr’s sons Martin Barr Jr. and George Barr were being prepared at that time to run the factory.

In addition to the warrant granted by George III, Royal Warrants were also issued by the Prince of Wales

, in 1807,and the Princess of Wales, in 1808

 The factory is still in service to the crown, by appointment to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

Modern history

At its height, the firm employed nearly a thousand people, but after the 2006 merger with Spode,[4] and heavy competition from overseas, the production was switched to factories in Stoke and abroad. 100 staff were made redundant in 2003 and another 100 went in 2005. Fifteen porcelain painters left the Severn Street factory on Friday 29 September 2006, together with 100 other workers.[5] The last trading date for Royal Worcester was June 14 2009.

The company went into administration on 6 November 2008.[4]

On 23 April 2009, Portmeirion Pottery purchased the rival Royal Worcester and Spode brands, together with some of the stock, after their parent company had been placed into administration the previous November. The purchase does not include Royal Worcester and Spode’s manufacturing facilities.[6] The Worcester site closed on June 14 2009 after the staff thanked all the customers for their loyalty over the 258 years of trade.[7]

Worcester Porcelain Museum

The factory’s former site includes a visitor centre and the independent Worcester Porcelain Museum (formerly known as the Dyson Perrins Museum) owned by the Dyson Perrins Museum Trust.[8] The Museum houses the world’s largest collection of Worcester porcelain. The collections date back to 1751 and the Victorian gallery, the ceramic collections, archives and records of factory production, form the primary resource for the study of Worcester porcelain and its history.

Frame Dua : Another British Porcelain History

1a.Chelsea

The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England;[1] its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745. The entrepreneurial director was Nicholas Sprimont, a silversmith by trade, but few documents survive to aid a picture of the manufactory’s history. Early tablewares, being produced in profusion by 1750, depend on Meissen porcelain models and on silver prototypes, such as salt cellars in the form of realistic shells.

Chelsea was known for its figures. From about 1760 its inspiration was drawn more from Sèvres porcelain than Meissen.

In 1769 the manufactory was purchased by William Duesbury, owner of the Derby porcelain factory, and the wares are indistinguishable during the “Chelsea-Derby period” that lasted until 1784, when the Chelsea factory was demolished and its moulds, patterns and many of its workmen and artists transferred to Derby.

The factory history can be divided into four main periods, named for the identifying marks under the wares:

Chelsea cleopatra vase in British Museum

Chelsea factory, London, England, around AD 1760

The Death of Cleopatra and the Death of Harmonia

Chelsea was the first factory in England to make porcelain, probably around 1744. It is likely that the factory was founded by the partnership of Charles Gouyn (died 1785) and Nicholas Sprimont (around 1716-71) and funded by Sir Everard Fawkener (1694-1758), secretary to the duke of Cumberland. Sprimont was a Huguenot silversmith of Flemish extraction and was the owner of the factory from 1756 to 1769. Chelsea wares are usually classified into periods named after the factory marks then in use: these examples were made during the ‘Gold Anchor’ period (1758-70).

The vases are made of soft-paste porcelain and are painted and gilded. The scroll handles and finials epitomize the exuberance of the Rococo style in England. The scroll work, dark blue ground colour and extensive use of gilding are inspired by such French examples as those made at the Sèvres factory.

The Death of Cleopatra is based on an engraving by Johann Georg Wille (1715-1808) after Gaspar Netscher (1639-84), the Death of Harmonia after a painting by Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre (1713-89) exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1751. Harmonia was the child of Mars, Mark Antony’s patron god, and Venus, who was Cleopatra’s patron goddess through Isis and Aphrodite.

These vases were the first pieces of porcelain to enter The British Museum. Presented in 1763, only a few years after their manufacture, they are the first contemporary manufactured items to enter the collections.

Contents

 

Triangle period (around 1743-1749)

These early products bore an incised triangle mark. Most of the wares were white and were strongly influenced by silver design. The most notable products of this era were white saltcellars in the shape of crayfish. Perhaps the most famous pieces are the Goat and Bee jugs in 1747 that were also based on a silver model. Copies of these were made at Coalport in the 19th century.

 Raised anchor period (1749-1752)

In this period, the paste and glaze were modified to produce a clear, white, slightly opaque surface on which to paint. The influence of Meissen, Germany is evident in the classical figures among Italianate ruins and harbour scenes and adaptations from Francis Barlow’s edition of Aesop’s Fables. In 1751, copies were made of two Meissen services. Chelsea also made figures, birds and animals inspired by Meissen originals. Flowers and landscapes were copied from Vincennes.

Red anchor period (1752-1756)

Kakiemon (Japanese pottery), subjects were popular from the late 1740s until around 1758, inspired by the original Japanese and then by Meissen and Chantilly. Some English-inspired tableware decorated with botanically accurate plants, copied from the eighth edition of Philip Miller‘s The Gardener’s Dictionary (1752) were also produced in this period.

 Gold anchor period (1756-1769)

The influence of Sèvres was very strong and French taste was in the ascendancy. The gold anchor period saw rich coloured grounds, lavish gilding and the nervous energy of the Rococo style. In the 1750s and 1760s, Chelsea was also famous for its toys, which included bonbonnières, scent bottles, étuis, thimbles and small seals, many with inscriptions in French. In 1769 the failing factory was purchased by William Duesbury of Derby who ran it until 1784; during this time the Chelsea wares are indistinguishable from Duesbury’s Derby wares and the period is usually termed “Chelsea-Derby”.

Gallery

A Lady – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1755

A Shepherdess – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

A Street Vendor – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

1b Bow

The Bow Porcelain Company was set up in East London to emulate Chinese porcelain and it did it so well that the factory was built according to an East India Company chinese prototype and was called New Canton.

Wedgwood, meissen, worcester are all famous names in the world of ceramics, but 250 years ago it was Bow porcelain that attracted worldwide attention, thanks to a young Irish painter who settled in the East End of London.

Thomas Frye was born in Dublin in 1710 and, won acclaim in his native Ireland as a painter before coming to London in 1734.

Bow porcelain - thomas fryeHis first success was as a portrait artist when he was commissioned to paint the Prince of Wales, for the Saddlers’ Company, but this was just one among his many other talents which included, miniature painting, mezzotint engraving and enamel work.

Frye was also a keen inventor and his love of art and invention came together when he devised a method for producing soft paste porcelain. Porcelain was extremely popular at the time but there were two big problems; firstly it was very fragile and second; most items were imported from abroad and were very expensive.

As a result of Frye’s experiments with china clay he discovered a method of making porcelain using bone ash. This not only produced a porcelain of brilliant whiteness and luminescence but one of extraordinary durability.

In 1744 patents for the manufacture of ware superior to china or porcelain were taken out by Edward Heylyn, a merchant and glassblower and Thomas Frye a painter and engraver.

They called their factory New Canton, a direct reference aligning their products with the quality and beauty of the Chinese porcelain with which they hoped to compete.

Frye’s final formula contained calcined bone ash and was perfected in 1749

Frye had attracted the interest of the rich and powerful Peers family.

Bow porcelain blue and white sauceboatThe Peers family owned huge tracts of land across Bromley, Bow and Stratford. They were also directors of the all-powerful East India Company; the mainstay of Britain’s overseas trade at the time, and whose great ships unloaded their imported wares on the Isle of Dogs, near the mouth of Bow Creek.

In 1749, with the backing of the Peers family, the bow china factory was set up near Bow Bridge. The Bow Porcelain Manufactory of New Canton was ready to start work with Frye running the operation.

The Court Book of 1744 shows that Edward Heylen acquired a property on the London side of the River Lea, at Bow. On 7 July 1749, and an insurance policy was taken out for a new works. The factory is mentioned in the 1748 edition of Defoe’sA Tour of Great Britain” although the original site is uncertain and could have been in Bow proper.

The third member of the team was Alderman George Arnold, a haberdasher.

Bow porcelain teapotBy 1750, Thomas Frye and Edward Heylen were in partnership with John Wetherby and John Crowther, who owned a wholesale pottery business at St Katherine by the Tower.

Frye’s work was down to earth from the start and he concentrated on more ordinary wares for common use. This didn’t please the purists and one, so called, expert described Bow porcelain as “a peasant art which appeals to an unacademic sense of beauty rather than taste.”

The factory was called New Canton and architecturally modelled on the Cantonese warehouses of the East India company.

Bow porcelain                allegorical figureAbout 1758, the factorys high point, three hundred workers were employed, ninety of whom were painters, all under one roof.

It was the first purpose built porcelain factory in England and it brought a complete change in the eating habits of the poor who had previously used wooden dishes and earthenware. As well as the more ordinary ware there were also finer works and figurines

Business was good and very soon the demand was so great that another factory was opened, this time on the Stratford side of the River Lea.

An account of the company’s returns for a period of five years shows that the cash receipts, which were £6,573 in 1750-1, increased steadily from year to year, and had reached £11,229 in 1755. The total amount of sales in 1754 realised £18,115. The company ran a retail shop in Cornhill and a warehouse at St. Katharine’s near the Tower, though the West End shop that was opened in 1757 in the Terrace in St. James’s Street closed the following year.

The bow porcelain company succeeded in satisfying the heavy demand for wares in the Chinese manner, until after 1756 when demand decreased as items decorated with transfer prints or painted in the European style became more popular.

Factory marks were very rarely used but you can find mock oriental marks on some chinoiserie style blue and white pieces.

Bow porcelain              musician figureIn 1760 an anchor and dagger mark was used which may be an outside decorators mark

Despite his success Frye was still toiling long hours in the factory furnaces as well as designing new lines and eventually the long hours and gruelling work took their toll.

George Arnold died in 1751, Edward Heylyn became bankrupt in 1757 and Thomas Frye retired in 1759; although the bow porcelain factory continued until 1776. The part-owner Weatherby died in 1762 and his partner Crowther was listed as bankrupt the following year. Three sales dispersed his effects in March and May 1764. Though Crowther continued in business in a small way.

Thomas Frye died in 1762, at the age of 52, and is buried in Hornsey Churchyard.

In 1776 what remained of the Bow factory was sold for a small sum to William Duesbury, and all the moulds and implements were transferred to Derby.

His work went on, but without his driving force and energy, quality slipped. There was another 13 years of production at Bow, but towards the end products were underfired and lacked their earlier translucence and in 1776 the works closed

 

Figure following a Meissen model, about 1754, Bow Porcelain Factory (V&A Museum no. C.144-1931

The Bow porcelain factory (active ca 1747-1764, closed 1776) was an emulative rival of the Chelsea porcelain factory in the manufacture of early soft-paste porcelain in Great Britain. The factory was located near Bow in what is now the London Borough of Newham and the local council owns a significant collection, which is held in the care of the borough’s Heritage and Arts Service.

Contents

 

 History

Designs imitated imported Chinese and Japanese porcelains and the wares being produced at Chelsea, at the other end of London. Meissen figures were copied, both directly, and indirectly through Chelsea. Quality was notoriously uneven;[1] the warm, creamy body of Bow porcelains is glassy and the glaze tends towards ivory.

Early patents applied for by Thomas Frye and his silent partner Edward Heylyn[2] in December 1744 (enrolled 1745) and a totally different patent of 1 November 1748 (enrolled March 1749), both apparently intended broadly to cover the uses of kaolin,[3] do not seem to have resulted in any actual manufacture before about 1749, though Frye’s published epitaph claimed that he was ‘the inventor and first manufacturer of porcelain in England.’ “Heylyn and Frye do not appear to have had a factory of their own, but probably carried on their experiments at a factory already existing at Bow, having first secured the services of a well-skilled workman whose name has not been preserved, and who may have been the real inventor of English porcelain,” a writer noted in 1911.[4]

The earliest Bow porcelains are of soft-paste incorporating bone ash, forming a phosphatic body that was a precursor of bone china.[5] By 1750 Frye was serving as manager of the factory, under new owners John Crowther and Weatherby. In 1753 they were advertising in Birmingham for painters and a modeller. Sources for the early history of the Bow manufactory were collected by Lady Charlotte Guest in memoranda, diaries, and notebooks, including a diary of John Bowcocke, who was employed in the works as a commercial manager and traveller. The works, designated ‘New Canton,’[6] were sited on the Essex side of the River Lea, close to Bow Bridge.

About 1758, the manufactory’s high point, three hundred person were employed, ninety of whom were painters, all under one roof. “An account of the business returns for a period of five years shows that the cash receipts, which were £6,573 in 1750-1, increased steadily from year to year, and had reached £11,229 in 1755. The total amount of sales in 1754 realized £18,115.”[7] The firm had a retail shop in Cornhill and a warehouse at St. Katharine’s near the Tower, though the West End shop that was opened in 1757 in the Terrace in St. James’s Street closed the following year. The part-owner Weatherby died in 1762 and his partner Crowther was listed as bankrupt the following year. Three sales dispersed his effects in March and May 1764. Though Crowther continued in business in a small way, in 1776 what remained of the Bow factory was sold for a small sum to William Duesbury, and all the moulds and implements were transferred to Derby: see Chelsea porcelain factory.

The chaser and enamellist George Michael Moser, a key figure in the English Rococo and a founder of the Royal Academy, modelled for Bow, the sculptor Joseph Nollekens was told years later;[8] the sculptor John Bacon also modelled for Bow in his youth. The large white figure of the Farnese Flora, a high point in the Bow production, was taken, it has been suggested, from a terracotta by Michael Rysbrack.

A pair of Bow figures of Kitty Clive and Henry Woodward as “the Fine Lady” and ‘the Fine Gentleman” in David Garrick‘s mythological burlesque Lethe, 1750-52 “are probably the earliest full-length portrait figures in English porcelain”;[9] some were enamelled by William Duesbury[10] Some Bow figures were imitated from Chelsea models. Bow porcelain adopted the newly-invented technique of transfer-printing from Battersea enamels in the 1750s.

Gallery

A Lady Falconer – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1755

A Pair of Musicians – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1760

Flora – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1762

1c.Plymouth and Bristol

Europe, about 1770 V&A Museum no. 3088-1901

Plymouth porcelain was a hard paste porcelain made in the English county of Devon in the 18th century [1].

The porcelain factories at Plymouth and Bristol are noteworthy because they were amongst the earliest English manufacturers of porcelain. William Cookworthy, a Quaker Pharmacist of Plymouth, was greatly interested in attempting to discover in Cornwall and Devon minerals similar to those which were described by Père François Xavier d’Entrecolles, a Jesuit missionary who worked in China during the early eighteenth century, as forming the basis of Chinese porcelain. Père d’Entrecolles provided an account in two letters, the first written in 1712 and the second written in 1722, of porcelain manufacture at the town of Jingdezhen that included a detailed description of the two principal materials used to make porcelain, china clay and Chinese pottery stone. After many years of travel and research William Cookworthy determined that Cornish china clay and Cornish stone could be made to serve as equivalents to the Chinese materials and in 1768 he founded a works at Plymouth for the production of a porcelain similar to the Chinese from these native materials.

The factory was removed to Bristol in 1770 and was shortly afterwards transferred to Richard Champion, a Bristol merchant, who had already been dabbling in the fashionable pursuit of porcelain making. Champion’s Bristol factory lasted from 1773 to 1781, when the business had to be sold to a number of Staffordshire potters owing to the serious losses it had entailed. The Bristol porcelain, like that of Plymouth, was a hard-paste porcelain. It is harder and whiter than some other English porcelains, and its cold, harsh, glittering glaze marks it off at once from the wares of Bow, Chelsea, Worcester or Derby

1d.Lowenstoft

  

Coordinates: 52°29′N 1°45′E / 52.48°N 1.75°E / 52.48; 1.75

England

Lowestoft
Townhalllow.jpg
Lowestoft Town Hall
Lowestoft is located in Suffolk
Lowestoft

 Lowestoft shown within Suffolk

Population 72,978 
OS grid reference TM548933
District Waveney
Shire county Suffolk
Region East
Country
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LOWESTOFT
Postcode district NR32, NR33
Dialling code 01502
Police Suffolk
Fire Suffolk
Ambulance East of England
EU Parliament East of England
UK Parliament Waveney
List of places: UK • England • Suffolk

Lowestoft (pronounced /ˈloʊstɒft/, /ˈloʊstəf/, or /ˈloʊ.əstəft/) is a town in the county of Suffolk, England, lying between The Broads. Lowestoft Harbour heads towards North Sea. Lowestoft is the most easterly town in the United Kingdom, because it is home to Ness Point, the most easterly point of the United Kingdom and of the British Isles. Lowestoft is part of the Waveney constituency.

Contents

 

History

The settlement’s name is derived from the Viking personal name Hlothver, and toft,[1] a Viking word for ‘homestead’. The town’s name has been spelled variously: Lothnwistoft, Lestoffe, Laistoe, Loystoft and Laystoft. In the Domesday Book, it was spelled Lothu Wistoft[1] and described as a small agricultural village of 20 families, or about 100 people.

In the Middle Ages, Lowestoft developed a fishing industry, a trade that continued to be its main identity until the 20th century.

In the 1665, the first battle of the Second Dutch War was the Battle of Lowestoft 40 miles (64 km) off the coast of the town[citation needed].

In the 19th century, the arrival of Sir Samuel Morton Peto brought about a change in Lowestoft’s fortunes. Railway contractor Peto was contracted by the Lowestoft Railway & Harbour Company to build a railway line between Lowestoft and Reedham. After that Peto started the development of South Lowestoft, however he never developed the harbour at Lowestoft which was purchased according to Peto by the Norfolk Railway from the Exechequer Loan Commissioners in 1845. For details see the 1845 Norfolk Railway (Lowestoft Harbour Improvement Bill) and the April 1858 minutes of a Parliamentary Select Committee on Harbours of Refuge where Peto gave full details of the ownership and development of the harbour.

The major development of Lowestoft Harbour including the building of the docks was carried out from 1848 by the Eastern Counties Railway, and continued from 1862 by the Great Eastern Railway with Peto having no input to this work. Upon completion, the improvements gave a boost to trade with the continent. Peto helped to establish Lowestoft as a flourishing seaside holiday resort by connecting several other parishes, still keeping their names, which now are a part of Lowestoft. However, some of the buildings associated with Peto have been demolished.

In World War I, Lowestoft was bombarded by the German Navy on 24 April 1916.

During the World War II, the town was used as a navigation point by German bombers[citation needed]. As a result it became the most heavily bombed town per head of population in the UK.[citation needed] Old mines and bombs are still dredged up and have been hazardous to shipping.

Lowestoft's Yacht Basin in 1929

Lowestoft’s Yacht Basin in 1929.

Lowestoft has been subject to periodic flooding; the most notable was in January 1953 when a North Sea swell driven by low pressure and a high tide swept away many of the older sea defences and deluged most of the southern town.

Until the mid-1960s, fishing was perceived as Lowestoft’s main industry, although from the 1930s the percentage of those employed directly and in trades associated with fishing was actually only around 10% of the working population[citation needed]. Fleets comprised drifters and trawlers, with the drifters primarily targeting herring while the trawlers caught cod, plaice, skate and haddock. By the mid 1960s, the catches were greatly diminishing, particularly the herring. Consequently the drifter fleet disappeared and many of the trawlers were adapted to work as service ships for the new North Sea oil rigs. The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), a large fisheries research centre, which is a part of Defra is still located in Lowestoft.

The Eastern Coach Works was another big employer and in the 1960s it was a regular occurrence to see a bare bus chassis being driven through the town to the coach works by a goggled driver. Installing the bus’s superstructure, body work and seats was the job of Eastern Coach Works. Both double decker and single decker buses were built there and sent all over the country.

Brooke Marine and Richards shipbuilding companies, who together employed over a thousand men, went out of business in 1990. In order to carry on the skills and traditions of the threatened shipbuilding trade, the International Boatbuilding Training College [1] was formed in 1975 and has been largely successful at producing graduates who carry on the legacy of Lowestoft shipwrights.

From the late 1960s to the late 1990s, the oil and gas industry provided significant employment (if often seasonal and erratic) in the Lowestoft area. For many years the Shell Southern Operations base on the north shore of Lowestoft Harbour was one of the town’s largest employers. A decision to close the Shell base was finally made in 2003.[2]

 Lowestoft porcelain

During the second half of the 18th century a factory in Crown Street produced soft-paste porcelain ware. Items still exist, and there are collections at the museum in Nicholas Everett Park, Oulton Broad, and at the Castle Museum, Norwich. The factory produced experimental wares in 1756 and first advertised their porcelain in 1760.

Lowestoft collectors divide the factory’s products into three distinct periods, Early Lowestoft circa 1756 to 1761, Middle-Period circa 1761 to 1768 and Late-Period circa 1768 to the closure of the factory in 1799.

During the early period wares decorated with Chinese-inspired scenes (Chinoiserie) in underglaze blue were produced. This type of decoration continued throughout the life of the factory but scenes were gradually simplified. Overglaze colours were used from about 1765.

Much of the small factory building remains, home for many years to a manufacturer of artists’ brushes.

Lowestoft Museum

      

In 1756 Hewlin Luson Esq. found clay on his Gunton estate which, after it was analysed in London, was reported to be akin to Delft ware. However, his early attempts to produce porcelain ware were unsuccessful and, about one year later, a partnership which did not include Luson was formed to establish a company.

By January 1760 the company was ready to advertise its wares in the Ipswich Journal and records show that the porcelain produced at Lowestoft was highly successful, being advertised as far afield as London and Cambridge. It is also possible that some ware was exported to Holland.

During the life of the factory, a range of items were made, from birth tablets to spittoons. Although the vast majority of the ware falls within the category of everyday household items, things such as eye-baths, inkwells and cutlery handles can also be found among catalogue entries. As well as the distinctive blue and white hand-painted ware, the factory produced pieces with enamel decoration and transfer printing, though these were to come during the middle and later periods, and probably contributed to the decline in hand-painting.

We know that Thomas Walker, one of the latter partners, wrote a will stating that the factory was to “continue for sixteen years from October 1785 and then cease”. The termination of the business was therefore planned and Production gradually ceased, until finally the factory closed down somewhere between October 1801 and early 1802.

Lowestoft Porcelain has been highly collectable since 1760(Ladies Day).

The Southwold Tankard

It is known that Walker and Co., manufacturers of porcelain in the Georgian period, produced ware for all types of customers in the local region. There are surviving examples of pieces with inscriptions to people and of local town names. Some of these pieces have interesting stories surrounding them, such as the Black Boy Tankard and its connections with the town of Beccles. During our research into the original ware we came across the only known piece to be made that had links to Southwold, Suffolk. The Southwold Tankard was discovered at the Bristol Museum. After contacting the museum they agreed to send us photos of the piece and in the meantime we began our research.

The original Tankard is made from soft paste porcelain and has been decorated not by hand as many pieces were, but with a transfer print, which has been seen on other pieces besides the tankard. The only hand decoration on the piece is an inscription, which reads “Willm Mewse, Southwould. 1771″in the center of the tankard (note the curious spelling of Southwold, we do not know why this is). As this piece was the only known piece to be linked with Southwold we were very keen to learn more about William Mewse and how he came into possession of his tankard.

Customs collection in the 1700’s was an entirely different affair to that of today. Gaining employment in the Customs Service was very much subject to patronage, which was the accepted system for such opportunities. We do not know exactly how William Mewse came into the job but it is safe to say he would have had a solid background, and have been literate and numerate. It is probably that he was a beneficiary of some preference and must have had some social standing to have been vouchsafed by his two Bondsmen. Bondsmen acted as sponsors, and for William Mewse two men took a great risk with £500 of their money to be used as security in the event that William was less than trustworthy. John Glasfpoole, a farmer from Blundeston and Simon Bendy, an Attorney from Great Yarmouth obviously had great faith in him.

William Mewse’s first job was as a Riding Surveyor. Riding Surveyors were first introduced in 1698 after the Wool Act was passed and they were accompanied by, and in charge of, Riding Officers. These mounted and armed men were stationed around the coast to prevent wool from leaving the shores. They also helped the Waterguard with any inbound contraband. As a Riding Surveyor it was his duty to inspect the Officers between Great Yarmouth and Aldborough. Based at Cromer, his Warrant is dated 7 December 1757, around the time the first porcelain factory was coming into being.

William remained at Cromer until 10th October 1768 when he moved to the Great Yarmouth Collection, where he remained for 2 years until he was warranted Collector at Southwold in 1770. The role of Collector was more senior than that of Riding Surveyor. It would have entailed actual collection and remitting dues for all dutiable goods. He would have been mounted and armed still, but now responsible for a small staff at the Southwold station.

The work of Customs (and Excise) officers was sometimes very dangerous. Whilst they worked singly or in twos and threes, smugglers often operated in gangs of a dozen or more persons, usually armed with flintlocks, cutlasses and knives. Sailing vessels used by smugglers were also often armed with small cannons, and skirmishes on land and at sea were quite regular. Many smugglers commissioned the building of fast skiffs with very shallow draughts. These were designed to carry a few barrels of spirit and be rowed from offshore across flats and into marshland where Customs cutters could not venture. In some cases local inhabitants often aided smugglers, many having vested interests in obtaining illegal imports. Wool, brandy, rum, wines, textiles and tobacco were the most commonplace contraband.

William Mewse stayed at the Southwold Collection until his death in 1788, he was buried at the Southwold church as was his wife, Sarah Mewse, who died from Smallpox in 1770. Whilst in Southwold they had a daughter also named Sarah but unfortunately she died very young at under a year old.

We have been unsuccessful in finding out why William had the Tankard, there seems to be no supporting evidence to suggest that it was a gift for a special occasion, or any evidence that it was a gift at all. It would seem likely that William purchased the Tankard for personal reasons. It is almost certain that on his travels whilst inspecting the Riding Officers he would have passed through Lowestoft many times and would have seen the beginning and growth of Walker and Co.

 

Lowestoft Museum collects, preserves and displays objects relating to the history of the area and its people, and promotes awareness and interest in our rich heritage. 

The Museum is probably best known for its important collection of 18th-century Lowestoft Porcelain but there are many other treasures to see, including displays of locally found fossils and artefacts relating to early man (Pakefield Man dating back 700,000 years); local archaeological displays of objects from Roman and Anglo-Saxon sites; exhibits relating to HMS Lowestoft and HMS Mantis and Lowestoft as a fishing port; change and development of local industries; well-known characters connected with Lowestoft such as Benjamin Britten and George Borrow; a Victorian room setting with domestic items of the period and a cobbler’s shop; a Doctor’s surgery and an office before the  age of computers; a  display of old Toys; items relating to WW1 and WW2…….and many more interesting things.

The Museum is  housed inside Broad House, a grade ll listed building dating from 1685, which is situated within the grounds of Nicholas Everitt Park, Oulton Broad, NR33 9JR.

It is staffed entirely by Volunteers and is open every afternoon from 1pm-4pm until the end of October.

We have loan items available for schools and can open for groups at other times by special arrangement

1d.Wedgwood

Josiah Wedgwood and Sons
Wedgwood logo.png
Type Private (subsidiary of Waterford Wedgwood plc)
Founded 1759
Founder(s) Josiah Wedgwood
Headquarters Stoke-on-Trent, England
Key people Moira Gavin (CEO)
Employees 1,800
Parent Waterford Wedgwood
Website www.wedgwood.com

Typical wedgwood blue plate with white decor

Kutani Crane by Wedgwood

Kutani Crane by Wedgwood (back)

Wedgwood, strictly Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, is a British pottery firm, founded on May 1, 1759[1] by Josiah Wedgwood, which in 1987 merged with Waterford Crystal, creating Waterford Wedgwood, the Ireland-based luxury brands group. The company still exists as a subsidiary within the group, with its own board of directors and management team. Wedgwood is also used as a general term to describe the company’s main products.

In January 2009, following years of financial problems at group level, and after a share placement failed during the global financial crisis of 2008, Wedgwood was placed into administration.[2] Three months later in March KPS Capital Partners announced it would invest €100m and move jobs to Asia to cut costs and return the firm to profit.[3]

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The family and company history

Josiah Wedgwood worked with an established potter, Thomas Whieldon, until 1759, when relatives leased him the Ivy House in Burslem to allow him to start his own pottery business. The launch of the business was helped by his marriage to a remote cousin, Sarah (also Wedgwood), and her sizeable dowry.

In 1765, Wedgwood created a new earthenware form which impressed the then English Queen, who gave permission to call it “Queen’s Ware”; this new form sold extremely well across Europe. Then, in 1766, Wedgwood bought Etruria, a large Staffordshire estate, as both home and factory site. Wedgwood developed a number of further industrial innovations for his company, notably a way of measuring kiln temperatures accurately and new ware types Black Basalt and Jasper Ware (the first colour was the Poland Blue and for its innovation Josiah Wedgwood experimented with more than 3,000 samples). In recognition of the importance of his pyrometer, Josiah Wedgwood was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1783. Today, the Wedgwood Prestige collection sells replicas of some of the original designs, as well as modern neo-classical style jasper ware.

The main themes on the company’s jasper ware have all been taken from ancient mythologies: Roman, Greek or Egyptian. The initial decision to have antique designs was probably that as Britain entered an age of great industrialization, the demand for luxurious goods subsequently exploded. Meanwhile, the archeological fever caught the imagination of many artists. Nothing could have been more suitable to satisfy this huge business demand than to produce replicas of artefacts.[citation needed]

Wedgwood had increasing success with hard paste porcelain attempting to imitate the whiteness of tea-ware imported from China, which was extremely popular with high society. The high transportation costs and the vigorous long journey from the Far East meant that the supply of china could not keep up with the increasingly high demand. Towards the end of the eighteenth century other Staffordshire manufacturers introduced bone china as an alternative to translucent and delicate Chinese porcelain.[4] In 1812 Wedgwood produced their own bone china.[5] Though not a commercial success at first,[4] Wedgwood’s English Fine Bone China eventually became an important part of an extremely profitable business.

Josiah Wedgwood was also a patriarch of the Darwin–Wedgwood family. Many of his descendants were closely involved in the management of the company down to the time of the merger with the Waterford Company:

  • John Wedgwood (1766–1844), eldest son of Josiah I, partner in the firm from 1790 to 1793 and again from 1800 to 1812.
  • Josiah Wedgwood II (1769–1843), second son of Josiah I, succeeded his father as proprietor in 1795 and introduced the production by the Wedgwood company of bone china. In 1815, during Josiah II’s time as proprietor, the great English Romantic poet William Blake (1757–1827) spent some time engraving for Wedgwood’s china catalogues.[6]
  • Josiah Wedgwood III (1795–1880), son of Josiah II, he was a partner in the firm from 1825 until he retired in 1842.
  • Francis Wedgwood (1800-1880), son of Josiah II, he was a partner in the firm from 1827 and sole proprietor following his father’s death until joined by his own sons. Financial difficulties caused him to offer for sale soon after taking over the firm’s factory at Etruria and the family home Etruria Hall, but in the event and fortunately for the company only the hall was sold. He continued as senior partner until his retirement to Barlaston Hall in 1876.
  • Godfrey Wedgwood (1833–1905), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner in the firm from 1859 to 1891. He and his brothers were responsible for the reintroduction of bone china c.1876 and the employment of the artists Thomas Allen and Emile Lessore.
  • Clement Wedgwood (1840–1889), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner.
  • Laurence Wedgwood (1844–1913), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner.
  • Major Cecil Wedgwood DSO (1863–1916), son of Godfrey Wedgwood, partner from 1884, first Mayor of the federated County Borough of Stoke-on-Trent (1910–1911). He was chairman and managing director of Wedgwood until his death in battle in 1916.
  • Kennard Laurence Wedgwood (1873–1949), son of Laurence Wedgwood, partner. In 1906 he went to the United States and set up the firm’s New York office, which became Josiah Wedgwood and Sons USA, an incorporated subsidiary, in 1919.
  • Francis Hamilton Wedgwood (1867–1930), eldest son of Clement Wedgwood, chairman and managing director from 1916 until his sudden death in 1930.
  • Josiah Wedgwood V (1899–1968) grandson of Clement Wedgwood and son of Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, the Managing Director of the firm from 1930 until 1968 and credited with turning the company’s fortunes around. He was responsible for the enlightened decision to move production to a modern purpose built factory in a rural setting at Barlaston. It was designed by Keith Murray in 1936 and built between 1938 and 1940. He was succeeded as managing director by Arthur Bryan (later Sir Arthur) who was the first non-member of the Wedgwood family to run the firm.

Enoch Wedgwood (1813-1879), a distant cousin of the first Josiah, was also a potter and founded his own firm, Wedgwood & Co, in 1860. It was taken over by Josiah Wedgwood & Sons in 1980.

 The company from 1986

In 1986, Waterford Glass Group plc purchased Wedgwood plc for 360 million USD, with Wedgwood delivering a 38.7 million USD profit in 1998 (when Waterford itself lost 28.9 million USD), following which the group was renamed Waterford Wedgwood.

From early 1987 to early 1989, the CEO was Patrick Byrne, previously of Ford, who then became CEO of the whole group. During his time, he sold off non-core businesses, and reduced the range of Wedgwood patterns from over 400 to around 240.

In the late 1990s, the CEO was Brian Patterson. From 1 January 2001, the Deputy CEO was Tony O’Reilly, Junior, who was appointed CEO in November of the same year and resigned in September 2005, and had seen then succeeded by the then president of Wedgwood USA, Moira Gavin.

In 2001 Wedgwood launched its collaboration with designer Jasper Conran which started with an iconic white fine bone china collection and has expanded to include seven patterns.

The company today incorporates Coalport, Mason’s and Johnson Brothers wares, and its parent company, Waterford Wedgwood also owns crystal brands such as Waterford, Stuart and Edinburgh, as well as Royal Doulton. Wedgwood continues to be headquartered on a 200 acres (0.81 km2) site in Barlaston.

On 5 January 2009, following years of financial problems at group level, and after a share placement failed during the global financial crisis of 2008, Wedgwood was placed into administration[2] on a “going concern” basis, with 1800 employees remaining.

On 27 February 2009, Waterford Wedgwood’s receiver Deloitte announced that the New York-based private equity firm KPS Capital Partners had purchased “certain Irish and UK assets of Waterford Wedgwood and the assets of several of its Irish and UK subsidiaries” in a transaction expected to completed in March.[7]

In March KPS Capital Partners announced that it had acquired group assets in a range of countries, including the UK, USA and Indonesia, would invest €100m, and move a number of jobs to Asia to cut costs and return the firm to profitability.[3]

Wedgwood Museums and the Museum Trust

Wedgwood’s founder wrote as early as 1774 that he wished he had preserved samples of all the company’s works, and began to do so. The first formal museum was opened in May 1906, with a curator named Isaac Cooke, at the main (Etruria) works. The museum was stored for the duration of World War II, and relaunched in a gallery at the new Barlaston factory in 1952. A new purpose-built Visitor Centre and Museum was built in 1975, and remodelled in 1985, with pieces displayed near items from the old factory works, in cabinets of similar period. A video theatre was added, and a new gift shop, as well as an expanded demonstration area where visitors could watch pottery being made. A further renovation, costing 4.5 million pounds, was carried out in 2000, including access to the main factory itself, following which the Visitor Centre complex won multiple awards.

Adjacent to the museum and visitor centre are a restaurant and tea room, serving on Wedgwood ware. The museum, managed by a dedicated trust, closed in 2000 and in 2008 reopened in a new multi-million pound building. The new “state of the art” museum was opened on the 24th of October 2008.

In June 2009, Wedgwood Museum won a UK Art Fund Prize for Museums and Art Galleries, for its displays of Wedgwood pottery, skills, designs and artefacts.[8]

The Minton Archive is a separate part of the collection. It comprises papers and drawings from 1793–1968) of the designs, manufacture and production of the pottery company, Minton and of the artistic and industrial archives of Royal Doulton. The liquidation of Wedgwood places this collection under threat of break-up and sale

Introduction

  • View of the Museum

For a unique experience and a very warm welcome, the stunning new Wedgwood Museum is the place to visit – whether you just like looking at beautiful objects or have a specialist interest. We are the home of one of the most interesting ceramic collections in the world. Our galleries tell the story of Josiah Wedgwood, his family, and the company he founded two-and-a-half centuries ago.

We are open:
Monday to Friday 9.00am to 5.00pm
Saturday and Sunday 10.00am to 5.00pm
The Wedgwood Museum is open every day – except 24 December 2010 to 2 January 2011 inclusive.

If you want to spend the day at Wedgwood you can combine your visit with a trip to the Wedgwood Visitor Centre and view production on special factory tours when available.

You can buy your individual or family tickets in person at the Wedgwood Museum or Wedgwood Visitor Centre. No pre-booking is needed

Plate, Bagshot pattern – 1999

Plate, Bagshot pattern, © Wedgwood Museum
    Plate, Bagshot pattern
    © Wedgwood Museum

This plate is an example of a design created for HRH Prince Edward on the occasion of his marriage to Miss Sophie Rees-Jones in 1999. It is decorated with Bagshot pattern which is a variation of the Osborne design. The adaptation includes thistle, red and white roses in place of stylised flowers of original design.

This plate is an example of a design created for HRH Prince Edward on the occasion of his marriage to Miss Sophie Rees-Jones in 1999. It is decorated with Bagshot pattern which is a variation of the Osborne design. The adaptation includes thistle, red and white roses in place of stylised flowers of original design.

  • Type of object: Dessert ware/plate
  • Mark: W with silhouette Portland vase WEDGWOOD ® BONE CHINA MADE IN ENGLAND BAGSHOT CREATED ESPECIALLY FOR HRH THE EARL AND COUNTESS OF WESSEX TO CELEBRATE THEIR MARRIAGE ON 19 JUNE 1999 © WEDGWOOD 1999 (printed in black)
  • Year first produced: 1999
  • Body: Bone china
  • Glaze: Clear glaze
  • Material: Ceramic
  • Decoration: Lithographed
  • Accession number: 10530
  • Dimensions: 228 mm (diameter)
  • Other Collection

    Wedgwood locality

    Wedgwood railway station was opened in the 1950s to serve the Wedgwood complex in Staffordshire, England.

    2a.Royal CrownDerby

    Pair of vases, 1772-1774, Derby Porcelain Factory (V&A Museum no. 485-1875)

    The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company is a porcelain manufacturer, based in Derby, England. The company, particularly known for its high-quality bone china, has produced tableware and ornamental items since approximately 1750.

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     History

     William Duesbury I and II

    In 1745 André Planché, a Huguenot immigrant from Saxony, settled in Derby, where between 1747 and 1755 he made soft-paste porcelain vases and figurines. At the beginning of 1756 he formed a business partnership with William Duesbury (1725 — 1786), a porcelain painter formerly at Chelsea porcelain factory and Longton Hall, and the banker John Heath.[1] This was the foundation of the Derby company, although production at the works at Cockpit Hill, just outside the town, had begun before then, as evidenced by a creamware jug dated 1750, also in the possession of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Planché disappeared from the scene almost at once, and the business was developed by Duesbury and Heath, and later Duesbury alone. A talented entrepreneur, Duesbury developed a new paste which contained glass frit, soaprock and calcined bone. This enabled the factory to begin producing high-quality tableware. He quickly established Derby as a leading manufacturer of dinner services and figurines by employing the best talents available for modelling and painting. Figure painting was done by Richard Askew, particularly skilled at painting cupids, and James Banford. Zachariah Boreman and John Brewer painted landscapes, still-lifes, and pastorals. Intricate floral patterns were designed and painted by William Billingsley.

    In 1770, Duesbury further increased the already high reputation of Derby by his acquisition of the famous Chelsea porcelain factory in London. He operated it on its original site until 1784 (the products of this period are known as “Chelsea-Derby“), when he demolished the buildings and transferred the assets, including the stock, patterns and moulds, and many of the workmen, to Derby. Again, in 1776, he acquired the remainder of the formerly prestigious Bow porcelain factory, of which he also transferred the portable elements to Derby.

    In 1773, Duesbury’s hard work was rewarded by King George III, who after visiting the Derby works granted him permission to incorporate the royal crown into the Derby backstamp, after which the company was known as Crown Derby.

    In 1786, William Duesbury died, leaving the company to his son, William Duesbury II, also a talented director, who besides keeping the reputation of the company at its height, developed a number of new glazes and body types.

    Michael Kean

    William Duesbury II did not live to fulfil his promise: he died in 1797 at the age of 34 and the company was taken over by his business partner, an Irishman named Michael Kean, who later married Duesbury’s widow. He seems not to have enjoyed good relations with the highly skilled workforce, and many eminent artists left. Others however produced good work under his management, including Moses Webster, a flower painter who replaced Billingsley, Richard Dodson (who specialised in birds), George Robertson (land- and seascapes) and Cuthbert Lawton (hunting scenes). The best-known artist of this time was William Pegg, a Quaker, famed for his striking and idiosyncratic flower painting. He started in 1797 but his religious beliefs led him to the conclusion that painting was sinful and he left in 1800. He returned in 1813, but left again in 1820.

    Despite much good work, the Kean period was disruptive and the company suffered financially.

    William Duesbury III, born in 1790, son of William Duesbury II, took over the factory when he came of age in 1791, and Kean having sold his interest to his father-in-law, William Duesbury’s grandfather, named Sheffield, the concern continued under the name of Duesbury & Sheffield.

     Robert Bloor

    Crown Derby Imari plate, 19th century

    In 1815, the factory was leased to the firm’s salesman and clerk, Robert Bloor, and the Duesburys played no further part in it. Bloor borrowed heavily to be able to make the payments demanded but proved himself to be a highly able businessman in his ways of recouping losses and putting the business back on a sound financial footing. He also possessed a thorough appreciation of the aesthetic side of the business, and under him the company produced works that were richly coloured and elegantly styled, including brightly coloured Japanese Imari patterns, generally featuring intricate geometric patterns layered with various floral designs. These designs proved extremely and lastingly popular, and Derby continued to thrive.

    In 1845, however, Bloor died, and after three years under Thomas Clarke, the Cockpit Works were sold and the factory closed in 1848.

    King Street

    A group of former employees set up a factory in King Street in Derby, and continued to use the moulds, patterns and trademarks of the former business, although not the name, so keeping alive the Derby traditions of fine craftsmanship. No mechanical processes were used, and no two pieces produced were exactly the same. Among the items preserved was the original potter’s wheel of the Duesburys, still owned by the present Royal Derby Company.

    Osmaston Road

    In 1877, an impressive new factory was built by new owners of the Crown Derby name in Osmaston Road, Derby, thus beginning the modern period of Derby porcelain. Crown Derby’s patterns became immensely popular during the late Victorian era, as their romantic and lavish designs exactly met the popular taste of the period.

     Royal Crown Derby

    In 1890, Queen Victoria appointed Crown Derby to be “Manufacturers of porcelain to Her Majesty” and by Royal Warrant granted them the title “The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company”.

    In 1935 Royal Crown Derby acquired the King Street factory, thus reuniting the two strands of the business.

    Allied Potteries

    In 1964, the company was acquired by S. Pearson and Son and became part of the Allied English Potteries Group, later to be joined by Royal Doulton.

    Royal Crown Derby (II)

    In 2000, Hugh Gibson, a former director of Royal Doulton and a member of the Pearson family, led a buy-out, making Royal Crown Derby once again an independent and privately-owned concern, which at present (2006) employs about 300 people at the Osmaston Road works.

    Present product lines include paperweights, introduced in 1981 and immensely popular. Royal Crown Derby also continue to produce patterns in the Imari style, distinguished for its rich colours and intricate gilding, including the dinnerware ranges Old Imari, Traditional Imari, Red Aves, Blue Mikado, and Olde Avesbury.

    Royal Crown Derby Visitor Centre

    The Royal Crown Derby Visitor Centre in Derby features a museum of porcelain items, and offers tours of the factory, a gift shop and a restaurant

    2.Chelsea Porcelein

    Dogs, about 1749, Chelsea Porcelain factory (V&A Museum no. C.246A-1976

    The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England;[1] its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745. The entrepreneurial director was Nicholas Sprimont, a silversmith by trade, but few documents survive to aid a picture of the manufactory’s history. Early tablewares, being produced in profusion by 1750, depend on Meissen porcelain models and on silver prototypes, such as salt cellars in the form of realistic shells.

    Chelsea was known for its figures. From about 1760 its inspiration was drawn more from Sèvres porcelain than Meissen.

    In 1769 the manufactory was purchased by William Duesbury, owner of the Derby porcelain factory, and the wares are indistinguishable during the “Chelsea-Derby period” that lasted until 1784, when the Chelsea factory was demolished and its moulds, patterns and many of its workmen and artists transferred to Derby.

    The factory history can be divided into four main periods, named for the identifying marks under the wares:

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    [edit] Triangle period (around 1743-1749)

    These early products bore an incised triangle mark. Most of the wares were white and were strongly influenced by silver design. The most notable products of this era were white saltcellars in the shape of crayfish. Perhaps the most famous pieces are the Goat and Bee jugs in 1747 that were also based on a silver model. Copies of these were made at Coalport in the 19th century.

    [edit] Raised anchor period (1749-1752)

    In this period, the paste and glaze were modified to produce a clear, white, slightly opaque surface on which to paint. The influence of Meissen, Germany is evident in the classical figures among Italianate ruins and harbour scenes and adaptations from Francis Barlow’s edition of Aesop’s Fables. In 1751, copies were made of two Meissen services. Chelsea also made figures, birds and animals inspired by Meissen originals. Flowers and landscapes were copied from Vincennes.

    [edit] Red anchor period (1752-1756)

    Kakiemon (Japanese pottery), subjects were popular from the late 1740s until around 1758, inspired by the original Japanese and then by Meissen and Chantilly. Some English-inspired tableware decorated with botanically accurate plants, copied from the eighth edition of Philip Miller‘s The Gardener’s Dictionary (1752) were also produced in this period.

    [edit] Gold anchor period (1756-1769)

    The influence of Sèvres was very strong and French taste was in the ascendancy. The gold anchor period saw rich coloured grounds, lavish gilding and the nervous energy of the Rococo style. In the 1750s and 1760s, Chelsea was also famous for its toys, which included bonbonnières, scent bottles, étuis, thimbles and small seals, many with inscriptions in French. In 1769 the failing factory was purchased by William Duesbury of Derby who ran it until 1784; during this time the Chelsea wares are indistinguishable from Duesbury’s Derby wares and the period is usually termed “Chelsea-Derby”.

    [edit] Gallery

    A Lady – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1755

    A Shepherdess – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

    A Street Vendor – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

    Frame tiga :

    A.British Unidentified Mark found in Indonesia

    B.British Earliest Porcelein mark

    I. Marks On Spode porcelein

    II. Marks on Royal Wocaster Porcelein

    III.Marks on Derby Porcelain 1795-1825

    There is something reassuring about factories like Worcester and Derby which have marked much of their production since the middle of the 18th century. The marking of porcelain makes scholarship and collecting much more agreeable. However, I would like to tell a cautionary tale of hand painted Derby marks featuring the crown over a ‘D’ format used from around 1780 until 1825. Having several examples at hand allowed me to test the conventional wisdom that pieces from the period in question could be dated by virtue of the care with which the crowned ‘D’ Derby mark was painted. Both Godden* and Twitchett** subscribe to the theory that the care in which the marks are painted deteriorates over time. 
    Royal Crown Derby

    Fig 1. This modern Royal Crown Derby mark {from 1978} is descended from the hand painted marks of the early 19th century.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    To understand the assumptions underlying this theory, requires a brief review of the factory’s history. The fame of the early factory justly rests on what are called the ‘dry edged’ figures associated with Andrew Planché who established the porcelain works in Derby around 1748***. Archaeological research has revealed moulds for dry edged figures in which the initials AP are carved; evidence suggesting Planché’s rôle extended to sculptor and model maker. There are no marks upon the pieces of this period.One of the surprises of reading Hilary Young’s recent account, English Porcelain, 1745-95****, is the position enjoyed by the Derby porcelain factory. Young constructs a ‘league ladder’ of 18th century porcelain makers based on their contemporaries’ assessments which puts Derby atop the list of English manufacturers. Part of this success can be attributed to William Duesbury, who ran the factory from 1756 to 1786. The phrase ‘ran the factory’ does not adequately describe Duesbury’s transformation of Planché’s workshop into a nationally important producer. It was his taste and awareness of the market which allowed Derby it’s standing in Young’s ladder. Also worthy of note, is an assertion by Derby’s London agent in 1777 that ‘Duesbury had the Royal Appointment from 1775’†; which may explain the crown in their mark.The factory was next run by Duesbury’s son, William Duesbury II. His role was crucial in combining sound business with beautiful porcelain, making Derby one of the pre-eminent factories in Europe.In 1796 William Duesbury II took Michael Kean into partnership and upon Duesbury’s death, in 1797, Kean married his widow. Kean ran the factory until 1811 when he sold it to Robert Bloor. Bloor had been a clerk to Duesbury and Kean so knew the business well. It was during the Bloor period that painters like the famous William ‘Quaker’ Pegg were engaged in creating pieces of the highest quality. It is here our interest ends, because it was Robert Bloor who introduced the printed circular mark around 1825 (see figure 2).
    Royal Crown Derby 1825

    Fig 2. The mark c.1825 adopted by Robert Bloor for the factory on a very typical Derby coffee can of the late 1820s. The plain loop handle has been repaired with wire staples.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    Our earliest example (figure 3) is a fluted coffee can with delicate sprigged decoration in blue, green and puce enamel and gilding. With its plain loop handle and sixteen vertical facets, it is of identical shape to the example illustrated in plate 147 of Michael Berthoud’s Compendium of British Cups††. The painter or gilder’s number 129 appears under the crowned ‘D’ mark. The cup is decorated with stylised cornflowers, which would almost certainly be described as ‘Chantilly sprig’ today. The paste is beautifully white and lustrous without any sign of the crazing which was to become a regular feature of later Derby porcelain. The gilding has worn significantly on all protruding surfaces. 
    Royal Crown Derby 1795

    Fig. 3 A Coffee can c.1795 bearing a puce mark of either William Duesbury II or Duesbury and Kean. The matching saucer is identically marked and numbered but the mark is much larger because of the greater space on the base of the saucer.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    Early Duesbury II marks were painted in blue or puce and this practice continued until 1806†††. The lack of care taken with the mark depicted in figure 3 is noticeable. The ‘D’ looks more like a lower case ‘b’ and the crown is skewed. 
    Royal Crown Derby 1810 - 1815

    Fig. 4 A Derby saucer with a very faint mark in the Bute shape with pale blue border. The matching saucer, coffee can and tea cup all bear the same mark.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    In figure 4, we see a very faint mark on a Bute shaped saucer with pale blue border and bands of gilding and gilt foliage. The first thing we notice about this mark is the iron (ferric oxide) orange colour usually associated with production after 1806††††. The style of the matching saucer, coffee can and tea cup support this, appearing to be c.1810-15 (although shapes may continue in production for years). The inclusion of the balls dotted around the top of the crown suggest this is an early orange mark. The balls upon the crown have become perfunctory and the three dots are difficult to distinguish. This hardly agrees with conventional wisdom that the earlier marks are ‘carefully drawn until c.1820’‡. All of the marks on the surviving pieces of the set, including bun dishes, trios and slops bowls exhibit the same mark. The eccentricities of the mark suggest all were painted by the same hand in fact the painter or gilder’s number ‘2’ appears in orange, near the rim on each piece. As the practice of placing the painter or gilder’s numbers near the rim started around 1810‡‡, there is support for the early dating of this piece.In the next three examples, however, we see the need for a system that dates the marks more accurately. These three plates are all the same shape and figures 5 and 6 are of identical size. All fall within the period when Robert Bloor was the head of the works; in these cases roughly around 1820.In figure 5, we see a dessert dish decorated in a style I associate with late Georgian Derby, which includes bands of gilding, gilt foliage, brightly enamelled roses, daisies and bright green foliage. The roses are especially charming and echo the ‘Prentice Plate’ painted by William Billingsley, c. 1790, which he painted to teach apprentices how to paint these distinctive roses‡‡‡. On the reverse we can see characteristic crazing and a crowned ‘D’ mark painted with some skill and great speed as well as a small painter or gilder’s number‡‡‡‡ (27) near the rim. The balls from the crown have disappeared, the cross has lost its shape, but the three dots either side of the crossed strokes are clearly distinguishable.
    Royal Crown Derby 1820

    Fig. 5 A Derby dessert dish c. 1820, with a border of gilded foliage, half hearted daisies and skilfully executed roses.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    The dating of the next plate (figure 6) is a little more difficult. It appears to be a descendant of the almost geometrical swirling border patterns of around 1800 but incorporates bolder, more varied colours and intricate foliage. In this set, the painter or gilder’s numbers are much higher (one is 68 the other is 74). Each plate also has another number under the central mark (11 in the case of 68, 22 and 39 in the case of 74). It is fascinating to have six plates by at least five different artists and note the slight variations in shapes and spacial arrangements. In this case the marks appear to be painted by the artist whose number appears closet to the mark; probably at the same time. This suggests the rim marks may be gilder’s marks. These plates present a problem, too. There are two examples (figure 6a) of a mark painted by ’39’ which have the balls on the crown rather like the marks in figure 3. The crossed lines and balls below the crown are different, as are ‘D’s. This makes the mark look like a very early mark… which I don’t think it can be.
    Royal Crown Derby plate 1820

    Fig. 6 One of six Derby dessert plates, c. 1820.
     


    Fig. 6a The mark which appears on two of the Dessert plates of the same pattern as figure 6. It appears on intital inspection to be like the mark in figure 3.
     
    The third example (figure 7), like that in figure 5, has a characteristic Derby decoration including ‘Billingsley’ roses. The other stylised flowers represent cornflowers and honeysuckle. It has a small painter or gilder’s number (23) on the base, close to the foot rim. In spite of characteristic crazing, this plate still has a shiny, attractive glaze. The mark has taken on quite impressionistic qualities; it has only a passing similarity to a crown and ‘D’. 


    Fig. 7 A Derby plate with cornflowers, roses and honeysuckle in a band around the rim with gilded bands. The mark is almost ‘impressionist’ it is executed with so little care.
     
    While it is tempting to assume that the plates in figures 5, 6 and 7 can be safely dated by the years when the patterns on them were most fashionable, difficulties present themselves. Patterns remained in the books for much longer periods than the ten years with which we are dealing. All these patterns could have been produced simultaneously. The care with which the marks are painted, however, appears to support a chronology of figure 5 first, followed by 6 and then 7. Holding the plates and inspecting them closely, this appears to be perfectly reasonable. Remember, however, the plates in the dessert set of six (figure. 6) have widely varying marks: two bear marks that look earlier than figure 5. 
    A Bloor Derby

    Fig. 8 A Bloor Derby coffee can and its mark.
    Another reason why I would doubt dating based soley on the painted mark, is the example of the coffee can in figure 8. It features a Japanese inspired pattern based on cobalt blue, iron (ferric oxide) orange and gilding. Its earlier date may be reflected in the more restricted colour palette than the later example (figure 2) but both retain an oriental feel. The square handle, which is obviously a derived from the square handle referred to as ‘French handle’, would have been the height of fashion in 1810. The mark however, which is the second most imprecise observed here, would suggest the mid 1820s with conventional mark dating. Although this coffee can has a repaired square handle, the same pattern appears in Twichett’s Derby Porcelain*, with a Grecian handle and is dated between 1810-20. The ‘H’ beneath the mark remains a mystery to me, but may be related to the painter number, II, beneath the mark in figure 6.In Conclusion, I am fairly sure that there is no simple chronological progression from well painted to badly painted marks. The presence of painter or gilder’s numbers suggest there was no reason for each painter to personalise their version of the Derby mark but there is clear evidence that they did. The fact is, we still need to take into account all the factors involved in dating a piece of ceramic (the weight and translucency of the body, the lustre or crazing of the glaze, style, decoration, abrasions and marks) when assessing the age of Derby china of the Duesbury & Kean and Bloor periods. While we can add the care with which the mark is painted to the list of these factors, we can not rely on it as the sole dating technique.
     

    THE END @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011 

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