Pameran Piringhitam Musik legendris didunia 1940-1960(the legend Music Orchestra album record)

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Pameran Koleksi Piring Hitam Orkes Musik Legendaris Dunia 1940-1960

(The Legend Music Orchestra Album Record Plate)

1.The Glenn Miller Orchestra

Glenn Miller

Glenn Miller
Background information
Birth name Alton Glenn Miller
Born March 1, 1904(1904-03-01)
Clarinda, Iowa, U.S.
Origin Glenn Miller Orchestra
Died Missing December 15, 1944(1944-12-15) (aged 40)
English Channel (presumably)
Genres Swing music
Big band
Occupations Bandleader, Musician, Arranger, Composer
Instruments Trombone
Years active 1923–1944

Alton Glenn Miller (March 1, 1904 – missing December 15, 1944) was an American jazz musician (trombone), arranger, composer, and bandleader in the swing era. He was one of the best-selling recording artists from 1939 to 1943, leading one of the best known “Big Bands”. Miller’s signature recordings include In the Mood, American Patrol, Chattanooga Choo Choo, A String of Pearls, Tuxedo Junction, Moonlight Serenade, Little Brown Jug and Pennsylvania 6-5000.[1] While he was traveling to entertain U.S. troops in France during World War II, Miller’s plane disappeared in bad weather over the English Channel. His body has never been found.

2.Paul Weston and his orcestra with Doris day and Johnnie Rey

Paul Weston

 

Paul Weston
Birth name Paul Wetstein
Born March 12, 1912(1912-03-12)
Springfield, Massachusetts
Died September 20, 1996(1996-09-20) (aged 84)
Santa Monica, California
Genres popular music
comedy
Occupations conductor
composer
arranger
pianist
Instruments piano
Years active 1933–1970s
Labels Capitol
Columbia
Corinthian

Paul Weston (March 12, 1912 – September 20, 1996) was an American pianist, arranger, composer and conductor. Weston was born Paul Wetstein in Springfield, Massachusetts. [1] Weston has a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame honoring his work in music.[2]

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 Early years and work

Weston was born in Springfield, Massachusetts, but grew up in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, where his family moved when he was two years old. He was an economics major at Dartmouth College, where he graduated cum laude in 1933. During his college days, Paul had his own band called “the Green Serenaders”.[3] He went to graduate school at Columbia University and was active in the Blue Lions, Columbia’s dance band. In January 1934, Weston was seriously injured in a train accident. Unable to be active in a band, he started doing music arranging as a way to keep some involvement with music while convalescing.[3]

When he returned to New York in the fall of 1934, he made his first sale of his work to Joe Haymes. Haymes liked Weston’s work enough to ask him to do more arrangements for his band. His medley of Anything Goes songs was heard by Rudy Vallee, who contacted him and offered Weston a job as an arranger for his Fleischmann’s Hour on radio. Weston was also doing arranging for Phil Harris.[3]

He met Tommy Dorsey through his work with Joe Haymes. Following the Dorsey Brothers split in 1935, Tommy had yet to form an orchestra; he used the Joe Haymes Orchestra for his first engagement as a solo conductor. Weston joined Dorsey as chief arranger in 1936, holding the position until 1940.[3][1] He then became Dinah Shore‘s arranger/conductor and also worked freelance for the Bob Crosby Orchestra. Weston also worked with Fibber McGee and Molly and Paul Whiteman.[3] When Bob Crosby’s band was hired for his brother Bing’s film, Holiday Inn, this took him to Hollywood and into film work. Weston was asked do do more work for Bing Crosby and Bob Hope, and also for Betty Hutton.[3][1] Subsequent films as musical director include Belle of the Yukon (1944) and Road To Utopia (1945).

Capitol and Columbia

Weston met Johnny Mercer while working for Paramount in 1942; Mercer, who was preparing to start Capitol Records, wanted Weston to write for his new company. Paul wrote, arranged and directed Mercer’s “Strip Polka”-the first arrangement written for the new label on April 6, 1942.[3] On August first of that year, the 1942–44 musicians’ strike began. No union musicians could record for any record company, but were able to play for live engagements and radio shows; the issue which prompted the strike was regarding record companies paying royalties to musicians.[4] Many record companies had “stockpiled” recordings of their stars prior to the strike, planning to release them over a period of time. While the older, more established record labels were able to do this, the newly formed Capitol had no opportunity to do likewise. The strike brought the new company to a standstill until Johnny Mercer began his radio show, Johnny Mercer’s Music Shop, in June 1943.[3][5] The radio show was meant to be a venue for Capitol’s talent during the Musicians’ Strike.[3] Mercer and Capitol recording artist Jo Stafford hosted the program, with Weston and his orchestra providing the music for it.[5][3] Stafford and Weston had first met in 1938, when he was working as an arranger for Tommy Dorsey; Weston was responsible for getting Stafford’s group, the Pied Pipers, an audition with Dorsey for his radio show.[6] The recording ban was lifted for Capitol in October 1943 after an agreement was reached between the Musicians’ Union and the record company; Weston was then able to return to the recording studio. In 1944, he became the company’s music director.[3]

Besides his work at Capitol, Weston did conducting for many radio shows during this time. He worked with Duffy’s Tavern, the radio shows of Joan Davis, and Your Hit Parade.[3] Jo Stafford, who became a regular host of the Chesterfield Supper Club in 1945, returned to California permanently in 1947. She then hosted the show from Hollywood with Weston and his orchestra.[7][8] It was around this time that Paul Weston had a new idea for recorded music that would be similar to the soundtrack of a movie. It could be an enhancement to living but subtle enough not to stifle conversation. His album Music For Dreaming was the beginning of the “Mood Music” genre.[3] In 1950, he left Capitol for a similar position at Columbia Records; Jo Stafford also signed with Columbia at the same time.[1][3][6] Both returned to Capitol in 1961.[6] He remained active in radio, with his own The Paul Weston Show and also in acting roles on Dear John with Irene Rich, Valiant Lady, and Cavalcade of America.[9] Paul and Jo Stafford were married on February 26, 1952; the couple had two children, Tim (born 1952),[10] and Amy (born 1956).[11][12][13]

 Jonathan and Darlene Edwards

1957 was a very busy year for Weston. He became the musical director for NBC-TV,[2] a founding member and the first president of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences,[1][3][14][15] and half of a recording duo that the whole country was talking about. Paul and Jo did a skit at their parties where he would play the role of a simply horrible lounge pianist and she would vocalize in off-key melodies to the tunes he tried to play. Weston went public with his portion of the act at a Columbia Records convention, where it was an instant hit; the couple agreed to do some recordings, calling themselves Jonathan and Darlene Edwards.[16][6][17] It was not immediately known to the public who had really made the records; there was much speculation as to what two famous people might be behind the music.[17] In 1958, the fictional couple appeared on Bob Hope’s Shower of Stars.[18] The couple won a Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album in 1960 for their work as the imaginary pair.[19][20] They continued to release Jonathan and Darlene albums for several years, and in 1979 released a final single, a cover of The Bee Gees’ “Stayin’ Alive” backed with “I Am Woman.”[16] Paul’s dedication to music and recording was recognized with a Trustees’ Award Grammy in 1971.[21]

 3.Norrie Paramor and his orchestra.Prince(now emperor) Akihito and Prince(now empress Michiko) Wedding Song.

Norrie Paramor

Norrie Paramor
Born 15 May 1914
Origin England
Died 9 September 1979
Years active ?? – 1979
Associated acts Cliff Richard, The Shadows, Frank Ifield

Norrie Paramor (15 May 1914[1] – 9 September 1979) was a British record producer, composer, arranger, and orchestral conductor.

Although the term ‘producer’ was not in frequent circulation at the time Paramor started producing records (the usual term being ‘Artiste and Repertoire Manager’ or ‘A&R Man’), he effectively commenced this role in 1952 when he became ‘Recording Director’ for EMI‘s Columbia Records.

Paramor produced hit singles for Cliff Richard, The Shadows, and Frank Ifield among others, scoring 26 number ones, according to the Guinness Book Of British Hit Singles[citation needed] (although this may incorrectly attribute Richard’s “The Minute You’re Gone“, which was produced by Billy Sherrill[citation needed]). Until George Martin produced “Candle In The Wind 97” for Elton John, Paramor and Martin jointly held the record for having produced the most number one hit singles, despite Paramor’s death 18 years earlier.

Paramor recorded one of the biggest selling albums from Capitol Records’ “Capitol of the World” import series: In London in Love, which featured the floating voice of the soprano Patricia Clark, who was used in many subsequent selling albums. This became his trademark orchestral signature sound.

Paramor also composed music for several films, including Serious Charge (1959), Expresso Bongo (1959), The Young Ones (1961), The Frightened City (1961) and The Fast Lady (1962).

In 1968, he was the Musical Director for the Eurovision Song Contest, staged at the Royal Albert Hall, the first to be broadcast in colour. He also conducted the UK entry, Congratulations, performed by Cliff Richard.

His style is seen by some as being old-fashioned[citation needed]; however, the raw rock’n’roll of early Cliff Richard or Shadows numbers belies this myth, and Paramor was as at home with an economic production featuring three guitars and a small drum kit as he was with a large orchestra.

In 1977 Paramor and his orchestra recorded with The Shadows for a final time with the track “Return to the Alamo”.

Paramor died of cancer on 9 September 1979. His death came a couple of weeks after his protege, Richard, returned to the top of the UK Singles Chart with “We Don’t Talk Anymore”, his first number one single in over ten years. Paramor and Richard had worked together professionally from 1958 to 1972.

Despite his track record of success as a producer he died in obscurity without receiving any public recognition of success from any British institution. His work can be heard regularly on the Music Choice easy listening channel

4. London Phillamornic Orchestra derigent Otto Klempeler.

London Philharmonic Orchestra

 
 London Philharmonic Orchestra The London Philharmonic Orchestra

In the 2007/08 season, the London Philharmonic Orchestra celebrates its seventy-fifth birthday, inaugurates Vladimir Jurowski as its new Principal Conductor and moves back into its splendidly restored Royal Festival Hall home.

Today the London Philharmonic Orchestra is recognised as one of the world’s great orchestras, and following Sir Thomas Beecham’s founding tenure the ensemble’s Principal Conductorship has been passed from one celebrated musician to another. It is the only symphony orchestra in the UK to combine an annual subscription concert season with regular work in the opera house – resident at both the Royal Festival Hall and Glyndebourne Festival Opera (also performing regularly in the nearby south coast towns of Brighton and Eastbourne).

Touring forms a significant part of the Orchestra’s performing schedule, and it regularly appears in North America, Europe and the Far East, often headlining at major festivals and concert-hall openings. As a counterpoint to its travels, the Orchestra’s membership has itself benefited from increased migratory freedoms, today including outstandingly talented musicians of varying world nationalities from Brazilian to Hungarian.

The London Philharmonic Orchestra has long been embraced by the recording, broadcasting and film industries. It enjoys strong relationships with major record labels and in 2005 began releasing live, studio and archive recordings on its own label CDs which are distributed worldwide. The Orchestra has broadcast regularly on domestic and international television and radio from both the concert hall and the opera house, and has worked extensively with both Hollywood and the UK film industries, recording soundtracks for blockbuster motion pictures including the Oscar-winning score for The Lord of the Rings trilogy and scores for Lawrence of Arabia, The Mission, East is East and In the Name of the Father.

The London Philharmonic Orchestra’s international reputation is matched by a steadfast and unflinching commitment to the communities of its local London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark and Lewisham. The Orchestra reaches thousands through its varied and extensive programme of education work, both community and school-based, which includes the acclaimed offshoot ensembles Renga and the Open Ear Orchestra. Education activities also nurture budding excellence, and in 2005 the Orchestra launched its apprenticeship scheme for young instrumentalists, Future Firsts, who benefit from a year of mentoring and performance opportunities.

 
Reviews
 
“For the London Philharmonic one can have nothing but praise.” – The Independent

 5.The James Last Band

James Last

James Last in 2006

James Last (also known as “Hansi”, born Hans Last on 17 April 1929 in Bremen) is a German composer and big band leader.

Contents

[hide]

 

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Biography

Last’s father was an official at the public works department of the city of Bremen and he grew up in the suburb of Sebaldsbrück. He learned to play the piano from the age of 12, then switched to double bass as a teenager. His home city was heavily bombed in World War II and he ran messages to air defence command posts during raids. At 14 he was entered in the Bückeburg Military Music School of the German Wehrmacht.[1]

After the fall of the Nazis, he joined Hans-Gunther Österreich‘s Radio Bremen Dance Orchestra in 1946. In 1948, he became the leader of the Last-Becker Ensemble, which performed for seven years. During that time, he was voted as the best bassist in the country by a German jazz poll for three consecutive years, from 1950–1952. After the Last-Becker Ensemble disbanded, he became the in-house arranger for Polydor Records, as well as for a number of European radio stations. For the next decade, he helped arrange hits for artists like Helmut Zacharias, Freddy Quinn, Lolita, Alfred Hause and Caterina Valente.

Work

Last first released albums in the U.S. under the titles The American Patrol on Warner Brothers around 1964. He also released a series of 9 albums in a series called Classics Up To Date vols. 1–9 which served up arrangements of classical melodies with strings, rhythm and wordless chorus from the mid sixties through the early seventies. Last released an album, Non-Stop Dancing, in 1965, a recording of brief renditions of popular songs, all tied together by an insistent dance beat and crowd noises. It was a hit and helped make him a major European star. Over the next four decades, Last released over 190 records, including several more volumes of Non-Stop Dancing. On these records, he varies his formula by adding different songs from different countries and genres, as well as guest performers like Richard Clayderman and Astrud Gilberto. He also had his own successful television series in the 1970s with guests ABBA and Lynsey de Paul.

Though his concerts and albums are consistently successful—especially in the United Kingdom, where he had 52 hit albums between 1967 and 1986, which made him second only to Elvis Presley in charting records[citation needed]—he has only had two hit singles with “The Seduction”, the theme from American Gigolo (1980) composed by Giorgio Moroder, and “Biscaya” from the album Biscaya. The song “The Lonely Shepherd” was written by an unknown artist. The song was performed by Gheorghe Zamfir for over three decades before Tarantino decided to use it in his film Kill Bill Vol. 1 (2003).[2]

He has won numerous popular and professional awards, including Billboard magazine’s Star of the Year trophy in 1976, and has been honoured for lifetime achievement with the German ECHO prize in 1994. His song “Music from Across the Way” (recorded by Andy Williams in 1972) is a melody with a classical feeling and was a worldwide hit.

Last has a large fan base in Europe and elsewhere. His trademark is big band arrangements of pop music hits; his series of party albums is equally well known. Over the course of his career, he has sold well over 100 million albums.[citation needed]

European concert dates For April 2011 have been advertised.[3]

6.a.Dean Martin

Dean Martin

Dean Martin
Background information
Birth name Dino Paul Crocetti
Also known as Dean Martin
The King of Cool
Dino
Dino Martini
Born June 7, 1917(1917-06-07)
Steubenville, Ohio,
United States
Died December 25, 1995(1995-12-25) (aged 78)
Beverly Hills, California,
United States
Genres Big band, easy listening, pop standard, country
Occupations Actor, comedian, singer, producer
Years active 1939-1995 (His Death)
Labels Capitol, Reprise

Dean Martin (June 7, 1917 – December 25, 1995), born Dino Paul Crocetti, was an American singer, film actor, television star and comedian. Martin’s hit singles included “Memories Are Made of This“, “That’s Amore“, “Everybody Loves Somebody“, “Mambo Italiano“, “Sway“, “Volare” and smash hit “Ain’t That a Kick in the Head?“. Nicknamed the “King of Cool”,[1][2] he was one of the members of the “Rat Pack” and a major star in four areas of show business: concert stage/night clubs, recordings, motion pictures, and television.

6.b.The Abe Lymans California Orchestra

Abe Lyman

Abe Lyman’s Orchestra in 1922

Abe Lyman (August 4, 1897 – October 23, 1957) was a popular bandleader from the 1920s to the 1940s. He made recordings, appeared in films and provided the music for numerous radio shows, including Your Hit Parade.

His name at birth was Abraham Simon Lymon. Abe and his brother Mike changed their last name to Lyman because they both thought it sounded better. Abe learned to play the drums when he was young, and at the age of 14 he had a job as a drummer in a Chicago café. Around 1919, Abe was regularly playing music with two other notable future big band leaders, Henry Halstead and Gus Arnheim in California.

In Los Angeles Mike opened the Sunset, a night club popular with such film stars as Mary Pickford, Norma Talmadge, Charlie Chaplin, Buster Keaton and Harold Lloyd. When Abe’s nine-piece band first played at the Sunset, it was a success, but the club closed after celebrities signed contracts stating they were not to be seen at clubs.

For an engagement at the Cocoanut Grove in The Ambassador Hotel on April 1, 1922, Abe added a violinist and saxophonist. Opening night drew a large crowd of 1500 guests in the Cocoanut Grove, plus another 500 more outside.

After the band cut their first record under the local label Nordskog Records, they moved a year later to Brunswick Records where they made many recordings. The Lyman Orchestra toured Europe in 1929, appearing at the Kit Cat Club and the Palladium in London and at the Moulin Rouge and the Perroquet in Paris. Abe Lyman and his orchestra were featured in a number of early talkies, including Hold Everything (1930), Paramount on Parade (1930), Good News (1930) and Madam Satan (1930). In 1931, Abe Lyman and his orchestra recorded a number of soundtracks for the Merrie Melodies cartoon series.

Notable musicians in the Lyman Orchestra included Ray Lopez, Gussie Mueller, and Orlando “Slim” Martin.

During the 1930s, the Lyman Orchestra was heard regularly on such shows as Accordiana and Waltz Time. Lyman and his orchestra sat in for Phil Harris on the Jack Benny program in 1943 when Harris served in the Merchant Marines.

When Lyman was 50 years old, he left the music industry and went into the restaurant management business. He died in Beverly Hills, California at the age of 60.

7.The Jack Hylton and his Orchestra

Jack Hylton

Jack Hylton (born John Greenhalgh Hilton)
Also known as Jack Elton
Born 2 July 1892(1892-07-02), Great Lever, Bolton, Lancashire, England, U.K.
Died 29 January 1965(1965-01-29) (aged 72)
Marylebone, London, England, U.K.
Occupations Band leader, impresario
Years active 1917–1965

Jack Hylton, ca. 1930

Jack Hylton (2 July 1892, Bolton, Lancashire – 29 January 1965, London) was a British band leader and impresario.

He was born John Greenhalgh Hilton in the Great Lever area of Bolton, Lancashire, the son of George Hilton, a cotton yarn twister. His father was an amateur singer at the local Labour Club and Jack learned piano to accompany him on the stage. Jack later sang to the customers when his father bought a pub in nearby Little Lever, becoming known as the “Singing Mill-Boy”. He also performed as a relief pianist for various bands.

His early career involved moving to London as a pianist in the 400 club and playing with the Stroud Haxton Band. During the first world war he moved to be a musical director of the band of the 20th Hussars and the Director of the Army Entertainment Division. After the war he went on to play with the Queen’s Dance Orchestra where he wrote arrangements of popular songs and had them recorded under the label ‘Directed by Jack Hylton’. He went on from here to form his own band, recording the new style of jazzy American dance music under the Jack Hylton name from 1923. Hylton became a respected band leader with a busy schedule; his band had developed into an orchestra and toured America and Europe into the 1940s until it disbanded due to the war. He became a director and major shareholder of the new Decca record label.

At this point in his career he became an impresario discovering new stars and managing radio, film and theatre productions from Ballets to Circuses. His productions dominated the London theatres with such productions as The Merry Widow, Kiss Me Kate and Kismet.

Contracted as Advisor of Light Entertainment to Associated-Rediffusion (A-R), winners of the London weekday franchise in the recently established ITV network, he founded Jack Hylton Television Productions Ltd in that same month to produce a range of light entertainment programming exclusively for that company. At the same time he was still producing stage shows, as well as taking a leading role in organising various Royal Command Performances, until his final stage production “Camelot” in 1965. He helped to develop the careers of many famous performers such as Shirley Bassey, Maurice Chevalier, Morecambe and Wise, Arthur Askey, the Crazy Gang, George Formby and Liberace.

In 1965 a televised tribute to Hylton, The Stars Shine for Jack, was held in London on Sunday 30 May at the Theatre Royal, Drury Lane with many artists including Arthur Askey, The Crazy Gang, Marlene Dietrich, Dickie Henderson, and Shirley Bassey.

He was married twice; firstly in 1922 to bandleader Ennis Parkes (they separated in 1929) and secondly, in Geneva in 1963, to Australian model and beauty queen Beverley Prowse (1932–2000).

He had a son, Jack (b.1947), by Pat Taylor, a singer and actress and two daughters, Frederika (b.1932) and Georgina (b.1938), by model Frederika Kogler (“Fifi”).

 Death

On 26 January 1965, complaining of chest and stomach pains, Hylton was admitted to the London Clinic. He died there three days later, on 29 January, from a heart attack, aged 72.

Hylton’s spending habits and generosity left his estate with £242,288 gross, despite the many millions which he earned during his illustrious career. With duty (taxes) of £83,484, this left £151,160 to be distributed among his heirs, with the first £30,000 reserved for his widow, Beverley. As Hylton said to his son during his latter years, “I won’t leave you much, but we’ll have a good laugh spending it while I’m here!”[

8.The Mentovani Orchestra perform Johan Strauss THE BLUE DENUBE.

Mantovani

Mantovani
Background information
Born November 15, 1905(1905-11-15)
Venice, Veneto, Italy
Died March 29, 1980(1980-03-29) (aged 74)
Tunbridge Wells, Kent, England
Occupations Conductor

Annunzio Paolo Mantovani (November 15, 1905 – March 29, 1980), known by the mononym Mantovani, was an Anglo-Italian conductor and light orchestra-style entertainer with a cascading strings musical signature. He is more associated with the light orchestra genre than any other entertainer

9.Antti Sarpila The Oldtimers

Antti Sarpila (born 1964) is a Finnish jazz musician (clarinet).[1]

He formerly performed in a Benny Goodman-inspired style, and studied under Bob Wilber, and he was part of the «Tribute to Benny Goodman» (Carnegie Hall, 1988), and later figured in six tours of the USA. Later, he performed at the Oslo Jazzfestival 2006, together with Stokstad/Jensen Trad.Band.

His own A. S. Swing Band was established in 1982, and has released over ten albums. An anniversary DVD, 20th Anniversary Concert live at Finlandia Hall was released in 2002. With the Swedish Swing Society he also performed at Carnegie Hall in 2000. In a quartet with Lars Erstrand, Mark Shane and Björn Sjödin he performed A sailboat in the moonlight (2004) and We’ve got a heartful of music (2004). In the same year, he was a guest of Gerhard Aspheim‘s «Oldtimers» celebrating a 25 year anniversary at Oslo Jazzfestival.

He won the Yrjö-prisen in 1997.

10.The Arthur Rubinstein Orchestra

Arthur Rubinstein

  

Photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937

Arthur Rubinstein KBE[1] (January 28, 1887 – December 20, 1982) was a PolishAmerican[2] pianist.[2] He received international acclaim for his performances of the music of a variety of composers (many regard him as the greatest Chopin interpreter of the century).[3] He is widely considered one of the greatest pianists of the twentieth century.[4]

Contents

 

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Early life

Rubinstein grew-up on Piotrkowska street, Łódź, Poland

Rubinstein was born in Łódź, Poland on January 28, 1887, to a Polish-Jewish family.[5] He was the youngest of 8 children.[5] His father was a wealthy factory owner.[6]

His birth name was Artur Rubinstein. In English-speaking countries he preferred to be known as Arthur Rubinstein. However, his United States impresario Sol Hurok insisted he be billed as Artur, and records were released in the West under both versions of his name.

At the age of two, he demonstrated perfect pitch and a fascination with the piano, watching his elder sister’s piano lessons. By the age of four, he was already recognised as a child prodigy. The great Hungarian violinist Joseph Joachim, on hearing the four-year-old child play, was greatly impressed and began to mentor the young prodigy. Rubinstein first studied piano in Warsaw. By the age of ten, he moved to Berlin to continue his studies. In 1900 at age 13, he made his debut with the Berlin Philharmonic, followed by appearances in Germany and Poland and further study with Karl Heinrich Barth (an associate of Liszt, von Bülow, Joachim and Brahms; Barth also taught Wilhelm Kempff). As a student of Barth, Rubinstein inherited a renowned pedagogical lineage: Barth was himself a pupil of Liszt, who had been taught by Czerny, who had in turn been a pupil of Beethoven.[7]

 Career

In 1904, Rubinstein moved to Paris to launch his career in earnest. There he met the composers Maurice Ravel and Paul Dukas and the violinist Jacques Thibaud. He also played Camille Saint-SaënsPiano Concerto No. 2 in the presence of the composer. Through the family of Juliusz Wertheim (to whose understanding of Chopin’s genius Rubinstein attributed his own inspiration in the works of that composer) he formed friendships with the violinist Paul Kochanski and composer Karol Szymanowski.[8]

Rubinstein in 1906

Rubinstein made his New York debut at Carnegie Hall in 1906, and thereafter toured the United States, Austria, Italy, and Russia. According to his own testimony and that of his son in François Reichenbach‘s film L’Amour de la vie (1969), however, he was not well received in the United States. By 1908, Rubinstein, destitute and desperate, hounded by creditors, and threatened with being evicted from his Berlin hotel room, made a failed attempt to hang himself. Subsequently he said that he felt “reborn” and endowed with an unconditional love of life. In 1912, he made his London debut, and found a home there in the Edith Grove, Chelsea musical salon of Paul and Muriel Draper, in company with Kochanski, Igor Stravinsky, Jacques Thibaud, Pablo Casals, Pierre Monteux and others.[9]

Rubinstein stayed in London during World War I, giving recitals and accompanying the violinist Eugène Ysaÿe. In 1916 and 1917, he made his first tours in Spain and South America where he was wildly acclaimed. It was during those tours that he developed a lifelong enthusiasm for the music of Enrique Granados, Isaac Albéniz, Manuel de Falla, and Heitor Villa-Lobos. He was the dedicatee of Villa-Lobos’s Rudepoêma and Stravinsky’s Trois mouvements de Petrouchka.

Rubinstein was disgusted by Germany’s conduct during the war, and never played there again. His last performance in Germany was in 1914.[8][10]

In the fall of 1919 Rubinstein toured the English Provinces with soprano Emma Calvé and tenor Vladimir Rosing.[11]

In 1921 he gave two American tours, travelling to New York with Paul Kochanski (they remained close friends until Kochanski’s death in 1934) and Karol Szymanowski. The autumn voyage was the occasion of Kochanski’s permanent migration to the USA.[12]

In 1932, the pianist, who stated he neglected his technique in his early years, relying instead on natural talent, withdrew from concert life for several months of intensive study and practice.

During World War II, Rubinstein’s career became centered in the United States. He became a naturalized United States citizen in 1946.

A cast of the pianist’s hands, at the Lodz museum

Although best known as a recitalist and concerto soloist, Rubinstein was also considered an outstanding chamber musician, partnering with such luminaries as Henryk Szeryng, Jascha Heifetz, Pablo Casals, Gregor Piatigorsky, and the Guarneri Quartet. Rubinstein recorded much of the core piano repertoire, particularly that of the Romantic composers. At the time of his death, the New York Times in describing him wrote, “Chopin was his specialty … it was a Chopinist that he was considered by many without peer.”[13] With the exception of the Études, he recorded most of the works of Chopin. [14] He was one of the earliest champions of the Spanish and South American composers and of French composers who, in the early 20th century, were still considered “modern” such as Debussy and Ravel. In addition, Rubinstein was the first champion of the music of his compatriot Karol Szymanowski. Rubinstein, in conversation with Alexander Scriabin, named Brahms as his favorite composer, a response that enraged Scriabin.[15]

Rubinstein, who was fluent in eight languages,[16] held much of the repertoire, not simply that of the piano, in his formidable memory.[16] According to his memoirs, he learned César Franck’s Symphonic Variations while on a train en route to the concert, without the benefit of a piano, practicing passages in his lap. Rubinstein described his memory as photographic, to the extent that he would visualize an errant coffee stain while recalling a score.[17]

Rubinstein also had exceptionally developed aural abilities, which allowed him to play whole symphonies in his mind. “At breakfast, I might pass a Brahms symphony in my head” he said. “Then I am called to the phone, and half an hour later I find it’s been going on all the time and I’m in the third movement.” This ability was often tested by Rubinstein’s friends, who would randomly pick extracts from opera and symphonic scores, and ask him to play them from memory.[18]

By the mid-1970s, Rubinstein’s eyesight had begun to deteriorate. He retired from the stage at age 89 in May 1976, giving his last concert at London‘s Wigmore Hall, where he had first played nearly 70 years before.

Personal life

Rubinstein in 1963

Of his youth, Rubinstein once stated: “It is said of me that when I was young I divided my time impartially among wine, women and song. I deny this categorically. Ninety percent of my interests were women.”[19] At the age of 45, in 1932, Rubinstein married Nela Młynarska, a 24 year old Polish ballerina (who had studied with Mary Wigman). Nela was the daughter of the Polish conductor Emil Młynarski, while her mother from a Lithuanian aristocratic family. Nela had first fallen in love with Rubinstein when she was 18, but when Rubinstein began an affair with an Italian princess, she married Mieczysław Munz.[20][21] Nela subsequently divorced Munz, and three years later married Rubinstein.[21] They had four children, including daughter Eva, who married William Sloane Coffin, and son John Rubinstein, a Tony Award-winning actor and father of actor Michael Weston.[22] Nela subsequently wrote a book of Polish cookery, Nela’s Cookbook. [23]

Both before, and during, his marriage, Rubinstein carried on a series of affairs with many other women, including Irene Curzon. In 1977, at age 90, he left his wife for the young Annabelle Whitestone, though he and Nela never divorced. Rubinstein also fathered a daughter with a South American woman.[24]

Throughout his life, Rubinstein was deeply attached to Poland. At the inauguration of the UN in 1945, Rubinstein showed his Polish patriotism at a concert for the delegates. He began the concert by stating his deep disappointment that the conference did not have a delegation from Poland. Rubinstein later described becoming overwhelmed by a blind fury and angrily pointing out to the public the absence of the Polish flag. He then sat down to the piano and played the Polish national anthem loudly and slowly, repeating the final part in a great thunderous forte. When he had finished, the public rose to their feet and gave him a great ovation.[25]

On practice

Rubinstein believed that a foremost danger for young pianists is to practice too much. Rubinstein regularly advised that young piano students should practice no more than 3 hours a day, at the most. “It is not so good, in a musical way, to overpractice. When you do, the music seems to come out of your pocket. If you play with a feeling of ‘Oh, I know this,’ you play without that little drop of fresh blood that is necessary -and the audience feels it.” Of his own practice methods he said, “At every concert I leave a lot to the moment. I must have the unexpected, the unforeseen. I want to risk, to dare. I want to be surprised by what comes out. I want to enjoy it more than the audience. That way the music can bloom anew. It’s like making love. The act is always the same, but each time it’s different.”[26]

Pupils

Arthur Rubinstein was reluctant to teach in his earlier life, refusing to accept William Kapell‘s request for lessons. It was not until the late 1950s that he accepted his first student Dubravka Tomšič Srebotnjak.[27] Other students of Arthur Rubinstein include François-René Duchâble, Avi Schönfeld, Ann Schein Carlyss, Eugen Indjic, Dean Kramer, and Marc Laforêt. Rubinstein stated that his main goal in teaching was to help his pupils to find themselves and for them to become real musical personalities. Rubinstein also gave master classes towards the end of his life.[28][29]

Death

“I have found that if you love life, life will love you back…””People are always setting conditions for happiness… I love life without condition.”
— Arthur Rubinstein[30]

Rubinstein died in Geneva, Switzerland, on December 20, 1982, at the age of 95, and his body was cremated. On the first anniversary of his death, an urn holding his ashes was buried in Jerusalem — as specified in his will — in a dedicated plot now dubbed “Rubinstein Forest” overlooking the Jerusalem Forest. This was arranged with the rabbis so that the main forest wouldn’t fall under religious laws governing cemeteries. Israel now has an Arthur Rubinstein International Music Society which holds the triennial Arthur Rubinstein International Piano Master Competition.[31]

While he identified himself as an agnostic, Rubinstein was nevertheless proud of his Jewish heritage.[32] He was a great friend of Israel,[33] which he visited several times with his wife and children, giving concerts with the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, recitals, and master classes at the Jerusalem Music Centre.

In October 2007, his family donated to the Juilliard School an extensive collection of original manuscripts, manuscript copies and published editions that had been seized by the Germans during World War II from his Paris residence. Seventy-one items were returned to his four children, marking the first time that Jewish property kept in the Berlin State Library was returned to the legal heirs.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

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