WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD
SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN
AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM
DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR
*ill 001 LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001
THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)
WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA
Driwan Music record Cybermuseum
The Earliest Album Record Productions Historic Collections Exhibition
Frame One : Introduction
1. I have starting build the collections of Gramophone plate since study in hish school at Padang city West Sumatra in 1960.
2. Until this day in 2011 I cannot found the complete informations about the Indonesian’s gramophone plate History, that is why I have made reasech about this topic in order to give the young generations about the development of music gramophone technology in the world since found by Mr Thomas Alfa Edison and when first arrived in Indonesia during The Dutch East colionial Era.
3. I will show my collections with information from that very rare and amizing historic collections, very lucky I had found vintage book of gramophone and also many info fram google explorations,especially from wikipedia ,for that info thanks very much.
4. This exhibtion will divide into two parts, first before World War I and second Between WWI and WWII. all during Indonesia under Dutch east Indie Colonial time.
5.The earliest Gramophone’s Plate in 19Th Century produced by Addison inc with very thick plate almost 4 times then now circa 1 cm,then became half centimer and latest 0,2 cm more thin,please look the comperative picture below:
First the mechanic gramophone look the promotion picture of His Mater Voice company below:
and later electric gramophone, still used gramophone needle look the needle promotion label below :
6.In Indonesia during Colonial time , the gramophone’s plate sold by the chinese marchant ,many at Pasar Baru Market and Pasar Senen Batavia (Jakarta) please look the trader mark below :
7.The Edisson first Gramophone Info from google exploration
|The Inventions of Thomas Edison|
|History of Phonograph – Lightbulb – Motion Pictures|
|Replica of original phonograph|
Phonograph – HistoryThe first great invention developed by Edison in Menlo Park was the tin foil phonograph. While working to improve the efficiency of a telegraph transmitter, he noted that the tape of the machine gave off a noise resembling spoken words when played at a high speed. This caused him to wonder if he could record a telephone message. He began experimenting with the diaphragm of a telephone receiver by attaching a needle to it. He reasoned that the needle could prick paper tape to record a message. His experiments led him to try a stylus on a tinfoil cylinder, which, to his great surprise, played back the short message he recorded, “Mary had a little lamb.”
The word phonograph was the trade name for Edison’s device, which played cylinders rather than discs. The machine had two needles: one for recording and one for playback. When you spoke into the mouthpiece, the sound vibrations of your voice would be indented onto the cylinder by the recording needle. This cylinder phonograph was the first machine that could record and reproduce sound created a sensation and brought Edison international famous
Edison en zijn Phonograph rond 1878. Collectie Library of Congress. De eerste cylinders hadden een speelduur van twee minuten. Edison verbeterde dit type later onder de naam Amberol, deze had een speelduur van vier minuten. Tien jaar na de komst van Edison’s Phonograph vroeg Emil Berliner in Duitsland (1858 -1929) patent aan op een techniek om geluid in plaats van op cylinders op platte, gesneden platen vast te leggen. In de groeven van een ronde schellakplaat werden 3 tot 4½ minuten aan geluid vastgelegd. De toerentallen op de eerste platen varieerden van 60 tot 90 toeren per minuut. In 1915 werd de industrie het echter eens over een standaard: de 78 toerenplaat. Sinds 1920 werd de plaat vanuit een matrijs op een bakelieten drager geperst en fungeerde als handelsplaat.
De doorbraak van de platte plaat in Europa was er gekomen toen de gebroeders Pathé, die al sinds 1890 wasrollen van Edison in licentie voor de Franse markt maakten, rond 1905 overstapten op de plaat van Berliner.
Midden in de plaat zit een gaatje om hem vast te leggen op de platenspeler en er omheen zit een papieren label, waarop de inhoud van de plaat tekstueel wordt weergegeven. De oudste grammofoonplaten hadden een diameter van 30, 25 of 20 cm en werden eerst gemaakt van schellak (een bepaald type was) en later van bakeliet (synthetische kunsthars). In 1948 werd de eerste langspeelplaat (LP) gemaakt, waarna de 78-toerenplaten verdwenen.
- Bel Canto Record
- Dacapo of Juliana Record
- Gloria Record of Lyrophon
- Gramophone Concert Record
- His Master’s Voice
- Paramount Publix Corporation
- Peekel Studio
- Polyphon-Record / Gramophone Record
- Van Wouw
- Zonophone / Gramophone Company
8b.The Gramophone’s Plate procduction company whic found in Indonesia were
1) 19th century
(1) Addison Record
(2) Hias Master Voice
2)Early 20th century
(1b) HOMOKORD RECORDS
(3)Earlieast Polydor records
(5)Columbia China records
3)Pre Wolrd war II
(1)RCA-His Master Voice Shanghai China
(2) Decca records
(3) Irama India records with song Djali Djali
8.I hope the collectors of all over the world ,especially Indonesian Collectors plaes honor my copyright with donnot copy or tag this exhibitons without my permisssion,thanks.
Jakarta January 2011
Dr Iwan suwandy @ copyright 2011
Frame two :
The Earliest International Album Record Production Historic Collections Found In Indonesia
7.The Gramophone’s Plate procduction company whic found in Indonesia were
1) 19th century
(1) Edison Record
|Parent company||Thomas A. Edison, Inc.|
|Founded||June 28, 1888
Defunct October, 1929
Revived c. 1990s
Jesse H. Lippincott
|Distributor(s)||(independent, mostly through dealers, jobbers, and mail order)|
|Genre||Variety (classical, popular, etc.)|
|Country of origin||United States, some major European countries|
|Location||West Orange, New Jersey|
Early phonographs before commercial mass produced records
Thomas A. Edison invented the phonograph, the first device for recording and playing back sound, in 1877. After inventing and patenting the phonograph, Edison and his laboratory turned their attention to the commercial development of (electric lighting), playing no further role in the development of the phonograph for a decade.
The earliest phonograph was something of a crude curiosity, although it was one that fascinated much of the public. Early machines were sold to entrepreneurs who made a living out of traveling around the country giving “phonograph concerts” and demonstrating the device for a fee at fairs. “Talking dolls” and “Talking clocks” were manufactured as expensive novelties using the early phonograph.
The start of the commercial record industry
In 1887 Edison Labs turned their attention back to improving the phonograph and the phonograph cylinder.
In 1888 the Edison company debuted the Perfected Phonograph, Edison produced wax cylinders 4 inches (10 cm) long, 2<pi> inches in diameter, playing some 2 minutes of music or entertainment, which became the industry standard. Experimental music records were made around this time. The “brown wax” cylinder made its debut in March/April 1889. “Electric Light Quadrille” by Issler’s Orchestra (external link) is an example of an 1889 brown wax cylinder (Superbatone #734–“The Real Sound of Ragtime”).
Blank records were an important part of the business early on. Most phonographs had or could be fitted with attachments for the users to make their own recordings. One important early use, in line with the original term for a phonograph as a “talking machine”, was in business for recording dictation. Attachments were added to facilitate starting, stopping, and skipping back the recording for dictation and playback by stenographers. The business phonograph eventually evolved into a separate device from the home entertainment phonograph. Edison Record’s brand of business phonograph was called The Ediphone; see Phonograph cylinder and Dictaphone. Edison also holds the achievement of being one of the first companies to record the first African-American quartet to record: The Unique Quartette.
Mass produced cylinders
A notable technological triumph of the Edison Laboratories was devising a method to mass produce pre-recorded phonograph cylinders in molds. This was done by using very slightly tapered cylinders and molding in a material that contracted as it set. To Edison’s disappointment the commercial potential of this process was not realized for some years. Most of the regional Edison distributors were able to fill the small early market for recordings by mechanical duplication of a few dozen cylinders at a time. Molded cylinders did not become a significant force in the marketplace until the end of the 1890s, which was when molding was slow and was used only to create pantograph masters.
Mass producing cylinders at the Edison recording studio in New Jersey largely ended the local Edison retailers early practice of producing recordings in small numbers for regional markets, and helped concentrate the USA recording industry in the New York City – New Jersey area, already the headquarters of the nation’s Tin Pan Alley printed music industry.
In 1902, Edison Records introduced Edison Gold Moulded Records, cylinder records of improved hard black wax, capable of being played hundreds of times before wearing out. These new records were under the working title of “Edison Hi-Speed Extra Loud Moulded Records”, running at the speed of 160 RPM instead of the usual (ca. 1898–1902) speed of 144 RPM or (ca. 1889–1897) 120 RPM. Until ca. 1898, Edison’s speed was 125 RPM.
In 1908, Edison introduced a new line of cylinders (called “Amberols”) playing 4 rather than 2 minutes of music on the same sized record, achieved by shrinking the grooves and spacing them twice as close together. New machines were sold to play these records, as were attachments for modifying existing Edison phonographs.
In November 1912, the new Blue Amberol Records, made out of a type of plastic similar to celluloid invented by Edison labs, were introduced for public sale. The first release was number 1501, a performance of the Rossini’s overture to his opera Semiramide, performed by the American Standard Orchestra. The Blue Amberol records were much more durable than wax cylinders. The Edison lab claimed a 3000+ playback quota for the Blue Amberol. In that same year, the Edison Disc Record came out.
In 1910, artists’ names began to be added to the records; previously, Edison’s policy was to promote his cylinders (and up until 1915, discs) based on the recognition of composers and the works recorded theron in lieu of the performers themselves.
Edison Records continued selling cylinders until they went out of business in 1929. However, from January 1915 onwards the first of the that were Blue Amberols dubbed from Edison’s Diamond Disc matrices, appeared on the market. By 1919, the last decade of production, these were simply dubs of their commercial disc records intended for customers who still used cylinder phonographs purchased years before.
Edison Records was eventually run by Thomas Edison’s son, Charles Edison.
Materials and process used to manufacture cylinder records
Cylinders that are mentioned from 1888 are sometimes called “yellow paraffin” cylinders, but these cylinders are not paraffin, which is a soft oily wax and does not hold up under many plays. They could be a number of formulas tested by Jonas Aylsworth, Thomas Edison‘s chemist. Most of the surviving 1888 recordings would be formulated from a combination of 60% ceresin wax, 20% stearic acid, and 20% beeswax. A record of this kind has a cigar-like smell, and is physically very soft when first molded. In a year’s time, the record would harden quite considerably.
In late 1888, metallic soaps were tried. At first a lead stearate was used, but in the summer months, these records started to sweat and decompose. In 1889, Aylsworth developed an aluminum wax, using acetate of alumina and stearic acid with sodium hydroxide added as a saponifying agent. It was found these records were much more durable. Problems arose, however, since there was no tempering agent and hot weather caused these records to decompose. Two problems contributed to this, stearic quality varied from different makers; Aylsworth purchased some from P&G and found it had too much olaic acid in it. The next cause of the problem is that all stearic acid without a tempering agent takes on moisture, and after many experiments it was found that Ceresine was ideal. To make the wax hard, sodium carbonate was added. Even so, a few batches of records still had some problems and became fogged. The fog problem arose from acetic acid left in the wax, this problem was solved when higher temperatures were used to make sure all the acetic acid was boiled out of the wax. As such, the records from 1889 to 1894 are a reddish brown color due to the long cooking time. By 1896, Edison started using hydrated alumina in place of acetate of alumina. The use of hydrated alumina (sheet aluminum dissolved in a mixture of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and distilled water) made better records, and the wax could be manufactured in a shorter period of time. Using the hydrated aluminum resulted in more desirable blanks, with fewer defects and shorter production time.
The Columbia Phonograph Company used Edison recording blanks until 1894. The North American Phonograph Company was dissolved in the fall of 1894, and Edison quit supplying blanks to Columbia, who had purchased 70,000 blanks from 1889 to 1894. Columbia was frantic to find a solution to make cylinder blanks in house, and the recipe for making Edison’s wax was a well kept secret. Thomas McDonald started doing experiments with wax alloys with poor results: the records fogged or decomposed in the summer, just like the early Edison blanks. The Columbia company had a deadline to either supply recordings, or have their contracts cancelled and be sued for loss of records. Columbia resorted to attempt to steal secrets from Edison company by hiring old Edison Phonograph Works employees, such as Mr. Storms. Unfortunately for Columbia, the names of the components used by Edison were not labeled with ingredients but were instead indicated by number (i.e. 1,2,3 keeping the identities of these components a secret.) Paraffin, Ceresine, and Ozokerite all look similar, making the tempering agent even more difficult to be identified by the wax mixer. Wax mixers were given instructions on how much of the numbered components to put in the mixture, and how to process it, but no idea as to what the ingredients actually were. It took over a year for Columbia to come up with the formula for cylinders. Columbia placed an ad in the Soap Makers’ Journal for a practical man to work with metallic soaps. Adolph Melzer, a soap manufacturer from Evansville, Indiana took the job. Melzer came up with a formula comparable to Edison’s with the exception of the tempering agent (using cocinic acid, derived from coconut oil.)
In 1901 The Gold Molded (originally spelled Moulded) process was perfected for commercial use by Thomas Edison and Jonas Aylsworth (Edison’s Chemist) with input from Walter Miller, the Recording Manager of Edison Records.
 This discussion was gleaned from testimonials Walter Miller, Jonas Aylsworth, Thomas Edison, Adolphe Melzer, and Charles Wurth.
At first, no method of mass production was available for cylinder records. Copies were made by having the artist play over and over or by hooking two machines together with rubber tubing (one with a master cylinder and the other a blank) or copying the sound mechanically. By the late 1890s, an improved mechanical duplicator, the pantograph, was developed which used mechanical linkage. One mandrel had a playback stylus and the other a recording one, while weights and springs were used to adjust the tension between the styli to control recording volume and tracking.
The Edison team had experimented with Vacuum Deposited Gold masters as early as 1888, and it has been reported that some brown wax records certainly were molded,although it seems nobody has found these, in recent years, or can identify them. Frank Albert Wurth. The Edison Record, “Fisher Maiden”, was an early record that was experimented with for the process. The 1888 experiments were not very successful due to the fact the grooves of the cylinders were square, and the sound waves were saw-tooth-shaped and deep. The records came out scratched and it was very time consuming. Many failures and very few that come out. (See The Edison Papers Project, Record Experiments by Jonas Aylsworth 1888–1889)
The Gold Molded process involved taking a wax master and putting it in a vacuum chamber. The master record was put on a spinning mandrel, the pump sucked all the air out of a glass bell jar, and 2 pieces of gold leaf were hooked to an induction coil. The current was turned on, a magnet was spun around the outside to turn the mandrel, and the gold vaporized a very thin coating on the master. This master was put on a motor in a plating tank and copper was used to back the gold up. The master record was melted, then taken out of the mold to reveal a negative of the grooves in the metal. The master cylinder had to have wider feed as the grooves shrink in length through each process. The master mold is used to create “mothers” and these are then further processed to make working molds.
The Gold molded record used an aluminum-based wax, like the post-1896 Edison brown wax. However, carnauba wax was added, as well as pine tar and lampblack resulting in a black, shiny, durable record. The molds with mandrels placed in the center were heated and dipped in a tank of the molten wax. These were removed and trimmed while still hot, and put on a table from where the molds were put in lukewarm water. The water caused the records to shrink in diameter so that they could be removed. The records were then trimmed, dried and cleaned, then later put on warm mandrels for 2 hours where they shrank evenly. Jonas Aylsworth developed this formula.
In 1908, Edison introduced Amberol Records which had a playing time of just over 4 minutes. The process of making the finished record was the same as the Gold Molded records, however a harder wax compound was used. In 1912, celluloid was used in place of wax, and the name was changed to Blue Amberol, as the dye was a blue color. The master was recorded and then the process of making the mold was the same as the Gold Molded process. What is different is that a steam jacketed mold with an air bladder in the center was used. Celluloid tubing was put in the mold and the end gate was closed. The rubber bladder expanded the celluloid to the side of the heated mold, and printed the negative record in positive on the celluloid. The bladder was then deflated, and cold air was used to shrink the tubing so the celluloid print could be removed. The printed tubing was put in a plaster filler. When the plaster was hard the cylinders were then baked in an oven, then the ribs made on the inside of the plaster with knives. The records were cleaned and then packaged.
Ediphone Wax Formula and Procedure for making Ediphone Cylinders
Noted C.H. 11/21/1946
1. 1,200 lbs of double pressed stearic acid (130 degree F. Titer) and 4 lbs of nigrosine base B dye are placed in a 200 gallon cast iron cauldron. The cauldron is directly heated by an oil burner of the household type. (Our Present ones are Eisler, the manufacture of which has been discontinued.) Heat is applied until the stearic acid has been melted and the temperature has reach 360 degrees F. 2. 2,000 grams of metallic aluminum are placed in a 75 gallon steam-jacketed open kettle. To this are added 7,000 grams of NaOH and 10 gallons of water. When the reaction has subsided, 92 lbs of anhydrous sodium carbonate are added and finally 50 gallons of water. Note: The aluminum scrap is usually obtained from the Storage Battery Division in the form of punched strips. It is important that the size and thickness of this material be such as to insure a fairly rapid rate of solution. All of this reaction takes place under a hood. An alternative method consists of dissolving 8,900 grams of sodium aluminate in about 10 gallons of water and adding 5,000 grams of NaOH pellets. When complete solution has taken place, 92 lbs of anhydrous sodium carbonate are added and the necessary amount of water to bring the bulk up to 60 gallons.
In both cases solution is affected by means of pressure steam in the jacketed portion of the kettle. When the solution is substantially clear it is slowly added, a pail at a time (3 gallons) by means of a 2 quart dipper, to the heated stearic acid as prepared in 1. The oil burner is kept on during this operation in order to keep the temperature of the mixture fairly constant at 360 degrees F. Care must be exercised in adding this “Saponifying” solution so that excess foaming is prevented. After all the solution has been added the resulting “formula wax” is heated to 400 degrees F. and maintained at this temperature for four hours, at which time a sample is removed, a congealing point determined, (see under “tests”), and any addition made of stearic acid or sodium carbonate solution for correction, and the mixture held without additional heat for 10 hours. It is then heated again to bring the temperature up to 400 degrees F and allowed to cool gradually, usually overnight. When the temperature has again been reduced to 350 degrees F the was is pumped by means of a Kinney pump into 10 gallon pails from which the wax is poured into shallow pans containing approximately 50 lbs of the wax per pan. After the material has cooled to room temperature it is removed from the pans and stacked.
3. Into a 200 gallon cast iron cauldron heated by and oil burner of the household type, (or as required at present by war conditions, heated by bituminous coal) are placed 500 to 900 labs of “formula wax”. Note: The amount of “formula wax” to make up a batch various according to the amount of scrap wax which is to be added to the cauldron. Scrap wax represents commercial wax of which “formula wax” is a part. To the amount of “formula wax placed in the cauldron are added 19½% Paraffin (133 degrees-135 degrees F., usual source Standard Oil of New Jersey) and 2% stearine pitch (M. P. 40 Degrees Centigrade). This mixture, consisting of “formula wax”, paraffin and stearine pitch, represents commercial wax. Finally, commercial scrap wax of the composition given above in added until the total weight of the mixture is approximately 1,600 lbs. This mixture is usually heated beginning at 12 midnight and carried through until the temperature is 410-415 degrees F. at 8 a.m. Note; This may be regarded as standard procedure, although at the present time (Dec., 1943) this has been modified so that only Sunday nights is this done. On other days of the week except Saturday the kettles are started at 6 A.M. This method was adopted due to man shortages which necessitated starting the molding operation later in the day.) At this time a congealing point is taken and the necessary adjustments made (see under “tests”) after which the mixture is transferred to a closed agitating tank by means of a Kinney pump, the latter forced the hot material through a 2″ pipe.
4. To the mixture in the agitation tank there is added 3/10 percent Johns-Manville # 503 Filter Aid. The temperature is maintained at 375 degrees F. by means of a ring gas burner, at the bottom of the tank. At this temperature the wax is supplied by a Worthington pump at 30 lbs to a one square foot Shriver press whose head and follower are steam jacketed and which has 7 sections. The effluent from this press passes through a second Shriver press which has 2 sections of one square foot each. The mixture from the outlet here finally passes though a 1″ pipe which has a 100 × 150 mesh Monel ,metal screen held in its cross sections by means of a union, into one of four 75 gallon aluminum kettles. . These kettles are protected by conical hoods to prevent dust particles being carried into the body of the wax. After allowing the wax to remain at 330 degrees F. for three hours it is ready to be poured into the blank moulds. The temperature is maintained by gas burners beneath the kettles and controlled automatically by Partlow Corp. thermostatic controls.
5. By means of a pot with 2 spouts the moulds are filled with molten wax. The pot has a capacity of about five pounds (slightly less than 2 quarts and is specially designed of aluminum and made by Theodore Walter, Newark N.J… The molding table revolves at the rate of 6 blanks per minute, approximately, and the size of the pouring pot spout is only sufficient to permit the hot wax to flow into the molds at a rate slightly faster than the speed of the molds which rotate past a given point around the table.
The blanks are extracted at a temperature of 200-205 degrees F. and place on boards which hold 30 blanks. These boards when filled move by gravity down a conveyor. The length of time on the conveyor is about two hours after which time they are sufficiently cool and hard to be put into production boxes holding 63 blanks. The boxes are placed in racks for the following day’s production. Into each production box there is placed a semi-finished cylinder, which has been edged and reamed and which conforms to a standard internal diameter at 70 degrees F of 1.826 ” at the thin end. The purpose of this is to permit the edging operation to take place on the un-finished blank at any temperature by adjusting the machine to conform to the standard. Thus, in each production box, there is a total of 63 unfinished cylinders. One day’s production is held at least 34 hours before further processing.
6. The blanks are first reamed. The reamer consists of a twisted tapered and eight fluted tool. The blanks are forced on the reamer by hand to a stop. The position of the stop is adjusted so that sufficient material will be removed from both ends of the blanks when the blank is edged in the next operation. The reamer revolves at approximately 300 RPM
7. The edging operation consists in placing a reamed blank on a tapered mandrel and by means of two special cutters working in unison the ends of the blank are formed to conform in couture to a standard template. A second gauge is used to insure proper length (6⅛”). IN each case the edged blank must rest on a tapered mandrel gauge in exactly the same position as the standard blank which is in the production box. The usual procedure is to make the necessary adjustments of the knives of the first blank which is edged so that is conforms to the standard, and then continue the operation on the rest of the blanks in the production box at the identical position of the first blank. Note; since there are 63 blanks for each standard blank it will be observed that every 63rd cylinder is checked mandrel gauge. The accuracy of the method and the facility with which it is done depend on the care and skill of the operator. This is probably, is the most critical of all the operations. The edging machine revolves at 2,200 RPM
8. Following the edging operation is the stamping. This consists in applying a hot printing die to the thick end of the cylinder as it is placed accurately in a vertical position under the die. The heating of the die is done by means of a resistance wire coiled within a hollow torus near the under edge of the circular die. The coiled wire is connected to a source of current and the latter is adjusted by means of a rheostat. The heated died has raised lettering and makes and impression on the end surface of the wax cylinder. The depressed positive lettering on the cylinder is filled with a thick paste of zinc carbonate, the excess of which is brushed or wiped off after drying.
9. The cylinders are next shaved on a ganged shaving machine consisting of a rough shaving knife free from “blinds” and “lines”, accurate concentricity and a minimum of taper. These factors depend on the tension of the driving belt, tension upon the rotating mandrel between centers and the position and sharpness of the knives. Speed of the mandrel 2,200 RPM
10. The finished cylinders are placed in boxes which contain 16 pegs and run down a conveyor. At a point on this conveyor the cylinders are held and brushed on the inside to remove wax shavings and dust.
11. Cylinders are inspected, packed and placed in the stock room for a minimum of thirty days before shipping.
12. The reinforcing liners are made as follows: Crinoline cloth of specifications given under “Tests”, are cut into a trapezoid (Paper Products Dept.) base length 6¼, altitude 5⅝” top length 5¾”. A pack of these are placed in a vise edgewise and thinned glue, one part Le Pages Glue, one part water, brushed onto one slant edge. A liner is then wrapped a tapered mandrel of such size as to fit no too snuggly on the molding core. The liner is held on the mandrel by means of two jaws actuated by a foot lever and the lapped edges of the liner glued by means of a gas iron held for an instant along the line of the lap.
(2a) Homokord records
Rare Homokord 2 Labels Glockenspiel & Xylophone Solos
Rare Homokord 2 Labels Glockenspiel & Xylophone Solos Homokord Record
10″ and 78 speed
Grand Galopp de Gouvert
Matrix #: A5120 and 11174
Matrix #: 22614A and 11175
Notes: 2 labels! N o visual cracks, chips or repairs to the record. Couple small scratches on each side.
The word “about” in our descriptions is used with all measurements to indicate readily relatable sizes. If you need precise measurements, pleas
(2b)His Master Voice records
His Master’s Voice
|His Master’s Voice|
|Parent company||EMI (British Commonwealth except Canada)
RCA (western hemisphere)
|Status||defunct (fate: trade mark sold to HMV Group)|
|Country of origin||United Kingdom|
His Master’s Voice is a famous trademark in the music business, and for many years was the name of a large record label. The name was coined in 1899 as the title of a painting of the dog Nipper listening to a wind-up gramophone. In the photograph on which the painting was based, the dog was listening to a cylinder phonograph.
The famous trademark image comes from a painting by English artist Francis Barraud, A.R.A. and titled His Master’s Voice. It was acquired from the artist in 1899 by the newly-formed Gramophone Company. According to contemporary Gramophone Company publicity material, the dog, a fox terrier called Nipper, had originally belonged to Barraud’s brother Mark. When Mark Barraud died, Francis inherited Nipper, along with a cylinder phonograph and a number of recordings of Mark’s voice. Francis noted the peculiar interest that the dog took in the recorded voice of his late master emanating from the trumpet, and conceived the idea of committing the scene to canvas.
In early 1899, Francis Barraud applied for copyright of the original painting using the descriptive working title Dog looking at and listening to a Phonograph. He was unable to sell the work to any cylinder phonograph company, but The Gramophone Company purchased it later that year, under the condition that Barraud modify it to show one of their disc machines. The image was first used on the company’s publicity material in 1900, and additional copies were subsequently commissioned from the artist for various corporate purposes.
Later, at the request of the gramophone’s inventor Emile Berliner, the American rights to the picture became owned by the Victor Talking Machine Company. Victor used the image more aggressively than its UK partner, and from 1902 on all Victor records had a simplified drawing of the dog and gramophone from Barraud’s painting on their label. Magazine advertisements urged record buyers to “Look for the dog”.
In Indonesia the almbum cover of His master Voice record used indonesia languange,javanese and India native charter as promotion label,please look below :
a.”Penyanyi yang termashhor sekali ” means the most famous singer
b.Terkenal sa-luroh dunia tiap2 nyanyian dan lakon melayu measn famous to all the world every malay ‘s actors and songs
c.The India native languange and Actor promotion on his master voice album cover.
The Gramophone Company becomes “His Master’s Voice”
A colored vinyl single released by HMV
In Commonwealth countries, the Gramophone Company did not use this design on its record labels until 1909. The following year the Gramophone Company replaced the Recording Angel trademark in the upper half of the record labels by the famous picture painted by Frances Barraud, commonly referred to as Nipper or The Dog.
The company was not formally called “HMV” or His Master’s Voice, but was identified by that term because of its use of the trademark. Records issued by the Company before February 1908 were generally referred to as “G&Ts”, while those after that date are usually called “HMV” records.
This image continued to be used as a trademark by Victor in the USA, Canada and Latin America, and then by Victor’s successor RCA. In Commonwealth countries (except Canada) it was used by subsidiaries of the Gramophone Company, which ultimately became part of EMI.
The trademark’s ownership is divided among different companies in different countries, reducing its value in the globalised music market. The name HMV is used by a chain of music shops owned by HMV Group plc, mainly in the UK, Ireland, Canada, Singapore, Australia, Hong Kong, and Japan.
In 1921 the Gramophone Company opened the first HMV shop in London. In 1929 RCA bought Victor, and with it a major shareholding in the Gramophone Company which Victor had owned since 1920.
In 1931 RCA was instrumental in the creation of EMI, which continued to own the “His Master’s Voice” name and image in the UK. In 1935 RCA sold its stake in EMI but continued to own Victor and the rights to His Master’s Voice in the Americas. HMV continued to distribute RCA recordings until RCA severed its ties with EMI in 1957 which led EMI to buy Capitol Records.
World War II fragmented the ownership of the name still further, as RCA Victor’s Japanese subsidiary The Victor Company of Japan (JVC) became independent, and today they still use the “Victor” brand and Nipper in Japan only. Nipper continued to appear on RCA Victor records in America (except for a period from around 1968 to 1977), while EMI owned the His Master’s Voice label in the UK until the 1980s, and the HMV shops until 1998.
In 1967, EMI converted the HMV label into an exclusive classical music label and dropped its POP series of popular music. HMV’s POP series artists’ roster was moved to Columbia Graphophone and licenced American POP record deals to Stateside Records.
The globalised market for CDs pushed EMI into abandoning the HMV label in favour of “EMI Classics“, a name they could use worldwide; however, it was revived in 1988 for Morrissey recordings. The HMV trademark is now owned by the retail chain in the UK. The formal trademark transfer from EMI took place in 2003.
Meanwhile, RCA went into a financial decline. The dog and gramophone image, along with the RCA name, is now licensed by RCA Records and RCA Victor owner Sony Music Entertainment from Thomson SA, which operates RCA’s consumer electronics business (still promoted by Nipper the dog) that it bought from General Electric in 1986, after GE bought RCA. The image of “His Master’s Voice” now exists in the United States as a trademark only on radios and radios combined with phonographs, a trademark owned by Thomson subsidiary RCA Trademark Management SA.
With that exception, the “His Master’s Voice” dog and gramophone image is in the public domain in the USA, its United States trademark registrations having expired in 1989 (for sound recordings and phonograph cabinets), 1992 (television sets, television-radio combination sets), and 1994 (sound recording and reproducing machines, needles, and records
2)Early 20th century
Slawoma – Der neueste Tanz (Slavoma) by Engelbert Zaschka. Saxophon-Orchester Dobbri of Berlin, 1925
Beka Records was a record label based in Germany, active from about 1903 to 1925. Before World War I, Beka also made gramophone records for the United Kingdom market under the Beka-Grand Records label. The company became a subsidiary of the Carl Lindström Company which was sold to the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1926
|Distributor(s)||Parlophone Records (UK)|
|Genre||jazz, pop, rock, novelty recordings, voice recordings|
|Country of origin||Germany|
Parlophone is a record label, founded in Germany in 1896 by the Carl Lindström Company. The ₤ trademark is a German L, for Lindström. (Coincidentally it also resembles the British pound sign, £, which itself is derived from the letter L for Libra, meaning pound in Latin.) Parlophone is best known for its association with The Beatles.
Lindstrom initially used the “Parlophon” brand on gramophones before it started making records. During the First World War, the Transoceanic Trading Company was set up in the Netherlands to look after its overseas assets. On August 8, 1923, the British branch of “Parlophone” (with the “e” added) was established, led by A&R manager Oscar Preuss. Parlophone established a master leasing arrangement with co-owned United States based Okeh Records, making Parlophone a leading jazz label in the UK. In 1927 the Columbia Graphophone Company acquired a controlling interest in the Carl Lindström Company and thereby in Parlophone. In 1931 Columbia merged with the Gramophone Company to form Electric & Musical Industries Ltd (EMI).
Beginning in about 1929 or 1930, Parlophone started a series of American jazz records on their “Rhythm Style Series”. Edgar Jackson was the director of this series, which was issued within the existing R- series (the first issue was R-448). Culled from the American OKeh label, artists like Louis Armstrong, Bix Beiderbecke, Frank Trumbauer, Duke Ellington, Miff Mole, and other major artists who recorded for OKeh. These records were usually “split-coupled” (the top and bottom side of each record was usually by different artists and did not correspond with the original American coupling). The “Second New Rhythm-Style” series replaced the first series in about 1931, and there was a separate series for each year from 1934 through 1941, as well as some miscellany series. These 78’s were popular and remained in print for years.
Even though these records were never licensed for sale in the U.S., they were heavily imported through jazz shops like Commodore and Liberty in the late 1930s and were sold through the 1940s and into the early 1950s. They are treasured by collectors because they are pressed from the original stampers and usually sound much better than the worn and usually rare U.S. OKeh original records.
The Parlophone PNY series
In the U.S. in 1929 there was a short-lived Parlophone label made and distributed by OKeh. OKeh started the PNY-34000 series (along with the Odeon ONY-36000 series) lasting until late 1930 or early 1931. No one has been able to determine for whom these two labels were intended for, since many surviving copies are in new condition. Speculation amongst record collectors is that that these records were found uncirculated in a warehouse, and that they were possibily intended to be sold off-shore in U.S. possessions (Guam, Hawaii, etc.).
As a subsidiary label
Under EMI the Parlophone company initially maintained its status as a jazz label. As time went on the label also released speciality recordings of voice and comedy recordings, such as the comedy recordings of The Goons and Flanders and Swann. In 1950, Preuss hired 24-year-old George Martin as his assistant. In 1955, Preuss retired and Martin succeeded him. Leading Parlophone artists at the time included Germany’s Obernkirchen Children’s Choir and Scottish musician Jimmy Shand.
Beat Boom and The Beatles
At the dawn of the rock era, Parlophone artists such as Humphrey Lyttelton, the Vipers Skiffle Group, the pianist Mrs Mills, Jim Dale, Keith Kelly, Peter Sellers, Bernard Cribbins, the Temperance Seven, Laurie London and Shane Fenton would sporadically reach the British Top 20 chart. Their only consistent chart action until the “Beat Boom” was that of teen idol Adam Faith: Faith was assigned to the label in 1959 by Norman Newell, an EMI A&R man “without portfolio”, and was not a discovery of label head George Martin; although a familiar face from TV pop shows such as Oh Boy!, Faith’s previous releases, for EMI subsidiary HMV, had failed to chart. Treading a path similar to other British labels of the era, Parlophone released all manner of domestic and foreign licensed product, including James Brown, but had little success in comparison to EMI siblings HMV and Columbia.
The label’s fortunes began to rise in 1962, when Martin signed rising new Liverpool band The Beatles. Along with fellow NEMS stablemates Cilla Black, Billy J. Kramer and the Fourmost, and contemporary Mancunian band The Hollies, The Beatles soon turned Parlophone into one of the world’s most famous and prestigious record labels.
Absorbed into EMI
After Martin became an independent producer in 1965, the Parlophone Company was absorbed into EMI’s Gramophone Company unit (renamed EMI Records in 1973) with the Parlophone label maintaining its identity. For a long time Parlophone claimed the best selling UK single “She Loves You“, and the best selling UK album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band. The label also achieved placement of seven singles at #1 during 1964, when it also claimed top spot in the album charts for 40 of the 52 weeks during that year.
Parlophone is still an important pop label with artists such as Gorillaz and Kylie Minogue. It is also EMI’s oldest active label: its contemporary HMV, was always more of a classical music label and ceased issuing popular music recordings in 1967 (it is now known as EMI Classics); English Columbia has been replaced by the EMI pop label. Parlophone also operates the imprint Regal Recordings, a contemporary revival of the historic Columbia Graphophone budget/reissue label founded in 1914.
An interesting note is that Parlophone’s 45 rpm releases continue, as of late 2010, to be numbered using the same “R-xxxx” catalog number series that it has used continuously since 1956 (starting around R-4200 and currently up to the R-6800 range).
(2) Odeon records
Odeon Records was a record label founded in 1903 by Max Strauss and Heinrich Zuntz of the International Talking Machine Company in Berlin, Germany. It was named after a famous theatre in Paris, whose classical dome appears on the Odeon record label.
Strauss and Zuntz bought from Carl Lindstöm the company that he had founded in 1897. They transformed the Lindström enterprise into a public company, the Carl Lindström A.G. and purchased in 1903 among many other record companies the Fonotipia Ltd. including their Odeon-Werke International Talking Machine Co.mbH. (“25 Jahre Lindström 1904-1929”, Berlin 1929, p.12)
In 1904 Odeon launched the first double-sided gramophone records. The American Record Company began doing pressings of 10¾-inch blue-shellac discs for Odeon to export to Europe in 1905 or 1906, all double-sided. In 1909 it created the first recording of a large orchestral work — and what may have been the first record album — when it released a 4-disk set of Tchaikovsky’s Nutcracker Suite with Hermann Finck conducting the London Palace Orchestra.
On January 30, 1904 (see “25 Jahre Lindström”, p.12) Odeon became a part of the Carl Lindström Company, which also owned Beka Records, Parlophone and Fonotipia, Lyrophon, Homophon and other labels. Lindström was acquired by the English Columbia Graphophone Company in 1926. In 1931 Columbia merged with Electrola, HMV and other labels to form EMI.
The Berlin Odeon plant recorded, processed and exported records to many countries. There were extensive national catalogs for some of these countries: Greece, Skandinavian countries, India, all of Arabia, Netherlands, Estonia, Portugal, South and Central America, Rumania, Turkey, Hungary, China, Dutch East Indies, Siam, the Balkan countries etc. In the 1920s and 1930s about 70% of the German Odeon production was exported. (“25 Jahre Lindström”, pages 75-119). Some Odeon recordings were leased to the American “Okeh” record label for distribution in the United States.
In 1936 the director of the Odeon branch was forced to retire and replaced by Dr. Kepler, a Nazi party member. In 1939 Odeon and Electrola were placed under a Nazi-appointed administrator. The huge Odeon factory on Schlesische Strasse in Berlin-Kreuzberg was completely destroyed by 8th U.S. Air Force bombs in the February 1945 air raids.
After 1945 Odeon continued to be used, in the United Kingdom, as a label for pressings made for West Africa. In Spain, Argentina and Brazil the label survived as an EMI subsidiary until the end of the LP era, mid 1980s, when it finally disappeared altogether. After World War II, Odeon in West Germany reissued many pre-war recordings, issued newly recorded German music on this label, as well as imported recordings.
Most official Beatles releases, including solo, appeared on Odeon in many non-Anglophone markets like West Germany, Japan, Spain, South America, and France, some of which were slow to recognise Apple Records until up to 1971 (or Parlophone), then switched back to Odeon by 1976.
Direct EMI-HMV exports to the United States, where the His Master’s Voice label was owned by RCA Victor Records, bore pasted-over Odeon stickers.
EMI’s Argentinian branch still trades as EMI Odeon SAIC.
(3)Earlieast Polydor records
|Parent company||Universal Music Group|
(In the US)
|Country of origin||Germany|
|Location||UK; US (re-issues and/or domestic distribution of overseas releases – only)|
|Official Website||Official website of Polydor Records|
Polydor was originally an independent branch of the Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft. Its name was first used, as an export label, in 1924, the British and German branches of the Gramophone Company having severed their ties during World War I. Deutsche Grammophon claimed the rights to the His Master’s Voice trademark for Germany, where HMV recordings were released under the Electrola trademark.
In turn, DGG records exported out of Germany were released on the Polydor label.
Polydor became a popular music label in 1946 while Deutsche Grammophon became a classical music label. The German rights to the His Master’s Voice trademark was sold by Deutsche Grammophon to the Electrola Records unit of EMI in 1949. Polydor remained Deutsche Grammophon’s export label, including classical music, in France and the Spanish-speaking world for the remainder of the long-playing era, as a result of language and cultural concerns.
In the early 1960s orchestra leader Bert Kaempfert signed unknowns Tony Sheridan and the Beat Brothers – who would later become famous as The Beatles – to Polydor. Popular German entertainers such as James Last, Bert Kaempfert, Kurt Edelhagen, Caterina Valente and the Kessler Twins appeared on the Polydor label, as well as many French, Spanish and Latin-American figures. Polydor had opened a US division in 1969, but did not become a real presence in the US record industry until its purchase of the recording contract and back catalog of R&B superstar James Brown in 1971 and its absorption of the MGM Records label by parent company PolyGram in 1972.
In 1972, Polydor merged with giant Philips-owned Phonogram Records to create PolyGram in the US. The Polydor label continued to run as a subsidiary label under the new company. The name PolyGram is a portmanteau of Polydor and PhonoGram. Throughout the 1970s, Polydor became a major rock label, and also championed disco, being home to such platinum-selling disco acts as the Bee Gees and Gloria Gaynor.
Into the 1980s, Polydor continued to do respectable business, in spite of becoming increasingly overshadowed by its PolyGram sister label Mercury Records. Polydor took over management of British Decca’s pop catalog. A&R manager Frank Neilson was able to score a major top ten hit in March 1981 for the label with “Do The Hucklebuck” by Coast to Coast as well as signing Ian Dury and Billy Fury to the company. In 1984, the company name was parodied in the rockumentary film This Is Spinal Tap (whose soundtrack album was distributed by Polydor), where ‘Polymer Records’ was the band’s record company.
By the early 1990s, Polydor had begun to underperform. PolyGram subsequently trimmed most of Polydor’s staff and roster, and shifted it to operate under the umbrella of PolyGram Label Group (PLG), a newly constructed ‘super label’ specifically designed to oversee the operations of PolyGram’s lesser performing imprints (which included Island Records, London Records, Atlas Records and Verve Records) at the time.
In 1994, as Island Records recovered from its sales slump, PolyGram dissolved most of PLG into it. Meanwhile, Polydor Records and Atlas Records merged, briefly called “Polydor/Atlas,” and began operating through A&M Records, another PolyGram subsidiary. In 1995, Polydor/Atlas became simply Polydor Records again.
Twilight years in US
Over the next few years, Polydor tried to keep itself afloat with new artist signings, new releases, and reissues, while still becoming more and more dormant. In 1998, PolyGram was purchased by Seagram and absorbed into its Universal Music Group. During the consolidation of these two music giants, Polydor’s US operations were dismantled into Interscope-Geffen-A&M, while its overseas branch remained intact with its records continuing to be distributed domestically through Interscope, Geffen, and A&M. However, North American re-issues of pre-1998 Polydor pop/rock releases are handled through Mercury Records (unless the band was under contract to a different now-UMG owned label in the US, such as The Who, who were signed with Decca Records and later MCA Records in the US – MCA later was absorbed into Geffen). Today, in America, the Polydor Records name and logo is mostly used on reissues of older material from its 1960s and 1970s heyday.
In the early 1970s, the main source of income for the label was probably the enormously successful UK band Slade. Later, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, the label was also home to The Jam and successful British glam rock act Sweet signed on in 1977. Though Polydor’s American branch is defunct, in the United Kingdom Polydor continues to sign chart-topping acts. Polydor remains one of the strongest labels in the country — with artists such as Girls Aloud, Cheryl Cole, Take That, La Roux, Duffy, Klaxons, Delphic, Sophie Ellis-Bextor, The Saturdays, James Morrison, Kaiser Chiefs, Boyzone, Alphabeat, The Courteeners, S Club 7, S Club 8, Rachel Stevens and Ellie Goulding. Polydor also has a strong indie roster through the Fiction imprint with acts such as Ian Brown, Bright Eyes, Elbow (band), White Lies, The Maccabees, Kate Nash, Snow Patrol, Filthy Dukes, and Crystal Castles. It also acts as the UK label for American-based acts under Interscope-Geffen-A&M like Eminem, Queens Of The Stone Age, Limp Bizkit, Timbaland, The All-American Rejects, Yeah Yeah Yeahs, The Black Eyed Peas, Weezer, Marilyn Manson, Pussycat Dolls, Janet Jackson, Snoop Dogg, Gwen Stefani, Busta Rhymes, Mary J Blige, 50 Cent, Sheryl Crow and Lady Gaga.
In Spring 2006, Polydor launched Fascination Records, a music label dedicated to pop music. Both Girls Aloud and Sophie Ellis-Bextor transferred to the new label. Several teen pop acts from US label Hollywood Records, such as the Jonas Brothers, Miley Cyrus, and Selena Gomez & the Scene were also signed to Fascination.
|Distributor(s)||Capitol Music Group (In the US)|
|Country of origin||United States|
The independent and Liberty Records years
Imperial was famous for recordings of rhythm & blues and early rock & roll like Fats Domino, Frankie Ford, and Ricky Nelson. Imperial was licensed to London Records in the UK. In 1960 Lew Chudd bought Aladdin Records. Minit Records was acquired in 1963.
Later in 1963, after Imperial lost Fats Domino and Ricky Nelson to rival labels, Chudd sold the label to Liberty Records. Under Liberty’s management, the label enjoyed success from such artists as holdover Irma Thomas as well as Johnny Rivers, Jackie DeShannon, Classics IV and Cher.
During the British Invasion years, Liberty (whose recordings were distributed by EMI in the UK) licensed artists including The Hollies, Billy J. Kramer with The Dakotas and The Swinging Blue Jeans from EMI for release on the Imperial label. Recordings by Liberty UK act The Bonzo Dog Band were issued in the USA on the Imperial label.
By 1970 the label became part of Liberty’s merger with United Artists, but was phased out shortly thereafter with its artists being transferred to United Artists. EMI now owns the Imperial Records catalogue.
This is not the same Imperial currently in Japan or that was a division of EMI’s Dutch arm.
- Early to mid-50s—Maroon label, IMPERIAL at top
- Late 50s-1963—Black label with stars under IMPERIAL at top
- 1964-1966—Black, white and magenta label. I-R logo in black box on left side, IMPERIAL shown under logo. Disclaimer at bottom of label shows “A SUBSIDIARY OF LIBERTY RECORDS”
- 1966-1969—Black and lime green label, I-R logo in red box on left side, IMPERIAL shown under logo, “A PRODUCT OF LIBERTY RECORDS” shown under IMPERIAL. Disclaimer changed to “A DIVISION OF LIBERTY RECORDS”
- 1970—Black and lime green label, I-R logo in red box on left side, IMPERIAL shown (in slightly larger letters than the previous label) under logo. Disclaimer reads “LIBERTY/UA, INC”
Throughout the 1990s, EMI released various CD compilations of Imperial artists. For nostalgia, the compact discs featured the various Imperial labels.
In June 2006, EMI re-activated the Imperial Records imprint and announced that it will be the full-service Urban Music division of Caroline Distribution, part of Virgin Records, spearheaded by urban music veteran Neil Levine.
The first signing to the imprint is Raptivism Records. Fat Joe has signed with Virgin Records and Imperial Records.
The revived Imperial is a full service label group that offers promotions, marketing and digital services for the independent urban music market. Imperial also provides additional resources for developing urban artists within EMI‘s major labels including Capitol Records and Virgin Records which were merged on January 2007 into the Capitol Music Group.
(5)Columbia China records
The Columbia Record was an afternoon daily newspaper published in Columbia, South Carolina. It was established in 1897. In 1945 it was purchased by The State which is the morning daily paper in Columbia to form the State-Record Company. The company was purchased by Knight-Ridder in 1986 and publication of the Columbia Record ceased on April 1, 1988. One of the quirks of the paper was that it printed the weekly entertainment section on green newsprint
(6)Broadcast Tweleve Record
Broadcast Twelve Records
Broadcast Twelve Records was a United Kingdom based record label introduced in 1928 to partner the regular “Broadcast” brand records introduced in 1927. “Broadcast” discs were 8-inch (later increased to 9-inch) and “Broadcast Twelve” discs were 10-inch 78rpm gramophone records, but with small labels and a fine groove pitch so they would play as long as regular 10- and 12-inch discs respectively. They ceased production in 1934.
The label was a subsidiary of the British branch of Vocalion Records.
(7)Broadcast Music Incorporated
|Key people||Del Bryant (President & CEO)|
|Area served||United States|
Broadcast Music, Inc. (BMI) is one of three United States performing rights organizations, along with ASCAP and SESAC. It collects license fees on behalf of songwriters, composers, and music publishers and distributes them as royalties to those members whose works have been performed. In 2009, BMI collected over $905 million in licensing fees and distributed $788 million in royalties.
BMI songwriters create all forms of music in all genres. BMI represents artists such as Mariah Carey, Lady Gaga, Taylor Swift, Eminem, Rihanna and Shakira; bands including Maroon 5, Nickelback, Linkin Park and Lady Antebellum; legends such as Sam Cooke, Willie Nelson, Fats Domino and Dolly Parton; as well as composers such as Osvaldo Golijov, John Williams and Danny Elfman and musical songwriters Richard & Robert Sherman.
BMI was founded by radio executives in 1939 to provide competition in the field of performing rights, to assure royalty payments to writers and publishers of music not represented by the existing performing right organizations, and to provide an alternative source of licensing for all music users. The company was established as competition for ASCAP, which had dominated the music-licensing industries for over two decades.
BMI was the first performing rights organization in the United States to represent songwriters of blues, jazz, rhythm and blues, gospel (black genres, performers, and writers ASCAP did not want to represent), country, folk, Latin, and—ultimately—rock and roll. During the 1940s and 1950s, BMI was the primary licensing organization for Country artists and R&B artists, while ASCAP centered on more established Pop artists. Also during this time, BMI expanded its repertoire of classical music, and now represents the majority of the members of the prestigious American Academy of Arts and Letters and the winners of 30 Pulitzer Prizes for Music.
|Parent company||Brunswick Records|
|Distributor(s)||Koch Entertainment (In the US)|
Current: Soul music
|Country of origin||US|
Records under the “Brunswick” label were first produced by the Brunswick-Balke-Collender Company (a company based in Dubuque, Iowa which had been manufacturing products ranging from pianos to sporting equipment since 1845). The company first began producing phonographs in 1916, then began marketing their own line of records as an after-thought. These first Brunswick Records used the vertical cut system like Edison Disc Records, and were not sold in large numbers. They were recorded in the US but sold only in Canada.
In January 1920, a new line of Brunswick Records were introduced in the US and Canada that employed the lateral cut system that was then becoming the default cut for 78 disc records. The parent company marketed them extensively, and within a few years Brunswick became one of the USA’s Big Three record companies, along with Victor and Columbia Records. The Brunswick line of home phonographs were also commercially successful. Brunswick also had a hit with their “Ultona” phonograph capable of playing Edison Disc Records, Pathé disc records, and standard lateral 78s.
In late 1924, Brunswick acquired the Vocalion Records label.
Audio fidelity of early 1920s acoustically recorded Brunswicks is above average for the era. They were pressed into good quality shellac, although not as durable as that used by Victor. In the spring of 1925 Brunswick introduced its own version of electrical recording (licenced from General Electric) using photoelectric cells, which Brunswick eventually called the “Light-Ray Process” . These early electric Brunswicks have a rather harsh distinctive equalization which does not compare well to early electric Columbias and Victors, and the company’s logbooks from 1925-27 show many recordings that were unissued for technical reasons having to do with the GE system’s electronic and sonic inconsistencies.
Once Brunswick’s engineers had tentative control of their new equipment, the company expanded its popular music recording activities dramatically, exploiting its impressive roster of stars to the utmost: the dance bands of Bob Haring, Isham Jones, Ben Bernie, and Abe Lyman, banjoist Harry Reser and his various ensembles (especially the Six Jumping Jacks), and most famously the legendary Al Jolson (whose record labels modestly proclaimed him “The World’s Greatest Entertainer With Orchestra”).
Brunswick’s headquarters was in Chicago, with studios and offices in New York, as well. Many of Chicago’s best orchestras and performers recorded for Brunswick. Brunswick also had an impressive black and white jazz roster including Fletcher Henderson, Duke Ellington (usually as The Jungle Band), King Oliver,, Andy Kirk, Red Nichols and others. Brunswick also initiated a 7000 race series (with the distinctive ‘lighting bolt’ label design) as well as the Vocalion 1000 race series. These race series recorded all sorts of interesting hot jazz, urban and rural blues, and gospel.
Brunswick also had a very successful business supplying radio with sponsored transcriptions of popular music, comedy and personalities.
Brunswick also embarked on an ambitious domestic classical recording program, recording the New York String Quartet, the Cleveland Orchestra under Nikolai Sokoloff (who had been recording acoustically for Brunswick since 1924), and in a tremendous steal from Victor, the New York Philharmonic with conductors Willem Mengelberg and Arturo Toscanini. The popular records, which used small performing groups, were tricky enough to make with the photoelectric cell process; symphony orchestra recording, however, exacerbated the problems of the “Light-Ray” system to new levels. Very few of the orchestra records were approved for issue and those that did appear on the market often combined excellent performances with embarrassingly execrable sound. Therefore Brunswick found it expedient and ultimately cheaper to contract with European companies (whose electrical recording systems were more reliable than Brunswick’s) to fill their electrical classical catalogue. Among the recordings Brunswick imported and issued under their own label were historic performances conducted by Hans Pfitzner and Richard Strauss — the latter conducting critically-acclaimed performances of his symphonic poems Don Juan and Till Eulenspiegel’s Merry Pranks, recorded in Berlin in 1929-30 by Parlophone. Some of these recordings have been reissued on CD.
Brunswick itself switched to a more conventional microphone recording process in 1927, with better results all round. Prior to this, however, they had introduced the Brunswick Panatrope. This phonograph met with critical acclaim, and composer Ottorino Respighi selected the Brunswick Panatrope to play a recording of bird songs in his composition The Pines of Rome.
Jack Kapp became record company executive of Brunswick in 1930.
In April 1930, Brunswick-Balke-Collender sold Brunswick Records to Warner Brothers, who hoped to make their own soundtrack recordings for their sound-on-disc Vitaphone system. A number of interesting recordings were made by actors during this period, featuring songs from musical films. Actors signed up to make recordings included Noah Beery, Charles King, and J. Harold Murray. During this period they also signed Bing Crosby, who was to become their biggest recording star. When Vitaphone was abandoned in favor of sound-on-film systems—and record industry sales plummeted due to the Great Depression–Warners leased the entire Brunswick record operation to the American Record Corporation (ARC) in December 1931.
Between early 1932 through 1939, Brunswick was ARC’s flagship label, selling for 75 cents, while all of the other ARC labels were selling for 35 cents. Best selling artists during that time were Bing Crosby, The Boswell Sisters, The Mills Brothers, Duke Ellington, Cab Calloway, Abe Lyman, Leo Reisman, Ben Bernie, and Anson Weeks (many of whom moved over to Decca in late 1934).
From January, 1920, Brunswick started its standard popular series at 2000 and ended up in 1940 at 8517. However, when the series reached 4999, they skipped over the previous allocated 5000’s and continued at 6000. Also, when they reached 6999, they continued at 7301 (because the early 7000’s had been previously allocated as their Race series).
Collectors have complained that Brunswicks from 1936-1939 showed a drop in sound quality as well as pressing quality, but in fact, those records had a wider groove than the earlier Brunswicks. Playing them today on good equipment with a 4.0 mil (0.004) diamond stylus produces a clear, crisp sound (earlier Brunswicks play just fine on the more standard 3.0 mil or 3.5 mil stylus).
In 1932, the British branch of Brunswick was acquired by Decca Records.
In 1939, the American Record Corp. was bought by the Columbia Broadcasting System for $750,000, which discontinued the label in 1940. This, along with the lower than agreed-upon production numbers, violated the Warners lease agreement, resulting in the Brunswick trademark being transferred to American Decca (Which WB had a financial interest in), along with all masters recorded up to December 1931. Rights to recordings from late December 1931 on were retained by CBS/Columbia.
In 1943, Decca revived the Brunswick label, mostly for reissues of recordings from earlier decades, particularly Bing Crosby’s early hits of 1931
After World War II, American Decca releases were issued in the United Kingdom on the Brunswick label until 1968 when the MCA Records label was introduced in the UK. During the war, British Decca sold its American branch.
By 1952, Brunswick was put under the management of Decca’s Coral Records subsidiary. That same year, Brunswick resumed releasing new material. Later in the 1950s, American Decca made Brunswick its leading Rock and Roll label, featuring artists such as The Crickets. Records by Buddy Holly and Buddy Holly and the Crickets were released on the co-owned Coral Records.
Transformation into Rhythm & Blues label
Jackie Wilson’s debut single was the first release of the current Brunswick Records
Starting in the latter part of the 1950s and well into the 1970s, the label was recording more R&B/soul acts such as Jackie Wilson and The Chi-Lites. Jackie Wilson’s manager Nat Tarnopol joined the label in 1957 as head of A&R. Brunswick became a separate company and a unit of Decca in 1960 with Tarnopol serving as executive vice-president. He acquired 50% interest in Brunswick from Decca in 1964. Tarnopol acquired the rest of Brunswick from Decca in 1969 to settle disputes with Decca management. Legal problems caused Brunswick to become dormant after 1982 in which Tarnopol licensed Brunswick recordings from 1957 onward to the special products unit of Columbia Records. Brunswick had its last chart hits in 1982. While Brunswick was cleared of charges, it left the company and Tarnopol basically broke. Tarnopol blamed his legal problems on a personal vendetta by Decca parent MCA Inc.‘s head Lew Wasserman. Tarnopol died in 1987 at age 56.
Ownership of Brunswick catalogue and Brunswick Records today
The Tarnopol family only claims ownership of Brunswick recordings since Tarnopol joined Brunswick in 1957. Decca parent company Universal Music controls the Decca era pre-Tarnopol Brunswick recordings (excluding the late 1931-1939 era, which is still controlled by Columbia Records parent Sony Music Entertainment). The Decca-era Brunswick jazz catalogue is managed by Verve Records. The official Brunswick Records web site has a detailed history of the Tarnopol-era Brunswick Records.
Brunswick was revived in 1995 by Nat’s children Paul and Mara Tarnopol.
Today, Brunswick is run by president and CEO Paul Tarnopol. The Brunswick catalog is currently distributed by Koch Entertainment. Many of the recordings, supervised by producer Carl Davis in Chicago, which established Brunswick as a major force in R&B/soul music in the 60s and 70s have been re-mastered and re-issued in recent years. Davis formed sister label Dakar Records in 1967. Dakar was first distributed by Atlantic Records, then by Brunswick in 1972 after Brunswick became an independent label. Brunswick and Dakar artists include the Chi-Lites, Tyrone Davis, Barbara Acklin, Young-Holt Unlimited, as well as Jackie Wilson.
3)Pre Wolrd war II
(1)RCA-His Master Voice Shanghai China
(3) Irama India with song Djali Djali
Indonesia’s recording studios have increasingly diversified out of the template established by the country’s two largest recording companies, P.N. Lokananta (the national recording company of Indonesia) and Hidup Baru.
In contrast to the 1950s and 1960s, many studios today are no longer owned solely by producers, the Indonesia record before lokanata, produced by Irama Resords and made in India studio processing above , like MCG record by dutch Leow cooperations
also in Indonesia (Irama indonesian music co ltd) look below compare with above :
The other earliest Indonesian records company :
1) Bali Record Music Cooperation
2) Mesra Record Inc
3)Gedung Musik Nusantara Record Inc
4)Indah Music record
THE RECORD LABEL COLLECTIONS
1.Dr IWAN COLLECTIONS FROM ASIA COUNTRIES
A)MITSUI BUSSAN IMPORTED DURIUM RECORD
B) FLIGHT RECORD IN NATIVE KANJI CHARACTER
2.FROM GOOGLE EXPLORATIONS
the end @ copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2011