Monthly Archives: January 2011

Pameran Koleksi Piring Hitam Penyanyi Legendaris Dunia IX(Legendary Playrecord Exhibition)



                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               




              DMRC SHOWROOM 

Driwan Music Record Cybermuseum




Pameran Koleksi Piring Hitam Legendaris Dunia IX

 (The Legend Singers Playrecord Exhibition)Introduction

1.Saya mulai koleksi p1ringan hitam penyanyi legendaris sejak masih sekolah di SMA tahun 1959-1963 tetapi saat itu harganya masih tinggi serta masa era Bung Karno masih dilarang musik Rock ia mengatakan itu musik Ngak Ngik Ngok, penyanyi Indonesia yang meniru dipenjarakan. Oleh karena itu sangat sulit menemukan koleksi piring hitam penyanyi rocker di Indonesia era 1950-1965 .

I am starting collecting palyrecord plate during high sschool in 1959-1963, but the price high ,also during President Sukarno era, the rocker music were forbidden and  the Indonesian singer who sing that song were put in jail.That is why very difficult to found the earliest rocker playrecord plate in Indonesia.

2.Pada era Pak Harto 1966-1998 sudah mulai beredar tetapi dengan kemajuan teknologi piring hitam mulai ditinggalkan akibat muculnya pita kaset dan CD serta majunya internet sehingga banyak lagu-lagu dapat di tag di Internet.

During President suharto era 1966-1998 the rocker playrecord became exist,but in the advanced of tech nologi the playrecord plate were leaved because staring more practise playrecord like Cassett reel , CD and DVD also everybody could tag the music from Internet.

3. Pada tahun 1990-2000, saya mulai lebih aktif mengumpulkan pirang hitam penyanyi legendari dunia , dan tahun 2005 ketika membaca informasi tentang 100 artis Musik Terbesar sepanjang masa di Edisi Istimewa dalam bahasa Indonesia Majalah Rolling-Stone , barulah saya memperoleh informasi lengkap tentang penyanyi legendaris dunia tersebut dan beburu piringan hitam mereka jadi lebih serius sampai hampir lengkap koleksi tersebut kecuali beberapa penyanyi legendaris yang kurang begitu populer di Indonesia sangat sulit untuk memperoleh koleksi penyanyi tersebut.

Between the years 1990-2000, I had more active to build my  legendary singer playrecord collections and in 2005 I have a best info from The Rolling stone specuial edition magazine in Indonesia language, with this info I have understood about 100  legendary singers in the world and I had playrecord hunting more seriouslly at least my collections almost complete except the unpopuler singer in Indonesia.

4. Dalam rangka memenuhi permintaan para sahabat kolektor dan fans penyanyi legendaris, saya pamerkan koleksi saya di Cybermuseum dalam lima frame dengan amsingh-masing frame sepuluh penyanyi legendaris muali dari no satu sampai seratus. Harap para kolektor  yang memiliki piring hitam para legendaris  yang belum saya miliki harap berkenan memamerkan koleksinya di cyb ermuseum,harap kontak liwat comment.

I have show my collections because many collectors asked me, but some legendary singer playrecord still not found,please who have it to show at  cybermuseum ,please contac via comment,thanks.

5. Harap bersabar karena install masih dalam process.Please be patient the install still in processing.

Jakarta January 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Frame Ninth

81.The Drifters

The Drifters (American band)

The Drifters
Origin New York City
Genres R&B, doo wop
Years active 1953 to present
Labels Atlantic, Bell
Associated acts Ben E. King
Clyde McPhatter
Maurice Cannon
Michael Williams
Damion Charles
Ryan King
Past members
Clyde McPhatter
and the Drifters:

Gerhart Thrasher
Andrew Thrasher
Bill Pinkney
Willie Ferbee
Walter Adams[disambiguation needed]
The second Drifters
Ben E. Nelson
Charlie Thomas
Doc Green
Beary Hobbs
Rudy Lewis
Charlie Thomas
Tommy Evans
Eugene Pearson
Johnny Terry
Johnny Moore

The Drifters are a long-lived American doo wop/R&B vocal group with a peak in popularity from 1953 to 1962, though several splinter Drifters continue to perform today. They were originally formed to serve as Clyde McPhatter‘s (of Billy Ward & the Dominoes) backing group in 1953. Rolling Stone magazine states that the Drifters were the least stable of the vocal groups due to being low-paid hired musicians of their management.[1] The Treadwell Drifters website states that there have been 60 vocalists in the history of the Treadwell Drifters line.[2] Several splinter groups by former Drifters members add to the count. Only one splinter Drifters group features a classic Drifters member, Charlie Thomas’ Drifters. Nevertheless, there are two versions of the Drifters that are notable. The first classic Drifters formed by Clyde McPhatter was inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame as “The Drifters” or “The Original Drifters”.[3] The second Drifters formed by Treadwell featuring Ben E. King was separately inducted into the Vocal Group Hall of Fame as Ben E. King and the Drifters.[4] In their induction, the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame eclectically selected four members from the classic Drifters, two from the second Drifters, and one from the post-King Treadwell Drifters.[5] According to the Vocal Group Hall of Fame, “Through turmoil and changes the (original) Drifters managed to set musical trends and give the public 13 chart hits, most of which are legendary recordings today.”[3]




Eminem performing live at the DJ Hero Party in Los Angeles, June 1, 2009
Background information
Birth name Marshall Bruce Mathers III
Born October 17, 1972 (1972-10-17) (age 38) Saint Joseph, Missouri, U.S.
Origin Warren, Michigan, U.S.
Genres Hip hop
Occupations Rapper, record producer, actor, songwriter
Years active 1995–present
Labels Mashin’ Duck, Web, Interscope, Aftermath, Shady
Associated acts Dr. Dre, D12, Royce da 5’9″, 50 Cent, Obie Trice, Lil Wayne

Marshall Bruce Mathers III (born October 17, 1972),[1] better known by his stage name Eminem, is an American rapper, record producer, and actor. Eminem quickly gained popularity in 1999 with his major-label debut album, The Slim Shady LP, which won a Grammy Award for Best Rap Album. The following album, The Marshall Mathers LP, became the fastest-selling solo album in United States history.[2] It brought Eminem increased popularity, including his own record label, Shady Records, and brought his group project, D12, to mainstream recognition.

The Marshall Mathers LP and his third album, The Eminem Show, also won Grammy Awards, making Eminem the first artist to win Best Rap Album for three consecutive LPs. He then won the award again in 2010 for his album Relapse, giving him a total of 11 Grammys in his career. In 2003, he won the Academy Award for Best Original Song for “Lose Yourself” from the film, 8 Mile, in which he also played the lead. “Lose Yourself” would go on to become the longest running No. 1 hip hop single.[3] Eminem then went on hiatus after touring in 2005. He released his first album since 2004’s Encore, titled Relapse, on May 15, 2009. Eminem is the best-selling artist of the decade on the US Nielsen SoundScan,[4] and has sold more than 80 million albums worldwide to date, making him one of the best-selling music artists in the world.[5] In 2010, Eminem released his seventh studio album Recovery. It became Eminem’s sixth consecutive number-one album in the US and achieved international commercial success, charting at number one in several other countries. It stayed at number-one on the US Billboard 200 chart for five consecutive weeks and a total of seven weeks.[6][7] Recovery was also reported by Billboard to be the best-selling album of 2010, making Eminem the first artist in Nielsen SoundScan history to have two year-end best-selling albums.[8]

Eminem was ranked 79th on the VH1 100 Greatest Artists of All-Time.[9] He was also ranked 82nd on Rolling Stone magazine’s list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time.[10] He was also named the Best Rapper Alive by Vibe magazine in 2008.[11] Including his work with D12, Eminem has achieved nine No. 1 albums on the Billboard Top 200, 7 solo (6 studio albums, 1 compilation) and 2 with D12.[12] Eminem has had 13 number one singles worldwide. In December 2009, Eminem was named the Artist of the Decade by Billboard magazine.[13] His albums The Eminem Show, The Marshall Mathers LP, and Encore (in order) ranked as the 3rd,[14] 7th,[14] and 40th[15] best-selling albums of the 2000–2009 decade by Billboard magazine. Also according to Billboard, Eminem has two of his albums among the top five highest selling albums of the 2000s. In the UK, Eminem has sold over 12.5 million records.[16] Eminem has also sold more than 33 million track downloads and 39.6 million albums in the United States alone.[17] In 2010, MTV ranked Eminem as the 7th biggest icon in pop music history.[18] During 2010, Eminem’s music generated 94 million streams, more than any other music artist.[17]





N.W.A in 1988, from left to right: Ice Cube, Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, DJ Yella and MC Ren
Background information
Origin Compton, California, U.S.
Genres Hip hop, West Coast hip hop, gangsta rap
Years active 1986–1991
(Partial reunion: 1999)
Labels Ruthless, Priority, EMI
Associated acts Bobby Jimmy and the Critters, World Class Wreckin’ Cru, C.I.A., The D.O.C., J. J. Fad, Fila Fresh Crew, Above the Law, Sir Jinx, Snoop Dogg
Past members
Arabian Prince
DJ Yella
Dr. Dre
Ice Cube
MC Ren

N.W.A (“Non-White Americans[1][2] or “Niggaz With Attitude”[3]) is an American hip hop group from Compton, California, widely considered one of the seminal acts of the gangsta rap sub-genre.[4]

The original lineup consisted of Eazy-E, Dr. Dre, DJ Yella, Arabian Prince, Ice Cube, and MC Ren. Arabian Prince embarked on a solo career in 1989 and Ice Cube left in 1990 over royalty disputes.

Active from 1986 to 1991, the group endured controversy due to the explicit nature of their lyrics. They were subsequently banned from many mainstream US radio stations and even at times prevented from touring. In spite of this, the group has sold over 9 million units in the US alone.

Their debut album Straight Outta Compton marked the beginning of the new gangsta rap era as the production and the social commentary in their lyrics were revolutionary within the genre.[3] Rolling Stone ranked N.W.A 83rd on their list of the 100 Greatest Artists of All Time. [5]

Although largely unknown at the group’s inception, members Dr. Dre, Eazy-E, Ice Cube, and MC Ren would all become platinum-selling stars as solo artists.

 84.James Taylor

James Taylor

James Taylor

James Taylor in 2008
Background information
Birth name James Vernon Taylor
Born March 12, 1948 (1948-03-12) (age 62)
Boston, Massachusetts, U.S.
Origin Carrboro, North Carolina
Genres Folk rock
Occupations Singer-songwriter
Instruments Vocals
Years active 1968–present
Labels Apple/Capitol/EMI Records
Warner Bros. Records
Columbia/SME Records
Hear Music
Associated acts Carole King, Carly Simon

James Vernon Taylor (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist born in Boston, Massachusetts, and raised in Carrboro, North Carolina.[2] He owns a house in the Berkshire County town of Washington, Massachusetts. A five-time Grammy Award winner, Taylor was inducted into the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame in 2000.

Taylor achieved his major breakthrough in 1970 with the #3 single “Fire and Rain” and had his first #1 hit the following year with “You’ve Got a Friend“, a recording of Carole King‘s classic song. His 1976 Greatest Hits album was certified Diamond and has sold 12 million US copies. Following his 1977 album, JT, he has retained a large audience over the decades. His commercial achievements declined slightly until a big resurgence during the late 1990s and 2000s, when some of his best-selling and most-awarded albums (including Hourglass, October Road and Covers) were released

 85.Black Sabbath

Black Sabbath

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This article is about the band. For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation).
Black Sabbath

Black Sabbath on stage on 16 December 1999, L-R: Geezer Butler, Ozzy Osbourne, Tony Iommi, Bill Ward
Background information
Also known as The Polka Tulk Blues Band, Earth
Origin Birmingham, England
Genres Heavy metal
Years active 1968–2006 (hiatus)
Labels Vertigo, Warner Bros, I.R.S.
Associated acts Mythology, Heaven & Hell
Ozzy Osbourne
Tony Iommi
Geezer Butler
Bill Ward
Past members
See: List of Black Sabbath band members

Black Sabbath are a British rock band, formed in Birmingham in 1968 by Ozzy Osbourne (lead vocals), Tony Iommi (guitar), Geezer Butler (bass guitar), and Bill Ward (drums). The band has since experienced multiple line-up changes, with Tony Iommi the only constant presence in the band through the years. A total of twenty-two musicians have at one time been members of Black Sabbath. Originally formed as a heavy blues-rock band named Earth, the band began incorporating occult– and horror-inspired lyrics with tuned-down guitars, changing their name to Black Sabbath and achieving multiple platinum records in the 1970s. Despite an association with occult and horror themes, Black Sabbath also composed songs dealing with social and political issues such as drugs and war.

As one of the first and most influential heavy metal bands of all time,[1] Black Sabbath helped define the genre with releases such as quadruple-platinum Paranoid, released in 1970.[2] They were ranked by MTV as the “Greatest Metal Band” of all time,[3] and placed second in VH1‘s “100 Greatest Artists of Hard Rock” list, behind Led Zeppelin.[4] They have sold over 15 million records in the United States alone.[5] Rolling Stone has posited the band as ‘the heavy-metal kings of the ’70s’.[6] They have sold more than 100 million records worldwide.[7]

Vocalist Ozzy Osbourne’s drinking led to his being fired from the band in 1979. He was replaced by former Rainbow vocalist Ronnie James Dio. After a few albums with Dio’s vocals and his songwriting collaborations, Black Sabbath endured a revolving line-up in the 1980s and 1990s that included vocalists Ian Gillan, Glenn Hughes, Ray Gillen and Tony Martin. In 1992, Iommi and Butler rejoined Dio and drummer Vinny Appice to record Dehumanizer. The original line-up reunited with Osbourne in 1997 and released a live album, Reunion. The 1979–1982 and 1991–1992 line-up featuring Iommi, Butler, Dio, and Appice reformed in 2006 under the moniker Heaven & Hell until Dio’s death on 16 May 2010.

 86.Tupac Shakur

Tupac Shakur

Tupac Amaru Shakur
Background information
Birth name Lesane Parish Crooks
Also known as 2Pac, Pac, Makaveli
Born June 16, 1971(1971-06-16)
East Harlem, New York City, New York, U.S.
Origin Marin City, California, U.S.
Died September 13, 1996(1996-09-13) (aged 25)
Las Vegas, Nevada, U.S.
Genres Hip hop
Occupations Rapper, actor, record producer, poet, screenwriter, activist
Years active 1988–1996 (rapping)1991–1996 (acting)
Labels Interscope, Death Row, Amaru
Associated acts Outlawz, Snoop Doggy Dogg, Digital Underground, Biggie, Richie Rich, K-Ci & JoJo, Dave Hollister, Johnny “J”, Dr. Dre, Tha Dogg Pound, Boot Camp Clik, Nate Dogg

Tupac Amaru Shakur (June 16, 1971 – September 13, 1996), known by his stage names 2Pac (or simply Pac) and Makaveli, was an American rapper. Shakur has sold over 75 million albums worldwide,[1] making him one of the best-selling music artists in the world. In the United States alone he has sold 37.5 million records.[2] Rolling Stone Magazine named him the 86th Greatest Artist of All Time.[3]

In addition to his career as a top-selling rap artist, he was a promising actor,[4] and a social activist. Most of Tupac’s songs are about growing up amid violence and hardship in ghettos, racism, other social problems, and conflicts with other rappers during the East Coast-West Coast hip hop rivalry. Shakur began his career as a roadie and backup dancer for the alternative hip hop group Digital Underground.[5][6][7]

In September 1996, Shakur was shot four times in the Las Vegas metropolitan area of Nevada. He was taken to the University Medical Center, where he died of respiratory failure and cardiac arrest

87.Gram Parsons

Gram Parsons

Gram Parsons
Background information
Birth name Ingram Cecil Connor III
Born November 5, 1946(1946-11-05)
Winter Haven, Florida
Origin Waycross, Georgia
Died September 19, 1973(1973-09-19) (aged 26)
Joshua Tree, California
Genres Country, country rock, rock
Occupations Singer-songwriter, guitarist, pianist
Instruments Vocals, guitar, piano, organ
Years active 1963–1973
Labels Reprise, A&M
Associated acts International Submarine Band
The Byrds
The Flying Burrito Brothers
Emmylou Harris

Gram Parsons (November 5, 1946 – September 19, 1973) was an American singer, songwriter, guitarist and pianist. Parsons is best known for his work within the country genre; he also mixed blues, folk, and rock to create what he called “Cosmic American Music”.[1] Besides recording as a solo artist, he also worked in several notable bands, including the International Submarine Band, The Byrds and The Flying Burrito Brothers. His career, though short, is described by Allmusic as “enormously influential” for both country and rock, “blending the two genres to the point that they became indistinguishable from each other.”[2]

Born in 1946, Parsons emerged from a wealthy but troubled childhood to attend Harvard University. He founded the International Submarine Band in 1966, and after several months of delay their debut, Safe at Home, was released in 1968, by which time the group had disbanded. Parsons joined The Byrds in early 1968, and played a pivotal role in the making of the seminal Sweetheart of the Rodeo album. After leaving the group in late 1968, Parsons and fellow Byrd Chris Hillman formed The Flying Burrito Brothers in 1969, releasing their debut, The Gilded Palace of Sin, the same year. The album was well received but failed commercially; after a sloppy cross-country tour, they hastily recorded Burrito Deluxe. Parsons was fired from the band before its release in early 1970. He soon signed with A&M Records, but after several unproductive sessions he canceled his intended solo debut in early 1971. Parsons moved to France, where he lived for a short period at Villa Nellcôte with his friend Keith Richards of The Rolling Stones. Returning to America, Parsons befriended Emmylou Harris, who assisted him on vocals for his first solo record, GP, released in 1973. Although it received enthusiastic reviews, the release failed to chart; his next album, Grievous Angel (released posthumously in 1974) met with a similar reception, and peaked at number 195 on Billboard. Parsons died of a drug overdose on September 19, 1973 in a hotel room in Joshua Tree, California, at the age of 26.

Since his death, Parsons has been recognized as an extremely influential artist, credited with helping to found both country rock and alt-country.[2] His posthumous honors include the Americana Music Association “President’s Award” for 2003, and a ranking at #87 on Rolling Stones list of the 100 Most Influential Artists of All Time.[3]

88.Miles Davis

Miles Davis

Miles Dewey Davis

Photo of Davis in 1955 taken by Tom Palumbo
Background information
Birth name Miles Dewey Davis III
Born May 26, 1926(1926-05-26)
Alton, Illinois, United States
Died September 28, 1991(1991-09-28) (aged 65)
Santa Monica, California,
United States
Genres Jazz, hard bop, bebop, cool jazz, modal, fusion, third stream, jazz-funk jazz rap[1][2]
Occupations Bandleader, composer, trumpeter, artist
Instruments Trumpet, flugelhorn, piano, organ, vocals
Years active 1944–1975, 1980–1991
Associated acts Billy Eckstine, Charlie Parker, Miles Davis Quintet, Gil Evans

Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American trumpeter, bandleader, and composer.

Widely considered one of the most influential musicians of the 20th century, Miles Davis was, with his musical groups, at the forefront of several major developments in jazz music, including bebop, cool jazz, hard bop, modal jazz, and jazz fusion. Many well-known musicians rose to prominence as members of Davis’ ensembles, including saxophonists Gerry Mulligan, John Coltrane, Cannonball Adderley, George Coleman, Wayne Shorter, Dave Liebman, Branford Marsalis and Kenny Garrett; trombonist J. J. Johnson; pianists Horace Silver, Red Garland, Wynton Kelly, Bill Evans, Herbie Hancock, Joe Zawinul, Chick Corea, and Keith Jarrett; guitarists John McLaughlin, Pete Cosey, John Scofield and Mike Stern; bassists Paul Chambers, Ron Carter, Dave Holland, Marcus Miller and Darryl Jones; and drummers Elvin Jones, Philly Joe Jones, Jimmy Cobb, Tony Williams, Billy Cobham, Jack DeJohnette, and Al Foster.

On October 7, 2008, his album Kind of Blue, released in 1959, received its fourth platinum certification from the RIAA, signifying sales of 4 million copies.[3] Miles Davis was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2006.[4] Davis was noted as “one of the key figures in the history of jazz”.[5]

On November 5, 2009, Rep. John Conyers of Michigan sponsored a measure in the US House of Representatives to recognize and commemorate the album Kind of Blue on its 50th anniversary. The measure also affirms jazz as a national treasure and “encourages the United States government to preserve and advance the art form of jazz music.”[6] It passed, unanimously, with a vote of 409–0 on December 15, 2009

89.The Yardbirds

The Yardbirds

The Yardbirds

The Yardbirds, 2006 L to R – King, Miskimmin, Idan, Dreja with McCarty hidden behind the drums
Background information
Origin London, England
Genres Blues-rock, rhythm and blues, psychedelic rock
Years active 1963–1968
Labels Columbia, Capitol, Epic
Associated acts The Jeff Beck Group, Cream, Led Zeppelin, Renaissance, Box of Frogs, Band of Joy
Andy Mitchell
Chris Dreja
Ben King
David Smale
Jim McCarty
Past members

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

The Yardbirds are an English rock band that had a string of hits in the mid 1960s, including “For Your Love“, “Over Under Sideways Down” and “Heart Full of Soul“. The group is notable for having started the careers of three of rock’s most famous guitarists: Eric Clapton, Jeff Beck, and Jimmy Page, all of whom were in the top fifteen of Rolling Stone’s 100 Top Guitarists list (Clapton as #4, Page as #9, and Beck as #14).[1] A blues-based band that broadened its range into pop and rock, The Yardbirds were pioneers in guitar innovations of the ’60s: fuzz tone, feedback, distortion, backwards echo, improved amplification, etc. Pat Pemberton, writing for Spinner, holds that the Yardbirds were “the most impressive guitar band in rock music”.[2] After the Yardbirds broke up in 1968, their current lead guitarist Jimmy Page founded what became Led Zeppelin.

The bulk of the band’s most successful self-written songs came from bassist/producer Paul Samwell-Smith who, with singer/harmonica player Keith Relf, drummer Jim McCarty and rhythm guitarist/bassist Chris Dreja, constituted the core of the group. The band reformed in the 1990s, featuring McCarty, Dreja and new members. The Yardbirds were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1992

90. Carlos Santana

Carlos Santana

Carlos Santana

Santana in Munich on 21 January 2000
Background information
Birth name Carlos Augusto Alves Santana
Born July 20, 1947 (1947-07-20) (age 63)
Autlán de Navarro, Jalisco
Genres Rock, latin rock, blues rock, funk, jazz fusion
Occupations Musician, songwriter
Instruments Vocals, guitar, percussion
Years active 1966–present
Labels Arista, Polydor, Columbia, Polygram
Associated acts Santana, Los Lonely Boys
Notable instruments
PRS Santana II
Yamaha SG175
Gibson SG

Carlos Augusto Alves Santana (born July 20, 1947) is a Mexican American[1] rock guitarist. Santana became famous in the late 1960s and early 1970s with his band, Santana, which pioneered rock, salsa and jazz fusion. The band’s sound featured his melodic, blues-based guitar lines set against Latin and African rhythms featuring percussion instruments such as timbales and congas not generally heard in rock music. Santana continued to work in these forms over the following decades. He experienced a resurgence of popularity and critical acclaim in the late 1990s. Rolling Stone named Santana number 15 on their list of the 100 Greatest Guitarists of All Time in 2003.[2] He has won 10 Grammy Awards and 3 Latin Grammy Awards.

Carlos Sanata had ever made a show in Jakareta Indonesia,this the ingormations from Indonesia Music fans below :

9 Mei 1996,Carlos Santana consert show at  the Plennary Hall Jakarta Convention Center.promoted by  Indo Mugi Pratama  as the part of Sanatna world tour with theme  “Dance Of the Rainbow Serpent Tour”.in order to promote hisnew album record.

the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011






                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               



Pameran Keramik Belanda(The Dutch Porcelain Exhibtion)

 Frame One:

The  Societe Ceramique(Maastrict )1851 -1958

The Entrepreneurs Winand Nicolaas Clermont and Charles Cheinaye in 1851 founded a pottery in maastricht neighborhood Wijk.In 1859 the company was take over  by the Belgian engineer Gaulumme Lambert and trasformed into a limited liability company that became generally known as Societe Ceramique.look the mark  Made in Holland society cermique Maastricht  Potiche

and the more rare societe de cermique made in Holland Morphee fruit stremp cup three foot and fish plate  with design Poppy(opium) Flower(who ever seen this type porcelain please show and comment-Dr Iwan)

(I have two type of white without picture ‘s biger fish plate, round and oval,oval more rare, and also very common white small eating plate which many used to made the fake with add the fake picture ,many falscificated the boerenbont design with multi colour

, I hope the collectors becarfeful-Dr Iwan)

In 1899, Society Ceramique flourished and became the main competitor Petrus Regout and the name became the Sphinx. Around 1900 the product of Society Ceramique view as The sphinx in price as well as quality, look the mark of the sphinx Petrus Regout Maastricht Made In Holland  of Dutch Royal Ship KPM propaganda tea cup below:

In 1863-1913,The Director Victor Juanez and between 1902-1915 P.J.Langersdorff, and Edgar Mitchel between 1915-1954.

Many Maastrict ceramic export to Indonesia like Boerenbont style ,timor style  and other asia countries like  china like Canton. the trader value of this ceramic still low except the very fine large plate ,vase and Stemp Cup.

No study about this export maastricth ceramic , may be this is the first Indonesian study which done by Dr Iwan s, I hope the collectors and reseacher help me with more info. Several ceramic which found in Indonesia :

1.a. Human Figur


1c.Timor figur

1c.Canton pattern


A boerenbont plate.

Boerenbont is a traditional pattern used on pottery from the Netherlands. Translated from Dutch, “Boer” means farmer and “bont” refers to a mixture of colors. The distinctive floral pattern is hand-painted with simple brush strokes of red, yellow, green, and blue. Currently manufactured by Royal Boch in Belgium, the pattern originated as a local craft made by farmer’s wives in the 19th century [1]. According to the Royal Boch website, a variety of patterns have followed the path of Dutch merchants all over the world, from Sumatra to Zanzibar via Goa. [2] It remains a popular pattern today





4.Boeren Military plate Set Found In Indonesia

Frame Two:The Gauda Pottery

A vase in the “Chryso” pattern, circa 1925, manufactured by Kunstaardewerkfabriek Regina of Gouda, Holland.

Gouda is a style of Dutch pottery named after the city of Gouda. Gouda pottery gained worldwide prominence in the early 20th century and remains highly desirable to collectors today.

Gouda pottery is diverse and visually distinctive in appearance, typically illustrated with colourful and highly decorated Art Nouveau or Art Deco designs.




The designs and colours of Gouda pottery are simply stunning as can be seen from these examples. They are a very small part of our collection.We live in the County of Yorkshire here in the UK and warmly welcome Gouda collectors from wherever you live in the world.



Factories include – Regina, Schoonhoven, Ivora, Zenith, Ed. Antheunis, Rozenburg, Nieuw Rozenburg, Flora, Purmerend, Brantjes, St.Lukas, Ram, Rembrandt, Goedewaagen, Gelria, GeWi, Arnhem, Huisenga, Kennermerland, Mobach, Rijn, Talos, Zaalberg, PBD, Haga, ADCO, Kohler, Tiko, De Jong, De Ysel, De Distel, De Rozeboom, De Kroon, De Zwing, De Porceleyne Fles – with many more of the great Dutch pottery factories – past and present.

Information is provided simply for you by two dedicated collectors for the love of collectors and enthusiasts to enjoy.

     a small vase inherited in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Imagine the Art Nouveau and Art Deco pottery that must have been on display. No decor name on the base marks but we know it is ‘Linote’ – one of the classic PZH designs. Date is 1929.  

Plateelfabriek Schoonhoven – Schoonhoven Keramiek

Schoonhoven pottery is very much “the Gouda style” in shape, design and some wonderful, vivid colours.

Started in 1920 by Tijs Visser, Tijs Volker and Kornelis Prins from the unfortunate demise (liquidation) of Plateelbakkerij De Rozenboom (1919-1920) in The Hague, Schoonhoven picked up the pieces and began production.



One of the most frequently found designs is ‘Corel’. Others include ‘Aida’ (we know someone who is an avid collector of this particular pattern), ‘Luna’, ‘Pelta’, ‘Jeno’, ‘Johnny(ij)’, ‘Dison’, ‘Largo’, ‘Roer’ and many more. A black and white design can also be found called ‘Fariet’ (see Pictures 50 and 55 on the Collectors Galleries) and a similar but coloured ‘Kleuren Fariet’ (Colours or Coloured Fariet) or more commonly sen on marks as ‘KL Fariet’ which we have in our collection. See butter pats below.


Still producing today in the same factory which is now known as Schoonhoven Keramiek. They have a highly dedicated workforce. The production work is done by a team of 22 employees. Over the past decades they expanded collaboration with outside artists and designers. They now produce a standard art collection that currently consists of more than 50 items and is growing every year.





11.0cm H by 12.0cm D 

“Corel” has the typical Schoonhoven use of aqua, blue, lilac and yellow.It is a striking design, wonderful shape and the colours are bold. This piece, from our collection, is displayed on a table lit by an art deco lamp and is accompanied by two PZH pieces – “Emmy” and “Dimar”. They complement one another superbly with their gorgeous colours.



Small jug Schoonhoven c.1929 


11.5cm H by 8.5cm D 

Wonderful design and colours in the “Jeno” pattern. The aquamarine blue can be found on many Schoonhoven pieces. Decorator unknown.



Butter pats – Schoonhoven – c.1929 

All 6.0cm in diameter and mould number 300 

“Pelta”“Johnny” (Johnnij) 

“KL (Kleuren)Fariet”“Aida” – decorator possibly J. Edeling 



Rembrandt Pottery

Here you can see two completely different examples of PZH Rembrandt pottery from our collection. The original Rembrandt factory (Potterij Rembrandt in Nijmegen) started in around 1906. PZH took over the factory in about 1925/1926 (as they did with several potteries), the moulds, name and markings of Rembrandt were kept.



Here you can see the marks. The coaster has the design reference HO 6, the spill vase/cigarette holder has HO 114. There were no design/pattern names as in PZH just the reference ‘HO’ and then a number. The PZH Rembrandt logo was a two handled jug with the capital letter R between the handles. You can see a close up of the logo above. Very easy to recognise. Sometimes a round sticker was applied with ‘Rembrandt Gouda’ – the picture of course being that of the painter Rembrandt. The painter – initials ‘R.J.’ on the spill vase is unknown.



Spill vase or cigarette holder 

Rembrandt – Design HO 114 – 1926 

8.5cm H x 8.5cm D 

Superb art deco design with ultramarine and aqua blue. Markings beautifully hand written. 




Rembrandt – Design HO 6 – 1926 

11.5cm D x 2.0cm D 

In perfect condition, the coaster with mustard yellow in fill and the typical Gouda painted dots. 



Commorative wall plate – 1912 

Rembrandt Factory Nijmegen 

20.3cm Diameter 

A very rare and visually stunning commemorative item produced for the total solar eclipse of 17 April 1912. Painted at the Nijmegen factory. An example of this is in the Museum Het Valkhof in Nijmegen.The wording means – “the day becomes night”.See two astronomical and space related De Porceleyne Fles plates  

Regina Pottery

Clay pipe manufacturing was how most pottery factories began. Regina (Kunstaardewerkfabriek Regina) was no exception, starting in the same year as PZH – 1898, by Van der Want and Barras. Look on the base of Regina pottery and you will see the initials WB. It was a typical family business. The Regina name derives from Queen Wilhelmina.

Here below the site of the Regina factory in Gouda. The factory was demolished and apartments were built. You can see they kept the original Regina WB crown crest over the doorway.

Pictures by Kim.



Regina started to produce their decorative and ornamental pottery towards the end of WW1 in 1917. This was due in part to compete with PZH and also the public were demanding more decorative pottery. At first Regina continued with the high glaze ware they had originally manufactured and then (as most did) moved on to the matte finish of which PZH were the undoubted masters. Everyone wanted to be as successful as PZH. Poor results from the factory, the bad economy and his ill health all made Otto van der Want decide to close the factory in 1979. The name was then sold to Artihove and until 1993 some Regina pieces were produced. Very little is still known or left about Regina. More photos can be seen on the Regina Gallery page. For some of the information on this page, we are indebted to our dear friends Joop and Ria Nobel for their vast expertise on Regina pottery and also to the many Regina collectors for their pictures. You can read an exclusive article on Regina by Joop here.

Base marks are typically as the ones shown here and those shown below.The name Regina, mould number, crown logo (or not, see “Avia” below), WB (see explanation above), pattern name (here on the left “Lydia”), Gouda Holland or Gouda or Holland and the decorator’s mark.The base mark of the piece on the right is dated from sometime in the 1950’s. It has a high model number of 949 which indicates the later date. The “M” after the number stands for Melk (Milk). It would seem that in the early years of Regina production, it was forbidden for an artist to put his or her name on a piece. This a very matte finished small jug as one can see from the photo here.

Popular pattern names often seen include – Avia, Imanta, Lydia, Majoli, Orchis, Osiris and Rosario.

    ‘Avia’ on a match holder – c.1920


Some other pattern names are – Angola, Arina (see below), Cordoba, Delos, Fleveo, Florida (see below), Gambir, Molda (see below), Myria, Olga, Presto, Robur, Ruimte (the Dutch word Ruimte means ‘Space’ – see below), Sevilla, Tibon (see below), Torino, Valencia and many others!

Here below are some Regina marks you may come across. The details about the meaning of these marks will be shown soon.

Please note – some are from the Artihove Regina B.V. factory so they are after the Gouda Regina factory closed.






This mark (right) on the ‘Chryso’ shows an item exported to the Canadian retailer Ryrie Birks Ltd. All the Gouda plateel factories exported. Liberty’s of London perhaps the most famous retailer.   


  ‘Lydia’ on a small test as descibed above. These items were produced until 1979.


We often see these items described a cups. They are in fact small scale facsimiles of an original test. This was a Dutch earthenware vessel, often glazed, for holding hot coals. This was then placed inside a ventilated wooden container. They were used for keeping food (or whatever one wished, including your feet!) warm. Here is a picture of an original test on display in De Sint Janskerk (St. John’s Church) in Gouda. It is about 25.0cm square. See the ‘Lydia’ test below and from the painting by Vermeer.

Photograph taken by Kim.

In Vermeer’s ‘The ‘Milkmaid’ you can see a test in the lower right side of the painting.    

Bergen – La Céramique Montoise.

In this particular example below we see a piece dated around 1925 to 1935 from the Bergen factory. Bergen, also known as the Belgium Pottery Company or Bergen and Flamand (La Céramique Montoise) had a factory based in Mons, Belgium. It was formed by René Dubois in about 1919/1920 until circa 1950. Below is an example from our collection together with the base markings. The top number (846) is the mould number and is also impressed into the body. The mark (on most pieces) of Bergen is derived from the town itself. Can you see what looks like a hill or mountain? “Berg” (en) means mountain or hill – also as in “ice(berg)” – mountain or hill of ice. In this particular example, one can see it has all the hallmarks of Gouda. Some Bergen designs are very “Art Deco” in looks and are excellent and collectable.



    Above and here some other Bergen marks you may come across.    
  This sticker with the logo “Bergen Plateel” is not from the René Dubois Bergen plateel factory but from a small factory in the Netherlands. 
Japanese. In the Gouda style.
This Japanese copy  from Sydney, Australia. It is interesting to note that this is one of many examples of we have been sent from Australia and New Zealand. From acquaintances in Australia, it seems Japanese copies are plentiful. A typical copy of a small Gouda two handled vase. The base is unmarked. The vase is approx. 9.0cm high. One can see these on auction sites sadly described as original PZH. See more Japanese copies below.     



More on Japanese copies.


“Over the past five years or so, many collectors have been buying Japanese Gouda copies. They are in my view, very fine quality. While they are around, they are not as easy to find as Gouda. I have in my collection, about 50 pieces of all shapes and colours. Teapots, bowls, lamps, wall pockets, toothpick holders and of course, mostly vases. The extent of variation is amazing, and even on pieces with the same form, the colouring is different. I have been attempting to find out more about these. Where were they made? Who were the artists?

Some are unmarked, some marked ‘Made in Japan’. The odd one is marked ‘Elite Art Pottery’, ‘ELJCO’ (see below, probably Czechoslovakian) and ‘Hongan’. “Elite Art Pottery” is often seen as “rare Gouda” – no!

Some examples  amazing collection of Gouda copies. 







Above – two more examples of Japanese copies. On the left – sent by Adam. On the right – sent by Shari from Los Angeles. 

Here a beautiful Japanese copy of the Flora ‘Rumba’ decor. We have many items of Flora in our collection and ‘Rumba’ is a favourite decor. Below a ‘Flora ‘Rumba’ from our collection. One can also see 1950’s items from West Germany with the nearly identical decor. We have some in our West German ceramics collection.    


  For comparison, here is the Flora ‘Rumba’ decor from our collection.


English pottery – James (Jas) Plant, Hanley, Staffordshire.

    A PZH ‘Damascus’/’Matapan’ decor look-alike by the English potter James Plant. From our collection. Date circa 1920.Various dates and backstamps date items from circa 1914 to 1938. Most James Plant patterns are very similar. They were known as “Plant Ware”. See more information below.


     A PZH ‘Damascus’/’Matapan’ decor.


The original factory of R. H. and S. L. Plant Ltd. Tuscan China Works, Longton, Staffordshire, England, probably dates back to the mid 18th century. The business was formed into a limited company in 1915. Many members of the Plant family were involved in potteries. Factories had various names. For example, in the Tuscan Works, the partner proprietors were R. H. Plant and his brother. Running under the aegis of the Plant family, with S. L. Plant and his son (F. S. Plant) directing the sales department, while the two brothers H. J. and A. E. Plant were in charge of the production side. A James Plant factory was actually taken over by Grimwades. James Plant Senior died in 1931 and James Plant Junior took over. As you can see a very family involved business. The Gouda style, matte glaze decors were probably by a designer called Thorley. They were produced at the Brook Street Factory in Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

  Left – an original PZH vase from the Museum Catharina Gasthuis in Gouda. It is in the ‘Matapan’ design. If anyone doubted that James Plant did Gouda copies then just look closer again at the large picture above – you can see the striking resemblance of the pattern!One can see many examples of this ware at antique fairs here in the UK (we once saw four) and they are far from rare!Photograph by Kim Lindley.



This company was founded in 1969 by the brothers Frans and Peter Eikenboom, the sons of P.A. Eikenboom the founder of Plateelbakkerij Flora. They imitated the patterns and styles from 1930’s and later designs of other factories – mainly PZH and Regina. The company closed in 1990.

Here is a typical Modica backstamp, as you can see, one could easily be fooled into thinking this was from PZH.

See the lookalike copy of the “little house” (Lazarus gate) mark and the “Zuid-Holland”.

The “F” and “P” are the first letters of the brothers names – Frans and Peter .


Other Modica marks.

Images courtesy of Henk Veentjer and collectors.



BIHL Pottery Czechoslovakia.

Jan from the Netherlands is an expert in and collector of BIHL pottery which is sadly often confused for Gouda. One has only to look on eBay to see this. Look at David’s collection above and you may see some BIHL examples.

Jan tells us – “BIHL was a Czechoslovakian pottery company from Ledvice (or in German Ladowitz). There is not much known about this former company. I’m at this moment preparing a catalogue of known BIHL pottery. Some of these pieces are labeled with ELJECO / Holland. I am quite sure that the pottery was produced in Czechoslovakia then these pieces were exported to Holland, given a local back stamp (ELJECO / Holland) and sold on the Dutch market!”

Here are some really wonderful pictures from Jan’s collection.









    Here an example from “Eljeco” probably by BIHL. Sent in by Joe Altare.


This Eljeco kan, in a very nice decor, was sent in by Magda from The Netherlands.    


 Below – more Czechoslovakian pottery. Thanks to Jasper & Alison from Melbourne, Australia.






A very interesting “lookalike” here originally from the collection of Hotze & Elly. Thanks to the generosity of Hotze & Elly, this piece and others are now in our collection. This was made by the factory “Metawa” or N. V. Metawa, Tiel, Holland. The name deriving from “metal ware”. Founded 1923, it closed in 1982 but was for a short time revived. It finally closed in 1985. As you may have guessed – this is made of tin not pottery! Decor ‘Guus’ on model 1529.

      Left – another ‘Metawa’ mark. Decor ‘Rita’.



The C. W. Moody ‘Gouda Ceramics’ book with price guide.

Nice little guide from the 1970’s. Many signed (as this is) by Moody. With pictures but most of the information on marks is hopelessly wrong.



Made in Holland by Marie-Rose Bogaers, English edition.

Not easy to find in the English edition.

 From Back Cover    


Soon some snippets from these booklets.The Liberty Style.A Collector’s Guide to European and American Art Pottery.Kunstaardewerkfabiek Regina by Hilde Cammel.Dutch Modernism. ‘The Schiller-David Collection’.Antiques & Collectables – Gouda.  



Interesting card of ‘Greetings from Gouda’ sent in 1943 during the German occupation of Holland. Shows a clock and candlestick garniture set with a bowl from Plateelbakkerij Zuid-Holland. A coiled clay pipe from P. Goedewaagen & Zoon (Son) forms a cartouche with ‘Vergezicht op Gouda’ (Vista or view of Gouda). Other items show the produce of Holland. Notice the small ‘test’ at bottom centre right – see here. From our postcards collection.



Frame Three : The Delftware

1.The Rare Delfware collections

Het Kometen Jaar” – “The Comet Year”



De Porceleyne Fles – date code AE 1909 

Artist – Jacobus Frölich Snr. – work period 1889 to 1929 


This is a rare piece and was only the 3rd commemorative plate that Fles actually issued (though a few one-offs were made in the 1870’s – 90’s). The Royal Delft factory does not know how many were actually made. This was told to us personally on a recent visit (October 2003). Our piece is in superb condition. Only the merest hint of crazing. Looks like the day it left the factory.

About this plate and comets.

The depiction of Comet Halley itself is the stylized one with the words in capitals – “HALLEY”. in the centre. You can also see above this depictions of the constellations Aquarius and Gemini. These would probably have been the two constellations that Comet Halley passed through as it was seen in the night sky. It was seen from about February to July 1910.

You can see to the upper left of the plate another smaller depiction of a comet with the designation “1910A”. The “A” indicates that this comet was the first to be seen in the sky in January of 1910. The second comet would be “1910B or “1910b” and so on. This part of the plate may actually refer to another comet which was so bright that it was seen during the day. This comet has been called – “The Great Comet of 1910” or “The Daylight Comet of 1910” or “Winter Comet 1910”. It was brighter than Comet Halley

The Plateelbakkerij Schoonhoven factory is the subject of this postcard which shows a painter of Delft blue. Thanks to the digital skills our friend Ron Tasman we can now see what it would have really looked like when the photo was taken – in glorious colour – thanks Ron!



 2.The Delfware historic collections

Delftware in Pushkin Art Museum, Russia

Delftware depicting Chinese scenes, 18th century. Musee Ernest Cognacq

Delft vases, 1725-1760. Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris

An imari-styled vase, manufactured in De Griekse A, (ca. 1700-1720) Museum Geelvinck-Hinlopen Huis

Delftware, or Delft pottery, denotes blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century.

Delftware in the latter sense is a type of pottery in which a white glaze is applied, usually decorated with metal oxides. Delftware includes pottery objects of all descriptions such as plates, ornaments and tiles.




The earliest tin-glazed pottery in the Netherlands was made in Antwerp by Guido da Savino in 1512. The manufacture of painted pottery may have spread from the south to the northern Netherlands in the 1560s. It was made in Middelburg and Haarlem in the 1570s and in Amsterdam in the 1580s.[1] Much of the finer work was produced in Delft, but simple everyday tin-glazed pottery was made in places such as Gouda, Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Dordrecht.[2]

The main period of tin-glaze pottery in the Netherlands was 1640-1740. From about 1640 Delft potters began using personal monograms and distinctive factory marks. The Guild of St Luke, to which painters in all media had to belong, admitted ten master potters in the thirty years between 1610 and 1640 and twenty in the nine years 1651 to 1660. In 1654 a gunpowder explosion in Delft destroyed many breweries and as the brewing industry was in decline they became available to pottery makers looking for larger premises; some retained the old brewery names, making them famous throughout northern Europe, e.g. The Double Tankard, The Young Moors’ Head and The Three Bells.[3]

The use of marl, a type of clay rich in calcium compounds, allowed the Dutch potters to refine their technique and to make finer items. The usual clay body of Delftware was a blend of three natural clays, one local, one from Tournai and one from the Rhineland.[4]

From about 1615, the potters began to coat their pots completely in white tin glaze instead of covering only the painting surface and coating the rest with clear ceramic glaze. They then began to cover the tin-glaze with clear glaze, which gave depth to the fired surface and smoothness to cobalt blues, ultimately creating a good resemblance to porcelain.[5]

During the Dutch Golden Age, the Dutch East India Company had a lively trade with the East and imported millions of pieces of Chinese porcelain in the early 17th century.[6] The Chinese workmanship and attention to detail impressed many. Only the richest could afford the early imports. Although Dutch potters did not immediately imitate Chinese porcelain, they began to after the death of the Wanli Emperor in 1620, when the supply to Europe was interrupted.[5] Delftware inspired by Chinese originals persisted from about 1630 to the mid-18th century alongside European patterns.

By about 1700 several factories were using enamel colours and gilding over tin-glaze, requiring a third kiln firing at a lower temperature.

Delftware plate, faience, Famille rose, 1760-1780.

Delftware ranged from simple household items – plain white earthenware with little or no decoration – to fancy artwork. Most of the Delft factories made sets of jars, the kast-stel set. Pictorial plates were made in abundance, illustrated with religious motifs, native Dutch scenes with windmills and fishing boats, hunting scenes, landscapes and seascapes. Sets of plates were made with the words and music of songs; dessert was served on them and when the plates were clear the company started singing.[7] The Delft potters also made tiles in vast numbers (estimated at eight hundred million[8]) over a period of two hundred years; many Dutch houses still have tiles that were fixed in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Delftware became popular and was widely exported in Europe and even reached China and Japan. Chinese and Japanese potters made porcelain versions of Delftware for export to Europe.

Some regard Delftware from about 1750 onwards as artistically inferior. Caiger-Smith says that most of the later wares “were painted with clever, ephemeral decoration. Little trace of feeling or originality remained to be lamented when at the end of the eighteenth century the Delftware potteries began to go out of business.”[9] By this time Delftware potters had lost their market to British porcelain and the new white earthenware. One or two remain: the Tichelaar factory in Makkum, Friesland, founded in 1594 and De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles (“The Royal Porcelain Bottle”) founded in 1653.

Today, Delfts Blauw (Delft Blue) is the brand name hand painted on the bottom of ceramic pieces identifying them as authentic and collectible. Although most Delft Blue borrows from the tin-glaze tradition, it is nearly all decorated in underglaze blue on a white clay body and very little uses tin glaze, a more expensive product. Delft Blue pottery formed the basis of one of British Airways’ ethnic tailfins. The design, Delftblue Daybreak, was applied to 17 aircraft.

Delftware panel

Royal Delft

Royal Delft
Being the last remaining Delftware manufacturer surviving since the 17th century, Royal Delft is the oldest factory of its kind that still produces entirely hand painted Delft earthenware according to centuries-old tradition.

A guided tour takes you through our museum and factory and you will learn more about our impressive history and the authentic production process. In the museum you can find antique items from the Royal Delft ‘s private collection give a glimpse of Delft pottery history. In the showroom the complete classic and modern collection of Royal Delft is displayed and only here factory seconds are available with attractive discounts. Visitors can also experience the craftsmanship themselves by joining a painting workshop in which they will paint their own Delftware tile. Suitable for groups as well as individuals.

Still missing something? We are happy to inform you that all programs can be customized to your wishes and needs. All staff is English speaking and US$ cash and all major credit cards are accepted.
Admission prices: Adults € 6,50, children up to 12 years: free entrance, groups: on request. A

visit to Royal Delft can easily be combined with a visit to Delft, Rotterdam and/or The Hague.

Royal Delft in Amsterdam
Let us remind you that Royal Delft also has a subsidiary showroom in Amsterdam, in case your trip in Holland does not bring you all the way to Delft. Here you can also see an important selection of our Royal Delft products. Discover the beauty of Dutch craftsmanship and old Amsterdam within two hours when you combine a visit to Royal Delft with a free tour through Gassan Diamonds and join a canal cruise on a Canal Bus with a hop-on-hop-off service.
Address: Nieuwe Uilenburgerstraat 175-179, Amsterdam
(on the premises of Gassan Diamonds)

Royal Delft
Rotterdamseweg 196
2628 AR Delft

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011





                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               



 PAMERAN KERAMIK ANTIK INGGRIS (British Early porcelain Exhibition)


Royal Worcester Porcelain

1.Royal Wocester Porcelain

1) Jug

2) Blue Mug and plate 




2.Royal Wocester Porcelain History


Tea canister, about 1768, Worcester porcelain factory V&A Museum no. 1448&A-1853.

Royal Worcester manufactures bone china and in particular porcelain.



 Early history

Dr John Wall, a physician, and William Davis, an apothecary, developed a unique method for producing porcelain and, in 1751, persuaded a group of 15 businessmen to invest in a new factory at Warmstry House, Worcester, England, on the banks of the River Severn. Dr Wall secured the sum of £4500 from the partners to establish the factory, known then as “The Worcester Tonquin Manufactory” – the original partnership deeds are still housed in the Museum of Worcester Porcelain

The Flight and Barr partnerships

In 1783, the factory was purchased by Thomas Flight – the former London sales agent for the concern – for £3,000. He let his two sons run the concern, with John Flight taking the lead role till his father’s death in 1792. In 1788 George III, following a visit to the company, granted it a royal warrant, and it became known as the “Royal Porcelain Works”.[3] Knowledge of this period is largely a result of the excellent diary that John Flight kept from 1785–1791. This is discussed in detail in Appendix III of Flight & Barr Worcester Porcelain by Henry Sandon.

During this period, the factory was in poor repair. Production was limited to low-end patterns of mostly Blue and White porcelains after Chinese porcelain designs of the period. It was also pressured by competition from inexpensive Chinese export porcelains, and from Thomas Turner’s Caughley (pronounced “Calf-ley”) Factory.

Female side of Aesthetic teapot designed by R. W. Binns and modeled by James Hadley, 1881.

Martin Barr joined the firm as a partner in 1792; porcelains of this period are often identified by an incised capital “B” and, later, by more elaborate printed and impressed marks.

Thomas Flight died in 1800, leaving the factory in the hands of his son Joseph Flight and Martin Barr. Barr’s sons Martin Barr Jr. and George Barr were being prepared at that time to run the factory.

In addition to the warrant granted by George III, Royal Warrants were also issued by the Prince of Wales

, in 1807,and the Princess of Wales, in 1808

 The factory is still in service to the crown, by appointment to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

Modern history

At its height, the firm employed nearly a thousand people, but after the 2006 merger with Spode,[4] and heavy competition from overseas, the production was switched to factories in Stoke and abroad. 100 staff were made redundant in 2003 and another 100 went in 2005. Fifteen porcelain painters left the Severn Street factory on Friday 29 September 2006, together with 100 other workers.[5] The last trading date for Royal Worcester was June 14 2009.

The company went into administration on 6 November 2008.[4]

On 23 April 2009, Portmeirion Pottery purchased the rival Royal Worcester and Spode brands, together with some of the stock, after their parent company had been placed into administration the previous November. The purchase does not include Royal Worcester and Spode’s manufacturing facilities.[6] The Worcester site closed on June 14 2009 after the staff thanked all the customers for their loyalty over the 258 years of trade.[7]

Worcester Porcelain Museum

The factory’s former site includes a visitor centre and the independent Worcester Porcelain Museum (formerly known as the Dyson Perrins Museum) owned by the Dyson Perrins Museum Trust.[8] The Museum houses the world’s largest collection of Worcester porcelain. The collections date back to 1751 and the Victorian gallery, the ceramic collections, archives and records of factory production, form the primary resource for the study of Worcester porcelain and its history.

Frame Dua : Another British Porcelain History


The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England;[1] its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745. The entrepreneurial director was Nicholas Sprimont, a silversmith by trade, but few documents survive to aid a picture of the manufactory’s history. Early tablewares, being produced in profusion by 1750, depend on Meissen porcelain models and on silver prototypes, such as salt cellars in the form of realistic shells.

Chelsea was known for its figures. From about 1760 its inspiration was drawn more from Sèvres porcelain than Meissen.

In 1769 the manufactory was purchased by William Duesbury, owner of the Derby porcelain factory, and the wares are indistinguishable during the “Chelsea-Derby period” that lasted until 1784, when the Chelsea factory was demolished and its moulds, patterns and many of its workmen and artists transferred to Derby.

The factory history can be divided into four main periods, named for the identifying marks under the wares:

Chelsea cleopatra vase in British Museum

Chelsea factory, London, England, around AD 1760

The Death of Cleopatra and the Death of Harmonia

Chelsea was the first factory in England to make porcelain, probably around 1744. It is likely that the factory was founded by the partnership of Charles Gouyn (died 1785) and Nicholas Sprimont (around 1716-71) and funded by Sir Everard Fawkener (1694-1758), secretary to the duke of Cumberland. Sprimont was a Huguenot silversmith of Flemish extraction and was the owner of the factory from 1756 to 1769. Chelsea wares are usually classified into periods named after the factory marks then in use: these examples were made during the ‘Gold Anchor’ period (1758-70).

The vases are made of soft-paste porcelain and are painted and gilded. The scroll handles and finials epitomize the exuberance of the Rococo style in England. The scroll work, dark blue ground colour and extensive use of gilding are inspired by such French examples as those made at the Sèvres factory.

The Death of Cleopatra is based on an engraving by Johann Georg Wille (1715-1808) after Gaspar Netscher (1639-84), the Death of Harmonia after a painting by Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre (1713-89) exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1751. Harmonia was the child of Mars, Mark Antony’s patron god, and Venus, who was Cleopatra’s patron goddess through Isis and Aphrodite.

These vases were the first pieces of porcelain to enter The British Museum. Presented in 1763, only a few years after their manufacture, they are the first contemporary manufactured items to enter the collections.



Triangle period (around 1743-1749)

These early products bore an incised triangle mark. Most of the wares were white and were strongly influenced by silver design. The most notable products of this era were white saltcellars in the shape of crayfish. Perhaps the most famous pieces are the Goat and Bee jugs in 1747 that were also based on a silver model. Copies of these were made at Coalport in the 19th century.

 Raised anchor period (1749-1752)

In this period, the paste and glaze were modified to produce a clear, white, slightly opaque surface on which to paint. The influence of Meissen, Germany is evident in the classical figures among Italianate ruins and harbour scenes and adaptations from Francis Barlow’s edition of Aesop’s Fables. In 1751, copies were made of two Meissen services. Chelsea also made figures, birds and animals inspired by Meissen originals. Flowers and landscapes were copied from Vincennes.

Red anchor period (1752-1756)

Kakiemon (Japanese pottery), subjects were popular from the late 1740s until around 1758, inspired by the original Japanese and then by Meissen and Chantilly. Some English-inspired tableware decorated with botanically accurate plants, copied from the eighth edition of Philip Miller‘s The Gardener’s Dictionary (1752) were also produced in this period.

 Gold anchor period (1756-1769)

The influence of Sèvres was very strong and French taste was in the ascendancy. The gold anchor period saw rich coloured grounds, lavish gilding and the nervous energy of the Rococo style. In the 1750s and 1760s, Chelsea was also famous for its toys, which included bonbonnières, scent bottles, étuis, thimbles and small seals, many with inscriptions in French. In 1769 the failing factory was purchased by William Duesbury of Derby who ran it until 1784; during this time the Chelsea wares are indistinguishable from Duesbury’s Derby wares and the period is usually termed “Chelsea-Derby”.


A Lady – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1755

A Shepherdess – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

A Street Vendor – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

1b Bow

The Bow Porcelain Company was set up in East London to emulate Chinese porcelain and it did it so well that the factory was built according to an East India Company chinese prototype and was called New Canton.

Wedgwood, meissen, worcester are all famous names in the world of ceramics, but 250 years ago it was Bow porcelain that attracted worldwide attention, thanks to a young Irish painter who settled in the East End of London.

Thomas Frye was born in Dublin in 1710 and, won acclaim in his native Ireland as a painter before coming to London in 1734.

Bow porcelain - thomas fryeHis first success was as a portrait artist when he was commissioned to paint the Prince of Wales, for the Saddlers’ Company, but this was just one among his many other talents which included, miniature painting, mezzotint engraving and enamel work.

Frye was also a keen inventor and his love of art and invention came together when he devised a method for producing soft paste porcelain. Porcelain was extremely popular at the time but there were two big problems; firstly it was very fragile and second; most items were imported from abroad and were very expensive.

As a result of Frye’s experiments with china clay he discovered a method of making porcelain using bone ash. This not only produced a porcelain of brilliant whiteness and luminescence but one of extraordinary durability.

In 1744 patents for the manufacture of ware superior to china or porcelain were taken out by Edward Heylyn, a merchant and glassblower and Thomas Frye a painter and engraver.

They called their factory New Canton, a direct reference aligning their products with the quality and beauty of the Chinese porcelain with which they hoped to compete.

Frye’s final formula contained calcined bone ash and was perfected in 1749

Frye had attracted the interest of the rich and powerful Peers family.

Bow porcelain blue and white sauceboatThe Peers family owned huge tracts of land across Bromley, Bow and Stratford. They were also directors of the all-powerful East India Company; the mainstay of Britain’s overseas trade at the time, and whose great ships unloaded their imported wares on the Isle of Dogs, near the mouth of Bow Creek.

In 1749, with the backing of the Peers family, the bow china factory was set up near Bow Bridge. The Bow Porcelain Manufactory of New Canton was ready to start work with Frye running the operation.

The Court Book of 1744 shows that Edward Heylen acquired a property on the London side of the River Lea, at Bow. On 7 July 1749, and an insurance policy was taken out for a new works. The factory is mentioned in the 1748 edition of Defoe’sA Tour of Great Britain” although the original site is uncertain and could have been in Bow proper.

The third member of the team was Alderman George Arnold, a haberdasher.

Bow porcelain teapotBy 1750, Thomas Frye and Edward Heylen were in partnership with John Wetherby and John Crowther, who owned a wholesale pottery business at St Katherine by the Tower.

Frye’s work was down to earth from the start and he concentrated on more ordinary wares for common use. This didn’t please the purists and one, so called, expert described Bow porcelain as “a peasant art which appeals to an unacademic sense of beauty rather than taste.”

The factory was called New Canton and architecturally modelled on the Cantonese warehouses of the East India company.

Bow porcelain                allegorical figureAbout 1758, the factorys high point, three hundred workers were employed, ninety of whom were painters, all under one roof.

It was the first purpose built porcelain factory in England and it brought a complete change in the eating habits of the poor who had previously used wooden dishes and earthenware. As well as the more ordinary ware there were also finer works and figurines

Business was good and very soon the demand was so great that another factory was opened, this time on the Stratford side of the River Lea.

An account of the company’s returns for a period of five years shows that the cash receipts, which were £6,573 in 1750-1, increased steadily from year to year, and had reached £11,229 in 1755. The total amount of sales in 1754 realised £18,115. The company ran a retail shop in Cornhill and a warehouse at St. Katharine’s near the Tower, though the West End shop that was opened in 1757 in the Terrace in St. James’s Street closed the following year.

The bow porcelain company succeeded in satisfying the heavy demand for wares in the Chinese manner, until after 1756 when demand decreased as items decorated with transfer prints or painted in the European style became more popular.

Factory marks were very rarely used but you can find mock oriental marks on some chinoiserie style blue and white pieces.

Bow porcelain              musician figureIn 1760 an anchor and dagger mark was used which may be an outside decorators mark

Despite his success Frye was still toiling long hours in the factory furnaces as well as designing new lines and eventually the long hours and gruelling work took their toll.

George Arnold died in 1751, Edward Heylyn became bankrupt in 1757 and Thomas Frye retired in 1759; although the bow porcelain factory continued until 1776. The part-owner Weatherby died in 1762 and his partner Crowther was listed as bankrupt the following year. Three sales dispersed his effects in March and May 1764. Though Crowther continued in business in a small way.

Thomas Frye died in 1762, at the age of 52, and is buried in Hornsey Churchyard.

In 1776 what remained of the Bow factory was sold for a small sum to William Duesbury, and all the moulds and implements were transferred to Derby.

His work went on, but without his driving force and energy, quality slipped. There was another 13 years of production at Bow, but towards the end products were underfired and lacked their earlier translucence and in 1776 the works closed


Figure following a Meissen model, about 1754, Bow Porcelain Factory (V&A Museum no. C.144-1931

The Bow porcelain factory (active ca 1747-1764, closed 1776) was an emulative rival of the Chelsea porcelain factory in the manufacture of early soft-paste porcelain in Great Britain. The factory was located near Bow in what is now the London Borough of Newham and the local council owns a significant collection, which is held in the care of the borough’s Heritage and Arts Service.




Designs imitated imported Chinese and Japanese porcelains and the wares being produced at Chelsea, at the other end of London. Meissen figures were copied, both directly, and indirectly through Chelsea. Quality was notoriously uneven;[1] the warm, creamy body of Bow porcelains is glassy and the glaze tends towards ivory.

Early patents applied for by Thomas Frye and his silent partner Edward Heylyn[2] in December 1744 (enrolled 1745) and a totally different patent of 1 November 1748 (enrolled March 1749), both apparently intended broadly to cover the uses of kaolin,[3] do not seem to have resulted in any actual manufacture before about 1749, though Frye’s published epitaph claimed that he was ‘the inventor and first manufacturer of porcelain in England.’ “Heylyn and Frye do not appear to have had a factory of their own, but probably carried on their experiments at a factory already existing at Bow, having first secured the services of a well-skilled workman whose name has not been preserved, and who may have been the real inventor of English porcelain,” a writer noted in 1911.[4]

The earliest Bow porcelains are of soft-paste incorporating bone ash, forming a phosphatic body that was a precursor of bone china.[5] By 1750 Frye was serving as manager of the factory, under new owners John Crowther and Weatherby. In 1753 they were advertising in Birmingham for painters and a modeller. Sources for the early history of the Bow manufactory were collected by Lady Charlotte Guest in memoranda, diaries, and notebooks, including a diary of John Bowcocke, who was employed in the works as a commercial manager and traveller. The works, designated ‘New Canton,’[6] were sited on the Essex side of the River Lea, close to Bow Bridge.

About 1758, the manufactory’s high point, three hundred person were employed, ninety of whom were painters, all under one roof. “An account of the business returns for a period of five years shows that the cash receipts, which were £6,573 in 1750-1, increased steadily from year to year, and had reached £11,229 in 1755. The total amount of sales in 1754 realized £18,115.”[7] The firm had a retail shop in Cornhill and a warehouse at St. Katharine’s near the Tower, though the West End shop that was opened in 1757 in the Terrace in St. James’s Street closed the following year. The part-owner Weatherby died in 1762 and his partner Crowther was listed as bankrupt the following year. Three sales dispersed his effects in March and May 1764. Though Crowther continued in business in a small way, in 1776 what remained of the Bow factory was sold for a small sum to William Duesbury, and all the moulds and implements were transferred to Derby: see Chelsea porcelain factory.

The chaser and enamellist George Michael Moser, a key figure in the English Rococo and a founder of the Royal Academy, modelled for Bow, the sculptor Joseph Nollekens was told years later;[8] the sculptor John Bacon also modelled for Bow in his youth. The large white figure of the Farnese Flora, a high point in the Bow production, was taken, it has been suggested, from a terracotta by Michael Rysbrack.

A pair of Bow figures of Kitty Clive and Henry Woodward as “the Fine Lady” and ‘the Fine Gentleman” in David Garrick‘s mythological burlesque Lethe, 1750-52 “are probably the earliest full-length portrait figures in English porcelain”;[9] some were enamelled by William Duesbury[10] Some Bow figures were imitated from Chelsea models. Bow porcelain adopted the newly-invented technique of transfer-printing from Battersea enamels in the 1750s.


A Lady Falconer – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1755

A Pair of Musicians – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1760

Flora – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1762

1c.Plymouth and Bristol

Europe, about 1770 V&A Museum no. 3088-1901

Plymouth porcelain was a hard paste porcelain made in the English county of Devon in the 18th century [1].

The porcelain factories at Plymouth and Bristol are noteworthy because they were amongst the earliest English manufacturers of porcelain. William Cookworthy, a Quaker Pharmacist of Plymouth, was greatly interested in attempting to discover in Cornwall and Devon minerals similar to those which were described by Père François Xavier d’Entrecolles, a Jesuit missionary who worked in China during the early eighteenth century, as forming the basis of Chinese porcelain. Père d’Entrecolles provided an account in two letters, the first written in 1712 and the second written in 1722, of porcelain manufacture at the town of Jingdezhen that included a detailed description of the two principal materials used to make porcelain, china clay and Chinese pottery stone. After many years of travel and research William Cookworthy determined that Cornish china clay and Cornish stone could be made to serve as equivalents to the Chinese materials and in 1768 he founded a works at Plymouth for the production of a porcelain similar to the Chinese from these native materials.

The factory was removed to Bristol in 1770 and was shortly afterwards transferred to Richard Champion, a Bristol merchant, who had already been dabbling in the fashionable pursuit of porcelain making. Champion’s Bristol factory lasted from 1773 to 1781, when the business had to be sold to a number of Staffordshire potters owing to the serious losses it had entailed. The Bristol porcelain, like that of Plymouth, was a hard-paste porcelain. It is harder and whiter than some other English porcelains, and its cold, harsh, glittering glaze marks it off at once from the wares of Bow, Chelsea, Worcester or Derby



Coordinates: 52°29′N 1°45′E / 52.48°N 1.75°E / 52.48; 1.75


Lowestoft Town Hall
Lowestoft is located in Suffolk

 Lowestoft shown within Suffolk

Population 72,978 
OS grid reference TM548933
District Waveney
Shire county Suffolk
Region East
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Postcode district NR32, NR33
Dialling code 01502
Police Suffolk
Fire Suffolk
Ambulance East of England
EU Parliament East of England
UK Parliament Waveney
List of places: UK • England • Suffolk

Lowestoft (pronounced /ˈloʊstɒft/, /ˈloʊstəf/, or /ˈloʊ.əstəft/) is a town in the county of Suffolk, England, lying between The Broads. Lowestoft Harbour heads towards North Sea. Lowestoft is the most easterly town in the United Kingdom, because it is home to Ness Point, the most easterly point of the United Kingdom and of the British Isles. Lowestoft is part of the Waveney constituency.




The settlement’s name is derived from the Viking personal name Hlothver, and toft,[1] a Viking word for ‘homestead’. The town’s name has been spelled variously: Lothnwistoft, Lestoffe, Laistoe, Loystoft and Laystoft. In the Domesday Book, it was spelled Lothu Wistoft[1] and described as a small agricultural village of 20 families, or about 100 people.

In the Middle Ages, Lowestoft developed a fishing industry, a trade that continued to be its main identity until the 20th century.

In the 1665, the first battle of the Second Dutch War was the Battle of Lowestoft 40 miles (64 km) off the coast of the town[citation needed].

In the 19th century, the arrival of Sir Samuel Morton Peto brought about a change in Lowestoft’s fortunes. Railway contractor Peto was contracted by the Lowestoft Railway & Harbour Company to build a railway line between Lowestoft and Reedham. After that Peto started the development of South Lowestoft, however he never developed the harbour at Lowestoft which was purchased according to Peto by the Norfolk Railway from the Exechequer Loan Commissioners in 1845. For details see the 1845 Norfolk Railway (Lowestoft Harbour Improvement Bill) and the April 1858 minutes of a Parliamentary Select Committee on Harbours of Refuge where Peto gave full details of the ownership and development of the harbour.

The major development of Lowestoft Harbour including the building of the docks was carried out from 1848 by the Eastern Counties Railway, and continued from 1862 by the Great Eastern Railway with Peto having no input to this work. Upon completion, the improvements gave a boost to trade with the continent. Peto helped to establish Lowestoft as a flourishing seaside holiday resort by connecting several other parishes, still keeping their names, which now are a part of Lowestoft. However, some of the buildings associated with Peto have been demolished.

In World War I, Lowestoft was bombarded by the German Navy on 24 April 1916.

During the World War II, the town was used as a navigation point by German bombers[citation needed]. As a result it became the most heavily bombed town per head of population in the UK.[citation needed] Old mines and bombs are still dredged up and have been hazardous to shipping.

Lowestoft's Yacht Basin in 1929

Lowestoft’s Yacht Basin in 1929.

Lowestoft has been subject to periodic flooding; the most notable was in January 1953 when a North Sea swell driven by low pressure and a high tide swept away many of the older sea defences and deluged most of the southern town.

Until the mid-1960s, fishing was perceived as Lowestoft’s main industry, although from the 1930s the percentage of those employed directly and in trades associated with fishing was actually only around 10% of the working population[citation needed]. Fleets comprised drifters and trawlers, with the drifters primarily targeting herring while the trawlers caught cod, plaice, skate and haddock. By the mid 1960s, the catches were greatly diminishing, particularly the herring. Consequently the drifter fleet disappeared and many of the trawlers were adapted to work as service ships for the new North Sea oil rigs. The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), a large fisheries research centre, which is a part of Defra is still located in Lowestoft.

The Eastern Coach Works was another big employer and in the 1960s it was a regular occurrence to see a bare bus chassis being driven through the town to the coach works by a goggled driver. Installing the bus’s superstructure, body work and seats was the job of Eastern Coach Works. Both double decker and single decker buses were built there and sent all over the country.

Brooke Marine and Richards shipbuilding companies, who together employed over a thousand men, went out of business in 1990. In order to carry on the skills and traditions of the threatened shipbuilding trade, the International Boatbuilding Training College [1] was formed in 1975 and has been largely successful at producing graduates who carry on the legacy of Lowestoft shipwrights.

From the late 1960s to the late 1990s, the oil and gas industry provided significant employment (if often seasonal and erratic) in the Lowestoft area. For many years the Shell Southern Operations base on the north shore of Lowestoft Harbour was one of the town’s largest employers. A decision to close the Shell base was finally made in 2003.[2]

 Lowestoft porcelain

During the second half of the 18th century a factory in Crown Street produced soft-paste porcelain ware. Items still exist, and there are collections at the museum in Nicholas Everett Park, Oulton Broad, and at the Castle Museum, Norwich. The factory produced experimental wares in 1756 and first advertised their porcelain in 1760.

Lowestoft collectors divide the factory’s products into three distinct periods, Early Lowestoft circa 1756 to 1761, Middle-Period circa 1761 to 1768 and Late-Period circa 1768 to the closure of the factory in 1799.

During the early period wares decorated with Chinese-inspired scenes (Chinoiserie) in underglaze blue were produced. This type of decoration continued throughout the life of the factory but scenes were gradually simplified. Overglaze colours were used from about 1765.

Much of the small factory building remains, home for many years to a manufacturer of artists’ brushes.

Lowestoft Museum


In 1756 Hewlin Luson Esq. found clay on his Gunton estate which, after it was analysed in London, was reported to be akin to Delft ware. However, his early attempts to produce porcelain ware were unsuccessful and, about one year later, a partnership which did not include Luson was formed to establish a company.

By January 1760 the company was ready to advertise its wares in the Ipswich Journal and records show that the porcelain produced at Lowestoft was highly successful, being advertised as far afield as London and Cambridge. It is also possible that some ware was exported to Holland.

During the life of the factory, a range of items were made, from birth tablets to spittoons. Although the vast majority of the ware falls within the category of everyday household items, things such as eye-baths, inkwells and cutlery handles can also be found among catalogue entries. As well as the distinctive blue and white hand-painted ware, the factory produced pieces with enamel decoration and transfer printing, though these were to come during the middle and later periods, and probably contributed to the decline in hand-painting.

We know that Thomas Walker, one of the latter partners, wrote a will stating that the factory was to “continue for sixteen years from October 1785 and then cease”. The termination of the business was therefore planned and Production gradually ceased, until finally the factory closed down somewhere between October 1801 and early 1802.

Lowestoft Porcelain has been highly collectable since 1760(Ladies Day).

The Southwold Tankard

It is known that Walker and Co., manufacturers of porcelain in the Georgian period, produced ware for all types of customers in the local region. There are surviving examples of pieces with inscriptions to people and of local town names. Some of these pieces have interesting stories surrounding them, such as the Black Boy Tankard and its connections with the town of Beccles. During our research into the original ware we came across the only known piece to be made that had links to Southwold, Suffolk. The Southwold Tankard was discovered at the Bristol Museum. After contacting the museum they agreed to send us photos of the piece and in the meantime we began our research.

The original Tankard is made from soft paste porcelain and has been decorated not by hand as many pieces were, but with a transfer print, which has been seen on other pieces besides the tankard. The only hand decoration on the piece is an inscription, which reads “Willm Mewse, Southwould. 1771″in the center of the tankard (note the curious spelling of Southwold, we do not know why this is). As this piece was the only known piece to be linked with Southwold we were very keen to learn more about William Mewse and how he came into possession of his tankard.

Customs collection in the 1700’s was an entirely different affair to that of today. Gaining employment in the Customs Service was very much subject to patronage, which was the accepted system for such opportunities. We do not know exactly how William Mewse came into the job but it is safe to say he would have had a solid background, and have been literate and numerate. It is probably that he was a beneficiary of some preference and must have had some social standing to have been vouchsafed by his two Bondsmen. Bondsmen acted as sponsors, and for William Mewse two men took a great risk with £500 of their money to be used as security in the event that William was less than trustworthy. John Glasfpoole, a farmer from Blundeston and Simon Bendy, an Attorney from Great Yarmouth obviously had great faith in him.

William Mewse’s first job was as a Riding Surveyor. Riding Surveyors were first introduced in 1698 after the Wool Act was passed and they were accompanied by, and in charge of, Riding Officers. These mounted and armed men were stationed around the coast to prevent wool from leaving the shores. They also helped the Waterguard with any inbound contraband. As a Riding Surveyor it was his duty to inspect the Officers between Great Yarmouth and Aldborough. Based at Cromer, his Warrant is dated 7 December 1757, around the time the first porcelain factory was coming into being.

William remained at Cromer until 10th October 1768 when he moved to the Great Yarmouth Collection, where he remained for 2 years until he was warranted Collector at Southwold in 1770. The role of Collector was more senior than that of Riding Surveyor. It would have entailed actual collection and remitting dues for all dutiable goods. He would have been mounted and armed still, but now responsible for a small staff at the Southwold station.

The work of Customs (and Excise) officers was sometimes very dangerous. Whilst they worked singly or in twos and threes, smugglers often operated in gangs of a dozen or more persons, usually armed with flintlocks, cutlasses and knives. Sailing vessels used by smugglers were also often armed with small cannons, and skirmishes on land and at sea were quite regular. Many smugglers commissioned the building of fast skiffs with very shallow draughts. These were designed to carry a few barrels of spirit and be rowed from offshore across flats and into marshland where Customs cutters could not venture. In some cases local inhabitants often aided smugglers, many having vested interests in obtaining illegal imports. Wool, brandy, rum, wines, textiles and tobacco were the most commonplace contraband.

William Mewse stayed at the Southwold Collection until his death in 1788, he was buried at the Southwold church as was his wife, Sarah Mewse, who died from Smallpox in 1770. Whilst in Southwold they had a daughter also named Sarah but unfortunately she died very young at under a year old.

We have been unsuccessful in finding out why William had the Tankard, there seems to be no supporting evidence to suggest that it was a gift for a special occasion, or any evidence that it was a gift at all. It would seem likely that William purchased the Tankard for personal reasons. It is almost certain that on his travels whilst inspecting the Riding Officers he would have passed through Lowestoft many times and would have seen the beginning and growth of Walker and Co.


Lowestoft Museum collects, preserves and displays objects relating to the history of the area and its people, and promotes awareness and interest in our rich heritage. 

The Museum is probably best known for its important collection of 18th-century Lowestoft Porcelain but there are many other treasures to see, including displays of locally found fossils and artefacts relating to early man (Pakefield Man dating back 700,000 years); local archaeological displays of objects from Roman and Anglo-Saxon sites; exhibits relating to HMS Lowestoft and HMS Mantis and Lowestoft as a fishing port; change and development of local industries; well-known characters connected with Lowestoft such as Benjamin Britten and George Borrow; a Victorian room setting with domestic items of the period and a cobbler’s shop; a Doctor’s surgery and an office before the  age of computers; a  display of old Toys; items relating to WW1 and WW2…….and many more interesting things.

The Museum is  housed inside Broad House, a grade ll listed building dating from 1685, which is situated within the grounds of Nicholas Everitt Park, Oulton Broad, NR33 9JR.

It is staffed entirely by Volunteers and is open every afternoon from 1pm-4pm until the end of October.

We have loan items available for schools and can open for groups at other times by special arrangement


Josiah Wedgwood and Sons
Wedgwood logo.png
Type Private (subsidiary of Waterford Wedgwood plc)
Founded 1759
Founder(s) Josiah Wedgwood
Headquarters Stoke-on-Trent, England
Key people Moira Gavin (CEO)
Employees 1,800
Parent Waterford Wedgwood

Typical wedgwood blue plate with white decor

Kutani Crane by Wedgwood

Kutani Crane by Wedgwood (back)

Wedgwood, strictly Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, is a British pottery firm, founded on May 1, 1759[1] by Josiah Wedgwood, which in 1987 merged with Waterford Crystal, creating Waterford Wedgwood, the Ireland-based luxury brands group. The company still exists as a subsidiary within the group, with its own board of directors and management team. Wedgwood is also used as a general term to describe the company’s main products.

In January 2009, following years of financial problems at group level, and after a share placement failed during the global financial crisis of 2008, Wedgwood was placed into administration.[2] Three months later in March KPS Capital Partners announced it would invest €100m and move jobs to Asia to cut costs and return the firm to profit.[3]



The family and company history

Josiah Wedgwood worked with an established potter, Thomas Whieldon, until 1759, when relatives leased him the Ivy House in Burslem to allow him to start his own pottery business. The launch of the business was helped by his marriage to a remote cousin, Sarah (also Wedgwood), and her sizeable dowry.

In 1765, Wedgwood created a new earthenware form which impressed the then English Queen, who gave permission to call it “Queen’s Ware”; this new form sold extremely well across Europe. Then, in 1766, Wedgwood bought Etruria, a large Staffordshire estate, as both home and factory site. Wedgwood developed a number of further industrial innovations for his company, notably a way of measuring kiln temperatures accurately and new ware types Black Basalt and Jasper Ware (the first colour was the Poland Blue and for its innovation Josiah Wedgwood experimented with more than 3,000 samples). In recognition of the importance of his pyrometer, Josiah Wedgwood was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1783. Today, the Wedgwood Prestige collection sells replicas of some of the original designs, as well as modern neo-classical style jasper ware.

The main themes on the company’s jasper ware have all been taken from ancient mythologies: Roman, Greek or Egyptian. The initial decision to have antique designs was probably that as Britain entered an age of great industrialization, the demand for luxurious goods subsequently exploded. Meanwhile, the archeological fever caught the imagination of many artists. Nothing could have been more suitable to satisfy this huge business demand than to produce replicas of artefacts.[citation needed]

Wedgwood had increasing success with hard paste porcelain attempting to imitate the whiteness of tea-ware imported from China, which was extremely popular with high society. The high transportation costs and the vigorous long journey from the Far East meant that the supply of china could not keep up with the increasingly high demand. Towards the end of the eighteenth century other Staffordshire manufacturers introduced bone china as an alternative to translucent and delicate Chinese porcelain.[4] In 1812 Wedgwood produced their own bone china.[5] Though not a commercial success at first,[4] Wedgwood’s English Fine Bone China eventually became an important part of an extremely profitable business.

Josiah Wedgwood was also a patriarch of the Darwin–Wedgwood family. Many of his descendants were closely involved in the management of the company down to the time of the merger with the Waterford Company:

  • John Wedgwood (1766–1844), eldest son of Josiah I, partner in the firm from 1790 to 1793 and again from 1800 to 1812.
  • Josiah Wedgwood II (1769–1843), second son of Josiah I, succeeded his father as proprietor in 1795 and introduced the production by the Wedgwood company of bone china. In 1815, during Josiah II’s time as proprietor, the great English Romantic poet William Blake (1757–1827) spent some time engraving for Wedgwood’s china catalogues.[6]
  • Josiah Wedgwood III (1795–1880), son of Josiah II, he was a partner in the firm from 1825 until he retired in 1842.
  • Francis Wedgwood (1800-1880), son of Josiah II, he was a partner in the firm from 1827 and sole proprietor following his father’s death until joined by his own sons. Financial difficulties caused him to offer for sale soon after taking over the firm’s factory at Etruria and the family home Etruria Hall, but in the event and fortunately for the company only the hall was sold. He continued as senior partner until his retirement to Barlaston Hall in 1876.
  • Godfrey Wedgwood (1833–1905), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner in the firm from 1859 to 1891. He and his brothers were responsible for the reintroduction of bone china c.1876 and the employment of the artists Thomas Allen and Emile Lessore.
  • Clement Wedgwood (1840–1889), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner.
  • Laurence Wedgwood (1844–1913), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner.
  • Major Cecil Wedgwood DSO (1863–1916), son of Godfrey Wedgwood, partner from 1884, first Mayor of the federated County Borough of Stoke-on-Trent (1910–1911). He was chairman and managing director of Wedgwood until his death in battle in 1916.
  • Kennard Laurence Wedgwood (1873–1949), son of Laurence Wedgwood, partner. In 1906 he went to the United States and set up the firm’s New York office, which became Josiah Wedgwood and Sons USA, an incorporated subsidiary, in 1919.
  • Francis Hamilton Wedgwood (1867–1930), eldest son of Clement Wedgwood, chairman and managing director from 1916 until his sudden death in 1930.
  • Josiah Wedgwood V (1899–1968) grandson of Clement Wedgwood and son of Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, the Managing Director of the firm from 1930 until 1968 and credited with turning the company’s fortunes around. He was responsible for the enlightened decision to move production to a modern purpose built factory in a rural setting at Barlaston. It was designed by Keith Murray in 1936 and built between 1938 and 1940. He was succeeded as managing director by Arthur Bryan (later Sir Arthur) who was the first non-member of the Wedgwood family to run the firm.

Enoch Wedgwood (1813-1879), a distant cousin of the first Josiah, was also a potter and founded his own firm, Wedgwood & Co, in 1860. It was taken over by Josiah Wedgwood & Sons in 1980.

 The company from 1986

In 1986, Waterford Glass Group plc purchased Wedgwood plc for 360 million USD, with Wedgwood delivering a 38.7 million USD profit in 1998 (when Waterford itself lost 28.9 million USD), following which the group was renamed Waterford Wedgwood.

From early 1987 to early 1989, the CEO was Patrick Byrne, previously of Ford, who then became CEO of the whole group. During his time, he sold off non-core businesses, and reduced the range of Wedgwood patterns from over 400 to around 240.

In the late 1990s, the CEO was Brian Patterson. From 1 January 2001, the Deputy CEO was Tony O’Reilly, Junior, who was appointed CEO in November of the same year and resigned in September 2005, and had seen then succeeded by the then president of Wedgwood USA, Moira Gavin.

In 2001 Wedgwood launched its collaboration with designer Jasper Conran which started with an iconic white fine bone china collection and has expanded to include seven patterns.

The company today incorporates Coalport, Mason’s and Johnson Brothers wares, and its parent company, Waterford Wedgwood also owns crystal brands such as Waterford, Stuart and Edinburgh, as well as Royal Doulton. Wedgwood continues to be headquartered on a 200 acres (0.81 km2) site in Barlaston.

On 5 January 2009, following years of financial problems at group level, and after a share placement failed during the global financial crisis of 2008, Wedgwood was placed into administration[2] on a “going concern” basis, with 1800 employees remaining.

On 27 February 2009, Waterford Wedgwood’s receiver Deloitte announced that the New York-based private equity firm KPS Capital Partners had purchased “certain Irish and UK assets of Waterford Wedgwood and the assets of several of its Irish and UK subsidiaries” in a transaction expected to completed in March.[7]

In March KPS Capital Partners announced that it had acquired group assets in a range of countries, including the UK, USA and Indonesia, would invest €100m, and move a number of jobs to Asia to cut costs and return the firm to profitability.[3]

Wedgwood Museums and the Museum Trust

Wedgwood’s founder wrote as early as 1774 that he wished he had preserved samples of all the company’s works, and began to do so. The first formal museum was opened in May 1906, with a curator named Isaac Cooke, at the main (Etruria) works. The museum was stored for the duration of World War II, and relaunched in a gallery at the new Barlaston factory in 1952. A new purpose-built Visitor Centre and Museum was built in 1975, and remodelled in 1985, with pieces displayed near items from the old factory works, in cabinets of similar period. A video theatre was added, and a new gift shop, as well as an expanded demonstration area where visitors could watch pottery being made. A further renovation, costing 4.5 million pounds, was carried out in 2000, including access to the main factory itself, following which the Visitor Centre complex won multiple awards.

Adjacent to the museum and visitor centre are a restaurant and tea room, serving on Wedgwood ware. The museum, managed by a dedicated trust, closed in 2000 and in 2008 reopened in a new multi-million pound building. The new “state of the art” museum was opened on the 24th of October 2008.

In June 2009, Wedgwood Museum won a UK Art Fund Prize for Museums and Art Galleries, for its displays of Wedgwood pottery, skills, designs and artefacts.[8]

The Minton Archive is a separate part of the collection. It comprises papers and drawings from 1793–1968) of the designs, manufacture and production of the pottery company, Minton and of the artistic and industrial archives of Royal Doulton. The liquidation of Wedgwood places this collection under threat of break-up and sale


  • View of the Museum

For a unique experience and a very warm welcome, the stunning new Wedgwood Museum is the place to visit – whether you just like looking at beautiful objects or have a specialist interest. We are the home of one of the most interesting ceramic collections in the world. Our galleries tell the story of Josiah Wedgwood, his family, and the company he founded two-and-a-half centuries ago.

We are open:
Monday to Friday 9.00am to 5.00pm
Saturday and Sunday 10.00am to 5.00pm
The Wedgwood Museum is open every day – except 24 December 2010 to 2 January 2011 inclusive.

If you want to spend the day at Wedgwood you can combine your visit with a trip to the Wedgwood Visitor Centre and view production on special factory tours when available.

You can buy your individual or family tickets in person at the Wedgwood Museum or Wedgwood Visitor Centre. No pre-booking is needed

Plate, Bagshot pattern – 1999

Plate, Bagshot pattern, © Wedgwood Museum
    Plate, Bagshot pattern
    © Wedgwood Museum

This plate is an example of a design created for HRH Prince Edward on the occasion of his marriage to Miss Sophie Rees-Jones in 1999. It is decorated with Bagshot pattern which is a variation of the Osborne design. The adaptation includes thistle, red and white roses in place of stylised flowers of original design.

This plate is an example of a design created for HRH Prince Edward on the occasion of his marriage to Miss Sophie Rees-Jones in 1999. It is decorated with Bagshot pattern which is a variation of the Osborne design. The adaptation includes thistle, red and white roses in place of stylised flowers of original design.

  • Type of object: Dessert ware/plate
  • Year first produced: 1999
  • Body: Bone china
  • Glaze: Clear glaze
  • Material: Ceramic
  • Decoration: Lithographed
  • Accession number: 10530
  • Dimensions: 228 mm (diameter)
  • Other Collection

    Wedgwood locality

    Wedgwood railway station was opened in the 1950s to serve the Wedgwood complex in Staffordshire, England.

    2a.Royal CrownDerby

    Pair of vases, 1772-1774, Derby Porcelain Factory (V&A Museum no. 485-1875)

    The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company is a porcelain manufacturer, based in Derby, England. The company, particularly known for its high-quality bone china, has produced tableware and ornamental items since approximately 1750.




     William Duesbury I and II

    In 1745 André Planché, a Huguenot immigrant from Saxony, settled in Derby, where between 1747 and 1755 he made soft-paste porcelain vases and figurines. At the beginning of 1756 he formed a business partnership with William Duesbury (1725 — 1786), a porcelain painter formerly at Chelsea porcelain factory and Longton Hall, and the banker John Heath.[1] This was the foundation of the Derby company, although production at the works at Cockpit Hill, just outside the town, had begun before then, as evidenced by a creamware jug dated 1750, also in the possession of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Planché disappeared from the scene almost at once, and the business was developed by Duesbury and Heath, and later Duesbury alone. A talented entrepreneur, Duesbury developed a new paste which contained glass frit, soaprock and calcined bone. This enabled the factory to begin producing high-quality tableware. He quickly established Derby as a leading manufacturer of dinner services and figurines by employing the best talents available for modelling and painting. Figure painting was done by Richard Askew, particularly skilled at painting cupids, and James Banford. Zachariah Boreman and John Brewer painted landscapes, still-lifes, and pastorals. Intricate floral patterns were designed and painted by William Billingsley.

    In 1770, Duesbury further increased the already high reputation of Derby by his acquisition of the famous Chelsea porcelain factory in London. He operated it on its original site until 1784 (the products of this period are known as “Chelsea-Derby“), when he demolished the buildings and transferred the assets, including the stock, patterns and moulds, and many of the workmen, to Derby. Again, in 1776, he acquired the remainder of the formerly prestigious Bow porcelain factory, of which he also transferred the portable elements to Derby.

    In 1773, Duesbury’s hard work was rewarded by King George III, who after visiting the Derby works granted him permission to incorporate the royal crown into the Derby backstamp, after which the company was known as Crown Derby.

    In 1786, William Duesbury died, leaving the company to his son, William Duesbury II, also a talented director, who besides keeping the reputation of the company at its height, developed a number of new glazes and body types.

    Michael Kean

    William Duesbury II did not live to fulfil his promise: he died in 1797 at the age of 34 and the company was taken over by his business partner, an Irishman named Michael Kean, who later married Duesbury’s widow. He seems not to have enjoyed good relations with the highly skilled workforce, and many eminent artists left. Others however produced good work under his management, including Moses Webster, a flower painter who replaced Billingsley, Richard Dodson (who specialised in birds), George Robertson (land- and seascapes) and Cuthbert Lawton (hunting scenes). The best-known artist of this time was William Pegg, a Quaker, famed for his striking and idiosyncratic flower painting. He started in 1797 but his religious beliefs led him to the conclusion that painting was sinful and he left in 1800. He returned in 1813, but left again in 1820.

    Despite much good work, the Kean period was disruptive and the company suffered financially.

    William Duesbury III, born in 1790, son of William Duesbury II, took over the factory when he came of age in 1791, and Kean having sold his interest to his father-in-law, William Duesbury’s grandfather, named Sheffield, the concern continued under the name of Duesbury & Sheffield.

     Robert Bloor

    Crown Derby Imari plate, 19th century

    In 1815, the factory was leased to the firm’s salesman and clerk, Robert Bloor, and the Duesburys played no further part in it. Bloor borrowed heavily to be able to make the payments demanded but proved himself to be a highly able businessman in his ways of recouping losses and putting the business back on a sound financial footing. He also possessed a thorough appreciation of the aesthetic side of the business, and under him the company produced works that were richly coloured and elegantly styled, including brightly coloured Japanese Imari patterns, generally featuring intricate geometric patterns layered with various floral designs. These designs proved extremely and lastingly popular, and Derby continued to thrive.

    In 1845, however, Bloor died, and after three years under Thomas Clarke, the Cockpit Works were sold and the factory closed in 1848.

    King Street

    A group of former employees set up a factory in King Street in Derby, and continued to use the moulds, patterns and trademarks of the former business, although not the name, so keeping alive the Derby traditions of fine craftsmanship. No mechanical processes were used, and no two pieces produced were exactly the same. Among the items preserved was the original potter’s wheel of the Duesburys, still owned by the present Royal Derby Company.

    Osmaston Road

    In 1877, an impressive new factory was built by new owners of the Crown Derby name in Osmaston Road, Derby, thus beginning the modern period of Derby porcelain. Crown Derby’s patterns became immensely popular during the late Victorian era, as their romantic and lavish designs exactly met the popular taste of the period.

     Royal Crown Derby

    In 1890, Queen Victoria appointed Crown Derby to be “Manufacturers of porcelain to Her Majesty” and by Royal Warrant granted them the title “The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company”.

    In 1935 Royal Crown Derby acquired the King Street factory, thus reuniting the two strands of the business.

    Allied Potteries

    In 1964, the company was acquired by S. Pearson and Son and became part of the Allied English Potteries Group, later to be joined by Royal Doulton.

    Royal Crown Derby (II)

    In 2000, Hugh Gibson, a former director of Royal Doulton and a member of the Pearson family, led a buy-out, making Royal Crown Derby once again an independent and privately-owned concern, which at present (2006) employs about 300 people at the Osmaston Road works.

    Present product lines include paperweights, introduced in 1981 and immensely popular. Royal Crown Derby also continue to produce patterns in the Imari style, distinguished for its rich colours and intricate gilding, including the dinnerware ranges Old Imari, Traditional Imari, Red Aves, Blue Mikado, and Olde Avesbury.

    Royal Crown Derby Visitor Centre

    The Royal Crown Derby Visitor Centre in Derby features a museum of porcelain items, and offers tours of the factory, a gift shop and a restaurant

    2.Chelsea Porcelein

    Dogs, about 1749, Chelsea Porcelain factory (V&A Museum no. C.246A-1976

    The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England;[1] its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745. The entrepreneurial director was Nicholas Sprimont, a silversmith by trade, but few documents survive to aid a picture of the manufactory’s history. Early tablewares, being produced in profusion by 1750, depend on Meissen porcelain models and on silver prototypes, such as salt cellars in the form of realistic shells.

    Chelsea was known for its figures. From about 1760 its inspiration was drawn more from Sèvres porcelain than Meissen.

    In 1769 the manufactory was purchased by William Duesbury, owner of the Derby porcelain factory, and the wares are indistinguishable during the “Chelsea-Derby period” that lasted until 1784, when the Chelsea factory was demolished and its moulds, patterns and many of its workmen and artists transferred to Derby.

    The factory history can be divided into four main periods, named for the identifying marks under the wares:



    [edit] Triangle period (around 1743-1749)

    These early products bore an incised triangle mark. Most of the wares were white and were strongly influenced by silver design. The most notable products of this era were white saltcellars in the shape of crayfish. Perhaps the most famous pieces are the Goat and Bee jugs in 1747 that were also based on a silver model. Copies of these were made at Coalport in the 19th century.

    [edit] Raised anchor period (1749-1752)

    In this period, the paste and glaze were modified to produce a clear, white, slightly opaque surface on which to paint. The influence of Meissen, Germany is evident in the classical figures among Italianate ruins and harbour scenes and adaptations from Francis Barlow’s edition of Aesop’s Fables. In 1751, copies were made of two Meissen services. Chelsea also made figures, birds and animals inspired by Meissen originals. Flowers and landscapes were copied from Vincennes.

    [edit] Red anchor period (1752-1756)

    Kakiemon (Japanese pottery), subjects were popular from the late 1740s until around 1758, inspired by the original Japanese and then by Meissen and Chantilly. Some English-inspired tableware decorated with botanically accurate plants, copied from the eighth edition of Philip Miller‘s The Gardener’s Dictionary (1752) were also produced in this period.

    [edit] Gold anchor period (1756-1769)

    The influence of Sèvres was very strong and French taste was in the ascendancy. The gold anchor period saw rich coloured grounds, lavish gilding and the nervous energy of the Rococo style. In the 1750s and 1760s, Chelsea was also famous for its toys, which included bonbonnières, scent bottles, étuis, thimbles and small seals, many with inscriptions in French. In 1769 the failing factory was purchased by William Duesbury of Derby who ran it until 1784; during this time the Chelsea wares are indistinguishable from Duesbury’s Derby wares and the period is usually termed “Chelsea-Derby”.

    [edit] Gallery

    A Lady – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1755

    A Shepherdess – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

    A Street Vendor – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

    Frame tiga :

    A.British Unidentified Mark found in Indonesia

    B.British Earliest Porcelein mark

    I. Marks On Spode porcelein

    II. Marks on Royal Wocaster Porcelein

    III.Marks on Derby Porcelain 1795-1825

    There is something reassuring about factories like Worcester and Derby which have marked much of their production since the middle of the 18th century. The marking of porcelain makes scholarship and collecting much more agreeable. However, I would like to tell a cautionary tale of hand painted Derby marks featuring the crown over a ‘D’ format used from around 1780 until 1825. Having several examples at hand allowed me to test the conventional wisdom that pieces from the period in question could be dated by virtue of the care with which the crowned ‘D’ Derby mark was painted. Both Godden* and Twitchett** subscribe to the theory that the care in which the marks are painted deteriorates over time. 
    Royal Crown Derby

    Fig 1. This modern Royal Crown Derby mark {from 1978} is descended from the hand painted marks of the early 19th century.


    To understand the assumptions underlying this theory, requires a brief review of the factory’s history. The fame of the early factory justly rests on what are called the ‘dry edged’ figures associated with Andrew Planché who established the porcelain works in Derby around 1748***. Archaeological research has revealed moulds for dry edged figures in which the initials AP are carved; evidence suggesting Planché’s rôle extended to sculptor and model maker. There are no marks upon the pieces of this period.One of the surprises of reading Hilary Young’s recent account, English Porcelain, 1745-95****, is the position enjoyed by the Derby porcelain factory. Young constructs a ‘league ladder’ of 18th century porcelain makers based on their contemporaries’ assessments which puts Derby atop the list of English manufacturers. Part of this success can be attributed to William Duesbury, who ran the factory from 1756 to 1786. The phrase ‘ran the factory’ does not adequately describe Duesbury’s transformation of Planché’s workshop into a nationally important producer. It was his taste and awareness of the market which allowed Derby it’s standing in Young’s ladder. Also worthy of note, is an assertion by Derby’s London agent in 1777 that ‘Duesbury had the Royal Appointment from 1775’†; which may explain the crown in their mark.The factory was next run by Duesbury’s son, William Duesbury II. His role was crucial in combining sound business with beautiful porcelain, making Derby one of the pre-eminent factories in Europe.In 1796 William Duesbury II took Michael Kean into partnership and upon Duesbury’s death, in 1797, Kean married his widow. Kean ran the factory until 1811 when he sold it to Robert Bloor. Bloor had been a clerk to Duesbury and Kean so knew the business well. It was during the Bloor period that painters like the famous William ‘Quaker’ Pegg were engaged in creating pieces of the highest quality. It is here our interest ends, because it was Robert Bloor who introduced the printed circular mark around 1825 (see figure 2).
    Royal Crown Derby 1825

    Fig 2. The mark c.1825 adopted by Robert Bloor for the factory on a very typical Derby coffee can of the late 1820s. The plain loop handle has been repaired with wire staples.


    Our earliest example (figure 3) is a fluted coffee can with delicate sprigged decoration in blue, green and puce enamel and gilding. With its plain loop handle and sixteen vertical facets, it is of identical shape to the example illustrated in plate 147 of Michael Berthoud’s Compendium of British Cups††. The painter or gilder’s number 129 appears under the crowned ‘D’ mark. The cup is decorated with stylised cornflowers, which would almost certainly be described as ‘Chantilly sprig’ today. The paste is beautifully white and lustrous without any sign of the crazing which was to become a regular feature of later Derby porcelain. The gilding has worn significantly on all protruding surfaces. 
    Royal Crown Derby 1795

    Fig. 3 A Coffee can c.1795 bearing a puce mark of either William Duesbury II or Duesbury and Kean. The matching saucer is identically marked and numbered but the mark is much larger because of the greater space on the base of the saucer.


    Early Duesbury II marks were painted in blue or puce and this practice continued until 1806†††. The lack of care taken with the mark depicted in figure 3 is noticeable. The ‘D’ looks more like a lower case ‘b’ and the crown is skewed. 
    Royal Crown Derby 1810 - 1815

    Fig. 4 A Derby saucer with a very faint mark in the Bute shape with pale blue border. The matching saucer, coffee can and tea cup all bear the same mark.


    In figure 4, we see a very faint mark on a Bute shaped saucer with pale blue border and bands of gilding and gilt foliage. The first thing we notice about this mark is the iron (ferric oxide) orange colour usually associated with production after 1806††††. The style of the matching saucer, coffee can and tea cup support this, appearing to be c.1810-15 (although shapes may continue in production for years). The inclusion of the balls dotted around the top of the crown suggest this is an early orange mark. The balls upon the crown have become perfunctory and the three dots are difficult to distinguish. This hardly agrees with conventional wisdom that the earlier marks are ‘carefully drawn until c.1820’‡. All of the marks on the surviving pieces of the set, including bun dishes, trios and slops bowls exhibit the same mark. The eccentricities of the mark suggest all were painted by the same hand in fact the painter or gilder’s number ‘2’ appears in orange, near the rim on each piece. As the practice of placing the painter or gilder’s numbers near the rim started around 1810‡‡, there is support for the early dating of this piece.In the next three examples, however, we see the need for a system that dates the marks more accurately. These three plates are all the same shape and figures 5 and 6 are of identical size. All fall within the period when Robert Bloor was the head of the works; in these cases roughly around 1820.In figure 5, we see a dessert dish decorated in a style I associate with late Georgian Derby, which includes bands of gilding, gilt foliage, brightly enamelled roses, daisies and bright green foliage. The roses are especially charming and echo the ‘Prentice Plate’ painted by William Billingsley, c. 1790, which he painted to teach apprentices how to paint these distinctive roses‡‡‡. On the reverse we can see characteristic crazing and a crowned ‘D’ mark painted with some skill and great speed as well as a small painter or gilder’s number‡‡‡‡ (27) near the rim. The balls from the crown have disappeared, the cross has lost its shape, but the three dots either side of the crossed strokes are clearly distinguishable.
    Royal Crown Derby 1820

    Fig. 5 A Derby dessert dish c. 1820, with a border of gilded foliage, half hearted daisies and skilfully executed roses.


    The dating of the next plate (figure 6) is a little more difficult. It appears to be a descendant of the almost geometrical swirling border patterns of around 1800 but incorporates bolder, more varied colours and intricate foliage. In this set, the painter or gilder’s numbers are much higher (one is 68 the other is 74). Each plate also has another number under the central mark (11 in the case of 68, 22 and 39 in the case of 74). It is fascinating to have six plates by at least five different artists and note the slight variations in shapes and spacial arrangements. In this case the marks appear to be painted by the artist whose number appears closet to the mark; probably at the same time. This suggests the rim marks may be gilder’s marks. These plates present a problem, too. There are two examples (figure 6a) of a mark painted by ’39’ which have the balls on the crown rather like the marks in figure 3. The crossed lines and balls below the crown are different, as are ‘D’s. This makes the mark look like a very early mark… which I don’t think it can be.
    Royal Crown Derby plate 1820

    Fig. 6 One of six Derby dessert plates, c. 1820.

    Fig. 6a The mark which appears on two of the Dessert plates of the same pattern as figure 6. It appears on intital inspection to be like the mark in figure 3.
    The third example (figure 7), like that in figure 5, has a characteristic Derby decoration including ‘Billingsley’ roses. The other stylised flowers represent cornflowers and honeysuckle. It has a small painter or gilder’s number (23) on the base, close to the foot rim. In spite of characteristic crazing, this plate still has a shiny, attractive glaze. The mark has taken on quite impressionistic qualities; it has only a passing similarity to a crown and ‘D’. 

    Fig. 7 A Derby plate with cornflowers, roses and honeysuckle in a band around the rim with gilded bands. The mark is almost ‘impressionist’ it is executed with so little care.
    While it is tempting to assume that the plates in figures 5, 6 and 7 can be safely dated by the years when the patterns on them were most fashionable, difficulties present themselves. Patterns remained in the books for much longer periods than the ten years with which we are dealing. All these patterns could have been produced simultaneously. The care with which the marks are painted, however, appears to support a chronology of figure 5 first, followed by 6 and then 7. Holding the plates and inspecting them closely, this appears to be perfectly reasonable. Remember, however, the plates in the dessert set of six (figure. 6) have widely varying marks: two bear marks that look earlier than figure 5. 
    A Bloor Derby

    Fig. 8 A Bloor Derby coffee can and its mark.
    Another reason why I would doubt dating based soley on the painted mark, is the example of the coffee can in figure 8. It features a Japanese inspired pattern based on cobalt blue, iron (ferric oxide) orange and gilding. Its earlier date may be reflected in the more restricted colour palette than the later example (figure 2) but both retain an oriental feel. The square handle, which is obviously a derived from the square handle referred to as ‘French handle’, would have been the height of fashion in 1810. The mark however, which is the second most imprecise observed here, would suggest the mid 1820s with conventional mark dating. Although this coffee can has a repaired square handle, the same pattern appears in Twichett’s Derby Porcelain*, with a Grecian handle and is dated between 1810-20. The ‘H’ beneath the mark remains a mystery to me, but may be related to the painter number, II, beneath the mark in figure 6.In Conclusion, I am fairly sure that there is no simple chronological progression from well painted to badly painted marks. The presence of painter or gilder’s numbers suggest there was no reason for each painter to personalise their version of the Derby mark but there is clear evidence that they did. The fact is, we still need to take into account all the factors involved in dating a piece of ceramic (the weight and translucency of the body, the lustre or crazing of the glaze, style, decoration, abrasions and marks) when assessing the age of Derby china of the Duesbury & Kean and Bloor periods. While we can add the care with which the mark is painted to the list of these factors, we can not rely on it as the sole dating technique.

    THE END @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011 




                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA


                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


    Showcase :



    *allied forces pamphlet used by KNIL for administation 1946-1950 because the scarce of the paper  that time

    The Dutch East Indie Army KNIL  Collections Exhibition


    *the last KNIL salary oder(SK gaji KNIL terakhir) tahun 9 feb.1950 ,beberapa bulan sebelum dibubarkan juli 1950 dan di lebur kedalam TNI RIS.dan NRI.

    Frame one:

     Kata Pengantar(Introductions)





    A. BOOK








    5. Pameran ini dibagi dalam tiga bagian, pertama Pengantar(Intdroduction), Kedua Pameran Peralatan Perang KNIL (Vehicle) dan Ketiga The KNIL HIstoric Collections (KOleksi Sejarah).

     Hal ini karena bila di tampilkan seluruhnya sekaligus komputer akan berjalan sangat perlahan dan lama menunggu illustrasi tampil (If we show in one add your computer will run slowly and the illustration will need more time)



    Dr Iwan Suwandy

    the end  @ copyright 2o11

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI TENTARA KNIL III(Dutch East Indie Army Exhibition)



                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA


                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


    Showcase :

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI TENTARA KNIL III Dengan Bahasa Pengantar Inggris.


    *allied forces pamphlet used by KNIL for administation 1946-1950 because the scarce of the paper  that time

    The Dutch East Indie Army KNIL  Collections Exhibition Three


    *the last KNIL salary oder(SK gaji KNIL terakhir) tahun 9 feb.1950 ,beberapa bulan sebelum dibubarkan juli 1950 dan di lebur kedalam TNI RIS.dan NRI.

    The KNIL Historic Collections


    The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies, and now modern Indonesia). The KNIL’s air arm was the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force. Elements of the Royal Netherlands Navy were also stationed in the Netherlands East Indies.



    II. The Historic Collections 1830-1942

    Artillery of the Royal Dutch East India Army in 1896.

    Cavalry of the Royal Dutch East India Army in 1906 during the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906).

    The KNIL was formed by royal decree on 10 March 1830. It was not part of the Royal Netherlands Army, but a separate military arm specifically formed for service in the Netherlands East Indies. Its establishment coincided with the Dutch drive to expand colonial rule from the 17th century area of control to the far larger territories comprising the Dutch East Indies seventy years later, which remain the present boundaries of Indonesia.[1]

    The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous groups in the Netherlands East Indies including the Padri War (1821–1845), the Java War (1825–1830), crushing the Puputan (the final resistance of Bali inhabitants to colonial rule) of 1849, and the prolonged Aceh War (1873–1904),

    The List Of KNIL EXPEDITIONS In 19TH Century and the Vintage Pictures Collections

    1 THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1824-1832




    3.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1856-1861

    4.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1862-1879

    5.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1877-1887


    7.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1893-1927






    Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927.

    Until the Aceh War

    , the KNIL recruited Dutch volunteers, European mercenaries of other nationalities (especially Germans, Belgians and Swiss)[3], native (South Moluccan, Timorese, Javanese and Manadonese)[3] and even the Ashanti, an African tribe from the present Ghana for service in the East Indies.[9]. The ratio of foreign and indigenous troops to those of Dutch origin was reported to be 60% to 40%. After the Aceh War, the KNIL consisted of Dutch regulars recruited in the Netherlands itself, Indonesians, Indos (Eurasians), and Dutch colonists living in the East Indies doing their military service.look at the fragment of KNIL Recruitment 1909 below

    It was against the law to send Dutch conscripts from the Netherlands to the Netherlands East Indies but Dutch volunteers continued to enlist for colonial service. In 1890 a Colonial Reserve (Koloniale Reserve) was established in the Netherlands itself to recruit and train these volunteers and to re-integrate them into Dutch society upon the conclusion of their overseas service.please look another KNIL recruitment promotion book ill below

    After 1904 the Netherlands East Indies were considered “pacified”, with no large-scale armed opposition to Dutch rule until World War II, and the KNIL served a mainly defensive role protecting the Dutch East Indies from the possibility of foreign invasion.

    In 1894, Lombok and Karangasem were annexed in response to reports of the local Balinese aristocracy oppressing the native Sasak people.[3] Bali was finally taken under full control with the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906) and the final Dutch intervention in Bali (1908).

    In 1941 one of the Inland KNIL was sent to Netherland for join the Roya Dutch Military academy at Breda, look the cadet send a letter to his wife at Malang City  indonesia below:

    III . World War II

    The KNIL was the main defense against the Japanese invading the Netherlands East Indies during World War II. Dutch forces had been severely weakened by the defeat and occupation of the Netherlands itself, by Nazi Germany, in 1940. Nevertheless, at the start of the Pacific War, in December 1941, Dutch forces in Indonesia numbered around 85,000 troops, a combination of European and indigenous regular soldiers, locally organised militia, territorial guard units and civilian volunteers. The KNIL air force, Militaire Luchtvaart KNIL (Royal Netherlands East Indies Air Force (ML-KNIL)) numbered 389 planes of all types, but was largely outclassed by superior Japanese planes. The Royal Netherlands Navy Air Service, or MLD, also had significant forces in the NEI.[4] The Dutch East Indies campaign of 1941-42 saw the Dutch and associated allied (especially ABDA) forces quickly defeated.






    On the eve of the Japanese invasion in December 1941, Dutch regular troops in the East Indies comprised about 1,000 officers and 34,000 men, of whom 28,000 were indigenous. The largest contingent of these indigenous troops had always consisted of Javanese and Sundanese soldiers.[10][11]

    During the Japanese occupation, most of the Dutch and Ambonese personnel were interned in POW camps,some sedn to Burma Camp to buildt railways like the bridge on the river Kwai.look the book illustratioin below.

    Some of the KNIL after loosed at Palembang went to Java to defense against Dai nippon invasion look the book illustrations below:

    After The Unsucceeded  first Capitulation meeting in March 17th 1942 beetwen Ex Gouvernor General Tjarda and Brigjen KNIL Ter Porten at night

    in March 18Th 1942 midday at least the KNIL chief Brigjen Te Porten surender at Kalijati military airport

    Some KNIL moved to Australia via West Papua ,Merauke city were fled to Royal Dutch East Indie Camp in Australia via Brisbane to their  camp named Casino Camp.look the rare documents below

    1. The KNIL ID issued by the Merauke KNIl command

    2. The KNIL Royal DEI Australia Command Registration ID

    3.The KNIL  Casino Camp Australia PASS AND  ID CARD

    (who have the picture of this casibo camp please add to this show thanksfrom Dr Iwan S.)


    Following World War II,the KNIL landing back to Indonesia with the british allied  armed forces  and the earliest postal history on the active military service with special postmark handstamped were used on the Dai Nippon military picture postcard to Netherland in December,24th,1945(The collectors who have  more aerlier date please show us):




     the reconstituted KNIL was used in two large military campaigns in 1947 and 1948 to re-establish Dutch control of Indonesia.

     In the course of this “police action” accusations of war crimes were levelled against the KNIL and its Ambonese auxiliaries.


    Dutch efforts to re-establish their colony failed and Netherlands recognition of Indonesian sovereignty came on 27 December 1949.[5]On 26 January 1950, elements of the KNIL were involved in an abortive coup in Bandung planned by Raymond Westerling and Sultan Hamid II. The coup failed and only accelerated the dissolution of the federal Republic of the United States of Indonesia.[6]

    The KNIL was disbanded by 26 July, 1950 with its indigenous personnel being given the option of demobilizing or joining the Indonesian military.[7] However, efforts to integrate former KNIL units were impeded by mutual distrust between the predominantly Ambonese KNIL troops and the Javanese-dominated Republican military; leading to clashes at Makassar in April and the attempted secession of an independent Republic of South Maluku (RMS) in July.[6] These revolts were suppressed by November 1950 and approximately 12,500 Ambonese KNIL personnel and their families opted for temporary resettlement in the Netherlands.[8] Following this, the KNIL ceased to exist but its traditions are maintained by the Regiment Van Heutsz of the modern Royal Netherlands Army.

    During the Indonesian National Revolution, the KNIL’s officers were still largely Dutch and Eurasians although most of its troops were recruited from predominantly Christian eastern Indonesia, particularly the South Moluccas, Timor and Manado. Although there were smaller numbers of Javanese, Sundanese, Sumatran and other Muslim troops in Dutch service, these received comparatively lower rates of pay than their Christian counterparts, leading to resentment and distrust. The KNIL were closed in july 20th,1950 and look at the order of the KNIL from article illustrations below:

    The Dutch sought to take advantage of these ethnic tensions by claiming that the Ambonese would lose their special privileges and pensions under a Javanese-dominated government.[6]As noted above, these factors contributed to clashes between demobilized KNIL units and the Republic of Indonesia’s military throughout 1950.[6]

    Mitsubishi Ki-46 aircraft captured by KNIL forces at Menado, Celebes, 3 October 1945

    The Vickers light amphibious tank was used by Dutch forces in the East Indies.

    KNIL troops marching through Melbourne, Victoria on 14 June 1943

    the end@ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

    The Tibet Collections Exhibition



                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA


                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


    Showcase :

    The Tibet  Collections Exhibition

    Frame One :

    The Tibet Collections

    1.Postal History

    1)Chinese Imperial Qing rule

    2)British Rule (1904-1911)

     3)Tibet Independent(1912-1950)

    tibet stamp 1934


    The first adhesive stamps issued for use in Tibet were typewritten overprints on Indian postage stamps [1] through the 1903 period, during which the Tibetan Frontier Commission, led by Sir Francis Younghusband, arrived in Khamba Jong on July 7, 1903. [2] Soon after, as no progress was made in diplomatically settling issues of the Tibetan border with Sikkim, this became a miltary expedition. One result of the treaty signed September 7, 1904 was the establishment of Indian Postal Agencies at Gartok, in Western Tibet, and Gyantse, Pharijong and Yatung, along the Indian trade route to Lhasa [2]. Tibet began issuing postage stamps at the beginning of the 20th century. The first stamps were issued in Lhasa in 1912. Other series of stamps were issued in 1914, 1933, and through the end of the 1950s.

    Tibetan stamps had a figure of a snowlion, the national emblem of Tibet. The stamps were marked in Tibetan characters meaning “Tibet Government” and in English by “Tibet[3].

    Collectors and philatelists encounter many fakes and forgeries of both Tibetan stamps and cancellations. Genuine postally used material also has been produced for collectors

    4)Chinese PRC Rule(1954 until now)

    Chinese forces occupied Tibet in 1909, when the Dalai Lama fled into Sikkim and India. However, there were Chinese communities in Tibet well before this, as shown by a registered letter from Wen Tsung-yao at Lhasa, January 9, 1909. Thereafter, Chinese stamps and special Chinese date stamps were used at Chabdo, Gyantse, Lhasa, Pharijong, Shigatse and Yatung. Postal communications of this period are scarce and eagerly sought after by both Chinese and Tibetan specialists ,


    3.The History Of Tibet Lama

    a.Dalai Lama

    Learn Dalai Lama Lineage, Tibet History, Reincarnations of the Dalai Lamas in Dharamsala, Dharamshala !!

    The 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet

    Dalai Lama..The Nobel Peace Laureate..HH, the XIVth Dalai Lama of Tibet

    Dalai Lama..Reincarnation Living Buddhas

    The Dalai Lama..The Living Vedic Reincarnation, 2009 !

    Being born as Hindus, we experienced ‘faith’, ‘hope’ and ‘devotion’, as children. In search of our spiritual knowledge and practise, we grew up with the power of several religions and cultures around us. Among our friends, relatives, social gathering and schoolmates, we were guided by a common faith of ‘Sharing Gods and Legends.

    The concept of ‘re-incarnation’, dates back from the day Man was born. With Mankind, developed the Power of the Soul, which was separate from the ‘physical world’. While we, in our mortality, cease to exist..the Soul, continues in the form of our ‘Karmas’ in our previous birth. It is our ‘karma’ alone, that redefines our lives and the rewards and punishments.

    In todays life, humans cease to exists as humans. The mantra, to Peace is a powerful tool, which can be practised, in our day to day living and should always, start from our ‘Homes’. A perfect harmony of Body, Mind and Soul is a ‘perfect’ way of living a life of Love and Compassion !!

    The Dalai Lama of Tibet…the Reincarnations

    The Dalai Lama is regarded by Tibetans as one of a succession of (so far) 14 incarnations of the Buddha of compassion, Chenrezig (“the Seeing-Eye” Lord), who long has been considered to be the patron deity of Tibet. Here is a brief biography of the Thirteen Dalai Lamas who have come before Tenzin Gyatso..

    First Dalai Lama The First Dalai Lama : Gedun Drub (1391- 1474)

    He was one of the three great disciples (and perhaps the nephew) of Tsongkapa, the founder of the Gaden monastery near Lhasa. Tsongkapa was the founder of the Gelugpa Sect (Yellow Hat) order of Buddhism that stressed discipline and austerity, imposed celibacy, and prohibited alcohol consumption. He developed it further and the Gelugpas trace their spiritual lineage to the great teacher of Indian Buddhism, the saint ‘Atisha’, who visited Tibet from 1042 to 1054. Gedun Drub was an abbot of Gaden Monastery, and founded the TashiLhumpo monastery near Xigatse, west of Lhasa, a move that further solidified the Gelugpa. He also promoted the system of reincarnated lamas, which assured the smooth transition of spiritual leaders from one generation to the next.
    Second Dalai Lama

    The Second Dalai Lama: Gedun Gyatso (1475-1542)

    He was proclaimed the reincarnation of Gedun Drub as a young boy. Legend has it that soon after he learned to speak, he told his parents his name was Pema Dorje, the birth name of the first Dalai Lama. When he was four, he reportedly told his parents he wished to live in the TashiLhumpo Monastery to be with his monks. He was a renowned scholar and composer of mystical poetry, who traveled widely to extend Gelugpa influence, and became abbot of the largest Gelugpa, Drepung Monastery, which from this time on was closely associated with the Dalai Lamas.
    Third Dalai Lama

    Third Dalai Lama: Sonam Gyatso (1543-1588)

    He was the first to take the title Dalai Lama. The name comes from a meeting between Sonam Gyatso and the Mongol chieftain Altan Khan, whom Sonam Gyatso visited on his extensive travels. As the two exchanged complimentary titles Sonam Gyatso called Altan Khan “King of the Turning Wheel and Wisdom.” Altan Khan referred to Sonam Gyatso as “All-Knowing Vajra-Holder, the Dalai Lama” (Dalai is Mongolian for “ocean.” Lama is Tibetan for “guru” or “teacher. ” The title is often translated “Ocean of Wisdom”). Sonam Gyatso’s predecessors were named the first and second Dalai Lama posthumously. Sonam Gyatso is credited with spreading Gelugpa influence into eastern Tibet.
    Fourth Dalai Lama

    The Fourth Dalai Lama: Yonten Gyatso (1589-1616)

    He was the great grandson of Altan Khan of Mongolia (who coined the title “Dalai Lama”). The only non-Tibetan Dalai Lama, he was first recognized as the reincarnation of Sonam Gyatso.This period was marked by constant strife in Tibet.

    Fifth Dalai Lama

    The Fifth Dalai Lama: Lobsang Gyatso (1617-1682)

    He is one of only two Dalai Lamas to have the word “Great” added to his title. He forged an alliance with the powerful Mongol military leader ‘Gushri Khan’ to unify Tibet under the Gelugpa order. Lobsang Gyatso enjoyed a passionate following among the Mongols. He instituted rules for monastic organization, studies, rituals, and monks’ behavior that remain in effect today, and began construction of the great Potala palace in Lhasa, which is one of the wonders of the world. He also wrote histories, poetry, and work based on visionary experiences. Lozang Gyatso visited the emperor of the Chinese Qing Dynasty, after which the relationship between emperors and Dalai Lamas was generally regarded as one between patron and priest. Lozang Gyatso died in 1682.
    Sixth Dalai Lama

    The Sixth Dalai Lama: Tsangyang Gyatso (1683-1706)

    Because of the delay in announcing the Fifth Dalai Lama’s death, Tsangyang Gyatso was well into his teens before he was recognized as the Sixth Dalai Lama. He is considered to be the most unconventional Dalai Lama. He dressed as a layperson, drank wine, enjoyed the company of women and composed love songs that are still popular in Tibet. He died while leaving the country.
    Seventh Dalai Lama

    The Seventh Dalai Lama: Kelsang Gyatso (1708-1757)

    The seventh Dalai Lama was installed in 1720, as the Seventh Dalai Lama Kelsang Gyatso. A scholar and poet, he preferred to let ministers attend to the affairs of Tibet. It was during his reign that an ordinance formulated by the Chinese government gave the Dalai Lama rule over Tibet.

    Eighth Dalai Lama

    The Eighth Dalai Lama: Jhamphel Gyatso (1758-1804)

    During Jhamphel Gyatso’s reign, Tibet fought wars with the Gurkhas of Nepal, and received a delegation from England, which was interested in Tibet because of its strategic location in relation to British India, China, and Czarist Russia.

    Ninth Dalai Lama

    The Ninth Dalai Lama: Lungtok Gyatso (1806-1815)

    During Lungtok Gyatso’s brief reign, significant shifts of power began to occur in the region. The British continued to show an interest, but could make no inroads. Lungtok Gyatso died at age 11 in the Potala Palace. The subsequent three Dalai Lamas also died young.

    Tenth Dalai Lama

    The 10th Dalai Lama: Tsultrim Gyatso (1816-1837)

    Like his predecessor, Tsultrim Gyatso died suddenly in Potala Palace before assuming temporal power. During his brief life, Tibet continued to isolate itself, while keeping a suspicious eye on its borders.

    Eleventh Dalai Lama

    The 11th Dalai Lama: Khendrup Gyatso (1838-1856)

    He was the third in a series of Dalai Lamas who died at an early age. During Khendrup Gyatso’s life, China’s influence in Tibet weakened further because of the Opium War and the Taiping Rebellion. Tibet’s struggles continued with Nepal and Ladakh to the west.

    Twelveth Dalai Lama

    The 12th Dalai Lama: Trinley Gyatso (1856-1875)

    His reign was a time of severe unrest among Tibet’s neighbours. The weaker Qing dynasty was unable to provide military support because of its own battles. At the same time, the British intensified pressure on the Tibetan borders, from their colonial bastion in India.

    Thirteenth Dalai Lama

    The 13th Dalai Lama: Thupten Gyatso (1876-1933)

    He is the he second of the “Great” Dalai Lamas (after the Fifth), so designated because he held Tibet intact through tumultuous times. He fled to India. The Dalai Lama appealed to the British to help prevent China from turning Tibet into a Chinese state, but Britain remained neutral.

    Thupten Gyatso instituted modernizations in Tibet, such as a postal system, paper currency, roads, and he built the country’s first power station. He is credited with revitalizing the institution of the Dalai Lama through his forceful character and political insight, and with trying to end Tibet’s centuries of isolation. Still, many of his reforms and initiatives met with crippling resistance from the conservative monastic establishment.

    3b.Pancen Lama and Tashi Lupo Monastry

     The Monastery

    Principals of the Monastery

    1. To maintain peace and harmony

    The Monastery endeavours to maintain peace and harmony both within individuals and with the world at large, and to protect the environment, taking into consideration the feelings of others, and following the example of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and His Holiness the Panchen Lama.

    2. To be good human beings 

     Tashi Lhunpo Monastery endeavours to provide a healthy environment for the monks to develop into strong human beings with compassion, a sense of sacrifice, honesty and a deep respect for all beings.


     3. To promote a sense of responsibility and service  

    Each monk in Tashi Lhunpo Monastery is encouraged to develop as a responsible and caring member of the monastic community itself and the world at large, acknowledging that the earth is home and all people members of one family.


    Tibet2007_tashilhunposmallTashi Lhunpo Monastery in Tibet


    Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, the principal monastery of the U-Tsang Province in Tibet, is one of the Great Six centres of the Gelugpa tradition. Tashi Lhunpo was founded by His Holiness the 1st Dalai Lama, Gyalwa Gedun Drup in 1447, and became the largest, most vibrant monastery in Tibet.


    The monastery grew in importance in the 16th Century, when Tashi Lhunpo’s Abbot, Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen (1570-1662) was recognised by the Fifth Dalai Lama as an incarnation of Amitabha, the spiritual teacher of Chenrezig and the patron saint of Tibet, and was given the title ‘Panchen Lama’. ‘Panchen’ is the shortened form of Pandita Chenpo, meaning Great Scholar. The Panchen Lamas became – together with the Dalai Lamas – the most important religious leaders in Tibet. In the same way as the Dalai Lamas, three previous Abbots of Tashi Lhunpo were retrospectively given the title Panchen Lama, making Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen the fourth in the line.


    The relationship between the Dalai Lamas and the Panchen Lamas is unique. Each Lama in their lifetime is not only involved in the search for the other’s reincarnation, but also assumes the role, first as the disciple and later in life as the master, of the other.

    Under the 4th Panchen Lama, Tashi Lhunpo became an integrated society where monks from Tibet, Bhutan, India, Nepal and China lived in harmony, providing a community where monks received education as well as the warmth and love of a family. Over the years the monastery flourished as a centre of learning, and played a vital role in the preservation of Mahayana Buddhist Philosophy.

    Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in India


    By 1959, 5,000 monks were resident in the Monastery in Shigatse, Tibet, with a further 2,000 monks outside Tibet itself. Following the Chinese invasion of Tibet, and the destruction caused by the Cultural Revolution, only 400-500 monks remain in the monastery. 300 monks made the journey to India following His Holiness the Dalai Lama into exile, and in 1972, under His guidance, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery was established in Bylakuppe, Karnataka State, in South India.Here the 250 monks continue to follow the same tradition and principles in exile as in their monastery in Tibet.


    During the 1960s, many senior Lamas and monks left Tibet because of the difficulties they faced in practising Buddhism under the Chinese occupation. Many of them helped to re-establish monasteries in India, Bhutan and Nepal. The 10th Panchen Lama was not able to leave Tibet, and as a result many of the senior lamas from Tashi Lhunpo Monastery remained inside Tibet. Without the guidance of senior lamas, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery has been at a disadvantage, and remains one of the poorest of the re-established monasteries.


    The Panchen Lamas

    10thPanchenLamaThe 10th Panchen Lama
    Choekyi Gyaltsen 1938-1989


    Choekyi Gyaltsen, the 10th Panchen Lama was born in Amdo, Eastern Tibet, in 1938. He was recognised as the Panchen’s reincarnation by Alak Lakho Rinpoche, and in 1951 was confirmed by the 14th Dalai Lama as the 10th Panchen Rinpoche. He met the Dalai Lama in Lhasa in 1952, and then took up his seat in Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in Shigatse.


    Whilst maintaining good relations with the Chinese, the Panchen Lama was skilful in promoting the welfare of the Tibetan people. Realising that the Communist Chinese were developing a strategy which would destroy Tibetan culture, denying their stated fundamental policies of no racial discrimination and the freedom to practice religion, he submitted a 70,000 character petition demanding that the Chinese Government investigate the policy.


    The Chinese Government accused the Panchen Lama of being anti-Chinese and of counter-revolutionary activities. In 1964, at a public meeting in Lhasa, he was removed from all public positions of authority. He was openly criticised and humiliated, and later taken to China. In 1966, he was subjected to a series of ‘struggle sessions’ in the National Institute of Minorities in Beijing, and was imprisoned for nine years and eight months, being released in 1975.


    In 1979, the Panchen Lama was appointed Deputy Chairman of the National Peoples Politics Consultative Committee and Deputy Chairman of the National Peoples Congress. He travelled widely in the Tibetan regions of Amdo and Kham. His message urged Tibetans to maintain good relations with the Chinese. He also strongly advised them to keep alive the spirit to, “Be a Tibetan” and “Be for the Tibetan cause”. In 1985, in the Monlam Festival after the Tibetan New Year in Lhasa, the Panchen Lama said, “His Holiness the Dalai Lama and I are spiritual friends. There are no differences between His Holiness the Dalai Lama and me. Some people are trying to create discord between us. This will not succeed.”


    At Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, the Panchen Lama built a memorial Stupa which he consecrated and inaugurated to replace the silver Stupas of past Panchen Lamas, destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. Shortly after this ceremony, on 28th January 1989, the Panchen Lama passed away in Tashi Lhunpo Monastery.


    From his earliest years, the 10th Panchen Lama was brought up under the supervision of the Communist Chinese, and had little opportunity to follow the traditional education of his predecessors. However, he developed within him a strong faith in the Buddhist doctrine, and an allegiance to the Tibetan cause. Since his death, he has been remembered as one of the most misunderstood Lamas in Tibet’s history, and one of the most courageous critics of Mao’s regime.


    11th_PanchenLama2The 11th Panchen Lama
    Gedun Choekyi Nyima 1989 – to Date




    When the Tibetan Administration learned of His Holiness the 10th Panchen Lama’s death, the search for his reincarnation began immediately. Thirty names of possible candidates were received from both within and outside Tibet. In March 1991, it was confirmed that the Panchen Lama’s reincarnation had been born in Tibet.

    The 14th Dalai Lama in exile in India repeatedly contacted the Chinese authorities asking to be allowed to play a part in the search for the reincarnation.  He wrote to Jiang Zemin in 1995, “I have a responsibility to honour and uphold the unique historical relationship between the Dalai lama and the Panchen Lama.  For example, in my own case, I am personally greatly indebted to the 9th Panchen Lama, who took a special interest and responsibility in the search for the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama.”  All his requests were refused.

    By December 1994 the signs were clear that it was time to finalise the recognition process and in January 1995 it was revealed that Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, son of Konchok Phuntsok and Dechen Choedon of Lhari District in Nagchu, north of Lhasa, was the most likely candidate. On 14th May 1995, His Holiness the Dalai Lama officially proclaimed the six year old Gedun Choekyi Nyima as the reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Lama, the second highest spiritual leader of Tibet, giving him the name of Tenzin Gedun Yeshe Thrinlay Phuntsok Pal Sangpo.


    Within days of the announcement, the six year old boy and his parents disappeared from their home, reportedly taken into Chinese police custody. It was not until 28th May 1996 that the Chinese authorities admitted that they were indeed holding the young boy and his parents, saying that “He has been put under the protection of the Government at the request of his parents.” According to Mr Wu Jianmin, the PRCs Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva, “The boy was at risk of being kidnapped by separatists and his security had been threatened.” Since then he has been held in conditions of complete secrecy, unable to receive religious instruction in Tashi Lhunpo monastery.

     Back to top 


    The Chinese Choice



    Denouncing His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s proclamation of the reincarnation of the Panchen Lama as illegitimate, on 29th November 1995 the Chinese authorities held a ceremony during which they drew lots from a golden urn to select their own Panchen Lama. Six year old Gyaltsen Norbu was selected, and subsequently enthroned on 8th December 1995.

    Shortly after His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s announcement, Chinese military forces arrested a number of monks, including Chadrel Rinpoche, Abbot of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in Tibet. Chadrel Rinpoche had been appointed head of China’s search committee for the reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Lama in August 1989. However, he had angered the Chinese authorities by rejecting their plan to select their own Panchen Lama, and by supporting His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s candidate.

    Sentenced to six years imprisonment and three years deprivation of political rights for “plotting to split the motherland” and “leaking state secrets”, Chadrel Rinpoche is being held in the top secret Chuandong No 3 prison in Eastern Sichuan.


    Other monks who have protested against the Chinese authorities’ actions have also been imprisoned, (more than 80 people in all) and the administration of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery is now controlled by the Shigatse Religious Department, who appoint the management committee with approval of the Chinese authorities in Shigatse. A nine-member “work team” is resident in the monastery. They hold education sessions twice a week, during which the monks are ordered to oppose the Dalai Lama and His chosen reincarnation.



    The whereabouts of Gedun Choekyi Nyima and his family remain unknown. 



    1)The Vintage Postcard

    2)Modern Pictures

    4.Travelling around

    1) Tibet City Tours

    a)5 day Tour To Lhasa,Gyantse & Shigatse

    Religious relics, holy lakes, Mt.Ervest and its area…….
    Day 1: Lhasa Arrive in Lhasa. Met at airport & transfer to 3* hotel. Free in the afternoon.
    tibet tours
    Day 2: Lhasa Full day visits including Potala Palace & Sera Monastery.
    Day 3: Lhasa- Gyantse-Shigatse Drive to Shigatse via Yamdrok lake & Gyantse. Enjoy the beautiful view of the lake . The visit Gyantse Dzong & Pelkhor Monastery .
    Day 4: Shigatse- Lhasa The visit to Tashilunpo is really something you will never forget! Then drive to Lhasa in the afternoon. After arrival, pay a visit to Jorkhang Temple & Barkor Street, which will be the happy end of the trip to Tibet.
    Day 5: Leave Leave for your next destination .
    • 1pax=1030USD p/p, 1180USD p/p(Land Cruiser)
    • 2pax=685USD p/p, 750USD p/p (Land Cruiser)
    • 3pax=635USD p/p, 675USD p/p (Land Cruiser)
    • 4pax=558 USD p/p, 595USD p/p (Land Cruiser)
    • 5pax=555USD p/p, 585USD p/p (Land Cruiser)
    • 6pax=520USD p/p, 545USD p/p(Lux Van)

    b)CT-08 Tibet City Tour (4D3N)

    Day 01  Arrive in Tibet. Meet the local guide and transfer to the hotel. Free time in the afternoon to get to be used to local climate.          (L/D) Overnight in Lhasa

    Day 02  After breakfast visit Potala Palace, Tibet’ s best-known landmark.. In the afternoon visit Jokhang Temple, home of the most precious of the Buddha images in the region. Brought from Chang’ an (what is now Xi’ an ) by the Tang Princess Wen Cheng when she married Tibetan King Songsten Gampo, the Sakyamuni Buddha is truly magnificent. Then walk through the colorful bazaar on Barkhor Street known as the Pilgrims’ ay prior to visiting a carpet factory where you can marvel at the skill of the carpet weavers and admire the Buddhist designs.
    (B/L/D) Overnight in Lhasa
    Day 03  Lhasa is famous for its monasteries and this morning you will visit both the Drepung Monastery and Sera Monastery. Drepung was once the largest and wealthiest and a Yellow Hat monastery where the Dalai Lamas were trained. Sera was a strong rival for importance and had three Tantric Colleges, famous for their Bon tradition of teaching.
    (B/L/D) Overnight in Lhasa
    Day 04  After breakfast take flight  from Lhasa to Chengdu, then take flight for leaving.  (B)

    ( USD p/p ) 
    Peak Season ( Apr. -Nov. ) Slack Season ( Dec. – Mar. )  
      Budget Standard Luxury Budget Standard Luxury Note
    2-5 pax   507   559  628    485   532   605   
    6-9 pax  376  425  499    352    401   475  
    Single Room Supplement  186  226  352   168  205  329  
    10 pax up  275 344 396     253    320    372   
    Single Room Supplement  156  199  268   142  176  245  
    * 3* hotel ( budget ), 4* hotel ( standard ) or 5* hotel ( luxury ) , twin-bed room with private 
      shower and WC
    * English speaking local guide
    * Daily meals ( exclude the special flavor food )
    * Admission charges where applicable as shown in the tour description
    * Tranportation in the program
    * Service charges for baggage handling between hotel and airport
    * Domestic travel insurance
    * International flights and tax
    * Personal consumption
    * Visa fee
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    2)Luxury Tourist Train of Qinghai-Tibet Railway is to Start in September

    Updated: August 20, 2008 | Clicks: 4078

    Recently, the Corporation of Qinghai-Tibet Railway revealed that the luxury tourist train will be put into services in this September. The luxury tourist train was designed according to the standard of five-star hotels, including 3 carriages of kitchen and dinning, 1 carriage of dynamo van, the left 12 carriages are Pullmans.

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau tour became the hot travel route of Western China as the opening of Qinghai-Tibet Railway since July, 1st, 2006. It activated Qinghai-Tibet Plateau tourism.

    Qinghai-Tibet Train
    The train was running in the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,Train
    Qinghai-Tibet Railway is a bright sight on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Related News:

    Tibet Sees Increasing Tourists after Post-riot Drop-off

    Tibet Reopened to Foreign Tourists on June 25

    Frame Two : The Tibet Historic Collections

    Tibetian warrior in chainmail enforced by mirror plate

    Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is particularly focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet. This is partly due to the pivotal role this religion has played in the development of Tibetan, Mongol, and Manchu cultures, and partly because almost all native historians of the country were Buddhist monks.



    Main article: Tibet

    Tibet was situated between the ancient civilizations of China and India, separated from the former by the extensive mountain ranges to the east of the Tibetan Plateau and from the latter by the towering Himalayas. Tibet is nicknamed “the roof of the world” or “the land of snows”.

    The Tibetan language and its dialects are classified as members of the Tibeto-Burman language family.


    Humans inhabited the Tibetan Plateau at least twenty one thousand years ago.[1] This population was largely replaced around 3,000 BP by Neolithic immigrants from northern China. However there is a “partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and the contemporary Tibetan populations”.[1] Some archaeological data suggests humans may have passed through Tibet at the time India was first inhabited, half a million years ago.[2]

    The earliest Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung culture as a people who migrated from the Amdo region into what is now the region of Guge in western Tibet.[3] Zhang Zhung is considered to be the original home of the Bön religion.[4] By the 1st century BCE, a neighboring kingdom arose in the Yarlung valley, and the Yarlung king, Drigum Tsenpo, attempted to remove the influence of the Zhang Zhung by expelling the Zhang’s Bön priests from Yarlung.[5] He was assassinated and Zhang Zhung continued its dominance of the region until it was annexed by Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century.

     Archaeological record

    Megalithic monuments dot the Tibetan Plateau and may have been used in ancestor worship. It is unknown whether these monuments were built by ancient Tibetans.[4] Prehistoric Iron Age hill forts and burial complexes have recently been found on the Tibetan plateau but the remote high altitude location makes archaeological research difficult.

     Mythological origins

    The dates attributed to the first Tibetan king, Nyatri Tsenpo (Wylie: Gnya’-khri-btsan-po), vary. Some Tibetan texts give 126 BCE, others 414 BCE.[6] Nyatri Tsenpo is said to have descended from a one-footed creature called the Theurang, having webbed fingers and a tongue so large it could cover his face. Due to his terrifying appearance he was feared in his native Puwo and exiled by the Bön to Tibet. There he was greeted as a fearsome being, and he became king.[3]

    The Tibetan kings were said to remain connected to the heavens via a dmu cord (dmu thag) so that rather than dying, they ascended directly to heaven, when their sons achieved their majority.[7] According to various accounts, king Drigum Tsenpo (Dri-gum-brtsan-po) either challenged his clan heads to a fight,[8] or provoked his groom Longam (Lo-ngam) into a duel. During the fight the king’s dmu cord was cut, and he was killed. Thereafter Drigum Tsenpo and subsequent kings left corpses and the Bön conducted funerary rites.[5][9][10]

    In a later myth, first attested in the Maṇi bka’ ‘bum, the Tibetan people are the progeny of the union of the monkey Pha Trelgen Changchup Sempa and rock ogress Ma Drag Sinmo. But the monkey is in fact a manifestation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara (Tib. Spyan-ras-gzigs) and the ogress in fact the goddess Tara (Tib. ‘Grol-ma).[11]

    Early history

    Tibet first enters history in the Geography of Ptolemy under the name βαται, a Greek transcription of the indigenous name Bod. From the 7th century CE Chinese historians referred to Tibet with a phonetic transcription Tǔfān (吐蕃), though 4 distinct characters were used. The first externally confirmed contact with the Tibetan kingdom in recorded Tibetan history occurred when King Namri Löntsän (Gnam-ri-slon-rtsan) sent an ambassador to China in the early 7th century.[12]

    Tibetan Empire

    Main article: Tibetan Empire

    The Tibetan Empire at its greatest extent, c. 800.

    The power that became the Tibetan state originated when a group convinced Stag-bu snya-gzigs [Tagbu Nyazig] to rebel against Dgu-gri Zing-po-rje [Gudri Zingpoje], who was in turn a vassal of the Zhang-zhung empire under the Lig myi dynasty. The group prevailed against Zing-po-rje. At this point Namri Songtsen (Namri Löntsän) was the leader of a clan which prevailed over all his neighboring clans, one by one, and he gained control of all the area around what is now Lhasa by 630, when he was assassinated. This new-born regional state would later become known as the Tibetan Empire. The government of Namri Songtsen sent two embassies to China in 608 and 609, marking the appearance of Tibet on the international scene.[13]

    Traditional Tibetan history preserves a lengthy list of rulers, whose exploits become subject to external verification in the Chinese histories by the 7th century. From the 7th to the 11th century a series of emperors ruled Tibet – see List of emperors of Tibet. Throughout the centuries from the time of the emperor Songtsän Gampo the power of the empire gradually increased over a diverse terrain so that by the reign of the emperor Ralpacan, in the opening years of the 9th century, its influence extended as far south as Bengal and as far north as Mongolia.

    The varied terrain of the empire and the difficulty of transportation, coupled with the new ideas that came into the empire as a result of its expansion, helped to create stresses and power blocs that were often in competition with the ruler at the center of the empire. Thus, for example, adherents of the Bön religion and the supporters of the ancient noble families gradually came to find themselves in competition with the recently-introduced Buddhism.

    Tibet divided (842-1247)

    Upon the death of Langdarma, the last emperor of a unified Tibetan empire, there was a controversy over whether he would be succeeded by his alleged heir Yumtän (Wylie: Yum brtan), or by another son (or nephew) Ösung (Wylie: ‘Od-srung) (either 843-905 or 847-885). A civil war ensued, which effectively ended centralized Tibetan administration until the Sa-skya period. Ösung’s allies managed to keep control of Lhasa, and Yumtän was forced to go to Yalung, where he established a separate line of kings.[14] In 910 the tombs of the emperors were defiled.

    The son of Ösung was Pälkhortsän (Wylie: Dpal ‘khor brtsan) (either 893-923 or 865-895). The latter apparently maintained control over much of central Tibet for a time, and sired two sons, Trashi Tsentsän (Wylie: Bkra shis brtsen brtsan) and Thrikhyiding (Wylie: Khri khyi lding), also called Kyide Nyigön [Wylie: Skyid lde nyi ma mgon] in some sources. Thrikhyiding emigrated to the western Tibetan region of upper Ngari (Wylie: Stod Mnga ris) and married a woman of high central Tibetan nobility, with whom he founded a local dynasty.[15]

    After the breakup of the Tibetan empire in 842, Nyima-Gon, a representative of the ancient Tibetan royal house, founded the first Ladakh dynasty. Nyima-Gon’s kingdom had its centre well to the east of present-day Ladakh. Kyide Nyigön’s eldest son became ruler of the Mar-yul (Ladakh) region, and his two younger sons ruled western Tibet, founding the Kingdom of Guge and Pu-hrang. At a later period the king of Guge’s eldest son, Kor-re, also called Jangchub Yeshe Ö (Byang Chub Ye shes’ Od), became a Buddhist monk. He sent young scholars to Kashmir for training and was responsible for inviting Atiśa to Tibet in 1040, thus ushering in the Chidar (Phyi dar) phase of Buddhism in Tibet. The younger son, Srong-nge, administered day to day governmental affairs; it was his sons who carried on the royal line.[16]

    Central rule was largely nonexistent over the Tibetan region from 842 to 1247, yet Buddhism had survived surreptitiously in the region of Kham. During the reign of Langdarma three monks had escaped from the troubled region of Lhasa to the region of Mt. Dantig in Amdo. Their disciple Muzu Saelbar (Mu-zu gSal-‘bar), later known as the scholar Gongpa Rabsal (Dgongs-pa rab-gsal) (832-915), was responsible for the renewal of Buddhism in northeastern Tibet, and is counted as the progenitor of the Nyingma (Rnying ma pa) school of Tibetan Buddhism. Meanwhile, according to tradition, one of Ösung’s descendants, who had an estate near Samye, sent ten young men to be trained by Gongpa Rabsal. Among the ten was Lume Sherab Tshulthrim (Klu-mes Shes-rab Tshul-khrims) (950-1015). Once trained, these young men were ordained to go back into the central Tibetan regions of U and Tsang. The young scholars were able to link up with Atiśa shortly after 1042 and advance the spread and organization of Buddhism in Lho-kha. In that region, the faith eventually coalesced again, with the foundation of the Sakya Monastery in 1073.[17] Over the next two centuries, the Sakya monastery grew to a position of prominence in Tibetan life and culture. The Tsurphu Monastery, home of the Karmapa school of Buddhism, was founded in 1155.

     The Mongols and the Sakya school (1236-1354)

    The first documented contact between the Tibetans and the Mongols occurred when Genghis Khan met Tsangpa Dunkhurwa (Gtsang pa Dung khur ba) and six of his disciples, probably in the Tangut empire, in 1215.[18]

    After the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, the Tibetans stopped sending tribute to the Mongol Empire. As a result, in 1240, the grandson of Genghis Khan and second son of Ögedei Khan, Prince Godan (or Köden), invaded Tibet. Prince Godan asked his commanders to search for an outstanding Buddhist lama and, as Sakya Pandita, the leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, was considered the most religious, Godan sent him gifts and a letter of “invitation” to come to his capital and formally surrender Tibet to the Mongols. Sakya Pandita arrived in Kokonor in 1246. Prince Godan received various initiation rites and the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism became the religion of the ruling line of Mongol khans. In return, after a third Mongol invasion in 1247 led to the submission of almost all Tibetan states, Sakya Pandita was appointed Viceroy of Tibet by the Mongol court in 1249, marking one of the occasions on which the Chinese base their claim to the rule of Tibet.

    On the other hand, because the Song Dynasty of China in South China had not yet been conquered by the Mongols, Tibetan historians argue that China and Tibet remained two separate units within the Mongol Empire.[2] It may therefore be more accurate to describe this process as first North China, and then Tibet being incorporated into the Mongol Empire, which was later inherited by the Yuan Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan in 1271. Kublai Khan left both the Chinese and Tibetan legal and administrative systems intact.[19] Though most government institutions established by Kublai Khan in his court resembled the ones in earlier Chinese dynasties,[20] Tibet never adopted the imperial examinations or Neo-Confucian policies.

    In 1253, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (1235–1280) succeeded Sakya Pandita at the Mongol court. Phagpa became a religious teacher to Kublai Khan. Kublai Khan appointed Chögyal Phagpa as his Imperial Preceptor in 1260, the year when he became emperor of Mongolia. Phagpa was the first “to initiate the political theology of the relationship between state and religion in the Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhist world”.[21][22] With the support of Kublai Khan, Phagpa established himself and his sect as the preeminent political power in Tibet. Through their influence with the Mongol rulers, Tibetan lamas gained considerable influence in various Mongol clans, not only with Kublai, but, for example, also with the Il-Khanids.

    In 1265 Chögyal Phagpa returned to Tibet and for the first time made an attempt to impose Sakya hegemony with the appointment of Shakya Bzang-po (a long time servant and ally of the Sakyas) as the Dpon-chen (‘great administrator’) over Tibet in 1267. A census was conducted in 1268 and Tibet was divided into thirteen myriarchies.

    The Sakya hegemony over Tibet continued into the middle of the 14th century, although it was challenged by a revolt of the Drikung Kagyu sect with the assistance of Duwa Khan of the Chagatai Khanate in 1285. The revolt was suppressed in 1290 when the Sa-skyas and eastern Mongols burned Drikung Monastery and killed 10,000 people.[23]

    Between 1346 and 1354, towards the end of the Yuan dynasty, the House of Pagmodru would topple the Sakya. Tibet would be ruled by a succession of Sakya lamas until 1358, when central Tibet came under control of the Kagyu sect. “By the 1370s the lines between the schools of Buddhism were clear.”[24]

    The following 80 years or so were a period of relative stability. They also saw the birth of the Gelugpa school (also known as Yellow Hats) by the disciples of Tsongkhapa Lobsang Dragpa, and the founding of the Ganden, Drepung, and Sera monasteries near Lhasa. After the 1430s, the country entered another period of internal power struggles.[25]

     Rise of the Phagmodru (1354-1434)

    The Phagmodru (Phag mo gru) myriarchy centered at Neudong (Sne’u gdong) was granted as an appanage to Hülegü in 1251. The area had already been associated with the Lang (Rlang) family, and with the waning of Ilkhanate influence it was ruled by this family, within the Mongol-Sakya framework headed by the Mongol appointed Pönchen (Dpon chen) at Sakya. The areas under Lang administration were continually encroached upon during the late thirteenth and early 14th centuries. Jangchub Gyaltsän (Byang chub rgyal mtshan, 1302–1364) saw these encroachments as illegal and sought the restoration of Phagmodru lands after his appointment as the Myriarch in 1322. After prolonged legal struggles, the struggle became violent when Phagmodru was attacked by its neighbours in 1346. Jangchub Gyaltsän was arrested and released in 1347. When he later refused to appear for trial, his domains were attacked by the Pönchen in 1348. Janchung Gyaltsän was able to defend Phagmodru, and continued to have military successes, until by 1351 he was the strongest political figure in the country. Military hostilities ended in 1354 with Jangchub Gyaltsän as the unquestioned victor. He continued to rule central Tibet until his death in 1364, although he left all Mongol institutions in place as hollow formalities. Power remained in the hands of the Phagmodru family until 1434.[26]

     Beginnings of the Dalai Lama lineage

      Tibetan Buddhism

    Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue.jpg
    Timeline · Related-topics
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    Altan Khan, the king of the Tümed Mongols, first invited Sonam Gyatso, the head of the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism (and to be known later as the third Dalai Lama), to Mongolia in 1569. He invited him to Mongolia again in 1578, and this time he accepted the invitation. They met at the site of Altan Khan’s new capital, Koko Khotan (Hohhot), and the Dalai Lama gave teachings to a huge crowd there.

    Sonam Gyatso publicly announced that he was a reincarnation of the Tibetan Sakya monk Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (1235–1280) who converted Kublai Khan, while Altan Khan was a reincarnation of Kublai Khan (1215–1294), the famous ruler of the Mongols and Emperor of China, and that they had come together again to cooperate in propagating the Buddhist religion.[27] While this did not immediately lead to a massive conversion of Mongols to Buddhism (this would only happen in the 1630s), it did lead to the widespread use of Buddhist ideology for the legitimation of power among the Mongol nobility. Last but not least, the Yonten Gyatso, the fourth Dalai Lama,was a grandson of Altan Khan.[2 Rise of the Gelugpa schools

    Yonten Gyatso (1589–1616), the fourth Dalai Lama and a non-Tibetan, was the grandson of Altan Khan. He died in 1617 in his mid-twenties. Some people say he was poisoned but there is no real evidence one way or the other.[29]

    Lobsang Gyatso (Wylie transliteration: Blo-bzang Rgya-mtsho), the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, (1617–1682) was the first Dalai Lama to wield effective political power over central Tibet.

    The fifth Dalai Lama is known for unifying the Tibetan heartland under the control of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, after defeating the rival Kagyu and Jonang sects and the secular ruler, the Tsangpa prince, in a prolonged civil war. His efforts were successful in part because of aid from Gushi Khan, a powerful Oirat military leader. The Jonang monasteries were either closed or forcibly converted, and that school remained in hiding until the latter part of the 20th century. With the Gushi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and his intimates established a civil administration which is referred to by historians as the Lhasa state. The core leadership of this government was also referred to as the Ganden Podrang by metonymy from the name of the Dalai Lama’s residence at Drepung, much as the president of the United States and his closest advisors can be referred to as “the White House”.

    In 1652 the fifth Dalai Lama visited the Manchu emperor, Shunzhi. He was not required to kowtow like other visitors, but still had to kneel before the Emperor; and he received a seal.

    The fifth Dalai lama initiated the construction of the Potala Palace in Lhasa, and moved the centre of government there from Drepung.

    The Potala Palace in Lhasa

    The death of the fifth Dalai Lama in 1680 was kept hidden for fifteen years by his assistant, confidant, Desi Sangay Gyatso (De-srid Sangs-rgyas Rgya-‘mtsho). The Dalai Lamas remained Tibet’s titular heads of state until 1959.

    During the rule of the Great Fifth, two Jesuit missionaries, the German Johannes Gruber and Belgian Albert Dorville, stayed in Lhasa for two months, October and November, 1661 on their way from Peking to Portuguese Goa, in India.[30] They described the Dalai Lama as a “powerful and compassionate leader” and “a devilish God-the-father who puts to death such as refuse to adore him.” Another Jesuit, Ippolito Desideri, stayed five years in Lhasa (1716–1721) and was the first missionary to master the language. He even produced a few Christian books in Tibetan. Capuchin fathers took over the mission until all missionaries were expelled in 1745.

    In the late 17th century, Tibet entered into a dispute with Bhutan, which was supported by Ladakh. This resulted in an invasion of Ladakh by Tibet. Kashmir helped to restore Ladakhi rule, on the condition that a mosque be built in Leh and that the Ladakhi king convert to Islam. The Treaty of Temisgam in 1684 settled the dispute between Tibet and Ladakh, but its independence was severely restricted.

    Khoshut, Zunghar Khanate, and Manchu

    Güshi Khan of the Khoshut in 1641 overthrew the prince of Tsang and made the Fifth Dalai Lama the highest spiritual and political authority in Tibet.[31] The time of the Fifth Dalai Lama was also a period of rich cultural development.

    The 5th Dalai Lama conducted foreign policy independently of the Qing, on the basis of his spiritual authority amongst the Mongolians. He acted as a mediator between Mongol tribes, and between the Mongols and the Qing Emperor Kangxi. The Dalai Lama would assign territories to Mongol tribes, and these decisions were routinely confirmed by Kangxi. In 1674, Kangxi asked the Dalai Lama to send Mongolian troops to help suppress a rebellion in Yunnan. The Dalai Lama agreed to do so, but also advised Kangxi to resolve the conflict in Yunnan by allotting fiefs instead of military action. This was apparently a turning point for Kangxi, who began to take action to deal with the Mongols directly, rather than through the Dalai Lama.[32]

    The 5th Dalai Lama died in 1682. His regent, Desi Sangye Gyatso, concealed the death and continued to act in his name. In 1688, Galdan Boshugtu Khan of the Khoshut defeated the Khalkha Mongols and went on to battle Qing forces. This contributed to the loss of Tibet’s role as mediator between the Mongols and Kangxi. Several Khalkha tribes formally submitted directly to Kangxi. Galdan retreated to Dzungaria. When Sangye Gyatso complained to Kangxi that he could not control the Mongols of Kokonor in 1693, Kangxi annexed Kokonor, giving it the name it bears today, Qinghai. He also annexed Tachienlu in eastern Kham at this time. When Kangxi finally destroyed Galdan in 1696, a Qing ruse involving the name of the Dalai Lama was involved; Galdan blamed the Dalai Lama (still not aware of his death fourteen years earlier) for his ruin.[33]

    About this time, some Dzungars informed Kangxi that the 5th Dalai Lama had long since died. He sent envoys to Lhasa to inquire. This prompted Sangye Gyatso to make Tsangyang Gyatso, the 6th Dalai Lama, public. He was enthroned in 1697.[34] Tsangyang Gyatso enjoyed a lifestyle that included drinking, the company of women, and writing love songs.[35] In 1702, he refused to take the vows of a Buddhist monk. The regent, under pressure from Kangxi and Lhazang Khan of the Khoshut, resigned in 1703.[34] In 1705, Lhazang Khan used the sixth Dalai Lama’s escapades as excuse to take control of Lhasa. The regent Sanggye Gyatso, who had allied himself with the Zunghar Khanate, was murdered, and the Dalai Lama was sent to Beijing. He died on the way, near Kokonor, ostensibly from illness but leaving lingering suspicions of foul play. Lhazang Khan appointed a new Dalai Lama who, however, was not accepted by the Gelugpa school. Kelzang Gyatso was discovered near Kokonor and became a rival candidate. Three Gelug abbots of the Lhasa area[36] appealed to the Zunghar Khanate, which invaded Tibet in 1717, deposed Lhazang Khan’s pretender to the position of Dalai Lama, and killed Lhazang Khan and his entire family.[37] The Zunghars proceeded to loot, rape and kill throughout Lhasa and its environs. They also viciously destroyed a small force which the Qing Emperor Kangxi had sent to clear traditional trade routes.[38]

    In response, an expedition sent by Kangxi, together with Tibetan forces under Polhanas (also spelled Polhaney) of Tsang and Kanchenas (also spelled Gangchenney), the governor of Western Tibet[39][40], expelled the Zunghars from Tibet in 1720. They brought Kelzang Gyatso with them from Kumbum to Lhasa and he was installed as the seventh Dalai Lama.[41][42] A Chinese protectorate over Tibet (described by Stein as “sufficiently mild and flexible to be accepted by the Tibetan government”) was established at this time, with a garrison at Lhasa, and Kham was annexed to Sichuan.[37] In 1721, the Qing established a government in Lhasa consisting of a council (the Kashag) of three Tibetan ministers, headed by Kanchenas. A Khalkha prince was made amban, or official representative in Tibet of the Qing. Another Khalkha directed the military. The Dalai Lama’s role at this time was purely symbolic, but still highly influential because of the Mongols’ religious beliefs.[43]

    The Qing came as patrons of the Khoshut, liberators of Tibet from the Zunghar, and suppoters of Kelzang Gyatso, but when they replaced the Khoshut as rulers of Kokonor and Tibet, they earned the resentment of the Khoshut and also the Tibetans of Kokonor. Lobsang Danjin, a grandson of Gushi Khan, led a rebellion in 1723. 200,000 Tibetans and Mongols attacked Xining. Central Tibet did not support the rebellion. In fact, Polhanas blocked the rebels’ retreat from Qing retaliation. The rebellion was brutally suppressed.[44]

    Kangxi was succeeded by the Yongzheng Emperor in 1722. In 1725, amidst a series of Qing transitions reducing Qing forces in Tibet and consolidating control of Amdo and Kham, Kanchenas received the title of Prime Minister. Yongzheng ordered the conversion of all Nyingma to Gelug. This persecution created a rift between Polhanas, who had been a Nyingma monk, and Kanchenas. Both of these officials, who represented Qing interests, were opposed by the Lhasa nobility, who had been allied with the Zunghars and were anti-Qing. They killed Kanchenas and took control of Lhasa in 1727, and Polhanas fled to his native Ngari. Polhanas gathered an army and retook Lhasa in July 1728 against opposition from the Lhasa nobility and their allies. Qing troops arrived in Lhasa in September, and punished the anti-Qing faction by executing entire families, including women and children. The Dalai Lama was sent to Litang Monastery[45] in Kham. The Panchen Lama was brought to Lhasa and was given temporal authority over Tsang and Ngari, creating a territorial division between the two high lamas that was to be a long lasting feature of Chinese policy toward Tibet. Two ambans were established in Lhasa, with increased numbers of Qing troops. Over the 1730s, Qing troops were again reduced, and Polhanas gained more power and authority. The Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa in 1735, temporal power remained with Polhanas. The Qing found Polhanas to be a loyal agent and an effective ruler over a stable Tibet, so he remained dominant until his death in 1747.[46]

    The Qing had made the region of Amdo and Kham into the province of Qinghai in 1724,[37] and incorporated eastern Kham into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728.[47] The Qing government sent a resident commissioner (amban) to Lhasa. A stone monument regarding the boundary between Tibet and China, agreed upon by Lhasa and Beijing in 1726, was placed atop a mountain near Bathang, and survived at least into the 19th century.[48] This boundary, which was used until 1910, ran between the headwaters of the Mekong and Yangtse rivers. Territory east of the boundary was governed by Tibetan chiefs who were answerable to China.[49]

    Tibetan factions rebelled in 1750 and killed the ambans. Then, a Manchu Qing army entered and defeated the rebels and installed an administration headed by the Dalai Lama. The number of soldiers in Tibet was kept at about 2,000. The defensive duties were partly helped out by a local force which was reorganized by the resident commissioner, and the Tibetan government continued to manage day-to-day affairs as before. In 1751, the Qing Emperor Qianlong established the Dalai Lama as both the spiritual leader and political leader of Tibet above a ministry (Kashag) with four Kalöns in it.[50] He also drew on Buddhism to bolster support among the Tibetans. Six thangkas remain portraying the emperor as Manjuśrī and Tibetan records of the time refer to him by that name.[51][37] Later the Qianlong emperor was disappointed with the results of his 1751 decree and the performance of the ambans. “Tibetan local affairs were left to the willful actions of the Dalai Lama and the shapes [Kashag members],” he said. “The Commissioners were not only unable to take charge, they were also kept uninformed. This reduced the post of the Residential Commissioner in Tibet to name only.”[47] He decided to strengthen the powers of the ambans after the Gurkha invasions.

    Between this time and the beginning of the 19th century, Qing authority over Tibet weakened to the point of being minuscule, or merely symbolic.[52][53][54] In 1727, the government of China began posting two high commissioners, namely ambans, to Lhasa. Chinese historians argue that the ambans’ presence was an expression of Chinese sovereignty, while those favouring Tibetan independence claims tend to equate the ambans with ambassadors. The relationship between Tibet and (Qing) China was that of patron and priest and was not based on the subordination of one to the other, according to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama.[55] (The thirteenth Dalai Lama was deposed in 1904, reinstated in 1908 and deposed again in 1910 by the Qing Dynasty government, but these pronouncements were not taken seriously in Lhasa.)[56]

    In 1788, Gurkha forces sent by Bahadur Shah, the Regent of Nepal, invaded Tibet, occupying a number of frontier districts. The young Panchen Lama fled to Lhasa and the Qing Emperor Qianlong sent troops to Lhasa, upon which the Nepalese withdrew agreeing to pay a large annual sum.

    In 1791 the Nepalese Gurkhas invaded Tibet a second time, seizing Shigatse and destroying the great Tashilhunpo Monastery. The Panchen Lama was forced to flee to Lhasa once again. The Qianlong Emperor then sent an army of 17,000 men to Tibet. In 1793, with the assistance of Tibetan troops, they managed to drive the Nepalese troops to within about 30 km of Kathmandu before the Gurkhas conceded defeat and returned all the treasure they had plundered.[57]

    18th and 19th centuries

    The Golden Urn

    The 1791 Nepalese invasion and the following defeat by the Qing increased the latter’s control over Tibet. From that moment, all important matters were to be submitted to the ambans.[58]

    In 1792, the emperor issued a 29-point decree which appeared to tighten Qing control over Tibet. It strengthened the powers of the ambans. The ambans were elevated above the Kashag and the Dalai Lama in responsibility for Tibetan political affairs. The Dalai and Panchen Lamas were no longer allowed to petition the Chinese Emperor directly but could only do so through the ambans. The ambans took control of Tibetan frontier defense and foreign affairs. Tibetan authorities’ foreign correspondence, even with the Mongols of Kokonor (present-day Qinghai), had to be approved by the ambans. The ambans were put in command of the Qing garrison and the Tibetan army (whose strength was set at 3000 men). Trade was also restricted and travel could be undertaken only with documents issued by the ambans. The ambans were to review all judicial decisions. The Tibetan currency, which had been the source of trouble with Nepal, was also taken under Beijing’s supervision.[59] However, according to Warren Smith, these directives were either never fully implemented, or quickly discarded, as the Qing were more interested in a symbolic gesture of authority than actual sovereignty; the relationship between Qing and Tibet remained one of two states.[60] On the other hand, other sources such as The Cambridge History of China state that Tibet and Xinjiang had become territories of the Qing dynasty by 1760,[61] and Haw also writes that after the conquest of Tibet in 1720, the control of Tibet by the Qing was further strengthened in 1750 and 1790s.[62]

    It also outlined a new method to select both the Dalai and Panchen Lama by means of a lottery administered by the ambans in Lhasa. In this lottery the names of the competing candidates were written on folded slips of paper which were placed in a golden urn.[63] The emperor wanted to play this part in choosing reincarnations because the Gelugpa School of the Dalai Lamas was the official religion of his court.[64] There is general agreement that the ninth and thirteenth Dalai Lamas (and the fourteenth, but after the fall of the Qing Dynasty) were not chosen by the golden urn method but rather selected by the appropriate Tibetan officials using the previous incarnation’s entourage, or labrang,[65] with the selection being approved after the fact by the emperor.[66] In such cases the emperor would also issue an order waiving the use of the urn. The tenth Dalai Lama was actually selected by traditional Tibetan methods, but in response to the amban’s insistence, the regent publicly announced that the urn had been used.[67] The eleventh was selected by the golden urn method.[66] The twelfth Dalai Lama was selected by the Tibetan method but was confirmed by means of the lottery.[68][69]

    Nepal was a tributary state to China from 1788 to 1908.[70][71] In a treaty signed in 1856, Tibet and Nepal agreed to “regard the Chinese Emperor as heretofore with respect.”[72] Michael van Walt van Praag, legal advisor to the 14th Dalai Lama,[73] claims that 1856 treaty provided for a Nepalese mission, namely Vakil, in Lhasa which later allowed Nepal to claim a diplomatic relationship with Tibet in its application for United Nations membership in 1949.[74] However, the status of Nepalese mission as diplomatic is disputed[75] and the Nepalese Vakils stayed in Tibet until the 1960s when Tibet had been part of PRC for a decade.[76][77]

    European influences in Tibet

    The first Europeans to arrive in Tibet were Portuguese missionaries who first arrived in 1624 led by António de Andrade. They were welcomed by the Tibetans who allowed them to build a church. The 18th century brought more Jesuits and Capuchins from Europe. They gradually met opposition from Tibetan lamas who finally expelled them from Tibet in 1745.

    However, at the time not all Europeans were banned from the country — in 1774 a Scottish nobleman, George Bogle, came to Shigatse to investigate trade for the British East India Company, introducing the first potatoes into Tibet.[78]

    By the early 19th century the situation of foreigners in Tibet grew more precarious. The British Empire was encroaching from northern India into the Himalayas and Afghanistan and the Russian Empire of the tsars was expanding south into Central Asia. Each power became suspicious of intent in Tibet. In 1840, Sándor Kőrösi Csoma arrived in Tibet, hoping that he would be able to trace the origin of the Magyar ethnic group. By the 1850s Tibet had banned all foreigners from Tibet and shut its borders to all outsiders.

    In 1865 Great Britain began secretly mapping Tibet. Trained Indian surveyor-spies disguised as pilgrims or traders counted their strides on their travels across Tibet and took readings at night. Nain Singh, the most famous, measured the longitude, latitude and altitude of Lhasa and traced the Yarlung Tsangpo River.

    British invasions of Tibet (1904-1911)

    The authorities in British India renewed their interest in Tibet in the late 19th century, and a number of Indians entered the country, first as explorers and then as traders. Treaties regarding Tibet were concluded between Britain and China in 1886,[79] 1890,[80] and 1893,[81] but the Tibetan government refused to recognize their legitimacy[82] and continued to bar British envoys from its territory. During “The Great Game“, a period of rivalry between Russia and Britain, the British desired a representative in Lhasa to monitor and offset Russian influence.

    At the beginning of the 20th century the British and Russian Empires were competing for supremacy in Central Asia. To forestall the Russians, in 1904, a British expedition led by Colonel Francis Younghusband was sent to Lhasa to force a trading agreement and to prevent Tibetans from establishing a relationship with the Russians. In response, the Chinese foreign ministry asserted that China was sovereign over Tibet, the first clear statement of such a claim.[83]

    A treaty was imposed which required Tibet to open its border with British India, to allow British and Indian traders to travel freely, not to impose customs duties on trade with India, a demand from the British that Lhasa had to pay 2.5 million rupees as indemnity and not to enter into relations with any foreign power without British approval.[84]

    The Anglo-Tibetan treaty was followed by a Sino-British treaty in 1906 by which the “Government of Great Britain engages not to annex Tibetan territory or to interfere in the administration of Tibet. The Government of China also undertakes not to permit any other foreign State to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet.”[85] Moreover, Beijing agreed to pay London 2.5 million rupees which Lhasa was forced to agree upon in the Anglo-Tibetan treaty of 1904.[86] In 1907, Britain and Russia agreed that in “conformity with the admitted principle of the suzerainty of China over Thibet”[87] both nations “engage not to enter into negotiations with Tibet except through the intermediary of the Chinese Government.”[87]

    Qing control reasserted

    The Qing put Amdo under their rule in 1724, and incorporated eastern Kham into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728.[88][89][90] The Qing government ruled these areas indirectly through the Tibetan noblemen.

    Tibetans claimed that Tibetan control of the Batang region of Kham in eastern Tibet appears to have continued uncontested from the time of an agreement made in 1726[48] until soon after the British invasion, which alarmed the Qing rulers in China.[clarification needed] They sent an imperial official to the region to begin reasserting Qing control, but the locals revolted and killed him.

    The Qing government in Beijing then appointed Zhao Erfeng, the Governor of Xining, “Army Commander of Tibet” to reintegrate Tibet into China. He was sent in 1905 (though other sources say this occurred in 1908)[91] on a punitive expedition. His troops destroyed a number of monasteries in Kham and Amdo, and a process of sinification of the region was begun.[92][93]

    The Dalai Lama’s title’s was restored in November 1908. He was about to return to Lhasa from Amdo in the summer of 1909 when the Chinese decided to send military forces to Lhasa to control him. The Dalai Lama once again fled, this time to India, and was once again deposed by the Chinese.[94] The situation was soon to change, however, as, after the fall of the Qing dynasty in October 1911, Zhao’s soldiers mutinied and beheaded him.[95][96]

    In 1909 the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin returned from a three-year long expedition to Tibet, having mapped and described a large part of inner Tibet. During his travels, he visited the 9th Panchen Lama. For some of the time, Hedin had to camouflage himself as a Tibetan shepherd (because he was European).[97] In an interview following a meeting with the Russian czar he described the situation as follows:

    “Currently, Tibet is in the cramp-like hands of China´s government. The Chinese realize that if they leave Tibet for the Europeans, it will end its isolation in the East. That is why the Chinese prevent those who wish to enter Tibet. The Dalai Lama is currently also in the hands of the Chinese Government”…”Mongols are fanatics. They adore the Dalai Lama and obey him blindly. If he tomorrow orders them go to war against the Chinese, if he urges them to a bloody revolution, they will all like one man follow him as their ruler. China’s government, which fears the Mongols, hooks on to the Dalai Lama.”…”There is calm in Tibet. No ferment of any kind is perceptible” (translated from Swedish).[97]

    1912-1951: de facto independence

    The Dalai Lama returned to Tibet from India in July 1912 (after the fall of the Qing dynasty), and expelled the amban and all Chinese troops.[98] In 1913, the Dalai Lama issued a proclamation that stated that the relationship between the Chinese emperor and Tibet “had been that of patron and priest and had not been based on the subordination of one to the other.”[55] “We are a small, religious, and independent nation,” the proclamation continued.[55] For the next thirty-six years, Tibet enjoyed de facto independence while China endured its Warlord era, civil war, and World War II. Some Chinese sources argue that Tibet was still part of China throughout this period.[99] Tibet continued in 1913-1949 to have very limited contacts with the rest of the world and Lhasa was for foreigners the prohibited city. Very few governments did anything resembling a normal diplomatic recognition of Tibet. The Chinese governments continued, from time to time, to assert their right to suzerainty in Tibet.[100] In 1932, the National Revolutionary Army, composed of Muslim and Han soldiers, led by Ma Bufang and Liu Wenhui defeated the Tibetan army in the Sino-Tibetan War when the 13th Dalai Lama tried to seize territory in Qinghai and Xikang. It was also reported that the central government of China encouraged the attack, hoping to solve the “Tibet situation”, because the Japanese had just seized Manchuria. They warned the Tibetans not to dare cross the Jinsha river again.[101] A truce was signed, ending the fighting.[102][103] The Dalai Lama had cabled the British in India for help when his armies were defeated, and started demoting his Generals who had surrendered[104]

    Rule of the Chinese Communist government

    The Chinese government claims for this time period are a matter of some controversy. For instance they claim to have “liberated the Tibetan serfs” but many Tibetans were nomads or owned their own land rent free, and for those who were under obligations, there is controversy about whether their status is similar to the European serf and how onerous the obligations were.

    Also the system based on recognition of “reincarnated Lamas” meant that any children from any family might become recognised as the religious and political leaders of the next generation. This unusual system of government has no analogy in the European system. There are other differences as well. See Examples of Fuedal Systems – Tibet.

    Also starvation was common in China at the time, but was not common in Tibet. There are widely varying accounts of the effect of the takeover on welfare of Tibetans. See Serfdom in Tibet Controversy – Slavery, and Tibetan welfare after the Chinese takeover

    Tibetologist Robert Barnett writes: “From a human rights point of view, the question of whether Tibet was feudal in the past is irrelevant. A more immediate question is why the PRC does not allow open discussion of whether Tibet was feudal or oppressive. Writers and researchers in Tibet face serious repercussions if they do not concur with official positions on issues such as social conditions in Tibet prior to its “liberation,” and in such a restrictive climate, the regime’s claims on this issue have little credibility.” For details of this controversy, see Competing versions of Tibetan History

    This section therefore describes the Chinese Government’s version of the history of Tibet (mainly). It should be treated with some caution until whatever time a more open discussion of the issue is permitted within China. Whether it is true or not, it motivated and continues to motivate decisions of the Chinese government and so this version of the history is of interest for that reason. Perhaps two or more versions of the history are really needed, as it seems unlikely that a single unified history can presented any time soon, and the actions of the Chinese government are best understood if you know the Chinese version of the history of Tibet which motivate them.

    In 1949, seeing that the Communists were gaining control of China, the Kashag expelled all Chinese connected with the Chinese government, over the protests of both the Kuomingtang and the Communists.[105] The Chinese Communist government led by Mao Zedong which came to power in October lost little time in asserting a new Chinese presence in Tibet. In October 1950, the People’s Liberation Army entered the Tibetan area of Chamdo, defeating sporadic resistance from the Tibetan army. In 1951, Tibetan representatives participated in negotiations in Beijing with the Chinese government. This resulted in a Seventeen Point Agreement which formalised China’s sovereignty over Tibet.[106]

    From the beginning, it was obvious that incorporating Tibet into Communist China would bring two opposite social systems face-to-face.[107] In Tibet, however, the Chinese Communists opted not to place social reform as an immediate priority. To the contrary, from 1951 to 1959, traditional Tibetan society with its lords and manorial estates continued to function unchanged.[107] Despite the presence of twenty thousand PLA troops in Central Tibet, the Dalai Lama’s government was permitted to maintain important symbols from its de facto independence period.[107]

    However the Chinese quickly abolished slavery and the Tibetan serfdom system of unpaid labor. They eliminated the many crushing taxes, started work projects, and greatly reduced unemployment and beggary. They established secular schools, thereby breaking the educational monopoly of the monasteries. And they constructed running water and electrical systems in Lhasa.[108]

    The Tibetan region of Eastern Kham, previously Xikang province, was incorporated in the province of Sichuan. Western Kham was put under the Chamdo Military Committee. In these areas, land reform was implemented. This involved communist agitators designating “landlords” — sometimes arbitrarily chosen — for public humiliation in thamzing (Wylie: ‘thab-‘dzing; Lhasa dialect IPA: [[tʰʌ́msiŋ]]) or “Struggle Sessions,” torture, maiming, and even death.[109][110][111]

    By 1956 there was unrest in eastern Kham and Amdo, where land reform had been implemented in full. These rebellions eventually spread into western Kham and Ü-Tsang.

    In 1956-57, armed Tibetan bands ambushed convoys of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army. The uprising received extensive assistance from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), including military training, support camps in Nepal, and numerous airlifts.[112] Meanwhile in the United States, the American Society for a Free Asia, a CIA-financed front, energetically publicized the cause of Tibetan resistance, with the Dalai Lama’s eldest brother, Thubtan Norbu, playing an active role in that organization. The Dalai Lama’s second-eldest brother, Gyalo Thondup, established an intelligence operation with the CIA as early as 1951. He later upgraded it into a CIA-trained guerrilla unit whose recruits parachuted back into Tibet.[113]

    Many Tibetan commandos and agents whom the CIA dropped into the country were chiefs of aristocratic clans or the sons of chiefs. Ninety percent of them were never heard from again, according to a report from the CIA itself, meaning they were most likely captured and killed.[114] “Many lamas and lay members of the elite and much of the Tibetan army joined the uprising, but in the main the populace did not, assuring its failure,” writes Hugh Deane.[115] In their book on Tibet, Ginsburg and Mathos reach a similar conclusion: “As far as can be ascertained, the great bulk of the common people of Lhasa and of the adjoining countryside failed to join in the fighting against the Chinese both when it first began and as it progressed.”[116] Eventually the resistance crumbled.

    In 1998, the Dalai Lama’s organization itself issued a statement admitting that it had received millions of dollars from the CIA during the 1960s to send armed squads of exiles into Tibet to undermine the Maoist revolution.[117]

    In 1959, China’s military crackdown on rebels in Kham and Amdo led to the “Lhasa Uprising.” Full-scale resistance spread throughout Tibet. Fearing capture of the Dalai Lama, unarmed Tibetans surrounded his residence, and the Dalai Lama fled[118] to India.[119]

    In 1965, the area that had been under the control of the Dalai Lama’s government from the 1910s to 1959 (Ü-Tsang and western Kham) was renamed the Tibet Autonomous Region or TAR. Autonomy provided that the head of government would be an ethnic Tibetan; however, actual power in the TAR is held by the First Secretary of the Tibet Autonomous Regional Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, who has never been a Tibetan.[120] The role of ethnic Tibetans in the higher levels of the TAR Communist Party remains very limited.[121]

    The destruction of most of Tibet’s more than 6,000 monasteries occurred between 1959 and 1961.[122] During the mid-1960s, the monastic estates were broken up and secular education introduced. During the Cultural Revolution, Red Guards[123] inflicted a campaign of organized vandalism against cultural sites in the entire PRC, including Tibet’s Buddhist heritage.[124] According to at least one Chinese source, only a handful of the religiously or culturally most important monasteries remained without major damage,[125] and thousands of Buddhist monks and nuns were killed, tortured or imprisoned.[126][not in citation given]

    In 1989, the Panchen Lama died of a massive heart attack at the age of 50.[127]

    “Police Attention: No distributing any unhealthy thoughts or objects.” Nyalam, Tibet, 1993.

    The PRC continues to portray its rule over Tibet as an unalloyed improvement, but foreign governments continue to make protests about aspects of PRC rule in Tibet as groups such as Human Rights Watch report alleged human rights violations. Most governments, however, recognize the PRC’s sovereignty over Tibet today, and none have recognized the Government of Tibet in Exile in India.

    Widespread protests against Chinese rule flared up again in 2008. The Chinese government reacted strongly, imposing curfews and strictly limiting access to Tibetan areas. The international response was likewise immediate and robust, with a number of leaders condemning the crackdown and large protests (including some in support of China’s actions) in many major cities.

    Tibetans in Exile

    Following the Lhasa uprising and the Dalai Lama‘s flight from Tibet in 1959, the government of India accepted the Tibetan refugees. India designated land for the refugees in the mountainous region of Dharamsala, India, where the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government-in-exile are now based.

    The plight of the Tibetan refugees garnered international attention when the Dalai Lama, spiritual and religious leader of the Tibetan government in exile, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989. The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Prize on the basis of his unswerving commitment to peaceful protest against the Chinese occupation of Tibet. He is highly regarded as a result and has since been received by government leaders throughout the world. Among the most recent ceremonies and awards, he was given the Congressional Gold Medal by President Bush in 2007, and in 2006 he was one of only five people to ever receive an honorary Canadian citizenship (see Honorary Canadian citizenship). The PRC consistently protests each official contact with the exiled Tibetan leader.

    The community of Tibetans in exile established in Dharamsala and Karnataka, South India, has expanded since 1959. Tibetans have duplicated Tibetan monasteries in India and these now house tens of thousands of monks. They have also created Tibetan schools and hospitals, and founded the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives — all aimed at continuing Tibetan tradition and culture. Tibetan festivals such as Lama dances, celebration of Losar (the Tibetan New Year), and the Monlam Prayer Festival, continue in exile.

    In 2006, Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama declared that “Tibet wants autonomy, not independence.”[128] However, the Chinese distrust him, believing that he has not really given up the quest for Tibetan independence.[129]

    Talks between representatives of the Dalai Lama and the Chinese government began again in May, 2008 with little result.[130]

    the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011




                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA


                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


                                                                 WELCOME TO

                                                        HALL OF  FAME

                  !!!!!forbidden to tag,pgoto or repro@copyright Dr Iwan S 2011 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!


                               FAMOUS LEADER COLLECTIONS :”BUNG KARNO”


            The Indonesian Independence proclamator and the first indonesia president”










    8.cover Life














    Pameran Koleksi Bung KarnoPosted on November 27, 2010 by driwancybermuseum


    Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

    tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                               WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD


                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA


                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


    Showcase ameran Koleksi Bung Karno

    Frame satu : Pengantar




    Frame dua :Koleksi Foto Bung Karno

    1)Bung Karno Dengan Pimpinan Negara Sahabat

    A.Mao Tse Tung

    B.Presiden Ho chi Minh Vietnam

    C.Presiden Tiongkok Lie Siau Chi

    d.Presiden Kennedy

    e.Presiden Fidel Castro

    2)Bung karno dalam acara kenegaraan


    3)Bung Karno dengan Keluarga

    3)Bung Karno dengan Rakyat Indonesia

    4)Foto Profile dan Jenis lain Dari Bung Karno 

    Frame tiga :Koleksi Buku Antik Bung Karno



            The Indonesian Independence proclamator and the first indonesia president”






    4.Buku Kunjungan bung Karno Ke Tiongkok










    Saya memberanikan diri membangun sebuah museum dunia maya atau cybermusuem KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO   khusus untuk seluruh rakyat Indonesia dan pecinta Bung Karno dimanapun ia berada , dengan penuh kesadaran atas keterbatasan saya yang hanya seorang pensiunan dokter, petualang dan kolektor benda unik serta informasi terkait lainnya yang tentunya bukan pakar dan ahli dibidang museum dunia maya , tetapi berandalkan  tekad  yang bulat dan pengalaman sebagai kolektor senior yang banyak membaca literatur terkait bidangnya menyusun tulisan dan illustrasi ini berdasarkan koleksi yang sudah dihimpun hampir lima puluh tahun dengan maksud dan tujuan agar informasi tentang koleksi Bung karno pribadi dan koleksi unik terkait Bung Karno dapat di ketahui oleh rakyat Indonesia terutama  generasi penerus  secara gratis, oleh karena itu saya perlu dukungan moriel ( semangat)  dan matriel (dana operasional untuk consultan profesional) , maka besar harapan saya seluruh kolektor Indonesia untuk mendukung proposal musuem dunia maya  ini liwat  komentar, dan dukungan sponsor dari pencinta Bung Karno seperti yaysan BK, Metro Tv , Penerbit PT Gramedia dan sebagainya.karena informasi yang ada saat saya eksplorasi dengan google di Internet masih sangat terbatas.

    Saya sadar cybermuseum  ini dibuat dengan pengantar  bahasa Indonesia karena sesuai arahan proklamator dan presiden Republik Indonesia pertama yang lebih senang di sebut sebagai Bung Karno agar kita harus berdikari dan bangga dengan bangsa kita sendiri yang termasuk bangsa besar yang jumlah penduduknya nomor tiga didunia setelah Tiongkok dan India. Pecinta Bung Karno dari  bangsa asing sepantasnya mengenal bahasa Indonesia agar dapat meresapi tulisan ini karena banyak istilah yang sangat sulit untuk diterjemahkan kebahasa asing seperti Inggris, Jerman, spanyol atau Belanda, untuk itu penulis memohon maaf yang sebasar-besarnya,juga atas kekeliruan dan kekurangan yang masih ada dalam tulisan ini, masukan sangat diperlukan agar tulisan elektronik ini dpat disempurnakan pada edisi mendatang.lihatlah poster Bung Karno yang sangat kharismatik INGAT!!*001


    Tidak lupa penulis mengucapkan terimakasih kepada seluruh teman-teman yang tidak dapat dituliskan namanya satu persatu ,terutama Pak  Herry Hutabarat, Pak Sofyan lampung,almarhum guru saya Frater Servaas dan almarhum Prof.Suparlan yang telah memberikan masukan ide untuk mengumpulkan koleksi serta informasi yang unik dan langka bagi generasi penerus.terimakasih juga kepada Pak Ali Baswedan yang telah menyokong terbitnya buku elektronik ini dan berkean memberikan tambahan informasi untuk Bab khusus tambahan KOLEKSI PUSAKA BUNG KARNO



    Gagasan e-book tentang Bung Karno harus dilanjutkan. Sebab upaya Bapak itu bagian dari mencerdaskan bangsa. Selain itu, memperkaya khasanah tentang Bung Karno. Apa yang salah?
    Kalau boleh saya urun rembuk, tentang BAB KOLEKSI PRIBADI BUNG KARNO, perlu ditambahkan KOLEKSI BENDA PUSAKA tokoh Proklamator itu. Ini bukan persoalan mistik. Benda-benda pusaka itu bagian dari sejarah panjang bangsa kita. Misalnya, Bung Karno pernah menerima pusaka Kanjeng Kiai Lepet dari PB X, berupa pedang yang dibuat pada masa pemerintahan PB IV. Benda-benda pusaka yang dimiliki Bung Karno pernah dimuat secara detail di Majalah KERIS, no: 1, tahun I, 15 feb – 16 Maret 2007. Dengan ikhlas saya bersedia memberikan copy majalah itu (berupa PDF) kalau berkenan.

    Ali Baswedan


     dukungan komentar diatas memberikan info bahwa pedang pusaka yang selalyu dibawa Bung Karno dibuat pada masa Pakubuwono IV, cerita lengkap akan di tampilkan setelah Pak Baswedan mengirmkan copy majalalah tersebut. saya memiliki foto pedang pusaka tersebut *003 dan *004

    *003 *004.

    Saya sangat gembira atas sokongan para kolektor Indonesia lainnya, lihat facebook saya iwansuwandy untuk tambahan informasi baru dan sokongan anda semua* 005



    video dari Yayasan Bung Karno tetang pertemuan Bung Karno dengan Nehru India dan Nasser Mesir, saya sedang meminta sponsorship dan izin memanfaatkan buku terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno lama era Guntur sukarno

    Pas kebetulan lagi bongkar-bongkar file di PC, ketemu slide show ini. Daripada dibuang lebih baik ditaruh di FB. Mudah-mudahan bermanfaat.
    Wednesday at 5:55pm · · · · Share
    Iwan Suwandy
    terima kasi atas dukungannya,semoga yayasan Bung Karno bekenan menjadi sponsor proposak buku elektronik B ung Karno saya,dan mengizinkan koleksi yayasan BK di tampilkan dalam e-book tersbtu. ayo kolektor In donsia pencintai B ung kirimkan dukungan anda dalm komentra ini terima kasih.
    4 hours ago · ·
    Iwan Suwandy

    Iwan Suwandy thanks for support me to writte e-book of Bung Karno Collection in Indonesia language Koleksi Bung Karno, I need million support .


    bung karno poster collection during PEMILU,MORE INFO CLICK MY INTERENET BLOG
    Wednesday at 5:44pm · · · · Share
    Fikri Alamoudi
     Foto Bung Karno dan Mao dikirim oleh teman saya

     agar saya segera dapat mengirimkan surat resmi kepada Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno untuk memeperoleh izi memanfaatkan informasi mereka dalam MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO  ini, dan apabila ada sponsor mungkin saya akan mengubah dari Premium E-BOOK  menjadi Free CYBER MUSEUM , silahkan kirim komentar sokongan terhadap gagasan  ini liwat blog internet dan facebook saya dengan nama yang sama iwansuwandy. 



    Selanjutnya bacalah Catatan saya tentang pribadi Bung Karno dan Koleksi pribadi Bung Karno sebagai  Pengantar buku elektronik  yang saat ini telah saya tingkatkan jadi MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA CYBERMUSEUM KOLSI BUNG KARNO  karena sangat banyak dukungan dan klik.dari pecinta Bung Karno.

    Para teman-teman yang ingin melihat kolesi pribadi Dr Iwan yang terkait Bung Karno, silahkan melihat di msueum dunia Maya Dr Iwan , klik hhtp// terima kasih atas perhatiannya.

    Jakarta  ,Juli 2010

    Dr IWAN S

    PS Apabila sudah banyak komentar dukungan dan ada sponsor yang lambangnya  akan di catumkan dalam proposal ini, maka secara bertahap daftar koleksi dan illustrasi akan diinstall dalam proposal buku elektr0nik ini,oleh karena itu kirimkan segera dukungan dan sponsor anda liwat komentar di Blog ini dan Facebook saya. terima kasih atas dukungan dan sponsorshipnya.



    1. Kesan-Kesan Dr  IWAN S TENTANG BUNG KARNO

     saya dilahirkan dan dibesarkan di Tanah Minangkabau sumatera Tengah dulunya sekarang Sumatera barat, sehingga tokoh proklamator yang lebih dikenal adalah Bung Hatta,lihat foto kunjungan Bung Hatta ke Padang  tahun 1977 dismabut gubernur SUMBAR Haroen Zein dan Walikotanya Achiroel Yahya *005a foto ini karya Indra Sanusi dan sudah diberikan izin pengunaannya.


      . Bung Karno pertama kali saya lihat tahun 1955 saat berkampanye dilapangan Tugu didepan SMA Don Bosco, saat ini  didepan Pengadilan negeri Padang yang sekarang sudah dibangun Museum Kota Padang, beliau berada diatas panggung tenda terpal persis saat itu saya sekolah di SD Andreas yang lokasinya disamping SMA Don Bosco ,kelas lima SD, kami beramai-ramai murid SD melihat Bung Karno pidoto,  beliau sangat pandai mempengaruhi semangat pendengar dengan jel jel Merdeka nya,sekali Merdeka Tetap merdeka tetapi apa yang dikatan beliau pupus dari ingatan saya.Saya telah banyak membaca literatur terkait beliau,sehingga saya mengerti bagaimana besarnya cinta Bung karno terhadap seni,sehingga beliau sering bertemu dengan seniman seperti seniman pelukis seperti Affandi, Basuki Abdullah,Dezentje,Le Man Fong,Henk Ngantung,Hendra Gunawan dan Sudjono, malah Henk Ngantung dipercayai menjadi Gubernur DKI tahun 1964*005aa

    *005aa henk dan lukisannya pasar Jakarta.

    , sayang beberapa dari pelukis tersebut ikut lembaga kesenian PKI(LEKRA)  sehingga hidup mereka sangat sengsara pada masa orde baru( Saya juga mengumpulkan koleksi masa Pak Harto,nanti kan saya tulis buku elektronik pada saat yang tepat).profil para pelukis senior tersebut umumnya saya kenal setelah melihat beberapa foto Bung Karno dengan mereka di istana Merdeka saat menyusun koleksi istana tersebut, juga difoto rumah Bung Karno pertama di jalan Pegangsaan didalam rumah tahun 1945 saat wawancara dengan wartawan terlihat lukisan Basuki Abdullah pantai Ternate berdasar lukisan cair air Bung Karno didinding dan disampingnya dipajang lukisan Fatmawati yang juga dilukis Basuki Abdullah yang sudah ada sejak masa revolusi kemerdekaan *002


    Saya masih menyimpan tulisan Bung Karno tahun 1942 saat tentara Dai nippon baru membebaskan beliau dari Bengkulu ke Sumatera Barat dalam bentuk kliping,tidak jelas dari majalah mana, selain itu juga teman saya memberikan sebuah cetakan surat pribadi Bung Karno kepada para prajurit yang bertugas diperbatasan saat Konfrontasi Malaysia saat Hari raya Lebaran yang menurut informasi surat itu berada dalam bingkisan dari Bung Karno kepada prajurit tersbut,sungguh besar perhatian beliu kepada para para prajurit pejuang, pada saat masa perang kemerdekaan pernah ditenirt almanak dengan gambar bungakarno tahun 1946 dengan berbagai promosi perjuangan yang saat itu sangat riskan untuk memilikinya karena dapat ditangkap Belanda ,sungguh istimewa saya memiliki koleksi almanak perjuangan tersebut, juga kartupos peringatan satu tahun medreda 17 agustus 1946 *002asayang tidak memakai gambar profile Bung Karno tetapi merupakan temuan saya yang sangat spektakuler,begitu juga dengan berbagai koleksi lain yang dapat dilihat dan dibaca pada bab berikutnya.


    Pada saat Sumatera Barat bergolak terhadap pemrintahan Pusat tahun 1957, istilah versi dari PRRI yang dipimhan Ahmad Husein dan Sjaruddin Prawira Negara (koleksi pribadi saya tentang  PRRI akan diteritkan pada masa mendatang) dan versi Pusat disebut pembrontak, Bung Karno pamornya sangat menurun dimata Rakyat Sumatera Barat, sehingga banyak arsip beliau dimusnahkan, tetapi sebagian telah saya selamatkan dan tersimpan rapi saat ini, apalagi ketika terjadinya peristiwa G30PKI 1965, masih terbayang saat Pak Harto Mengambil alih kekuasan dan saat beliau dilantik *002b dengan pidato yang sangat sederhana yang berbeda dengan pidato Bung Karno yang lebih kharismatik.

    Saya melihat Bung Karno kedua kalinya dan terakhir pada saat beliau berpidato dalam upacara pembukaan Pekan Olah Raga  Nasional(PON) di Bandung tahun 1961, saya peserta PON cabang Tennis Lapangan, beliau sangat kharismatik, saya masih ingat sebelum mulai berpidato, Bung Karno meminta peserta dan penonton agar diam, beliau berkata Saya minta supaya Diam sebelum saya mengucapkan kata pembukaan, kemudian beliu menghardik dengan suara mengeleganr sebanyak lima kali DIAM!!! DIAM!!!DIAM!!! DAIM!!!DIAM!!! saya sungguh terpeosna akhirnya semuanya diam, tapi saya lupa apa yang beliau katakan, karena itu saya berusaha memiliki koleksi buku pidato Bung Karno,dan yang paling langka adalah terbitan tahun 1954 tentan Pindato-pidato Bung Karno dari 17 agustus 1945 sampai 17 agust 1954, banyak dari pidato tersebut tidak pernah diterbitkan,mungkin atas alasan politik, juga kata sambutan Bung Karno pada saat peringatan enam bulan Merdeka dalam Buku khusus terbiitan Harian Merdeka dengan judul Merdeka dengan illustrasi sampul depan KEPALAN BERWARNA MERAH DENGAN TULISAN MERDEKA*002c

     buku ini  sangat historik dan langka. Tahun 2009 saya kembali menemukan buku langka  yang berhubungan dengan pidato Bung Karno saat har Kemerdekaan RI dari proklamasi 1945 sampai 1954 oleh Kementerian Penerangan RI bagian dokumentasi dengan judul  8  x 17 Agustus, karena dalam Bunku Bung Karno Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jilid kedua tidak dicantumkan pidato Bung Karno saat proklamsi kemerdekaan tujuh belas Agustus 1945, apa sebabnya slah dikomentari didalam hati pembaca  sendiri karena dapat menimb ulkan polemik dan diskusi yang tidak akan selesai, ini adalah fakta sejarah , yah diendapkan saja dalam memori anda, silahkan baca bersama dengan bab buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi Jilid kedua .  

    Saya hanya menyampaikan kesan yang sebenarnya berada dalam pikiran saya, tentanh hal lain sebaiknya saya tanpa komentar karena berbagai alasan, tetapi yang pasi bilau adalah proklamator,bapak bangsa  yang sangat kharismatik,energik, dan memiliki koleksi Bung Karno merupakan suatu Kebanggaan tersendiri,saya usulkan Yayasan Bung Karno mendirikan suatu museum yang megah untuk peringatan bagi Bung Karno dan saya bersedia menyumbangkan seluruh koleksi saya kepada museum tersebut ,tentunya harus berisi lengka[p baik sisi terang maupun gelap dari Beliau,kita menyadari mana ada manusia yang sempurna,tetapi yang jelas beliau telah memerdekakan Bangsa Indonesian yang sama-sama kita cintai.


    Koleksi Pribadi Bung Karno tentunya masih berada pada Yayasan Bung Karno yang tahun 1979 dengan ketua putra pertama Bung Karno ,Guntur Sukarno, lihat illustrasi  Kata Pengantar Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno PADA BUKU BUNG KARNO & SENI  edisi pertama,terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno,Jakarta 1979,semoga yaysan tersebut tidak keberatan ditampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini.sebelumnya terimakasih Bung Guntur.(apabila sesudah satu bulan info ini ditayangkan tidak ada tegoran,maka illustrasi akan ditampilkan). Apabila ada izin,mungkin sebagian foto yang di close up dengan ukuran  lebih kuang 30% aslinya akan ditampilkan juga. Apabila tidak diizinkan terpaksa anggota melihatnya langsung pada buku aslinya atau dapat melihat diperpustakaan club.

     Dalam buku aslinya  berisi Prawacana Penyusun Soedarmadji J.H. Damais dan para penulis Sitor Situmorang,Wiyoso Yudoseputro dan sudarmadji.Samburtan Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Guntur Sukarno,Sambutan Ketua Dewan Kesenian Jakarta Ajip Rosidi,Kata sambutan wakil PresideRepublik Indonesia Adam Malik,Kata Sambutan Menteri Kesejahteraan Rakyat Republik Indonesia Surono , Kata sambutan Kepala  daerak Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Tjokropranolo, Bung Karno Dan Seniman olh Sitor Situmorang, Bung Karno Dengan seni Oleh Wiyoso Yudoseputro, Bung Karno  Dengan Seni Rupa Oleh Sudarmaji, Daftar Benda Benda Pameran, Kepustakaan Pilihan , Ucapan terima Kasih.

    Dalam era ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Bapak Guruh Sukarno Putra, ada sebuah video koleksi foto Bung karno yang sangat penting dilestarikan, beberapa foto tersebut ada dalam koleksi saya pribadi seperti foto kunjungan Bung Karno ke Amerika serikat.*002d bung Karno dan Guntur di Dyasney land naik kereta.


    Saya sangat berharap agar koleksi yayasan Bung Karno ini dapat dizinkan untuk di tampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini dan mungkin nantinya berkemband menjadi suatu blog tersendiri dengan nama museum duniamaya koleksi Bung Karno dan juga dalam bahasa inggris CYBER MUSEUM BUNG KARNO’S COLLECTIONS , saya telah meng add video koleksi foto Bung Karno era Bapak Guruh , karena tidak dicantumkan hak cipta ,mohon maaf jika yayasan BK tidak berkenan, maka video tersebut dengan segera saya hapus, sebagai bahan pertimbangan Bung Karno tidak hanya milik yayasan Bung Karno dan keluarga Besar tetapi milik seluruh bangsa Indonesia dan dunia jadi termasuk barang pusaka dunia atau World Heritage jadi tidak dapat dijadikan Hak Cipta seseorang atau kelompok, saya saran UNESCO juga berkenan menjadi sponsor dalam melestarikan warisan Budaya Bangsa dunia ini.


    1)Koleksi benda-benda Pusaka milik Bung karno, berdsarakan majalah lama milik teman saya bapak Ali Baswedan yang disumbangkan secara gratis untuk dimuat dalam buku elektronik KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO*TP-001.(sampai saat ini belum dikirimkan via e-mail dr Iwan s)

    2) Photo Keris pusaka Bung Karno: a)*ill KP-002 pada masa perang Kemerdekaan Ri 1945-1950 ternyata berbentuk Keris.(dimana benda ini berada sekarang?)


     dan b)* ill TP-003 beberapa foto Tongkat pusaka Bung Karno pada masa Orde Lama 1951-1965, apabila diperhatikan dengan saksama ternyata ada dua jenis


    Dimanakah benda pusaka keris dan kedua jenis tongkat pusaka Bung KARNO tersebut diatas? perlu diteliti lebih lanjut yang merupakan PR Yayasan Bung Karno atau para pakar sejarah Indonesia  dan ini merupakan informasi pertama di dunia maya berdasarkan fot0 asli BUNG KASRNO yang diclose up , bagaimana manakjubkan bukan !!!!!


    Secara kronologis akan saya informasikan perkembangan koleksi pribadi saya terkait bung Karno, tulisan ini akan saya tampilan secara bertahap disertai ilkustrasi, satu persatu menunggu komentar baik dari yaysan Bung Karno,keluarga besar mantan Presiden RI Ibu Megawati Sukarno Putri dan keluarga besar Bung Karno,serta para kolektor pencinta Bung Karno, harap setiap inifo dibaca dan dilihat dengan saksama,bila tidak berkenan harap kirim komentar via comment dan bila disetujui akan saya hapus dari tayangan, saya sadar berbicara teng Bapak bangsa  dan Proklamator itu sangat peka, makanya saya sang hati-hati, mohon komentar dan koreksi apakah buku elektronok ini perlu diteruskan atau dihentikan,saya sangat menunggu komentar, bila tidak segera saya hilangkan dari tayangan,bila ya mari sokong saya dengan komentar anda.terima kasih.Saya belum pernah lihat tayangan pribadi seperti ini di dalam maupun luar negeri. ok segara kirim komentar.

    BAB SATU : KOLEKSI PRIBADI MILIK  BUNG KARNO(YAYASAN BUNG KARNO DAN KELUARGA BESAR BUNG KARNO dalam buku BUNG KARNO DAN SENI  TERBITAN PERTAMA YAYASAN BUNGKARNO KETUA GNTUR SUKARNO TAHUN 1979 (  dengan izin dari pemilik-masih menunggu perseutjuan, e-mail sudah dikirimkan belum ada jawaban sampai saat ini)








    *BR1-001 KULIT DEPAN


    *BR1-002 gambar asli dalam buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jidid satu halaman depan,bila diperhatikan close upnya dengan saksama ternyata Bung Karno memiliki tahi lalat diaats bibir kiri,pantas jago sebagai orator.foto ini dibuat saatBung Karno   lulus sekolah HBS.





    hal 652  JUDUL RUBRIK PERAJAAN MIRADJ isinya antara lain :

     ” Malam minggoe jl mesdjid  Kwitang penoeh dengan oemat Islam yang ingin toeroet merajakan  hari Mi’radj Nabi Besar kita Moehammad s.a.w.  dari kalangan oelama  ada terdengar chotbah  yang berharga malam itu.  Poen Ir  Sukarno ada djoega hadir  pada malam itoe  dan toroet memberikan pemandangan.”

    hal 653  berisi berita : “Komite perajaan itoe (Mi’rajd )  serta Pergerakan Tiga A tjabang Djakarta. Foto  Oemat berdoejoen-doejoen membandjiri Keboen Binatang  terlihat didepan rombongan Bung Karno * 005

    dan foto Ir soekarno lagi berchotbah dengan penoeh semangat dalam perajaan Mi’radj di Keboen Binatang*006



    (Kebun binatang yang dimaksud adalah kebun binatang yang didirikan oleh pelukis Raden Saleh dibelakang Rumah Pribadinya-saat ini jadi rumah sakit Cikini dan kebun binatang berada   dijalan Cikini Raya Jakarta Pusat, saat ini sudah dipindahkan keluar kota Pasar Minggu dan di tempat tersebut didirikan Taman Ismael Marzuki.-Dr Iwan )




    4)FOTO BUNG KARNO DENGAN JENDRAL TOYO DI JEPANG *DN OO3 (Kejujuran Saudara Tua,majalah Tempo,13 Desember   1986,hal 20)


    5) INFORMASI PERTEMUAN BUNG KARNO DENGAN MAHASISWA SOEJATMIKO,SOEDARPO DAN SOEBADIO DIRUMAH BELIAU  PADA TAHUN 1943TANPA ILLUSTRASI *DN004( Soedjatmiko,Pilihan Dan peluang revolusi Indonesia setelah 45 tahun .Beberapa refleksi pribadi,Sejarah Pemikiran,Rekonstruki ,Persepsi no 1. MSI & GRamedia Pustaka Umum Jakarta 1991)

    6) foto Bung Karno Ikut latihan Militer Tentara Pendudukan Jepang dalam majallah bahasa Belanda  ( Mr Mas slamet,Japamsche Intrigues,Buijten $Schipperhijn,Amsterdam,26 januari 1946,ex perpustakaan Biara Padua Tjitjurug,saat ini koleksi pribadi Dr IWAN S):

    (1) foto illustrasi buku halaman  9, Bung Karno belajar hormat senjata kepada prajurit Dai Nippon *DN005


    (2) Foto illustrasi buku halaman 10, BungKarno belajar menembaksenapan karaben kepada tenetara Dai Nippon*DN006


    7) foto klipping karangan Bung Karno Judul Djawa Senotai! *o12 dan  foto lain dalam buku fatmawati anatara lain Foto Bung Karno berpidato  di Gang Kenari Djakarta *DN008 , Foto Bung Karno dan pemimpin pemerinatahan pendudukan Jepang Gunseikan *DN009, Bung Karno dan romusha *DN0010, Foto Bung Karno dan Ibu Fatmawati ketika lagu Indonesia Raya dinyanyikan dalam sebuah pertunjukan sandiwara “Fadjar Telah Menjinsing” dalam rangka memperinagti berdirinya Perserikatan Oesaha Sandiweara Jawa*DN 011,Foto Bung Karno Menyambut adanya Janji kemerdekaan dikemudian hari bersama pemuda-pemudi Djakarta *DN012, foto surat kabar Asia Raya  mengenai Indonesia Merdeka ,Kemerdekaan kemoedian didjanjikan Dai Nippon Taikoku*DN013, dan Foto Ibu Fatmawati menjahit bendera pusaka Merah Putih *DN014 ,Foto Bung Karno memimpin kerja bakti bersama para Romusha didaerah banten *DN015   ( buku  Bunga  rampai ?Karangan Ibu Fatmawati,kulit buku sudah hilang sehingga  info tak lengkap)

    8)Dokumen asli Anggota Tjoeoe Sangi -In 2603(1943)*DN TSI001 dan oo2


    (1) lembar pertama  foto Bung Karno sebagai Ketua *DN 016 dibagian tengah


     dan 20 foto anggota di pingir dokumen *020  dan Dr Boentara *DN017 serta  dua puluh  anggota (nomor 21 -40) *DN018, serta tokoh terkenal BUng Hatta sebagai anggota no tiga puluh * DN019, Oto Iskandar Dinata no  tiga delapan*020, Profesor Hoesaein Djajadiningrat no anggota tiga *021 dan Wachid Hasyim (ayah alm Gus Dur) anggota nomor enam belas *022

    (2) lembaran kedua foto dua orang wakil Ketua KOesoemo Oetojo *DN023




     1) Pidato Presiden Soekarno Dalam mengumumkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia Pada Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 (8X17 Agustus,bag.dokumentasi,Kementrian Penerangan RI,Jakarta,Stensilan Asli,1954), bukuDBR jilid dua tidak dicantumkan.Sesuai dengan ejaan aslinya :  Saudara-saudara sekalian! Saja telah minta saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menjaksikan satu peristiwa maha-penting dalam sedjarah kita. Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa Indonesia telah berdjoang,untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita.Bahkan telah beratus-ratus tahun! Gelombangnja aksi kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naiknja dan ada turunnja,tetapi djiwa jita tetap menudju kearah tjita-tjita. Djuga didalam djaman Djepang,usaha kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan-nasional tidak berhenti-berhenti. Di dalam djaman Djepang ini,tampaknja sadja kita menjandarkan diri kepada mereka.Tetapi pada hakekatnja , tetap kita menjusun tenaga kita sendiri,tetap kita pertjaja kepada kekuatan sendiri. Sekarang tibalah saatnj kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dan nasib tanah air kita didalam tangan kita sendiri.Hanja bangsa jang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri,akan dapat berdiri dengan kuatnja. Maka kami,tadi malam telah mengadakan musjawarat dengan pemuka-pemuka rakjat Indonesia, dari seluruh Indonesia. Permusjawaratan itu seia-sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnja untuk menjatakan kemerdekaan kita. Saudara-saudara! Dengan ini kami menjatakan kebulatan tekad itu.Dengarkanlah proklamasi kami : PROKLAMASI. Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menjatakan KEMERDEKAAN INDONESIA.  Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain, diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja. Djakarta ,17 Agustus 05 ,Atas nama bangsa Indonesia SOEKARNO-HATTA. Demikianlah,saudara-saudara! Kita sekarang telah merdeka! Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi jang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita! Mulai saat ini kita menjusun Negara kita! Negara Merdeka, Negara Republik Indonesia- merdeka kekal dan abadi.Insja Allah,Tuhan memberkati kemerdekaan kita itu!

    ( Pidato ini diketik tanpa spasi   sesuai kalimat aslinya, agar tidak ditambah atau dikurangi dari aslinya-Dr Iwan S)





    (1) REPRO SURAT KABAR SOEARA ASIA TENTANG PROKLAMSI INDONESIA MERDEKA De ngan  narasi :  MAKA  TERSIARLAH PROKLAMASI INDONESIA MERDEKA -dalam soesana tekanan militer Djepang- diseloeroeh Tanah Air, bahkan diseloeroeh doenia melaloei lima  boeawana dan empat samoedra.


    (3) tulisan hal -11 judul ” MENOEDJOE KE PARLEMEN SEMPOERNA,’  dengan illustrasi  foto bung karno dengan kabninet soekarno sebelah kiri dan  kabinet Sjahrir sebelah kanan(baca tulisan prof soedjatmiko  tentsang kolaburator Jepang dibaba masa pendudukan Jepang sbelum ini-pen) dengan narasi dibawah foto : PADA TABNGGAL 23 NOVEMBER 1945  KABINET SOEKARNO(KIRI)  MENYERAHKAN KEKUASAAN  KEPADA (KANAN) KABINET SJAHRIR ,  bung karno berada ditengah.

    (4) hal 64 illustrasi foto Buung Karno,Bung Hatta dan Jendral Sudirman men injau Kapal perang Angkstsn Laut NRI, narasi :” ANGKATAN LAOET REPUBLIK INDONESIA MENDJAMIN KESELAMATAN NEGARA,NOEASA DAN BANGSA”



    *ill.Bung Karno dan Pangeran Diponegoro



    5) 28 JULI 1947


    4. MASA ORDE LAMA 1951-1965


    3.BUKU TERBITAN KEMENTERIAN PENERANGAN TAHUN 1958 BERJUDUL  Beberapa fikiran dan pandangan UA PEDJUANG NASIONAL INDONESIA-YUGOSLAVIA Josip Broz-Tito  -Dr I r Hadji Soekarno, Pertjetakan Negara-Djakrta-443/B-1958. Buyku ini dengan gambar kulit depan kedua pejuang Nasional tersebut.

    4.Buku terbitan Kedutaan Amerika Serikat Jakarta ,judul Foto=foto  dan Reportase tentang Perjalanan  PRESIDEN SOEKARNO DI AMERIKA SERIKAT, FOTO KULIST DEPAN  Bung Karno yang memegang tongkat pusakanya dan Guntur Sukarno didepan patung Abrahan Lincoln di tugu Lincoln Memorial ,Washington .D.C.  dan gambar halaman belakang di Pennsylvania Avenue di Washington ,sebuah panggung didirikan untuk menyambut kedatangan Presiden Soekarno setinggi kira-kira 10 meter,didampinggi oleh bendera-bendera Indonesia dan Amerika setinggi 10 meter. Dia ats panggung ini kepada Presiden Soekarno diserahkan Kunci Kota , ialah sebagai pernyataan selamat datang.

    Buku brosur ini siterbitkan untuk memringati kunjungan Presiden Soekarno ke Amerika Serikat yang telah menimbulkan pengartian yang lebih baik dari tanggal 16 Mei – 3 Juni 1956.

    Buku brosur  ini sangat menarik karena dilengkapi dengan  gambar peta perjalanan bung Karno, dan  illustrasi foto hitam putih dan berwarna sebanyak delan puluh satu gambar ilustrasi buku , dan pada kulit belakang bagian dlam tertulis ucapan bung karno dengan foto Bung Karnoi melambaikan tanggan :



    1. MASA PERANG KEMEDEKAAN(1945-1949)

    2  MASA RIS(1949-1950)

    3. MASA ORDE LAMA (1951-1965)





     1) Pernikahan Kartika Soekarno


    “Mas… tulis dong tentang Karina Soekarno…,” begitu permintaan seseorang yang termasuk golongan orang-orang yang rajin berkunjung ke blog ini…. Yang terlintas di benak saya adalah serentet peristiwa terkait Kartika Sari Soekarno atau yang akrab disapa Karina. Dialah buah cinta Bung Karno dan Ratna Sari Dewi, wanita cantik asal Jepang, yang bernama asli Naoko Nemoto.

    Ada sekelebat peristiwa ketika Karina kecil dituntun-tuntun di antara kerumuman pelayat jenazah Bung Karno di Wisma Yaso tahun 1971. Ada pula lintasan peristiwa manakala Karina diajak ibundanya berziarah ke makam ayahandanya di Blitar, beberapa tahun kemudian. Dan… tentu saja yang masih lekat adalah peristiwa pernikahan Karina dengan seorang bankir Belanda.

    Pernikahan Karina dengan Frits Frederik Seegers berlangsung 2 Desember 2005 di hotel Continental, Amsterdam, Belanda. Frits adalah President Citibank wilayah Eropa. Saat itu, saya masih mengelola Tabloid Cita-Cita dan mendapat sumbangan materi foto-foto eksklusif dari Guruh Soekarnoputra di Yayasan Bung Karno.


    Megawati sebagai saksi

    Dalam pernikahan itu, Megawati Soekarnoputri, kakak Karina dari ibu Fatmawati, bertindak selaku saksi. Tampak Mega tengah menandatangani dokumen pernikahan adiknya. Megawati sendiri hadir bersama putrinya, Puan Maharani, dan adik bungsunya, Guruh Soekarnoputra.


    Pasca upacara pernikahan, Frits Frederik Seegers dan Karina bergambar bersama Guruh Soekarnoputra, Cindy Adams, dan Megawati Soekarnoputri.

    guruh-cindy-mega-ratna sari dewi


    Guruh - Kartika

    Dalam resepsi itu, hadir sejumlah orang dekat mempelai, tak terkecuali hadirnya Cindy Adams, penulis biografi Bung Karno. Tak ayal, momentum pernikahan Karina – Seegers menjadi ajang kangen-kangenan di antara kerabat yang sehari-hari terpisah bentang jarak ribuan mil.

    tari bali di resepsi

    Di hotel Continental pula, pada malamnya langsung digelar resepsi. Selain gala dinner yang eksklusif, Karina juga mendatangkan para penari Bali untuk menghibur para tamu.

    Usai menikah, pasangan pengantin baru langsung kembali ke London, Inggris, dan menetap di sana. Karina kembali ke rutinitasnya sebagai aktivis sosial dengan bendera Kartika Soekarno Foundation, sementara suaminya, kembali ke Citibank. (roso daras)

    THE END.


    tarian betawi tempo dulu


    tarian betawi tempo dulu


    @corpyright Dr Iwan s 2011