Driwan Icon Cybermuseum:”The Yuri Gagarin Collections”(Koleksi Astronout Pertama Ke Antariksa)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Icon Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The First Austronout Yuri Gagarin Collections

Frame One : Dr Iwan Collections

A. Picture Postcard with Autography

this picture postcard and hand signed found in Indonesia when Juri Gagarin visit Jakarta city Indonesia.

 B. Postal History 

C.The Other Russian  Austronaut(Cosmonout) and the Outerspce Rocket  Scholar ‘s Outerspace Picture

The Russian Cosmonout : A.Nikolayev,the first Women Austronout V.Tereshkova,P.Popovich,and S.P.Korolyov. with their stamp and Sputnic.stamp. and A.Nikolayev picture postcard below.

D.Indonesian Newspaper

1.The Mystery Of Gagarin Pass Away

Gagarin was pass away due to Jet craft accident in November,27th.1968.

 2. The 50th Years First Kosmonout

Frame Two :

International Collections

April 12th is remember Yuri Gagarin day! first man in space!!!

yuri-gagarin-news11

Human Spaceflight became a reality on April 12, 1961, with the launch of a bell-shaped capsule called “Vostok 1.”Yuri Gagarin became the first man in space! Yuri made his historic 108 minute flight (orbiting around the whole Earth once) and parachute landed near his Vostok 1 capsule in the plains of Russia. This flight made him the first human to orbit the Earth and an international hero. Yuri was only 27 years old.

Exactly 20 years later, the United States embarked on a new era in spaceflight with the inaugural launch of a new type of spaceship — the Space Shuttle. Designed to carry a larger crew and large volumes of cargo to orbit, the Space Shuttles became synonymous with human spaceflight for an entirely new generation of young people.

Today, all over the country and world people are celebrating space and exploration!!!

here is an example of some of the parties:

In Mission Control we had a countdown to the first party in Sydney, and then they just continued to roll around the planet. Melbourne had a posh affair with space cocktails; the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station did a toast; Cape Town celebrated with a space wedding complete with a Shuttle cake; Vancouver, London, Leiden, Istanbul, Bröllin, and Dublin all had large dance parties; Boston put on a full day of events; and in Houston even the NASA brass showed up to get down.

In LA they had the Lunar Rover parked out front, the live webcast of the event and the interviews with VIPs being broadcast around the world, the most kicking DJs who rocked the house, an awesome crowd that just loved the music and the vibe, amazing video work of our historical, current and fictional space footage projected on the main screen, an excellent laser system, and the best silver bikini clad go-go dancers in the Milky Way.

In the Sign of the Red Star: On the Iconographic Coding of the Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin

Famler_2_468wFifty years ago, on April 12, Yuri Gagarin became the first man to orbit the earth. Walter Famler in Eurozine:

On 12 April 1961, a rocket weighing 287 tons rises from the launching pad. However only a few people know the secret of the name of the world’s first cosmonaut. Not even the wife and parents of the 27 year-old pilot have been informed as the space ship, marked Vostok 1, ascends into the sky. When it has circled the earth and 108 minutes later has landed on a Russian field, Gagarin becomes world famous. Immediately after the launch, the Soviet news agency TASS cables the announcement of the first manned space journey around the globe. The fact that the mission narrowly escaped disaster because the capsule almost burnt up on re-entering the earth’s atmosphere becomes known only decades later.

Two days after his flight, Gagarin is received in the Kremlin by Nikita Khrushchev, First Secretary of the Soviet Communist Party and Soviet Premier. His journey of several kilometres through Moscow in an open car adorned with flowers turns into a triumphal procession; masses of cheering people form an honour guard from the airport to the Red Square. While still in orbit, Gagarin has been promoted to major, and now the Order of Lenin and the Gold Star of a Hero of the Soviet Union are pinned to his chest. Half a century later, when you look at the old newsreels, the youthful officer with open shoelaces walking down the red carpet and leaping up the steps to the Lenin Mausoleum, saluting with a smile and announcing his return, looks more than ever as if he comes from a different universe.

At first, Gagarin enjoys his popularity. Soon, however, he experiences the greatest possible contradiction between collective and individual. From nowhere he becomes a “pop star” in a system that defines the individual only as the product of society and in the long term is unable to cope with the singularity of a phenomenon of this dimension.

Frame Three:

The History Of  Sputnic Program

1957

The Sputnik Program

(Created by Thomas Alcorn, )
 

CHRONOLOGY

1931 The International Council for Science (ICSU) is founded to promote international scientific activity in the different branches of science and its application for the benefit of humanity.
3 October 1942 German V-2 rocket is the first ballistic missile, and the first man-made object launched into space. German V-2 rocket; Britannica.com
1952 ICSU proposes the International Geophysical Year (IGY): a series of global geophysical activities to span the period July 1957 – December 1958.
27 May 1954 Russian Sergei Korolev proposes development of an artificial Earth satellite to Soviet Minister of Defense Industries Dimitrii Ustinov. Sergei Korolev;  grin.hq.nasa.gov
29 July 1955 U.S. President Eisenhower’s press secretary announces that the U.S. will launch an artificial Earth satellite during the IGY.
21 August 1957 Soviets launch the R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). R-7 Rocket; wikipedia.org
4 October 1957 Soviet satellite Sputnik 1 is launched into space via an R-7 missile. About the size of a basketball, this is the first artificial Earth satellite. It weighs 184 pounds and takes about 98 minutes to complete one orbit. The launch of this satellite sparks the USA/USSR competition known as the “Space Race”. Model of Sputnik 1; spacetoday.org
3 November 1957 Sputnik 2 is launched, carrying the first living earth passenger to space, a dog named Laika. Laika perished while achieving orbit, becoming the 1st space casualty. Sputnik 2; kosmonautik.de
31 January 1958 The first successful U.S. satellite launch puts Explorer 1 into space. Explorer 1; apod.nasa.gov
15 May 1958 Sputnik 3 is launched, carrying a large array of instruments for geophysical research. Sputnik 3; skyrocket.de
29 July 1958 U.S. President Eisenhower signs National Aeronautics and Space Act, creating NASA.
18 December 1958 U.S. Project SCORE (Signal Communications Orbit Relay Equipment) is launched on an Atlas rocket. This is the world’s first communications satellite, which broadcasts a taped Christmas message from President Eisenhower via shortwave back to Earth. Atlas Rocket used to launch SCORE; abyss.uoregon.edu
15 May 1960 Sputnik 4 is launched, designed to investigate the means for manned space flight. It contained scientific instruments, a television system, and a self-sustaining biological cabin with a “dummy” of a man. The guidance system malfunctioned, and the capsule that should have returned to earth went deeper into orbit. The capsule eventually re-entered the atmosphere 2 years later. There is evidence that suggests that this flight was actually manned by a human.
19 August 1960 Sputnik 5 is launched, carrying 40 mice, 2 rats, the dogs Belka and Strelka, and various plants. All passengers survived the flight, returning to earth the next day. The dogs Belka and Strelka; pravda.ru
12 April 1961 Soviet Vostok 1 is launched carrying the official first human into space, Yuri A. Gagarin. Vostok 1; aerospaceweb.org
5 May 1961 U.S. Launches Freedom 7 Capsule atop a Mercury-Redstone rocket putting the first American into space, Alan B. Shepard, Jr. Freedom 7; Freedom7.com
20 February 1962 U.S. Launches Friendship 7 piloted by John Glenn who becomes the first American to orbit the Earth. John Glen; history.nasa.gov
16 June 1963 Soviet Vostok 6 is launched carrying the first woman into space, Valentina Tereshkova. Valentina Tereshkova; library.thinkquest.org
26 July 1963 US launches Syncom-2, the worlds first geosynchronous satellite. Syncom 2; Boeing.com
24 April 1990 Hubble Space Telescope is launched. While the telescope is successfully deployed, the primary mirror is seriously flawed resulting in fuzzy images. Hubble Space Telescope; eb.com
18 May 1996 X Prize competition announced: 10 Million dollars to the first person or team to safely launch and land a spacecraft capable of carrying three people to a suborbital altitude or 100km and repeat the trip again within two weeks. This contest is designed to inspire and jump start civilian and commercial space programs.
21 June 2004 SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded vehicle to carry a human into space. This U.S. licensed ship is piloted by American Mike Melvill. SpaceShip One; Scaled Composites, LLC

 

1957

The Sputnik Program

 
 

 

CHRONOLOGY

1931 The International Council for Science (ICSU) is founded to promote international scientific activity in the different branches of science and its application for the benefit of humanity.
3 October 1942 German V-2 rocket is the first ballistic missile, and the first man-made object launched into space. German V-2 rocket; Britannica.com
1952 ICSU proposes the International Geophysical Year (IGY): a series of global geophysical activities to span the period July 1957 – December 1958.
27 May 1954 Russian Sergei Korolev proposes development of an artificial Earth satellite to Soviet Minister of Defense Industries Dimitrii Ustinov. Sergei Korolev;  grin.hq.nasa.gov
29 July 1955 U.S. President Eisenhower’s press secretary announces that the U.S. will launch an artificial Earth satellite during the IGY.
21 August 1957 Soviets launch the R-7 Semyorka, the first intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM). R-7 Rocket; wikipedia.org
4 October 1957 Soviet satellite Sputnik 1 is launched into space via an R-7 missile. About the size of a basketball, this is the first artificial Earth satellite. It weighs 184 pounds and takes about 98 minutes to complete one orbit. The launch of this satellite sparks the USA/USSR competition known as the “Space Race”. Model of Sputnik 1; spacetoday.org
3 November 1957 Sputnik 2 is launched, carrying the first living earth passenger to space, a dog named Laika. Laika perished while achieving orbit, becoming the 1st space casualty. Sputnik 2; kosmonautik.de
31 January 1958 The first successful U.S. satellite launch puts Explorer 1 into space. Explorer 1; apod.nasa.gov
15 May 1958 Sputnik 3 is launched, carrying a large array of instruments for geophysical research. Sputnik 3; skyrocket.de
29 July 1958 U.S. President Eisenhower signs National Aeronautics and Space Act, creating NASA.
18 December 1958 U.S. Project SCORE (Signal Communications Orbit Relay Equipment) is launched on an Atlas rocket. This is the world’s first communications satellite, which broadcasts a taped Christmas message from President Eisenhower via shortwave back to Earth. Atlas Rocket used to launch SCORE; abyss.uoregon.edu
15 May 1960 Sputnik 4 is launched, designed to investigate the means for manned space flight. It contained scientific instruments, a television system, and a self-sustaining biological cabin with a “dummy” of a man. The guidance system malfunctioned, and the capsule that should have returned to earth went deeper into orbit. The capsule eventually re-entered the atmosphere 2 years later. There is evidence that suggests that this flight was actually manned by a human.
19 August 1960 Sputnik 5 is launched, carrying 40 mice, 2 rats, the dogs Belka and Strelka, and various plants. All passengers survived the flight, returning to earth the next day. The dogs Belka and Strelka; pravda.ru
12 April 1961 Soviet Vostok 1 is launched carrying the official first human into space, Yuri A. Gagarin. Vostok 1; aerospaceweb.org
5 May 1961 U.S. Launches Freedom 7 Capsule atop a Mercury-Redstone rocket putting the first American into space, Alan B. Shepard, Jr. Freedom 7; Freedom7.com
20 February 1962 U.S. Launches Friendship 7 piloted by John Glenn who becomes the first American to orbit the Earth. John Glen; history.nasa.gov
16 June 1963 Soviet Vostok 6 is launched carrying the first woman into space, Valentina Tereshkova. Valentina Tereshkova; library.thinkquest.org
26 July 1963 US launches Syncom-2, the worlds first geosynchronous satellite. Syncom 2; Boeing.com
24 April 1990 Hubble Space Telescope is launched. While the telescope is successfully deployed, the primary mirror is seriously flawed resulting in fuzzy images. Hubble Space Telescope; eb.com
18 May 1996 X Prize competition announced: 10 Million dollars to the first person or team to safely launch and land a spacecraft capable of carrying three people to a suborbital altitude or 100km and repeat the trip again within two weeks. This contest is designed to inspire and jump start civilian and commercial space programs.
21 June 2004 SpaceShipOne becomes the first privately funded vehicle to carry a human into space. This U.S. licensed ship is piloted by American Mike Melvill. SpaceShip One; Scaled Composites, LLC

Frame Four:

The Biography Of Yuri Gagarin

  
Yuri Gagarin
Юрий Гагарин
Gagarin Signature.svg
Soviet Union cosmonaut
The first human in space
Nationality Russian
Status Deceased
Born 9 March 1934(1934-03-09)
Klushino, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Died 27 March 1968(1968-03-27) (aged 34)
Novosyolovo, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union
Other occupation Pilot
Rank Colonel (Polkovnik), Soviet Air Forces
Time in space 1 hour, 48 minutes
Selection Air Force Group 1
Missions Vostok 1
Mission insignia Vostok-1 patch.svg

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (Russian: Ю́рий Алексе́евич Гага́рин,[1] Russian pronunciation: [ˈjurʲɪj ɐlʲɪˈksʲeɪvʲɪtɕ ɡɐˈɡarʲɪn]; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968), was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut. After being selected for Air Force Group 1, he became the first human to journey into outer space when his Vostok spacecraft launched successfully and completed an orbit of the Earth on April 12, 1961. After re-entry, Gagarin ejected from the craft and landed safely by parachute.

After the mission, Gagarin became an international celebrity, and was awarded many medals and honours, including Hero of the Soviet Union. Vostok 1 marked his only spaceflight, but he served as backup to the Soyuz 1 mission, which ended in a fatal crash. Gagarin later became deputy training director of the Cosmonaut Training Centre outside Moscow which was later named after him.

Gagarin died when his training jet crashed in 1968. The precise cause of the crash is uncertain, but investigators have proposed various explanations.

Contents

 

 Early life

Gagarin was born in the village of Klushino near Gzhatsk (now in Smolensk Oblast, Russia), on 9 March 1934.[2] The adjacent town of Gzhatsk was renamed Gagarin in 1968 in his honour. His parents, Alexey Ivanovich Gagarin and Anna Timofeyevna Gagarina, worked on a collective farm.[3] While manual labourers are described in official reports as “peasants”, this may be an oversimplification if applied to his parents — his mother was reportedly a voracious reader, and his father a skilled carpenter. Yuri was the third of four children, and his elder sister helped raise him while his parents worked. Like millions of people in the Soviet Union, the Gagarin family suffered during Nazi occupation in World War II. After a German officer took over their house, the family constructed a small mud hut where they spent a year and nine months until the end of the occupation.[4] His two older siblings were deported to Nazi Germany for slave labour in 1943, and did not return until after the war. In 1946, the family moved to Gzahtsk.[4]

While a youth, Yuri became interested in space and planets, and began to dream about his space tour which would one day become a reality.[5] After studying for one year at a vocational technical school in Lyubertsy, Gagarin was selected for further training at a technical high school in Saratov. While there, he joined the “AeroClub”, and learned to fly a light aircraft, a hobby that would take up an increasing portion of his time. In 1955, after completing his technical schooling, he entered military flight training at the Orenburg Pilot’s School. While there he met Valentina Goryacheva, whom he married in 1957, after gaining his pilot’s wings in a MiG-15. Post-graduation, he was assigned to Luostari airbase in Murmansk Oblast, close to the Norwegian border, where terrible weather made flying risky. He became a Lieutenant in the Soviet Air Force on 5 November 1957 and on 6 November 1959 he received the rank of Senior Lieutenant.[6]

Career in the Soviet space program

Selection and training

In 1960, after the search and selection process, Yuri Gagarin was chosen with 19 other pilots for the Soviet space program. Gagarin was further selected for an elite training group known as the Sochi Six from which the first cosmonauts of the Vostok programme would be chosen. Gagarin and other prospective cosmonauts were subjected to experiments designed to test physical and psychological endurance; he also underwent training for the upcoming flight. Out of the twenty selected, the eventual choices for the first launch were Gagarin and Gherman Titov because of their performance in training, as well as their physical characteristics — space was at a premium in the small Vostok cockpit and both men were rather short. Gagarin was 1.57 metres (5 ft 2 in) tall, which was an advantage in the small Vostok cockpit.[3]

In August 1960, when Gagarin was one of 20 possible candidates, an Air Force doctor evaluated his personality as follows:

Modest; embarrasses when his humor gets a little too racy; high degree of intellectual development evident in Yuriy; fantastic memory; distinguishes himself from his colleagues by his sharp and far-ranging sense of attention to his surroundings; a well-developed imagination; quick reactions; persevering, prepares himself painstakingly for his activities and training exercises, handles celestial mechanics and mathematical formulae with ease as well as excels in higher mathematics; does not feel constrained when he has to defend his point of view if he considers himself right; appears that he understands life better than a lot of his friends.
—Soviet Air Force doctor, [7]

Gagarin was also a favoured candidate by his peers. When the 20 candidates were asked to anonymously vote for which other candidate they would like to see as the first to fly, all but three chose Gagarin.[8] One of these candidates, Yevgeny Khrunov, believed that Gagarin was very focused, and was demanding of himself and others when necessary.[9]

Gagarin kept physically fit throughout his life, and was a keen sportsman. Cosmonaut Valery Bykovsky wrote:

Service in the Air Force made us strong, both physically and morally. All of us cosmonauts took up sports and PT seriously when we served in the Air Force. I know that Yuri Gagarin was fond of ice hockey. He liked to play goal keeper… I don’t think I am wrong when I say that sports became a fixture in the life of the cosmonauts.[10]

In addition to being a keen ice hockey player, Gagarin was also a basketball fan, and coached the Saratov Industrial Technical School team, as well as being an umpire/referee.[11]

Space flight

Main article: Vostok 1

Vostok I capsule used by Yuri Gagarin, now on display at the RKK Energiya Museum outside of Moscow.

On 12 April 1961, Gagarin became the first man to travel into space, launching to orbit aboard the Vostok 3KA-3 (Vostok 1). His call sign was Siberian Pine Russian: Кедр).[12]

In his post-flight report, Gagarin recalled his experience of spaceflight, having been the first human in space:

The feeling of weightlessness was somewhat unfamiliar compared with Earth conditions. Here, you feel as if you were hanging in a horizontal position in straps. You feel as if you are suspended.[13]

Following the flight, Gagarin told the Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev that during reentry he had whistled the tune “The Motherland Hears, The Motherland Knows” (Russian: “Родина слышит, Родина знает”).[14][15] The first two lines of the song are: “The Motherland hears, the Motherland knows/Where her son flies in the sky“.[16] This patriotic song was written by Dmitri Shostakovich in 1951 (opus 86), with words by Yevgeniy Dolmatovsky.

After the flight, some sources claimed that Gagarin, during his space flight, had made the comment, “I don’t see any God up here.” However, no such words appear in the verbatim record of Gagarin’s conversations with the Earth during the spaceflight.[17] In a 2006 interview a close friend of Gagarin, Colonel Valentin Petrov, stated that Gagarin never said such words, and that the phrase originated from Nikita Khrushchev‘s speech at the plenum of the Central Committee of the CPSU, where the anti-religious propaganda was discussed. In a certain context Khrushchev said, “Gagarin flew into space, but didn’t see any god there”.[18] Colonel Petrov also said that Gagarin had been baptised into the Orthodox Church as a child.

Rise to fame

A postcard with an image of Yuri Gagarin

After the flight, Gagarin became a worldwide celebrity, touring widely abroad. He visited Italy, Germany, Canada, Japan, Finland to promote the Soviet coup of being the first country to put a human in space. He also visited the United Kingdom three months after the Vostok 1 success, during which he visited the cities of London and Manchester, the latter of which has been fondly remembered.[19][20]

 Life after Vostok 1

In 1962, he began serving as a deputy to the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. He later returned to Star City, the cosmonaut facility, where he spent seven years working on designs for a reusable spacecraft. He became Lieutenant Colonel (or Podpolkovnik) of the Soviet Air Force on 12 June 1962 and on 6 November 1963 he received the rank of Colonel (Polkovnik) of the Soviet Air Force.[6] Soviet officials tried to keep him away from any flights, being worried of losing their hero in an accident. Gagarin was backup pilot for Vladimir Komarov in the Soyuz 1 flight. As Komarov’s flight ended in a fatal crash, Gagarin was ultimately banned from training for and participating in further spaceflights.

 Death

Monument of Yuri Gagarin on Cosmonauts Alley in Moscow

On 27 March 1968, while on a routine training flight from Chkalovsky Air Base, he and flight instructor Vladimir Seryogin died in a MiG-15UTI crash near the town of Kirzhach. The bodies of Gagarin and Seryogin were cremated and the ashes were buried in the walls of the Kremlin on Red Square.

Gagarin had become deputy training director of the Star City cosmonaut training base. At the same time, he began to re-qualify as a fighter pilot.

Cause of jet crash

It is not certain what caused the crash, but a 1986 inquest suggests that the turbulence from a Su-11 ‘Fishpot-C’ interceptor using its afterburners may have caused Gagarin’s plane to go out of control.[21]

Russian documents declassified in March 2003 showed that the KGB had conducted their own investigation of the accident, in addition to one government and two military investigations. The KGB’s report dismissed various conspiracy theories, instead indicating that the actions of air base personnel contributed to the crash. The report states that an air traffic controller provided Gagarin with outdated weather information, and that by the time of his flight, conditions had deteriorated significantly. Ground crew also left external fuel tanks attached to the aircraft. Gagarin’s planned flight activities needed clear weather and no outboard tanks. The investigation concluded that Gagarin’s aircraft entered a spin, either due to a bird strike or because of a sudden move to avoid another aircraft. Because of the out-of-date weather report, the crew believed their altitude to be higher than it actually was, and could not properly react to bring the MiG-15 out of its spin.[22]

In his 2004 book Two Sides of the Moon, Alexey Leonov recounts that he was flying a helicopter in the same area that day when he heard “two loud booms in the distance.” Corroborating other theories, his conclusion is that a Sukhoi jet (which he identifies as a Su-15 ‘Flagon’) was flying below its minimum allowed altitude, and “without realizing it because of the terrible weather conditions, he passed within 10 or 20 meters of Yuri and Seregin’s plane while breaking the sound barrier.” The resulting turbulence would have sent the MiG into an uncontrolled spin. Leonov believes the first boom he heard was that of the jet breaking the sound barrier, and the second was Gagarin’s plane crashing.[23]

Another theory, advanced by the original crash investigator in 2005, hypothesizes that a cabin air vent was accidentally left open by the crew or the previous pilot, leading to oxygen deprivation and leaving the crew incapable of controlling the aircraft.[24] A similar theory, published in Air & Space magazine, is that the crew detected the open vent and followed procedure by executing a rapid dive to a lower altitude. This dive caused them to lose consciousness and crash.[25]

On 12 April 2007, the Kremlin vetoed a new investigation into the death of Gagarin. Some experts who had been involved in the original investigation had formulated a new theory, based on modern technology and investigative methods. Government officials said that they saw no reason to begin a new investigation.[26]

Legacy and tributes

Russian Rouble commemorating Gagarin in 2001

There were two commemorative coins issued in the Soviet Union to commemorate 20th and 30th anniversaries of his flight: 1 ruble coin (1981, copper-nickel) and 3 ruble coin (1991, silver). In 2001, to commemorate the 40th anniversary of Gagarin’s flight, a series of four coins bearing his likeness was issued in Russia: 2 ruble coin (copper-nickel), 3 ruble coin (silver), 10 ruble coin (brass-copper, nickel), and 100 ruble coin (silver).[27]

In 2008, the Kontinental Hockey League named their championship trophy the Gagarin Cup.[28]

In a 2010 Space Foundation survey, Gagarin was ranked as the #6 most popular space hero, tied with Star Trek‘s fictional Capt. James T. Kirk.[29]

In January 2011, Armenian airline Armavia named their first Sukhoi Superjet 100 in Gagarin’s honour.[30]

From 14 July 2010 to 14 July 2011, a copy of the statue of Gagarin from outside his former school in Lyubertsy has been installed at the Admiralty Arch end of The Mall in London, opposite the permanent sculpture of James Cook.[31]

the end @ copyrighr Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

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