Driwan Book:”The Indonesia DutchEastIndie Historic Collection 1830-1863″(koleksi Hindia Belanda bagian pertama)

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  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

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    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

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                    Please Enter

                   

              DIHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Indonesia Historic  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Indonesian Historic Collection 1830 to 1910:

(Map)

A.Table of content

I.The part One 1830-1863

II.The Part Two 1864-1890

III. The Part Three 1891-1910

B. The Indonesia DEI Historic Collection Part One 1830-1863

I.Introduction

(1.)Dutch Imperialism: 1815-1870

The Dutch fought two major wars in the 1820s. They still did not control many areas in their imagined sphere of influence, including Aceh, Bali, much of Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara.

Leaders among the Indonesians included:

Pattimura in Ambon in 1817

Pangeran Diponegoroin the Java War, 1825-1830

Imam Tuanku Bonjol in the Padri War in the 1830s

Padri Movement
To deepen the science of religion, my lord Tambusai going to study and Rao Bonjol in West Sumatra. There he learned a lot from the Islamic clerics who minded Padri, until he received his Jurist. Padri doctrine itself is so compelling, so that this teaching is also distributed in his homeland. Here his teachings quickly became widely accepted by society, so he is getting lots of followers. Zeal to spread and do the purification of Islam, drove him to fight on the ground Islamize Batak society that is still widely embraced pelbegu.
Against the Netherlands
Tambusai struggle began in Rokan Hulu and the surrounding area with its center at Fort Dalu-Dalu. Then he continued his resistance to the Natal region in 1823. In 1824, he led the combined forces of Dalu-Dalu, Lubuksikaping, Padanglawas, Angkola, Mandailing, and Christmas to fight the Dutch. 

Tambusai  became leader of Padri in 1832, after the Netherlands became regent raised Tuanku Mudo Bonjol.
Within 15 years, my lord Tambusai quite troublesome Dutch troops, so often ask the help of troops from Batavia. Thanks to the ingenuity, the Dutch fort Fort Amerongen can be destroyed. Bonjol who had fallen into the hands of the Netherlands can be recaptured, although not last long. Tuanku Tambusai not only face the Netherlands, but also at the same time the king’s army Gedombang (regent Mandailing) and Tumenggung Kartoredjo, siding with the Dutch. By the Dutch he was called “De Padrische Tijger van Rokan” (Tiger Padri of Rokan) because it is very hard to beat, never give up, and do not want to make peace with the Dutch. Firmness shown by refusing his invitation to come to terms Elout Colonel. On December 28, 1838, the fortress-Dalu Dalu fell into the hands of the Netherlands. Through a secret door, he escaped from the siege of the Dutch and their allies. Lord Tambusai fled and died in Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia on 12 November 1882.
Because of his services against the colonial Dutch East Indies,

(2) The KNIL History 1830–1942

(a)KNIL Expedition

1.1824-1832

 

2.1834-1856

THE  KNIL EXPEDITION POSTER

THE KNIL LOMBOK EXPEDITION POSTER

3.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1856-1861

4.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1862-1879

5.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1877-1887

6. THE KNIL EXPEDITION ACEH WAR

.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1893-1927

 

(b)KNIL 1896

 

Artillery of the Royal Dutch East India Army in 1896.

(b) Cavalry of the Royal Dutch East India Army in 1906 during the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906).

The KNIL was formed by royal decree on 10 March 1830. It was not part of the Royal Netherlands Army, but a separate military arm specifically formed for service in the Netherlands East Indies. Its establishment coincided with the Dutch drive to expand colonial rule from the 17th century area of control to the far larger territories comprising the Dutch East Indies seventy years later, which remain the present boundaries of Indonesia.[1][not in citation given]

The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous groups in the Netherlands East Indies including the Padri War (1821–1845), the Java War (1825–1830), crushing the final resistance of Bali inhabitants to colonial rule in 1849, and the prolonged Aceh War (1873–1904).[2]

After 1904 the Netherlands East Indies were considered “pacified”, with no large-scale armed opposition to Dutch rule until World War II, and the KNIL served a mainly defensive role protecting the Dutch East Indies from the possibility of foreign invasion.

(2a)

(2b)The KNIL Lombok Propaganda card

(3.)The Postal History 19Th Century 

(a) Pre Stamped Era Before 1864

(b) Stamp Era post 1864

 (4).The Revenue History 19th Century

(4a) Uncolour Embossed Revenue sheet All the uncolour embosed Revenue  in complete Document :

 

a.Land Certificate (Eigendom) Bought,consist three uncolour embosed revenue sheet 12 gld, 2 gld and 1 gld , courter sign by the land of justice Soerabaja 1894

, b Land Certificate .countersign by Soerabaja Justice Office 1904 with uncolour embossed revenue 6 gld

 , and c Leasing certificate (Surat Hutang ) 600 gld, uncolour embosed revenue sheet  one and half gld,1893 added revenue ovpt 10 cent on 5 cent nedl.oost revenue for countersign(tanda tangan pengesahan)

 

 

2)The Revenue Order in 19th Century

THE ORDER(ORDONASI) OF NED.INDIE(DEI) REVENUE:
 1.Ordonasi Revenue 1817-1885,
After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.
2.REVENUE ORDONASI 1885
the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,

3.) ORDONASI REVENUE ON INSURANCE POLISH  1858

 

 

 
 

(c) Revenue Oost East Indie

(c1)Type one

(1) 2.11.1888

2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld .
The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889
 

(c2)Type Two overprint 10 cent

 THE OVERPRINT 10 CENT  ON THE FIRST REVENUE FIVE CENT(EMERGENCY REVENUE)

10.5.1893
 

(c) Revenue Ned.Indie 1899-1900

3)THE 10 CENT PLAKZEGEL VAN NEDERLANSCHE INDIE
(1)  6.5.1899(earliest date)

6.5.1900 nED.iNDIE rEVENUE sTAMP 10 CENT  DEI 2nd issued revenue , (please report the HIGNHEST NOMINAL )

 

II.The Chronologic Historic  Collection 1830-1863

1823

Tambusai struggle began in Rokan Hulu and the surrounding area with its center at Fort Dalu-Dalu. Then he continued his resistance to the Natal region in 1823

.1824-1832

 

1830

 

 

  Johannes van den Bosch arrives as the new Governor-General, begins the “cultuurstelsel” or “culture system”.Forced cultivation of indigo is introduced in the Priangan.First steamboat arrives in the Indies.Nederlands Zendelinggenootschap (Dutch Missionary Society) begins offering education to “native” children.December 4 Van den Bosch officially organizes the Dutch forces from the Java War into the Oost-Indische Leger, or “East Indies Army” (later KNIL).                                  

 

     

 

                     

 

 

             

 

             

 

     

 

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1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870.

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.  

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease. The Dutch would waste over 30 years trying to take full control of Aceh, and would never fully succeed.

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common fighters.

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch officials.

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1831

  Nederlands-Indië government manages a balanced budget.Dutch forces fighting the Padri in Sumatra reach the Bonjol area.U.S. ships shell coastal villages in Aceh in an action against piracy.
Gov.-Gen. Johannes van den BoschIt was only after the Java War that the Dutch began to think about a real empire in the Indies. From 1830 to the end of the century, the Dutch began a drive to take complete control of the areas from Aceh to New Guinea, and to extract as much profit as possible from the valuable areas, such as the Priangan area of West Java.Revenues from the Indies paid for as much as one-third of the Dutch government’s budget in the mid-1800s. These monies helped to finance the industrialization and development of the Netherlands in the 1800s. The burden fell especially upon the Netherlands Indies, since the Dutch had lost many of their other colonies to the British during the Napoleonic wars (including South Africa and Sri Lanka), and since Belgium with its business and industry broke away from the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830.The government was called the Netherlands Indies, or Nederlands-Indië in Dutch, or Hindia Belanda in Indonesian today

1832

revolt of the Chinese at Krawang West Java

  Dutch depose Sultan of Jailolo and take control of Halmahera.

Tambusai  became leader of Padri in 1832, after the Netherlands became regent raised Tuanku Mudo Bonjol

Under the “culture system”, Javanese were required to grow a certain amount of crops for export–more coffee, sugar, spices and indigo, but less rice to feed the people. The system worked without great controversy for the first few years. About 1845, a series of poor harvests led to greater poverty and even famine on Java–famine that was aggravated because the best lands were being used for tobacco, sugar or coffee instead of rice, and because the land in general had been exhausted by overproduction. Van den Bosch had specified that local farmers should be given leeway to grow their own food, but colonial officials under him ignored these orders in pursuit of ever larger cash crops.The products of the culture system were sold through the Nederlandse Handel-Maatschappij, run by the Netherlands government, and the profits were kept by the Netherlands. The King of the Netherlands owned significant shares in the NHM, and gained an extra fortune from its profits. (The NHM survives today as the Algemene Bank Nederland.) The Netherlands Indies nearly went bankrupt in the 1820s; after van den Bosch, it returned large budget surpluses to the Netherlands throughout the 1830s (and into the 1870s

1833

  JanuaryMinangkabau villages around Bonjol rise up in popular rebellion; Dutch troops in the area are massacred. Padri war heats up; Dutch seal off the coast. Sentot fights on Dutch side, but was probably not pro-Dutch in his heart. Dutch place Sentot under watch in Bengkulu (until 1855).Sultan of Jambi asks for Dutch help against Palembang.

1834

  Dutch force Sultan Muhammad Fahruddin of Jambi to recognize Dutch sovereignty.Portuguese government expels Dominican friars from East Timor.

1836

  Dutch abandon Fort Du Bus on Irian.(west papua)

 

1837

 

 

  Bonjol in Minangkabau finally falls to the Dutch in the Padri War. Tuanku Imam Bonjol surrenders and is sent into minahasa.Tuanku Imam Bonjol was one of the main leaders in the Padri war. Other fighters against the Dutch included the “Harimau Nan Selapan” or “eight tigers”, led by Haji Miskin.Iman Bonjol Padri soldier  with sword and Qour’an inspected Dutch Fort de Kock(now Bukittingi) compare with the lith. illustration from mersedon book the history of sumatra.

1838

Within 15 years, my lord Tambusai quite troublesome Dutch troops, so often ask the help of troops from Batavia. Thanks to the ingenuity, the Dutch fort Fort Amerongen can be destroyed. Bonjol who had fallen into the hands of the Netherlands can be recaptured, although not last long. Tuanku Tambusai not only face the Netherlands, but also at the same time the king’s army Gedombang (regent Mandailing) and Tumenggung Kartoredjo, siding with the Dutch. By the Dutch he was called “De Padrische Tijger van Rokan” (Tiger Padri of Rokan) because it is very hard to beat, never give up, and do not want to make peace with the Dutch. Firmness shown by refusing his invitation to come to terms Elout Colonel. On December 28, 1838, the fortress-Dalu Dalu fell into the hands of the Netherlands. Through a secret door, he escaped from the siege of the Dutch and their allies

  Dutch victory at Daludalu ends the Padri war in Minangkabau. Direct Dutch rule in Minangkabau is enforced (adat law and nobility appear pro-Dutch, Islamic leaders appear anti-Dutch).Dutch expedition against Flores.Bone renewsTreaty of Bungaya; fighting against the Dutch subsides.Dutch establish presence on Nias.Sulaiman inherits rule of Aceh, but Tuanku Ibrahim rules as guardian, ruling Aceh until 1870.Mataram kingdom on Lombok takes control of the whole island, plus Karangasem on Bali

1839

  Danish merchant Mads Lange opens a trading post at Kuta on Bali

1841

  The rajas of Badung, Klungkung, Karangasem and Buleleng on Bali sign treaties recognizing Dutch sovereignty; rajas to keep internal power.James Brooke begins creating private empire for himself in Sarawak.

1842

  Dutch withdraw from east coast of Sumatra north of Palembang due to British worries.The nobility in Surakarta is arrested under suspicion of inciting revolt.

1843

  Raja of Lombok accepts Dutch sovereignty.Famine in Cirebon. By this time, there was a movement of people out of the Priangan, Cirebon, and nearby areas of West Java towards areas that were less strictly controlled by the culture system. Local bupatis and Dutch officials were instructed to send these internal refugees home whenever possible.In the 1840s, as much as two-thirds of the money earned by a Javanese farmer on his crops could be taken by taxes.

1844

  Rajas of Buleleng and Karangasem are dissatisfied with Dutch, and refuse to ratify treaties.

1845

  Vanilla industry started on Java.

1846

Landmail cover sent from Batavia 18 aug 1846

  JuneNetherlands Indies force attacks Buleleng; other rajas secretly support the anti-Dutch forces. Palace at Singaraja is destroyed. Raja of Buleleng signs a treaty of submission. Netherlands Indies bases a garrison at Singaraja.Netherlands Indies expedition against Flores.Typhoid epidemic in Java.Netherlands Indies takes control of Samarinda.First commercial coal mine is opened at Martapura, South Kalimantan.Revolt in Banten.It was traditional on Bali for shipwrecks to be salvaged by the local population. The Dutch considered this to be looting and theft. The cultural clash led to continual political and military conflict between the Netherlands Indies government and the rajas on Bali.

1847

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.  

 

  .  

1848

The KNIL propaganda card.

  JuneNetherlands Indies sends a military force to Bali in response to conflicts over the enforcement of treaties with the local rajas. The force is defeated by a Balinese force under Gusti Ketut Jilantik at Jagaraga, and withdraws from the island.New constitution in Netherlands: Dutch States-General has some control over colonial affairs.Revised commercial, civil and criminal codes for the Netherlands Indies are introduced, applicable to people of European descent only.Demonstration in Batavia, led by Baron van Hoevell (a Dutch Reformed minister), petitions the King of the Netherlands for freedom of the press, public secondary schools, and representation for the Netherlands Indies in the States General.Regency schools, for the education and training of the children of local rulers and nobles, begin operations.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas  

 

1850

  Dutch begin missionary work among Bataks of north Sumatra.Famine in Central Java.Dutch purchase the remaining Portuguese posts on Flores.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas .

 

     

1851

  “Dokter-Jawa” INDISCHE_ARTS school (STOVIA,now Museum) founded in Gambir NEAR Dutch Army Hospital(now RSPAD Gatot Subroto), Batavia.Billiton Maatschappij begins tin mining on Belitung.at Soegai Liat city , Many Chinese laborers are imported.

1852

  Aceh sends an emissary to Napoleon III of France.Cola trees are introduced on Java.Dutch end the tax on the hajj.                       .       .  

1857

  Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.
Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.  

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.  

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.  

1862

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.  

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends. In 1863, the government of the Netherlands used profits from the exploitation of the Netherlands Indies to compensate former slaveholders in Suriname in South America, after slavery was abolished there.

1864

  April 1First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.
First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864.

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870.

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.  

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease. The Dutch would waste over 30 years trying to take full control of Aceh, and would never fully succeed.

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common fighters.

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch officials.

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1853

prestamp lettersheet send from Krawang to Batavia  with Krawang ongefrankeer stamped cost 25 cent

  Dutch begin administering north Bali.Mangkunegara IV takes his title in Surakarta.
A local ruler on Madura, about 1853.

1854

  Netherlands government issues a constitutional reform for the Netherlands Indies (“Regeeringsreglement”). Local rulers in the Indies are to continue to have traditional powers over their subjects, ruling on behalf of the Dutch. A strict separation betweens Europeans and “Inlanders” is recognized in the law.Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies receives the power to exile anyone without appeal or review.Aceh establishes authority over Langkat, Deli and Serdang on east coast of Sumatra (“pepper ports”).Introduction of cinchona (quinine) cultivation to the Priangan, at Cibodas, West Java.
     

 

1855

  Hamengkubuwono VI becomes Sultan of Yogya.Dutch military expedition to Nias.Dutch extend control over western Kalimantan.Dutch East Indie forbiiden circulated all type of coins issued before 1855 included locla and chinese cash coins, and issued first half cent and one cent  copper coincoin (very rare because limited edition only 200.000)

1856

  Regulation on Publications gives the Governor-General authority to conduct prepublication censorship of the press without appeal or review.MarchEduard Douwes Dekker is dismissed from his government post in West Java after accusing local bupatis of corruption. (Later, under the pen name “Multatuli”, he writes the novel “Max Havelaar”, exposing conditions in colonial Java to readers in the Netherlands.)Dutch military expedition to Flores.
Eduard Douwes Dekker, or “Multatuli”

1857

Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.

 

  .
          .  

 

   

1858

Revenue Order  Of INSURANCE POLISH  1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.

 

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.
 

 

     

 

     

 

           

 

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.        

1862

KNIL expedition Destruction of a pirates fleets near sangir island. and expedition to Manipi,Tuntungan and mandar on celebes

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.

 

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias and Toraja Celebes.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends.
          .       .  

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about

 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

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