Koleksi Filateli,Dokumen Dan Gambar Sejarah Indonesia Masa Hindia Belanda Tahun 1890-1910

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Indonesia Historic  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Indonesian Historic Collection 1830 to 1910:

(Map)

A.Table Of Content :

Introduction

The chronologic collections

B.Introduction

1.Dutch Imperialism: 1815-1870

The Dutch fought two major wars in the 1820s. They still did not control many areas in their imagined sphere of influence, including Aceh, Bali, much of Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara.

Leaders among the Indonesians included:

Pattimura in Ambon in 1817

Pangeran Diponegoroin the Java War, 1825-1830

Imam Tuanku Bonjol in the Padri War in the 1830s

2. The KNIL

3.The Revenue History 19Th Century 

1)Earliest Nederland and South Holland revenue handstamped (1841) on law magazine from nederland sent to Indonesia.

2)The Earliest Netherland Oost Indie revenue

(1)The Ned Oost Indie Revenue  sheet , embosed noncolour , nominal:

Quater G

 half G

,one G

,one and  half

two

,four

Six

and 12 guilders.

(3)All the uncolour embosed Revenue  in complete Document :

a.Land Certificate (Eigendom) Bought,consist three uncolour embosed revenue sheet 12 gld, 2 gld and 1 gld , courter sign by the land of justice Soerabaja 1894

, b Land Certificate .countersign by Soerabaja Justice Office 1904 with uncolour embossed revenue 6 gld

 , and c Leasing certificate (Surat Hutang ) 600 gld, uncolour embosed revenue sheet  one and half gld,1893 added revenue ovpt 10 cent on 5 cent nedl.oost revenue for countersign(tanda tangan pengesahan)

 

 

2)The Ned Oost  Indie Revenue stamped, I have only found two type , the five cent and overprint 10 cent on 5 cent ,

1) 2.11.1888

2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld .
The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889
2. THE OVERPRINT 10 CENT  ON THE FIRST REVENUE FIVE CENT(EMERGENCY REVENUE)
10.5.1893
3)THE 10 CENT PLAKZEGEL VAN NEDERLANSCHE INDIE
(1)  6.5.1899(earliest date)

6.5.1900 nED.iNDIE rEVENUE sTAMP 10 CENT  DEI 2nd issued revenue , (please report the HIGNHEST NOMINAL )

 
THE ORDER(ORDONASI) OF NED.INDIE(DEI) REVENUE:
 1.Ordonasi Revenue 1817-1885,
After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.
2.REVENUE ORDONASI 1885
the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,

A

3.) ORDONASI REVENUE ON INSURANCE POLISH  1858

FRAME FOUR :
THE 19th CENTURY INDONESIA  ‘S HISTORY
1.PREFACE:
From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late sixteenth century, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was tenuous.

[7]

Although parts of Java were under Dutch domination for most of the 350 years of the combined VOC and Dutch East Indies era, many areas remained independent for much of this time including

Aceh

,

Bali

,

Kalimantan

, and

Lombok

.

[7]

It was not until the early 20th century, that Dutch dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.

[8]

The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

INDONESIA UNDER NAOPEON FRENCH DOMINATION(1806-1810)

In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother, Louis to the Dutch throne which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.[9]

INDONESIA UNDER BRITISH DENOMINATION (1811-1816)

 In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor.

INDONESIA UNDER DUTCH COLONIAL NETHERLAND INDIES

 Dutch control was restored in 1816.[10]Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[7]

The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) and the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[11] The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control.

2.REPUBLIC BATAAV

The Batavian Republic was the successor

Succession of states
Succession of states is a theory in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state…

 of the Republic of the United Netherlands

Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands…

. It was proclaimed on January 19, 1795 and ended on June 5, 1806 with the accession of Louis Bonaparte

Louis Bonaparte
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, Prince Français, King of Holland, Comte de Saint-Leu was the fifth surviving child and the fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino…

 to the throne of the Kingdom of Holland

Kingdom of Holland
The Kingdom of Holland 1806–1810 was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country…

.

The new Republic enjoyed widespread support from the Dutch population and was the product of a genuine popular revolution. Nevertheless, it clearly was founded with the armed support of the revolutionary French Republic. The Batavian Republic became a client state of first that “sister-republic

French client republic
During its occupation of neighboring parts of Europe during the French Revolutionary Wars, France established republican regimes in these territories…

“, and later of the French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, and its politics was deeply influenced by the French who supported no less than three coups d’état to bring the different political factions to power that France favored at different moments in her own historical development. Nevertheless, the process of creating a written Dutch constitution was mainly driven by internal political factors, not by French influence—until Napoleon forced the Dutch government to accept his brother as monarch.

The political, economic and social reforms that were brought about during the relatively short duration of the Batavian Republic have had a lasting impact. The confederal structure of the old Dutch Republic was permanently replaced by a unitary state. For the first time in Dutch history, the constitution that was adopted in 1798 had a genuinely democratic character (despite the fact that it was pushed through after a coup d’état

Coup d’état
A coup d’état —also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extra-legal deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either civil or military…

). For a while the Republic was governed democratically, though the coup d’état of 1801 put an authoritarian regime in power, after another change in constitution. Nevertheless, the memory of this brief experiment with democracy helped smooth the transition to a more democratic government in 1848 (the constitutional revision by Thorbecke

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke
Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was a Dutch politician and statesman of Liberal signature who is considered as one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century…

, limiting the power of the King). A type of ministerial government was introduced for the first time in Dutch history and many of the current government departments date their history back to this period.

Though the Batavian Republic was a client state, its successive governments tried their best to maintain a modicum of independence and to serve Dutch interests even where those clashed with those of their French overseers. This perceived obduracy led to the eventual demise of the Republic when the short-lived experiment with the (again authoritarian) regime of “Grand Pensionary” Schimmelpenninck produced insufficient docility in the eyes of Napoleon. The new king, Louis Napoleon – Napoleon’s own brother – surprisingly did not slavishly follow French dictates either, leading to his downfall.

Background

The final days of the Dutch Republic

Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands…

 were quite eventful. Due to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
The Fourth Anglo–Dutch War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic. The war, tangentially related to the American Revolutionary War, broke out over British and Dutch disagreements on the legality and conduct of Dutch trade with Britain’s enemies in that…

 that went disastrously for the Dutch, the Patriot party

Patriots (faction)
The Patriots were a political faction in the Dutch Republic in the second half of the eighteenth century. They were led by Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol, gaining power from November 1782….

 staged a revolt against the authoritarian regime of stadtholder

Stadtholder
A Stadtholder in the Low Countries was a medieval function which during the 18th century developed into a rare type of de facto hereditary head of state of the thus “crowned” Dutch Republic…

 William V

William V, Prince of Orange
William V Batavus, Prince of Orange-Nassau was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, and between 1795 and 1806 he led the Government of the Dutch Republic in Exile in London. He was succeeded by his son William I.-Earliest years:…

 

 in June 1787. Most Patriots went into exile in France, while the ancien régime strengthened its grip on the government through the Orangist

Orangism (Netherlands)
Orangism is a monarchist political support for the House of Orange-Nassau as monarchy of the Netherlands. It played a significant role in the political history of the Netherlands since the Dutch revolt…

Creation of the Republic

This war also proceeded disastrously for the Stadtholder’s forces, and in the severe winter of 1794/95 a French army under general Charles Pichegru

Charles Pichegru
Jean-Charles Pichegru was a French general and political figure of the French Revolution and Revolutionary Wars.-Early life and career:…

, with a Dutch contingent under general Herman Willem Daendels

Herman Willem Daendels
Herman Willem Daendels was a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 – 1811….

, crossed the great frozen rivers that traditionally protected the Netherlands from invasion. Aided by the fact that a substantial proportion of the Dutch population looked favorably upon the French incursion, and often considered it a liberation, the French were quickly able to break the resistance of the forces of the Stadtholder, and his Austrian and British allies. However, in many cities revolution broke out even before the French arrived and Revolutionary Committees

1830

 

 

  Johannes van den Bosch arrives as the new Governor-General, begins the “cultuurstelsel” or “culture system”.Forced cultivation of indigo is introduced in the Priangan.First steamboat arrives in the Indies.Nederlands Zendelinggenootschap (Dutch Missionary Society) begins offering education to “native” children.December 4 Van den Bosch officially organizes the Dutch forces from the Java War into the Oost-Indische Leger, or “East Indies Army” (later KNIL).                                  

 

     

 

                     

 

 

             

 

             

 

     

 

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  . .

 

                  . .     .  

 

                     

 

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1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1831

  Nederlands-Indië government manages a balanced budget.Dutch forces fighting the Padri in Sumatra reach the Bonjol area.U.S. ships shell coastal villages in Aceh in an action against piracy.
Gov.-Gen. Johannes van den BoschIt was only after the Java War that the Dutch began to think about a real empire in the Indies. From 1830 to the end of the century, the Dutch began a drive to take complete control of the areas from Aceh to New Guinea, and to extract as much profit as possible from the valuable areas, such as the Priangan area of West Java.Revenues from the Indies paid for as much as one-third of the Dutch government’s budget in the mid-1800s. These monies helped to finance the industrialization and development of the Netherlands in the 1800s. The burden fell especially upon the Netherlands Indies, since the Dutch had lost many of their other colonies to the British during the Napoleonic wars (including South Africa and Sri Lanka), and since Belgium with its business and industry broke away from the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830.The government was called the Netherlands Indies, or Nederlands-Indië in Dutch, or Hindia Belanda in Indonesian today

1832

  Dutch depose Sultan of Jailolo and take control of Halmahera. Under the “culture system”, Javanese were required to grow a certain amount of crops for export–more coffee, sugar, spices and indigo, but less rice to feed the people. The system worked without great controversy for the first few years. About 1845, a series of poor harvests led to greater poverty and even famine on Java–famine that was aggravated because the best lands were being used for tobacco, sugar or coffee instead of rice, and because the land in general had been exhausted by overproduction. Van den Bosch had specified that local farmers should be given leeway to grow their own food, but colonial officials under him ignored these orders in pursuit of ever larger cash crops.The products of the culture system were sold through the Nederlandse Handel-Maatschappij, run by the Netherlands government, and the profits were kept by the Netherlands. The King of the Netherlands owned significant shares in the NHM, and gained an extra fortune from its profits. (The NHM survives today as the Algemene Bank Nederland.) The Netherlands Indies nearly went bankrupt in the 1820s; after van den Bosch, it returned large budget surpluses to the Netherlands throughout the 1830s (and into the 1870s

1833

  JanuaryMinangkabau villages around Bonjol rise up in popular rebellion; Dutch troops in the area are massacred. Padri war heats up; Dutch seal off the coast. Sentot fights on Dutch side, but was probably not pro-Dutch in his heart. Dutch place Sentot under watch in Bengkulu (until 1855).Sultan of Jambi asks for Dutch help against Palembang.

1834

  Dutch force Sultan Muhammad Fahruddin of Jambi to recognize Dutch sovereignty.Portuguese government expels Dominican friars from East Timor.

1836

  Dutch abandon Fort Du Bus on Irian.(west papua)

 

1837

 

 

  Bonjol in Minangkabau finally falls to the Dutch in the Padri War. Tuanku Imam Bonjol surrenders and is sent into minahasa.Tuanku Imam Bonjol was one of the main leaders in the Padri war. Other fighters against the Dutch included the “Harimau Nan Selapan” or “eight tigers”, led by Haji Miskin.Iman Bonjol Padri soldier  with sword and Qour’an inspected Dutch Fort de Kock(now Bukittingi) compare with the lith. illustration from mersedon book the history of sumatra.

1838

  Dutch victory at Daludalu ends the Padri war in Minangkabau. Direct Dutch rule in Minangkabau is enforced (adat law and nobility appear pro-Dutch, Islamic leaders appear anti-Dutch).Dutch expedition against Flores.Bone renewsTreaty of Bungaya; fighting against the Dutch subsides.Dutch establish presence on Nias.Sulaiman inherits rule of Aceh, but Tuanku Ibrahim rules as guardian, ruling Aceh until 1870.Mataram kingdom on Lombok takes control of the whole island, plus Karangasem on Bali

1839

  Danish merchant Mads Lange opens a trading post at Kuta on Bali

1841

  The rajas of Badung, Klungkung, Karangasem and Buleleng on Bali sign treaties recognizing Dutch sovereignty; rajas to keep internal power.James Brooke begins creating private empire for himself in Sarawak.

1842

  Dutch withdraw from east coast of Sumatra north of Palembang due to British worries.The nobility in Surakarta is arrested under suspicion of inciting revolt.

1843

  Raja of Lombok accepts Dutch sovereignty.Famine in Cirebon. By this time, there was a movement of people out of the Priangan, Cirebon, and nearby areas of West Java towards areas that were less strictly controlled by the culture system. Local bupatis and Dutch officials were instructed to send these internal refugees home whenever possible.In the 1840s, as much as two-thirds of the money earned by a Javanese farmer on his crops could be taken by taxes.

1844

  Rajas of Buleleng and Karangasem are dissatisfied with Dutch, and refuse to ratify treaties.

1845

  Vanilla industry started on Java.

1846

  JuneNetherlands Indies force attacks Buleleng; other rajas secretly support the anti-Dutch forces. Palace at Singaraja is destroyed. Raja of Buleleng signs a treaty of submission. Netherlands Indies bases a garrison at Singaraja.Netherlands Indies expedition against Flores.Typhoid epidemic in Java.Netherlands Indies takes control of Samarinda.First commercial coal mine is opened at Martapura, South Kalimantan.Revolt in Banten.It was traditional on Bali for shipwrecks to be salvaged by the local population. The Dutch considered this to be looting and theft. The cultural clash led to continual political and military conflict between the Netherlands Indies government and the rajas on Bali.

1847

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.  

 

  .  

1848

  JuneNetherlands Indies sends a military force to Bali in response to conflicts over the enforcement of treaties with the local rajas. The force is defeated by a Balinese force under Gusti Ketut Jilantik at Jagaraga, and withdraws from the island.New constitution in Netherlands: Dutch States-General has some control over colonial affairs.Revised commercial, civil and criminal codes for the Netherlands Indies are introduced, applicable to people of European descent only.Demonstration in Batavia, led by Baron van Hoevell (a Dutch Reformed minister), petitions the King of the Netherlands for freedom of the press, public secondary schools, and representation for the Netherlands Indies in the States General.Regency schools, for the education and training of the children of local rulers and nobles, begin operations.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas  

 

1850

  Dutch begin missionary work among Bataks of north Sumatra.Famine in Central Java.Dutch purchase the remaining Portuguese posts on Flores.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas .

 

     

1851

  “Dokter-Jawa” INDISCHE_ARTS school (STOVIA,now Museum) founded in Gambir NEAR Dutch Army Hospital(now RSPAD Gatot Subroto), Batavia.Billiton Maatschappij begins tin mining on Belitung.at Soegai Liat city , Many Chinese laborers are imported.

1852

  Aceh sends an emissary to Napoleon III of France.Cola trees are introduced on Java.Dutch end the tax on the hajj.                       .       .  

1857

  Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.
Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.  

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.  

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.  

1862

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.  

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends. In 1863, the government of the Netherlands used profits from the exploitation of the Netherlands Indies to compensate former slaveholders in Suriname in South America, after slavery was abolished there.

1864

  April 1First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.
First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864.

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870.

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.  

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease. The Dutch would waste over 30 years trying to take full control of Aceh, and would never fully succeed.

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common fighters.

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch officials.

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1853

  Dutch begin administering north Bali.Mangkunegara IV takes his title in Surakarta.
A local ruler on Madura, about 1853.

1854

  Netherlands government issues a constitutional reform for the Netherlands Indies (“Regeeringsreglement”). Local rulers in the Indies are to continue to have traditional powers over their subjects, ruling on behalf of the Dutch. A strict separation betweens Europeans and “Inlanders” is recognized in the law.Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies receives the power to exile anyone without appeal or review.Aceh establishes authority over Langkat, Deli and Serdang on east coast of Sumatra (“pepper ports”).Introduction of cinchona (quinine) cultivation to the Priangan, at Cibodas, West Java.
     

 

1855

  Hamengkubuwono VI becomes Sultan of Yogya.Dutch military expedition to Nias.Dutch extend control over western Kalimantan.Dutch East Indie forbiiden circulated all type of coins issued before 1855 included locla and chinese cash coins, and issued first half cent and one cent  copper coincoin (very rare because limited edition only 200.000)

1856

  Regulation on Publications gives the Governor-General authority to conduct prepublication censorship of the press without appeal or review.MarchEduard Douwes Dekker is dismissed from his government post in West Java after accusing local bupatis of corruption. (Later, under the pen name “Multatuli”, he writes the novel “Max Havelaar”, exposing conditions in colonial Java to readers in the Netherlands.)Dutch military expedition to Flores.
Eduard Douwes Dekker, or “Multatuli”

1857

Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.

 

  .
          .  

 

   

1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.

 

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.
 

 

     

 

     

 

           

 

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.        

1862

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.

 

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends.
          .       .  

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about

1864

  April 1First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.
First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

 

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.               .  

 

                  .               .                          

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch o

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

 

   

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease.
     

 

    .        

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch o

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common
  .  

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.
     

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.

 

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.        

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.
      power passed from traditional rulers to

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia.

 

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.     .  

 

  .  

 

             

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.          

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.
     

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).                 .

 

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.         .

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

 

1890

 

 
 
Zijlker mendirikan perusahaan yang akan menjadi Royal Dutch  Shell2.  Ekspedisi KNIL belanda melawan Flores.
3 HindiaBelanda memper-kenalkan pajak properti.(bangunan)
                         

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1891

  Mengwi  Bali diambil alih oleh Badung.2.Pemberontakan Naqshbandiyya di Lombok menentang hukum masyarakat Mataram Bali ; Dutch 3Pekerja kontral pertama berangkat ke Suriname di Amerika Selatan 
mesjid traditional aceh tahun  1800

 

             

1893

  Pakubuwono X menjadi  Susuhunan  Solo.2.Sekolah pertama untuk penduduk pribumi Indonesia didirikan

.

         

1894

 

 
 
1.intervensi terakhir Belanda di Lombok berhasil; bangsawan turun di Puputan; Karangasem menjadi ketergantungan 2.Pada akhirnya Belanda mengorganisir “Perang Batak” 3..Pemberontakan melawan Portugis di Timor Timor.4.Hindia Belanda monopoli opium yang dikelola dimana  negara  mengontrol perdagangan opium (Opiumregie)..
 
.”Puputan” adalah biaya bunuh diri oleh kaum bangsawan Bali untuk membela kehormatan mereka kapan lagi semua hilang.
.Keluarga  akan memakai pakaian upacara, mempersenjatai diri dengan senjata palsu dan berjalan langsung ke pelluru tembakan.Dilaporkan bahwa   peristiwa mengerikan di Lombok sampai  ke Belanda, dan menyebabkan reaksi yang sangat berbeda di berbagai segmen masyarakat. Pers populer dipromosikan demam perang, dan lebih dari 3000 relawan tentara setuju untuk pergi ke Hindia dan berjuang untuk mahkota Belanda. Namun, pengamat lain terkejut, dan reaksi mereka membantu memulai gerakan menuju reformasi moderat dalam pemerintahan kolonial yang akhirnya akan dikenal sebagai “Politik Etis”.

“.

1895

 
 
1.Jami’at Khair didirikan, organisasi yang berdedikasi ke pendidikan Bahasa Arab
2.Timor Portugis , sebelumnya dikelola dari Macao, menerima persetujuannya administrasi sendiri
3.British-Belanda menetapkan batas antara klaim mereka di Irian (New Guinea).
 
              .  

 

     

1896

 
    1.Raja Chulalongkorn dari Thailand melakukan kunjungan kenegaraan ke Hindia Belanda 2. Belanda menyerangan gerilyawan di Aceh dengan pasukan khusus (Korps Marechaussee).      .  

1898

 

  Belanda mulai menjelajahi Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz menjadi Gubernur Belanda di Aceh. Penasihat-Nya .
Snouck HurgronjeSnouck Hurgronje memperkenalkan “Korte Verklaring”, sebuah perjanjian pendek mengakui pemerintahan Belanda, untuk menggantikan perjanjian yang rumit lebih tua dengan penguasa lokal; Belanda mengejar aliansi dengan uleebalang terhadap Islam leaders.June Van Heutsz mengirim suatu ekspedisi Belanda yang sukses melawan Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje mempelajari Islam di Indonesia sebagai pengamat, dan merupakan penasihat Van Heutsz dan pejabat pemerintah lainnya di Hindia Belanda. Pada 1885, ia pergi diam-diam ke Mekah, dan melaporkan bahwa pada waktu itu, ada sejumlah besar Melayu dan Indonesia yang tinggal there.Starting tentang waktu ini, Belanda mulai mendorong ibadah Islam dan praktek, selama tidak terlibat politik . Tujuannya adalah untuk menyalurkan antusiasme Islam jauh dari politik 

 

1899

    

Raden Ajeng Kartini adalah seorang bangsawan Jawa yang surat-surat itu diterjemahkan dan diterbitkan pada tahun 1976 menjadi sebuah buku berjudul “Door Duisternist tot Licht” Di Indonesia, Kartini dikenal untuk kontribusinya untuk menerapkan doktrin-doktrin yang begitu (Dari Kegelapan ke Light.)- disebut feminisme Eropa kontemporer kepada masyarakat sendiri. Melalui surat menggugah dia, Kartini adalah mempertanyakan banyak hal yang dianggap penting pada saat itu, seperti seni, sastra, dan kesejahteraan ekonomi. Tapi warisan yang terbaik adalah ide tentang mendidik perempuan Jawa yang didasarkan pada pengalaman sendiri sebagai seorang bangsawan Jawa yang mengalami pembatasan yang diberlakukan oleh tradisi Jawa untuk melanjutkan studi-nya [2]. Dengan ayahnya Raden Sosroningrat, Kartini diizinkan belajar sampai dia sekitar 12 tahun yang merupakan hal yang cukup revolusioner untuk melakukannya pada waktu itu. Kartini pergi ke sekolah untuk orang-orang Eropa di mana dia bisa belajar bahasa Belanda dan memberikan dia sebuah pengantar untuk pemikiran Barat. Meskipun keinginannya untuk belajar terpenuhi, Kartini tidak sepenuhnya senang karena ia mengalami tekanan dari teman-teman Eropa dan guru, 3]. , Kartini mulai membangun persahabatan dengan teman-teman beberapa Eropa yang kemudian mendesak ayah Kartini untuk mengizinkan dia melanjutkan studinya ke pendidikan menengah. Tapi Raden Sosroningrat tidak cukup berani untuk memecahkan tradisi,, Kartini mendapat semacam pencerahan tentang perempuan dan tradisi Jawa dengan membaca buku-buku dan surat kabar, mendengarkan pembicaraan ayahnya, dan mengamati perilaku tamu ayahnya dan relatif: “ideal gadis Jawa … sepi, sebagai bergerak sebagai boneka kayu, berbicara hanya jika benar-benar diperlukan dengan suara, berbisik kecil yang tidak dapat didengar oleh semut. Dia berjalan langkah demi langkah seperti bekicot, tertawa tanpa suara tanpa membuka mulutnya, menunjukkan gigi seseorang dianggap sangat jelek, satu tampak seperti rubah. “[4] status perempuan untuk laki-laki karena tingkat kesantunan yang lebih tinggi diharapkan dari bawahan kepada atasan [5] kita adalah manusia sama seperti laki-laki. Mari saya membuktikannya. rantai Loose saya “[6]. , Lembaga pertama yang mengajarkan dia untuk berperilaku tepat sebagai seorang gadis dan seorang wanita [7]. Kartini harus belajar ‘domestik’ tugas-tugas yang secara normatif dipelajari oleh anak perempuan di kelas ‘seperti, memasak, mengurus rumah tangga, dan menyesuaikan (atau membatik). batasan bagi perempuan untuk memperluas ruang privat ke ruang publik [8].
Dia bertekad untuk menikah dengan duda, Raden Adipati Djojodiningrat, yang sudah memiliki tiga istri. Saya menganggap Kartini menangkap ide ini poligami sebagai bentuk penindasan patriarki terhadap perempuan [9) seluruh hidupnya di antara mereka,  perempuan asli benar-benar memiliki hati yang dapat merasakan dan menderita seperti halus, perempuan dibudidayakan dalam masyarakat Anda . Banyak membanggakan diri bahwa mereka disiapkan dengan satu atau lebih wanita dari suami mereka dengan wajah bergeming, tetapi tidak bertanya apa yang tersembunyi di balik topeng ini besi, atau apa dinding rumah mereka bersembunyi dari pandangan. Ada begitu banyak hati perempuan berduka dan jiwa yang menderita malang anak-anak yang tidak bersalah “[10]. Segala sesuatu kepada orang dan tidak ada wanita “[11]. hanya mengalihkan perhatian perempuan terhadap bentuk lain dari penindasan, yaitu patriarki publik. Baik patriarki swasta atau publik membawa pembebasan bagi perempuan [12]. Kartini melihat bahwa hanya  mengajar dan belajar sebagai jalan keluar dari hegemoni tradisi  patriarki

hidup telah datang untuk mengklaim janji itu dariku. Tidak akan terlalu pahit, terlalu sulit, terlalu sulit bagi kita jika kita mampu melalui itu memberikan kontribusi bahkan satu tetes pasir ke gedung itu monumen yang indah: kebahagiaan rakyat “[17]

 
 

1.RA Kartini mulai berkarier dalam mengajar tulis menulis .2.Pesantren Tebuireng, sebuah sekolah Islam yang terkenal, didirikan di Jombang, Timur Java.3.Teuku Umar tewas dalam sebuah ambush.4.Van Deventer Belanda, seorang pembaharu kolonial, menerbitkan “Een Eereschuld”, menuntut agar uang yang dikumpulkan di masa lalu dari Hindia Belanda menjadi direstitusi ke Hindia Belanda untuk membantu melunasi hutang kolonial yang meningkat   .

 

.

 

1900

 
 
Raja Gianyar di Bali tunduk kepada  Belanda  Sekolah  Tinggi Belanda di Bandung, Magelang dan Probolinggo ditata kembali untuk melatih calon dari Jawa untuk pelayanan sipil lokal.
 

pasukan Tradisional  Nias, 1900.
      .

 

  .          

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1901

 The Mentawai Islands are a chain of about seventy islands and islets off the western coast of Sumatra
Desa di Mentawai tahun 1895
. Siberut (4,030 km²) adalah pulau yang terbesar >pulau besar lainnya adalah  Sipora, Pagai Utara dan Pagai Selatan. Pulau-pulau terletak 150 km dari pantai  Sumatra meliwati selat  Mentawai ..sejarah

Kepulauan Mentawai dipisahkan sekali lagi dari daratan Sumatera oleh naiknya permukaan air laut. Orang-orang Mentawai diperkirakan telah tiba di pulau-pulau di suatu tempat antara tahun 2000 dan 500 SM, bermigrasi dari utara melalui Siberut dan kemudian pindah selatan ke Sipora dan pulau-pulau Pagai. .Portugis menyadari pulau-pulau di awal abad ke-17: peta tanggal 1606 menunjukkan Siberut sebagai “Mintaon”. Pada Agustus 1792 John Crisp, seorang pegawai British East India Company, mengunjungi Pagai (“Poggy”) pulau biaya sendiri untuk mempelajari masyarakat Mentawai. Ceritanya diterbitkan pada 1799,  memberikan rincian pertama dari orang Mentawai dalam literatur barat. Kepulauan Mentawai resmi menjadi bagian dari Hindia Belanda pada tanggal 10 Juli 1864, bukan yang telah tunduk pada Perjanjian Anglo-Belanda 1824. Pada tahun 1901 Royal Jerman Missionary Society didirikan kehadiran di pantai selatan pulau Pagai Utara atas undangan pemerintah kolonial Belanda. Misionaris pertama adalah dibunuh, dan itu tidak sampai 1915 bahwa orang pertama dikonversi, dengan program kemudian yang diperluas ke pulau-pulau lain.
Kepulauan Mentawai, gambar yang diambil 1930.
  
    Jambi ditempatkan di bawah kendali Belanda Residen Palembang selama pertanyaan suksesi dan unrest.Zijlker terkait ‘s Royal perusahaan minyak Belanda mengekspansi Kalimantan.Dutch tempat garnisun di Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno adalah born.Queen Wilhelmina dari Belanda mengumumkan “Politik Etis” terhadap Hindia. Eropa di Hindia, yang menguasai ekonomi dan pemerintah, dibayarkan hanya 20% dari pendapatan pajak Hindia  Sebagian besar beban pajak masih jatuh pada Indonesia asli, meskipun pembongkaran dari sistem budaya. Pendapatan ini digunakan, antara lain, untuk membiayai penaklukan militer Belanda di islands.But luar itu tidak cukup. Pada saat ini, pemerintah Belanda mengirim lebih banyak uang untuk mendukung Hindia Belanda daripada mengumpulkan dari Hindia pendapatan. Sebagian besar arus kas dari Hindia ke Belanda setelah 1900 berada di tangan usaha swasta.      

 

   

1902

klateklasik.inet col.tanah suci

kaaba.makka tul mukkoromah-1918

  Belanda menghentikan pembantasan naik haji ke Mekah(pilgrimage to Mecca).  

 

   

 

1903

Van Heutsz survei pasukan di lapangan di Aceh.
Tiga puluh tahun perang di Aceh biaya hidup 60.000 Aceh, ditambah lebih dari 2.000 tentara Belanda tewas dalam pertempuran, dan lebih dari 10.000 tentara Belanda tewas dari penyakit. Lain 25.000 buruh paksa di bawah Belanda meninggal di Aceh dalam periode ini.
    Sultan Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, menyerah kepada Belanda, tetapi tetap kontak rahasia dengan guerillas.Netherlands Hindia mulai membuka sekolah MULO untuk education.Decentralization dasar Undang-Undang memberikan sejumlah kecil kursi dalam pemerintah daerah dan propinsi untuk penduduk asli Hindia. Pertama pemilu yang pernah di Jawa adalah held.Netherlands perbendaharaan Hindia mendapat perbendaharaan yang terpisah dari perbendaharaan rumah di Belanda.

 
 

 

   Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah pada 1903 yang secara kerajaan telah tunduk kepada belanda, namun perlawanan rakyat tetap berkibar.Sultan Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, menyerah kepada Belanda, tetapi tetap kontak rahasia dengan gerijawan. Hindia Belanda  mulai membuka sekolah MULO untuk pendidikan .Desentralisasi dasar Undang-Undang memberikan sejumlah kecil kursi dalam pemerintah daerah dan propinsi untuk penduduk asli Hindia. Pertama pemilu yang pernah di Jawa adalah  perbendaharaan Hindia mendapat perbendaharaan yang terpisah dari perbendaharaan kerajaan di Belanda..

1904

 Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

 
 
 
   
Baru-baru ini Van Heutsz, Gubernur militer Aceh, menjadi Gubernur Jenderal  baru(hingga 1909). Sultan Thaha Jambi dibunuh oleh Belanda.
kapal Belanda .
Mai “Sri Koemala”   hancur  di Sanur , Bali. Warga menyelamatkan bangkai kapal, pemilik kapal  atas  permintaan reparasi  dari pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Hubungan antara Hindia Belanda dan Raja Badung di Bali memburuk jauh sebagai Hindia result.Netherlands ekspedisi militer mengambil alih wilayah Batak ekspedisi Sumatra di bawah Kapten Van Daalen ke dataran tinggi Aceh membunuh lebih dari 3000 warga desa, termasuk lebih dari 1000 wanita dan anak-anak.
 Pemerintah
Belanda memulai serangkaian hibah dan program pinjaman pengembalian untuk Hindia Belanda .Dewi Sartika mendirikan Sekolah Isteri (Sekolah untuk Perempuan).
 


 “Groepsportret met Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin van Djambi en zijn gevolg”

Potret kelompok Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin Jambi dan rombongannya
             

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1905

  

Sarekat Islam pada awalnya adalah perkumpulan pedagang-pedagang Islam yang diberi nama Sarekat Dagang Islam. Perkumpulan ini didirikan oleh Haji Samanhudi tahun 1905 di kota Solo. Perkumpulan ini semakin berkembang pesat ketika Tjokroaminoto  pada tahun 1911  memegang tampuk pimpinan dan mengubah nama perkumpulan menjadi Sarekat Islam. Sarekat Islam (SI) dapat dipandang sebagai salah satu gerakan yang paling menonjol sebelum Perang Dunia II.

Pendiri Sarekat Dagang Islam, Haji Samanhudi adalah seorang pengusaha batik di Kampung Lawean (Solo) yang mempunyai banyak pekerja, sedangkan pengusaha-pengusaha batik lainnya adalah orang-orang Cina dan Arab.

 

 
  .
JanuaryBelanda memulai lima bulan operasi militer di Kalimantan.
Belanda mengirim kekuatan militer terhadap pemberontakan di darat pasukan Ceram.
August Belanda menduduki   Pare Pare.  Belanda banyak kemajuan  di Sulawesi, Bugis, Makasar, daerah Toraja diambil untuk selamanya. Penguasa Bone adalah resistensi kontak deposed.
Acehnese  meninta  kepada Konsul Jepang di Singapura untuk membantu .
Belanda  menempati Mentawai islands.
First serikat buruh yang didirikan untuk rel kereta api workers.
October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah didirikan oleh Kyai Haji Samanhudi, awalnya untuk menjaga kepentingan produsen batik muslim dalam dewan Surakarta.
Municipal didirikan di Batavia dan pemerintah Hindia Bandung.
 
Belanda  mensponsori komunitas petani Jawa transplantasi di Lampung: contoh pertama dari transmigrasi.

 

     
             

 

   

1906

Puputan is a Balinese term that refers to a mass ritual suicide [1] in preference to facing the humiliation of surrender. Notable puputans occurred in 1906 and 1908 when the Balinese were being subjugated by the Dutch.

The Raja of Buleleng killing himself with 400 followers, in a 1849 puputan against the Dutch. Le Petit Journal, 1849.
Puputan Badung 1906Pada tanggal 14 September 1906, sebuah kekuatan besar Belanda mendarat di pantai Sanur, tidak ada perlawanan signifikan dan memaksa berbaris ke Denpasar, Bali, seolah-olah dalam parade gaun. Mereka melewati sebuah kota yang tampak sepi dan mendekati istana kerajaan, mencatat asap mengepul dari puri  yang paling disembunyikan, mereka mendengar pemukulan liar dari gendrang yang datang dari dalam dinding istana.Setelah mereka mencapai istana, prosesi diam muncul, dipimpin oleh Raja yang ditanggung oleh empat pembawa pada sebuah tandu. Raja mengenakan pakaian tradisional kremasi putih, memakai perhiasan megah, dan bersenjata dengan keris upacara. Orang-orang lain dalam prosesi terdiri dari, Raja penjaga pejabat, imam, istri, anak-anak dan pengikut, semuanya s berpakaian yang sama
 
 
.
 

September 15 Tentara Hindia Belanda berhasil maju  di Bali dan  armada Hindia Belanda mendarat dengan lego  jangkar di Sanur.
20 September Pasukan Angkatan Laut Hindia  Belanda  menyerang Denpasar.
 Raja, pasukan dan rakyat Badung melakukan bunuh diri dalam sebuah Puputan, berbaris di jalan utama Denpasar. Lebih dari 3600 adalah dibunuh . 23September pasukan Hindia Belanda maju ke Tabanan, Bali. Raja Tabanan menawarkan untuk menyerah dengan syarat bahwa ia diizinkan untuk mempertahankan gelar dan lahan. Resident Hindia Belanda membawa Raja tabanan  ke dalam tahanan sampai ia dapat menerima jawaban dari pemerintah Hindia Belanda di Batavia. Raja Tabanan melakukan bunuh diri  saat didalam tahanan .
Produksi Karet  di Sumatra meningkat  dengan  variasi tanaman baru .Pemerintah Hindia Belanda memegang kendali langsung di Sumba.
Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  mendirikan protektorat atas Berau di 
Kalimantan Timur  .
Sensor Pos terhadap Penerbitan (publikasi) diperkenalkan: semua penerbitan harus diserahkan ke sensor untuk ditinjau dalam waktu 24 jam sebelum peluncurannya
.

1907

 Sisingamangaraja

Raja Si Singamangaraja I : Raja Manghuntal

 di daerah Tapanuli Selatan sedang terjadi wabah penyakit menular (begu antuk) yang juga mengenai/menyerang pasukan Tuanku Rao sehingga kacau balau. Tawanannya tercecer di Tapanuli Selatan. Sebagian dari yang tercecer ini membuat perkampungan di daerah di Tapanuli Selatan ini.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XI : Ompu SohahuaonBelum lagi selesai penderitaan akibat serangan si Pokki terjadi pula musim kemarau yang berkepanjangan. Masyarakat Si Onom Ompu bersepakat menyampaikan hal ini kepada boru Situmorang dan memintanya kembali ke Bakara. Setelah boru Situmorang membawa kedua anaknya kembali, masyarakatpun meminta agar Ompu Sohahuaon mereka gondangi untuk turunnya hujan.
Acara margondangpun dipersiapkan dengan baik dan Ompu Sohahuaon yang masih kecil tampil dengan berpakaian ulos Batak. Boru Situmorang dan masyarakat si Onom Ompu kaget dan kagum, karena Ompu Sohahuaon yang masih kecil itu mampu meminta gondang dan mengucapkan tonggo-tonggo untuk turunya hujan. Merekapun mengelu-elukan dengan manortor. Haripun menjadi gelap karena mendung dan hujanpun turun dengan lebat. Ompu Sohahuaon terus manortor sampai berakhir gondang yang dipintanya. Kemudian diserahkan Piso Gaja Dompak kepadanya dan manortor kembali sambil menghunus Piso Gaja Dompak dengan sempurna dan disarungkan kembali. Ompu Sohahuaon dinobatkan menjadi Raja Si Singamangaraja XI dalam usia 10 tahun.

Pada masa pemerintahan Raja Si Singamangaraja XI disusunlah  “Pustaha Harajaon (pustaka kerajaan)”  yang ditulis dengan dawat/tinta cina diatas kertas Watermark ukuran folio buatan Itali dalam tulisan dan bahasa Batak. Pustaka ini dibuat atas bimbingan dari Ompu Sohahuaon sendiri. Pustaha harajaon ini terdiri atas 24 jilid, setiap jilidnya tebalnya sekitar 5 Cm yang isinya secara singkat dapat diuraikan sebagai berikut :
  • Jilid 1 s/d 3: Pemerintahan Tuan Sorimangaraja selama 90 turunan mulai dari Putri Tapi Donda Nauasan.
  • Jilid 4 s/d 7: Pemerintahan kerajaan Singamangaraja  I s/d  IX.
  • Jilid 8: Perihal Pedang Padri Tuanku Rao terhadap Tuan Nabolon Sisingamangaraja X.
  • Jilid 9: Perihal Pongkinangolngolan dan Datu Aman Tagor Simanullang.
  • Jilid 11 s/d 12: Perihal Pendeta Pilgram, pembunuhan atas diri Pendeta Lyman dan Munson oleh Raja Panggalamei.
  • Jilid 13-16: Periode pembangunan kembali ibu kota kerajaan Bakara dan daerah-daerah Toba tahun 1835-1845 atas pembumi hangusan perang bonjol.
  • Jilid 17: Perihal Dr. Junghun, van der Tuuk yang datang menjumpai Sisingamangaraja XI dan perihal photonya.
  • Jilid 18 s/d 24: Penobatan Ompu Sohahuaon menjadi Sisingamangaraja XI, pemerintahannya sampai tahun 1886 dan perihal penyakit menular yang dahsyat di tanah Batak.

Pada tahun 1884 Pustaha Harajaon ini ditemukan dari tumpukan rumah kerajaan yang dibakar oleh tentera Belanda. Dibawa ke Holland oleh Pendeta Pilgrams dan sekarang ada di Museum Perpustakaan Pemerintah Belanda di Leiden Holland. Pustaha Harajaon tidak diteruskan penulisannya oleh Sisingamangaraja XII sebab tidak ada kesempatan, karena semenjak awal pemerintahannya, Koloni Belanda telah melancarkan agresinya di tanah Batak dan sekitarnya, sehingga Ompu Pulobatu berperang selama 30 tahun sampai tewasnya dalam usia 59 tahun pada 17 juni 1907.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XI Ompu Sohahuaon menikah dengan boru Aritonang sebagai isteri pertama yang melahirkan Raja Parlopuk . Isteri kedua adalah boru Situmorang yang melahirkan Patuan Bosar gelar Ompu Pulo Batu. Beda umur Raja Parlopuk dengan Patuan Bosar sangat jauh, ada sekitar 15 tahun.
Ketika Ompu Sohahuaon jatuh sakit, maka jalan pemerintahan dilaksanakan oleh Raja Parlopuk. Cukup lama Raja Parlopuk memegang tugas itu dan dilaksanakannya dengan baik. Tahun 1866 Ompu Sohahuaoan meninggal di Bakara dan dibangun makamnya oleh Raja Parlopuk dengan Si Onom Ompu di Lumban Raja. Makam inilah yang pertama ada di Bakara karena Sisingamangaraja I hingga  IX tidak diketahui meninggal di mana. Waktu Raja Si Singamangaraja XI meninggal, Patuan Bosar sedang merantau ke Aceh.

Makam ini dibongkar oleh Raja Si Singamangaraja XII karena Bakara diserang Belanda. Tulang belulang Raja Si Singamangaraja XI dibawanya ikut berjuang ke hutan, karena tidak ingin tengkorak orang-tuanya diambil oleh Belanda. Semasa perjuangan tulang-belulang ini di titipkan di huta Janji Dolok Sanggul lalu dipindahkan lagi ke Huta Paung. Setelah zaman kemerdekaan, kembali di pindahkan di rumah Soposurung.

Kira-kira 105 tahun kemudian, makam ini dibangun kembali oleh keluarga Raja Sisingamangaraja dan pada tahun 1975 tulang belulang Raja Sisingamangaraja XI dan istrerinya dimakamkan kembali ke makam semula di Bakara. Raja Parlopuk terus melaksanakan pemerintahan Singamangaraja hingga tahun 1871, yaitu setelah dinobatkannya Patuan Bosar sebagai Raja Sisingamangaraja XII.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XII : Patuan Bosar gelar Ompu Pulo BatuWalaupun Raja Si Singamangaraja XI telah meninggal, Si Onom Ompu tidak merasa ada yang kurang dalam pemerintahan, karena Raja Parlopuk bekerja dengan cukup baik. Tetapi ketika musim kemarau datang dan membawa penderitaan, mulailah si Onom Ompu berfikir untuk adanya acara margondang. Raja Parlopukpun mereka persilahkan untuk mereka gondangi agar dia martonggo memohon turun hujan. Tetapi hujan tidak turun-turun juga.Mulanya Ompu Pulo Batu tidak bersedia mereka gondangi karena merasa bahwa abangnya itu telah sebagai raja pengganti ayahnya. Akhirnya Ompu Pulo Batu bersedia karena melihat penderitaan yang diderita masyarakat Si Onom Ompu. Setelah melaksanakan upacara seperti yang biasa dilakukan, Ompu Pulobatu berhasil mendatangkan hujan. Ompu Pulo Batupun dinobatkan menjadi Raja Si Singamangaraja XII pada tahun 1871.Ompu Pulo Batu lahir tahun 1848 dari ibunya boru Situmorang. Pada saat pemuda, Ompu Pulo Batu merantau ke Aceh, disana bergaul dengan pedagang dari Persia dan belajar banyak hal. Karena itu ketika perang melawan Belanda, Raja Si Singamangaraja XII dibantu oleh pejuang-pejuang dari Aceh, dan dalam cap/stempelnya dipakai Bahasa Arab dan Bahasa Batak.
Pada tahun 1877 Raja Si Singamangaraja XII menyatakan perang kepada Belanda. Kemudian dia menjalankan perang terhadap Belanda selama 3 dasawarsa.
 

 

  Militer Belanda memadamkan pemberontakan di Flores, menetap pejabat  pengawasan (kontrolier)diwilayah tersebut .Pengamanan  lengkap akhirnya diperoleh  di Jambi. gerilyawan Aceh  menyerang Belanda di Bandar Aceh. Pemberontakan Raja  Sisingamangaraja XII dari Batak  melawan Belanda, dan ditembak saat konflik di Hindia belanda.Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  memperkenalkan pajak atas perdagangan Gula ( businesses.Zijlker ‘s)  Perusahaan minyak Kerajaan Belanda menyatu dengan Shell Transport dan Perdagangan menjadi Royal  Shell.Dutch mengirim polisi ke Kepulauan Tanimbar untuk menghentikan  konflik. pendidikan baru antar suku bertujuan untuk menawarkan sekolah 3-tahun untuk anak-anak di populasi umum. .

Foto tahun 1907. Tentara Belanda mengejar Sisingamangaraja XII di kawasan hutan Tele. Dipimpin Hans Christoffel (memegang tongkat), mereka berpose sejenak di daerah Sagala

 

 

          .        
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1908

20 Mei 1908

 
Budi Utomo adalah organisasi pemuda yang didirikan oleh Dr. Sutomo pada tanggal 20 Mei 1908. Berdirinya Budi Utomo menjadi awal gerakan yang bertujuan mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia.Saat ini tanggal berdirinya Budi Utomo, 20 Mei, diperingati sebagai Hari Kebangkitan Nasional.
Latar Belakang
Budi Utomo lahir dari pertemuan-pertemuan dan diskusi yang sering dilakukan di perpustakaan School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen oleh beberapa mahasiswa, antara lain Soetomo, Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemo, Goembrek, Saleh, dan Soeleman. Mereka memikirkan nasib bangsa yang sangat buruk dan selalu dianggap bodoh dan tidak bermartabat oleh bangsa lain (Belanda), serta bagaimana cara memperbaiki keadaan yang amat buruk dan tidak adil itu. Para pejabat pangreh praja(sekarang pamong praja) kebanyakan hanya memikirkan kepentingan sendiri dan jabatan. Dalam praktik mereka pun tampak menindas rakyat dan bangsa sendiri, misalnya dengan menarik pajak sebanyak-banyaknya untuk menyenangkan hati atasan dan para penguasa Belanda.Para pemuda mahasiswa itu juga menyadari bahwa orang-orang lain mendirikan perkumpulan hanya untuk golongan sendiri dan tidak mau mengajak, bahkan tidak menerima, orang Jawa sesama penduduk Pulau Jawa untuk menjadi anggota perkumpulan yang eksklusif, seperti Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan untuk orang Tionghoa dan Indische Bond untuk orang Indo-Belanda. Pemerintah Hindia Belanda jelas juga tidak bisa diharapkan mau menolong dan memperbaiki nasib rakyat kecil kaum pribumi, bahkan sebaliknya, merekalah yang selama ini menyengsarakan kaum pribumi dengan mengeluarkan peraturan-peraturan yang sangat merugikan rakyat kecil.Para pemuda itu akhirnya berkesimpulan bahwa merekalah yang harus mengambil prakarsa menolong rakyatnya sendiri. Pada waktu itulah muncul gagasan Soetomo untuk mendirikan sebuah perkumpulan yang akan mempersatukan semua orang Jawa, Sunda, dan Madura yang diharapkan bisa dan bersedia memikirkan serta memperbaiki nasib bangsanya. Perkumpulan ini tidak bersifat eksklusif tetapi terbuka untuk siapa saja tanpa melihat kedudukan, kekayaan, atau pendidikannya.Pada awalnya, para pemuda itu berjuang untuk penduduk yang tinggal di Pulau Jawa dan Madura, yang untuk mudahnya disebut saja suku bangsa Jawa. Mereka mengakui bahwa mereka belum mengetahui nasib, aspirasi, dan keinginan suku-suku bangsa lain di luar Pulau Jawa, terutama Sumatera, Manado, dan Ambon. Apa yang diketahui adalah bahwa Belanda menguasai suatu wilayah yang disebut Hindia (Timur) Belanda (Nederlandsch Oost-Indie), tetapi sejarah penjajahan dan nasib suku-suku bangsa yang ada di wilayah itu bermacam-macam, begitu pula kebudayaannya. Dengan demikian, sekali lagi pada awalnya Budi Utomo memang memusatkan perhatiannya pada penduduk yang mendiami Pulau Jawa dan Madura saja karena, menurut anggapan para pemuda itu, penduduk Pulau Jawa dan Madura terikat oleh kebudayaan yang sama.Sekalipun para pemuda itu merasa tidak tahu banyak tentang nasib, keadaan, sejarah, dan aspirasi suku-suku bangsa di luar Pulau Jawa dan Madura, mereka tahu bahwa saat itu orang Manado mendapat gaji lebih banyak dan diperlakukan lebih baik daripada orang Jawa. Padahal, dari sisi pendidikan, keduanya berjenjang sama. Itulah sebabnya pemuda Soetomo dan kawan-kawan tidak mengajak pemuda-pemuda di luar Jawa untuk bekerja sama, hanya karena khawatir untuk ditolak.Budi UtomoPada hari Minggu, 20 Mei 1908, pada pukul sembilan pagi, bertempat di salah satu ruang belajar STOVIA, Soetomo menjelaskan gagasannya. Dia menyatakan bahwa hari depan bangsa dan Tanah Air ada di tangan mereka. Maka lahirlah Boedi Oetomo. Namun, para pemuda juga menyadari bahwa tugas mereka sebagai mahasiswa kedokteran masih banyak, di samping harus berorganisasi. Oleh karena itu, mereka berpendapat bahwa “kaum tua”-lah yang harus memimpin Budi Utomo, sedangkan para pemuda sendiri akan menjadi motor yang akan menggerakkan organisasi itu.Sepuluh tahun pertama Budi Utomo mengalami beberapa kali pergantian pemimpin organisasi. Kebanyakan memang para pemimpin berasal kalangan “priayi” atau para bangsawan dari kalangan keraton, seperti Raden Adipati Tirtokoesoemo, bekas Bupati Karanganyar (presiden pertama Budi Utomo), dan Pangeran Ario Noto Dirodjo dari Keraton Pakualaman.Perkembangan
Budi Utomo mengalami fase perkembangan penting saat kepemimpinan Pangeran Noto Dirodjo. Saat itu, Douwes Dekker, seorang Indo-Belanda yang sangat properjuangan bangsa Indonesia, dengan terus terang mewujudkan kata “politik” ke dalam tindakan yang nyata. Berkat pengaruhnyalah pengertian mengenai “tanah air Indonesia” makin lama makin bisa diterima dan masuk ke dalam pemahaman orang Jawa. Maka muncullah Indische Partijyang sudah lama dipersiapkan oleh Douwes Dekker melalui aksi persnya. Perkumpulan ini bersifat politik dan terbuka bagi semua orang Indonesia tanpa terkecuali. Baginya “tanah air” (Indonesia) adalah di atas segala-galanya.Pada masa itu pula muncul Sarekat Islam, yang pada awalnya dimaksudkan sebagai suatu perhimpunan bagi para pedagang besar maupun kecil di Solo dengan nama Sarekat Dagang Islam, untuk saling memberi bantuan dan dukungan. Tidak berapa lama, nama itu diubah oleh, antara lain, Tjokroaminoto, menjadi Sarekat Islam, yang bertujuan untuk mempersatukan semua orang Indonesia yang hidupnya tertindas oleh penjajahan. Sudah pasti keberadaan perkumpulan ini ditakuti orang Belanda. Munculnya gerakan yang bersifat politik semacam itu rupanya yang menyebabkan Budi Utomo agak terdesak ke belakang. Kepemimpinan perjuangan orang Indonesia diambil alih oleh Sarekat Islam dan Indische Partij karena dalam arena politik Budi Utomo memang belum berpengalaman.Karena gerakan politik perkumpulan-perkumpulan tersebut, makna nasionalismemakin dimengerti oleh kalangan luas. Ada beberapa kasus yang memperkuat makna tersebut. Ketika Pemerintah Hindia Belanda hendak merayakan ulang tahun kemerdekaan negerinya, dengan menggunakan uang orang Indonesia sebagai bantuan kepada pemerintah yang dipungut melalui penjabat pangreh praja pribumi, misalnya, rakyat menjadi sangat marah.Kemarahan itu mendorong Soewardi Suryaningrat (yang kemudian bernama Ki Hadjar Dewantara) untuk menulis sebuah artikel “Als ik Nederlander was” (Seandainya Saya Seorang Belanda), yang dimaksudkan sebagai suatu sindiran yang sangat pedas terhadap pihak Belanda. Tulisan itu pula yang menjebloskan dirinya bersama dua teman dan pembelanya, yaitu Douwes Dekker dan Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo ke penjara oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda (lihat: Boemi Poetera). Namun, sejak itu Budi Utomo tampil sebagai motor politik di dalam pergerakan orang-orang pribumi.Agak berbeda dengan Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemoyang lebih mengutamakan kebudayaan dari pendidikan, Soewardi menyatakan bahwa Budi Utomo adalah manifestasi dari perjuangan nasionalisme. Menurut Soewardi, orang-orang Indonesia mengajarkan kepada bangsanya bahwa “nasionalisme Indonesia” tidaklah bersifat kultural, tetapi murni bersifat politik. Dengan demikian, nasionalisme terdapat pada orang Sumatera maupun Jawa, Makassar maupun Ambon.Pendapat tersebut bertentangan dengan beberapa pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa Budi Utomo hanya mengenal nasionalisme Jawa sebagai alat untuk mempersatukan orang Jawa dengan menolak suku bangsa lain. Demikian pula Sarekat Islam juga tidak mengenal pengertian nasionalisme, tetapi hanya mempersyaratkan agama Islam agar seseorang bisa menjadi anggota.Namun, Soewardi tetap mengatakan bahwa pada hakikatnya akan segera tampak bahwa dalam perhimpunan Budi Utomo maupun Sarekat Islam, nasionalisme “Indonesia” ada dan merupakan unsur yang paling penting.
  
 
 
Pemberontakan Klungkung  melawan Belanda; bangsawan bunuh diri dengan Puputan untuk melestarikan pendapatan Hindia Belanda menyebabkan mereka campur tangan dalam konflik-konflik lokal di Sumbawa, mengambil control.Pengawasan  ketat berada di bawah peraturan .VSTP Belanda langsung (serikat pekerja rel) didirikan, menerima anggota Bangsa  Indonesia .20 Mai Budi Utomo didirikan di antara siswa Jawa kelas atas di Jakarta, termasuk masa depan dan Dr Sutomo, Dr  Cipto Mangunkusumo.
October Budi Utomo melaksanakan kongres di Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo meninggalkan organisasi .perhimpunan  Indonesia (Indische Vereeniging ) yang didirikan untuk mahasiswa Indonesia di Netherlands. pemberontakan Kecil di Minangkabau, merupakan suppressed.Netherlands Hindia memperkenalkan pajak penghasilan. Budi Utomo adalah organisasi politik yang kurang, terutama ditujukan untuk promosi budaya Jawa. Bunga ini adalah terbatas pada budaya Jawa. .
Pekerja tembakau di Deli, utara
 

Dewa terakhir Agung kehilangan nyawanya dalam apa yang disebut Puputan Klungkung Palace pada 28 April 1908 selama intervensi Belanda di Bali. Ini adalah serangan bunuh diri ritual sarat oleh dinasti dan pengikut mereka terhadap detasemen bersenjata baik pasukan kolonial Belanda. Pada akhirnya hampir dua ratus Bali dibunuh oleh peluru Belanda.
 
 
 
                .
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern
Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.             .
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern

1909

 
Uleebalang, atau aristokrasi tradisional Aceh, sekitar 1910. Para uleebalang akan mengembangkan reputasi untuk berkolaborasi dengan Belanda, setelah Perang Dunia I, banyak yang dibantai
  Tjokroaminoto naik ke kepemimpinan Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, sebuah penerbitan untuk wanita, adalah founded.Dutch mengkonsolidasikan kontrol atas Ceram.Dutch menetapkan pengendalian di Buru. .

 

   

1910


Pekerja kebun tembakau deli <Sumatra Utara,sekitar 1910

 

Perlawanan Islam di Aceh dipadamkan .Jami ‘di Khair digantikan oleh Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organisasi Arab Muslim di Indonesia.Pemberontakan  di Timor Portugis  di bawah Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie mendirikan Perserikatan Minahasa, organisasi sosial untuk Minahasa. Belanda ekspedisi untuk laporan binatang langka Komodo di pulau  Komodo ke Eropa untuk pertama kalinya
 

Perlawanan Islam di Aceh dipadamkan .Jami ‘di Khair digantikan oleh Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organisasi Arab Muslim di Indonesia.Pemberontakan  di Timor Portugis  di bawah Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie mendirikan Perserikatan Minahasa, organisasi sosial untuk Minahasa. Belanda ekspedisi untuk laporan binatang langka Komodo di pulau  Komodo ke Eropa untuk pertama kalinya
 

Selesai  @ Hak Cipta Dr Iwan suwandy 2011,dilarang repro dalam bentuk apapun,HAKI DILINDUNGI OLEH UNDANG-UNDANG.

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12 responses to “Koleksi Filateli,Dokumen Dan Gambar Sejarah Indonesia Masa Hindia Belanda Tahun 1890-1910

  1. Pak, sangat inspiratif dan nasionalis. Boleh bagi infonya Pak, kalau nanti sy membutuhkan?
    Terima kasih.

    • hallo Diana,
      terima kasih sudah mampir di Museum dunia maya saya,
      masih banyak lagi informasi yang hanya khusus untuk anggota premium blog ini, sehingga jika anda ingin
      memeperoleh info yang sangat menarik dari sejarah Indonesia dan dunia, saya sarankan anda mendaftar jadi anggota liwat komentar
      nanti anda akan dihubungi liwat email,harap lampirkan KTP dan sejarah singkat riwayat hidup dan pekerjaannya ,ini untuk sekuriti
      ,ada iuran yang sangat murah untuk membantu biaya operasional blog
      salam dari
      Dr iwan suwandy.

  2. Blh donk, sy jg mau jd anggota Pak,
    O ya, bisakah dicarikan catatan sejarah lengkap tentang keberadaan suku anak dalam di jambi dalam catatan belanda ?

    • hallo arif,
      terima kasih sudah mampir di web blog saya.
      saya memiliki informasi lengkap tentang jambi dan suku anak dalam dari literatur belanda termasuk fotonya,
      untuk memeproleh info ini anda harus jadi anggota premium blog karena biaya blog dan memperoleh info sangat tinggi,silahkan
      anda mengirimkan fotomkopi KTP rterakhir,scan foto profile,dan riwayat hidup dan pekerjaan singkat ke email saya
      iwansuwandy@gmail.com,hal ini penting untuk sekuriti terhadap hiject internet,
      setelah itu anda akan dihubungi untuk memenuhi beberapa persyaratan administratif,setelah ok
      info akan dikirmkan secara langsung pada anda melalui email anda.
      salam dari
      Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

  3. saya mengucpkan selamat untuk ide yang impresive dan membutuhkan ketangguhan serta persiapan yang luar biasa. Harapan saya semoga ide ini bisa berjalan berkesinambungan (mmungkin dari waktu ke waktu perlu updating). Yang pasti museum menambah khasanah pengetahuan dan keilmuan.

    • hallo Bp Wahono Hardjo,
      terima kasih sudah visit blod saya dan juga atas dukungan anda yang menambah semangat saya, seluruh tulisan saya yang diupload di web b log hanya berupa contoh yang tidak lengkap, info yang lengkap sudah saya buat dalam CD-ROM khusus bagai
      peminat yang serius guna penelitian lebih lanjut, jika anda serius silahkan mendaftar sebagai anggota premium liwat comment,nanti anda akan dihubungi liwat email anda untuk melengkapkan persyaratan administratif lebih lanjut
      salam dari
      Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

  4. Yth. Dr. Iwan,
    response bapak dengan segera terhadap kpmentar saya sangat saya hargai dengan ucapam terima kasih. ide bapak dengan museum ini sejalan dengan pemikiran saya yang saya tuangkan dalam website saya http://www.hardjo-soetrasman.com dimana saya berbicara “ruang dan waktu” (saya katakan serupa karena scope yang tertuang dalam website saya lebih sempit daripada blog bapak). Semula saya pikir ada ruang dari blog bapak berbicara tentang koleksi perangko dari zaman ke zaman di Indonesia. Tapi sayangnya rubik tersebut belum saya temukan dalam blog bapak ini. Sekali lagi terima kasih dan wasalam dari saya Wahjono Hardjo

    • hallo pak wahono hardjo,
      terima kasih atas komentar bapak, saya hanya tampilkan koleksi prangko Indonesia yang langka saja yaitu dari
      the rare Indonesian stamps, Dai nippon occupations Indonesia dan The Indonesian independent revolution and war saja.
      Untuk melihat seluruh prngko Indonesia sudah ada kaatalogus yang diterbitkan, saya hanya menyiapkan yang terkait dengan sejarah saja. Koleksi lengkap saya sudah siapkan dalm CD-ROM khusus untuk anggota premium saja,bila Bapak ingin mengetahui lebih banyak silahkan mendaftar jadi anggota premium liwat comment
      salam
      Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

  5. cahyono hariyadi

    bapak iwan, saya punya tulisan tangan presiden sukarno bertanggal 19 desember 1962. berisi tentang pidato ulang tahun trikora. ada kop kepresidenan dgn tulisan republik indonesia berwarna hijau, logo garuda warna coklat, dan ada logo timbul padi dan kapas. bisa di test untuk keasliannya. akan saya jual jika berminat. pin bb 31509b12. terimakasih.

    • coba upload dan tawarkan liwat facebook account saya Iwan Suwandy,silahkanmembuka facebook acount dengan klik facebook.com kemudian isi data diri anda,setelah berhasil cari facebook account saya Iwan Suwandy dan ask friend bila sudah saya OK anda dapat mengupload koleksi anda dan tawarkan harganya berapa,nanti saya bantu untuk menverifikasi koleksi itu asli atau tidak
      terimakasih sudah mampir di WEB saya

  6. Nice….
    Adakah informasi tentang kesultanan pajang dan geneology?

    Terima kasih.

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