Koleksi Filateli,Numismatik dan Illustrasi Gambar Sejarah Indonesia Masa Hindia Belanda 1830-1863

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Koleksi Filateli,Numismatik dan Illustrasi  Gambar

Sejarah Indonesia Masa Hindia Belanda 1830-1910

Bagian Pertama 1830 to 1860 Disusun Oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Penerbitan Pribadi terbatas 100 expl khusus untuk anggota premium hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

(Map)

A.Daftar Isi

I.Bagian Pertama 1830-1863

II.Bagian Kedua  1864-1890

III. Bagian Ketiga 1891-1910

B. Koleksi Sejarah Masa Hindia Belanda Bagian Pertama 1830-1863

I.Pengantar

Buku ini disusun berdasarkan koleksi penulis yang terdiri dari Buku Sejarah lama:

Sebelas November 1785, keluarga kraton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat berbahagia. Hamengku Buwono III (HB-III), hari itu, mempunyai anak pertama yang dinamai Antawirya. Konon Hamengkubuwono I (HB-I) sangat tertarik pada cicitnya itu. Ia, katanya, akan melebihi kebesarannya. Ia akan memusnahkan Belanda.

Antawirya dibesarkan di Tegalrejo dalam asuhan Ratu Ageng, istri HB-I. Di sana ia belajar mengaji Quran dan nilai-nilai Islam. Tegalrejo juga memungkinkannya untuk lebih dekat dengan rakyat. Spiritualitasnya makin terasah dengan kesukaannya berkhalwat atau menyepi di bukit-bukit dan gua sekitarnya. Hal demikian membuat Antawirya semakin tak menikmati bila berada di kraton yang mewah, dan bahkan sering mengadakan acara-acara model Barat. Termasuk dengan pesta mabuknya. Kabarnya, Antawirya hanya “sowan” ayahnya dua kali dalam setahun. Yakni saat Idul Fitri dan ‘Gerebeg Maulid”.

Antawirya kemudian bergelar Pangeran Diponegoro. Ia tumbuh sebagai seorang yang sangat disegani. Ayahnya hendak memilihnya sebagai putra mahkota. Ia menolak. Ia tak dapat menikmati tinggal di istana. Ia malah menyarankan ayahnya agar memilih Djarot, adiknya, sebagai putra mahkota. Ia hanya akan mendampingi Djarot kelak.

Pada 1814, Hamengku Buwono III meninggal. Pangeran Djarot, yang baru berusia 13 tahun, diangkat menjadi Hamengku Buwono IV. Praktis kendali kekuasaan dikuasai Patih Danurejo IV -seorang pro Belanda dan bahkan bergaya hidup Belanda. Perlahan kehidupan kraton makin menjauhi suasana yang diharapkan Diponegoro. Apalagi setelah adiknya, Hamengku Buwono IV meninggal pada 1822. Atas inisiatif Danurejo pula, Pangeran Menol yang baru berusia 3 tahun dinobatkan menjadi raja. Makin berkuasalah Danurejo.

Saran-saran Diponegoro tak digubris. Danurejo dan Residen Yogya A.H. Smissaert malah berencana membuat jalan raya melewati tanah Diponegoro di Tegalrejo. Tanpa pemberitahuan, mereka mematok-matok tanah tersebut. Para pengikut Diponegoro mencabutinya. Diponegoro minta Belanda untuk mengubah rencananya tersebut. Juga untuk memecat Patih Danurejo. Namun, pada 20 Juli 1825, pasukan Belanda dan Danurejo IV mengepung Tegalrejo. Diponegoro telah mengungsikan warga setempat ke bukit-bukit Selarong. Di sana, ia juga mengorganisasikan pasukan.

Pertempuran pun pecah. Upaya damai dicoba dirintis. Belanda dan Danurejo mengutus Pangeran Mangkubumi -keluarga kraton yang masih dihormati Diponegoro. Namun, setelah berdialog, Mangkubumi justru memutuskan bergabung dengan Diponegoro. Gubernur Jenderal van der Capellen memperkuat pasukannya di Yogya. Namun 200 orang tentara itu, termasuk komandannya Kapten Kumsius, tewas di Logorok, Utara Yogya, atas terjangan pasukan Diponegoro di bawah komando Mulyosentiko.

Dalam pertikaian ini, dua kraton Surakarta -Paku Buwono dan Mangkunegoro- berpihak pada Belanda. Pasukan pimpinan Tumenggung Surorejo dapat menghancurkan pasukan bantuan Mangkunegoro. Di Magelang, pasukan Haji Usman, Haji Abdul Kadir mengalahkan tentara Belanda dan Tumenggung Danuningrat. Danuningrat tewas di pertempuran itu. Di Menoreh, Diponegoro sendiri memimpin pertempuran yang menewaskan banyak tentara Belanda dan Bupati Ario Sumodilogo.

Markas Prambanan diduduki. Meriam-meriam Belanda berhasil dirampas. Di daerah Bojonegoro-Pati-Rembang, pihak Belanda ditaklukkan pasukan rakyat Sukowati pimpinan Kartodirjo. Pertahanan Belanda di Madiun dihancurkan pasukan Pangerang Serang dan Pangeran Syukur. Belanda kemudian mendatangkan pasukan Jenderal van Geen yang terkenal kejam di Sulawesi Selatan. Dalam pertempuran di Dekso, Sentot Alibasyah menewaskan hampir semua pasukan itu. Van Geen, Kolonel Cochius serta Pangeran Murdoningrat dan Pangeran Panular lolos.

Murdoningrat dan Panular kembali menyerang Diponegoro. Kali ini bersama Letnan Habert. Di Lengkong, mereka bentrok. Habert tewas di tangan Diponegoro sendiri. Pasukan Surakarta yang sepakat melawan Diponegoro dihancurkan di Delanggu. Benteng Gowok yang dipimpin Kolonel Le Baron, jatuh dalam serbuan 15-16 Oktober 1826. Diponegoro tertembak di kaki dan dada dalam pertempuran itu. Pasukan Sentot Alibasyah yang tinggal selangkah merebut kraton Surakarta dimintanya mundur. Tujuan perang, kata Diponegoro, adalah melawan Belanda dan bukan bertempur sesama warga.

 

Arrest of Diponegoro by General de Kock on 28 March 1830, collection of Rijksmuseum Amsterdam

Belanda mengerahkan seluruh kekuatannya. Pemberontakan Paderi di Sumatera Barat, untuk sementara dibiarkan. Sekitar 200 benteng telah dibangun untuk mengurangi mobilitas pasukan Diponegoro. Perlahan langkah tersebut membawa hasil. Dua orang panglima penting Diponegoro tertangkap. Kyai Mojo tertangkap di Klaten pada 5 Nopember 1828. Sentot Alibasyah, dalam posisi terkepung, menyerah di Yogya Selatan pada 24 Oktober 1829.

Diponegoro lalu menyetujui tawaran damai Belanda. Tanggal 28 Maret 1830, Diponegoro disertai lima orang lainnya (Raden Mas Jonet, Diponegoro Anom, Raden Basah Martonegoro, Raden Mas Roub dan Kyai Badaruddin) datang ke kantor Residen Kedu di Magelang untuk berunding dengan Jenderal De Kock. Mereka disambut dengan upacara militer Belanda. Dalam perundingan itu, Diponegoro menuntut agar mendapat “kebebasan untuk mendirikan negara sendiri yang merdeka bersendikan agama Islam.”

De Kock melaksanakan tipu muslihatnya. Sesaat setelah perundingan itu, Diponegoro dan pengikutnya dibawa ke Semarang dan terus ke Betawi. Pada 3 Mei 1830, ia diasingkan ke Manado, dan kemudian dipindahkan lagi ke Ujungpandang (tahun 1834) sampai meninggal. Di tahanannya, di Benteng Ujungpandang, Diponegoro menulis “Babad Diponegoro” sebanyak 4 jilid dengan tebal 1357 halaman.

Pergolakan rakyat pimpinan Diponegoro telah menewaskan 80 ribu pasukan di pihak Belanda -baik warga Jawa maupun Belanda dan telah menguras keuangan kolonial. Hal demikian mendorong Belanda untuk memaksakan program tanam paksa yang melahirkan banyak pemberontakan baru dari kalangan ulama. Di Jawa, para pengikut Diponegoro seperti Pangeran Ario Renggo terus melancarkan perlawanan meskipun secara terbatas.

 

(1.)Imperialisme Belanda : 1815-1870 Belanda menghadapi  dua perang besar di 1820. Mereka masih tidak menguasai banyak wilayah dalam  lingkup Dibawah pengaruh  mereka  , termasuk Aceh, Bali, sebagian besar Sulawesi dan Nusa Tenggara.

pemimpin  Indonesia termasuk:

Pattimura di Ambon pada tahun 1817

Pangeran Diponegoro dalam Perang Jawa, 1825-1830

Tuanku Imam Bonjol dalam Perang Padri di tahun 1830-an

(2) Sejarah KNIL 1830–1942

KNIL itu dibentuk oleh dekrit kerajaan pada tanggal 10 Maret 1830. Itu bukan bagian dari Angkatan Darat Kerajaan Belanda , tapi bagian  militer terpisah khusus dibentuk untuk layanan di Hindia Belanda. Pendirian tersebut bertepatan dengan serangan  Belanda untuk memperluas kekuasaan kolonial dari abad ke-17 daerah kontrol ke wilayah yang jauh lebih besar terdiri dari Hindia Belanda tujuh puluh tahun kemudian, yang tetap batas kini Indonesia [1] [tidak dalam kutipan yang diberikan].KNIL itu terlibat dalam banyak kampanye terhadap kelompok-kelompok pribumi di Hindia Belanda termasuk Perang Padri (1821-1845), Perang Jawa (1825-1830), menghancurkan perlawanan akhir penduduk Bali terhadap pemerintahan kolonial pada tahun 1849, dan berkepanjangan Perang Aceh (1873-1904). [2]Setelah tahun 1904 Hindia Belanda dianggap “tenang”, tanpa oposisi bersenjata besar-besaran untuk pemerintahan Belanda hingga Perang Dunia II, dan KNIL melayani peran terutama defensif melindungi Hindia Belanda dari kemungkinan invasi asing

(a)Ekspedisi KNIL

1.1824-1832

 

2.1834-1856

POSTER KNIL

POSTER EKSPEDISI  KNIL DI LOMBOK

3.EKSPEDISI  KNIL  1856-1861

4.EKSPEDISI KNIL     1862-1879

5.EKSPEDISI KNIL 1877-1887

6.EKSPIDISI KNIL    PERANG ACEH

.THE EKSPEDISI KNIL 1893-1927

 

(b)KNIL 1896

 

PASUKAN ARTILERI TENTARA HINDIA BELANDA 1896.

(b) PASUKAN KAVALARI TENTARA HINDIA BELANDA    SAAT MENYERANG BALI 1906

(3)Kartu Propaganda KNIL Di Lombok

(4.)Koleksi  Postal Histori dan Numismatik abad ke 19

(a) Era Sebelum ada Prangko (sebelum 1864)

(b) Era Prangko setelah 1864

 (4).Sejarah Numismatik abad ke 19(a) Era sebelum 1850 dimana banyak tipe koin beredar baik dari Hindia Belanda saat itu VOC,Indie Bataav,East India Company, Hispan(Spanyol),Netherland(Belanda),koin Gobok Tiongkok dan lokal.

(b)Era setelah 1850 berlaku hanya mata uang tunggal dari Hindia Belanda(1/20 ,1/2,1,21/2,5 sen,1/4 gld) dan dari Negeri Belanda(koin perak nominal 50 sen,1 gld,2 1/2 gulden.)

 

(5) Sejarah Meterai dan Pajak abad ke 19

(a) Kertas Meterai tanpa warna,menonjol(Uncolour Embossed) :

 

a1..Setifikat Tanah  (Eigendom) terdiri adri tiga jenis t 12 gld, 2 gld and 1 gld , badan hukum pertanahan  Soerabaja 1894

a2.Kertas Meterai embossed tanpa warna,Setifikat Tanah disahkan Badan Hukum Pertanahan  Soerabaja  1904  6 gld

 a3. Surat Hutang  600 gld, diatas kertas segela embossed tanpa warna satu setengah gld  and,1893 a tambahan meterai cetak tindih  10 cent diatas meterai pertama 5 cent nedl.oost untuk tanda tangan pengesahan

2)The Revenue Order in 19th Century

THE ORDER(ORDONASI) OF NED.INDIE(DEI) REVENUE:
 1.Ordonasi Revenue 1817-1885,
After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.
2.REVENUE ORDONASI 1885
the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,

3.) ORDONASI REVENUE ON INSURANCE POLISH  1858
 

(c) Meterai Oost East Indie

(c1)Tipe satu

(1) 2.11.1888

2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld .
The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889
 

(c2)Tipe dua cetak tindih 10 cent diatas meterai pertama 5 sen.ini meterai darurat karena ada kenaikan tarif meterai dua kali lipat.

 

10.5.1893
 

(c) Meterai Hindia belanda( Ned.Indie) 1899-1900

3)THE 10 CENT PLAKZEGEL VAN NEDERLANSCHE INDIE
(1)  6.5.1899(earliest date)

6.5.1900 nED.iNDIE rEVENUE sTAMP 10 CENT  DEI 2nd issued revenue , (please report the HIGNHEST NOMINAL )

 

II.The Chronologic Historic  Collection 1830-1863

.1824-1832

 

1830

 

 

   Johannes van den Bosch tiba sebagai Gubernur Jenderal baru, memulai “cultuurstelsel” atau “sistem budaya” paksa budidaya nila diperkenalkan di kapal uap Priangan.Misionaris zending hindia belanda pertama  tiba (Sosietas Missionaris Belanda). mulai menawarkan pendidikan ke “anak-anakd penduduk pribumi​​.December 4 Van den Bosch secara resmi mengorganisasi pasukan Belanda dari Perang Jawa menjadi Oost-Indische Leger, atau “Tentara Hindia Timur” (kemudian KNIL).  Perang Jawa berakhir setelah dimulai  20 Juli 1825, dimana pasukan Belanda dan Danurejo IV mengepung Tegalrejo. Diponegoro telah mengungsikan warga setempat ke bukit-bukit Selarong. Di sana, ia juga mengorganisasikan pasukanDe Kock melaksanakan tipu muslihatnya. Sesaat setelah perundingan itu, Diponegoro dan pengikutnya dibawa ke Semarang dan terus ke Betawi. Pada 3 Mei 1830, ia diasingkan ke Manado, dan kemudian dipindahkan lagi ke Ujungpandang (tahun 1834) sampai meninggal                                

 

     

 

                     

 

 

             

 

             

 

     

 

                  . .

 

     

 

    .

 

  .          

 

                     

 

     

 

     

 

             

 

                     

 

     

 

  . .

 

     

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870.

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.  

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease. The Dutch would waste over 30 years trying to take full control of Aceh, and would never fully succeed.

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common fighters.

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch officials.

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1831

Dari tahun 1830 sampai akhir abad ini, Belanda mulai berusaha untuk mengambil kendali penuh dari wilayah dari Aceh hingga Papua Nugini, dan untuk ekstrak sebagai profit sebanyak mungkin dari daerah yang berharga, seperti daerah Priangan dari Java.

   pemerintah hindia Belanda  mengelola biaya operasional pasukan budget.Belanda seimbang melawan Padri di Sumatra mencapai area Bonjol Kapal shell desa pesisir di Aceh dalam sebuah tindakan melawan pembajakan.

 
 
 

Gov.-Gen. Johannes van den BoschGubernur-Jenderal. Johannes van den BoschIt hanya setelah Perang Jawa bahwa Belanda mulai berpikir tentang sebuah kerajaan yang nyata di Hindia.Pajak meterai  Barat dari Hindia dibayar sebanyak sepertiga dari anggaran pemerintah Belanda di pertengahan 1800-an. Uang ini membantu membiayai industrialisasi dan pengembangan Belanda di tahun 1800an. Beban jatuh terutama pada Hindia Belanda, karena Belanda telah kehilangan banyak koloni mereka yang lain ke Inggris selama perang Napoleon (termasuk Afrika Selatan dan Sri Lanka), dan sejak Belgia dengan bisnis dan industri memisahkan diri dari Kerajaan Belanda pada 1830. Pemerintah disebut Hindia Belanda, atau Nederlands-Indië di Belanda, atau Hindia Belanda di Indonesia saat ini

1832

Pemberontakan etnis Tionghoa di Krawang.

Van den Bosch telah ditetapkan bahwa petani lokal harus diberikan kelonggaran untuk menanam makanan mereka sendiri, namun para pejabat kolonial di bawah dia mengabaikan perintah dalam mengejar produk kas semakin besar crops.The dari sistem budaya yang dijual melalui Nederlandse Handel-Maatschappij, jalankan oleh pemerintah Belanda, dan keuntungan yang disimpan oleh Belanda. Raja Belanda memiliki saham yang signifikan dalam NHM, dan memperoleh kekayaan yang ekstra dari keuntungan. (NHM yang bertahan saat ini sebagai Algemene Bank Nederland.) Hindia Belanda hampir bangkrut pada 1820, setelah van den Bosch, itu kembali surplus anggaran yang besar ke Belanda sepanjang tahun 1830-an (dan ke tahun 1870-an

  Belanda menaklukan Sultan  Jailolo dan mengambil alih kekuasaan di Halmahera Dibawah kebijakan pemerintah Hindia Belanda “Tanaman Paksa atau  culture stetsel”, Penduduk Jawa harus menanam sejumlah jenis tanaman seperti kapas untuk diekspor,juga tanaman lain kopi,gula,bumbu, spices and indigo, tetapi padi kurang untuk memenuhi kebutuhan rakyat l. Sistem kerja tanpa banyak kontraversi pada beberapa tahun. tahun 1845 timbul panen gagal karena tanah yang bagus dipakai untuk menanam tembakau ,gula atau kopi serta produksi berlebih(The system worked without great controversy for the first few years. About 1845, a series of poor harvests led to greater poverty and even famine on Java–famine that was aggravated because the best lands were being used for tobacco, sugar or coffee instead of rice, and because the land in general had been exhausted by overproduction).

1833

  JanuaryMinangkabau desa-desa sekitar Bonjol bangkit dalam pemberontakan populer; pasukan Belanda di daerah tersebut dibantai. Perang Padri memanas; segel Belanda lepas pantai. Penyerangan Sentot di pihak Belanda, tapi mungkin tidak pro-Belanda di dalam hatinya. Tempat Sentot Belanda di bawah menonton di Bengkulu (hingga 1855) Sultan Jambi. meminta bantuan Belanda terhadap Palembang

1834

Orang Kayo Hitam pergi ke Majapahit untuk mengambil Keris bertuah, dan kelak akan menjadikannya sebagai keris pusaka Kesultanan Jambi. Keris itu dinamakan ‘Keris Siginjai’. Keris Siginjai terbuat dari bahan-bahan berupa kayu, emas, besi dan nikel. Keris Siginjai menjadi pusaka yang dimiliki secara turun temurun oleh Kesultanan Jambi. Selama 400 tahun, keris Siginjai tidak hanya sekedar lambang mahkota kesultanan Jambi, tapi juga sebagai lambang pemersatu rakyat Jambi.

  Keris Siginjai

Sultan terakhir yang memegang benda kerajaan itu adalah Sultan Achmad Zainuddin pada awal abad ke 20.

Diponegoro dipindahkan  ke Ujungpandang (tahun 1834) sampai meninggal

  Belanda memaksa Sultan Jambi  Muhammad Fahruddin untuk tunduk dibawah kekuasaan Hindia Belanda. Pemerintah Portuguese mengusir pendeta  Dominican dari  Timor timur.Pada tahun 1834 diterbitkan koin satu  cent tahun kedua.

untuk membesarkan gambar silahkan klik illustrasi tersebut!!

1836

  Dutch abandon Fort Du Bus on Irian.(west papua)

 

1837

 

 

  Bonjol in Minangkabau finally falls to the Dutch in the Padri War. Tuanku Imam Bonjol surrenders and is sent into minahasa.Tuanku Imam Bonjol was one of the main leaders in the Padri war. Other fighters against the Dutch included the “Harimau Nan Selapan” or “eight tigers”, led by Haji Miskin.Iman Bonjol Padri soldier  with sword and Qour’an inspected Dutch Fort de Kock(now Bukittingi) compare with the lith. illustration from mersedon book the history of sumatra.

1838

  Dutch victory at Daludalu ends the Padri war in Minangkabau. Direct Dutch rule in Minangkabau is enforced (adat law and nobility appear pro-Dutch, Islamic leaders appear anti-Dutch).Dutch expedition against Flores.Bone renewsTreaty of Bungaya; fighting against the Dutch subsides.Dutch establish presence on Nias.Sulaiman inherits rule of Aceh, but Tuanku Ibrahim rules as guardian, ruling Aceh until 1870.Mataram kingdom on Lombok takes control of the whole island, plus Karangasem on Bali

1839

 

1840

Karena keterbatasan koin Hindia Belanda, dipergunakan koin VOC 1790 nominal 2 duit , yang belum sempat diedarkan akibat VOC dibubarkan  .

  Danish merchant Mads Lange opens a trading post at Kuta on Bali

1841

  The rajas of Badung, Klungkung, Karangasem and Buleleng on Bali sign treaties recognizing Dutch sovereignty; rajas to keep internal power.James Brooke begins creating private empire for himself in Sarawak.

1842

  Dutch withdraw from east coast of Sumatra north of Palembang due to British worries.The nobility in Surakarta is arrested under suspicion of inciting revolt.

1843

  Raja of Lombok accepts Dutch sovereignty.Famine in Cirebon. By this time, there was a movement of people out of the Priangan, Cirebon, and nearby areas of West Java towards areas that were less strictly controlled by the culture system. Local bupatis and Dutch officials were instructed to send these internal refugees home whenever possible.In the 1840s, as much as two-thirds of the money earned by a Javanese farmer on his crops could be taken by taxes.

1844

  Rajas of Buleleng and Karangasem are dissatisfied with Dutch, and refuse to ratify treaties.

1845

  Vanilla industry started on Java.

1846

Landmail cover sent from Batavia 18 aug 1846

  JuneNetherlands Indies force attacks Buleleng; other rajas secretly support the anti-Dutch forces. Palace at Singaraja is destroyed. Raja of Buleleng signs a treaty of submission. Netherlands Indies bases a garrison at Singaraja.Netherlands Indies expedition against Flores.Typhoid epidemic in Java.Netherlands Indies takes control of Samarinda.First commercial coal mine is opened at Martapura, South Kalimantan.Revolt in Banten.It was traditional on Bali for shipwrecks to be salvaged by the local population. The Dutch considered this to be looting and theft. The cultural clash led to continual political and military conflict between the Netherlands Indies government and the rajas on Bali.

1847

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.  

 

  .  

1848

The KNIL propaganda card.

  JuneNetherlands Indies sends a military force to Bali in response to conflicts over the enforcement of treaties with the local rajas. The force is defeated by a Balinese force under Gusti Ketut Jilantik at Jagaraga, and withdraws from the island.New constitution in Netherlands: Dutch States-General has some control over colonial affairs.Revised commercial, civil and criminal codes for the Netherlands Indies are introduced, applicable to people of European descent only.Demonstration in Batavia, led by Baron van Hoevell (a Dutch Reformed minister), petitions the King of the Netherlands for freedom of the press, public secondary schools, and representation for the Netherlands Indies in the States General.Regency schools, for the education and training of the children of local rulers and nobles, begin operations.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas  

 

1850

  Dutch begin missionary work among Bataks of north Sumatra.Famine in Central Java.Dutch purchase the remaining Portuguese posts on Flores.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas .

 

     

1851

  “Dokter-Jawa” INDISCHE_ARTS school (STOVIA,now Museum) founded in Gambir NEAR Dutch Army Hospital(now RSPAD Gatot Subroto), Batavia.Billiton Maatschappij begins tin mining on Belitung.at Soegai Liat city , Many Chinese laborers are imported.

1852

  Aceh sends an emissary to Napoleon III of France.Cola trees are introduced on Java.Dutch end the tax on the hajj.                       .       .  

1857

  Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.
Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.  

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.  

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.  

1862

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.  

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends. In 1863, the government of the Netherlands used profits from the exploitation of the Netherlands Indies to compensate former slaveholders in Suriname in South America, after slavery was abolished there.

1864

  April 1First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.
First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864.

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870.

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.  

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease. The Dutch would waste over 30 years trying to take full control of Aceh, and would never fully succeed.

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common fighters.

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch officials.

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1853

prestamp lettersheet send from Krawang to Batavia  with Krawang ongefrankeer stamped cost 25 cent

  Dutch begin administering north Bali.Mangkunegara IV takes his title in Surakarta.
A local ruler on Madura, about 1853.

1854

  Netherlands government issues a constitutional reform for the Netherlands Indies (“Regeeringsreglement”). Local rulers in the Indies are to continue to have traditional powers over their subjects, ruling on behalf of the Dutch. A strict separation betweens Europeans and “Inlanders” is recognized in the law.Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies receives the power to exile anyone without appeal or review.Aceh establishes authority over Langkat, Deli and Serdang on east coast of Sumatra (“pepper ports”).Introduction of cinchona (quinine) cultivation to the Priangan, at Cibodas, West Java.
     

 

1855

koin 1/2 sen dan 1 sen edisi petama 1855 sangat  terbatas sehingga langka

 

 Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono VII

Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII atau Gusti Raden Mas Murtejo dikenal sebagai pemimpin yang luhur

Hamengkubuwono VI menjadi  Sultan  Yogya.Ekspedisi tentara Belanda ke Nias. belanda menguasai Kalimantan Barat .Pemerintah Hindia Belanda melarang peredaran berbagai koin lokal dan luar negeri dan menerbitkan koin Hindia belanda (Ned.Indie) setengah dan satu sen pertama  tahun 1855.tetapi edisinya sangat terbatas.

1856

Pemberontakan suku Tionghoa di Riau

koin bengol 2 1/2 sen ediisi pertama tahun 1856.

koin setengah sen edisi tahun kedua 1856.

  Regulation on Publications gives the Governor-General authority to conduct prepublication censorship of the press without appeal or review.MarchEduard Douwes Dekker is dismissed from his government post in West Java after accusing local bupatis of corruption. (Later, under the pen name “Multatuli”, he writes the novel “Max Havelaar”, exposing conditions in colonial Java to readers in the Netherlands.)Dutch military expedition to Flores.
Eduard Douwes Dekker, or “Multatuli”

1857

Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.

 

  .
          .  

 

   

1858

Revenue Order  Of INSURANCE POLISH  1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.

 

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.
 

 

     

 

     

 

           

 

1861

Sultan Muhammad Djalaludin  dari Kerajaan Bulung Kalimantan Timur naik tahta

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.        

1862

KNIL expedition Destruction of a pirates fleets near sangir island. and expedition to Manipi,Tuntungan and mandar on celebes

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.

 

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias and Toraja Celebes.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends.
          .       .  

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about

 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

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