THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA
The Driwan’s Cybermuseum
(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
(Driwan Indonesia Historic Cybermuseum)
The Forgotten Kingdom:”The Sultanate of Bulungan” at Kalimantan( Bulungan Sultanate of Natural Datu Muhammad Adil).
(Sultan Kaharuddin II, ruled from 1875 until 1889)
In a state of mourning, the Sultanate Council finally lifted grandson of Sultan Muhammad Adil Khalifatul Alam, son of the Maharaja Lela named Ali Sultan Kahar, who holds Kaharuddin II (1875-1889) with hopes of continuing the policy of his grandfather, but the political pressures that lead to unstable government in the early days of Sultan Kaharuddin II finally made the Sultan with a heavy heart, finally signed an agreement (Konteverklaring de tweede II) on the principal Juni1878 perjanjianya namely: the Netherlands to determine the policy of the sultan Bulungan including tax affairs and Sultan Kaharuddin their safety. The Dutch government records, on February 2, 1877 Ordinance issued in the form of Statute (Decree) No. 31 on the power set who oversees the royal Bulungan Tidung Land, the island of Tarakan, Nunukan, Sebatik Island, and some small islands in the vicinity. In fact, the Decree in confirm again on 15 March 1884 by the Secretary of the Dutch empire in Bogor.
The cooperation could be the trigger of a series of policies that harm the Sultanate Bulungan Netherlands, because on March 1, 1897 published the Government Gazette number 83, signed the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies A. D. H. Heringa. It contained several royal regulate the transfer of land in Kalimantan to the Dutch. These conditions make the political bargaining Sultanate Bulungan be very difficult, so the Sultan’s certainly not easy to take a stance to reject Konteverklaring de tweede II as has been done by his grandfather, Sultan Muhammad Adil Khalifatul Nature, because the situation is erratic and not berimbangnya Bulungan military force against Dutch influence has begun to stick in Bulungan, especially since the increased strength of weapon fire and the use of steam ships used by the Dutch. This is supported also weakened the power of the fleet Bulungan after a sea war between the Empire and the Mountain Tabur Bulungan in 1862, because it clearly Sultan Kaharuddin II do not want a lot of civilian casualties are even greater when dealing directly with the Dutch military. The availability of British naval fleet based in Labuan, which at times can move close enough on the boundary in the north of the Sultanate Bulungan also seems also to be another determinant of why these difficult choices ultimately taken by the Sultan Kaharuddin II.
Sultanate Bulungan when it’s really wedged between two giants who were fighting for colonial supremacy and control over the island of Borneo, in northern England and the Netherlands from South Bulungan. That’s why this decision is like fruit simalakama for Sultan Kaharuddin II because he had menangung dipundaknya historical burden. Sultan Kaharuddin II ruled about 14 years, he finally died in 1889 AD / 1307 H and was buried in the imperial tomb complex in the mountain Seriang Bulungan, archaeologists call a complex tomb with the name of the tomb complex of Mount Seriang II.
(J. Jongejans, Controleur Van Boeloengan).
Dutch influence on the greater Bulungan, policies implemented after the death of Sultan Muhammad Adil Datu Nature is trying to further interfere in the governance structure of the Sultanate of Bulungan. In conducting its Dutch colonial government administration to supervise the Sultanate Bulungan, they established their known Controleur. Controleur is an active current position since 1827, they were in before Controleur similar position called Opziener. In accordance with their function in charge of collecting taxes in territory residency of the working areas. This officer later became Directie voor de Cultures. Controleur career path is divided into three levels that can be promoted to the position in the government service is the Resident Assistant or Resident. That is why although the Sultanate Bulungan Zelfbestuurende shaped Landschapen or special rule, but in essence the empire Bulungan actually under the supervision of Assistant Resident Controleur henchmen called it.
Environmental improvements in local governance by the Government of the Netherlands carried out in stages. Controleur which originally served as a tax officer, in accordance with the Statute. 1872 225 numbers definitively merged with the Department pangreh Praja (in Kalimantan this position called Kyai) that in fact this has happened half a century earlier. To the Assistant Resident Controleur conjunct two or three, as assistant resident assistant who does not have its own power. They are responsible for monitoring whether the command head (Assistant Resident) worked, studied about anything related to the welfare and development of people. As officials at lower levels, Controleur know about the customs of society, health, agriculture, animal husbandry, and others in areas such Afdeeling. Controleur also required to help Bumi Putera pangreh Township in performing their duties, warned if there is a shortage, and so forth. To the Assistant Resident and Resident, Controleur provide all necessary information such as if there are officials who Bumi Putera to be critical and reactive to the Colonial authorities if necessary, be accompanied by the proposal because he is the eye-ear Resident and Resident Assistant.
For the Sultanate of Bulungan Controleur in place in Cape Selor with concurrent Tarakan island and in Malinau, other than that as explained earlier the Dutch also placed an Controleur in Muara Tawao until the area was taken by the British. In 1922 dipedalaman Bulungan, a Controleur placed in Malinau and a year later, in 1923 an Assistant Resident to the area en Berao Boelongan stationed in the Tanjung Selor. Then in 1938 the new position of Assistant Resident Boelongan en Berao moved to the town of Tarakan until delivery time of independence in RI. So big influence Controleur authority over its territory, to appoint an official at the district level or district Onder just have to get prior approval from Controleur.
Unfortunately so far, only three Controleur van Bulungan which can be traced by the author of Controleur named Mayers (1921-1922), J. Jongejans in charge of the days of Sultan Kasimuddin and a final Controleur who had attended the handover of sovereignty in the Bulungan who joined the Republic of Indonesia in 1949 is Controleur JHD Linhoud.
In 1901 began the income tax imposed on the people, then in that year was appointed 3 people Districthoofd (a kind of chief district) and village heads, Hulu Sungai Kayan region (inland) by the Dutch East Indies government was appointed Posthouder-Posthouder (head of post) . The Dutch seem to use the argument of the cooperation agreement (Konteverklaring de tweede II) in June 1878, signed by Sultan Kaharuddin, one of the most important staple perjanjianya is: Netherlands to determine the sultan Bulungan policy including tax affairs.
The amount of the tax value assigned by the Dutch government through an agency called Commisie Aanslag, and tax collection system known as Collectellon. In Bulungan, the amount of taxes imposed on each person is USD 15 to USD. 25, plus 0.75 kemit (picis) for each village chief.
Position-position is as beriku Districthoofd tersebuat: (1). Districthoofd Tanjung Datu Haji Palas dingkatlah Crown. (2). Districthoofd Sesayap is Datuk Bestari. And, (3). Districthoofd Sembakung in shake by Andin Kamsah. All are appointed by decree of Sultan Srie Bulungan and power Districthoofd Tanjung Palas only covers an area of Tanjung Palas only, to Cape Selor and lands belonging to four square (Virtekand Vaal) and its population is under the authority Gouvernemen Dutch East Indies.
Governor-General of the Netherlands and then to form the administrative area known as Afdeling Oost Borneo, since the year 1910 to 1930 Dutch Colonial has developed a power-sharing structure dikalimantan east, the empire was recorded in Onder Afdeling Bulungan IV who supervises two Districk, the first is composed of Districk Bulungan Districk Onder (1). Pangean Estuary, (2). Tarakan and (3). Long Nawang (Apo Kayan). The second district is composed of the District Sesayap Districk Onder (1). Sembakung, (2). Mentarang, and (3). Krayan.
Furthermore, the 1930-1942 year, there were more changes in the administrative area, in accordance with Besluit Governor General (Staatsblad 1938 number 264) as from July 1, 1938 held another three-province or Eilandgewest, namely Sumatra, Borneo (Kalimantan) and the Big East (Groote Oost) with consecutive capital Medan, Banjarmasin and Makassar.
In 1938 it also came out Besluit Governor General (Staatsblad 1938 number 352) which regulates more about the three Provinces. About Gewest Borneo Banjarmasin is determined that its capital, and divided into two parts, namely Residentie Zuider en Oosterafdeling van Borneo, located in Banjarmasin and Residentie Westerafdeling van Borneo located in Pontianak. Bulungan imperial territory into the Zuider en Oosterafdeling Afdeling van Borneo (Afdeling South and East Borneo) with unoccupied status.
Unoccupied Bulungan (Onderafdeling Bulungan) is divided into four Onder Districk namely:
A. Districk Bulungan Onder Districk oversees one of Tanjung Palas.
B. Land Districk Tidung (Tidungsche Landen) oversees four Onder Districk namely 1) Malinau, 2). Sembakung, 3). Mentarang, 4). Krayan.
C. Tarakan District Onder Districk remain based in Tarakan.
D. Apo Kayan Districk remain domiciled in the Apo Kayan (Long Nawang).
Back kesejarah Bulungan, after Sultan Kaharuddin II died, he replaced
by-law named Si Gaeng who bear the title of Sultan Azimuddin, married to Princess Sibut, fourth son of Sultan Kaharuddin II. The Gaeng itself has a direct lineage with the previous Bulungan Sultan, Sultan Kaharuddin I. Procession of Sultan Azimuddin appointment approved by the Dutch Governor at Batavia in its decision letter dated December 4, 1889.
(Abode Dutch Assistant Resident in Samarinda).
Approval of the Governor-General of the Netherlands, did not make the Sultan Azimuddin die step in the political running kemasyarakatannya. In fact, he tried to find opportunities among the Dutch pressure after konteverklaring de tweede II with a social mission for the benefit of its people. Sultan Azimuddin in his reign also recorded several notable events including curb unrest in the countryside in a peaceful manner and business talks on the border with the British.
After ruling for 10 years, finally the Sultan to-7 in the history of this Sultanate Bulungan, died in 1899. Furthermore, the reins of government was on hold by his wife Princess Sibut (Pengian kusuma) accompanied by a Datu mansyur until 1901. Princess Sibut was the only woman leader in the history of the Sultanate of Bulungan, he temporarily replaced her husband, because his oldest son Datu Belembung not old enough to be Sultan. from the marriage with the Sultan Azimuddin, he has three children namely: Datu Belembung, Tiras and Datu Datu Muhammad who then provide an important color in the course of the history of the Sultanate of Bulungan.
Copy typed manuscript Datuk Prime, “Proceedings of the Sultanate History Bulungan th or th M 1503 919 H”, t.th.
Dali, H. Joseph. 1995. “Enchantment And Challenges Bulungan”. London: Between LKBN.
H. Said. Ali Amin Bilfaqih, “Brief History of the Sultanate of Bulungan from Period to Period.”
Archaeology Research Reports, Research Architecture Tomb of the Kings in the Region of East Kalimantan, Berau and Bulungan II. Dated 02 to 15 August 2000.
Arianto, Sugeng. August 2003. “Kingdom of Bulungan 1555-1959.” Malang: Thesis Bachelor of Education History Faculty of UGM.
Regional Level II Bulungan monograph published by the Project Directorate for Culture Media Development, Culture Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs, Jakarta, 1976.
Wadjidi, 2007. “Nationalism Indonesia in South Kalimantan, 1901-1942.” First Matter. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Continent.
Adrian B. Lapian, The Sea, Pirate, King of the Sea History of the Celebes Sea Region XIX Century, Jakarta, Bamboo Community, .
Kesultanan Bulungan Pasca Datu Alam Muhammad Adil.
, setelah Sultan Kaharuddin II mangkat, beliau digantikan
oleh menantunya yang bernama Si Gaeng yang bergelar Sultan Azimuddin, beristrikan Putri Sibut, anak keempat dari Sultan Kaharuddin II. Si Gaeng sendiri memiliki garis keturunan langsung dengan Sultan Bulungan terdahulu, Sultan Kaharuddin I. Prosesi pengangkatan Sultan Azimuddin mendapat pengesahan Gubernur Belanda di Batavia melalui surat keputusan tertanggal 4 Desember 1889.
Restu dari Gubernur Jenderal Belanda, tidak membuat Sultan Azimuddin mati langkah dalam menjalankan politik kemasyarakatannya. Bahkan, ia mencoba mencari peluang diantara tekanan Belanda pasca konteverklaring de tweede II dengan menjalankan misi sosial bagi kepentingan rakyatnya. Sultan Azimuddin dalam masa pemerintahannya tercatat pula beberapa peristiwa penting diantaranya meredam pergolakan di pedalaman dengan cara damai dan usaha pembicaraan mengenai perbatasan dengan pihak Inggris.
Setelah berkuasa selama 10 tahun, akhirnya Sultan ke-7 dalam sejarah Kesultanan Bulungan ini, wafat pada tahun 1899. Selanjutnya tampuk pemerintahan pun di pegang oleh istrinya Putri Sibut (Pengian kusuma) didampingi oleh Datu mansyur hingga tahun 1901. Putri Sibut merupakan satu-satunya pemimpin wanita dalam sejarah Kesultanan Bulungan, ia menggantikan posisi sementara suaminya, karena putra tertuanya Datu Belembung belum cukup umur menjadi Sultan. dari hasil perkawinannya dengan Sultan Azimuddin, ia dikaruniai tiga orang anak yaitu: Datu Belembung, Datu Tiras dan Datu Muhammad yang kemudian memberikan warna penting dalam perjalanan sejarah Kesultanan Bulungan.
Copy naskah ketikan Datuk Perdana, “Risalah Riwayat Kesultanan Bulungan th 1503 M atau th 919 H”, t.th.
Dali, H Yusuf. 1995. “Pesona Dan Tantangan Bulungan”. Jakarta : LKBN Antara.
H. Said. Ali Amin Bilfaqih, “Sekilas Sejarah Kesultanan Bulungan dari Masa ke Masa”.
Laporan Penelitian Arkeologi, Penelitian Arsitektur Makam Raja-Raja Di Wilayah Kalimantan Timur II Kabupaten Berau dan Bulungan. Tanggal 02 s/d 15 Agustus 2000.
Arianto, Sugeng. Agustus 2003. “Kerajaan Bulungan 1555-1959”. Malang : Skripsi Sarjana Pendidikan Sejarah Fakultas Sastra UGM.
Monografi Daerah Tingkat II Bulungan diterbitkan oleh Proyek Pengembangan Media Kebudayaan DITJEN, Kebudayaan Departemen Pendidikan Dan Kebudayaan R.I., Jakarta, 1976.
Wadjidi, 2007.”Nasionalisme Indonesia Di Kalimantan Selatan 1901-1942”. Cetakan Pertama. Banjarmasin : Pustaka Benua.
Adrian B. Lapian, Orang Laut, Bajak Laut, Raja Laut Sejarah Kawasan Laut Sulawesi Abad XIX, Jakarta, Komunitas Bambu, Agustus 2009.