The Tumultous 15th Century Art Historic Collections (Koleksi Seni Sejarah Abad Ke 15 Yang Penuh Gejolak)

 

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Koleksi Seni Abad Kelima Belas yang penuh Gejolak(The Tumultous 15th Century’s Art Collections)Praface(Kata Pengantar)

 

1.Abad 15 penuh gejolak

Abad ke-15 memberikan kita dengan banyak warisan ,  gambar-gambar dari Abad Pertengahan : ksatria berbaju baja, berkelahi dgn tombak sambil naik kuda, bahkan wanita elegan di tinggi, topi runcing! Namun itu adalah paradoks, karena pada saat itu, banyak keunggulan dari masyarakat abad pertengahan sudah memudar dan digantikan oleh budaya yang terkait dengan Renaissance. Feodalisme, yang secara unik &quote; sistem abad pertengahan &quote; politik, telah secara efektif telah mati selama berabad-abad.

 Abad Pertengahan penguasa semakin tampak untuk mengembangkan efektif, tentara profesional yang bisa lebih adaptif, lebih terlatih dan mampu tinggal lebih lama di lapangan. memanfaatkan Pada saat yang sama bahwa majikan temannya memeriksa kembali perannya di medan perang, ksatria yang baru saja selesai semakin ditantang oleh kombinasi senjata, dalam bentuk tombak, busur dan senapan, dan mereka akan segera menggeser dia dari tempatnya di tengah masyarakat militer. Bahkan berkelahi dgn tombak sambil naik kuda telah menjadi olahraga, semakin buatan internasional, bukan pelatihan militer yang serius. Sementara itu, pedagang pemberani menjadi ksatria baru di Eropa, mencari kekayaan baru di Asia dan Afrika, dan meluncurkan apa yang disebut Zaman &quote; dari Discovery &quote;.

Pada tahun 1400, Inggris dan Perancis masih terkunci dalam Perang Seratus Tahun, dan Perancis diperintah oleh seorang raja gila, dengan kekalahan terburuk masih belum datang. Digalakkan oleh melemahnya monarki Perancis, Dukes kuat Burgundi terus tumbuh lebih mandiri, bangunan di semua tapi nama sebuah kerajaan yang independen, dan pengadilan yang menjadi pusat budaya Eropa utara. Di Iberia, budaya Islam Al Andalus kuno telah didorong kembali oleh kerajaan Spanyol, sampai hanya kerajaan kecil Granada tetap, memberikan Kristen Iberia lebih banyak waktu untuk perang terhadap diri mereka sendiri. Sementara itu, jauh di sebelah timur, perang Salib dan Bulan Sabit adalah mengambil kursus sangat berbeda: Kekaisaran Bizantium kuno itu membuat berdiri terakhir terhadap kemajuan terelakkan dari Turki Ottoman. Dan melalui semua itu, para bankir dan rumah-rumah perdagangan Italia dan Liga Hanseatic tumbuh pernah kaya.
  
Abad ke-15 adalah periode drama dan keanggunan, serta cita-cita ideal romantisasi kesatria. Sebuah ilustrasi dari Rene d’Anjou’s &quote; Kitab Cinta &quote;. (1465)

Dengan 1500, yang &quote; Abad Pertengahan &quote; sebagai kita berpikir tentang mereka telah semua tapi hanyut. Prancis telah muncul sebagai pemenang dari Perang Seratus Tahun dan membawa duchies pemberontak ke tumit, termasuk Burgundy, membuat monarki kuat daripada yang pernah dilakukan sebelumnya. Inggris, di sisi lain, dan terus dari kerugian bencana wilayah Perancis ke dalam perang, berdarah tiga puluh tahun yang panjang sipil, Perang Mawar, yang melihat Plantagenets kehilangan mahkota Inggris setelah hampir tiga setengah abad aturan tak terputus. Pada 1453, Konstantinopel akhirnya jatuh ke Turki, membawa berakhir korban sejati terakhir dari Kekaisaran Romawi kuno. Sementara itu, kerajaan Spanyol dari Castile dan Aragon telah diusir terakhir dari para penguasa muslim, dan telah bersatu menjadi sebuah kerajaan Spanyol tunggal, menciptakan apa yang segera untuk menjadi superpower Eropa.

Tetapi selama tahun-tahun abad ini, masyarakat Eropa akan mengalami perubahan jauh lebih dari sekedar pergolakan politik. Budaya intelektual baru menyeduh yang akan membawa perubahan besar dalam seni, ilmu pengetahuan, fashion dan drive untuk eksplorasi. Renaissance itu dilahirkan.

2.Humanisme

Hal ini sering berpendapat bahwa perubahan besar dari tahun 1400-an yang pertama dan terutama didorong oleh perubahan budaya intelektual yang kembali ke pembacaan penulis klasik, menempatkan penekanan baru pada topik sekuler dan melegitimasikan berjuang untuk prestasi pribadi. Ideologi baru ini Humanisme.

Abad Pertengahan telah didominasi oleh budaya intelektual SKOLASTIK, yang berfokus pada menyelesaikan kontradiksi antara penulis klasik terkenal. Seiring waktu, komentar-komentar oleh para sarjana kemudian mengembangkan otoritas hampir setara dengan yang penulis aslinya, sehingga seorang sarjana terlatih mungkin mengatakan bahwa ia telah mempelajari Aristoteles tanpa pernah membaca sebuah kata yang sebenarnya ditulis oleh Aristoteles sendiri! Pada abad ke-14 akhir, bagaimanapun, gerakan intelektual baru mulai terbentuk di Italia utara. Karena dominasi pedagang mereka, kota-kota Italian sudah lama memiliki kebutuhan untuk berpendidikan tinggi, orang terpelajar dengan latar belakang sekuler. Awalnya, seperti panitera, notaris atau pengacara dikenal sebagai seorang humanis jika ia adalah seorang mahasiswa atau guru Latin dan Latin sastra tetapi tidak seorang rohaniawan. Para sarjana ini &quote; &quote; humanis mulai menemukan kembali teks Latin dan Yunani, khususnya puisi, sejarah dan karya retoris yang telah diabaikan atau bahkan ditindas oleh para ulama. Pada pertengahan abad ke-lima belas, filsafat Humanisme telah datang untuk menggambarkan humanitatis studia – kurikulum lengkap tata bahasa, retorika, filsafat moral, puisi, dan sejarah sebagai belajar dari studi langsung penulis Klasik. Di atas segalanya, humanis ini menegaskan bahwa, sebagai Manusia diciptakan menurut gambar Allah, kemampuan unik untuk alasan, menghargai keindahan dan untuk membuat dan objek mode adalah kualitas inheren ilahi. Dengan demikian, seni dan sains adalah pilar kembar yang tidak hanya suci, tapi pada dasarnya dikuduskan manusia.

Pada abad berikutnya, penulis politik Humanis seperti seperti Niccolo Machiavelli dan Thomas More akan menggunakan gagasan penulis Klasik untuk mengkritik pemerintah mereka, sementara paparan baru untuk Plato akan memimpin teolog seperti Giordano Bruno dan Martin Luther untuk menantang para pemimpin Gereja tidak hanya politik dan moral, tetapi pada dasar-dasar yang sangat filosofis pandangan dunia Aristotelian mereka.

3.Seni dan Sains

Pandangan Humanis alami bercampur Seni dan Sains. Tercatat seniman seperti Leonardo da Vinci membuat gambar pengamatan anatomi dan alam, sementara disiplin ilmu seperti musik dan pagar dianggap baik ilmu pengetahuan dan seni, karena mereka diatur oleh hukum-hukum fisika tertentu bisa dipungkiri proporsi dan waktu, tetapi telah diterapkan dalam mode, kreatif yang senantiasa berubah. Perubahan artistik paling terkenal dari abad ke-15 adalah pengembangan ke arah rasa &quote; &quote; perspektif realistis. Master seperti Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337) telah mulai proses ini di abad ke-14, tetapi tidak mencapai penuh-berbunga sebagai &quote; teknik &quote; formal untuk dipelajari dan digunakan sebagai ukuran keterampilan artis, sampai menjadi dipopulerkan oleh arsitek-Filippo pematung Brunelleschi (1377-1446) dan Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472). Setelah pencarian realisme telah dimulai dalam satu elemen artistik, seniman dengan cepat mulai menerapkannya kepada orang lain, seperti cahaya dan bayangan. Terinspirasi oleh pesona Humanis dengan keindahan dan alam, mereka berusaha untuk lebih hati-hati membuat elemen alam, yang paling spesifik, bentuk manusia, dan ini dinyatakan dalam karya-karya taranya dari da Vinci dan Raphael yang muncul dalam dekade terakhir abad ini.

Tapi Italia tidak terpojok pasar pada inovasi artistik, dan di bawah perlindungan dari Dukes Burgundi kaya, sebuah &quote; baru &quote; sekolah alam yang dikembangkan di Belanda, gedung di sekitar karya Jan van Eyck (1385 -1441), yang juga dikreditkan dengan pengenalan cat minyak dan kanvas.
  
&quote; terkenal Jan van Eyk The Portrait &quote; Arnolfini (1434)
 
Brunelleschi’s kubah di atas Basilika Santa Maria del Fiore (1419-1436)


 Fusi seni dan sains mungkin paling dirasakan di dunia arsitektur, yang menjadi dipengaruhi oleh penemuan kembali tulisan-tulisan Vitruvius matematika abad ke-1. Revolusi arsitektur abad ke-15 dimulai ketika Filippo Brunelleschi dibangun kubah Basilika di Santa Maria del Fiore di Florence (1419-1436). Berdasarkan Pantheon terkenal di Roma, itu akan menjadi kubah yang berdiri bebas pertama dari setiap ukuran yang dibangun di Eropa Barat sejak jatuhnya Kekaisaran Romawi.

Sepanjang abad ke array yang luas dari inovasi dan penemuan lainnya, seperti mesin cetak (1455), maka ukiran kayu (1400-1450), yang piano (c.1460), kunci saluran (1481), penyulingan wiski malt ke ( c.1460). Namun perkembangan yang paling signifikan dari era itu mungkin tidak ada penemuan satu, melainkan sebuah proses untuk penemuan, berdasarkan bukti empiris. Metode ini adalah metode &quote; &quote; ilmiah yang telah mendorong ilmu barat sejak saat itu.
 
5.Mode


tren fashion ini dari 1400-an mengikuti tren yang sama terhadap ekstrem riang tercermin di seluruh masyarakat selama periode ini. Sebagai terburuk Black Death (1348 – 1350) berbaring lama di masa lalu, perubahan masyarakat Eropa itu telah menciptakan termasuk cenderung ke arah sangat diberdayakan, &quote; kelas menengah perkotaan &quote;. Pedagang ini, guildsmen dan-pedagang pangeran tempat sebagai kuat atau berpengaruh sebagai negara-kota Italia, atau kota-kota Flemish bawah kekuasaan Dukes of Burgundy.

Dengan Inggris dan Perancis terperosok dalam Perang Seratus Tahun dan sesudahnya dan kemudian Perang Inggris Mawar melalui sebagian besar abad, berkilauan, yang sadar akan fashion, dan tajam pikiran Duke Philip yang Baik (memerintah 1419-1469) telah Burgundy berubah menjadi sebuah kerajaan otonom di semua tapi nama, dan telah menggunakan kontrol tentang perdagangan kota Belanda dan Flanders untuk memperoleh wol bahasa Inggris terbaik, sutra timur dan mode Italia.

Sementara itu, di Italia bangsawan tua telah lama jatuh ke republik pedagang atau lalim militer. Dalam banyak kasus, yang terakhir hanya dianggap judul keturunan lama Marchese, menghitung atau duke, apakah mereka berasal dari keluarga bangsawan lama atau yang upstarts mengangkat diri sebagai bangsawan baru. Menginginkan untuk membangun legitimasi mereka, lalim ini berusaha untuk membuat pengadilan mereka iri Eropa. Mereka yang memeluk cita-cita baru Humanisme menjadi pelanggan besar dari seni, ilmu dan belajar. tuan mengakuisisi terkenal sebagai orang budaya, belajar dan kekayaan, mendapatkan pelayanan sipil atau militer tambahan dari punggawa, sementara punggawa yang diperoleh jauh lebih: dukungan keuangan yang stabil, prestise, dan kesempatan untuk mengembangkan karyanya tanpa harus melawan tekanan kehidupan sehari-hari.

Hasil akhirnya adalah bahwa, ada kelas rakyat biasa kaya di tengah-tengah pengadilan ini boros yang memiliki kekayaan dan koneksi untuk berhasil meniru, dan kadang-kadang melebihi, mode kaum bangsawan, meskipun ada undang-undang sumptuary. Ini sehingga mendorong bangsawan terhadap mode semakin rumit dan boros sendiri. Hal ini juga menyebabkan kecenderungan sebenarnya untuk pertama menuju &quote; jelas varians &quote; nasional dalam mode Eropa.

Pada akhir abad sebelumnya, houppelande tebal telah menjadi mode populer bagi laki-laki dan perempuan. houppelande terus menjadi populer di Burgundi, Perancis dan Inggris lingkaran hingga memasuki 1470-an. Meskipun dapat dipakai di mana saja dari lantai ke lutut panjang, dalam semua kasus itu menjadi semakin lebih lipit, dilengkapi dengan kerah tinggi dan tinggi, boneka bahu. Pada saat yang sama, dengan cara-counter berkembang di Italia dan selatan, sebagai cotehardie pria tua itu menjadi lebih pendek dan ketat, sampai berkembang menjadi doublet mengungkapkan dan selang yang terkait dengan Renaissance Italia. Baik houppelande dan doublet akan menjadi populer di seluruh Eropa, tapi dengan gaya daerah yang unik, seperti fashion Italia mengenakan doublet dengan Tabard, pendek lipit disebut giornea, atau mode Burgundi abad pertengahan untuk terkaya laki-laki untuk berpakaian hitam pekat.
  
Duke Philip dari Burgundi yang Baik dan istananya, dalam sebuah miniatur oleh Rogier van der Weyden (1477).

 
The houppelande elegan, pertama muncul pada akhir abad 14, akan mendominasi mode kaum bangsawan sepanjang paruh pertama abad ke-15.

 
headwear Perempuan apa-apa jika tidak dramatis!
 

fashion Feminin pergi melalui evolusi sendiri juga. Para cotehardie tua dan surcoat sideless bertahan melalui dekade awal abad ini, dengan guntingan dari surcoat menjadi semakin luas. Namun, itu lagi houppelande akhir abad 14, dilengkapi dengan kerah lengan dan lebar tinggi yang mempengaruhi fashion feminin hampir sepanjang abad ini. Pada 1450, mode Eropa Utara telah mengembangkan V rendah leher yang mengungkapkan sekilas dari undergown di bawah ini. , Penuh lengan panjang terus dipakai, meskipun mereka semakin dilengkapi dengan lebar, manset berbalik kembali. Sementara itu, di Italia, V rendah leher dan sendok-leher awal dekade memberi jalan untuk sebuah leher yang dipakai tinggi di depan dengan leher-V yang lebih rendah di bagian belakang, sering dipakai dengan Tabard tanpa lengan, atau giornea. Evolusi ini akan mengarah kepada serangkaian mode baru pada dekade akhir abad ini, termasuk penampilan pertama kembung dan lengan disayat yang akan berlangsung selama dua abad.

Sementara itu, aksesoris mengasumsikan tingkat baru penting, terutama headwear. Abad ke-14 tua berguling pendamping berevolusi dari hood yang digulung menjadi topi, unik empuk, atap mobil dan turban diasumsikan bentuk-bentuk baru, dan topi laki-laki mengambil berbagai bentuk, termasuk beberapa anehnya akrab dengan mata modern (salah satu contoh tampak seperti keturunan dari derby dan topi sepuluh galon!). Namun untuk wanita sarana, tinggi perbedaan di banyak hiasan kepala yang masuk dan keluar dari mode selama 1400-an, banyak yang hanya bisa terbaik digambarkan sebagai lengkungan Gothic di kepala Anda!

Sepanjang Abad Pertengahan, Eropa telah mencari lebih efektif rute perdagangan ke Asia. Ironisnya, invasi Mongol yang sama yang telah stabil banyak Eropa Timur pada abad ke-13 juga bersatu swathes besar Asia di bawah aturan tunggal, memungkinkan pedagang Eropa, terutama Italia, untuk lebih mudah melakukan perjalanan ke Timur Jauh. The voyager paling terkenal tentu saja Marco Polo, yang bepergian di seluruh Asia 1271-1295, dan menjadi tamu di istana Kubilai Khan. Perjalanannya mencatat Perjalanan dibacakan di seluruh Eropa. Namun pelayaran Polo memiliki pengaruh yang kecil langsung, untuk runtuhnya Kekaisaran Mongol, kehancuran Kematian Hitam dan munculnya Kekaisaran Ottoman agresif efektif menghancurkan kesempatan di Eropa meningkatkan eksplorasi darat atau perdagangan.

Tapi Marco Polo tidak dilupakan, dan memasuki periode baru ketenaran pada abad ke 15 Niccolo da Conti menerbitkan account dari perjalanan ke India dan Asia Tenggara pada tahun 1439. Ada lagi suatu kepentingan baru rute perdagangan Timur, dan ketertarikan ini tidak datang terlalu cepat, karena dengan jatuhnya Constantinope pada tahun 1453, rute lama sekarang tegas di bawah kendali Ottoman, dan dilarang untuk Eropa. Untungnya, pada saat yang sama bahwa jalan di sekitar tanah Muslim Asia Kecil dan Afrika Utara menjadi penting untuk dipandang sebagai pengusaha Eropa, orang-orang di semenanjung Iberia sudah mulai berkembang kunci untuk membuka jalan Timur. Ini adalah penemuan kapal baru, carrack dan, Caravel kapal bulat &quote; &quote; dikembangkan dan dipengaruhi oleh model Afrika Utara dan lebih cocok untuk membuka perjalanan laut. Pada saat yang sama, penulis Humanis terus menemukan kembali akun klasik geografi dan eksplorasi, dan menjadi yakin bahwa ada jalan di sekitar Afrika.

Abad ke-15 melihat membengkak pertama ekspedisi yang akan meluncurkan Umur &quote; Eksplorasi &quote;, dan itu adalah Portugis yang memimpin jalan. Yang pertama pelayaran diluncurkan oleh Prince Henry sang Navigator (1394-1460). Berlayar keluar ke Atlantik terbuka, Henry ditemukan pertama pada tahun 1419 Kepulauan Madeira dan Azores di 1427, dan dengan cepat mendirikan koloni pada keduanya. Dari sini ia berbalik ke Afrika Barat, mencari cara untuk melewati rute perdagangan trans-Sahara dengan harapan untuk menemukan emas, budak dan kerajaan Kristen dongeng Prester John. Dengan 1440s Portugis telah mendorong selatan gurun dan masuk ke pedalaman, dan meskipun mereka tidak menemukan Prester John, mereka menemukan sebuah perdagangan yang kuat di emas dan budak. Tetapi terobosan penting terjadi pada 1487, ketika Bartolomeu Dias bulat Tanjung Harapan Baik dan membuktikan bahwa akses ke Samudera Hindia itu mungkin. Sebelas tahun kemudian, Vasco da Gama (1460 – 1524) berhasil mencapai India.

Kerajaan Spanyol telah lebih lambat untuk merespon dan sekarang cemas diperlukan memeriksa mereka sendiri pada dominasi Portugis dari seluruh Afrika. Dengan persatuan Castile dan Aragon, Spanyol baru bersatu tiba-tiba memiliki sumber daya untuk memulai sebuah ekspedisi sendiri, dengan harapan bahwa seorang pelaut Genoa benar bahwa rute Afrika ke India dapat oleh-melewati sepenuhnya oleh barat berlayar lurus melintasi Samudra Pasifik. Ketika Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) kembali dengan klaim telah mencapai &quote; yang &quote; Hindia tidak jelas tepat di mana dia dan apa yang ia telah menemukan, tapi jelas bahwa ia berada di suatu tempat.

Pada awal abad ke-16, sedangkan kekuatan maritim lama Genoa dan Venesia terus berperang dengan Utsmani untuk menguasai Mediterania timur, kota Italia-negara bersiap diri untuk invasi asing, dan kemuliaan pengadilan Burgundi menjadi memori generasi sebelumnya, Dunia Baru menjulang dan keseimbangan kekuasaan Eropa mulai bergeser ke anak-anak Iberia.

 
The 15th century provides us with many of our stock, childhood images of the &quote;Middle Ages&quote;: the knight in shining armour, the joust, even elegant ladies in tall, pointed hats! Yet it is a paradox, for by this time, many of the hallmarks of medieval society had already faded and were being replaced by a culture associated with the Renaissance. Feudalism, that uniquely &quote;medieval&quote; political system, had effectively been dead for centuries. Medieval monarchs increasingly looked to develop effective, professional armies that could be more adaptive, better trained and able to stay longer in the field. At the same time that his employers were reexamining his role on the battlefield, the knight’s newly completed harness was increasingly challenged by a combination of arms, in the form of pike, bow and gun, and they would soon unseat him from his place at the center of military society. Even the joust had become an increasingly artificial, international sport, rather than serious military training. Meanwhile, intrepid merchants became the new knighthood of Europe, seeking new wealth in Asia and Africa, and launching what has been called the &quote;Age of Discovery&quote;.In the year 1400, England and France were still locked in the Hundred Years War, and France was ruled by a mad king, with its worst defeats still yet to come. Emboldened by the weakening of the French monarchy, the powerful Dukes of Burgundy continued to grow more autonomous, building in all but name an independent kingdom, and a court that became the cultural center of northern Europe. In Iberia, the ancient Muslim culture of Al Andalus had been driven back by the Spanish kingdoms, until only the small kingdom of Granada remained, giving the Iberian Christians more time to war against themselves. Meanwhile, far to the east, the battle of Cross and Crescent was taking a very different course: the ancient Byzantine Empire was making its last stand against the inexorable advance of the Ottoman Turks. And through it all, the bankers and trading houses of Italy and the Hanseatic League grew ever wealthier.

The 15th century was a period of drama and elegance, as well as an idealized romanticizing of chivalric ideals. An illustration from Rene d’Anjou’s &quote;Book of Love&quote;. (1465)

By 1500, the &quote;Middle Ages&quote; as we think of them had been all but swept away. France had emerged victorious from the Hundred Years War and brought her rebellious duchies to heel, including Burgundy, making the monarchy stronger than it ever had before. England, on the other hand, and proceeded from the disastrous loss of her French territories into a bloody, thirty year long civil war, the War of the Roses, that saw the Plantagenets lose the crown of England after nearly three and a half centuries of unbroken rule. In 1453, Constantinople at last fell to the Turks, bringing to an end the last true survivor of the ancient Roman Empire. Meanwhile, the Spanish kingdoms of Castille and Aragon had driven out the last of the Muslim rulers, and had united into a single Spanish kingdom, creating what was soon to become a European superpower.

But during the intervening years of this century, European society would undergo far more change than just political upheaval. A new intellectual culture was brewing that would bring sweeping changes in art, science, fashion and a drive for exploration. The Renaissance was being born.

Humanism

It is often argued that the sweeping changes of the 1400s were driven first and foremost by a change in intellectual culture that returned to a reading of classical authors, put a new emphasis on secular topics and legitimized the striving for personal accomplishment. This new ideology was Humanism.

The Middle Ages had been dominated by the intellectual culture of Scholasticism, which focused on resolving contradictions between famous Classical authors. Over time, the commentaries by these later scholars would develop an authority almost equivalent to that of the original author, so that a trained scholar might say that he had studied Aristotle without ever having read an actual word written by Aristotle himself! In the late 14th century, however, a new intellectual movement began to take shape in northern Italy. Because of their mercantile dominance, the Italian cities had long since had a need for highly educated, literate men with secular backgrounds. Initially, such a clerk, notary or lawyer was known as a humanist if he was a student or teacher of Latin and Latin literature but was not a Churchman. These &quote;humanist&quote; scholars began to rediscover many Latin and Greek texts, particularly poetic, historical and rhetorical works that had been neglected or even oppressed by clerics. By the mid-fifteenth century, the philosophy of Humanism had come to describe the studia humanitatis – a complete curriculum of grammar, rhetoric, moral philosophy, poetry and history as learned from a direct study of Classical authors. Above all, these Humanists asserted that, as Man was created in the image of God, his unique ability to reason, appreciate beauty and to create and fashion objects was an inherently divine quality. As such, art and science were twin pillars that not only ennobled, but essentially sanctified man.

In the century that followed, Humanist political writers such as such as Niccolo Machiavelli and Thomas More would use the idea of Classical authors to criticize their governments, while new exposure to Plato would lead theologians such as Giordano Bruno and Martin Luther to challenge Church leaders not only politically and morally, but at the very philosophical underpinnings of their Aristotelian world view.

Art and ScienceThe Humanist worldview naturally intermingled Art and Science. Noted artists such as Leonardo da Vinci made observational drawings of anatomy and nature, while disciplines such as music and fencing were considered to be both a science and an art, as they were governed by certain undeniable physical laws of proportion and time, but were applied in a creative, ever-changing fashion. The most noted artistic change of the 15th century was the development towards a &quote;realistic&quote; sense of perspective. Masters such as Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337) had begun this process in the 14th century, but it did not achieve its full-flowering as a formal &quote;technique&quote; to be studied and used as a measurement of the artist’s skill, until it became popularized by the architect-sculptors Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) and Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472). Once a quest for realism had begun in one artistic element, artists quickly began to apply it to others, such as light and shadow. Inspired by the Humanist fascination with beauty and nature, they sought to more carefully render natural elements, most specifically, the human form, and this was expressed in the peerless works of da Vinci and Raphael that appeared in the last decades of the century.But the Italians had not cornered the market on artistic innovation, and under the patronage of the wealthy Burgundian Dukes, a new &quote;natural&quote; school developed in the Netherlands, building around the work of Jan van Eyck (1385 -1441), who is also credited with the introduction of oil paint and canvas.

Jan van Eyk’s famous &quote;The Arnolfini Portrait&quote; (1434)


Brunelleschi’s dome atop the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore (1419 – 36)

The fusion of art and science was perhaps most felt in the world of architecture, which became influences by a rediscovery of the writings of the 1st century mathematician Vitruvius. The architectural revolution of the 15th century began when Filippo Brunelleschi built the dome of the Basilica di Santa Maria del Fiore in Florence (1419-1436). Based upon the famed Pantheon in Rome, it would be the first free-standing dome of any significant size built in Western Europe since the fall of the Roman Empire.Throughout the century a vast array of other innovations and inventions, such as the printing press (1455), the woodcut (1400 – 1450), the harpsichord (c.1460), canal locks (1481), the distillation of malt into whiskey (c.1460). Yet the most significant development of the era was probably not any one discovery, but rather a process for discovery, based on empirical evidence. This method was the &quote;scientific method&quote; that has driven western science ever since.
FashionThe fashion trends of the 1400s followed the same trend towards exuberant extremes reflected in the rest of society during this period. As the worst of the Black Death (1348 – 1350) lay long in the past, the changes in European society it had created included a tend towards greatly empowered, urban &quote;middle classes&quote;. These tradesmen, guildsmen and merchant-princes were nowhere as powerful or influential as the Italian city-states, or the Flemish cities under the rule of the Dukes of Burgundy.With England and France mired in the Hundred Years War and its aftermath and then the English Wars of the Roses through most of the century, the glittering, the fashion-conscious, and sharp-witted Duke Philip the Good (ruled 1419-1469) had turned Burgundy into an autonomous kingdom in all but name, and had used his control of the trading cities Holland and Flanders to the acquire the finest English wool, eastern silks and Italian fashions.Meanwhile, in Italy the old nobility had long fallen to mercantile republics or military despots. In many cases, the latter simply assumed the old hereditary titles of marchese, count or duke, whether they came from old noble families or were upstarts raising themselves up as the new nobility. Desiring to establish their legitimacy, these despots sought to make their courts the envy of Europe. Those who embraced the new ideals of Humanism became great patrons of art, science and learning. The lord acquired renown as a man of culture, learning and wealth, gaining additional civil or military service from the courtier, while the courtier gained far more: stable financial support, prestige, and a chance to develop his work without having to fight against the pressure of daily life.The end result was that, there was a class of wealthy commoners in the midst of these extravagant courts who had the wealth and connections to successfully mimic, and sometimes exceed, the fashions of the nobility, regardless of any sumptuary laws. This thereby prompted the nobility towards ever more elaborate and extravagant fashions themselves. It also led to the first real trend towards clear &quote;national&quote; variances in European fashions.At end of the previous century, the voluminous houppelande had become a popular fashion for both men and women. The houppelande continued to be popular in Burgundian, French and English circles until well into the 1470s. Although it could be worn anywhere from floor to knee length, in all cases it became progressively more pleated, fitted with a high collar and tall, stuffed shoulders. At the same time, a counter-fashion was evolving in Italy and the south, as the old men’s cotehardie became shorter and tighter, until it evolved into the revealing doublets and hose associated with the Italian Renaissance. Both houppelande and doublet would become popular throughout Europe, but with unique regional styles, such as the Italian fashion of wearing the doublet with a short, pleated tabard called the giornea, or the Burgundian fashion of the mid-century for the wealthiest of men to dress in solid black.


Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy and his court, in a miniature by Rogier van der Weyden (1477).


The elegant houppelande, first appearing in the late 14th century, would dominate the fashions of the nobility throughout the first half of the 15th century.


Women’s headwear was nothing if not dramatic!

Feminine fashion went through its own evolution as well. The old cotehardie and sideless surcoat persisted through the early decades of the century, with the cutouts of the surcoat becoming progressively wider. However, it was again the late 14th century houppelande, fitted with a high collar and wide sleeves that was to influence feminine fashion throughout most of the century. By 1450, the northern Europe fashion had developed a low V-neck that revealed glimpses of the undergown below. The full, long sleeves continued to be worn, although they were increasingly more fitted with wide, turned-back cuffs. Meanwhile, in Italy, the low V-neck and scoop-neck of the early decades gave way to a neckline that was worn high in front with a lower V-neck at the back, often worn with a sleeveless tabard, or giornea. This evolution would lead towards a series of new fashions in the final decades of the century, including the first appearance of puffed and slashed sleeves that would last for two centuries.

Meanwhile, accessories assumed a new level of importance, particularly headwear. The old 14th century rolled chaperone evolved from a rolled-up hood into a unique, padded hat, hoods and turbans assumed new forms, and men’s hats took on a variety of shapes, including some oddly familiar to modern eyes (one example looking much like the offspring of a derby and a ten-gallon hat!). But for the lady of means, the height of distinction was in multitude of headdresses that came in and out of fashion during the 1400s, many of which can only be best described as a Gothic arch on your head!

Throughout the High Middle Ages, Europeans had been looking for more effective trade routes into Asia. Ironically, the same Mongol invasions that had destabilized much of Eastern Europe in the 13th century also united great swathes of Asia under a single rule, allowing Europeans merchants, mostly Italians, to more easily travel into the Far East. The most famous voyager was of course Marco Polo, who traveled throughout the Asia from 1271 to 1295, and became a guest at the court of Kublai Khan. His journey recorded a Travels was read throughout Europe. Yet Polo’s voyage had little immediate effect, for the collapse of the Mongol Empire, the devastation of the Black Death and the rise of the aggressive Ottoman Empire effectively destroyed any chance at Europeans increasing overland exploration or trade.

But Marco Polo was not forgotten, and entered a new period of fame in the 15th century Niccolo da Conti published an account of his travels to India and Southeast Asia in 1439. There was again an interest in new trade routes East, and this interest came none too soon, for with the fall of Constantinope in 1453, the old routes were now firmly under Ottoman control, and barred to Europeans. Fortunately, at the same time that a way around the Muslim lands of Asia Minor and North Africa were becoming viewed as crucial to European businessmen, the people of the Iberian peninsula had already begun developing the key to unlock the road East. This was the invention of new ships, the carrack and the caravel, &quote;round ships&quote; developed and influenced by North African models and better suited to open ocean voyage. At the same time, Humanist authors continued to rediscover classical accounts of geography and exploration, and became convinced that there was a way around Africa.

The 15th century saw the first swell of expeditions that would launch the &quote;Age of Exploration&quote;, and it was the Portuguese who led the way. The first of these voyages was launched by the Prince Henry the Navigator (1394 – 1460). Sailing out into the open Atlantic, Henry discovered first the Madeira Islands in 1419 and the Azores in 1427, and quickly established colonies on both. From here he turned to West Africa, seeking a way to bypass the trans-Saharan trade routes in the hope of finding gold, slaves and the fabled Christian kingdom of Prester John. By the 1440s the Portuguese had pushed south of the desert and into the interior, and although they did not find Prester John, they found a vigorous trade in gold and slaves. But the crucial breakthrough came in 1487, when Bartolomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope and proved that access to the Indian Ocean was possible. Eleven years later, Vasco da Gama (1460 – 1524) successfully reached India.

The Spanish kingdoms had been slower to respond and now anxiously needed their own check on Portuguese domination of the African entire. With the union of Castille and Aragon, the newly united Spain suddenly had the resources to launch an expedition of its own, with the hope that a Genoese sailor was right that the African route to India could be by-passed entirely by sailing straight west across the Pacific Ocean. When Christopher Columbus (1451 – 1506) returned with claims of having reached &quote;the Indies&quote; it was unclear precisely where he had been and what he had found, but it was clear that he had been somewhere.

At the dawn of the 16th century, while the old maritime powers of Genoa and Venice continued to war with the Ottomans for control of the eastern Mediterranean, the Italian city-states braced themselves for foreign invasion, and the glory of the Burgundian court became the memory of the previous generation, a New World loomed and the balance of European power began to shift to the children of Iberia.

CHAPTRER ONE (BAB SATU):

WOMEN IN lEADER 15TH CENTURY(WANITA PENGUASA ABAD KE-15)

CHAPTER TWO(BAB DUA):

Sagnificant people in 15th Century(Orang Terkenal Abad ke-15)

Isabella I of Castile helped unify Spain via a dynastic marriage with Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469.

 

King Henry VII, (1457–1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor

Sir John Everett Millais, The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483, Royal Holloway collection, 1878

CHAPTER THREE(BAB TIGA):

THE HISTORY OF 15TH CENTURY(SEJARAH ABAD KE-15)

15th century

 

 

1492, Columbus opens the route to the New World for Spain. Beginning of the Modern Age.

Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 14th century · 15th century · 16th century
Decades: 1400s 1410s 1420s 1430s 1440s
1450s 1460s 1470s 1480s 1490s
Categories: BirthsDeaths
EstablishmentsDisestablishments

As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was the century which lasted from 1401 to 1500.

Constantinople, the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, falls to emerging Ottoman Turks, forcing Western Europeans to find a new trade route.
The Papacy was split in two parts in Europe for decades, until the Council of Constance.

Under the rule of Yongle Emperor, who built the Forbidden City and commanded Zhenghe to explore the world overseas, Ming Dynasty‘s territory reached pinnacle. Tamerlane established a major empire in the Middle East and Central Asia, in order to revive the Mongolian Empire. The Inca Empire rose to prominence in South America.

Spanish and Portuguese explorations led to first European sightings of the Americas and the sea passage along Cape of Good Hope to India, in the last decade of the century. After these first sightings by Europeans, transportation increased to Europe from America. Native indigenous cultures that lived within the continent of the Americas had already developed advanced civilizations that attest to thousands of years of human presence; sophisticated engineering, irrigation, agriculture, religion and government existed before the arrival of the Spanish and the Portuguese. The idea that Europeans “discovered” America can lead to misunderstanding the true nature of the encounter between two distinct and independent civilizations, namely European and Indigenous American.

In European history, the 15th century is seen as the bridge between the Middle Ages, the Early Renaissance, and the Early modern period.

Contents

Events

Joan of Arc, a French peasant girl, directly influenced the result of the Hundred Years’ War.

Matthias Corvinus of Hungary The renaissance king, His mercenary standing army (the Black Army) had the strongest military potential of its era

Portrait of Scanderbeg, ca. 1648.

Modern painting of Mehmed II marching on Constantinople in 1453

The map of Ming dynasty(1433), based on The Historical Atlas of China

The Siege of Rhodes (1480). Ships of the Hospitaliers in the forefront, and Turkish camp in the background.

 Significant people

Isabella I of Castile helped unify Spain via a dynastic marriage with Ferdinand II of Aragon in 1469.

King Henry VII, (1457–1509), the founder of the royal house of Tudor

Sir John Everett Millais, The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483, Royal Holloway collection, 1878

Visual artists, architects, sculptors, printmakers, illustrators

An African giraffe being led into a Ming Dynasty zoo, a Chinese painting by She Du, 1414 AD, during the reign of the Yongle Emperor.

See links above for Italian Renaissance painting and Renaissance sculpture.

Literature

Francois Villon, from the Grand Testament de Maistre François Villon, Paris, 1489

 Musicians and Composers

Exploration

 

Science, invention and philosophy

 

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

List of 15th century inventions

 Important personages

 References

  1. ^ Mueller, Peter O. (1993) Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Durers, Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012815-2.
  2. ^ also sometimes in contemporary documents Barthélemy de Cler, der Clers, Deick d’Ecle, d’Eilz – Harthan, John, The Book of Hours, p.93, 1977, Thomas Y Crowell Company, New York, ISBN 0690016549
  3. ^ Unterkircher, Franz (1980). King René’s Book of Love (Le Cueur d’Amours Espris). New York: G. Braziller. ISBN 0-8076-0989-7
  4. ^ Tolley
  5. ^ Brigstocke, 2001, p. 338
  6. ^ “Hans Holbein”. Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/07385a.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-18. 
  7. ^ Platt, Colin (1996). King Death: The Black Death and its aftermath in late-medieval England. London: UCL Press Limited. ISBN 1-85728-313-9
  8. ^ “Pico della Mirandola, Giovanni, Conte” in Grolier Encyclopedia of Knowledge, volume 15, copyright 1991. Grolier Inc., ISBN 0-7172-5300-7
  9. ^ Oration on the Dignity of Man (1486) http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_1/pico.html

 Sources

Tolley, Thomas (2001). “Eyck, Barthélemy d'”. In Hugh Brigstocke. The Oxford Companion to Western Art. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-866203-3.

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

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