THE FALL OF SAIGON
Postal used cover (one stamp misssing) send from Saigon to military School at Tu Duc 9military code KBC-Ku Bhu Chin 4100)
March, 7th 1975
In early 1975, North Vietnamese military led by General Văn Tiến Dũng launched a massive attack against the Central Highland province of Buôn Mê Thuột. South Vietnamese troops previously anticipated attack against the neighboring province of Pleiku, and were caught off guard. President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu ordered the moving of all troops from the Central Highland to the coastal areas, as with shrinking American aid, South Vietnamese forces could not afford to spread too thin. However, due to lack of experience and logistics for such a large troop movement in such a short time, the whole South Vietnamese Second Corp got bogged down on narrow mountain roads, flooded with thousands of civilian refugees, and was decimated by ambushes along the way. South Vietnamese First Corp near the DMZ was cut off, received conflicting orders from Saigon on whether to fight or to retreat, and eventually collapsed. Many civilians tried to flee to Saigon via land, air, and sea routes, suffering massive casualties along the way. In early April 1975, South Vietnam set up a last ditch defense line at Xuân Lộc, under commander Lê Minh Đảo. North Vietnamese troops failed to penetrate the line and had to make a detour, which the South Vietnamese failed to stop due to lack of troops. President Nguyễn văn Thiệu resigned. The power eventually went to Dương Văn Minh.
Vietcong capture Banmethout(D)
(a)Thieu meet with his commanders at Camranh, orders nothern provinces of South Vietnam abandoned.(D)
(b)The North Vietnamese Army or NVA(Vietminh), had driven the South Vietnamese troops(AVRN), out of Pleiku and down Route 7B to the coast.look at the picture of Pleiku People refugee.
The retreating coliums of civilians and military had been harried and kharrased and ambushed all the way-they’d even run afoul of expertly laid (and inepertly cleared) minefields left bu South Korean forces earlier in the war.
The entire operation,ordered in the incompewtence and panic of the AVRN generals,had been a disaster with only a little over one in three AVRN troops finally arriving on the coast at Thuy Hoa.
(c)Do-Thanh(City) Saigon Document
TRICH-LUC BO’ KHAI-SANH with two local revenue Do Thanh Sai Gon Niem-Thue 5 and 10 Dong sign and official choped of Vien-Chuc Ho Tich Huyen Yan
(10) March.20th 1975
Thieu reverses himself, order Hue held at all cost(D)
GIAY CAM KE’T DOCUMENT SIGNED WITH RED OFFICIAL STAMPED PHUANG TRUONG HUYNH VA’N ANH.with local Bo Than Saigon Ming Thue revenue 1975.
Written commitment OFFICIAL DOCUMENT SIGNED WITH RED Phuang TRUONG HUYNH ANH Official stamped .with local VA’N Saigon Ming Bo Than
(a)The Hue city falls to Vietcong(D)
(13)March .27 th1975
Hue-Da Nang Campaing
Vietcong capture Danang.
This day, the Danang City had fallen and the soldiers(AVRN) at the airfield had gotten there in time to see the last plane out leave the ground with people clinging to the open stairs in the rear and hiding in the wheel wells.The Soldier who had field glasses or exceptionally good eyess could see several of the desperate fall away from the aircraft to the eground and bounce in that odd way that only the dead can. The soldiers laughed at that and mimicked the panic-stricken people who run desperatetly down the runaway after the big jet.
They were rested bow and well fed.They had refilled their ration bag and their amunition pouches. They had treated their wounds and refilled their ranks. They had listened to the Lectures on the importance of their historic missson.They had learned of the success elswhere and been briefe on their next set of golas and objectives.
They had looked at their’Born in the North to Die in the south. “Tattoos almost without noticing them.
Danang had fallen,the chaos and panic attentant to the final few hours before the enemy captured the place had been horrifying. The last few overloaded planes out of Danang had had people cling to the landing gear and hiding in the baggage compartements.look qat the picture of Danang Refuggee excape to USS Midway
The Ancient capital of Hue and Quan Tri and all the nothern province were gone.
All that was truly left of republic of Vietnam(RVN) on the coast at places like Thuy Hoa,Qui Nhon ,and Nha Trang, and most the mekong delta.(Gerry Carrol Info)
The Vietnamese student Scraphbook just before Saigon fall.many student gave a remebrance for her friend after graduated.(this unique scrapbook collections from 1972 until 1975)
Tan yen tam anh nay to lam mem khi xai nhan
YEN_MEN A LEA
Nhung mo tuong than tien.Trong lua Tuoi luoc tro.Con vuong mui vo trang.Hong kin trao ve co ban hien tri ky suot mua phuong vi?! Dau chi thoang nhe!Qua dong thoi gian ! Mo ao thu sinh! Than ai 24.03.75
he has to make each label
YEN_MEN A LEA
The Velvet Of Dream.The school age in ash.Hong Kim awarded basically given. just barely spending more over diamond time line! through secondary student income dong revenue ! from Ai 24.03.75
By March 29, 1975, North Vietnamese troops had full control of Hue and Da Nang, while South Vietnam lost all territories in I Corps and most of the units belonging to the ARVN 1st Brigade.
Pilotbeuro in Hanoi direct General dung to push toward Saigon in the “Ho Chi Minh campaign”(D)
The fall of Hue and Da Nang did not spell the end of the misery suffered by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam. On March 31, ARVN General Pham Van Phu—commander of II Corps Tactical Zone—attempted to form a new defensive line from Quy Nhon to cover the retreat of the ARVN 22nd Infantry Division into the Mekong Delta, but they too were destroyed by the North Vietnamese.
April 1975-The last Month of Saigon US-Vietnam regime.
(1) April,1st.1975(Let Gen .Gerry Carroll Info)
Lt.Tim Boyle,USN, was going through the daily massage trafic when the meeting in the conference room down the hall broke. As one of the assitent air operation officers on the staff of the Navy’s commander in chief,Pacific, he was rarely invited into such august meeting where the red security over the door glowed in the gloom of the central passageway.Boyle,couldn’t care less about that crap.He had learned on his last tour, as a combat Search and Rescue helicopter pilot,what was important and what was not. It has taken him about a month to figure out all the ins and outs of his new job at CINCPAC, and from then on he could usually have all his works done quickly and correctly.He initiated the one he was reading and turned to the next one,which was an unclassified summary od the situation in South Vietnam.
Boyle commandant Hickersons told him that in the afternoon everything was ready for retirement ceremony both at the parade field and at the club.
The soldier sat samll groups by the airfield bounderies.from behind them the distant sounds of the sack of Danang reached them in bits and pieces carried in the stillness of the day’s first light.the unit following behind the front-line troops were searching the city for anything useful to the offensive,shoving aside terrified citizens and refugee from the provinces to west and north who had fled here in the vain hope of avoidng the horrors to come.
Other troops had been rounding up enemies of the revolution who had only hours and days before been pillars of their society-teachers,policemen,clerics-anyone who represented either of the twin threats to the soldier’s ideology,education,or employment by a free government. The enemies (vietcong) were being march out of the city to the west toward death in a labor battalion,or death by the execution squads,or intellectual death in the reeducation camps.
The ordinary citizenry huddled in the doorways or by the side of the road or together in clumps with others,holding their children away from the guns and the hard-eyed squads of armed men. a few sat on the beaches and looked over the empty sea toward the ship that would never come to take them away. They had nowhere else to run.And with the relentless advance of the Communist(Vietminh) divisions from the North,they had no place to hide.
five hours after the Vigilante landed aboard the concord,the photographs taken on on its misssion sat in a jumble with many others on a mahogany conference table in the American headquaters at Tan Son Nut airport outside Saigon. around the table sat the chiefs of whar remained of the American Military presence in the Republic of South Vietnam.With the diminution ot the presence same a frustarting powelessness to do one damn thing aboutbthe disasters these photographs and others yet to be taken where chronicling.
this meeting had been called to assess the speed of the decline in the military situation for south Vietnam without the offtimes confucing qanalyses from whasington.This afternoon there weere no baeurucratic filters or delays between the staffers and the raw informations. There was no analysis’s caviling prose concluding that both sides of the question were rquakky correct and equally likely.There was no countercorroboration.There was no hedging.
There was no channce.No chance at all,to therese eperienced military men,that the South Vietnamese were going to be able to stop the advance of the khaki-and-green-clad mass of Communist”liberators’ from the north(Carrol info)
Le Duc Tho arrives at Vietcong headquaters at Locninh, to oversee offensive
(2)AS the North Vietnam army thrust south, millions of refugees fled in terror toward Saigon .
(3) South Vietnamese refugees are slung into hold of a cargo ship as they anxiously strive to flee the advancing Vietcong.(P
(4) Prior to the Fall of Saigon
Nguyen Bao Tung (Best Vietnamese phillatelist) former captain of the republic of Vietnam’s Army (ARVN) , was the commander of the 34 th MP-CID ( Military Police-Criminal Investigation Detachment) in Saigon.
In his collections contains President Nguyen van Thieu stamps on cover bored the signatures of the president and official seals of Goverment.
In 1975 he wrote about stamps for “ de la Timbrologie”, “ Le Monde des Phillatelie, Bien-Tong Ji-Pao (in Chinese)
( Who was the owner of this very rare covers , please showed us, I have the Thieu stamps 10 Dong, postally covers with KBC stamped, when I have seeking the information via Gogle exploration I found this Nguyen Bao Tung informations –auth)
THE VIETCONG TRANSITION GOVENRMENT AT SOUTH VIETNAM
The Vietcong Government at South Vietnam in 1975
Hue-Da Nang Campaig
The Hue-Da Nang Campaign was a series of military actions conducted by the Vietnam People’s Army (VPA) and the Viet Cong against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) during the Vietnam War, also known in Vietnam as the American War. The campaign was centred on the cities of Hue (Thua Thien-Hue Province) and Da Nang (Quang Nam Province), with secondary fronts in the provinces of Quang Tri and Quang Ngai. The campaign began on March 5 and concluded on April 2, 1975.
During the spring season of 1975, the Vietnam People’s Army High Command in Hanoi made the decision to seize the major South Vietnamese cities of Hue and Da Nang, and also destroy the various South Vietnamese units in I Corps Tactical Zone, led by ARVN General Ngo Quang Truong. Originally, the campaign was planned to take place over two phases; during the seasons of spring-summer and autumn. However, as the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces rolled over South Vietnamese defences on the outskirts of Hue and Da Nang, President Nguyen Van Thieu ordered General Truong to abandon all territories under his control, and pull his forces back to the coastal areas of I Corps. Unfortunately, the South Vietnamese withdrawal quickly turned into a rout, as the North Vietnamese 2nd Army Corps picked off one South Vietnamese unit after another, until Hue and Da Nang was completely surrounded. By March 29, 1975, North Vietnamese troops had full control of Hue and Da Nang, while South Vietnam lost all territories in I Corps and most of the units belonging to the ARVN 1st Brigade.
South China Sea….Crewmen of the amphibious cargo ship USS Durham (LKA-114) take Vietnamese refugees aboard a small craft. The refugees will be transferred later by mechanized landing craft (LCM) to the freighter Transcolorado. Photo taken 04/03/1975.
THE EARLIEST VIETCONG MILITARY ‘S SAIGON GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT IN 1975.(SIX AFTER CAPTURE SAIGON)
The Military “Giay Phep”Dao Biet certificate issued by Chu ky va dau,trung ta by quan tieu Doan truong tien Doan-
THE VIETCONG MILITARY KBC 4709 ID GIAY PHEP
The military ID GIAY PHEH issued by Chu ky vo dau KBC 4.709 signed by Trung Ta Boi Chau.(The earliest Vietcong ID with the eagle army emblem)
(a)Vietcong capture Xuan Loc, last South Vietnamese defense line before Saigon (D)
(b) With the North Vietnam army encircling Saigon , President Thieu officially resigned on April,21th 1975
President Ford, speaking in New Orleans , calls the war “finished”(D)
President Ford meets in the Oval Office with Brent Scowcroft, Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs; Graham Martin, United States Ambassador to the Republic of Vietnam; Army Chief of Staff General Frederick Weyand; and Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger to discuss the situation in Vietnam. Photo taken 03/25/1975.
President Gerald R. Ford talks to a woman refugee while holding a Vietnamese baby on a United States Air Force bus. The President after greeted the refugees of the Republic of Vietnam at a California airbase. Photo taken 04/04/1975.
Vice President Nelson A. Rockefeller; Deputy Assistant For National Security Affairs Brent Scowcroft; and Central Intelligence Agency Director William Colby discuss the situation in Vietnam during a break in a meeting of the National Security Council. Photo taken 04/24/1975.
Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger and National Security Adviser Brent Scowcroft stop by the West Sitting Room to apprise President Gerald R. Ford, and Mrs. Ford, on the progress of the evacuation of Americans from Saigon. Photo taken 04/28/1975.
President Gerald R. Ford presides over a meeting of the National Security Council to discuss the situation in Vietnam. (clockwise l-r) William Colby, Director, Central Intelligence Agency; Robert S. Ingersoll, Deputy Secretary of State; Secretary of State Henry A. Kissinger; Secretary of Defense James Schlesinger; William Clements, Deputy Secretary of Defense; Vice President Nelson A. Rockefeller; and General George S. Brown, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Photo taken 04/28/1975.
(a)Thieu leaves Saigon for taiwan(D)
(b)President Nguyen van Thieu turned the government over to Vice President Tran Van Huong, but Huong resigned a days later, turning the office over to Duong van Minh, who was acceptable to the North Vietnamese officially surrendered as the North Vietnamese tanks rammed through the gate of the Presidential palace on August 1975.
Look at the Corbis Picture October 31th 1975 when presidet Thiue leave platform following by vice president Tran Van Huong and Prime Menistry below:
(Thieu originally took refugee in Taiwan , but later moved to London, where he lived several years. He had a vary quite life, avoiding the limelight and granting few interviews. He later moved to US living in affluent Boston suburb. Slowly, he began to reemerge, travalling to portion of the world, talking with symphatic groups in 1989-1990.
In an organizing groups to support change in Vietnam , he said that he no longer wanted a leadership position thetre (“I am old too old to take power again’) but wanted to lend hisexperience to those pushing reforms. He said he hoped to return someday to his homeland.
As of 1996, Thieu was still living near Boston, holding to a quiet life. He to the repoter :” I read ( discuss) the work in my home “. Thieu died on Saturday September ,29th,2001 ,in Beth Israel Deaconss Medical Center , caused of death unspecified., he was 78.-auth)
Vice-President Tran van Huong transfers authority as chief of state to General Duong van Minh (D)
(10) April 29th1975
evacuation of last Americans from saigon, begins, Ambassador Martin Depart(D)
a US helicopter evacuated American and a few lucky Vietnam-ese to the safety of a nearby US warship a day before the fall of Saigon (P)
(c)The fall of Saigon as the last Americans and accompanying Vietnamese were lifted from the American Embassy in a frenzied evacuation, seventy helicopters carrying 1000 people to safety on the US warship lying offshore.
(d) But hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese officers and civil servants who had been loyal to the American-backed South Vietnam regime were left behind .
(11) April 8th1975
The Military “Giay Phep” DaoBiet(travel Pass? permitted until 14th 1975)certificate was issued at KBC 4.709 (Cholon) sign y Chu ky va dau , trung –ta boi quan Tieu-doan-Truong tian Doan 5 Nhay –Du .
(a)phan 1 : Don Xin Nghi Phep(application for leave)
Cap bac : Binh-2 Ho vaten : Nguyen Van dong So quan : 67/813418 Don Vi : TD 5 ND/DD53.
So ngay nghi phep : 04 ngay ke tu : 08,10.75 den 14.04.75.
Ly do : An thuong hanh quan
Lam tai KBC : 4.709
Mai nhan don. Chi’huy truong KBC 4.709.
(b) Phan II: Kien Cua Cap Chi Huy Trung Tham Quyen Cap Phep
(c) Phan III : Quyet Dinh Cua Gioi Chuc Tham Quyen Cap Phep
Hiay phep so : 274/ta 5/ DD
Quyet Dinh : duoc q huong them
Duong-su nghi phep
Ngay du duong va phai ve trinh dien ngay 14.04.75.
Cap bac, Ho va Ten,chuc vu va so dien thoai cua
Noi nhun : Duong Su-Dan Vi cao phep, Don vi quan thu ho-so.(OD)
Said duct: high Vi Duong Su-Dan allowed, ho-income units
(the latest document issued by the Vietnam Cong Hoa Army (AVRN), 12 days before Vietcong Captured Saigon, best collection for showed ,please comment-auth)
Vietcong Capture Saigon, Colonel Bui Tin have surrender to Vietminh.
(13) April,31th. 1975
(a)Victory, South Vietnam was completely liberatedand Vietnam reunified , the stamps issued by Saigon Regime terminated its circulation.(D)
Hundred thousands of Vietnamese officers and civil servant who had beeen loyal to the American –backed South Vietnamese regime were taken to camps and joint the rigid “Re-education”, where some spent months and other years, a Vietnamese Gulag.
(B) Trong cuoc Tong tien cong va noi day mua Xuan 1975, bang he thong duong ong va cac kho chua, bo doi xang dau da cung cap 96 van tan xang, dau, mo, nhanh chong tra nap cac loai nhien lieu cho hang ngan xe phao, may bay, ham thuyen , khi tai may moc cua cac quan chung, binh chung, cac quan doan, su doan, bao dam cho bo doi va binh khi ky thuat co dong than loc, nhanh chong trien khai tien cong dich tren cac huong.
Khoi luong nhien lieu tieu thu nam 1975 gap 25 lan khoi luong nam 1954,gap 16 lan khoi lluong tieu thu trong chien dich Xuan He 1972(D)
(c)The final communist drive to take Saigon in 1975 was officially dubbed the Ho Chi Minh Offensive, and afterward become Ho Chi Minh City (ibid Stanley Karnow-p171)
4) May 1975 no inf
5) June 1975
(1) June,26th .1975
Hoa Don (The recieved of Money) with the tax 10 % and revenue 2 dong with round vietcong black overprint.(the arliest date found)
6)July 1975 no info
7) August 1975
(1)August ,7th 1975
Vietcong saigon Rice Distribution coupon from August to December 1975, every month 7/8/75 50 kg, 1/8/75 100 kg and 18/7/75 100 kg.with stamped Ba Thu Thien.
The Stencil coupon were issued by Thanh Pho Saigon Gia Dinh , Uy Ban Nhan Dan Cach Mang Quan 10.
Hieu Mua Dau Lua Han Thang
Cap Cho Dong Bao To Khai Gia Dinh.
Ten Ho Gia Truong : Nguyen ThiChac
Nha o’ :724/26 Phan Thanh Bian Saigon 10.
(Moi lan ban deu,nguoi quen Ly cat o ra giao cho Phuong trach nhiem kiem soat)
Hieu Han May Buy Oil
Cho Dong Bao Cap To Khai Gia Dinh.
Ten Ho Gia Truong: Nguyen ThiChac
House o ‘: 724/26 Phan Thanh Bian Saigon 10.
(Every time you guys, who used a given Ly Phuong Cat o shall control)
(3) Official Cover with Stamped,without stamps, send by courier.
Vietnam Cong Hoa Phu Thu-Tuong,
Nha Tong Ginh Boc Cong-Vu.from Trung Tam Huan Luyen Quan Doc Tu Nghiep , 10 Tran Quoc Toan Saigon to Kinh gui : Ong Tran Hieu Nghia , 30 Nguyen Van Hoc, Gia dinh saigon.
Vietnam Cong Hoa(Republic Soscialist Vietnam)-Phu Thu Tuong,
Nha Tong Cong-Vu.from Ginh Peel Training Center Manager training, to 10 Tran Quoc Toan Saigon To: Tran Hieu Nghia, 30 Nguyen Van Hoc, saigon yong.
(The earliest official cover and letter ,Porsonal delivered without stamp and postal stamped.)(OD)
9) September 1975
(1) September,10th 1975
the earlieast letter after vietnam war send from Mai Pho Nam Sach Hai Hung to Saigon.with stamps with the leadser and flag (I will identified later)
(a) Cholon Recieved Money Document
Phuoc-An Tu’ong -Te’ Hoi Recived money 3250 dong with Vietcong overprint revenue 10 dong. signed by chan Thu Quy at Cholon.
I have the other nominal of mint vietcong overprint revenue surcharge o.o2 on 10 dong
and 0.03 on 4 dong(The biggest Block ever report)
HUA DON -TRUONG SON
To San Xuat Su On va phu tung xe dap
Than Po Ho Chi Minh
Hua Don (Factur) of TRUONG SON
Manufacturing and bicycle parts
Ho Chi Minh City
The rare Ho Chi Minh cover with Ho Chi Minh stamp , Khong Co Gi Quy Ho’n Doc Lap Tu Do, send from An Hai to Truong Nong lam Su-bao-Loc but the stamps didn’t cancelled,
the letter inside:
An Hai 27-11-75
Em Truan !
Hom goi cho, con quen nhung mon tau dan, san dac ma auc ten, o nha goi cho env,nhung mon con thieu.
Gia dinh tat ca von binh an, lam an van nhu ngay hao.
Hot ga goi ten env nen hong soi coiu dtuong cho bo. Co gi em nhan voi dac nor ho, Chi.(OD&PH)
After the vietnam war in 1976.also exist some historical cover related with the vietnam war,
my friend Andrew Creshow of IMNAHA send me the postally used cover in 1976.
stamp on cover had a roughly opened edge and a 1978 usage, despite the stamp being issued in 1965 (after the war ended in 1975, the military used reserve stocks of stamps until they were exhausted).
I reached out to my friend, Vinh Nguyen, who quickly translated the cover’s details. The cachet reads, Vừa sản xuất vừa chiến đấu, that translates to “Produce While Fighting”. The central, circular logo bears the phrase, chống mỹ cứu nước, that means, “Fight the US aggressors to safeguard our country.”
The recipient is a traditional medicine doctor at the Thai Binh provincial medical department. This was not a hospital, but rather the medical department of the province.
The hand-written text at the bottom reads, “Medical department, please forward to Doctor Cúc, traditional medicine, to where here department is temporarily evacuated.”
PS.PLEASE VIETNAMESE COLLECTOR HELP ME TO TRANSLATE THE NATIVE VIETNAMMESE LANGUAGUE DOCUMENT VIA COMMENT,THANKS VERY MUCH
THE PICTURES BELOW WILL SHOW YOU THE DETAIL OF THE GFALL OF SAIGON.