The Indonesia Historic Collections 1800-1928

The Indonesia Historic Collections 1800-1920


Javanese opium-smokers
Antique Map East Indies Reinecke, I.C.M.






In 1795

, a French-backed revolution in Holland expelled the Stadthouder, William of Orange, who fled to Britain, where he issued the so-called ‘Kew Letter’, instructing VOC officials in the Indies to surrender their posts to the British on demand. On this basis, the British occupied Melaka, Padang and Ambon without a struggle, Banda by surprise and Tidore by assault, but were unable to capture Kupang or Ternate. The 1802 Treaty of Amiens restored these territories to the Dutch.


1798 -1806


Antique Map Bali (Indonesia) De Bry, Theodor







Balinese kingdoms, ca 1800

To the east of Bali lies the long chain of islands known as the Lesser Sundas or Nusatenggara (Southeastern Islands). For the most part, these islands were involved only peripherally in the trade and civilization of the western archipelago until the colonial area. Although the Nagarakertagama (Desawarnyana) lists Timor and Sumba as tributaries of 14th -century Majapahit, Javanese culture has left at the most only scattered traces in the region. No significant local inscriptions have been found to attest to the existence of early kingdoms and Chinese records are vague. The region’s economic relations with the outside world seem to have been based on the export of sandalwood, especially from Timor, a trade which may have begun in the 7th century.


The establishment of Bandung
When the Bandung regency led by the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II, the powers of the Company on the archipelago ended due to the VOC went bankrupt (December 1799). Power in the archipelago then taken over by the Government of the Netherlands East Indies with the first Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1808-1811).
In line with change of power in the Dutch East Indies, Bandung regency circumstances change. Changes in the first place is to transfer the capital district of the southern region Krapyak in Bandung to Bandung, which was; etak in the middle area of ​​the district.
Between January 1800 to end December 1807 in the archipelago in general and in Java in particular, occur foreign power vacuum (invaders), because although the Governor-General of the Company is still there, but he had no power. For the regents, during the vacuum power means the loss of the burden of obligations to be fulfilled for the benefit of a foreign ruler (invaders). Thus, they can devote attention to the interests of local governments respectively. This would occur also in Bandung Regency.
According to the script Sadjarah Bandung, Bandung in 1809 Regent Wiranatakusumah II along with a number of people moved from Karapyak to the area north of the land going to the capital. At that time the land would Bandung still forested, but in the north existing settlements, namely Kampung Cikapundung conservative, Kampung Cikalintu, and Villages Bogor. According to the script, the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II moved to the city of Bandung after he settled in temporary shelters for two and a half years.
Originally regents living in Cikalintu (Cipaganti area) and then he moved Balubur Downstream. When Deandels Cikapundung inaugurate the construction of the bridge (bridge at Jl. Asia Africa Building near PLN now), Regent of Bandung was there. Deandels with Regent over the bridge and then they walk eastward to one place (in front of the Office of Public Works Jl. Asia Africa now). In that place deandels plugging rod and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (Try, if I come back here, a city has built! “. Apparently Deandels wants city center was built in the place.
Peanger Hotel 1910
As a follow-up of his word, Deandels asked Regent Bandung and Parakanmuncang to move the capital of each district to the nearby Jalan Raya Pos. Deandels request was submitted by letter dated May 25, 1810.
beauty of the city of Bandung Regency Bandung in conjunction with the appointment of Raden Suria became Patih Parakanmuncang. Both momentum is confirmed by besluit (decree) dated September 25, 1810. This date is also the date of Decree (besluit), the formal judicial (dejure) designated as the City Anniversary Bandung.
Perhaps the regents began domiciled in Bandung after there in the first district where the building marquee. Certainly the marquee district is the first building constructed for the central government activities Bandung regency.




1798 -1806

 In the time the possessions of the former VOC were administered by the Batavian Republic it was under the supervision of the Council of the Asiatic Possessions and Establishments (Raad der Asiatische Bezittingen en Etablissementen.)The Batavian Republic introduced the use of the emblem of the sovereign in the colonies and this was continued by the following administrations. First this emblem consisted of an altar charged with an anchor and a dolphin, supported by a lion with the national flag and the Batavian Virgin with spear an hat of Liberty. The legend of these stamps read “raad der asiat(ische): bezitt(ingen): en etabl(issementen) der bataafsche / republiek”. [13]In 1802 the emblem was changed into a lion rampant, armed with a sword and a bundle of arrows.On the stamps for use by the councils the emblem of state was surrounded by the legend “raad der asiat(ische): bezitt(ingen): en etabl(issementen)”.[14]Nevertheless on a florin for circulation in the colonies there appeared the old symbols of the Company and of the States General: a ship sailing to the sinister and the crowned arms with the lion with sword and arrows.  This time the symbols can be considered as the symbols of the territory and of its ruler. 






 The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:



Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”








 1801: II became Sultan Sulaiman Saidullah Banjar XV until 1825.
 1806: Muhammad Jamalul Alam I to the Sultan of Brunei until 1807.
 1806: August 11, 1806 changed its name from the royal palace Banjar Kencana into Earth Good Earth.
 1807: Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei Kanzul until the year 1829.
 1808: Sharif Kasim became the Sultan of Pontianak Alkadrie II until 1819.
 1809: Dutch Banjarmasin release of its colonies. [38]
 1810: British occupy Banjarmasin. [39]
 1810: Sultan Alimuddin became the first sultan Sambaliung Sultanate, the Sultanate of Berau fractions are divided by two.
 1811: Sultan Ibrahim became Sultan of Sand Alamsyah until 1815.
 1812: Alexander Hare became resident-commissioner for the British government in Yogyakarta. [40]
 1814: Queen Imanuddin move the administrative center of Kotawaringin Old Kingdom Kotawaringin to Pangkalan Bun.
 1814: Muhammad Ali Syafeiuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until the year 1828.
 1815: Sultan Mahmud became the Sultan Han Alamsyah Sand until 1843.
 1816: Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin be Kutai XVI until the year 1845.
[Edit] Age of Dutch East Indies
 1817: On January 1, British Borneo Banjarmasin and handed back to the Dutch, then on the day it was made Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman I of Banjar with the Dutch East Indies represented Boekholzt Resident Aernout van.
 1817: King Tidung Amiril Tadjoeddin served until 1844. In Kotawaringin, Prince Queen Imanuddin ruled until 1855 [41]
 1819: Sharif Osman Sultan of Pontianak III Alkadrie be until the year 1855. He was appointed to lead the Dutch East Indies government Afdeeling Pontianak.
 1820: Zainul Abidin bin Badruddin II (1820-1834) became Sultan Mountain Sow I, the fraction of the Sultanate of Berau. Prince Sultan Sulaiman-law of Moses Banjar Kusan II became King until the year 1830.
 1823: Mr. Muller Dutch East Indies government employees surveyed northwest Borneo. [42])
 1823: 13 September 1823: Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman II of the Dutch East Indies represented Banjar with Mr. Resident. Tobias.
 1825: Adam Alwasikh Billah became Sultan of Banjar XVI until 1857. In Brunei, Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei until 1828.
 1825: In July 1825, Prince Aji Jawi, King of the Land Seasonings establish a contract with the Dutch East Indies.
 1826: After the conquest attack Banjar palace in Yogyakarta in 1826, the Dutch East Indies had been made a rule which areas are still controlled by the Sultanate of Banjar and determine the division of the territories.

Lombok and Sumbawa, ca 1800

Balinese rule on Lombok was turbulent. By the middle of the 18th century, they had subdued the Sasak aristocracy in the east of the island. A few decades later, however, disunity led them to split into four separate kingdoms, while the Sasak domains in the east regained much of their independence. Even in times of Balinese control, the east of the island was often restive.

Evidence from the earliest European visitors to the Nusatenggara region suggests that the normal state of affairs was one of division into a large number of small polities, which were linked into larger confederacies or empires whose significance was sometimes political and economic but more often symbolic. Timor produced sandalwood, which was valued for trade to China, and management of this trade necessarily meant a relationship between port towns such as Sorbian, Insana and Dili, and the polities of the interior. In the centre and east of the island, the ruler of Wehale (Belu), sometimes based in the port of Dili, sometimes based in the interior, claimed a hegemony over some forty-six liurai or ‘kings’ along the coast and the interior. In the west the confederacy of Sonba’i (Sonnebait), sometimes based in Sorbian, claimed a similar hegemony over sixteen liurai. The port of Kupang seems to have been independent of both of these power centres.


Raid on Batavia (1806)

Raid on Batavia
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Maria Riggersbergen 2.jpg
A painting by Thomas Whitcombe depicting Batavia harbour in 1806.
Date 27 November 1806
Location Batavia, Java, Dutch East Indies
Result British victory
United Kingdom United Kingdom Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of Holland
Commanders and leaders
Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Rear-Admiral Hartsink
Four ships of the line, two frigates and a brig Frigate Phoenix, eight small warships and support from gun batteries on shore
Casualties and losses
One killed, four wounded Casualties unknown, Phoenix, seven small warships and 20 merchant ships destroyed. One brig and two merchant ships captured.

The Raid on Batavia of 27 November 1806 was an attempt by a large British naval force to destroy the Dutch squadron based on Java in the Dutch East Indies that posed a threat to British shipping in the Straits of Malacca. The British admiral in command of the eastern Indian Ocean, Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, led a force of four ships of the line, two frigates and brig to the capital of Java at Batavia (later renamed Djakarta), in search of the squadron, which was reported to consist of a number of Dutch ships of the line and several smaller vessels. However the largest Dutch ships had already sailed eastwards towards Griessie over a month earlier, and Pellew only discovered the frigate Phoenix and a number of smaller warships in the bay, all of which were driven ashore by their crews rather than engage Pellew’s force. The wrecks were subsequently burnt and Pellew, unaware of the whereabouts of the main Dutch squadron, returned to his base at Madras for the winter.

The raid was the third of series of actions intended to eliminate the threat posed to British trade routes by the Dutch squadron: at the Action of 26 July 1806 and the Action of 18 October 1806, British frigates sent on reconnaissance missions to the region succeeded in attacking and capturing two Dutch frigates and a number of other vessels. The raid reduced the effectiveness of Batavia as a Dutch base, but the continued presence of the main Dutch squadron at Griessie concerned Pellew and he led a second operation the following year to complete his defeat of the Dutch. Three years later, with the French driven out of the western Indian Ocean, British forces in the region were strong enough to prepare an expeditionary force against the Dutch East Indies, which effectively ended the war in the east.



In early 1806, Pellew was relieved by the news that a large French squadron under Rear-Admiral Charles Linois had sailed out of the Indian Ocean and into the Atlantic. The departure of Linois after three years of operations in eastern waters freed Pellew’s small squadron based at Madras for operations against the Dutch East Indies. Pellew’s particular target was the island of Java, where the principal Dutch squadron and their base at Batavia were located.[1] The Dutch Kingdom of Holland was a French client state under Emperor Napoleon‘s brother Louis Bonaparte and Batavia had been used by Linois in his preparations for the Battle of Pulo Aura, in which a valuable British convoy came under attack, and its position close to the Straits of Malacca threatened British trade with China.[2]

Pellew’s departure for the East Indies was delayed by the Vellore Mutiny in the spring, and instead he sent frigates to reconnoitre the situation of the Dutch forces in the region. In July, HMS Greyhound under Captain Edward Elphinstone cruised in the Molucca Islands and captured a Dutch convoy at the Action of 26 July 1806 off Celebes.[3] Three months later another frigate, HMS Caroline under Captain Peter Rainier, cruised successfully in the Java Sea and managed to capture a Dutch frigate at the Action of 18 October 1806 from the entrance to Batavia harbour.[4] Shortly before Rainier’s engagement, the principal ships of the Dutch squadron, the two ships of the line Pluto and Revolutie, had sailed westwards towards the port of Griessie, Rear-Admiral Hartsink seeking to divide his forces in preparation for the coming British attack to prevent their complete destruction.[5]

Pellew sailed from Madras in the early autumn of 1806, expecting the full Dutch squadron to be present and preparing accordingly with the ship of the line HMS Culloden under Captain Christopher Cole as his flagship, accompanied by HMS Powerful under Captain Robert Plampin, HMS Russell under Captain Thomas Gordon Caulfield and HMS Belliqueux under Captain George Byng. The ships of the line were accompanied by the frigate HMS Terpsichore under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, Admiral Pellew’s son, as well as the brig HMS Seaflower under Lieutenant William Fitzwilliam Owen.[6]

Pellew’s attack

By 23 November, Pellew’s squadron was approaching the Sunda Strait from the southwest when he encountered the British frigate HMS Sir Francis Drake, which he attached to his force. Three days later, the squadron passed the port of Bantam and seized the Dutch East India Company brig Maria Wilhelmina, continuing on to Batavia during the night.[7] At the approaches to the port, the squadron separated, with the frigates and brig passing between Onrust Island and the shore while the ships of the line took a longer route through deeper water. Although Terpsichore was able to surprise and capture the corvette William near Onrust Island, the main body of the squadron was spotted by Dutch lookouts from a distance, who initially mistook the approaching vessels for a French squadron.[8] The Dutch officers, led by Captain Vander Sande on the frigate Phoenix, decided that resistance against such a large British squadron was useless: the only warships remaining in the harbour were the Phoenix and six small armed ships, none of which could contend with the approaching British force. In an effort to dissuade the British from pressing their attack, the Dutch captains all drove their vessels ashore, joined by the 22 merchant vessels that were anchored in the harbour.[6]

Determined to prevent the Dutch from refloating the grounded ships, Admiral Pellew ordered landing parties to assemble in the boats of his squadron alongside Terpsichore. From there, under distant covering fire from the British frigates, Fleetwood Pellew led the boats against Phoenix, coming under fire from the grounded vessels and gun batteries ashore.[7] Passing through the bombardment from the shoreline, Pellew’s men boarded Phoenix to find that the Dutch crew had just abandoned the vessel, scuttling the frigate as they departed. Although now useless as a ship, Phoenix‘s guns were turned on the other beached vessels to cover the British boats as they spread out to board and burn them. This operation was followed by the destruction of 20 grounded merchant ships in the harbour, although two others were successfully refloated and captured.[9] In a final act before withdrawing to the squadron offshore, Captain Pellew set fire to the wreck of Phoenix, burning the ship to the waterline. The entire operation was conducted under heavy fire from the shore, but British casualties were only one Royal Marine killed and three men wounded.[10]

Without sufficient troops to attempt a landing at Batavia itself, Admiral Pellew withdrew from the harbour. Preparing his prizes for the return to Madras, he ordered all prisoners taken from the captured and burnt ships returned to shore under condition of parole.[11] The captured William was found to be in such a poor state of repair that it was not worth keeping the corvette and Admiral Pellew ordered the ship burnt, noting in his official report that Lieutenant Owen, who as senior lieutenant would otherwise have been placed in command, should be recompensed with another command as reward for his services in the engagement. With his preparations complete, Pellew then ordered his squadron to disperse, Culloden sailing to Malacca.[5]


The British raid on Batavia had destroyed 28 vessels. In addition to Phoenix, William and the merchant ships, Pellew’s squadron had burnt the 18-gun brigs Aventurier and Patriot, the 14-gun Zee-Ploeg, the 10-gun Arnistein, the 8-gun Johanna Suzanna and the 6-gun Snelheid. Just three ships were captured: two merchant vessels and Maria Wilhelmina.[11] The elimination of the smaller vessels of the Dutch squadron was an important victory for Pellew, leaving only the larger ships of the line at large. These ships were old and in poor condition, limiting the threat they posed to British trade routes. Nevertheless, Pellew returned to the Java Sea in 1807 in search of the warships, destroying them at the Raid on Griessie in November, a year after the success at Batavia.[5] A lack of resources in the region and the threat posed by the French Indian Ocean island bases delayed larger scale British operations against the East Indies until 1810, when a series of invasions rapidly eliminated the remaining Dutch presence in the Pacific


Herman Willem Daendels (1762-1818) Herman William Daendels lived in a very complex period of national history. As unknown as he is now so well known and controversial, he was in the late 18th and early 19th century.

He was son of the town clerk of Hattem. He studied law at Harderwijk and established himself as a lawyer in his hometown.
William Herman, a regent from family, was one of the leaders of the Hattemerbroek bourgeoisie, who sought a greater influence on the appointment of citizens of the city.

In 1785 he was recommended for appointment ships placed. Stadtholder William V wished him not to appoint. Daendels now openly joined the Patriots Party.

The Patriots (patriotic) opposed Prince William V, without public participation in the provincial and municipal officials appointed boards.

Uprising in Hattem
In 1786 led the then 23-year-old William Herman Daendels the uprising against William V. Hattem The patriotic citizen companies were supported by patriots from Overijssel. The Prussian troops of the prince, however, drove them to flee occupied and Hattem. Daendels and many other patriots fled to France.
In 1788 the Court sentenced him in absentia of Ontario, with a sword over the head to be punished and to perpetual exile from Ontario;

The Daendelshuis and Daendelspoortje in Hattem recall the famous resident of this city.

He followed with great interest the progress of the French Revolution and took a seat on the Batavian committee, that a revolution in the Northern Netherlands prepared.

When the favorable moment, he seemed to have come in 1792 as a battalion commander of the Batavian Legion in French military service. As such he participated in the conquest of Belgium under Dumouriez. A year after his defeat at Neerwinden, in 1793, followed Daendels’s appointment as brigadier general in the Northern Army under Pichegru (March 1794). In this capacity he took part in the siege include: ‘s-Hertogenbosch and the conquest of the Bommelerwaard.

French Revolution
In December 1794 the armies of Pichegru on the frozen rivers in the Netherlands.

The patriots had formed in France in a Batavian legion, under the command of General Herman Willem Daendels.
The people offered little resistance and Prince William V fled by fishing boat to England. The Patriots took control and called the Batavian Republic.
Daendels played a prominent role in domestic politics in drafting the new constitution.

Coup d’etat
Daendels volgede with scrutiny work to prepare a Constitution for the Batavian Republic. When this did not to his knowledge went, he committed his first coup, January 22, 1798 and continued with his grenadiers all Federalists outside the National Assembly.
On July 12 d.a.v. He grabbed it again and forced illegally elected Executive Directors to resign, which earned him the nickname Second Brutus. In 1798 the Executive Directors appointed him commander of the Batavian Republic of Batavian troops, who would participate in the landing in Ireland, but the expedition was called off.

In the following year he was the head of a Batavian division under the leadership of Chief General Brune, with an impending mandate English-Russian invasion of England to prevent. He could not prevent the successful landing in 1799.

Slander Campaign
Although he is in the further struggle behaved very bravely and enemies to the agreement of Alkmaar were forced to leave the country, was for Daendels’s many adversaries envious and a welcome opportunity to begin a campaign against him. They even accused him of treason. Disappointed took Daendels in 1800 resigned, settled as a farmer in Ontario and kept himself entirely aloof several years of politics.

Kingdom of Holland 1806
After the founding of the Kingdom of Holland, King Louis Napoleon him the country’s service. The appointments and promotions now followed each other in quick succession.

Governor-General of Dutch East Indies (1807 – 1811)
Louis Napoleon in 1807 to Daendels appointed governor-general of Dutch East Indies.

It was a hard task, which Daendels’s shoulders was laid. The remains of the old Company area, Java, Timor, part of the Moluccas and Bandjermasin was the Dutch authorities declined to an alarming manner. Shipment of troops, money and material from the mother country was impossible, since the British ruled the seaways. It was not easy even for Daendels are employed to reach Batavia.

Reorganizations and reforms
His main task was the Dutch colonies against the British. He therefore began a reorganization of the army and filled it with native volunteers. In Weltevreden, a suburb of Batavia, he built a then modern hospital in Surabaya, the capital of Austria, Java, a construction shop, a cadet school in Semarang and Batavia a cannon foundry. The old unhealthy castle at this place he demolished and replaced by a fortified camp at Meester Cornelis. Surabaya became the Fort Louis.
The most popular work of Daendels, the great highway of Carnation to Panaroekan, was primarily a military objective, rapid troop movements. The construction of a military port in the Bay Gulls (Sunda Strait), he had, because of the disastrous climate, obstruction of Bantam, give up.

Administrative and legal Daendels organized in a modern way, and thereby cleared numerous abuses and abuses of time on the Company. However, all these innovations earned him the hatred and opposition of the old party-guests, who many complaints and accusations against him sent to Napoleon.

And there were legitimate complaints. The most serious was the manner in which Daendels enriched themselves. Moreover witnessed his performance against the local rulers of little tact and knowledge of their manners and customs. Shortly after the incorporation of the mother Daendels Napoleon called back and instructed the government on May 16, 1811 the emperor appointed by the General Janssens.

Governor-General of Guinea
After the fall of Napoleon asked Daendels King William I, son of his old adversary William V, a new appointment. Understandably trusted the Orange Frost the former revolutionary not too much, but asked him to lock it in October 1815 as Governor General of Guinea (Ghana), on the Gold Coast in West Africa, a very unhealthy and very little meaning area.

William Herman passed away on May 2, 1818 due to yellow fever and was buried in the fort Elmina


Portrait Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels




Raden Syarif Bustaman Saleh


Oil on canvas


119 x 98 cm


Herman Willem Daendels’s career was very eventful. Political developments in the Netherlands around 1800 were certainly the reason for this. Within a short space of time there were a large number of changes of rulers. Daendels’s career appeared to survive these changes. He was first and foremost a soldier. In 1808 he was appointed Governor General of the Asian colonies. After heavy criticism of his leadership, he was replaced in 1811. He then became an officer in the French army. King William I appointed Daendels Governor General of the Dutch Colonies on the west coast of Africa. There he died of yellow fever in 1818.


Posted on July 31, 2010 by iwansuwandy








Posted on July 31, 2010 by iwansuwandy








Half Doeit 1770-special   

Half Doeit 1750   

1 doeit 1792   

1 doeit special design 1793   

1 doeit 1805 Dandaels   


(1) L.N COIN

LN Lodewijk Napoleon 1 doeit  


antique char.L.Napoleon   

1/2 St L.Napoleon  


The energetic Herman Willem Daendels, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1808 to 1811, had ordered the construction of Die Groete Postweg, the “great post way,” a highway traversing Java and recalled by this roadside monument. van Holland 


Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Java Great Post Road, commissioned by Daendels.

Louis Bonaparte made Daendels colonel-general in 1806 and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807. After a long voyage, he arrived in the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) on 5 January 1808 and relieved the former Governor General, Albertus Wiese. His primary task was to rid the island of Java of the British Army, which he promptly achieved.[citation needed] He built new hospitals and military barracks, a new arms factories in Surabaya and Semarang, and a new military college in Batavia. He demolished the Castle in Batavia and replaced it with a new fort at Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara), and built Fort Lodewijk in Surabaya. However, his best-known achievement was the construction of the Great Post Road (Indonesian: Jalan Raya Pos) across northern Java. The road now serves as the main road in the island of Java, called Jalur Pantura. The thousand-kilometre road was completed in only one year, during which thousands of Javanese forced labourers died.[2]

He displayed a firm attitude towards the Javanese rulers, with the result that the rulers were willing to work with the British against the Dutch. He also subjected the population of Java to forced labour (Rodi). There were some rebellious actions against this, such as those in Cadas Pangeran, West Java.

There is considerable debate as to whether he increased the efficiency of the local bureaucracy and reduced corruption, although he certainly enriched himself during this period.[citation needed]

 General in Napoleon’s Grande Armée

When the Kingdom of Holland was incorporated into France in 1810, Daendels returned to Holland. He was appointed a Divisional General (Major General) and commanded the 26th Division of the Grande Armée in Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

 Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast

After the fall of Napoleon, king Willem I and the new Dutch government feared that Daendels could become an influential and powerful opposition leader and effectively banned him from the Netherlands by appointing him Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast (now part of Ghana). In the aftermath of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, Daendels tried to redevelop the rather dilapidated Dutch possessions as an African plantation colony driven by legitimate trade. Drawing on his experience from the East Indies, he came up with some very ambitious infrastructural projects, including a comprehensive road system, with a main road connecting Elmina and Kumasi in Ashanti. The Dutch government gave him a free hand and a substantial budget to implement his plans. At the same time, however, Daendels regarded his governorship as an opportunity to establish a private business monopoly in the Dutch Gold Coast.

Eventually none of the plans came to fruition, as Daendels died of malaria in the castle of St. George d’Elmina, the Dutch seat of government, on 8 May 1818. His body was interred in the central tomb at the Dutch cemetery in Elmina town. He had been in the country less than two years.


dit verhaal

        hebben we het al eens over het stormachtige leven van Daendels gehad :
        Waar uit die buurt (Hattem) ook


        vandaan kwam, de Nederlandse bevelhebber van het latere Bataafse Legioen, toen

Under French domination during the Napoleonic years in Europe, the Dutch authorities appointed Marshal H. W. Daendels as Governor-General in 1808. He sought both to reform the corrupt administrative practices that had brought down the VOC and to prepare for the defence of Java against an expected British attack. Amongst his measures was to construct a post-road the full length of the island of Java, from Anyer to Panarukan, to improve communications and the movement of troops. Constructed mainly with forced labour working to a tight timetable, the road earned Daendels a reputation for dictatorial cruelty,

Daendels’ postroad on Java

The Great Post Road is the road stretched from west to east at northern part of Java from Anyer to Panarukan along 1,000km. Initaded by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels, this road is passing through Serang, Tangerang, Jakarta, Bogor, Sukabumi, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang, Cirebon, Brebes, Tegal Pemalang, Pekalongan, Kendal, Semarang, Demak, Kudus, Rembang, Tuban, Gresik, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Pasuruan, Probolinggo dan Situbondo.

Daendels was a marshal appointed as governor general of East Indies by Lodewijk Napoleon who ruling Holland at that time. The ultimate aim was handling military preparation in anticipating British Navy attack that had blockaded Java Island. Daendels landed in Anyer in 1808 after routing a long trip from Cadiz in southern Spain, Canary Islands and then departing from New York using American vessel.

Daendels’s most important military project in defending Java from British attack was constructing a highway connecting west and east corner of this island. The road was built by means of obliging indigenous rulers to mobilize people along the route to work it by force. This road had sacrificed thousands life in nearly a year of its building process. Later, the road was renowned as the Great Post Road (De Groote Postweg) since Daendels also set off post and telegraph services at the moment of the making.

1809Since its operation in 1809, the road formerly intended for military purpose had become a main transportaion infrastructure in Java Island. This highway had witnessed traffice of commodities coveyed over it since colonial era till now. The road has play important role as one of crucial veins of Indonesian economy today.


Here’s the page of full document as shown on this stamp issue. This document is about appointment of Raksa Manggala as a Head of Bengawan Wetan, Cirebon region by Governor General Daendels. The aim of this appointment is to succeed the development of The Great Post Road.

The document’s date is 18 April 1809.
The Document 



 an extremely rare 1809 handwritten Ambon bank note  

info source: Rob Huisman

 an extremely rare handwritten VOC bank note of 100 rijksdaalders dating from 1809 and issued in Ambon. “This piece of paper is literally of great value. After 1795 no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade, resulting in a severe deficiency in coins and coin materials. The Dutch authorities therefore resorted to issuing paper money. In 1808 Governor General H.W. Daendels decided that an additional three hundred thousand guilders needed to be printed in Ambon. These notes varied in value from 1 to 1,000 silver rijksdaalders. They were widely used in the Moluccas, but could also be exchanged for real money in Batavia. It is conspicuous that this piece of paper mentions the Dutch East India Company, even though the VOC had been nationalized in 1799. The most notable detail however is that only the one hundred rijksdaaldersnote exists as a written currency; the remainder of the issue was printed. An extremely rare piece of paper, which is mentioned in the paper currency catalogue of Mevius, but of which no image has been printed as yet.”  

a high resolution scan, which  a great privilege to be able to see this note in great detail and share it through this website. This note has never been published in the past



and in 1811

he was dismissed. Three months later, British forces occupied Java.

British troops landed near Batavia in August 1811 and the Dutch forces surrendered to them at Salatiga six weeks later. Thomas Stamford Raffles took over as Lieutenant Governor and began a vigorous programme of reform in the hopes of convincing the British government to retain Java permanently as a colony (as it was to do with the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon). Raffles’ authority was quickly challenged by the sultan of Yogyakarta, but in 1812 British forces attacked, plundered the court of Yogyakarta and sent the sultan into exile, replacing him with his pliable son. To keep the court weak, Raffles also created a new principality within it, the Pakualaman, with a lesser status similar to that of the Mangkunegaran within Surakarta.


The Navy was active off the Javanese coastline before and during the expedition. On 23 May 1811 a party from HMS Sir Francis Drake attacked a flotilla of 14 Dutch gunvessels off Surabaya, capturing nine of them.[2] Marrack, in north-western Java, was attacked and the fort defending the town largely demolished by a party from HMS Minden and HMS Leda on 30 July, while that same day a fleet of six Dutch gunboats flying French colours was attacked by HMS Procris, capturing five and destroying the sixth.[3][4]

Java Expedition

The British force was assembled at bases in India in early 1811, initially overseen by Vice-Admiral William O’Bryen Drury, and then after his death in March, by Commodore William Robert Broughton.[5] The first division of troops, under the command of Colonel Rollo Gillespie, left Madras on 18 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Christopher Cole aboard the 36-gun HMS Caroline. They arrived at Penang on 18 May, and were joined on 21 May by the second division, led by Major-General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, which had left Calcutta on 21 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, aboard the 38-gun HMS Phaeton.[5] The two squadrons sailed together, arriving at Malacca on 1 June, where they made contact with a division of troops from Bengal under Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, and Commodore Broughton aboard the 74-gun HMS Illustrious. Auchmuty and Broughton became the military and naval commanders in chief respectively of the expedition.[5] With the force now assembled Auchmuty had roughly 11,960 men under his command, the previous strength having been reduced by approximately 1,200 by sickness. Those too ill to travel on were landed at Malacca, and on 11 June the fleet sailed onwards. After calling at various points enroute, the force arrived off Indramayu on 30 June.[2]

There the fleet waited for a time for intelligence concerning the strength of the Dutch. Colonel Mackenzie, an officer who had been dispatched to reconnoitre the coast, suggested a landing site at Cilincing, an undefended fishing village 12 miles east of Batavia.[6] The fleet anchored off the Marandi River on 4 August, and began landing troops at 14:00.[4] The defenders were taken by surprise, and nearly six hours passed before Franco-Dutch troops arrived to oppose the landing, by which time 8,000 British troops had been landed.[4][7] A brief skirmish took place between the advance guards, and the Franco-Dutch forces were repulsed.[7]

Fall of Batavia

On learning of the successful British landing, Janssens withdrew from Batavia with his army, which amounted to between 8,000 and 10,090 men, and garrisoned themselves in Fort Cornelis.[7] The British advanced on Batavia, reaching it on 8 August and finding it undefended. The city surrendered to the forces under Colonel Gillespie, after Broughton and Auchmuty had offered promises to respect private property.[7][8] The British were disappointed to find that part of the town had been set on fire, and many warehouses full of goods such as coffee and sugar had been looted or flooded, depriving them of prize money.[9] On 9 August 1811 Rear-Admiral Robert Stopford arrived and superseded Commodore Broughton, who was judged to be too cautious.[9][10] Stopford had orders to supersede Rear-Admiral Albemarle Bertie as commander in chief at the Cape, but on his arrival he learnt of Vice-Admiral Drury’s death, and the planned expedition to Java, and so travelled on.[8]

 British advances

General Janssens had always intended to rely on the tropical climate and disease to weaken the British army rather than oppose a landing.[9] The British now advanced on Janssens’s stronghold, reducing enemy positions as they went. The Dutch military and naval station at Weltevreeden fell to the British after an attack on 10 August. British losses did not exceed 100 while the defenders lost over 300.[11] In one skirmish, one of Janssens’s French subordinates, General Alberti, was killed when he mistook some British troops in green uniforms for Dutch troops. Weltevreeden was six miles from Fort Cornelis and on 20 August the British began preparing fortifications of their own, some 600 yards from the Franco-Dutch positions.[10]

Siege of Fort Cornelis

Diagram of Fort Cornelis, Batavia.

Fort Cornelis measured 1 mile (1,600 m) in length by between 600 yards (550 m) and 800 yards (730 m) in breadth. Two hundred and eighty cannon were mounted on its walls and bastions. Its defenders were a mixed bag of Dutch, French and East Indies troops. Most of the locally raised East Indian troops were of doubtful loyalty and effectiveness, although there were some determined artillerymen from Celebes. The captured station at Weltevreeden proved an ideal base from which the British could lay siege to Fort Cornelis. On 14 August the British completed a trail through the forests and pepper plantations to allow them to bring up heavy guns and munitions, and opened siege works on the north side of the Fort. For several days, there were exchanges of fire between the fort and the British batteries, manned mainly by Royal Marines and sailors from HMS Nisus.[12]

A sortie from the fort early on the morning of 22 August briefly seized three of the British batteries, until they were driven back some of the Bengal Sepoys and the 69th Foot.[11] The two sides then exchanged heavy fire, faltering on 23 August, but resuming on 24 August.[8][13] The Franco-Dutch position worsened when a deserter helped General Rollo Gillespie to capture two of the redoubts by surprise. Gillespie, who was suffering from fever, collapsed, but recovered to storm a third redoubt. The French General Jauffret was taken prisoner. Two Dutch officers, Major Holsman and Major Muller, sacrificed themselves to blow up the redoubt’s magazine.[14]

The three redoubts were nevertheless the key to the defence, and their loss demoralised most of Janssens’s East Indian troops. Many Dutch troops also defected, repudiating their allegiance to the French. The British stormed the fort at midnight on 25 August, capturing it after a bitter fight.[8][13] The siege cost the British 630 casualties. The defenders’ casualties were heavier, but only those among officers were fully recorded. Forty of them were killed, sixty-three wounded and 230 captured, including two French generals.[14] Nearly 5,000 men were captured, including three general officers, 34 field officers, 70 captains and 150 subaltern officers.[13] 1,000 men were found dead in the fort, with more being killed in the subsequent pursuit.[13] Janssens escaped to Buitenzorg with a few survivors from his army, but was forced to abandon the town when the British approached.[13]

Total British losses in the campaign after the fall of Fort Cornelis amounted to 141 killed, 733 wounded and 13 missing from the Army, and 15 killed, 45 wounded and three missing from the Navy; a total of 156 killed, 788 wounded and 16 missing by 27 August.[13]

 Later actions

Royal Navy ships continued to patrol off the coast, occasionally making raids on targets of opportunity. On 4 September two French 40-gun frigates, the Méduse and the Nymphe attempted to escape from Surabaya. They were pursued by the 36-gun HMS Bucephalus and the 18-gun HMS Barracouta, until Barracouta lost contact.[15][16] Bucephalus pursued them alone until 12 September, when the French frigates came about and attempted to overhaul her. Bucephalus‘s commander, Captain Charles Pelly, turned about and tried to lead the pursuing French over shoals, but seeing the danger, they hauled off and abandoned the chase, returning to Europe.[17][18]

On 31 August a force from the frigates HMS Hussar, HMS Phaeton and HMS Sir Francis Drake, and the sloop HMS Dasher captured the fort and town of Sumenep, on Madura Island in the face of a large Dutch defending force.[18] The rest of Madura and several surrounding islands placed themselves under the British soon afterwards.[19] Suspecting Janssen to be in Cirebon, a force was landed there from HMS Lion, HMS Nisus, HMS President, HMS Phoebe and HMS Hesper on 4 September, causing the defenders to promptly surrender. General Jamelle, a member of Janssens’s staff, was captured in the fall of the town.[18][19] The town and fort of Taggal surrendered on 12 September after HMS Nisus and HMS Phoebe arrived offshore.[20]

While the navy took control of coastal towns, the army pushed on into the interior of the island. Janssens had been reinforced on 3 September by 1,200 mounted irregulars under Prince Prang Wedono and other Javanese militia. On 16 September Salatiga fell to the British.[20] Janssen attacked a British force under Colonel Samuel Gibbs that day, but was repulsed. Many of the native militia killed their Dutch officers in the ensuing rout.[21] With his effective force reduced to a handful of men, Janssens surrendered two days later, on 18 September.[18][20]


The Dutch-held islands of Amboyna, Harouka, Saparua, Nasso-Laut, Buru, Manipa, Manado, Copang, Amenang, Kemar, Twangwoo and Ternate had surrendered to a force led by Captain Edward Tucker in 1810, while Captain Christopher Cole captured the Banda Islands, completing the conquest of Dutch possessions in the Maluku Islands.[22] Java became the last major colonial possession in the East not under British control, and its fall marked the effective end of the war in these waters.[22][18] Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Java.[23][24] He ended Dutch administrative methods, liberalized the system of land tenure, and extended trade. Britain returned Java and other East Indian possessions to the newly independent United Kingdom of the Netherlands under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1814.

 British order of battle

Stopford’s fleet on his arrival on 9 August to assume command of the expedition, consisted of the following ships, dispersed around the Javanese coast:[10]

Rear-Admiral Stopford’s fleet
Ship Rate Guns Navy Commander Notes
HMS Scipion Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Rear-Admiral Hon. Robert Stopford
Captain James Johnson
HMS Illustrious Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Commodore William Robert Broughton
Captain Robert Festing
HMS Minden Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Edward Wallis Hoare  
HMS Lion Third rate 64 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Heathcote  
HMS Akbar Fifth rate 44 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Drury  
HMS Nisus Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Philip Beaver  
HMS President Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Samuel Warren  
HMS Hussar Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain James Coutts Crawford  
HMS Phaeton Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Fleetwood Pellew  
HMS Leda Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain George Sayer  
HMS Caroline Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Christopher Cole  
HMS Modeste Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Hon. George Elliot  
HMS Phoebe Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain James Hillyar  
HMS Bucephalus Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Charles Pelly  
HMS Doris Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain William Jones Lye  
HMS Cornelia Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Folkes Edgell  
HMS Psyche Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain John Edgcumbe  
HMS Sir Francis Drake Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain George Harris  
HMS Procris Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Robert Maunsell  
HMS Barracouta Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen  
HMS Hesper Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Barrington Reynolds  
HMS Harpy Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henderson Bain  
HMS Hecate Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry John Peachey  
HMS Dasher Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Benedictus Marwood Kelly  
HMS Samarang Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Joseph Drury  
The British Army troops attached to the force included 12,000 soldiers from the 22nd Light Dragoons; 14th Foot; 59th Foot; 69th Foot; 78th Foot; 89th Foot; 102nd Foot. There were also contingents of the Royal Marines, and several regiments of Madras Native Infantry and Bengal Native Infantry, with half of the overall troop strength consisting of Indian troops of the East India Company. General Samuel Auchmuty was the overall commander, but he delegated the field command to Major General Rollo Gillespie.[9]

In addition to the official navy forces, the East India Company provided the services of several of their ships, led by the Malabar under Commodore John Hayes. These were the Ariel; Aurora; Mornington; Nautilus; Psyche; Thetis; Vestal. With the transport vessels, and several gunboats captured as the campaign progressed, Stopford commanded nearly a hundred ships.[10]




 After the annexation of the Kingdom of Holland by France in 1811 the imperial symbol appeared in the East Indian Archipelago.


Seal of the Governor General of the Dutch Indies dd. 20 II – 18 IX 1811.

French Imperial Eagle. L.: gouverneur generaal van indien.

This seal was only used for a very short time and prints are very rare [16]


From 1811 until 1813 the seal of the combined ministries showed the coat of arms of Napoleon Bonaparte.




 In the time of British rule in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies the Royal British achievement should have been used. No examples of this achievement from Dutch East Indian soil are known however.
 The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:



Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”



1815 -1940/’49

 After the defeat of Napoleon the Sovereign Principalityof the Netherlands prepared the restoration of Dutch rule in the Indies. This meant also the restoration of the old symbols of sovereignty. By royal resolution of 8 November 1815 nr. 39 the introduction of new currency was provided for. The design for a 1 guilder-piece shows the Dutch Virgin on the obverse and the crowned ancient arms of the States General and the Executive on the reverse. From this guilder only one minted coin is known.


Nederlandsch Oost-Indië, 1 gulden, 1815 Æ 31 mm.

At the date of the Royal Resolution the coat of arms of the Sovereign Principality of 14 January 1814 was already substituted by Royal Resolution of 24 August 1815. The new coat of arms, amended in 1816, was used in the Colonies throughout the nineteenth century and was changed again in 1907. [17])

A picture of this coat of arms was in the Audience Hall above the seat of the Governor General in Batavia.

The seal for the Dutch Indies showed this coat of arms with the legend DEPARTEMENT VAN KOLONIËN (until 1848) and MINISTERIE VAN KOLONIËN until 1945.

   The Dutch East Indies never had a coat of arms of its own. The coat of arms of Batavia was often considered as such and it is said that Governor General Van Heutz (1904-‘09) was a strong advocate of the idea. A proposal for a coat of arms was made in 1933 by Dirk Rühl on the frontispeice of his “Nederlandsch Indische Gemeentewapens”. His design shows a parted per pale of the Netherlands and Batavia.However, no specific coat of arms for the Dutch East Indies was ever adopted. 


 The commercial successor of the V.O.C. was the Nederlandse Handelmaatschappij (NHM), founded in 1824  (after the Anglo-Dutch treaty). In 1964 this company merged with the Twentsche Bank and changed its name in Nederlandsche Middenstands Bank. In 1990 the NMB merged with the Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank into the ABN AMRO Bank. This bank was split up in 2007. (Fortis, Bank of Scotland en Banco Santander).
 The emblems of the Nederlandsche Handelsmaatschappij were deposed in 1866. They consisted of a larger emblem, a medial emblem and a cypher. [18]



The larger emblem consists of disc charged with a winged anchor between the date 1824, surrounded by the title nederlandsche handel maatschappy. As a crest a three-masted sailing ship and as supporters two lions couchant. Below the central emblem is the cypher NHM. The achievement is surrounded by waves of the sea and decorated with several floral motives.




Daendels Palace (1809)

Weltevreden/Jakarta, Indonesia

Construction of this architectural gem was commissioned by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels. As a governor general, Daendels stimulated the move southwards of Batavia; the densely populated walled city was unhealthy and many inhabitants suffered from malaria and cholera. The area of Weltevreden, several kilometres south of Batavia, originally a country estate, was developed and would turn into a highly fashionable area. Halfway Batavia and Weltevreden, the new accommodation for the club Harmonie was constructed.

In Weltevreden, on the Paradeplaats, a new Government House was erected; since Daendels did not wish to inhabit the old country estate (known as the Van der Parra estate), officially assigned to the governors general. The Government House is a building constructed in the period 1809-1827 in Batavia, ‘capital’ of the Dutch colony in the East-Indies. Construction was ordered by governor general H.W. Daendels (1808-1811) and completed by governor general L.P.J. du Bus de Ghisignies (1826-1830).

The building has been preserved and is located on present Lapangan Banteng, Jakarta Pusat, which was known in the nineteenth century as Paradeplaats and since 1828 as Waterlooplein. Modelled in the Empire style, the proportionate Witte Huis (White House) measures 160 meters lengthwise. The pillars on the first story are Doric, whereas those on the second level are Ionic in style. In the past, the building hosted many state functions and even served as a post office, a printing office and a high court. Today, it houses the Indonesian Ministry of Finance.

[IMG][/IMG]The Supreme Court (left) and the Daendels Palace at the Waterloo Square. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, compl. by J. Tromp, 1809)

Daendels Palace.

Picture by De Rooij Fotografie


to the Memory of
Wife of
Lieutenant Governor 
And its Dependancies
Who departed this life
The 26th day of November 1814

 Raffles went on from Java to found Singapore. Any tiredness I had felt before had instantaneously disappeared. Here it was, right before my eyes, a fragment of our colonial past.

 the tomb with renewed vigour, snapping away as we circled the majestic final resting place of Olivia Mariamne Raffles. Thoughts filled up our mind. What if Olivia Raffles did not fall victim to her illness during her stay in Java? What if she had followed Raffles to Singapore? What changes would she have implemented as the First Lady of the founder of Singapore?


British possessions in Indonesia, 1810-1817

Javanese territories ceded to the colonial governments of Daendels and Raffles, 1808-1812

Both Daendels and Raffles radically restructured the administration of the island, reducing the power of the bupati, changing the taxation system and turning the village into the basic administrative unit. Raffles in particular emphasized that ‘native welfare’ should be an aim of the colonial government, and he introduced a form of land tax, called land rent, in an effort to develop a money economy on the island.

EIC Indies lead coin 1814

Raffles’ rule, however, was only brief. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain’s policy was to strengthen the Netherlands as a European counterweight to France, and


1811/ 1813 Raden Demang Anggadipa (1807-1811/1813) dicopot dari kedudukannya oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda karena menolak penanaman paksa nila sebagai pengganti beras. Beliau keberatan dengan kebijakan Belanda itu karena akan mengakibatkan rakyat kelaparan. Akibat pembangkangan itu, Kadipaten Sukapura sementara waktu dihapuskan dan diserahkan pemerintahannya pada Limbangan di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wangsareja (1805-1811).

in 1816

 restored Java to Dutch rule; the outer territories were restored in 1817.

Bencoolen has become well -known fort the fact that sin Thomas stamford Raffles was the last lieutenant governor from 1818-1824 when the settlements reverted to the dutch. it was from bengkulu, in 1819, that laffles, despite disapproval of the company in london and madras, sailed off to establish a british settlemen in the singapure. the historical and strategic importance and 20 th centries would hard to assess
Following the example of the dutch it was considered necessary to provide military protection for the settlement, and small fortification was built on a narrow spit of land between the sea and the Bengkulu river (now sungai serut). The original fortification named York for was manned by two companies of infantry soldiers and artisans who had been redruited in london. The site proved to be very unhealthy owing to the close proximity of the  river and mangrove swamps. There were many deaths in the early day among the soldiers sen to garrison the fort as well as the civil servants living there.


 It was Vastly different to the fort that can be seen today, being just a  rectangle of building wit a roof capable of supporting the artillery pieces required to defend the fort. house of the Deputy Govendor was contructed and the diagram on the original plan.
 In 1719,
shortly after completion, the fort was abandoned by the Deputy Govendor and the whole garrison in the face of the major di sagreement with the local rules. It was feared that anttack migh be made on the settlemen. It was not until 1723 that the Ease India company despatched a new Deputy Govendor and staff to reestablish the settlement.Following the return of the traders the military garrison, consisting of two companies of infantry and an artillery detachmen, was established. Repairs  were made to the fort and the depences strengthened. The local people who had been seriously affeced by the sudden departure of the settlers were once again contracted to suply pepper to the company. One of the major problems facing the military garrison was the distance between them and their ‘master’. Requests for stores, gunpowder and such like had to be submitted to the court of Directort in London. These would be despatched by the firt available sailing vessel returning to london, a journey which coul take as long as eigh months : 12-16 months for the ron journey. it is not the garris stores were at acrical level, and it is recorded that some times it became necessary for vital.Stores, such as gunpowder,  to be requesisioned from traiding vessels calling at Bencoolen.
The garrison at this time was supplied wit sepoy troops from the madras presidency in India, although frequent use was made of the buginese troops from the celebes Islan. The begal sepoys continued to serve at Bencoolen and the other west coast settlemen, until all of the british trading posts along the west coast of sumatra were handed over to the Dutch Argeement of 1824. the actual handover took place earlt in 1825. Raffles arrived in Bencoolen in 1818 and immediately applied his enligh ened style of government which he had demontrated to great effec during his time as lieutenent Govenor of java from 1811-1816. Towards the end of the Napoleoonic wars, java had been captured from the french in a short, sharp campaign bastion at cornelis, now covered by Manggrai, within present day jakarta. With greatly improved relation with the local rules, Raffles was able to begin the run down og the Bencoolen settlement and to reduce the high cost of maitaining a large garrison force. He was also able to place Fort Marlborough on a lower states of readiness, perceiving that there was little or no thereat from any other Euoropean nation. Following the handover of the settlemen to the Dutch in 1825, records show that the for continued to be manned by Dutch colonial troops, although it was never enlarged or upgraded with the exception of the intruduction, during the mid-19 th century, of four breech loading guns mounted on each of the four bastions.The dutch continued to occupy Fort Marlborough until the scond word war and after the fall of sumatra it was then occupied by the japanese army. Following the surrender of the japanese in 1945 the fort was again briefly occupied by the dutch. After independence For Marlboroug was used by the indonesian army and police force until it was abandonednin the late 1970’s. The fort remains in its present state following a sympathetic restorasion programme which was carrid out in the late out 1980’s.
 _____________________________________________THE HISTORY
AND FIRST FLEET INTO BENCOOLENPhotobucket~Establishment~

The East India Company (EIC) was the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600. The original object of the group of merchants involved was to break the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade with the East Indies. Therefore, EIC formed for the exploitation of trade with East and Southeast Asia and India.The first trading post, known as a station or factory, was set up at Surat on the Indian’s West Coast (Bombay Presidency) around 1612 and the second at Fort St. George (Madras Presidency) 1640.

British East Indiamen

~First Fleet of East Indiamen on Bencoolen~

The East Indiamen were ships operating under charter or license to any of the East India Companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries. They were designed to carry both passengers and goods and to defend themselves against piracy, and so constituted a special class of ship.The first British East Indiamen anchored in Bencoolen in 1685, lead by Ralph Ord and William Cowley. Under the command of Captain J. Andrew, there were The Caesar, The Resolution, and The Defense. The EIC’s influence spread with Fort York (1685–1719) and continued in Fort Marlborough (1719–1824), both established in Bencoolen, West Coast of Sumatra.Other factories were established in the Prince of Wales Island (Penang), Singapore, Malacca, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Siam (Thailand), Persia (Iran) and the Persian Gulf, Macao and Whampoa (China), and St. Helena.


The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the “Great Mutiny” (also known as First War of Indian Independence), brought the consequence that the British government nationalized the EIC indirectly. After this rebellion, the EIC lost all its administrative powers and dissolved on 1st of January 1874.

_____________________________________________THE SOLDIER OF BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY

EIC was indirectly subject to the British government and it ruled India through the three presidencies of Bombay, Madras, and Bengal, each of which maintained forces for internal and external defense.The backbone of the EIC military system was the Indian regular soldier or sepoy (from the Persian sipahi) and for infantry private (a cavalry trooper was a Sowar). They served under mainly British officers and mainly Indian NCOs

The painting above depicts a soldier of the European Company of the West Coast of Sumatra garrison, on duty at Fort Anne, Moco Moco, circa 1764.
Courtesy: Alan Harfie, “A History on the Honourable East India Company’s,
Garrison on the West Coast of Sumatra 1685-1825”Photobucket
Native Troops, East India Companys Service, A Sergeant and a Private Grenadier Sepoy of the Bengal Army, from Costumes of the Army of the British Empire, according to the last regulations 1812, published by Colnaghi and Co. 1812-15, Charles Hamilton Smith.

British officers, trained at the EIC’s ‘military seminary’ at Addiscombe, held their commissions from the EIC’s court of directors and enjoyed the right of command over British troops.



Me and John Verbeek observed the remnants of Fort York
The thick bushes in right side is ruin of the ramparts

Remnants of Fort York

Left End: Location of Fort York
Edge of Serut River Estuary

Fort York was established in small hill close the estuary of Serut River based on the agreement of 12th of July 1685 that The British EIC was permitted to build a settlement in the area close to the estuary, and built a fort to cover their village regarding the spice trading.The agreement was prepared by EIC representative in Fort St. George in Madras, signed by Deputy Governor Ralph Ord and Young Prince from Sungai Lemau.

Gravestone of Richard Watts Esquire (moved from British Cemetery in Fort York)“Richard Watts Esq.
Sometime of Council for the
Right Honourable Company Affairs
In the Fort St. George
And in the year 1699 came
over Deputy Governor of this place
And in … years after
Made by … from
The Company the First President of this Coast
In this Station he departed
This life December 17th 1705 and
In the 44th years of his age”.Photobucket
Gravestone of George Shaw (moved from British Cemetery in Fort York)“George Shaw
Son of
Mr. Thomas Shaw
Of London Merchant;
After he had served the Right Honourable Company
as Factor in Fort St.
George for some time;
Came over in the year 1699
served of this place
In this Station he continued
Until has removed by the death, April 25th 1704
Atatis 28”Explanation:
“Atatis 36”, it stands for “anno aetatis suae 28”,
that means “”in the year of his age 28 years”_____________________________________________

March 1825 – March 1942
Fort Marlborough was occupied by the DutchPhotobucket
The Dokar in front of Fort Marlborough – Bencoolen 1900
Source: KITLVPhotobucket
A trio of European women dressed in sarong,
with the background of Fort Marlborough Bencoolen – 1920
Source: TropenmuseumMarch 1942 – August 1945
Fort Marlborough was captured by Imperial Japanese Army. The Prison chamber was purposed for Japanese internment camp.

Compass and Message that scratched on the wall by Japanese Prisoner of War 1942-45
the fomaus the bengkulu Flower, Rafflesia anorldi wich Rafflesia nemed wideh his great friend, botanish Dr, Joseph Arnold.


Bencoolen (Bengkulu)

Raffles in 1817

Raffles arrived in Bencoolen (Bengkulu) on 19 March 1818. Despite the prestige connected with the title, Bencoolen was a colonial backwater whose only real export was pepper and only the murder of a previous Resident, Thomas Parr, gained it any attention back home in Britain. Raffles found the place wrecked, and set about reforms immediately, mostly similar to what he had done in Java – abolishing slavery and limiting cockfighting and such games. To replace the slaves, he used a contingent of convicts, already sent to him from India. It is at this point when he realized the importance of a British presence that both challenged the Dutch hegemony in the area and could remain consistently profitable, unlike Bencoolen or Batavia. However, the strategic importance of poorly-maintained but well-positioned British possessions such as Penang or Bencoolen made it impossible for the British to abandon such unprofitable colonies in such close proximity to the Dutch in Java. The competition in the area, between Raffles and the aggressive Dutch de jure Governor, Elout, certainly led at least in part to the later Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Raffles looked into alternatives in the area – namely Bangka, which had been ceded to the Dutch after its conquest by the British during its occupation of Java.

Bintan was also under consideration. Despite the fact that Warren Hastings overlooked the island before settling upon Penang in 1786, the Riau Archipelago was an attractive choice just to the south of the Malay Peninsula, for its proximity to Malacca. In his correspondences with Calcutta, Raffles also emphasized the need to establish a certain amount of influence with the native chiefs, which had greatly waned since the return of the Dutch. Raffles sent Thomas Travers as an ambassador to the Dutch, to possibly negotiate an expansion of British economic interests. When this failed, and when Raffles’ own expeditions into his new dominion found only treacherous terrain and few exportable goods, his desire to establish a better British presence was cemented.

However, the Anglo-Dutch Convention of 1814 was not completely clear, especially on the issue of certain possessions such as Padang. The Convention of 1814 only returned Dutch territory that was held before 1803, which did not include Padang. Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau. Yet, as Raffles confirmed with the sultan regarding the absolute British influence of the area, he realized that the local rulers had only limited power over the well-cultivated and civilized country, and the treaty was largely symbolic and had little actual force.


werd van Nederlands-Indië en zijn laatste jaren doorbracht als


malay bencoolen sumatra

Gouverneur van Elmina

        , waar hij in 1818 overleed en werd begraven.
        Daendels ging naar Elmina met het idee van Elmina e.o. iets te maken als Nederlands-Indië, maar al zijn brieven met plannen werden door het moederland niet beantwoord, men was blij van Daendels verlost te zijn.

Op 3 Meij 1818 werd den Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels ten 4 uur des namiddags in de Tombe gezet, doende het Hoofdkasteel van Elmina bij die gelegenheid 15 schoten

        Tot in 1844 zijn er processen gevoerd over de nalatenschap van Daendels…
        In 1962 is toch nog in Elmina een gedenkplaat voor Mr. Herman Willem Daendels aangebracht.


Herman Willem Daendels (1762 – 1818)

Kwam als Brigade-Generaal van het Bataafsche Legioen
samen met een Frans leger o.l.v. Pichegru in de winter van 1795 naar Nederland
waar alle rivieren tot hun geluk bevroren waren…. 

daendels palace 1878

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia

Daendels ging in Indië de geschiedenis in als De Donderende Groote Heer
onder zijn leiding werd onder dwang de Grote Postweg dwars door Java aangelegd

terug in Europa trok hij met Napoleon op naar Moskou en overleefde het ternauwernood
Daendels ging ook de geschiedenis in als de man die grote delen van de Benedenstad liet afbreken en een nieuwe Bovenstad begon, met o.m. de bouw van het bovenstaande paleis, wat later echter geen paleis werd, maar dat is weer een ander verhaal, komen we zoo nog even op terug. Het gebied waar Daendels begon met de Bovenstad was al van een zeer aantrekkelijke naam voorzien :

Op de plattegrond uit 1897 is nog heel goed de scheiding tussen de Benedenstad en de Bovenstad te zien, de Benedenstad was oorspronkelijk natuurlijk ommuurd en bezat een versterkt kasteel, de Bovenstad kon veel ruimer worden opgezet.

Paleis Rijswijk

        Volgens andere bronnen was het latere

Paleis Rijswijk

        ooit de residentie van J.A. van Braam, die het eind 18e eeuw liet bouwen. De achtertuin grensde, daar is iedereen het over eens, tot aan het latere Koningsplein. In het stuk grond van Paleis Rijswijk, grenzend aan het Koningsplein, zou later

Paleis Koningsplein

        worden gebouwd.
          In 1820,
           na de dood van Van Braam, kocht het Gouvernement het huis en werd het ingericht als officiële residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië (1820 – 1879), waarbij dus werd afgeweken van het plan van Daendels, waarschijnlijk omdat het Paleis van Daendels nog lang niet klaar was.
WAR Nov 24, ’09 5:51 AM
for everyone

Lieutenant-General Frans David Cochius in 1850

[3rd of December 1787  – 1st of May 1876]

Lithograph in format of 32×24.5cm

Source: KITLV

Engineer of Battlefield Fortification Strategy in 1827-30

in sequence capturing Diponegoro





If Frans David Cochius was still alive today, he must be 222 years old in December 2009. Who is he? I’ll bring his short biography and compartment in sequence of capturing Diponegoro in Java War.  

Java War 1825-30 was the badly war in the history of colonization in Netherlands Indies. For the first time the colonial government faced a massive social rebellion covering large part of Java: 2 million Javanese people were exposed to the ravages of war, 200 thousands Javanese were died. On the other hand, Dutch suffered 8 thousands European troops and 7 thousands of Indonesian troops who fought for Dutch were perished. The war consequence was rising cost about 20 million guilders! The war that perished everything both Javanese and Dutch side. 

The Java War was started in a rebellion led by Pangeran Diponegoro for the reason of Dutch political intervention in the Court of Mataram (general reason), and Dutch decision to build a road across a piece of his ancestral property (personal reason). 

F.D. Cochius was an expertise in fortification. He designed the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy [Benteng Stelsel]. The fort was built in high terrain, a square building made by coconut tree height about 7-8 feet.The cannons were applied in the one of diagonal corner of the fort. Each corner has two cannons.


In the throne of Governor General Du Bus de Gissignies,


 the government of Dutch Indies failed to extinguish the rebellion of Diponegoro. In several party the Diponegoro army defeated the Dutch Indies army, such as campaign for capturing Kejiwan [August 1826], campaign of Delanggu [August 1826], and campaign of Gawok [October 1826]. Military operation did not reach the objective. General H.M. de Kock ordered to Colonel F.D. Cochius for planning the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy.  

This prototype was implied in battlefield fortification strategy in area Bagelen, Banjoemas, Gowong, Ledok, Kedhu, and Jogjakarta. It could be the simple fort for defense in Java War for the reason for limitation the movement of Diponegoro. It was the temporary battlefield fortification: a simple building for military defense, efficient in raw material for the building, and the materials are available in Java.


The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) and the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[7]



The strategy of Battlefield Fortification was implied since May 1827. The Battlefield Fortification means that fort was not only have a passive role in the military defense, but it’s emphasized that the fort has active and important role as quarter for offensive operation, military command and control and logistic purposes. Broadly speaking, fort was attempted as warfare and military strategic. In period of May – December 1827 General H.M. de Kock established about 30 forts surrounding Central Java.




F.D. Cochius was born 3rd of December 1787 in Valburg.

His parents are Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius and Anna Dibbets.

He died in Huize Vredenoord near Rijswijk, Netherlands on 1st of May 1876.

July 1811:

Captain in the French Army 

December 1814:

Captain in Netherlands Army

May 1822:

Awarded “Ridder IIIe klasse of Officier in de Militaire Willems-Orde” [MWO], the 3rd Class Knight in Military Order of William in his service as engineer attached to Headquarters during the Waterloo Campaign.

September 1825:

Lieutenant-Colonel F.D. assaulted the Jogjakarta. He was the Commander of Garrison of Soerakarta with 2 companies of infantry [Hulptropen from Soemenap and Legion of Mangkoenegaran], 1 platoon of cavalery [Huzar], and 12 Light Infantry [Dragonder]. 

October 1825:

He designed the prototype of temporary battlefield fortification in Kalidjengking. His designed would be adopted in to Fortification Strategy in following Java War 1826 – 30. 

June 1826:

Capturing Pleret, a fort of Diponegoro in Southern of Jogjakarta with more than 7.000 Dutch soldiers.

July 1826:

He lead the movement to Dekso, a new headquarter of Diponegoro after Pleret conquered by Dutch Army.


Commander in Military Operation District of Jogjakarta

April 1828:

Battle of Bedoyo, he waved Diponegoro army out from this village. 

July – August 1828:

Colonel Cochius occupied the valley of Progo and assault the Diponegoro army between Progo and Opak rivers.

January 1829:

Military operation to North Mataram.

This operation was moving Diponegoro in to the western Progo River successfully.

The operation continued to Southern Mountains of Jogjakarta.

July 1829:

Capturing Fort Geger. This fort was built by coral materials.

March 1830:

Colonel Cleerens with Diponegoro arrived in Magelang.

The Kedhu Resident and military chief, including Colonel F.D. Cochius met them in Magelang before the capitulation 28 of March 1830. Based on capturing Diponegoro in Magelang, it designate that the Java War was terminated.

Post of Java War, Colonel F.D. Cochius was the commander in Salatiga, a town in Java.

1831 – 37:

Extinguishing of the uprising of the Padri’s Islamic fundamentalist insurgents in the mountains of western Sumatra raged. 

August 1837:

Conquered the Fort Bondjol in West Sumatra. 

May 1838:

Commander Militaire Willemsorde

September 1837:

1st Colonial Infantry Battalion in Bondjol for Major General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment]. 

November 1841:

12th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

April 1846:

13th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

        Pas in 1827
        zou het Paleis van Daendels gereed komen, in opdracht van de enige, “Belgische” Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies, want het jaar 1830 was immers nog niet aangebroken:


1826 – 1830

Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies 

        Volgens de overlevering woog bij aankomst Du Bus de Gisignies 145 kg, toen hij weer in 1830 naar Europa terugkeerde was hij 60 kg lichter geworden.

Batavia, a city of Java, capital of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, in hit. 6° 10′ 8., lon. 106° 50′ E., on a swampy plain at the head of a deep bay of the Java sea, on the N. W. coast of the island, upon both banks of the river Jacatra. The bay is protected by a number of islands, and forms a secure harbor.

The population in 1832 was 118,300, of whom 2,800 were Europeans, 25,000 Chinese, 80,000 natives, 1,000 Moors and Arabs, and 0,500 slaves; the present number is variously stated at from 70,000 to 150,000, the discrepancy apparently arising from the different areas embraced, the wealthy inhabitants now residing beyond the limit of the fortifications, upon several broad roads running for some distance inland. The local trade and handicrafts are mostly in the hands of the Chinese; the foreign commerce in those of the Dutch, although there are also English, French, German, and American merchants. About 1,500 vessels annually enter the port, two thirds of which are Dutch. The principal articles of export are spices, rice, coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco, dyewoods, and gold dust. In 1867 the total value of the exports was $27,-227,025; imports, $22,439,435. Batavia was originally laid out on the model of a Dutch city, with broad streets having each a canal in the centre.



 After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control

The Dutch 7th Battalion advancing in Bali in 1846

        In 1848
        werd de bovenste verdieping van het Paleis Rijswijk afgebroken in de hoop het gebouw wat meer status te geven. In de praktijk verbleven de Gouverneurs-Generaal ook liever in Buitenzorg dan in Paleis Rijswijk….. het Paleis Rijswijk kreeg al snel de bijnaam Hotel van de Gouverneur-Generaal….
        In Paleis Rijswijk kwam wel geregeld de Raad van Indië bij elkaar, de onofficiële regering van Nederlands-Indië voorgezeten door de Gouverneur-Generaal. De Gouverneur-Generaal had echter in de praktijk, we zouden nu zeggen, dictatoriale bevoegdheden en dus altijd het laatste woord. In 1862 werden in Paleis Rijswijk de eerste gasverlichtings armaturen van Batavia aangebracht.


The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan

        Ook in 1862 verscheen een wat negatief commentaar over Paleis Rijswijk: waarom werd dit armetierige gebouw Paleis genoemd, aan de voorzijde hangt weliswaar het Wapen van het Koninkrijk van Nederland, maar de rest van het gebouw lijkt meer op een paardenstal dan een Paleis een Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië waardig.
        In 1879 the Koningsplein Palace beginning to built,and klater became Rijswijk Palace Of DEI Govenour General
        En dus (?) werd in 1879 begonnen met de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein, in de achtertuin van Paleis Rijswijk…

GG palace rijswijk

19th Century19e eeuw

Old DEI Gouvenor General Palace Rijswijk at Batavia Het (Oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Rijswijk, Batavia


        In 1809 begon Daendels dus aan zijn plan voor wat de geschiedenis zou ingaan als het Paleis van Daendels, en ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd. Pas in 1827 zou het voltooid worden.
        Alhoewel groots van opzet

(Daendels dacht altijd in het groot)

        is het dus nooit als Paleis gebruikt. In het Groote Huis zijn altijd overheidsinstellingen ondergebracht, zoals de Raad van Indië, het Departement van Onderwijs en


        en het Departement van Financiën. Ook werd het gebruikt als centraal magazijn bijvoorbeeld voor schoolmaterialen. Ook het Departement van Oorlog was hier ooit gevestigd.
        Bijzonder aan het Paleis is wel dat hier na verloop van tijd alle portretten naar toe verhuisd zijn van alle Gouverneurs-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië. In 1949 werden de portretten van de Gouverneurs-Generaal vanuit het Paleis van Daendels rechtstreeks overgebracht naar het Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, waar je ze nog steeds kunt bewonderen.

daendels palace 1878

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia

ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd 


Voor het Paleis van Daendels:

het standbeeld van Jan Pietersz Coen in Batavia

tot 1942….. 



In the War of 1819 the first Palembang,

 the fort was tested by cannon shells Dutch corvette, but not one bullet that can penetrate both walls and doors. Due to run out of bullets and gunpowder, then the Dutch fleet escaped to Batavia. From this was born the phrase, which states that work for nothing, because it does not bring results: ration runs out, no ne of Palembang, means the act or attempt that did not give results, only brought loss and fatigue sernata. This event is written with great charm in Menteng War poem or a poem also called the War of Palembang.

In addition to beautiful and sturdy, Kuto Besak is located in strategic places, namely in the fields like floating on the water. She lies on the “island”, ie the area surrounded by the Musi River (in the front or south), in the western part limited by Sekanak River, bounded on the east Tengkuruk River and behind, or the northern part limited by Kapuran River. This area is called Land of the Palace.

Figure sketch Palembang Palace by J. Jeakes

Forms and soil conditions in the city of Palembang as if to the islands, and by the Dutch people gave him the title as the de Twintig Eilanden der Stad (City of Twenty-Island). Further according to G. Bruining, the island’s most valuable (dier Eilanden) is the place Kuto Besak, Kuta Lama and the Great Mosque stands.

Formation of the islands in the city of Palembang is because the number of children who crossed the river and cut the city. Naturally also called the City if Palembang River Hundred. Whereas in the early colonial era, Palembang dubbed by them as het Indische Venetie. Another epithet is de Stad des Vredes, namely a peaceful place (meaning Dar’s Greetings). And indeed this is the name of the official name of the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam.

Castle Map Kuto Besak (plus sign) visits with wikimapia
[Click to enlarge]

Structure and Technical

According I. J. Sevenhoven, the first Dutch commisaris Regeering in Palembang, Kuto Besak roede width and 77 length 49 roede (Amsterdamsch roede = approximately 3.75 m, or the length is 288.75 meters and 183.75 meters wide), with a strong wall around and the height and width of 30 feet 6 or 7 feet. This wall is strengthened with bastions 4 (bastion). Inside there was a similar wall and nearly as tall, with the gates strong, so this can also be used for defense if the first wall can be broken (see LJ. Sevenhoven, Painting, page 14).

Recent measurements of the consultants themselves have a slightly different size, which is 290 meters long and 180 meters wide.

Opinions de Sturler on the condition of the fort Kuto Besak:
“… 77 roede width and length 44 roede, equipped with a 3 and a half bastion bastion management, which complements a wall around all four sides. Walls are thick and 5 feet high from the ground 22 and 24 feet.
On the inside in the middle of the palace called Dalem, especially for the king’s residence, several feet higher than ordinary buildings. Entirely surrounded by high walls, so bring a protection for the king. No one may approach the royal residence unless the family or the person who ordered. Other stone buildings in the palace is a place to store ammunition and bullets “. (see W. L de Sturler – Proeve – 186 pages)

Site Plan Palace of Palembang in 1811 [click image to enlarge]

At the time of the war against the Dutch colonialists in 1819, there were as many as 129 shoots a cannon was on the wall Kuto Besak. Whereas during the war in 1821, only 75 shoots a cannon on the wall Kuto Besak and 30 shoots along the river wall, the attackers threatened standby.

Images Main Front Gate Castle Kuto Besak

Lawang Buratan (west side of the gate) Citadel Kuto Besak remaining

Fortress Kuto Besak year of 1935

Fortress Kuto Besak




1822        Oct 8, The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.

1822        The parasitic plant Rafflesia was discovered in the lowland forests of Southeast Asia. It steals nutrition from other plants and periodically creates a monstrous, red-brown flower with the perfume of rotten flesh.
    (SFC, 1/19/04, p.A4)


Waterlooplein Batavia

Met op de achtergrond

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia 

VELDE, Charles William Meredith van de. Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.W.M. van de Velde. Ca. 21 x 30 cm. From: C.W.M. van de Velde. Gezigten uit Nêerlands Indië. – Rustic view of the capital of Bantam, Serang. With horsemen and coach.Bastin-Brommer N360.

résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).

Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.

Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la


the first nederland Indie one cent coin


Based on data from various sources, the development of fully Bandung carried out by a number of people under the leadership of Regent Bandung RA Wiranatakusumah II. Therefore, it can be said that the regents RA Wiranatakusumah II is the founder of (the founding father) of Bandung.
The development of the city of Bandung and its strategic location in the middle Priangan, has encouraged the emergence of the idea of ​​the Dutch East Indies government in 1856 to move Capital Keresiden Priangan from Cianjur to Bandung.


The idea for a variety of new things realized in 1864. Based Besluit Governor-General dated August 7, 1864 No.18, Bandung defined as the central government Priangan Residency. Thus, since then the city of Bandung has a double function, namely as the Capital District as well as the capital of Bandung Residency Priangan. At that time, who became Regent of Bandung is Wiranatakusumah RA IV (1846-1874).


In line with the development function, in the city of Bandung was built buildings in the area Cicendo prefecture (now the Home Office of the Governor of West Java) and a government hotel. The building was completed residency in 1867.



        In 1869 kreeg Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer toestemming voor de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein.

GG Mijer

1866 – 1872

Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer 

        In 1879 werd het Paleis Koningsplein officieel geopend, het zou dienst doen tot 1949. Op Paleis Koningsplein zou de Indonesische vlag voor het eerst gaan wapperen.

Koningsplein Batavia

Luchtfoto Koningsplein Batavia

Met het (werk) Paleis / Residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië

…….indien aanwezig in Batavia……..

Het (woon) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië was in Buitenzorg

zie hieronder 

        Waar lagen nu al die Paleizen, daarvoor pakken we de kaart van Batavia uit 1897 weer erbij:

Batavia in 1897

Batavia plattegrond 1897 

        Ten noorden van het woord Rijswijk op het Koningsplein lag het (nieuwe) Koningsplein Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, dit is dus het laatste Paleis / Residentie geweest van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië. In dit Paleis vond dus de Soevereiniteitsoverdracht in Batavia in 1949 plaats, een foto van deze Soevereiniteitsoverdracht staat verderop in het verhaal.
        Het Koningsplein Paleis werd gebouwd in de achtertuin van het (oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, op de kaart het rode blokje ten noorden van het Koningsplein paleis.
        Het Rijswijk Paleis lag aan het Molenvliet water, de weg erlangs heette ook Rijswijk. Aan de overkant van het Molenvliet heette de weg langs het Molenvliet Noordwijk. Kortom, de weg langs de noordoever van het Molenvliet heette dus Noordwijk, de weg langs de zuidoever Rijswijk !
        Het Paleis van Daendels ligt aan het Waterlooplein, (nummer 19 op de kaart), ten oosten van het Koningsplein.
        Het Waterlooplein is natuurlijk vernoemd naar de Slag bij Waterloo. Ter ere van de overwinning op


        werd op het Waterlooplein een zuil gebouwd met daar bovenop een Leeuw. Helaas was de Leeuw wat klein uitgevallen t.o.v. de zuil en werd al spoedig

Het Hondje van Jan Pietersz Coen genoemd


Voor het Paleis van Daendels:

het standbeeld van Jan Pietersz Coen in Batavia

tot 1942….. 

        Waarom? Het leek net of Jan Pietersz Coen voor het paleis van Daendels zijn hondje riep dat bovenop een paal was gesprongen….
        De naam Koningsplein kan worden herleid naar Koning-Stadhouder Willem III.


Koning-Stadhouder Willem III 

        In het oosten van de oude benedenstad van Batavia lag het Buffelveld, rond 1690 werd het Buffelveld omgedoopt tot Koningsplein. In de nieuwe bovenstad van Batavia werd rond 1818 het nieuwe centrale plein ten westen van het Waterlooplein ook weer Koningsplein genoemd. Niet alleen ter ere van Koning-Stadhouder Willem III, maar natuurlijk ook voor Koning Willem I.


Koning Willem I

        Tot slot nog een paar schitterende prenten van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg, ook daarover zullen we het in de toekomst nog eens verder hebben wellicht.

GG palace 19th century

19e eeuw

Het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 

GG palace buitenzorg

Toen en nu

Het (ex) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 

GG palace buitenzorg

Het interieur van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 


“Daar staat, breed en wit en behagelijk laag gebouwd, het paleis van Zijne Excellentie den Hollandschen Gouverneur-Generaal. Ziedaar een van de machtigste mannen der wereld, die te beschikken heeft over leven en dood van 55 millioen bruine menschen in Insulinde. De “Raad van Indië” beredeneert en beraadslaagt, maar zijn wil is macht !
Vijf jaren resideert een Gouverneur-Generaal in dit witte paleis. …..met nu en dan oproer en schietpartijen, weliswaar nog maar lage bergvormingen boven de kalme zee der Hollandsche koloniale politiek, doch hier en daar aan de randen reeds rood geverfd door het bloed der blanken……edoch de inheemschen hier zijn vreedzaam en onderworpen. Zij dienen de blanken met glimlachend geduld…….in afzienbaren tijd kunnen de inlanders de Hollandschen overheersching niet missen………kleurlingen “Westersch” opvoeden beteekent : den val van de Westersche wereldheerschappij verhaasten…..Azië ontwaakt ? Neen, Europa slaapt in!
Een rijke toekomst kan men de Nederlandsche Oost-Indische kolonie voorspellen, in geval er over honderd jaar nog koloniën bestaat. Waaraan getwijfeld mag worden.” Citaat uit 1933.


Het Kerkhof van de Gouverneurs-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg

        Sommige nu nog bekende Nederlanders hadden in Buitenzorg ook een residentie, zoals dat toen genoemd werd:

huis Colijn buitenzorg

De residentie van Hendrik Colijn in Buitenzorg

Biografie Colijn 

        Tot slot nog een citaat uit dit verhaal:

Dirk Cornelis Buurman van Vreeden, de laatste Nederlandse legercommandant in Nederlands-Indië: zijn dochter Nan vertelt haar verhaal

            We beginnen ons verhaal met deze bekende foto’s uit ons Hatta verhaal:




Mohammad Hatta naast Koningin Juliana
tijdens de Soevereiniteits “overdracht” op 27 December 1949
in het Paleis op de Dam in Amsterdam

Op de onderste foto 27 December 1949 in Djakarta,
voor de laatste keer wordt ‘s avonds de Nederlandse Vlag gestreken

op het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal op het Koningsplein 

            Over de periode voor en na WOII hebben we slechts enkele verhalen ooit samengesteld:

Wil je weten waar ik mijn kennis allemaal vandaan heb, lees dan eens de boeken zoals die te vinden zijn op mijn pagina

book covers 

            Speciaal aanbevolen o.m. de volgende boeken:

Terug naar ons Des Indes verhaal:

Reizigers in de 19e eeuw die aankwamen op de rede van Batavia, werden met kleine scheepjes afgezet bij de Kleine Boom en werden vandaar met een rijtuig langs Molenvliet naar bijvoorbeeld Hotel Des Indes vervoerd.


rechts aan de overkant de Kleine Boom, het douane kantoor van Batavia…..
Eind 17e eeuw werd Batavia als volgt aangeprezen, een heel kontrast t.o.v. wat reizigers in de 19e eeuw van Batavia vonden…

Batavia, vroeger Jacatra geheten, is nu voor de Nederlanders de hoofdstad van Oost-­Indië. Het ligt aan de fraaie binnenkust van het groot en lustig eiland Java op 5 graden en 50 minuten zuiderbreedte. In het westen ligt het beroemde koninkrijk en de stad Bantam, aan de oostkant bevinden zich de mooie landstreken van de Mataram. In het noorden wordt het door de zee en een paar kleine eilandjes begrensd, waardoor een vei­lige ankerplaats ontstaat. Naar het zuiden toe strekken zich mooie landerijen, tuinen, bossen en weilanden uit, omgeven door hemelhoge bergen.

De stad en het Kasteel worden van elkaar gescheiden door een prachtig plein en een brede rivier. Het voorname Kasteel Batavia ligt aan de fraaie zeekust en langs de oever van de mooie rivier van Jacatra, die met haar helder en heerlijk water dwars door het midden van de bedrijvige stad stroomt. De rivier mondt uit in zee, waar zij een geschik­te haven vormt voor allerhande grote en kleine vaartuigen, zelfs voor flinke Chinese jon­ken. Iedere dag krioelt de rivier van sampans, boten, prauwen, sloepen, jachten en an­dere vreemde vaartuigen, die op de bijna altijd volle rede van Batavia allemaal profijt trachten te vinden.

Maar nu weer verder over het voortreffelijke Kasteel. Dit wordt versterkt met vier hoekpunten, namelijk Diamant, Robijn, Saphier en Parel. Het heeft stevige muren, diepe grachten, fraaie poorten en valbruggen en is goed voorzien van alle middelen ten dienste van de oorlogsvoering. In het Kasteel bevinden zich het hof van de gouverneur­generaal en veel andere, bijzonder mooie gebouwen waar de Raden van Indië en andere hoogwaardigheidsbekleders hun woonplaats hebben.

Wat de stad verder betreft: die is flink uitgestrekt en dichtbevolkt want er wonen niet alleen Nederlanders, maar ook moren, Chinezen, Javanen, Maleiers en andere Indi­sche volken. De onzen hebben daar echter de regering, macht en godsdienst volgens de wetten en gebruiken van ons vaderland ingevoerd en die worden daar nog tot op de dag van vandaag uitgeoefend.

In de nijvere stad Batavia bevinden zich verder veel mooie stenen gebouwen, defti­ge straten, bewoonde grachten, fraaie burgwallen, stenen bruggen en pasars of mark­ten, die op bepaalde tijden van de dag zeer druk zijn.

Een flinke kruiskerk pronkt in het beste deel van de stad en er is ook nog een andere waar, in de aangenaam klinkende Maleise taal, de zuivere christelijke leer wordt gepredikt. Ook wordt er op zondag in het Kasteel gepredikt voor de gouverneur-generaal, Raden van Indië en anderen die daar­voor zijn uitgenodigd.

De stad heeft ook nog een aanzienlijk raadhuis, een hospitaal of gasthuis voor zieken en gewonden alsmede een tuchthuis voor vrouwen die niet deu­gen, een weeshuis enzovoort.

Batavia is voorzien van sterke poorten, bolwerken, hoekpunten en muren, omringd door een brede gracht. Landinwaarts zijn er heel mooie wandelpaden langs lustige ak­kers, boomgaarden, tuinen, en fraaie buitenplaatsen. Hier kan de nieuwsgierige wande­laar wat vertoeven om op een plezierige en veilige manier de landbouw gade te slaan.

Op de Javaanse toegangswegen buiten Batavia staan diverse fortificaties en verster­kingen die door Hollandse garnizoenen zijn bemand. Aan de landzijde, niet ver van de Nieuwpoort, bevinden zich allerlei soorten molens voor de bereiding van papier, suiker, buskruit en het malen van allerhande soorten graan. Ook staan er zaag- en andere molens die niet door wind, maar door waterkracht van de rivier van Jacatra worden aangedreven. Allemaal zijn ze door de Nederlanders op deskundige wijze gebouwd. Hiermee overtreft de nijvere stad Batavia, wat staat en luister betreft, alle andere steden van Indië.

In de 19e eeuw werd Batavia dus door reizigers als volgt toegelicht, niet meer zoo positief… :

Het prachtige, wereldberoemde Batavia is een puinhoop geworden, een duidelijke samenvatting van het proces van vervuiling en verval van de stad, die eens de ‘Koningin van het Oosten’ werd genoemd, maar langzamerhand bekend wordt als het ‘kerkhof der Europeanen’.

De lezer denke zich nu eene ouderwetsche oud-Hollandsche stad met eenige breede straten en grachten, en talrijke voor-, achter-, dwars- en zijstraten, alle dicht bebouwd met oud-Hollandsche huizen. Maar het Batavia van heden is het Batavia van voorheen niet meer.

Thans ziet het er op vele plaatsen uit alsof er een regiment kozakken hadde huisgehouden. Niet alleen zijn de voormalige fraaije stadsmuren, de bolwerken, het Vierkant, het Kasteel, het daarin voormaals aanwezige paleis van den Gouverneur-Generaal, en zeer vele gebouwen meer, tot den grond geslegt en vernield, maar ook de meeste kerken en publieke gebouwen zijn in een bouwvalligen staat, en een groot gedeelte der partlkuliere huizen zijn verlaten en staan ledig met geslotene deuren en vensters.

Ter illustratie wordt een verhaal verteld over een Nederlandsen ambtenaar, die voor het eerst in Indië kwam, aan de werf met rijdtuig afgehaald door een zijner vrienden, die op het Koningsplein (bij Weltevreden) woonde. Nadat zij reeds een goed eind weegs voortgereden waren, vroeg de vreemdeling: “Maar zijn we dan nog niet haast te Batavia?” – “Batavia!” was het antwoord, “meent gij de stad? Daar zijn wij reeds lang door gereden.”

Dit alles betreft de oude stad, de benedenstad. Bij het verslechteren van de gezondheidstoestand in de stad trokken de Europeanen begin 19de eeuw langzamerhand meer het land in

De Maarschalk Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels die, gelijk men weet, geen vriend was van halve maatregelen, kwam op het denkbeeld om de geheele stad onder de voet te halen en een nieuw Batavia op een genoegzamen afstand van het ongezonde terrein te stichten.
Dat dit zelfs deze ijzeren maarschalk niet één, twee, drie lukte valt te begrepen. Toch heeft hij binnen enkele jaren het oude kasteel en de stadsmuren laten slopen, grote aantallen bouwvallige huizen opgeruimd en de bossen tussen Batavia en Weltevreden laten kappen om de frisse berglucht vrij spel te geven. Nieuwe woonwijken verrezen langs het Molenvliet, in Noordwijk en Rijswijk en rondom het Koningsplein en het Waterlooplein te Weltevreden.

Nog geen tien jaar geleden, was de eerste indruk welke de reiziger die zich van de rede naar de hooggeroemde begaf, een grote teleurstelling. Na met een stoomscheepje of tambangan het smalle havenkanaal met zijn morsige oevers doorgevaren te zijn, kwam hij aan een onaanzienlijk douanekantoor, dat op z’n oudhollands de Kleine Boom heette in tegenstelling met de Grote Boom, het verderop aan de rivier gelegen kantoor, waar ook het entrepot is en de douanezaken op grotere voet behandeld worden.

Vervolgens bracht een pover rijtuig met een paar magere, kleine paarden bespannen, hem de stad binnen, die geheel in Europese trant gebouwd is en welker kantoren, magazijnen, werkplaatsen over het algemeen weinig vertonen van de spreekwoordelijk geworden Hollandse netheid en zindelijkheid.
De troebele wateren der grachten, de stoffige wegen, door de regen bij wijlen in modderpoelen herschapen, het gekrioel van Europese, Chinese, Arabische, Klingalese en Inlandse handelaars en zeelieden, van bedienden en beambten, van halfnaakte koelies, waartussen zich onooglijke palankijns en niet veel fraaier dos-a-dos en karretjes bewogen, deed dit gedeelte van Batavia veel meer op een slavin, afgebeuld door zware arbeid onder de brandende tropische zon, in bestoven haveloze kledij, dan op een schone en fiere koningin lijken.

Het is nog slechts een bestoven, verouderde verzameling van gouvernementsgebouwen, handelskantoren, winkels, magazijnen en pakhuizen.Gedurende de dag heerst er zeer veel bedrijvigheid en vertier, doch alle gemak en weelde is verdwenen; ‘s nachts is het er doods en ledig.

Maar zodra men langs Molenvliet komt, verandert het hele aanzien:
Geleidelijk worden de huizen fraaier en groter, door sierlijke tuinen omgeven, als villa’s gebouwd. Links en rechts treden daar tussendoor, de kampongs uit klapperbossen en vruchtentuinen tevoorschijn en eindelijk aanschouwen we een opeenvolging van de heerlijkste lustverblijven. We zijn in dat gedeelte van Batavia, dat Rijswijk genoemd wordt,

‘s Morgens tussen acht en tien uur ziet men deze weg overdekt met duizenden voertuigen van allerlei soort, alle in ijlende vaart; de heren begeven zich dan naar hun kantoren. De trams snorren er met een zekere nieuwerwetse deftigheid tussendoor, in scherpe tegenstelling met de logge houten karren op twee hoge wielen, door ossen getrokken.

Plotseling zwenkt de koetsier rechts af, voert ons een met hoge, schaduwrijke waringinbomen beplant plein op en doet het rijtuig voor de marmeren vestibule van het kolossale Hotel des Indes stilstaan. We stappen uit en zeggen de koetsier om vijf uur weet voor te komen om te gaan toeren.

Te vijf uur komt het rijtuig voor en gaan we Batavia eens bezichtigen. We slaan rechts af, komen allereerst voorbij het Marinehotel en bevinden ons dan aan een driesprong. Dat grote gebouw op de hoek is de sociëteit de Harmonie, welker rijke en ruime zalen meermalen het toneel zijn van schitterende feesten, bals en concerten. Een eind verder ligt het Hotel der Nederlanden en het Java Hotel en andere officiële en particuliere woningen. Alle verscholen tussen lommerrijk groen en bomen, die met hun brede takken ook de weg grotendeels overschaduwen en waaronder we ook weer de reusachtigste soorten aantreffen, maken ze op ons een niet alleen zeer aangename, maar onvergetelijk liefelijke indruk.
De vurige, rood-gele bloem van de boom, door de Engelsen the flame of the wood geheten, valt hier bijzonder in het oog. Eerst nu begrijpen we hoe men Batavia de naam van Koningin van het Oosten kon geven en worden we overtuigd hoezeer het die naam verdient.

Al snel komen onze reizigers er hopelijk ook achter dat in Batavia o.m. de nu zeer beroemde Engelse fotografen

Woodbury & Page
werkzaam zijn, bij wie je prachtige foto’s van Batavia en omgeving kon verkrijgen.


het atelier van Woodbury & Page in Batavia

met het Britse wapenschild boven hun namen 


Woodbury & Page in Batavia nemen het er even van en terecht….
Nu moet Aad eerlijk bekennen dat het nooit precies duidelijk is geworden wie is nu Woodbury en wie is nu Page. Maar in alle oude fotoboeken over o.m. Batavia kom je (bijna) altijd tegen dat de foto is genomen door Woodbury & Page…..dankzij hen kun je je helemaal verdiepen in het oude Batavia, wat Aad dus heel graag doet met al zijn boeken met foto’s van Woodbury & Page

Reeds in 1857 begonnen Walter Bentley Woodbury (1834 – 1885) en James Page (1833 – 1865) hun atelier in Batavia. Zij maakten grote reportages niet alleen van Batavia, maar ook van Java en dan natuurlijk altijd in de vroege nog koele ochtend, helaas dus zelden met een Europeaan op de foto. Later kwam nog een broer Henry James Woodbury erbij.
Uit advertenties is af te leiden dat je bij hen komplete albums kon kopen, nu natuurlijk onbetaalbaar en zeldzaam, maar gelukkig is er een paar jaar geleden een prachtig overzichtsboek verschenen door Aad binnen een dag gefinancierd….

Want als een van je hobbies Nederlands-Indië is, dan kun je ademloos naar een foto van Woodbury & Page kijken en dan weten dat hier ooit o.m. Loudon, van Swieten, Snouck Hurgronje, Köhler, van Daalen, Christoffel en natuurlijk de bekendere Van Heutsz en Colijn hebben rondgelopen. Wie dit allemaal waren :

Klik hier als je wilt zoeken via Aad’s Freefind search engine, vul in het venster jouw woord in, bijvoorbeeld Heutsz en klik op ENTER

De onderstaande foto is een van de eerste van Woodbury & Page geweest, waarschijnlijk uit 1857, de beroemde tijger foto gemaakt ergens op Java. De tijger sprong te vlug en daarom, aldus het verhaal, is de tijger er later “bijgeplakt” :


een van de eerste foto’s van Woodbury & Page

1857 Java

de tijger werd later “bijgeplakt” ???
We hebben dus nu zoo’n mooi foto album gekocht van Woodbury & Page en spoedden ons weer voorzichtig terug naar ons Hotel Des Indes, want wat we zojuist hebben gekocht is over zoo’n 150 jaar heel zeldzaam….

In 1747 begon men al met bouwen op de grond waar later ons hotel Des Indes zou ontstaan. In 1760 werd het terrein opgekocht door de latere Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk :

GG Klerk


Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk

De residentie van Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk is onlangs gerestaureerd
In 1824 werd het geheel opgekocht door het Gouvernement die er een kostschool voor meisjes vestigde. In 1828 werd het gebouw weer verlaten, in 1832 werd de kostschool voor meisjes weer opgeheven omdat de leraressen maar steeds weggingen om te trouwen….

In 1829 werd het geheel opgekocht door de Fransman Surleon Antoine Chaulan die er als eerste een hotel begon onder de naam Hotel de Provence.

In 1845 kocht zoon Etienne Chaulan op een veiling het hotel van zijn vader voor dfl 25.000,=, vraag me niet waarom….
Etienne maakte het hotel al een beetje beroemd, want hij was de eerste die ….. verschillende soorten ijs ging verkopen.

In 1851 ging het management over in handen van Cornelis Denninghoff die de naam veranderde in

Ook wel het Rotterdamsch Hotel genoemd. Het had niet zoo’n goede naam, iemand schreef dat hem Hotel Rotterdam was aanbevolen, maar hij had veel beter Hotel der Nederlanden kunnen kiezen en toen op een dag in 1856 kwam Douwes Dekker voorbij, mogelijk op weg naar de Franse kleermaker Oger Frèves tegenover Societeit De Harmonie.

En natuurlijk moet dit er dan even bij, de voetnoot onder bijna ieder Nederlands-Indië verhaal van Aad :

            ……een roofstaat aan de Noordzee……
            …..dat spoorwegen bouwt van gestolen geld en tot
            betaling de bestolene bedwelmt met
            opium, Evangelie en jenever…

             Aan U durf ik met vertrouwen te vragen of het
            Uw wil is dat daarginds Uw meer dan dertig
            millioenen onderdanen worden mishandeld en
            uitgezogen in UWEN naam?

            Multatuli [1860] …aan Nederland…Koning Willem III


.…dat dorp stond in brand, omdat het veroverd was door Nederlandsche soldaten…….

Ja, ‘t dorp was veroverd door Nederlandsche soldaten, en stond dus in brand.

Op Nederlandsche heldendaad volgt brand.
Nederlandsche overwinning leidt tot verwoesting.
Nederlandsche krygsbedryven baren wanhoop.

Maar terug naar ons verhaal:



Woodbury & Page

vanuit de Benedenstad langs het Molenvliet (links)

meteen rechts de ingang van ons hotel

in de verte links De Harmonie met rechts in dat ronde gebouw de Franse kleermaker Oger Frèves

Het Hotel Rotterdam had in 1852 al weer een andere eigenaar gekregen, de Zwitser Wijss die in 1851 getrouwd was met een 16-jarige nicht van Etienne Chaulan. En deze Wijss was degene die op advies van Douwes Dekker op 1 Mei 1856 de naam veranderde in het veel chiquer klinkende

In 1860 verkocht Wijss het hotel weer door aan de Fransman Cresonnier en deze Cresonnier was degene die Woodbury & Page foto’s liet maken van zijn Hotel Des Indes, waarom ? Inderdaad, om met deze fotographieën reclame te maken…..

En dus hier slechts twee foto’s genomen van Hotel Des Indes door Woodbury & Page :





 After 1795 no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade,


Battle of Bergen (1799)
The Battle of Bergen, also called the Battle of Bergen-Binnen, was fought on 19 September 1799, and resulted in a French-Dutch victory under General Brune and General Daendels against the Russians and British under the Duke of York who had landed in North Holland

 VOC papermoney 1799

 Noncolour embosed VOC revenue sheet

VOC embosed


VOC 50 Ryksdaalders 1805


The first papermoney of the Netherlands Indies         


Info source: Rob Huisman         

Last month a very rare VOC note  was on auction at the prestigious auction house for historical stock certificates HWPH Historisches Wertpapierhaus AG (HWPH) in Germany.  the lot was finally sold for 10.500 Euro, a fair price – knowing that most similar notes available on the market were offered at between 20.000 and 30.000 Euro the past couple of years.         

According to  Mr. Matthias Schmitt, CEO of HWPH,  the notes has been put up for auction by a private person in Europe who got the item from his uncle who lived in the United States. The uncle’s father was a Colonel in Dutch East Indies before World War II. 
The HWPH website has an extensive description of the VOC note.  They grade the note as VF and appraise it as follows: “Amboina, Castle Victoria, 30 April 1805, Banknote for 50 Ryksdaalders, Lettra E, #426, 27.8 x 17.2 cm, black, beige, handmade paper, folds (one partially broken), OU, stamp VOC A(mboina)?, onverso two more stamps, bilingual: Dutch, Hindi. This is a very rare banknote from the Netherland Indies, issued by the VOC.”
This 50 Ryksdaalder note was issued from Fort Victoria at Ambon island, Indonesia. The fortress was orignally built by the Portuguese in 1775, but soon taken over by the Dutch to establish a local stronghold for their colonial rule of the Netherlands Indies. 



The note is bilingual and has both Dutch and Arabic language. This note is especially interesting because it has a spelling mistake in the Dutch word “Gezien” which is printed as “Gezein” on this note. I have never observed spelling mistakes on similar notes before. Another thing that strikes me is the VF qualification. Using the IBNS grading rules for paper money, the note would grade as Fair only. The note has rounded corners, strong folds, holes around the folds, some small stains, etc. Grading it as Fair would be appropriate. One should not take the rarity into consideration when grading a note. Altough Fair, this is still a great note and absolutely worth its price.


After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.


 Javasche Bank 1828


De Javasche Bank 1828 – 1953

Presidents, Secretaries and Directors


info source: Rob Huisman 

The Javasche Bank was founded in 1828 and continued its operations until after the Dutch transfer of souvereignty to Indonesia in 1949. The Javasche Bank became the circulation bank for the Republic of Indonesia and was nationalized in 1953.

A date in italics (24/01/1828) means the date of the decree deciding about the appointment or discharge of  the board member. The date of a decree is only mentioned in case the actual start or end date is unknown.

The following board members (Presidents, Secretaries and Directors) were authorized to sign banknotes issued by the Javasche Bank:


24/01/1828 – 22/03/1838 Chr. de Haan (LL.M.)
Leonard Pierre Joseph viscount du Bus de Gisignies, Commissioner General of the Netherlands Indies, appointed Chr. de Haan by decree 25 on January 24, 1828, to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Although several other people applied for the position of President, the Commissioner General used his right to move past the nominees. On December 13, 1837, after almost 10 year of service, de Haan was granted a two year European leave. He seceded in the board meeting of March 22, 1838.


31/03/1838 – 10/03/1851 C.J. Smulders
C.J. Smulders, the Secretary of the Javasche Bank, succeeded de Haan as President by decision of the Commissioner General on March 31, 1838. 
In November 1846, Smulders bought 1/2 share in the sugar factory Langsee. On January 7, 1851, Smulders requested to be honorably discharged because of his weakening health. By decree of March 4, 1851, Smulders was honorably discharged. He decided to dedicate his time to his interest in the Langsee sugar factory. His successor E. Francis, took over presidency during the board meeting of March 10, 1851.


Earliest Nederland and South Holland revenue handstamped (1841) on law magazine from nederland sent to Indonesia.


President of Javasche bank


10/03/1851 – 01/07/1863 E. Francis
Emanuel Francis started his career in the Netherlands Indies as a clerk in 1815 and worked his way up in the government service to eventually become the top civil servant available to the Commissioner General. From 1848 to 1850 Francis was Inspector of Finance and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from the governement service. Next, Francis was appointed to President of the Javasche Bank by decree of March 4, 1851. On his own request Francis was honorably discharged  per Juli 1, 1863 per decree of  April 20, 1863. In 1864 Francis published a book “De regerings-beginselen van Nederlandsch Indië: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie”, expressing his dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and proposing an investigation by an independent committee. In 1969 Francis published a request to the Dutch parliament about his reputed right for payment of pension being a retired civil servant of the Netherlands Indies government.


Legendary story of Banjar War
Many legendary stories in Banjar War period that lasted from 1859 until 1865. one of which there are death squads called the Army War Beratib Ba-mall. Until now, the name of the force is still very legendary ….

Beginning of the conflict in the palace of Sultan Tahmudiah Banjar is when I died. He has a son who still small. Therefore, for while the power is held by Prince Tamjidillah I, brother, Sultan Tahmidillah I. But in fact, Prince Tamjidillah I not only became the guardian of his nephew was a kid, but took control with a smooth and would not return

the son of Sultan Tahmidillah I. Even to strengthen its position as the Sultan of his descendants in the future, Banjar land handed over to the Netherlands. Then by the Dutch were given to the Sultan hakPemerintahan Tamjid I and his descendants.

Therefore there was an armed uprising of Prince Amir (Prince Antasari a hero’s grandfather), a descendant of Sultan Tahmidillah I. However, resistance can be broken by the Dutch. He was later exiled to Ceylon or Sri Lanka.

To reconcile these two offspring, then, Adam Sultan Al Wasique Billah who is a descendant of Sultan Tamjidillah I married his daughter to Prince Antasari. But alas, the Queen died before giving Antasari trigger descent.

In addition, Prince Sultan Muda Abdurrahrnan also had a concubine of the Chinese nation. In 1817 the mistress gave birth to a son. Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman wanting sons became crown prince. Therefore then freed and married her legally and was named the Big Nyai Aminah. While his son was named Prince Tamjidilllah,

Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman desire is opposed by the grandfather and father of Sultan Sulaiman and Adam Sultan Al Wasiqu `Billah. They forced the young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman himself married to a cousin of Queen Siti, Miss Mangkubumi Nata.

Nata Mangkubumi besedia Young married his daughter to Prince Sultan Abdurrahman condition, later-born son will be king when the Sultan Muda died. This provision was approved, and the Sultan Muda had made a will on anyone who is entitled to the throne of the Sultanate of Banjar.

In Prince 1822Iahirlah Hidayatutlah. A few years later died so jabatan’tersebut Mangkubumi Nata. is empty. This opportunity was used by Prince Tamjid best, namely the Netherlands requested that appointed him in the Sultanate Mangkubumi Banjar. `With pleasure, of course, the Dutch agreed to because it will benefit the ‘they.’

In 1852 the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman died suddenly. A day later with Pengeran Tamjid secretly sent a letter to the Resident of the Dutch in Yogyakarta to appoint him as the heir apparent to the promised delivery of the Sultanate of Banjar areas that prompted the Dutch origin of the request is approved. Once again the Dutch Prince’s request Tamjid, because this is an opportunity for the Dutch reap the fish in troubled waters, as well as running the political divide et empera: glassware and colonize.

On June 10, 1852 the Dutch crown prince Tamjid become crown prince. Of course this appointment caused angry reactions to the nobility, clergy and community on Prince Tamjid and its allies, especially the Dutch.

In April 1853, Sultan Adam, Son of the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman sent envoys to Batavia to meet with Governor General of Dutch East Indies in order to request the cancellation of the appointment of justice PangeranTamjid become crown prince and Prince Setting Hidayatullah become crown prince in accordance with the testament of Sultan Adam. But this request was rejected by the Dutch East Indies governor. This adds to the heat of the political climate in the Kingdom of Banjar Prince Tamjid so do not dare to live in the palace which is located diIbukota Banjar Jewels Temple (City of Gems) that the person called Banjar City Martapura now Martapura Banjar regency’s capital.

Tamjid Prince Sultan fled to Banjarmasin. To cool the political atmosphere is getting warmer, finally. HidayatuIlah into Dutch raised Pengeran Mangkubumi previously held by PangeranTamjid and set PangeranTamjid as crown prince. Besides capturing the Dutch Prince and banished him to the King Anom Banjarmasin because it is considered as a provocateur who oppose the decisions of the Netherlands.

To avoid unwanted things to his son, then, the Sultan had come to accompany Prince Adam King moved to Banjarmasin Anom. When gering, or severe illness, he was taken to the palace in Martapura Banjar. On November 01, 1857 he died and was buried in Martapura

On 3 November 1857 the Dutch crown prince as the king’s successor Sultan Tamjid Adam, and the Prince immediately ordered the arrest of Prince Tamjid Anom King then threw to Bogor, West Java.

In 1858, there is a continual movement of people who want to restore the kingdom of culture and the concessions that have been damaged due to the inclusion of power penjajajah Netherlands.

EMERGENCE bead cherished daughter of froth

Mentioned, magical princess who emerged from the foaming whirlpools, then by Gastric Mangkurat crowned as queen in the Kingdom of Dipa Nagara, and then married to the Majapahit royal palace, Raden Putra

After marriage with Princess Bubble cherished, Raden Putra became king in the Kingdom under the name Prince Dipa Nagara Ananta Surya (son of the sun). According to legend Banjar society, they both, in the end mokswa or disappear into the invisible realm and became a ruler in the palace of Magical Mountain Pamaton

According to public confidence, they could both dripping or possessed bodies of people they want.

Thus, when the political temperature in the Kingdom of Banjar is getting hot because the Dutch intervened at the coronation of Prince Tamjid as king in the Kingdom of Banjar to replace Adam Sultan because Sultan Muda Prince Abdurrahman had died first. In fact, the nobility, clergy and the people willed Banjar Hidayatullah became Prince Sultan, according to the testament or the testament of Sultan previous

One of the pious scholars in Kumbayau Tambarangan, Overseas (Regency But right now), named Datu Aling are concerned about the crisis in the palace Banjar. Accordingly, it is because he salampah or penance with his own solitude, fasting, prayer, and remembrance wird, and other practice-practice to draw closer to God, accompanied by a request that the instructions given and the solution to the crisis that is happening in the palace Banjar . Datu Aling_dilaksanakan penance for nine months nine days, beginning in April 1858 until. by February 1859.

On February 2, 1859 to coincide with the 10th Rajab 1275 H; Datu Aling visited by kings and magical kingdom of Banjar Datu Aling asked to bring Prince Muning Antasari to the area. He will start the New Kingdom until the rightful king was elected.

On 13 Rajab 1275 AH, Princess Datu named Aling Saranti, cherished daughter was possessed by Bubble. He is married with a young man asked village named Dulasa because in her magical spirit benemayam Prince Surya Ananta.

Hearing all that, then, was Aling Datu daughter Implementing all these desires. Once married to Dulasa, then, Saranti be named espouse Bubble Princess and her husband Prince Surya Dulasa named Ananta. Datu Aling then announced to the public about Saranti coronation, the king cherished Princess Bubble Bead. Kumbayau area was renamed the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. As a king in the Kingdom Tambay Mecca, Saranti Bead Princess Bubble lift ayahya cherished, Datu Aling, as Panembahan, brother Sambang given the title of the Yellow Emperor, his sister was given the title Queen of the Sacred Nuramin, while the husband was given the title as Mangkubumi Nuramin Kusuma Nagara, Bayan Sampit, Garuntung waluh, Garumung manau, Kindaui Aji, Kindui Mu `l, splitting Batung, Panimba Sagara, there is also the Commander Juntai In Sky and others.

Tambay Mecca kingdom separate from the Sultanate of Banjar and not subject to the Dutch colonizers. Bubble bead Saranti cherished became queen in Mecca KerajaanTambay only as a symbol of the head of state, while the affairs of government are held, by Penembahan Muda Datu Aling. As a Panembahan, the pious, just and wise he is working with Immediate Banua Ampat, namely: Banua Halat, Banua Gadung, Banua Padang and Banua Parigi. They are subject to the Datu Aling. Then follow the same Banua Top, Trunk Hulu, Guava, Amandit and Pangabau

To his followers, Datu Aling always instill the spirit of jihad for the sake of fighting injustice and occupation. The call for jihad Aling Datu who received tremendous response from the community, was made Prince of the Netherlands felt teracam Tamjid its position. For the Dutch Resident in Banjarmasin send a team consisting of the Chief Prosecutor. Suryadinata prince and the prince of the Head of Prince Muhammad Seman accompanied by 120 followers

Knowing the Will of their arrival, then, was Aling Datu Yellow Emperor ordered his troops to prepare his jihad as many as 700 people complete with weapons drawn

to keep all possibilities that bakal_terjadi.Tentu Dutch Resident is just the messenger gasped to see so many forces in Datu Aling the STAP jihad fighters if they do sort-rnacam. Because they just want to see the actual situation in the Kingdom of Mecca, they were welcome to meet at the Palace of Datu Aling Tambay Mecca.

After hearing reports messenger, once again ordered the Dutch Resident Mangkubumi Prince Hidayatullah to deal with the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. Then sent Prince Prince Hidayatullah Antasari. Kesuma Jantera Prince and Prince Omar Sharif to meet Datu Aling, Datu Aling During the meeting explaining the intent and purpose of establishment of the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. It turned out that what is conveyed by Datu Aling dengart hand in hand what is desired by Prince Antasari. Until finally terjadilahn matchmaking agreement between the child named Antasari Prince Prince Mohammed Said with Saranti Bead Princess Bubble who have been widowed cherished.

Thus grew stronger the position of Datu Aling due 30 days after the wedding with Prince Muhammad Said Saranti, the incarnation of Princess Bubble cherish, then, Prince Antasari began to actively lead the popular movement in Banua Ampat and Banua five are directed to the Dutch.

28 April 1859 Puncaknyapada jihadists from Datu Aling Banua Banua Ampat and five under the leadership of Prince Antasari, attacked the Dutch fortress in Pengaron Orange Nassau. The attack was very successful. That was the beginning of the outbreak of the War Banjar. Finally, the battle also extends to various areas in South Kalimantan

As retaliation for the collapse of bastion of Orange Nassau in Pengaron, then, on 16 November 1859, suddenly attacked the Dutch defense forces Yellow Emperor. This attack was greeted with cries of Allahu Akbar by jihadi forces under the command of Sultan Datu Aling Yellow. In battle, the leader of the Dutch army captain killed by a spear Benschop. That day came again a platoon of the larger Dutch troops, but all were driven back.

In the evening, come back bigger Dutch troops to storm the bastion of Datu Aling Muning ie in the mosque. The battle occurred overnight. Datu Aling, Saranti Along with a few people remained loyal followers in the mosque. Aling Datu did not want to surrender to the Dutch even though the fire had licked all the mosques are made of wood. Finally, Datu Aling and Saranti was killed as a martyr.

Listen to the death of Datu Aling and Saranti, then, Prince Antasari issued a slogan which reads “Heram manyareh, waja until ka nipple: (haram surrendered to the Dutch until the last drop of blood)”


Attacks on the forts, coal mines, warships and other Dutch possessions to make the colonists could not do anything about it. Until June 25, 1859 forced the Dutch Prince Tamjid turunt ahta and throw it to Bogor. Prince is being run from the palace Martapura Hidayatullah joined Prince Antasari.

The battle occurred not only in South Kalimantan region, but extends to Central Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan is the field of battle Barito, Kapuas and Katingan led by Prince Antasari, accompanied by the original Surapati Tumenggung Dayak tribe. Martapura and Tang Sea region led by Lehman Demat, Region Five Banua led by Jalil degree Kiyai Wall Duke Anom king.

After the Netherlands asked for help to Batavia, then, berdatanganlah warships and complete with soldiers and cannon-cannon. Onrust Warships sailing to Barito to capture Prince Antasari metalui Tumenggung Surapati. However Tumenggung Surapati not want to sell out despite promises prizes of several thousand Dutch Guilders if Tumenggung Surapati could give Prince Antasari.

On December 26, 1859, suddenly Tumenggung Surapati with his men attacked the ship Onrust In this incident commander Onrust warships and 93 of his men were killed. The guns and cannon cannon transported ashore while his ship was sunk. Meanwhile, the warship sailed Tjipanas Martapura River came under fire from Demat Lehman and his men so hastily returned to Banjarmasin.

On June 11, 1860, proclaimed the abolition of the Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Banjar and the region as a Dutch colony. Thus the war against the Dutch because the Dutch are no longer intervene in the area of ​​Banjar palace, but the war against Dutch colonialism who want to destroy the Muslims. Therefore, in 1861 came the death squads to defend the religion of Islam. The force is called Ba-Baratib War Forces charity. The cornerstone of their struggle is the sentence of God, Hadith Prophet Muhammad, ask syafa’at 40 prophets, sacred science of the Datu and Heroes. Before progressing to the battlefield, first, they purify the body of hadast with shower and ablution, then dressed in white like clothing Rasullullah war era. They also fasted then beratib ba charity (practice / mewiridkan one practice: Pen) until I forget myself. Then advanced into battle to face the enemy. They believe, if they fall in battle against the infidels Dutch and their allies, they die a martyr.

Leaders of the movement of Ba `War Beratib this mall is the religious teachers and the prince. Among the leaders of the Army War Baratib Perhaps this is the charity of Banua Lawas Badr Haji, the prince of Rashid, and Abdul Gani Buyasin headman of the village Amuntai Basil.

Sementera it Pula, Prince Hidayatullah who has been crowned as the Sultan of the Kingdom of Banjar in Amuntai repeatedly received offers of peace from the Netherlands, but the offer was always declined. With the ruse. Dutch Prince Hidayatullah tricked to come to-Martapura on orders Siti’s mother Queen Dowager. Queen Mother Queen Siti who can not read Latin letters to the Dutch believe it enough to sign a letter written by the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as stamped Banjar. As a pious man, of Prince Hidatullah afraid of his mother. Hidayatullah Prince came to Martapura on March 3, 1862. Rock aat the same way, he was arrested and exiled to Cianjur.

Prince Antasari continue the struggle against the Dutch. But unfortunately he was a sickly start to Rahmatullah finally passed away on October 11, 1862.

Nevertheless, the war continues. Commander of the Army War Beratib Ba-Hajj Amal Buyasin fall in battle, following the then Chairman of the prince Rashid, Commander of Bukhari, Tumenggung State Tigers, Tumenggung Naro, and others,

Demat Lehman, leader of the guerrilla war untukwilayah Martapura Land Sea and was caught by fraud Dutch in Slippery Rock area and then transported to Martapura and hanged to death in the plaza III (now the Great Mosque of Al-page KaromahPen) Martapura. After that head cut off and sent to Holland. And there is a necklace around her neck ajimat. When ajimat is opened in it there is a white paper that read Arabic letters that people which means free or die.


01/07/1863 – 30/06/1868 C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem
Wiggers van Kerchem was appointed President per July 1, 1863. Wiggers van Kerchem was a member of the firm Tiedeman & van Kerchem in Batavia prior to his appointment. Per decree of June 30, 1868, it was decided to discharge Wiggers van Kerchem in the most honorable way. After finishing the concept of the fifth Exclusive Right that should be implemented per April 1, 1870, Wiggers van Kerchem decided to return to Europe for retirement.

The Town Hall in the old city center built in 1710 (3rd building)

Military parade in front of the statue of Jan Pietersz. Coen at Waterloo-square during the coronation celebrations of Queen Wilhelmina, 1898.

The Artesian well at Salemba, 1885.

The Artesian well at the Koningsplein square, 1885.

The City Theatre, 1865

The ‘Landsarchief’ – the colonial archives, housed in a former country house built around 1760

A typical Chinese house.

The shop of ‘Eigen Hulp’ at the Molenvliet-West canal, 1890.

Building in the botanical gardens and zoo.

Bathing kids in the Molenvliet canal next to ‘De Harmonie’ society builing. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, 1815)‘De Harmonie’ society building, 1875.

The Aceh monument at the Koningsplein square

The protestant Willemskerk, 1875.

Museum of the Society for Arts and History. (Built in 1862)

Military Society on the east side of the Waterlooplein square, corner Sipajersweg-road.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlMilitary Society Concordia.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlWeltevreden Palace at the Koningsplein square, 1880.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlSoldiers in front of a ‘watch-house’ of Weltevreden Palace, 1880.

Audience-hall in the Palace

The Palace (back), 1875.

palace interior

Volksraad or Council of the Indies Building or Raad van Indië (founded in 1918).

www.geheugenvannederland.nlPrivate estate in Rijswijk in Batavia, 1875.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlPrivate estate, 1856-1878.


De Javasche Bank note issues 1864


De Javasche Bank note issues, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn. 

info source:Rob Huisman 

 In 1863, De Javasche Bank, was the circulation bank of the Netherlands Indies. One would expect it to be a well-established colonial institution, however the opposite is true. Research at the archives of the printer Joh. Enschede en Zonen at the Museum Enschedé in Haarlem, the Netherlands, shows a completely different picture. The board and especially the President of De Javasche Bank were directly involved in detail in all operational matters related to the design and ordering of their banknotes


01/07/1868 – 31/03/1870 J.W.C. Diepenheim
Wiggers van Kerchem was succeeded by Diepenheim by decree of June 30, 1868. Diepenheim who proviously was Secretary for two years, was President for a short period. He resigned shortly after the fifth Exclusive Right was made public. On March 18, 1870, his resignation was accepted. Diepenheim died in The Hague on May 21, 1875 in the age of 75.

01/04/1870 – 31/03/1873 F. Alting Mees (LL.M.)
By decree of March 19, 1870, Alting Mees was appointed to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Alting Mees, previously lawyer and attorney, already served the bank as director for several years. Due to his appointment to President of the two high courts of the Netherlands Indies, he left the Javasche Bank per March 31, 1873.


01/04/1873 – 01/09/1889 N.P. van den Berg (LL.M.)                               
Norbertus Petrus van den Berg was chosen as the next President of the Javasche bank from two nominees and was appointed per decree of March 20, 1873. After more than 16 years of service, Van den Berg left the Netherlands Indies in 1889 to become Director of the Nederlandsche Bank and two years later President for a period of 21 years until the age of 81. He passed away in Amsterdam on January 8, 1917.

De Javasche Bank 1864-1895


January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.
Info Sources: Rob Huisman

 In 1863, De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies. One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true. Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede, the Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council President De Javasche and in particular the Bank is directly involved in operational detail in everything related to design and order their paper money

Section 4, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.

In 1863,

De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies.
One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true.
Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede,
The Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council and in particular President De
Javasche Bank directly involved in operational detail in all matters related to the design and
to order their paper money.

Reading through all the correspondence carefully stored and arranged between Javasche Bank
and printing companies in the homeland, one can feel the atmosphere of modern
entrepreneurial start-up companies. President (CEO) of E. Francis De Javasche Bank (DJB) and
Wiggers van Kerchem successor, wrote a letter to John. Enschede en Zn. (Later called the “Heeren
Enschedee te Haarlem “) on a regular basis to order the new banknotes, commenting on the quality and implementation
command, complained about delays in delivery, and often underscores the urgent need for new supplies to
those remote regions.

Most striking is that they often mention that the cost is to limit the maximum
important. The letters are written with beautiful calligraphy and using ways of polite and politically correct
complaining, urging, comment and criticize. Words such as “worry”, “disappointed”, “propose” and
“Like” is used regularly and frequently suggestions and proposals submitted by completing the statement
such as:

 “But we rely on your expertise in this regard and believe you will make the right decision”.
E. Francis (he signed his letters with M. Francis), third President of Javasche Bank, started as a
employees in 1815 and worked his way in the service of civil government to finally be over
available to the Commissioner General of the servant. From 1848 to 1850 Francis is the Superintendent of Financial
and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from government service. Furthermore, Francis was appointed
Javasche to the President of the Bank under the decision dated March 4, 1851. In the early sixties of the 19th century,
De Javasche Bank started to prepare a complete new emission of paper money the Dutch East Indies. In
cooperation with the Nederlandsche Bank, De Javasche Bank is pointing towards the Netherlands
printer “De Heeren Enschedee” (now known as John. Enschede en Zn. (Enschede Security)) to have
The new banknotes are designed and manufactured. Francis was personally involved in the process and
communicate with the printer on a regular basis. Unfortunately, Francis did not stay in the office to see
the results of his efforts. At the request of Francis himself honorably discharged per July 1, 1863
The decision by 20 April 1863. In 1864 Francis published the book “De-beginselen regerings van
Nederlandsch Indie: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie “, expressed his
dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and
proposed inquiry by an independent committee. In 1869 Francis issued a request to
Dutch Parliament about his famous right to payment of pensions to retired civil servants
Government of the Netherlands Indies. This response proposal and the request is not found, leading to
believe that Francis ignored by the establishment and must fight for that trust and pension
pay the old days.
In a letter from Francis dated January 31, 1863, with the management of the Nederlandsche Bank, which
evidence has confirmed receipt of the record and the evidence has been approved. In the same letter Francis
raised some comments that he wanted to address:
– Size note: DJB prefer to be the difference in size between the records of 100 and 50
guilders. This means that the records of 1000, 500, 300, 200 and 100 will be great, and notes
of 50, 25 and 10 will be small size. DJB stated that if the De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) think
the divide should be between 25 and 10 guilders, DJB will also agree.
– Character value in the corner records should be larger.
– Lions at 10 guilders note has an expression, surprised almost frightened. DJB would like
lion to have a more relaxed expression symbolizes strength.

– DJB would prefer that the signature is placed under the words “Secretary” and “President” and demand
words to be printed under the date as high as possible.
– DJB prefer that the date is printed on a printer that was not applied in (Joh. Enschede en Zn.)
DJB after arrival. In the case of a printer to print the date, Francis suggests choosing a date is not be
Christian holiday or Sunday and about 6 months after the date of expected departure from the
paper money.
– DJB stated that they calculated six months for the duration of the trip and apply numbers and
signatures for the amount of paper money needed for the exchange of banknotes in circulation today.
In early 1870 the delivery of DJB’s request to be sent through the Suez Canal opened, reducing the
travel time by more than 50%.

De Javasche fourth President of the Bank,

C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem, took office on July 1
1863 and continue the process of ordering new issues of paper money.
During the period January 1864 – April 1895, serial number and signature on the front and
cons in the opposite sign printed locally by the Bank in the Netherlands Indies Javasche on
complete records are sent from the printers in the Netherlands. The Bank also Javasche
ordering equipment numbering stamps and signatures of the printer and some blank signature stamps
in the case of signatories will change, allowing them to carve out a new signature stamps
own local. Together with the first order of 1864 new banknotes, the Bank Javasche
ordered the mechanic to accompany numbering machine and take care of the machine becomes
production. Willem Hooij contracted by Joh. Enschede en Zonen for traveling to Batavia in
Dutch East Indies and install the machine. In a letter from Hooij to John. Enschede en Zonen date
August 12, 1864, he wrote about President patient from Javasche Bank makes
difficulties because Hooij not get the machine installed in one day. Wiggers van Kerchem
invite a local printer to meet and together they underestimate Hooij.
161a – from private collections, with the Contra Mark printed in the lower right corner opposite.
All banknotes issued by the De Javasche Bank in the Dutch East Indies during the period 1864 to 1931
and printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen, bringing counter-sign, printed in the lower right corner or
lower center of the opposite. A code that is printed in black on the cap ellipse with a triangular shape
pointing outwards and have up to 5 numbers. Countries lower denomination notes issued during this
period does not have this mark.

Collectors who are familiar with the Dutch East Indies paper money from
This period may be aware that there is a relationship between the date of issuance and cons
the sign. Although it looks like a date then the higher the score, in reality this is not always
the case.
In order to determine the proper application of the mark cons, I gather more information about
than 150 records starting from 1864 to 1931. When setting up and organizing all relevant information
such as date, serial number and the cons, I observed the following:
– One of the unique sign of a counter is always connected to only one specific date of issue
– One of the specified date there are problems with different security code, but the security code that is close
– When a record is more of the same problem occurs with the same date and security code, the record has
combinations of the same character in the serial number
– When the date occurs with more than one mark each sign cons cons unique place with different
combinations of characters in the serial number of a specific problem or a sign of a counter connected to the
other denominations issued
– Many have missed the date, there are many days or weeks gap between one and the subsequent counter-sign
– Note the different denominations issued on the same date with different sign cons
– It seems that a range of sequence numbers is used to sign a counter that includes all the notes issued
from the entire period
– There are some exceptions in which the later date has a number of counter low marks
– No combination of different character serial number of a particular denomination with
same counter-sign.
– Changes from 4 to 5 digits occur in the course of 1918
– Note EXAMPLE frequently have signs that are not suitable to deviate counter the usual sequential increase
counter-sign and date.
Clearly, the Bank managed the Netherlands will keep detailed records of the security code and
dates and serial numbers of all paper money issued. It is unknown whether this note De Javasche
Banks still exist in archives somewhere today, although there are rumors that this record is still
present in the archives of Bank Indonesia in Jakarta.
Based on the “Note by PJ Soetens, former conservator DNB (De Nederlandsche Bank), the archive
Geldmuseum, Utrecht, The Netherlands “, I conclude that the Bank used the sign of De Javasche cons
number to identify a separate batch of unfinished bills are transported between
various departments, where they were printed with the serial number and signature, and finally
stored in a vault teller before circulation
Archives of Enschede Museum contains many original orders, production records,
delivery of information and also letters from Batavia where Javasche Bank confirms receipt
shipments. The author makes an overview of all this data and be able to specify the exact amount of
issued notes for each date of issuance. The number of issued notes mentioned in the summary below
should be regarded as a minimum. There is strong evidence that these figures actually incurred.
Although it is possible that more records were published, the opportunity – while there is no distinct
detailed records mention them – very small.
Here is an overview of the different banknotes and their varieties are printed in Johan
Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem, the Netherlands which will be issued by the De Javasche Bank in Batavia,
Dutch East Indies. Although there are rumors about another date of issue and signature combinations,
Overview below lists only those banknotes and varieties that writers have sufficient evidence that
they actually exist.
Java Auction Catalog (7), Cookies (15) and Mevius (16) mentions Van Duyn as a signatory, but
no one by that name is part of the board of DJB during the period. It seems that the signature
of H.P.J. van den Berg (Secretary of 19/10/1893 – 17/01/1899) has been mistaken as it looks like
Van Duyn. H.P.J. van den Berg, brother of the past president of the Bank Javasche NP van den Berg,
appointed as successor to President Groeneveld is on January 17, 1899, but died on February 9, 1899
in Nice, before actually starting his new position.



5 Gulden

1 Oktober 1866
issued : 100,000

10 Gulden

 1 Februari 1864
issued : 350.000

25 Gulden

1 Agustus 1864
issued : 120.000


50 Gulden

174 – 1 September 1864
withdrawed l 1872 becaus e too many counterfiet circulated
issued : 40.000

100 Gulden

1 Maret 1864
issued : 60.000

200 Gulden


1 Januari 1864
issued : 16,010
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” and two  “200”  __________________________________________________________________________

300 Gulden

193 – 2 Mei 1864
issued : 6.000

500 Gulden

197 – 1 Juni 1864
197c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2140 28/13)

198 – 1 Juni 1872

issued : 2.000

1000 Gulden


 1 Juli 1864
issued : 14,998


Ordonasi Reveneu

the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,





original info:

Maar natuurlijk hebben we ook een schets van iemand anders met een van de beroemde Javaanse Waringinbomen, een mistieke boom die nooit gekapt mocht worden, want in de boom wonen boomgeesten.


        Plotseling zwenkt de koetsier rechts af, voert ons een met hoge, schaduwrijke waringinbomen beplant plein op en doet het rijtuig voor

de marmeren vestibule van het kolossale Hotel des Indes



Cresonnier overleed in 1870, zijn familie verkocht het hotel aan Theodoor Gallas die het op zijn beurt weer verkocht in 1886 aan Jacob Lugt voor dfl 177.000,=. Lugt breidde het hotel fors uit met allerlei grondaankopen van de buren. In 1897 werd zelfs de N.V. Hotel Des Indes door Lugt opgericht, want in de jaren negentig ontstond er in de kolonie een economische depressie. Door die N.V. was Lugt niet meer persoonlijk aansprakelijk.



Since the establishment of the VOC in the seventeenth century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been founded on business. However from the mid-nineteenth century it was Dutch national expansionism, in line with the prevailing empire-building outlook of Europe during the era of New Imperialism, that saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions.[8] The most prolonged of these was the Aceh War in which a Dutch invasion in 1873 was met with indigenous guerrilla resistance and ended with an Acehnese surrender in 1912.[7] Disturbances continued to break out on both Java and Sumatra during the remainder of the 19th century,[3] however, the island of Lombok came under Dutch control in 1894,[9] and Batak resistance in northern Sumatra was quashed in 1895.[7].


Akhir abad ke-19. Belanda menata ulang pemerintahan Priangan dan membaginya menjadi 9 afdeeling (Jerman: Abteilung).

Salah satunya adalah Sukapura di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wiratanubaya IV. Wirahadiningrat (1874-1906)
memperoleh penghargaan bintang Oranye Nassau dari Belanda



1303895796646361216Di bawah ini beberapa nama bupati di daerah(the regent Of)  Priangan,yakni:

1. Bupati Sumedang XV (1882-1918), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Sadeli, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Pangeran Aria Suriaatmaja, dan setelah wafat dijuluki Pangeran Mekah karena ia wafat di Mekah sewaktu menunaikan obadah haji.

2. Bupati Bandung X (1893-1918), sewaktu muda diberi nama Kusumaningrat, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Raden Adipati Aria Martanegara, dan setelah pensiun hingga wafat digelari Kangjeng Burujul karena setelah pensiun ia tinggal di desa Burujul, Sumedang.

3. Bupati Cianjur IX (1834-1862), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Hasan, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Dalem Pancaniti karena selama menjadi bupati ia lebih senang tinggal di paviliyun kabupaten yang biasa disebut pancaniti dari pada tinggal dibangunan utama kabupaten.

4. Bupati Limbangan yang memerintah antara tahun 1836-1871, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Jenon, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal dengan nama Tumenggung Jayaningrat, dan setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiratanuningrat VII. Setelah pensiun dan wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Sepuh (Bupati Tua).

5. Bupati Sukapura yang memerintah antara tahun 1855-1975, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Raden Tanuwangsa, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Tumenggung Wiratanubaya, setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiradadaha. Setelah wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Bogor karena ia dibuang ke Bogor oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda akibat dianggap kurang loyal.

Ada beberapa yang mendapat julukan Dalem Bintang karena mereka mendapat tanda jasa berupa gouden ster Nederlandsche-Leeuw (bintang mas singa Belanda), misalnya RAA. Wiranatakusumah IV  Bupati Bandung (1846-1874), R. Adipati Wirahadiningrat Bupati Sukapura (1874-1904).



 The development occurred after the Bandung railway transport operations to and from the city since 1884.
 Because the city of Bandung serves as a center of railroad transportation “West Lin”, it has encouraged the development of life in the city of Bandung with the increase in population from year to year.
At the end of the 19th century, the population of the European group number has reached thousands of people and demands an autonomous institution that can take care of their interests. Meanwhile the central government realized the failure of centralized government system following the implementation of its impact. Therefore, the government arrive at a policy to replace the system of government with a system of decentralization, decentralization not only in finance, but also decentralization in the field of government granting autonomy (zelfbestuur)
 In this case, the government of Bandung regency under the leadership of Regent RAA Martanagara (1893-1918) welcomed the idea of ​​the colonial government. Ongoing autonomous government in Bandung, means the district gets a special budget fund from the previous colonial government did not exist.



04/12/1889 – 19/09/1893 S.B. Zeverijn
Altough the board recommended Buijskes to become the next President, the Governor General appointed S. B .Zeverijn to that position by decree of August 21, 1889. Zeverijn was forced because of illness to leave for Europe on March 1, 1893 where he died on December 13, 1893.


29/09/1893 – 21/12/1898  D. Groeneveld
Groeneveld, serving as Director zince 1877, was promoted to President of the Bank per decree of September 29, 1893. After more than five years as President, Groeneveld died on December 21, 1898. Groeneveld was the first President that came from the Bank’s own personnel.


The road is now called Jalan Asia-Afrika in memory of the conference.

Indonesia: Bandung picture 2

Mileposts on the road were numbered starting at Bandung. Rapid growth of the city, however, began only after the railroad from Batavia (now Jakarta) arrived in 1884


schitterende plattegrond van Batavia te vinden op Aad’s Nederlands-Indië site :

Batavia in 1897

Batavia plattegrond 1897

Meer foto’s en plattegronden van Batavia kun je vinden via deze LINK
Als je onbekend bent in het Batavia van toen, dan is het even zoeken, maar we gaan het hebben over nummer 10….:

Hotel Des Indes

Het noordelijke gedeelte van Batavia werd de Benedenstad genoemd, het zuidelijke gedeelte de Bovenstad. Het zuidelijke gedeelte van Batavia lag wat hoger, vandaar de naam Bovenstad

In de 18e eeuw werd het leven van de in de Benedenstad wonende Europeanen steeds ondragelijker, de grote rivier de Tjiliwoeng die door de stad stroomde, begon steeds meer te stinken, je mag zelf raden waardoor. Ook zakte het waterpeil steeds verder door dichtslibben van de rivier monding.

Een citaat uit dit verhaal:

The Earliest Netherland Oost Indie revenue

The Ned Oost Indie Revenue  sheet , embosed noncolour , nominal:

Quater G

 half G

,one G

,one and  half

two Gld

,four Gld

Six Gld

and 12 guilders.


In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung was opened, boosting light industry and bringing in Chinese workers.


Leasing certificate (Surat Hutang ) 600 gld, uncolour embosed revenue sheet  one and half gld,1893 added revenue ovpt 10 cent on 5 cent nedl.oost revenue for countersign(tanda tangan pengesahan)


All the uncolour embosed Revenue  in complete Document :

a.Land Certificate (Eigendom) Bought,consist three uncolour embosed revenue sheet 12 gld, 2 gld and 1 gld , courter sign by the land of justice Soerabaja 1894





2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld .
The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889
Tombolouh Tribe at Minahasa
 in Patola Tucher dressed and KELANA behangt, like those of WALIAN ( 

religious leaders)Plate X Fig 1
(1)  6.5.1899(earliest date)

 NED.INDIE REVENUE STAMP 10 CENT  DEI 2nd issued revenue , (please report the HIGNHEST NOMINAL )

From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late sixteenth century, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was tenuous.


Although parts of Java were under Dutch domination for most of the 350 years of the combined VOC and Dutch East Indies era, many areas remained independent for much of this time including






, and




It was not until the early 20th century, that Dutch dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.


The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830


In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother, Louis to the Dutch throne which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.[9]


 In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor.


 Dutch control was restored in 1816.[10]


Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[7]


The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) 


 the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[11]


. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 interventionbrought northern Bali under Dutch control.


The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan









Father van der Grinten was the head pastor of the Catholic Church of Batavia – the first Catholic church in Batavia – located at the corner of Lapangan Banteng (a large open square situated in an European enclave and formerly known as Waterloopein).

 It was built over the former residence of the Dutch East Indies military commander General Hendrik Merkus de Kock (who later was made Baron for his triumph over Prince Diponegoro in the Java war).

The church was inaugurated on 6 November 1829 and blessed by the head pastor at that time, Father L. Prinsen,  as “The Church of Our Lady of Assumption”. It measured 35 long by 17 metres wide, consisted of a large hall with rows of pillars on either side in the neo-gothic style, a common architectural style for churches at the time. Father van der Grinten lived in the priest’s residence on the east wing of the church, while the sacristan lived in the west wing.


 Sir T. Stamford Raffles, who was among them in 1820, found some of their law



 In 1840 Batavia had 537, and, in 1880, 1015 inhabitants


Cafe Batavia


 a building in the old Jakarta city area just across the square of Fatahillah, the main attraction is the interior. It was constructed between 1805-1850, and underwent a renovation in 1993. The Cafe Batavia  was established in 1930.


The Postal history used cover from Honolulu hawai via manila to Batavia.

Postmarks front and back of this cover are Honolulu, March 11, 1852, Manila, May 19 and June 17, Hong Kong, June 21, Canton, July 2 along with a Canton PAID mark, and again Hong Kong on July 22. This cover, addressed to Batavia via a forwarder in Canton, was carried to Manila by the Bremen bark Ceres, departing April 3, 1852. The letter next went from Manila to Hong Kong and paid a single letter rate of 4 pence (represented by the black “4” over the Honolulu postmark). At Hong Kong, the letter was sent to the forwarder in Canton at another 4 pence rate (represented by the red “4” in the upper left corner). The forwarder crossed out his name, paid postage to Singapore (1 shilling represented by a red squiggle over the Honolulu postmark) and sent it back down to Hong Kong. From Hong Kong, the letter was carried to Singapore by the P&O steamship Malta (July 23 departure; July 31 arrival) under British mail contract, and then to Batavia by local shipping. The “48” is said to represent a Batavia local rate, typically written with the same type of ink


the famous “Batavia Cover” shown below.

52 - Mar 11 Batavia cover
52 - Mar 11 Batavia Cover backstamps - OFF



Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser, an official of the Dutch East Indies government, was born in Samarang (present-day Semarang in Central Java) on 11th July 1800 and passed away on 4th January 1857 in Batavia. He was the former Dutch resident of Pasuruan (in east Java, near to the city of Surabaya), and he was also knighted and conferred the Order of the Netherlands Lion, a Dutch order awarded to eminent individuals from all walks of life, including generals, ministers, mayors, leading scientists, industrialists and high ranking civil servants, among others


Photograph of night watchmen in Batavia by Isidore van Kinsbergen, 1865

Painting of Mount Merapi erupting in 1865, by Raden Saleh


In 1866 ,
 Bickmore stories …
Prof. Albert S. Bickmore was traveling in Sumatra, he saw not a little of these people, and he believed then that the place where their aboriginal civilization sprang up was very likely on the shores of that famous Sumatran lake, Lake Toba, and upon the neighboring plateau of Silindung. From this locality they gradually occupied an extensive domain in the in- terior, which was extended upon either side to the seacoast. Eventually, however, the Malays spread along the coast line, and thus confined the Battaks once more to the interior.
The origin of the Battas is doubtful
Battas or Dutch Battaks, the inhabitants of the formerly independent Batta country, in the central highlands of Sumatra, now for the most part subjugated to the Dutch government. The still independent area extends from 9 8 °-99° 35′ E., and 2°-3° 25′ S. North-east of Toba Lake dwell the Timor Batta [ Batak Timur = Simalungun now, red], and west of it the Pakpak [Dairi, red ], but on its north (in the mountains which border on the east coast residency) the Karo Batta [ Batak Karo , red ] form a special group, which, by its dialects and ethnological character, appears to be allied to the Gajus [ suku Gayo , red ] and Alias [suku Alas : red] occupying the interior of Achin [Aceh : red ].
The origin of the Battas is doubtful. It is not known whether they were settled in Sumatra before the Hindu period. Their language contains words of Sanskrit origin and others referable to Javanese, Malay and Tagal influence. Their domain has been doubtless much curtailed, and their absorption into the Achin and Malay population seems to have been long going on.

Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type
The Battas are undoubtedly of Malayan stock, and by most authorities are affiliated to that Indonesian pre-Malayan race which peopled the Indian Archipelago, expelling the aboriginal negritos, and in turn themselves submitting to the civilized Malays. In many points the Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type. The average height of the men is 5 ft. 4 in.[± 160-170 cm , red ]; of the women 4 ft. 8 in [± 130 – 140 cm , red ].
The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food
In general build they are rather thickset, with broad shoulders and fairly muscular limbs. The colour of the skin ranges from dark brown to a yellowish tint, the darkness apparently quite independent of climatic influences or distinction of race. The skulll is rather ovall than round. In marked contrast to the Malay type are the large, black, longshaped eyes, beneath heavy, black or dark brown eyebrows. The cheek-bones are somewhat prominent, but less so than among the Malays. The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food, though they live chiefly on rice. They are remarkable as a people who in many ways are cultured and possess a written language of their own, and yet are cannibals.
Battaks have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism
The more civilized of them around Lake Toba are good agriculturists and stock-breeders, and understand iron-smelting. They weave and dye cotton, make jewellery and krisses which are often of exquisite workmanship, bake pottery, and build picturesque chalet-like houses of two storeys. They have an organized government, hereditary chiefs, popular assemblies, and a written civil and penal code. There is even an antiquated postal; system, the letter-boxes being the hollow tree trunks at crossroads. Yet in spite of this comparative culture the Battas have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism.
( see: Memoirs of the Life, &c., of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, 1830.)
Battaks is mainly confined to a belief in three gods concept
The Battas are the only lettered people of the Indian Archipelago who are not Mahommedans. Their religion is mainly confined to a belief in evil spirits, but they recognize three gods, a Creator, a Preserver and a Destroyer, like a trinity suggestive of Hindu influence.
Up to the publication of Dr H. N. van der Tuuk’s essay, Over schrift en uitspraak der Tobasche taal (1855), our knowledge of the Batta language was confined to lists of words more or less complete, chiefly to be found in W. Marsden’s Miscellaneous Works, in F. W. Junghuhn’s Battalander, and in the Tijdschrift van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, vol. iii. (1855). By his exhaustive works (Bataksch Leesboek, in 4 vols., 1861-1862; Batakschnederduitsch Woordenboek, 1861; Tobasche Spraakkunst, 1864-1867) van der Tuuk made the Batta language the most accessible of the various tongues spoken in Sumatra.
Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects
According to him, it is nearest akin to the old Javanese and Tagal, but A. Schreiber (Die Battas in ihrem Verheiltnis zu den Malaien von Sumatra, 1874) endeavoured to prove its closer affinity with the Malay proper. Like most languages spoken by less civilized tribes, Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects. The number of dialects is three, viz. the Toba, the Mandailing and the Dairi dialects; the first and second have again two subdivisions each.
The Battas further possess six peculiar or recondite modes of speech, such as the Hata Andung, or language of the wakes, and the Hata Poda or the soothsayer’s language.
A fair acquaintance with reading and writing is very general among them. Battaks’s alphabet is said, with the Rejang and Lampong alphabets, to be of Indian origin.
The language is written on bark or bamboo staves from bottom to top, the lines being arranged from left to right. The literature consists chiefly in books on witchcraft, in stories, riddles, incantations, &c., and is mostly in prose, occasionally varied by verse.’
See also “Reisen nach dem Toba See,” Petermanns Mitteil. (1883); Modigliani, Fra i Batacchi indipendenti (Rome, 1892); Neumann, “Het Paneen Bilastroomgebiad,” Tydschr. Aardr. Gen., 1885-1887; Van Dijk in the same periodical (1890-1895); Wing Easton in the Jaarboek voor het Mynwezen, 1894; Niemann in the Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch-Indie, under the heading Bataks, with very detailed bibliography; Baron J. v. Brenner, Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras (Wurzburg, 1893); H. Breitenstein, 21 Jahre in Indien, Java, Sumatra (Leipzig, 1899-1900); G. P. Rouffaer, Die BatikKunst in niederlcindisch-Indien and ihre Geschichte (Haarlem, 1899).


House in Batavia, from Le Tour du Monde, 1879


The church of Our Lady of Assumption at waterlooplein stood until 9 April 1890 when it collapsed due to old age and poor maintenance.

A new church was rebuilt in its place between 1891 and 1901 and today it stands as the Jakarta Cathedral. The church is acknowledged as an integral instrument for the spread of Roman Catholicism in Java during the 19th century.


Antique Maps ofSoutheast Asia



Thailand, Birma & Andaman Sea
Servet, Michael

Tabula XI Asiae.

Lyon, Servet 1535 [37,3 x 50,3 cm]
Early woodcut map of the East Indies, published in the Ptolemy edition by M. Servet, showing Southeast Asia with Thailand, Burma and the Malaysian Archipel. The paper with watermark anchor in a circle. The cartographic woodblock was published here in 1535 by Michael Trechsel in Lyon and contained text by Michael Servetus. The paper with watermark anchor in a circle. The map is illustrated on the reverse side with descriptive text in Latin and a decorative woodblock border, probably by Hans Holbein, who was working at that time in Basle. An early decorative woodcut map of the Indian Ocean and its adjacenting regions of the gulf of Siam, Central Asia with the Ganges Delta and the region north of it towards the Himalayas. An early and interesting map depicting the northern part of the East Indies. With engraved place names, where cities are shown as small schematic engraved woodcut town views, further with engraved rivers and the mountains are shown mainly as schematic chains.
A strong and even impression on the full paper sheet as published. A minor very skillful restoration in the upper and lower centre fold. In very good to excellent condition.
[Stock No.:25235]
Full description

Antique Map Thailand, Birma & Andaman Sea Servet, Michael

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Bali (Indonesia)
De Bry, Theodor

Contrasantung der Insel Baln 27

Frankfurt, de Bry 1598-1613 [13,8 x 17,8 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22351]
Full description

Antique Map Bali (Indonesia) De Bry, Theodor


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East Indies
Mercator, Gerard

India Orientalis

Amsterdam, I.E. Cloppenburgh, 1632 [19 x 26 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published. A fine copy in a dark impression, full margins as published. This is the first so-called Cloppenburgh editions which was a competive edition with new engraved maps in a larger format. Most of the maps were engraved by Pieter van den Keere. The Cloppenburgh edition was continued for a couple of years but seems to have been suppressed after 1636 … . This is another Cloppenburgh edition, now with Latin text. The maps from the Appendix have been incorporated. The title-page is followed by a dedication to Prince Frederik Hendrik, dated 1632 and signed by Johannes Cloppenburgh. (Koeman Atlantes Neerlandici).
In excellent condition. Koeman, ME 200
[Stock No.:20858]
Full description

Antique Map East Indies Mercator, Gerard

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Southeast Asia
Jansonnius, Joan. & Hondius, Hendric

Indiae Orientalis Nova Descriptio

Amsterdam, Joan. Janssonius. 1638 [39,3 x 50,5 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline when published. Decorative map of the East Indies by J. Jansson, first published in Amsterdam 1630. An important map for Southeast Asia and the discovery of Australia. New Guinea is marked as ‘Duyfkens Eyland’, the (Is)land next to it is called ‘Nieu Zeelandt’. The island Duyfkens is named after the ship ‘Duyfken’, which discovered Australia.
In excellent condition. Koeman I [8500:1B] Latin text edition.
[Stock No.:24657]
Full description

Antique Map Southeast Asia Jansonnius, Joan. & Hondius, Hendric

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Maluku Islands (Spice Islands)
Blaeu, Joan & Guiljelmus

Moluccae Insulae Celeberrimae.

Amsterdam, G. & J. Blaeu. 1640-43 [37,5 x 48,8 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash. A highly decorative map of the so-called ‘Spice Islands’, equipped with two highly decorative cartouches, one of them with an inset map of ‘Bachian Island’. Further on this map is highly decorated with sailing ships, sea monsters and compass roses in the sea. A very good example published in a Latin text edition of the ‘Atlas Novus’, wide full margins and outstanding hand coloring.
In excellent condition. Koeman II [8560:2.2]
[Stock No.:12745]
Full description

Antique Map Maluku Islands (Spice Islands) Blaeu, Joan & Guiljelmus

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Molucc Islands
Janssonius, Joan.

Insularum Moluccarum Nova Descritio

Amsterdam, Joan. Janssonius. 1640 [38,5 x 50 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline when published. Sea chart of the Molucca Islands, the so-called ‘Spice Islands’. The map is very detailed showing the Islands with its plantations further the map is equipped with sailing ships and sea monsters in the ocean.
In very good to excellent condition. The paper minor toned.
[Stock No.:14279]
Full description

Antique Map Molucc Islands Janssonius, Joan.

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Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
Rossi, Giovanni Iacomo

Penisola Dell India di la dal Gange Diusa ne i Regni, che in essasi contengono et accresciuta di varie notizie. Da Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola e conforme le Relationi di alcuni Padri della Compa di Giesu di Monsu Tavernier, Mandeslo e d`altri Illustri Viaggiatori del nostro Secolo. Data in Luce da Gio: Giaco de Rossi in Roma alla Pce con priu del Sommo Pont. 1683.

Roma, Gio. Iacomo Rossi 1683 [52,5 x 40,5 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published. Detailed rare map of Malaysia, Sumatra, Malakka, Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand. A highly detailed map of Southeast Asia with detailed engraved place names, rivers, political border, mountains and lakes. Fine engraved map by Giacomo Cantelli (1643-95) based on the cartographic source after Melchior Tavernier. This map was engraved by Franciscus Doria. The cartographer of this map is Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola (1643-1695), he worked in Modena in Italy and published many maps in Giovanni Iacomo Rossi’s atlas in Rome.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:24202]
Full description

Antique Map Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand Rossi, Giovanni Iacomo


Southeast Asia
Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria

Isole Dell’ Indie, divise in Filippine, Molucche, e della Sonda, Descritte, e Dedicate Dal P. Coronelli …

Venice, V. Coronelli 1689 [45 x 60 cm]
Fine copper-engraving, uncolored as published. Large and detailled engraved map showing Southeast Asia from the Andaman Sea with Thailand in the northwest towards the northwestern coast of Australia (Nuova Hollanda) in the southeast. The map itself covers Sumatra, Borneo, the Philipines and other places in Southeast Asia very accurately. The map was published in Coronelli’s ‘Atlante Veneto’. It is ornated with a decorative title cartouche showing (sea)-cherubs holding a coat of arm. The title cartouche contains as well the dedication to the Venice royal house. In the upper right corner we find another decorative cartouche with a mileage scale. The engraving contains many details like small villages or cities, rivers, mountains and details on the coast line with its small islands and its bays.
A strong impression in excellent condition.
[Stock No.:16978]
Full description

Antique Map Southeast Asia Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria

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Van der Aa, Pieter

D’Oost-Indize landschappen, zeen en eylanden, door de Portugysen en anderen ontdekt en bevaren.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,5 x 28 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
2nd state of this map, with the engraved ‘Privilege’ below the lower borderline. Still a good and acceptable copy. On the full sheet as published, however minor cut within the upper engraved borderline. The map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15564]
Full description

Antique Map  Van der Aa, Pieter

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Van der Aa, Pieter

De Moluccos, of speceri-dragende eilanden tussen Gilolo en Celebes gelegen.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,6 x 22,7 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
Printed on the full sheet as published; the map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15607]
Full description

Antique Map Molukken Van der Aa, Pieter

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Van der Aa, Pieter

Het eiland Java zoo als het sederd de tyden der Portugysen by de Ed. Oost-indize maatschappye bekend geworden en bevaren is.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,7 x 23 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
Printed on the full sheet as published; the map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15604]
Full description

Antique Map Java Van der Aa, Pieter

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Molukken & Celebes
Van der Aa, Pieter

De Moluccos en andere speceri-eilanden in d’oostindien.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,9 x 23,5 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
On the full sheet as published, however minor cut within the upper engraved borderline. The map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15606]
Full description

Antique Map Molukken & Celebes Van der Aa, Pieter

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Moluccs / Gammalamm
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Stadt Gamenlamm – Gammalamme

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative scene from the sea towards the city of Gammalamm in the Molucc islands.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18528]
Full description

Antique Map Moluccs / Gammalamm Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Stadt Waradin. – Waradin.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Bird’s eye view of the city of Waradin with its fortifications and the nearer surroundings.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18533]
Full description

Antique Map Waradin Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Molucc Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die malucesische Inselen. – Isle Molucque.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Bird’s eye view of the Molucc Islands (Gammalamma, Ternate, Miterra, Tidoro, Pottebackers, Timor, Machian, Tabittola, Bachian and others). Decorative ornated with fireing canon sailing boats.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18537]
Full description

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Antique Map Molucc Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Batavia – Jakarta
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Cutadel u Batavia – Citadelle de Batavia – Batavia – die Stadt Batavia.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative view of Batavia (Jakarta) from the sea with fireing canon boats in front of the port, above a small scene of the citadelle of Jakarta.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18538]
Full description

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Antique Map Batavia - Jakarta Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Sunda Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inselen von Sont gegen Orient. – Isles dela Sonde vers l’Orient.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Small and decorative map of the Sunda Islands (Celebes, Timor, Banda, Ceran, etc.) with the neighbouring Borneo, Phillipines and Papua seen again East.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18539]
Full description

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Antique Map Sunda Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Cocos Palms
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Balmen Beume – Palmiers

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative scene of three large Cocos Palms with a plantage in the background.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18545]
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Antique Map Cocos Palms Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Habitans des Isles dela Sonde – Von den Einwohnern der Insulen Sonde

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22273]
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Antique Map Habitans Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Molvoques – Die Mohiebeser

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:21654]
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Antique Map  Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Larron Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inwohner der Diebs Inseln. – Habitans des Isles des Larrons

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Scene of two inhabitants of the Larron Islands.
In very good condition.
[Stock No.:22281]
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Antique Map Larron Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Sunda Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inseln von Sonte gegen Occident – Isles de la sonde vers occident.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in wash and outline. Small and decorative map of the Sunda Islands seen again West with Sumatra, Java, the neighboring gulf of Siam and Bengal and Borneo. Ornated with a maritime title cartouche.
In very good condition.
[Stock No.:22289]
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Antique Map Sunda Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Habitans des Isles dela Sonde – Von den Einwohnern der Insulen Sonde

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:21631]
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Antique Map  Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Southeast Asia
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inselen von Sonte gegen Orient. – Isles dela Sonde versi Orient

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in wash and outline.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22525]
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Antique Map Southeast Asia Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Borneo, Sumatra & Java
Ottens, Ioachim

Le Royaume de Siam Avec les Royaumes qui luy sont Tributaires, et Les Isles de Sumatra, Andemaon, etc. et les Isles Voisine Avec les Observations des Six Peres Jesuites Envojez par le Roy en Qualite de Ses Mathematiciens dans les Indes, et a la Chine ou est aussi Tracee. La Route qu’ils ont tenue par le Detroit de la Sonde Jusqu a Siam. A Amsterdam Chez Ioachim Ottens.

Amsterdam, Ottens 1730-45 [48,5 x 55,8 cm]
Copper engraving handcolored in outline when published. A strong and fine impressions of this detailled map of Sumatra, Borneo, Java and the Sunda islands. With many detailled engraved informations along the coastlines, names of villages, rivers, small islands, sand banks with depths, etc. Ship routes from Batavia to Siam are as well engraved. The map is equipped in the lower right right corner with a small milage scale.
A fine copy of this map, in original outline color and in a strong impression.
[Stock No.:17327]
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Antique Map Borneo, Sumatra & Java Ottens, Ioachim

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Southeast Asia
Mortier, Cornelius & Covens, Jean

Carte des Indes et de la Chine.
Dressee sur plusieurs Relations particulieres Rectisiees par quelques Observations. Par Guillaume de L`Isle de l’Academie Royale des Sciences. A. Amsterdam chez Iean Covens et Corneille Mortier.
Amsterdam, Covens, I. & Mortier, C. 1745 [65 x 62,8 cm]
Contemporary colored in outline. Decorative and detailed map of Southeast Asia.
Left margin cut close into the engraved border. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible. Still in very good condition.
[Stock No.:12729]
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Antique Map Southeast Asia Mortier, Cornelius & Covens, Jean

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Molucc Islands
Bellin, Nicolaus

Besondere Karte von den Moluckischen Eylanden.

Leipzig, Merkur 1752 [21,5 x 15,5 cm]
Copper engraving, decorative handcolored in wash and outline. A fine and detailed map showing the little Molucc Islands Ternate, Miterra, Tidor, Pottebackers, Timor (Mothir), Machian, Manen and Bachian located nearby the island of Gilolo. With engraved place names on the map, as well a few anchor places or other small detaills are engraved. Below the title a small mileage scale. Detailled and interesting map engraved by Bellin after earlier voyages.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18543]
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Antique Map Molucc Islands Bellin, Nicolaus

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Philippines & Southeast Asia
Bonne, M.

La Presqu`Isle de L’Inde – au dela du Gange, avec L`Archpel des Indes. Partie Orientale. – Par M. Bonne, Ingenieur-Hydrographe de la Marine.

Paris, M. Bonne 1771 [34,7 x 23,5 cm]
Copper-engraving, decorative handcolored in outline and wash. Decorative map of Southeast Asia by the French cartographer Bonne showing the Phillipines, Borneo, the Celebe islands, Indonesia and the Mollucces. Many of the islands a named and with a few place names equipped.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18196]
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Antique Map Philippines & Southeast Asia Bonne, M.

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Awatska (Kamtschatka), Macao & Japan
Bonne, Rigobert

Plan du Haure de St. Pierre et St. Paul. – Plan de la Baye D`Awatska, sur la Cote Orientale. Du Kamtschatka. – Plan du Typa ou de Macao. – Partie du Japon ou Nipon.

Paris, M. Bonne 1785 [34,5 x 23,5 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18188]
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Antique Map Awatska (Kamtschatka), Macao & Japan Bonne, Rigobert

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East Indies
Reinecke, I.C.M.

Charte von Ostindien Diesseits und Jenseits des Ganges nach den neuesten astronom. Beobachtungen auch andern sichern Huelfsmitteln neu entworfen und nach der lezten Zertheilung des Mysorischen Reichs berichtiget von I.C.M. Reinecke. Weimar im Verlage des Geograph. Instituts. revidirt im Aug. 1804.

Weimar, Geographisches Institut 1804 [47,1 x 86 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash when published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:20936]
Full description

Antique Map East Indies Reinecke, I.C.M.

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Street of Malaka
Petermann, A.

Karte von Malaka und Naning, nach Aufnahmen und andern Quellen gez. von A. Petermann. – Der Dieksand oder Friederichs-Koog, nach der Aufnahme von Wiechers u. Kroehnke gez. von A. Petermann

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1857 [24,7 x 19,3 cm]
Lithograph, original hand color in outline.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22393]
Full description

Antique Map Street of Malaka Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Orographisch_physikalische Karte von Java. Die Grundlage nach der grossen Karte von Dr. F. Junghuhn,
Die Hoehenverhaeltnisse nach allen bisherigen hypsometrischen Messungen von: Blueme, Lange, Forsten, Hasskarl, Herwer, Hoerner, Jukes, Junghuhn, Maier, Melvill, Mueller, Reinwardt, Smits, Zollingen u. a. – Von A. Petermann
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1860 [24,7 x 42,6 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22390]
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Antique Map Java Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Die suedlichen Batta-Laender auf Sumatra. Hauptsaechlich nach Angaben und Zeichnungen Rheinischer Missionare, (namentlich Chr. Leipoldt & W. Heine) & des Ingenieurs Nagel. – Unter Redaktion von A. Petermann.

Gotha, Justus Perthes 1876 [36,1 x 22,9 cm]
Original lithograph, handcolored in outline and wash when published. The map shows the southern ‘Batta countries’ on Sumatra, after notes of missionares from Germany, mainly Chr. Leipoldt & W. Heine and the Ing. Nagel. With an inset map of the mission regions.
In excellent condition. The map was originally folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visable.
[Stock No.:18193]
Full description

Antique Map Sumatra Petermann, A.

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Veth, D.D.

Originalkarte des mittleren Sumatra zur Uebersicht der Wissenschaftlichen Expedition 1877 bis 1879. – Mit Benutzung der Aufnahmen von Schouw Santvoort, Cornelissen & Makkini – gezeichnet von D. D. Veth. Mitglied der Expedition

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1880 [38,1 x 58,2 cm]
Original lithograph in colors, printed in colors and handcolored in outline. Detailled map of central Sumatra, providing an overview of the scientific expedition 1877-79. Using the mappings by Schouw Santvoort, Cornelissen and Makkink. The map is providing an enormous amount on information on the river system, the mountains and trails in Sumatra. A detailled map.
In excellent condition. The map was originally folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visable.
[Stock No.:14273]
Full description

Antique Map Sumatra Veth, D.D.

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Island Saleijer
Petermann, A.

Originalkarte der Insel Saleijer im Ostindischen Archipel. – Aufgenommen u. gezeichnet von H. E. D. Engelhard.

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1886 [52,6 x 20,3 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22429]
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Antique Map Island Saleijer Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Karte der Alluvial-Bildungen in Bancka. – Von Dr. Th. Posewitz.

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1886 [19,3 x 24,2 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22435]
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Antique Map Sumatra Petermann, A.

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Celebes Island
Petermann, A.

Topographische Skizze aus dem Ostarm der Insel Celebes
Aufgenommen im Februar und Maerz 1905 von Dr. J. Wagner
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1914 [41,5 x 38,7 cm]
Lithograph, original color as published.
In excellent condition. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible.
[Stock No.:19242]
Full description

Antique Map Celebes Island Petermann, A.

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Molucc Islands
Petermann, A.

Die Molukkeninsel Misol
Aufgenommen von O. D. Tauern August bis Oktober 1911 – Gezeichnet unter Benutzung der niederlaendischen Seekarten.
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1915 [37,8 x 46,6 cm]
Lithograph, hand colored in outline when published. This decortative map shows the Molucc island Misol. Inside the map are many rivers and mountains shown. At the bottom we look at a panorama from Djawaplolo at Fanfanlolo.
In excellent condition. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible.
[Stock No.:19240]
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Antique Map Molucc Islands Petermann, A.

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President of Javasche bank

25/03/1899 – 18/02/1906 J. Reijsenbach
Reijsenbach was President of the Javasche Bank from March 25, 1899. After the Eight Exclusive Right was established, Reijsenbach resigned and was honorably discharged per February 28, 1906. Reijsenbach died on December 1, 1918.


01/07/1906 – 31/10/1912 G. Vissering (LL.M.)
By decree of February 2, 1906, Vissering,  Director of the Amsterdamsche Bank was appointed as Director of the Javasche Bank.Vissering resigned on October 31, 1912.31/10/1912 – 01/07/1924 E.A. Zeilinga Azn.
In April 1907 Zeilinga started as Director of the Bank and was promoted to President per October 31, 1912. Zeilinga resigned after almost 12 years of serving as President and was honorably discharged on July 1, 1924. (Azn.stands for the Dutch “Abrahamzoon” which means “Son of Abraham”)


unidentified building in batavia postcard 1907


The first of Bandung’s university, the Technische Hogeschool (TH) was established on July 3, 1920. Now known as the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), TH’s alumni include independence leader and first president Soekarno.



Military leaders and Dutch politicians said they had a moral duty to free the Indonesian peoples from indigenous rulers who were oppressive, backward, or did not respect international law.[10] Although Indonesian rebellions broke out, direct colonial rule was extended throughout the rest of the archipelago from 1901 to 1910 and control taken from the remaining independent local rulers.[11] Southwestern Sulawesi was occupied in 1905–06, the island of Bali was subjugated with military conquests in 1906 and 1908, as were the remaining independent kingdoms in Maluku, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Nusa Tenggara.[12][7] Other rulers including the Sultans of Tidore in Maluku, Pontianak (Kalimantan), and Palembang in Sumatra, requested Dutch protection from independent neighbours thereby avoiding Dutch military conquest and were able to negotiate better conditions under colonial rule.[13] The Bird’s Head Peninsula (Western New Guinea), was brought under Dutch administration in 1920. This final territorial range would form the territory of the Republic of Indonesia.


Under the Decentralization Act (Decentralisatiewet) issued in 1903 and the Decree on decentralization (Decentralisasi Besluit) and the Local Council Ordinance (Ordinance Raden Locale) from the date of 1 April 1906 set as the gemeente (municipality) the governing otonomom. The decision further strengthens the function of the city of Bandung as a center of government, especially Dutch Colonial government in Bandung. Originally Gemeente Bandung
Led by the Assistant Resident Priangan as Chairman of the Board of the City (Gemeenteraad), but since 1913, led by burgemeester gemeente (mayor).


Kubu Tribe



the end

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6 responses to “The Indonesia Historic Collections 1800-1928

  1. great story told by historian as you ..Do you have more story about fort frederick Hendrik that built beside “kalimas” river in Surabaya? Tq

    • halo Mr Wibowo,
      thanks vor visit my web blog,tell your friend to look this history collections blog.
      I will seeking the information of frederic Hendrix which related with kalimas surabay special for you but please be patient.

  2. good history,… i enjoy it.
    hope can find rails way developement history in Priangan area

    • thanks for visit
      the complete history info now exist in CD-ROM ,if you want to get it please send your kopi KTP dan adrees complete with phone number to my email
      your identity important to send the CD-ROM be savefly come to home
      the fee your must send to me via ATM BCA only Rp.500.000(lima ratus ribvu rupiah)
      The Cd only for Indonesian historian or collectors not for trader and foreign collectors

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