Yearly Archives: 2011

The Earliest Music Record And Phonograph Found In Indonesia




Driwan Music record Cybermuseum



The Earliest Album Record And Phonograph Found In Indonesia  

Frame One : Introduction

1. I have starting build the collections of  Gramophone plate and phonograph since study in hish school at Padang city West Sumatra in 1960.

2. Until this day in 2011 I cannot found the complete informations about the Indonesian’s  gramophone plate History, that is why I have made reasech about this topic in order to give the young generations about the development of music gramophone technology in the world since found by Mr Thomas Alfa Edison and when first arrived in Indonesia during The Dutch East colionial Era.

3. I will show my collections with information from that very rare and amizing historic collections, very lucky I had found vintage book of gramophone and also many info fram google explorations,especially from wikipedia ,for that info thanks very much.

4. This exhibtion will divide into two parts, first before World War I and second Between WWI and WWII. all during Indonesia under Dutch east Indie Colonial time.

5.The earliest Gramophone’s Plate in 19Th Century produced by Addison inc with very thick plate almost 4 times then now circa 1 cm,then became half centimer and latest 0,2 cm more thin,please look the comperative picture below:

First the mechanic gramophone look the promotion picture of His Mater Voice company below:

and later electric gramophone, still used gramophone needle look the needle promotion label below :

6.In Indonesia during Colonial time , the gramophone’s plate sold by the chinese marchant ,many at Pasar Baru Market and  Pasar Senen  Batavia (Jakarta) please look the trader mark below :

7.The Edisson first Gramophone Info from google exploration,this earliest pho0nograph still not found in Indonesia until now, I stiil hunting.


 Replica of original phonograph

An ad for the phonograph

The Gramophone’s Plate procduction company whic found in Indonesia were

1) 19th century

(1) Addison Record

(2) Hias Master Voice

2)Early 20th century




(2) Odeon

(3)Earlieast Polydor records

(4)Imperial records

(5)Columbia China records


 3)Pre Wolrd war II

(1)RCA-His Master Voice Shanghai China

(2) Decca records

(3) Irama India records  with song Djali Djali

8.I hope the collectors of all over the world ,especially Indonesian Collectors plaes honor my copyright with donnot copy or tag this exhibitons without my permisssion,thanks.

Jakarta January 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy @ copyright 2011

Frame two :

The Earliest International Album Record Production Historic Collections Found In Indonesia

7.The Gramophone’s Plate procduction company whic found in Indonesia were

1) 19th century

(1) Edison Record

Edison Records

Edison Records was the one of the earliest record labels which pioneered recorded sound and was an important player in the early recording industry.
Edison Records
Parent company Thomas A. Edison, Inc.
Founded June 28, 1888
Defunct October, 1929
Revived c. 1990s
Founder Thomas Edison
Jesse H. Lippincott
Status Defunct
Distributor(s) (independent, mostly through dealers, jobbers, and mail order)
Genre Variety (classical, popular, etc.)
Country of origin United States, some major European countries
Location West Orange, New Jersey
1903 advertisement for Edison Records



Early phonographs before commercial mass produced records

Thomas A. Edison invented the phonograph, the first device for recording and playing back sound, in 1877. After inventing and patenting the phonograph, Edison and his laboratory turned their attention to the commercial development of (electric lighting), playing no further role in the development of the phonograph for a decade.

The earliest phonograph was something of a crude curiosity, although it was one that fascinated much of the public. Early machines were sold to entrepreneurs who made a living out of traveling around the country giving “phonograph concerts” and demonstrating the device for a fee at fairs. “Talking dolls” and “Talking clocks” were manufactured as expensive novelties using the early phonograph.


The start of the commercial record industry

In 1887 Edison Labs turned their attention back to improving the phonograph and the phonograph cylinder.

In 1888 the Edison company debuted the Perfected Phonograph, Edison produced wax cylinders 4 inches (10 cm) long, 2<pi> inches in diameter, playing some 2 minutes of music or entertainment, which became the industry standard. Experimental music records were made around this time. The “brown wax” cylinder made its debut in March/April 1889. “Electric Light Quadrille” by Issler’s Orchestra (external link) is an example of an 1889 brown wax cylinder (Superbatone #734–“The Real Sound of Ragtime”).

Blank records were an important part of the business early on. Most phonographs had or could be fitted with attachments for the users to make their own recordings. One important early use, in line with the original term for a phonograph as a “talking machine”, was in business for recording dictation. Attachments were added to facilitate starting, stopping, and skipping back the recording for dictation and playback by stenographers. The business phonograph eventually evolved into a separate device from the home entertainment phonograph. Edison Record’s brand of business phonograph was called The Ediphone; see Phonograph cylinder and Dictaphone. Edison also holds the achievement of being one of the first companies to record the first African-American quartet to record: The Unique Quartette.

Mass produced cylinders

Whistle and I’ll Wait for You
Performed by Ada Jones for Edison Records in 1909.


A notable technological triumph of the Edison Laboratories was devising a method to mass produce pre-recorded phonograph cylinders in molds. This was done by using very slightly tapered cylinders and molding in a material that contracted as it set. To Edison’s disappointment the commercial potential of this process was not realized for some years. Most of the regional Edison distributors were able to fill the small early market for recordings by mechanical duplication of a few dozen cylinders at a time. Molded cylinders did not become a significant force in the marketplace until the end of the 1890s, which was when molding was slow and was used only to create pantograph masters.

Mass producing cylinders at the Edison recording studio in New Jersey largely ended the local Edison retailers early practice of producing recordings in small numbers for regional markets, and helped concentrate the USA recording industry in the New York City – New Jersey area, already the headquarters of the nation’s Tin Pan Alley printed music industry.

In 1902, Edison Records introduced Edison Gold Moulded Records, cylinder records of improved hard black wax, capable of being played hundreds of times before wearing out. These new records were under the working title of “Edison Hi-Speed Extra Loud Moulded Records”, running at the speed of 160 RPM instead of the usual (ca. 1898–1902) speed of 144 RPM or (ca. 1889–1897) 120 RPM. Until ca. 1898, Edison’s speed was 125 RPM.

In 1908, Edison introduced a new line of cylinders (called “Amberols”) playing 4 rather than 2 minutes of music on the same sized record, achieved by shrinking the grooves and spacing them twice as close together. New machines were sold to play these records, as were attachments for modifying existing Edison phonographs.

In November 1912, the new Blue Amberol Records, made out of a type of plastic similar to celluloid invented by Edison labs, were introduced for public sale. The first release was number 1501, a performance of the Rossini’s overture to his opera Semiramide, performed by the American Standard Orchestra. The Blue Amberol records were much more durable than wax cylinders. The Edison lab claimed a 3000+ playback quota for the Blue Amberol. In that same year, the Edison Disc Record came out.

In 1910, artists’ names began to be added to the records; previously, Edison’s policy was to promote his cylinders (and up until 1915, discs) based on the recognition of composers and the works recorded theron in lieu of the performers themselves.

Edison Records continued selling cylinders until they went out of business in 1929. However, from January 1915 onwards the first of the that were Blue Amberols dubbed from Edison’s Diamond Disc matrices, appeared on the market. By 1919, the last decade of production, these were simply dubs of their commercial disc records intended for customers who still used cylinder phonographs purchased years before.

Edison Records was eventually run by Thomas Edison’s son, Charles Edison.

Edison Records logo from 1910s sleeve

 Materials and process used to manufacture cylinder records

Cylinders that are mentioned from 1888 are sometimes called “yellow paraffin” cylinders, but these cylinders are not paraffin, which is a soft oily wax and does not hold up under many plays. They could be a number of formulas tested by Jonas Aylsworth, Thomas Edison‘s chemist. Most of the surviving 1888 recordings would be formulated from a combination of 60% ceresin wax, 20% stearic acid, and 20% beeswax. A record of this kind has a cigar-like smell, and is physically very soft when first molded. In a year’s time, the record would harden quite considerably.[1]

In late 1888, metallic soaps were tried. At first a lead stearate was used, but in the summer months, these records started to sweat and decompose. In 1889, Aylsworth developed an aluminum wax, using acetate of alumina and stearic acid with sodium hydroxide added as a saponifying agent. It was found these records were much more durable. Problems arose, however, since there was no tempering agent and hot weather caused these records to decompose. Two problems contributed to this, stearic quality varied from different makers; Aylsworth purchased some from P&G and found it had too much olaic acid in it. The next cause of the problem is that all stearic acid without a tempering agent takes on moisture, and after many experiments it was found that Ceresine was ideal. To make the wax hard, sodium carbonate was added. Even so, a few batches of records still had some problems and became fogged. The fog problem arose from acetic acid left in the wax, this problem was solved when higher temperatures were used to make sure all the acetic acid was boiled out of the wax. As such, the records from 1889 to 1894 are a reddish brown color due to the long cooking time. By 1896, Edison started using hydrated alumina in place of acetate of alumina. The use of hydrated alumina (sheet aluminum dissolved in a mixture of sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and distilled water) made better records, and the wax could be manufactured in a shorter period of time. Using the hydrated aluminum resulted in more desirable blanks, with fewer defects and shorter production time.

The Columbia Phonograph Company used Edison recording blanks until 1894. The North American Phonograph Company was dissolved in the fall of 1894, and Edison quit supplying blanks to Columbia, who had purchased 70,000 blanks from 1889 to 1894. Columbia was frantic to find a solution to make cylinder blanks in house, and the recipe for making Edison’s wax was a well kept secret. Thomas McDonald started doing experiments with wax alloys with poor results: the records fogged or decomposed in the summer, just like the early Edison blanks. The Columbia company had a deadline to either supply recordings, or have their contracts cancelled and be sued for loss of records. Columbia resorted to attempt to steal secrets from Edison company by hiring old Edison Phonograph Works employees, such as Mr. Storms. Unfortunately for Columbia, the names of the components used by Edison were not labeled with ingredients but were instead indicated by number (i.e. 1,2,3 keeping the identities of these components a secret.) Paraffin, Ceresine, and Ozokerite all look similar, making the tempering agent even more difficult to be identified by the wax mixer. Wax mixers were given instructions on how much of the numbered components to put in the mixture, and how to process it, but no idea as to what the ingredients actually were. It took over a year for Columbia to come up with the formula for cylinders. Columbia placed an ad in the Soap Makers’ Journal for a practical man to work with metallic soaps. Adolph Melzer, a soap manufacturer from Evansville, Indiana took the job. Melzer came up with a formula comparable to Edison’s with the exception of the tempering agent (using cocinic acid, derived from coconut oil.)

In 1901 The Gold Molded (originally spelled Moulded) process was perfected for commercial use by Thomas Edison and Jonas Aylsworth (Edison’s Chemist) with input from Walter Miller, the Recording Manager of Edison Records.[2]

[3] This discussion was gleaned from testimonials Walter Miller, Jonas Aylsworth, Thomas Edison, Adolphe Melzer, and Charles Wurth.

At first, no method of mass production was available for cylinder records. Copies were made by having the artist play over and over or by hooking two machines together with rubber tubing (one with a master cylinder and the other a blank) or copying the sound mechanically. By the late 1890s, an improved mechanical duplicator, the pantograph, was developed which used mechanical linkage. One mandrel had a playback stylus and the other a recording one, while weights and springs were used to adjust the tension between the styli to control recording volume and tracking.

The Edison team had experimented with Vacuum Deposited Gold masters as early as 1888, and it has been reported that some brown wax records certainly were molded,although it seems nobody has found these, in recent years, or can identify them. Frank Albert Wurth. The Edison Record, “Fisher Maiden”, was an early record that was experimented with for the process. The 1888 experiments were not very successful due to the fact the grooves of the cylinders were square, and the sound waves were saw-tooth-shaped and deep. The records came out scratched and it was very time consuming. Many failures and very few that come out. (See The Edison Papers Project, Record Experiments by Jonas Aylsworth 1888–1889)[4]


This is an example of a wax cylinder mold. Note the grooves on the inside and machined backup shell.

The Gold Molded process involved taking a wax master and putting it in a vacuum chamber. The master record was put on a spinning mandrel, the pump sucked all the air out of a glass bell jar, and 2 pieces of gold leaf were hooked to an induction coil. The current was turned on, a magnet was spun around the outside to turn the mandrel, and the gold vaporized a very thin coating on the master. This master was put on a motor in a plating tank and copper was used to back the gold up. The master record was melted, then taken out of the mold to reveal a negative of the grooves in the metal. The master cylinder had to have wider feed as the grooves shrink in length through each process. The master mold is used to create “mothers” and these are then further processed to make working molds.

The Gold molded record used an aluminum-based wax, like the post-1896 Edison brown wax. However, carnauba wax was added, as well as pine tar and lampblack resulting in a black, shiny, durable record. The molds with mandrels placed in the center were heated and dipped in a tank of the molten wax. These were removed and trimmed while still hot, and put on a table from where the molds were put in lukewarm water. The water caused the records to shrink in diameter so that they could be removed. The records were then trimmed, dried and cleaned, then later put on warm mandrels for 2 hours where they shrank evenly. Jonas Aylsworth developed this formula.

In 1908, Edison introduced Amberol Records which had a playing time of just over 4 minutes. The process of making the finished record was the same as the Gold Molded records, however a harder wax compound was used. In 1912, celluloid was used in place of wax, and the name was changed to Blue Amberol, as the dye was a blue color. The master was recorded and then the process of making the mold was the same as the Gold Molded process. What is different is that a steam jacketed mold with an air bladder in the center was used. Celluloid tubing was put in the mold and the end gate was closed. The rubber bladder expanded the celluloid to the side of the heated mold, and printed the negative record in positive on the celluloid. The bladder was then deflated, and cold air was used to shrink the tubing so the celluloid print could be removed. The printed tubing was put in a plaster filler. When the plaster was hard the cylinders were then baked in an oven, then the ribs made on the inside of the plaster with knives. The records were cleaned and then packaged.[5][citation needed]

Ediphone Wax Formula and Procedure for making Ediphone Cylinders

Noted C.H. 11/21/1946

1. 1,200 lbs of double pressed stearic acid (130 degree F. Titer) and 4 lbs of nigrosine base B dye are placed in a 200 gallon cast iron cauldron. The cauldron is directly heated by an oil burner of the household type. (Our Present ones are Eisler, the manufacture of which has been discontinued.) Heat is applied until the stearic acid has been melted and the temperature has reach 360 degrees F. 2. 2,000 grams of metallic aluminum are placed in a 75 gallon steam-jacketed open kettle. To this are added 7,000 grams of NaOH and 10 gallons of water. When the reaction has subsided, 92 lbs of anhydrous sodium carbonate are added and finally 50 gallons of water. Note: The aluminum scrap is usually obtained from the Storage Battery Division in the form of punched strips. It is important that the size and thickness of this material be such as to insure a fairly rapid rate of solution. All of this reaction takes place under a hood. An alternative method consists of dissolving 8,900 grams of sodium aluminate in about 10 gallons of water and adding 5,000 grams of NaOH pellets. When complete solution has taken place, 92 lbs of anhydrous sodium carbonate are added and the necessary amount of water to bring the bulk up to 60 gallons.

In both cases solution is affected by means of pressure steam in the jacketed portion of the kettle. When the solution is substantially clear it is slowly added, a pail at a time (3 gallons) by means of a 2 quart dipper, to the heated stearic acid as prepared in 1. The oil burner is kept on during this operation in order to keep the temperature of the mixture fairly constant at 360 degrees F. Care must be exercised in adding this “Saponifying” solution so that excess foaming is prevented. After all the solution has been added the resulting “formula wax” is heated to 400 degrees F. and maintained at this temperature for four hours, at which time a sample is removed, a congealing point determined, (see under “tests”), and any addition made of stearic acid or sodium carbonate solution for correction, and the mixture held without additional heat for 10 hours. It is then heated again to bring the temperature up to 400 degrees F and allowed to cool gradually, usually overnight. When the temperature has again been reduced to 350 degrees F the was is pumped by means of a Kinney pump into 10 gallon pails from which the wax is poured into shallow pans containing approximately 50 lbs of the wax per pan. After the material has cooled to room temperature it is removed from the pans and stacked.

3. Into a 200 gallon cast iron cauldron heated by and oil burner of the household type, (or as required at present by war conditions, heated by bituminous coal) are placed 500 to 900 labs of “formula wax”. Note: The amount of “formula wax” to make up a batch various according to the amount of scrap wax which is to be added to the cauldron. Scrap wax represents commercial wax of which “formula wax” is a part. To the amount of “formula wax placed in the cauldron are added 19½% Paraffin (133 degrees-135 degrees F., usual source Standard Oil of New Jersey) and 2% stearine pitch (M. P. 40 Degrees Centigrade). This mixture, consisting of “formula wax”, paraffin and stearine pitch, represents commercial wax. Finally, commercial scrap wax of the composition given above in added until the total weight of the mixture is approximately 1,600 lbs. This mixture is usually heated beginning at 12 midnight and carried through until the temperature is 410-415 degrees F. at 8 a.m. Note; This may be regarded as standard procedure, although at the present time (Dec., 1943) this has been modified so that only Sunday nights is this done. On other days of the week except Saturday the kettles are started at 6 A.M. This method was adopted due to man shortages which necessitated starting the molding operation later in the day.) At this time a congealing point is taken and the necessary adjustments made (see under “tests”) after which the mixture is transferred to a closed agitating tank by means of a Kinney pump, the latter forced the hot material through a 2″ pipe.

4. To the mixture in the agitation tank there is added 3/10 percent Johns-Manville # 503 Filter Aid. The temperature is maintained at 375 degrees F. by means of a ring gas burner, at the bottom of the tank. At this temperature the wax is supplied by a Worthington pump at 30 lbs to a one square foot Shriver press whose head and follower are steam jacketed and which has 7 sections. The effluent from this press passes through a second Shriver press which has 2 sections of one square foot each. The mixture from the outlet here finally passes though a 1″ pipe which has a 100 × 150 mesh Monel ,metal screen held in its cross sections by means of a union, into one of four 75 gallon aluminum kettles. . These kettles are protected by conical hoods to prevent dust particles being carried into the body of the wax. After allowing the wax to remain at 330 degrees F. for three hours it is ready to be poured into the blank moulds. The temperature is maintained by gas burners beneath the kettles and controlled automatically by Partlow Corp. thermostatic controls.

5. By means of a pot with 2 spouts the moulds are filled with molten wax. The pot has a capacity of about five pounds (slightly less than 2 quarts and is specially designed of aluminum and made by Theodore Walter, Newark N.J… The molding table revolves at the rate of 6 blanks per minute, approximately, and the size of the pouring pot spout is only sufficient to permit the hot wax to flow into the molds at a rate slightly faster than the speed of the molds which rotate past a given point around the table.

The blanks are extracted at a temperature of 200-205 degrees F. and place on boards which hold 30 blanks. These boards when filled move by gravity down a conveyor. The length of time on the conveyor is about two hours after which time they are sufficiently cool and hard to be put into production boxes holding 63 blanks. The boxes are placed in racks for the following day’s production. Into each production box there is placed a semi-finished cylinder, which has been edged and reamed and which conforms to a standard internal diameter at 70 degrees F of 1.826 ” at the thin end. The purpose of this is to permit the edging operation to take place on the un-finished blank at any temperature by adjusting the machine to conform to the standard. Thus, in each production box, there is a total of 63 unfinished cylinders. One day’s production is held at least 34 hours before further processing.

6. The blanks are first reamed. The reamer consists of a twisted tapered and eight fluted tool. The blanks are forced on the reamer by hand to a stop. The position of the stop is adjusted so that sufficient material will be removed from both ends of the blanks when the blank is edged in the next operation. The reamer revolves at approximately 300 RPM

7. The edging operation consists in placing a reamed blank on a tapered mandrel and by means of two special cutters working in unison the ends of the blank are formed to conform in couture to a standard template. A second gauge is used to insure proper length (6⅛”). IN each case the edged blank must rest on a tapered mandrel gauge in exactly the same position as the standard blank which is in the production box. The usual procedure is to make the necessary adjustments of the knives of the first blank which is edged so that is conforms to the standard, and then continue the operation on the rest of the blanks in the production box at the identical position of the first blank. Note; since there are 63 blanks for each standard blank it will be observed that every 63rd cylinder is checked mandrel gauge. The accuracy of the method and the facility with which it is done depend on the care and skill of the operator. This is probably, is the most critical of all the operations. The edging machine revolves at 2,200 RPM

8. Following the edging operation is the stamping. This consists in applying a hot printing die to the thick end of the cylinder as it is placed accurately in a vertical position under the die. The heating of the die is done by means of a resistance wire coiled within a hollow torus near the under edge of the circular die. The coiled wire is connected to a source of current and the latter is adjusted by means of a rheostat. The heated died has raised lettering and makes and impression on the end surface of the wax cylinder. The depressed positive lettering on the cylinder is filled with a thick paste of zinc carbonate, the excess of which is brushed or wiped off after drying.

9. The cylinders are next shaved on a ganged shaving machine consisting of a rough shaving knife free from “blinds” and “lines”, accurate concentricity and a minimum of taper. These factors depend on the tension of the driving belt, tension upon the rotating mandrel between centers and the position and sharpness of the knives. Speed of the mandrel 2,200 RPM

10. The finished cylinders are placed in boxes which contain 16 pegs and run down a conveyor. At a point on this conveyor the cylinders are held and brushed on the inside to remove wax shavings and dust.

11. Cylinders are inspected, packed and placed in the stock room for a minimum of thirty days before shipping.

12. The reinforcing liners are made as follows: Crinoline cloth of specifications given under “Tests”, are cut into a trapezoid (Paper Products Dept.) base length 6¼, altitude 5⅝” top length 5¾”. A pack of these are placed in a vise edgewise and thinned glue, one part Le Pages Glue, one part water, brushed onto one slant edge. A liner is then wrapped a tapered mandrel of such size as to fit no too snuggly on the molding core. The liner is held on the mandrel by means of two jaws actuated by a foot lever and the lapped edges of the liner glued by means of a gas iron held for an instant along the line of the lap.

(2a) Homokord records


Rare Homokord 2 Labels Glockenspiel & Xylophone Solos


Rare Homokord 2 Labels Glockenspiel & Xylophone Solos Homokord Record
10″ and 78 speed
First Side:
Grand Galopp de Gouvert
(R. Poltmann)
Xylophone Solo
mit Orchesterbegleitung
Matrix #: A5120 and 11174
Second Side:
von Komzak
Albert Muller
Xylophon-u. Glockenspeilvirtuos
mit Orchesterbegleitung
Matrix #: 22614A and 11175
Notes: 2 labels! N o visual cracks, chips or repairs to the record. Couple small scratches on each side.
The word “about” in our descriptions is used with all measurements to indicate readily relatable sizes. If you need precise measurements, pleas

(2b)His Master Voice records

His Master’s Voice

His Master’s Voice
His Master's Voice.jpg
Parent company EMI (British Commonwealth except Canada)
RCA (western hemisphere)
JVC (Japan)
Founded 1908
Status defunct (fate: trade mark sold to HMV Group)
Genre Various
Country of origin United Kingdom

His Master’s Voice is a famous trademark in the music business, and for many years was the name of a large record label. The name was coined in 1899 as the title of a painting of the dog Nipper listening to a wind-up gramophone. In the photograph on which the painting was based, the dog was listening to a cylinder phonograph.

the end @copyright dr Iwan suwandy 2011


The Rare Dragon Handle Yuan Qingbay Ewer Found In Indonesia










The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :






A rare Qingbai Ewer and Cover. Yuan Dynasty. Photo Sotheby’s

well potted, the pear-shaped body rising to a tall flared neck, supported on a splayed foot with a prominent flange, the body set with a slender curved spout issuing from the mouth of a dragon, connected to the body by an elaborate S-shaped bridge, set opposite with a curved handle formed by the scaly body of a fish-dragon with the opened mouth swallowing the top of the handle, its mane forming a small loop for attaching the cover, its tail fanning out into a large trefoil motif applied in relief, the body decorated on either side with a phoenix in flight with upturned scrolling tail and a cloud motif, cut from thin sheets of clay and applied with incised details, above a band of upright lappets containing ruyi heads, the neck collared by a key-fret band of pearl strings and slip-painted upright petal lappets containing scroll motifs, all beneath an icy blue-green transparent glaze, fitted with a stepped domed cover and a small eyelet for attachment to the ewer, surmounted by a seated lion delicately modelled with a thick beard, long mane, and bushy tail bent to one side, its left foreleg resting on a ball with thin freely modelled ribbons and a bell tied around its neck, overall 34 cm., 13 3/8 in. Estimate 1,200,000—1,500,000 HKD. Lot Sold  4,220,000 HKD

PROVENANCE: Messrs John Sparks, London.
Collection of Mr and Mrs Otto Doering, Snr.
Christie’s New York, 9th November 1978, lot 125.
J.J. Lally & Co., New York.

EXHIBITED: The Art Institute of Chicago (on loan).
Chinese Porcelain and Silver in the Song Dynasty, J. J. Lally & Co., New York, 2002, cat. no. 30 (illustrated).

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: John Ayers, ‘Some Characteristic Wares of the Yüan Dynasty’, Transactions of the Oriental Ceramic Society, vol. 29, 1954-5, pl. 38, fig. 17.
Margaret Medley, Yüan Porcelain and Stoneware, London, 1974, pl. 10.
Anthony du Boulay, Christie’s Pictorial History of Chinese Ceramics, London, 1984, p. 110, fig. 1.
Regina Krahl, Chinese Ceramics from the Meiyintang Collection, London, 1994-2010, vol. 4, no. 1614.

NOTE: This ewer reflects the quest for richer ornamentation in the second half of the Yuan dynasty, which eventually was satisfied by the introduction of underglaze painting in colour. It shows the remarkably wide repertoire of decoration techniques experimented with at the time, such as moulding, incising, slip painting, dotted surface structuring, application of clay sheets, freely modelled motifs and pearl strings.

A very similar ewer without cover in the Tokyo National Museum is published in Yutaka Mino, Chūgoku no tōji. Hakuji/Chinese Ceramics. White Porcelain, Tokyo, 1998, col. pl. 79, perhaps the piece illustrated also in Mikami Tsugio, ed., Sekai tōji zenshū/Ceramic Art of the World, vol. 13, Tokyo, 1981, col. pl. 42. A simpler version of this design, perhaps made somewhat earlier than the present ewer, was among the porcelains recovered from the shipwreck off Shinan, Korea, which can be dated to AD 1323; that ewer has a similar phoenix design in relief, but is lacking any applied motifs and has a plain spout, handle and cover; see Relics Salvaged from the Seabed off Sinan. Materials I, Seoul, 1985, pl. 67. A similar smaller ewer without cover, from the collection of a Vietnamese Princess, was sold at Christie’s New York, 22nd April 1999, lot 256.

A pair of meiping vases with similar, but perhaps also somewhat simpler lion covers, excavated from a tomb of AD 1324 in Wannian county, Jiangxi province, is published in Wenwu 1977, no. 4, pl. 9, fig. 5. A fragment of a similar ewer, excavated from a Yuan city site in Inner Mongolia, is published in Chen Yongzhi, ed., Nei Menggu Jininglu gu cheng yizhi chutu ciqi/Porcelain Unearthed from Jininglu Ancient City Site in Inner Mongolia, Beijing, 2004, p. 20, fig. 13; and a similar fragment of a dragon handle, excavated from the Yuan remains at Luomaqiao, Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province, in Ceramic Finds from Jingdezhen Kilns (10th – 17th Century), Fung Ping Shan Museum, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 1992, cat. no. 116.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy

How To Understand And Cure Rest Leg syndrome



The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :




This year is the fourth year I have experienced RLS syndrome, Once I learned and try to improve the sport so that legs can increase blood circulation and prevent stayed  too long or sitting with legs hanging prevented, many suggestions from friends that I was walking on hot gravel stones, but no progress. Currently numbness and edema at the end of the soles of the feet and toes are always still there, especially feelings of edema accompanied saa56t rest on the palm and the tip of your toes, with respect to the above I started doing the research literature on pathophysiolog8is, how this disorder develops, clinical gelaja and pengoba56tan that exist today, for that I hope the support of all patients who experience it to be willing to give komentra and info,. I Hope This discussion forum will yield information that can be processed into a final conclusion that can be used by anyone who experience this disorder S6yndrome RLS. Abnormalities that I experienced RLS syndrome are symmetrical, so the possibility of disorder in the neural spine or brain stem, what menyebabkannnya, from some literaturs ditemyukan mineral magnesium deficiency da copper poisoning, xehingga beginning of this info I will move to consult to the experts. I hope you are all blessed to be able Segers These abnormalities resolved. Jakarta October 2011 Dr Iwan Suwandy



A simple and natural explanation for why restless leg syndrome with its related symptoms occurs.


The Restless leg syndrome phenomenon has more than one name. It is often referred to as restless legs syndrome, RLS, irritable legs, restless legs, fidgety legs, creepy legs, periodic limb movement disorders, PLMD, and few others. Many names have been given to restless leg syndrome but, “incredibly annoying!” is most likely the name that everyone who suffers from restless leg syndrome will know it best by. Contrary to what some might say, the cause of restless leg syndrome is quite simple and understandable if you think about it from a simpler point of view.

The difference in understanding an ailment lies if differentiating what an ailment does, which in the case of restless legs is produce annoyance in the legs, from what an ailment actually is. In other words; if you chase the symptom, you will never get at its cause.

The biggest problem in today’s health world is misinformation, information presented in such a way that no normal person can confirm, information that is so vague as to be so open ended as to offer no possibility of a solution expect for an implied solution or, totally incomprehensible information because it is completely unnatural or, even illogical.

Always remember that in reality, “there is nothing new under the Sun!” Many experts have confirmed that on Earth we live in a closed system. Any viruses that existed millions of years ago still exist today and, for the most part, we coexist peacefully with them. Anything new has to be man made or, man manipulated. There is no other possibility.

Without being too poetic, when a clear headed person looks into nature, it is not hard to draw parallel relationships between what is going on in nature and what is happening within the body. If everything we see comes from nature, then nature must also be somehow within everything we see otherwise it could not exist in nature in the first place. This not only applies to creatures but also to processes.

Therefore, from the natural point of view, Restless Leg Syndrome is not a new ailment at all. It is just a different form of a very common problem produced by the same process but, in milder form. Restless Leg syndrome according to the legendary medieval Swiss physician, Paracelsus falls into the category of disease he named “podagra” which literally means “bitter waters.” When you connect this to internal bodily fluids, the analogy makes perfect sense. The correctness of this classification will be better explained in the related articles in the pages within the section on restless leg syndrome (see links above and below) where it is shown that Restless leg syndrome, far from being a neurological problem, is actually a very mild yet incredibly annoying form of arthritis; at least as far as Paracelsus was concerned.

What manifests as Restless leg syndrome is less severe than arthritis and replaces what would otherwise be actual pain with a hard to describe irritating, creeping, crawling, tingling in the legs generally often depriving the sufferer of peace and sleep. For the sufferer of Restless leg syndrome, it can occur at any time while being still; whether it is during sitting, lying down or reclining. It’s form may have changed but, the problem itself is not that complicated. The incredible level of annoyance and discomfort produced by restless legs defies belief. It is like “Chinese water torture” for the legs!

In order to comprehend what gives rise to restless leg syndrome, a simple and very straight forward logic using analogies from nature are needed to explain what is going on in the body when it happens. This way of thinking uses very simple concepts. You will need to read them through – perhaps more than once, because the logic behind them is deceptively simple, while not being simple minded.

Many have already found that these completely natural explanations from “outside of the box” do indeed offer a logical explanation of what restless legs syndrome is. If you are looking for a virus or bacteria as the culprit, you will not find one because these are not the cause of restless legs. That abnormal environments and organisms may be present in the body to produce restless legs is not disputed but, where they arise from is! In the past, this would have been called “the arcanum;” the hidden reason or, cause.

The explanations of Restless leg Syndrome or, Restless Legs being presented in this group of pages should leave the sufferer with an understanding of Restless leg syndrome and hope for relief. Like any problem. When you understand it, it can be controlled or even removed.

Sebuah penjelasan sederhana dan alami bagi mengapa sindrom kaki gelisah dengan gejala terkait terjadi.

Fenomena sindrom kaki gelisah memiliki lebih dari satu nama. Hal ini sering disebut sebagai sindrom kaki gelisah, RLS, kaki mudah tersinggung, kaki gelisah, kaki gelisah, kaki menyeramkan, gangguan tungkai periodik gerakan, PLMD, dan beberapa orang lainnya. Banyak nama telah diberikan untuk sindrom kaki gelisah tapi, “sangat menyebalkan!” kemungkinan besar nama yang setiap orang yang menderita dari sindrom kaki gelisah akan tahu terbaik. Bertentangan dengan apa yang beberapa mungkin mengatakan, penyebab sindrom kaki gelisah cukup sederhana dan mudah dipahami jika Anda berpikir tentang hal ini dari sudut pandang sederhana.

Perbedaan dalam memahami suatu penyakit kebohongan jika membedakan suatu penyakit apa yang tidak, yang dalam kasus kaki gelisah adalah menghasilkan gangguan di kaki, dari apa suatu penyakit sebenarnya. Dengan kata lain, jika Anda mengejar gejala, Anda tidak akan pernah mendapatkan penyebabnya.

Masalah terbesar dalam dunia kesehatan saat ini adalah informasi yang keliru, informasi yang disajikan sedemikian rupa bahwa tidak ada orang normal dapat mengkonfirmasi, informasi yang sangat samar-samar menjadi begitu terbuka berakhir untuk tidak menawarkan kemungkinan solusi harapkan untuk solusi tersirat atau, benar-benar dimengerti informasi karena benar-benar tidak wajar atau, bahkan tidak logis. Selalu ingat bahwa dalam kenyataannya, “tidak ada yang baru di bawah matahari!” Banyak ahli telah menegaskan bahwa di Bumi kita hidup dalam sistem tertutup. Setiap virus yang ada jutaan tahun lalu masih ada hari ini dan, untuk sebagian besar, kita hidup berdampingan secara damai dengan mereka. Sesuatu yang baru harus dibuat atau manusia, manusia dimanipulasi. Tidak ada kemungkinan lain.

Tanpa terlalu puitis, ketika seseorang menuju ke alam yang jelas terlihat, tidak sulit untuk menarik hubungan paralel antara apa yang terjadi di alam dan apa yang terjadi dalam tubuh. Jika semuanya kita lihat berasal dari alam, maka alam juga harus entah bagaimana dalam semua yang kita lihat jika tidak maka tidak bisa ada di alam di tempat pertama. Ini tidak hanya berlaku untuk makhluk tetapi juga untuk proses.

Oleh karena itu, dari sudut pandang alam, Sindrom Kaki Resah bukan penyakit baru sama sekali. Ini hanya bentuk yang berbeda dari masalah yang sangat umum yang dihasilkan oleh proses yang sama tetapi, dalam bentuk yang lebih ringan. Kaki sindrom gelisah menurut Swis dokter legendaris abad pertengahan, Paracelsus jatuh ke dalam kategori penyakit yang bernama “podagra” yang secara harfiah berarti “air pahit.” Ketika Anda menghubungkan ini ke cairan tubuh internal yang, analogi masuk akal. Kebenaran klasifikasi ini akan lebih baik dijelaskan dalam artikel yang terkait di halaman dalam bagian tentang sindrom kaki gelisah (lihat link di atas dan di bawah) di mana itu menunjukkan bahwa sindrom kaki gelisah, jauh dari masalah neurologis, sebenarnya sangat ringan namun sangat mengganggu bentuk arthritis, setidaknya sejauh sebagai Paracelsus prihatin. Apa yang bermanifestasi sebagai sindrom kaki gelisah kurang parah dari arthritis dan menggantikan apa yang sebaliknya akan menjadi sakit aktual dengan keras untuk menggambarkan menjengkelkan, merayap, merangkak, kesemutan di kaki umumnya sering mencabut penderita perdamaian dan tidur. Untuk penderita sindrom kaki gelisah, dapat terjadi kapan saja ketika sedang masih, apakah itu adalah selama duduk, berbaring atau berbaring. Bentuknya mungkin telah berubah tetapi, masalah itu sendiri tidaklah rumit. Tingkat luar biasa jengkel dan ketidaknyamanan yang dihasilkan oleh kaki gelisah menentang keyakinan. Hal ini seperti “penyiksaan air Cina” untuk kaki!

 Dalam rangka untuk memahami apa yang menimbulkan sindrom kaki gelisah, sebuah logika sederhana dan sangat lurus ke depan menggunakan analogi dari alam yang diperlukan untuk menjelaskan apa yang terjadi di dalam tubuh ketika itu terjadi. Cara berpikir menggunakan konsep-konsep yang sangat sederhana. Anda akan perlu membaca mereka melalui – mungkin lebih dari sekali, karena logika di belakang mereka tampak sederhana, sementara tidak berpikiran sederhana.

Banyak telah menemukan bahwa penjelasan ini benar-benar alami dari “luar kotak” memang menawarkan penjelasan logis dari apa yang gelisah kaki sindrom ini. Jika Anda mencari virus atau bakteri sebagai pelakunya, Anda tidak akan menemukan satu karena ini bukan penyebab kaki gelisah. Bahwa lingkungan abnormal dan organisme dapat hadir dalam tubuh untuk memproduksi kaki gelisah tidak diperdebatkan, tetapi, di mana mereka muncul dari ini! Di masa lalu, ini akan disebut “Arcanum;” alasan tersembunyi atau, menyebabkan.

Penjelasan Sindrom kaki gelisah atau, Restless Legs yang disajikan dalam kelompok ini halaman harus meninggalkan penderita dengan pemahaman tentang sindrom kaki gelisah dan harapan untuk bantuan. Seperti masalah apapun. Ketika Anda memahaminya, itu dapat dikendalikan atau bahkan dihapus.





ANDA TENTU TAMBAH BINGGUNGSAY JUGA BEGITU jadi apa jawabanya anda dapat menterjemahkan kata-kata dibawah ini sseperti kata maria kepada santa benadete di lourdes

  makan rumput untuk ….

dan minumlah …. untuk





jadi kesimpulannya larena



….dst …dst



pembuluh darh dan



dst artinya da sterus atau etc etc

 sehingga timbul


dan karena itu kita harus menghilangkna


dan banyak …. dan … da…..

llau aliran darh …… dan ….. akn berkerja seperti smeula

untuk menjawab dst dst rahasia tersebut diatas  silahkan anda  mengubungii EMAIL IWANSUWANDY@GMAIL.COM

JANGAN LUPA uploa dkopi ktp dan lamat lengkap dengan riwyat penyakit dan pekerjaannya

rahasia dijamin sesuai sumpah sya saat dilantih jadi doketr rahasia kedokteran dipegnag tegu









syuku  tuahan yang mahakuasa telah memberikan ilham dna kepintran kepad asaya dan say akan sampaika kepad anda


 harap hak cipta saya dihargai

terim akasihh 


Restless Leg Syndrome Symptoms – 3 Symptoms To Watch For


The restless leg syndrome symptoms can ruin a good night’s sleep and make lengthy sitting a really painful and irritating problem. So now what? Well consider that no matter what your symptoms are you’ll be able to find some relief.  Let’s look at the most common restless leg syndrome symptoms to learn about if your suffering with it. If you have got the symptoms you probably have it, but don’t panic about it, there’s cures available! Try some Exercises to get even better results.

This is primary a condition that is neurologic based. The condition is defined by some strange feelings inside the legs and the need to move them. In just about all cases, the person that suffers from this condition will go through just about all the symptoms when they lay down to try to go to sleep. It may be helpful to try some Home Remedies For Restless Leg Syndrome.


Although moving the legs can bring some relief, the impulse linked with the movements can interrupt the person’s ability to rest or sleep well. All right…

Here are the 3 main restless leg syndrome symptoms to watch for…

>>>> Anxiety… Anxiousness is another basic symptom that’s experienced by those suffering from this condition. For those people that are bothered by the relentless urge to keep moving their legs to get some relief from the strange feelings, anxiousness could be experienced if the leg movements are not made. If the leg movements are giving relief to the sensations, the individual might go through anxiousness since they’re not able to sleep or concentrate on other tasks.

>>>> The ongoing need to move the legs…When a restless leg syndrome sufferer goes through the odd sensations that they have in their legs, they will have a very strong desire to move their legs. They could merely move their legs from one spot to another position to get some relief. Then, there are those people that have to shake their legs back and forth or up and down to have some relief.

>>>> Strange feelings… The 1st symptom usually experienced are strange sensations inside the legs. The sensations might be felt in one leg or both legs at the same time. A lot of persons may feel as though there legs are tingling. There are other people that may experience a burning sensation on their legs.

A lot of people likewise suffer from sensations that are likened to pins and needles similar to the feeling when your foot falls asleep. Then, there are numerous people who suffer from feelings that there are many insects  crawling on their skin. For some others, this is the most grueling aspect of this condition. Some people have found relief from various Homeopathy Remedies.

A lot of persons discover that they have to in reality get up and take a short walk or run around. This ongoing urge to continually move can cause a disruption in their day to day living or their sleep cycle. If you believe that you’re suffering with restless leg syndrome symptoms , it’s crucial to get some medical help for a confirmed diagnosis because there are treatments that may Eliminate Restless Leg Syndrome and help you in coping with the symptoms.


Gejala-gejala sindrom kaki gelisah dapat merusak tidur malam yang baik dan membuat panjang duduk masalah yang benar-benar menyakitkan dan menjengkelkan. Jadi sekarang apa? Yah menganggap bahwa tidak peduli apa gejala Anda Anda akan dapat menemukan beberapa bantuan. Mari kita melihat gejala yang paling umum sindrom kaki gelisah untuk belajar tentang jika penderitaan Anda dengan itu. Jika Anda memiliki gejala-gejala Anda mungkin memiliki, tapi jangan panik tentang hal itu, ada obat tersedia! Cobalah beberapa Latihan untuk mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik. Ini adalah primer suatu kondisi yang berbasis neurologis. Kondisi ini ditentukan oleh beberapa perasaan aneh di dalam kaki dan kebutuhan untuk memindahkan mereka. Dalam hampir semua kasus, orang yang menderita dari kondisi ini akan melalui hampir semua gejala-gejala ketika mereka berbaring untuk mencoba tidur. Ini mungkin membantu untuk mencoba beberapa Home remedies Untuk Sindrom Kaki Resah.

Meskipun bergerak kaki dapat membawa beberapa bantuan, dorongan terkait dengan gerakan dapat mengganggu kemampuan seseorang untuk beristirahat atau tidur nyenyak. Baiklah … Berikut adalah 3 utama gejala sindrom kaki gelisah untuk menonton … >>> Anxiety…” Ff=”>>>> Anxiety…” Gf=”>>>> Kecemasan … ” closure_uid_5q9o9q=”109″>>>>> Kecemasan … Kecemasan adalah gejala lain dasar yang dialami oleh mereka yang menderita dari kondisi ini. Bagi orang-orang yang terganggu oleh dorongan tanpa henti untuk terus bergerak kaki mereka untuk mendapatkan beberapa bantuan dari perasaan yang aneh, kecemasan bisa dialami jika gerakan kaki tidak dibuat. Jika gerakan kaki yang memberikan bantuan kepada sensasi, individu mungkin akan pergi melalui kecemasan karena mereka tidak bisa tidur atau berkonsentrasi pada tugas-tugas lainnya. >>> The ongoing need to move the legs…When a restless leg syndrome sufferer goes through the odd sensations that they have in their legs, they will have a very strong desire to move their legs.” Ff=”>>>> The ongoing need to move the legs…When a restless leg syndrome sufferer goes through the odd sensations that they have in their legs, they will have a very strong desire to move their legs.” Gf=”>>>> Kebutuhan yang sedang berlangsung untuk menggerakkan kaki … Ketika seorang penderita sindrom kaki gelisah berjalan melalui sensasi aneh yang mereka miliki di kaki mereka, mereka akan memiliki keinginan yang sangat kuat untuk menggerakkan kaki mereka. ” closure_uid_5q9o9q=”113″>>>>> Kebutuhan yang sedang berlangsung untuk menggerakkan kaki … Ketika seorang penderita sindrom kaki gelisah berjalan melalui sensasi aneh yang mereka miliki di kaki mereka, mereka akan memiliki keinginan yang sangat kuat untuk menggerakkan kaki mereka. Mereka hanya bisa menggerakkan kaki mereka dari satu tempat ke posisi lain untuk mendapatkan beberapa bantuan. Lalu, ada orang-orang yang telah mengguncang kaki mereka bolak-balik atau naik dan turun untuk memiliki beberapa bantuan.  >>> Strange feelings…” Ff=”>>>> Strange feelings…” Gf=”>>>> Perasaan aneh … ” closure_uid_5q9o9q=”116″>>>>> Perasaan aneh … Gejala yang biasanya dialami 1 adalah sensasi yang aneh di dalam kaki. Mungkin sensasi dirasakan di satu kaki atau kedua kaki pada waktu yang sama. Banyak orang mungkin merasa seolah-olah ada kaki kesemutan. Ada orang lain yang mungkin mengalami sensasi terbakar pada kaki mereka. Banyak orang juga menderita sensasi yang disamakan dengan pin dan jarum mirip dengan perasaan ketika kaki Anda jatuh tertidur. Lalu, ada banyak orang yang menderita dari perasaan bahwa ada banyak serangga merayap di kulit mereka. Bagi beberapa orang lain, ini adalah aspek yang paling melelahkan dari kondisi ini. Beberapa orang telah menemukan bantuan dari berbagai Homeopati remedies. Banyak orang menemukan bahwa mereka harus dalam realitas bangun dan berjalan-jalan pendek atau berlari-lari. Dorongan yang berkelanjutan untuk terus bergerak dapat menyebabkan gangguan di hari mereka untuk hidup hari atau siklus tidur mereka. Jika Anda yakin bahwa Anda menderita dengan gejala sindrom kaki gelisah, itu penting untuk mendapatkan bantuan medis untuk diagnosis dikonfirmasi karena ada pengobatan yang dapat Hilangkan Sindrom Kaki Resah dan membantu Anda dalam menghadapi gejala-gejala.

Restless Leg Syndrome Symptoms


How do you know you have restless leg syndrome?

  • Do you have an unbearable urge to move your legs?
  • Do you feel uncomfortable sensations in your legs?
  • Do your symptoms begin to get worse towards the evening or when you are in bed?
  • Do your symptoms begin to feel better when you move your legs?
  • Do you have trouble sleeping because of the pain or discomfort in your legs?


What is Restless Leg Syndrome?

     Restless leg syndrome involves unpleasant leg sensations when it is time to go to bed.  Some patients describe it as a tingling in the legs.  Others say it feels more like a prickling sensation, or a feeling like pins and needles in the legs.  This tingling is very difficult to ignore, and many patients complain that it is frustrating, irritating, and leads to lack of sleep.  Other patients experience sudden jerking of the legs during sleeping time or even while driving the car.  This jerking of the legs can occur every twenty to thirty seconds.  Many patients state that when they are experiencing restless leg syndrome, they must get up and move around immediately, or the sensations in their legs will get worse.  Restless leg syndrome typically begins slowly, and the legs will become more affected as time goes on.  Restless leg syndrome causes the legs to become painful.  It usually will ease when the legs are in motion.  Restless leg syndrome becomes more noticeable at times of rest.  During the early evening and later at night, the pain in restless legs tends to increase.  The result is typically insomnia.  Lack of sleep has many effects on your life.  It will impact your relationships, your work, and your overall health.


What are the causes of restless leg syndrome?

     The cause of restless leg syndrome is unknown, although there are some associated factors with restless leg syndrome.  Some of these factors include drugs and medications, including alcohol, caffeine, H-2 Histamine blockers, and some antidepressants.  Health factors include being pregnant, obese, or having an iron deficiency or anemia.  Nerve disease, polyneuropathy, exposure to toxins, diabetes, and kidney failure are also associated with restless leg syndrome.  In addition, choosing to smoke may increase your chances for developing restless leg syndrome.  In some instances, restless legs have run in families.  It also seems to develop in people as they become older.

Ada sekarang mungkin akan meringankannya bagi sebagian orang dengan RLS. Para peneliti telah menemukan bahwa obat yang digunakan untuk mengobati kejang dan kecemasan sekarang dapat membantu orang yang menderita sindrom kaki gelisah (RLS).

Restless kaki sindrom (RLS) “. Adalah suatu kondisi neurologis yang ditandai oleh dorongan tak tertahankan untuk menggerakkan kaki” Menurut Yayasan RLS, kriteria tertentu yang harus dipenuhi untuk dapat didiagnosis dengan kondisi ini:

    * Anda memiliki keinginan kuat untuk menggerakkan kaki Anda yang Anda mungkin tidak mampu melawan. Kebutuhan untuk bergerak sering disertai dengan sensasi tidak nyaman. Beberapa kata yang digunakan untuk menggambarkan sensasi ini meliputi: merayap, gatal, menarik, menyeramkan-crawly, menarik, atau menggerogoti.     * Anda gejala RLS memulai atau menjadi lebih buruk ketika Anda sedang beristirahat. Semakin lama Anda sedang beristirahat, semakin besar kesempatan gejala akan terjadi dan lebih parah mereka mungkin.     * Anda RLS gejala menjadi lebih baik ketika Anda memindahkan kaki Anda. Lega bisa lengkap atau hanya parsial tetapi umumnya dimulai segera setelah memulai suatu kegiatan. Bantuan berlanjut selama aktivitas motorik terus.     * Anda gejala RLS lebih buruk di malam hari terutama ketika anda berbaring. Kegiatan yang mengganggu Anda di malam hari tidak mengganggu Anda selama hari.

Sebuah studi dilakukan dua belas minggu yang melibatkan 58 orang dengan RLS. Para pregabalin obat diberikan kepada 30 orang, sedangkan sisanya menerima plasebo. Orang-orang berpartisipasi dalam studi tidur dilakukan pada awal dan akhir penelitian.

Para peneliti menemukan bahwa sekitar dua-pertiga dari orang yang memakai pregabalin tidak punya gejala RLS, sementara pada obat. Bagi orang-orang yang masih melaporkan gejala, gejala-gejala ditingkatkan dengan 66 persen. Gejala-gejala orang-orang dalam kelompok plasebo telah memburuk sebesar 29 persen.

Peserta juga melaporkan tidur lebih baik.

“Karena gejala RLS bertambah buruk pada malam hari, sulit bagi orang-orang dengan RLS untuk mendapatkan tidur yang cukup,” kata penulis studi Diego Garcia-Borreguero, MD, Direktur Sleep Research Institute di Madrid, Spanyol. “Namun, temuan pregabalin acara kami membantu orang mendapatkan tidur yang lebih dalam. Obat ditahan dengan baik dan merupakan alternatif yang menjanjikan untuk pengobatan saat ini karena efek unggul pada kualitas tidur. “

Penelitian ini didukung oleh Pfizer Inc dan akan dipresentasikan pada American Academy of Neurology Pertemuan Tahunan ke-61 itu. Sumber: ScienceDaily



Understanding the Symptoms of Restless Leg Syndrome

Restless leg syndrome is a very real problem that causes a sudden desire to move your legs. It is important to have an understanding of restless leg syndrome in order to obtain targeted treatment. Understanding the symptoms of restless leg syndrome can help your doctor obtain a proper diagnosis, and is based on history and description of the symptoms. 

The urge to move the legs is irresistible and is associated with uncomfortable feelings. The symptoms of restless leg syndrome are worse when sleeping, and can interfere with rest. 


Sleep deprivation from restless leg syndrome can interfere with productivity at work and at home. Some individuals experience frequent jerking movements that occur intermittently and disrupt sleep. Sensations in the legs are described as “crawling”, “itching”, “pulling” and “creeping ”.


Diagnosis of restless leg syndrome is based on the following:



Sudden desire to move your legs accompanied by unusual or uncomfortable sensations Increased urge when trying to rest Symptoms are better when the legs move Symptoms are worse at night

Restless leg syndrome affects all genders, ethnicity, and age groups. It is considered a hereditary disease . According to the Mayo Clinic, restless leg syndrome affects five to eleven percent of individuals in North America and Europe. In July, 2009, findings that restless leg syndrome is linked to a gene mutation were published.

According to Carles Vilariño-Güell, Ph.D., a neuroscientist at Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, the gene mutation associated with restless leg syndrome…” is in a portion of the protein that is identical in species as distinct to human as frogs and fish, which tells us that this portion is very important for the proper function of the protein and that the mutation has a very high chance of causing disease.”

Restless leg syndrome is also linked to increased estrogen levels during pregnancy, making women more susceptible. The study was published February 2009 in the Journal, Sleep, and was conducted by German researchers.

Dr. Thomas Pollmächer, principal investigator for the study said, “We, for the first time, have quite direct evidence that RLS in pregnancy … “is obviously directly related to hormonal changes (estrogens),” according to information from Reuters Health.

Restless leg syndrome is also common among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The symptoms are also worse for those who take antihistamines to sleep. Multiple sclerosis is linked to increased risk for restless leg syndrome.

Restless leg syndrome not only decreases sleep quality, but was also found to be linked to increased risk of heart disease and stroke, in a large study conducted by Harvard researchers and published in the January 1, 2008, issue of Neurology, the medical journal of the American Academy of Neurology.


Treatment options for restless leg syndrome


The goal of treatment for restless leg syndrome is to relieve the symptoms. Addressing the underlying cause can help, especially if there is a problem with the nerves or blood flow in the legs that is most common in diabetics. 

Low levels of iron, folate , and magnesium can contribute to symptoms of restless legs. Your doctor can measure with a simple blood test and may suggest supplements if levels are low. Avoidance of caffeine , alcohol and tobacco can help treat restless leg syndrome. If you smoke, consume alcohol and enjoy caffeine, decreasing consumption can help. Moderate, versus vigorous exercise helps some individuals decrease the severity of symptoms. For some, massage, heat, and a warm bath helps decrease, but not eliminate restless leg syndrome symptoms. 




Ropinirole is an approved drug from the FDA that is also used to treat Parkinson’s disease , and can be prescribed to treat restless leg syndrome. Sedatives can help with sleep and relax the muscles as a treatment option. Pain medication can help with uncomfortable feelings associated with restless leg syndrome.


Symptoms of restless leg syndrome should not be ignored. Understanding restless leg syndrome symptoms, causes and treatment options are important to prevent risk of stroke, and improve sleep quality. There is no known cure for restless leg syndrome. Speak with your doctor if you think you have been experiencing symptoms

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Sindrom kaki gelisah adalah masalah yang sangat nyata yang menyebabkan keinginan mendadak untuk memindahkan kaki Anda. Hal ini penting untuk memiliki pemahaman tentang sindrom kaki gelisah untuk mendapatkan pengobatan yang ditargetkan. Memahami gejala sindrom kaki gelisah dapat membantu dokter mendapatkan diagnosa yang tepat, dan didasarkan pada sejarah dan deskripsi dari gejala.

Dorongan untuk menggerakkan kaki yang tak tertahankan dan berhubungan dengan perasaan tidak nyaman. Gejala-gejala sindrom kaki gelisah lebih buruk ketika tidur, dan dapat mengganggu istirahat. Kurang tidur dari sindrom kaki gelisah dapat mengganggu produktivitas di tempat kerja dan di rumah. Beberapa individu mengalami gerakan yang menghentak sering yang terjadi sebentar-sebentar dan mengganggu tidur. Sensasi di kaki digambarkan sebagai “merangkak”, “gatal”, “menarik” dan “merayap”. Diagnosis sindrom kaki gelisah didasarkan pada hal berikut:   Tiba-tiba keinginan untuk menggerakkan kaki Anda disertai oleh sensasi yang tidak biasa atau tidak nyaman Peningkatan dorongan ketika mencoba untuk beristirahat Gejala lebih baik bila kaki bergerak Gejala memburuk pada malam hari Sindrom kaki gelisah mempengaruhi semua jenis kelamin, etnis, dan kelompok umur. Hal ini dianggap sebagai penyakit keturunan. Menurut Mayo Clinic, sindrom kaki gelisah mempengaruhi 5-11 persen individu di Amerika Utara dan Eropa. Pada bulan Juli, 2009, temuan bahwa sindrom kaki gelisah terkait dengan mutasi gen diterbitkan. Menurut Carles Vilariño-Güell, Ph.D., seorang ahli syaraf di Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, mutasi gen yang terkait dengan sindrom kaki gelisah … “adalah bagian dari protein yang identik pada spesies yang berbeda untuk manusia sebagai katak dan ikan , yang mengatakan kepada kita bahwa bagian ini sangat penting untuk fungsi yang tepat dari protein dan bahwa mutasi memiliki kesempatan yang sangat tinggi menyebabkan penyakit. ” Sindrom kaki gelisah juga terkait dengan meningkatnya kadar estrogen selama kehamilan, membuat wanita lebih rentan. Studi ini dipublikasikan Februari 2009 di Journal, Tidur, dan dilakukan oleh para peneliti Jerman. Dr Thomas Pollmächer, peneliti utama penelitian mengatakan, “Kami, untuk pertama kalinya, memiliki bukti cukup langsung bahwa RLS pada kehamilan …” jelas langsung berhubungan dengan perubahan hormonal (estrogen), “menurut informasi dari Reuters Health . Sindrom kaki gelisah juga umum di antara pasien dengan penyakit ginjal kronis (CKD). Gejala tersebut juga lebih buruk bagi mereka yang mengambil antihistamin untuk tidur. Multiple sclerosis adalah terkait dengan peningkatan risiko untuk sindrom kaki gelisah. Sindrom kaki gelisah tidak hanya mengurangi kualitas tidur, tetapi juga ditemukan dihubungkan dengan peningkatan risiko penyakit jantung dan stroke, dalam sebuah penelitian besar yang dilakukan oleh para peneliti Harvard dan diterbitkan dalam edisi 1 Januari 2008, Neurologi, jurnal medis dari American Academy of Neurology. Pengobatan pilihan untuk sindrom kaki gelisah  Tujuan pengobatan untuk sindrom kaki gelisah adalah untuk meringankan gejala. Mengatasi penyebab yang mendasari dapat membantu, terutama jika ada masalah dengan saraf atau aliran darah di kaki yang paling umum pada penderita diabetes. Rendahnya tingkat zat besi, folat, dan magnesium dapat berkontribusi untuk gejala kaki gelisah. Dokter dapat mengukur dengan tes darah yang sederhana dan mungkin menyarankan suplemen jika tingkat rendah. Menghindari kafein, alkohol dan tembakau dapat membantu mengobati sindrom kaki gelisah. Jika Anda merokok, mengkonsumsi alkohol dan menikmati kafein, konsumsi menurun dapat membantu. Latihan moderat, dibandingkan yang kuat membantu beberapa individu mengurangi keparahan gejala. Untuk beberapa, pijat, panas, dan mandi air hangat membantu mengurangi, namun tidak menghilangkan gejala sindrom kaki gelisah. Obat-obatan   Ropinirole adalah obat yang disetujui dari FDA yang juga digunakan untuk mengobati penyakit Parkinson, dan dapat diresepkan untuk mengobati sindrom kaki gelisah. Sedatif dapat membantu dengan tidur dan rileks otot-otot sebagai pilihan pengobatan. Obat nyeri dapat membantu dengan perasaan tidak nyaman yang berhubungan dengan sindrom kaki gelisah. Gejala sindrom kaki gelisah tidak boleh diabaikan. Memahami gejala sindrom kaki gelisah, penyebab dan pilihan pengobatan yang penting untuk mencegah risiko stroke, dan meningkatkan kualitas tidur. Tidak ada obat dikenal untuk sindrom kaki gelisah. Bicaralah dengan dokter Anda jika Anda berpikir Anda telah mengalami gejala


































Indonesian Version




Tahun ini merupakan tahun ke-empat saya mengalami RLS Syndrome,

Setelah saya pelajari dan berusaha meningkatkan olah raga agar sirkulasi darah dikaki dapat meningkat dan mencegah berdirit terlalu lama atau duduk dengan  kaki tergantung di cegah, banyak usul dari teman-teman agar saya berjalan di atas kerikil batu panas , tetapi tidak ada kemajuannya.

Saat ini rasa kebal dan edema pada ujung telapak kaki dan jari kaki selalu masih ada terutama saa56t istirahat diserta perasaan edema pada telapak dan jari kaki bagian ujung, sehubungan dengan hal tersebut diatas saya mulai melakukan penelitian kepustakaan tentang pathophysiolog8is, bagaimana kelainan ini berkembang, gelaja klinis dan pengoba56tan yang ada saat ini, untuk itu saya harap bantuan dari seluruh pasien yang mengalaminya untuk bersedia memberikan komentra dan info,.

Saya Harap forum diskusi ini akan menghasilkan informasi yang dapat diolah menjadi suatu conclusion akhir yang dapat dimanfaatkan oleh siapa saja yang mengalami kelainan RLS S6yndrome ini.

Kelainan RLS syndrome yang saya alami bersifat simetris, sehingga kemungkinan kelainannya berada di saraf tulangbelakang atau Batang otak, apa yang menyebabkannnya ,dari beberapa literaturs ditemyukan adanya defisiensi mineral magnesium da keracunan tembaga, xehingga mulai dari info ini saya akan bergerak untuk berkonsultasi kepada para ahlinya.

Saya harap anda semua mendoakan agar kelainan Ini akan dapat segers diatasi.

Jakarta October 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy


The Royal Princess Jogya Wedding Ceremony











The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Royal Princess Jogya Wedding Ceremony.

Introduction Marriage Akbar Sultan Palace 16 to 19 October 2011 | Wedding GRA Nurastuti Wijareni With M Ubaidillah
  Akbar Sultan Palace wedding will be held at 16 to 19 October 2011. As for his graduation ceremony the bride and groom will be held on July 3, 2011 at ward Purworetno Ngayogyokarto Sultanate Palace. Sultan Palace is currently preparing the dancers who will perform at the event’s youngest daughter married the Sultan HB X is also a finalist of Miss Indonesia 2009, GRA Nurastuti Wijareni with M Ubaidillah

Pernikahan Akbar Keraton Yogyakarta 16-19 Oktober 2011 | Pernikahan GRA Nurastuti Wijareni Dengan M Ubaidillah

Yogyakarta Love grows precisely when a position far from each other. That initial engagement GRAj Nurkamnari Goddess, the third daughter of Sri Sultan HB X, with the SE Yun Prasetyo MBA. Application was filed by mail.
Yun who now holds Purbodiningrat KPH, since Friday (9 / 5), officially became the law of Sri Sultan HB X He has edited GRAj Nurkamnari Goddess who now holds the RCC Maduretno, third daughter of the King of Yogyakarta.
Yun, son of H Djuwanto (late) and Raden Ayu Handayati Djuwanto, Gusti Goddess first met in 1994. Introduction bridged one of the companions Goddess. When introduced, they admitted there was no special feeling.
New in 2003 they met again. “We met on the street and had time to chat,” said Yun.
But that relationship has not shown the flowers of romance. Moreover, the Goddess and then continue their studies in Australia and continuing education Yun S2 in Washington DC, USA.
Interestingly, even in places far from each other it romance blossoms spread between the two. February 2008, Yun ventured to apply for her idol’s daughter.
Yun, the restaurateur and florist, also apply to the Sultan. What is also unique, applications submitted in the form of a letter written and submitted parent applicants.
“Because my father was dead, application filed on behalf of the mother. It contained more or less begged Ngarsa Dalem that we should marry his daughter.’s Letter of application written in Java and Latin,” said Yun.
Not long ago, written answers sent by messenger whose contents Dalem grant application. “So we got married,” tutrur Yun.
Yun then got promoted Kangjeng Tumengung Raden (KRT) and given the same name Purbodiningrat. Rank was raised again to Kangjeng Prince Hario (KPH) with a fixed name Purbodiningrat.
For Goddess, Yun was the first girlfriend. “He was good,” he said commenting on her partner.
Facing her marriage, Yun pleaded not have special preparation. He just set up the Al-Quran and its translation plus a set of tools that made prayer and gold wedding ring.
Thursday evening, the Sultan summoned his daughter, GKR Maduretno. In a ceremony called tantingan it, the Sultan asked the truth if her daughter wanted to marry Purbodiningrat KPH.
“Son of Queen Maduretno Kangjeng Ingsun Gusti, what sira saguh dhaup karo man Ingsun Purbodiningrat KPH?” asked the Sultan to his daughter. It means, ‘My son Gusti Kangjeng Maduretno Queen, are you willing to marry abdiku, KPH Purbodiningrat?’
The question was answered speedy way, “Inggih or yes.” Finally, in the morning ceremony took place. GKR Maduretno married themselves by the Sultan, his father.
The party was filled with white flowers and great lively. Seen a number of important guests attended the ceremony, including Vice President M Jusuf Kalla and his wife.
On behalf of Purbodiningrati, one of the relatives of Yogyakarta Palace RM Dinusatomo say, the name was originally used by the son of the elder brother of Sri Sultan HB VIII that had died. Purbodiningrat itself means the ruler of the world’s major

Sultan HB X’s youngest daughter and her partner will be carried using the royal carriage.


Gusti Maya Raden Achmad Nur Astuti Wijareni and Ubaidillah (Document Family)
YouTube – The event was held in the grand moment of Yogyakarta Palace. Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono would marry her youngest daughter, Maya Gusti Raden Astuti Wijareni Nur, by Achmad Ubaidillah on October 18, 2011.

Royal Wedding aka royal style wedding will be performed. Like what? “Royal Wedding within the meaning of marriage in court must do the traditional ceremony that we need to do,” said GKR Hemas in the House Representatives, Jakarta, Friday, September 30, 2011.

Hemas revealed, the wedding party of the people was also presented as Yogya. “Also the one that awaited the people, who awaited the palace,” he said.

According to him, people around the palace enthusiastically welcomed the event which has had its day. “They come to pray and celebrate. They want to go partying in the streets and corners of the city, so there is a festival. Later they will be entertained a number of folk entertainment while waiting for the passage of trains royal wedding, “said Hemas.

Hemas said, the concept of marriage is continuing a tradition that begins Sultan Hamengkubuwono VII. According to him, when it was sent around the bride being carried in procession. Accompany their partners around the riding. “But then arguably feudal, so the carriage ride both ways from being carried to the location of the wedding palace in kepatihan,” he said.

He added, how the procession the wedding couple’s special moments most anticipated is the community. The committee will also provide screens on street corners. “We put on some corner so people can view the proceedings Yogya,” he said.

Hemas hope, in addition to fulfilling its obligations as a parent: to marry a child, his youngest daughter’s wedding can also be a tourist attraction in Yogyakarta.

Is the bride will wear fancy clothes, such as marriage between Prince William and Kate Middleton? “We still do not have that luxury. What is clear is that the concept of traditional clothing, traditional fixed, and that nothing has changed. Our son does not use expensive design, tailor lengganan keep us, “said Hemas.


Pengantin Kraton Ngayogyokarto Hadiningrat

marriage processions in Yogyakarta Kingdom. Could also to learn about Javanese Kraton used and the use of language like this is rare. according to published manuscripts Kraton.

Lane X, King Ngayogyokarto Sultanate Palace, Friday (05/09/2008) and then, all three daughters married, Gusti Raden Maya (GRAJ) Nurkamnari Goddess with Kangjeng Raden Tumenggung (KRT) Purbodiningrat. After marriage GRAJ Nurkamnari Goddess got a new name Gusti Kangjeng Queen (RCC) Maduretno, while KRT Purbadiningrat be Kangjeng Prince Harya (KPH) Purb

Flare / SOWAN Nyantri
Ing dinten Thursday Legi, dated 1941 Kaping 2 Jumada Jimawal utawi Suryo Kaping May 8, 2008.

Wanci enjing 8:00 (08:00 GMT)

Ha (1). Kangjeng Gusti Hariya Hadiwinoto Prince, the Prince Harya Bendara Gusti, the Dalem Prince Abdi Abdi Dalem Sentana sarta the carpenter Regents Punakawan sarta Kaprajan sanese sarta the Dharah Dalem jaler ingkang cepeng damel sami sami SOWAN wenten ing Gadri Dalem Kasatriyan majesties.

Na (2). Gusti Kangjeng Queen Pembayun, relict Garwa Dalem Nata, Gusti Raden Ayu Suryokusumo, the Gusti Ayu Bendara Raden, relict Kangjeng Panembahan, garwane Kangjeng Prince Harya Hadiwinoto Gusti, the relict garwa Lurah Prince, the Prince Harya Bendara garwane Gusti, the relict garwa Gusti Bendara Prince Harya, the Blood Dalem estri sarta the Abdi Dalem estri ingkang sami sami cepeng damel wenten bloom ing majesties Dalem Kedhatonan Sekar Ward.

Ca (3). Gusti Kangjeng Queen Hemas, Gusti Raden Nurkamnari Goddess Maya, the Maya sanese Gusti Raden sarta the Blood Dalem estri ingkang kakersakake ngampil ampilan bride, sami bloom ing wenten majesties Dalem Kilen Palace.

Ra (4). Raden Kangjeng Tumenggung Purbodiningrat, Hajjah Handayati Djuwanto sarta ombong sanese sami sumadya wenten griyane ing.

Waci enjing 8.30 am (08:30 GMT)

Ha (1). Kangjeng Gusti Haryo Hadiwinoto envoy Prince Prince Kangjeng Harya Wironegoro saha Kangjeng Tumenggung Danukusumo Raden, kakersakake nimbali Kangjeng Raden Tumenggung Purbodiningrat SOWAN Nyantri. Abdi Dalem Bidale envoy Dalem dhumateng griyane Kangjeng Raden Tumenggung Purbodiningrat medal majesties Dalem Regol Magangan mengangge cenela sarta numpak wimana Paring Dalem Kawedanan Hageng Punakawan sarta Kriya spacecraft.

Na (2). Gusti Kangjeng Queen (GKR) Pembayun envoy Bendara Raden Ayu serakit dhumateng majesties Dalem Kraton Kilen, kakersakake nyuwun marake Gusti Raden Nurkamnari Goddess Maya wenten ing majesties Dalem Kedhatonan Sekar Ward. Bidale Gusti Raden Ayu Bendara serakit dhumateng majesties Dalem Kraton Kilen medal seketeng sakidul majesties Queen Kencanan Dalem Ward.

Wanci enjing 9:30 (09:30 GMT)

Ha (1). Sowane Kangjeng Raden Tumenggung Purbodiningrat wenten ing Gadri majesties Dalem Kasatriyan kahirit Abdi-envoy-Dalem Dalem serakit ginarudug Hajjah Handayati Djuwanto sarta ombyong sanese, lumebet cempuri majesties-Dalem Palace Ngayogyakarta medal-Dalem Regol Magangan majesties. Ing Weten Gadri majesties-Dalem Kasatriyan katampi Kangjeng Gusti Prince Harya Hadiwinoto, sasampune lenggahan sawetawis lajeng Kangjeng Raden Tumenggung Purbodiningrat kapapanake wenten-ing majesties Dalem Gedhong Sri Katon. Wondene Hajjah Handayati Djuwanto sarta ombyong sanese kapapanake wenten ing board ingkang sampun disumektake

Sri Sultan HB X meninjau KPH Purbodiningrat yang sedang nyantri

Na (2). Gusti Raden Ajeng Nurkamnari Dewi katampi Gusti Kangjeng Ratu Pembayun wenten ing Kagungan-Dalem Bangsal Sekar Kedhatonan kakanthi Bendara Raden Ayu serakit, saking Kagungan-Dalem Bangsal Kraton Kilen dhumateng Kagungan-Dalem Bangsal Ratu Kencana. Sesampune lenggahan sawetawis, bakda majang sarta tarub Gusti Raden Ajeng Nurkamnari Dewi lajeng kapapanake wenten ing empar Kagungan-Dalem Bangsal Prabayeksa kidul iring wetan, wondene ampilan sarta ombyong sanese kapapanake wenten ing papan-papan ingkang sampun disumektake. ***

The Traditional Ceremony

1.Pelangkahan ceremony





the end @ copy right Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Prince Bhutan Wedding Ceremony


 King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck greets journalists after his marriage to Queen Jetsun Pema at the Punkaha Dzong in Bhutan's ancient capital Punakha










The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Prince Bhutan Wedding Ceremony



Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck and Jetsun Pema (AP)

Prince Bhutan Wedding Preparation


Bhutan’s ‘Prince Charming’ king marries student bride

Bhutan’s 31-year-old king has married a student 10 years his junior in an isolated valley high in the Himalayas where thousands of nomads and villagers gathered to celebrate.


The hugely popular Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck wed Jetsun Pema, the daughter of an airline pilot, in a colourful Buddhist ceremony at a 17th-century fortified monastery in the ancient capital of Punakha.

Set between two rivers and accessible by footbridge, the stunning building contains the remains of a Tibetan holy man said to be the founder of modern Bhutan.

Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck and Jetsun Pema (AP) Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck and Jetsun Pema

Proceedings were beamed live across the staunchly royalist but isolated country of 700,000 people, who, decked out in national dress, will mark the occasion with dancing, singing and drinking over three days of public holiday.

The country, which banned foreign television until 1999 and is the only nation in the world whose government pursues “Gross National Happiness” for its people instead of economic growth, is set for an outpouring of joy.

“You can be sure that our happiness is increasing,” joked Karma Tshiteem, the head of the Gross National Happiness Commission, which vets government policy to ensure it increases the mental well-being of citizens.

“It’s a big day for all Bhutanese,” said 32-year-old housewife Tshering Lhamo in the capital Thimphu. “Everyone loves the king and for my generation we have never seen a royal wedding before.”

After a private ceremony in front of 300 VIPs, the new queen and her husband, the fifth in a line of hereditary rulers who have reigned for the last 100 years, will greet crowds of well-wishers at a public celebration.

Thousands of nomads, who roam for most of the year with their animals in the upper reaches of the mountains, have come down to the valley to join in, alongside others who will travel by foot from nearby villages.

Security is tight, with phone networks jammed and police enforcing strict controls on vehicles in a wide area surrounding the monastery.

On Monday, two small bombs went off in a town on the border with India injuring four people, in attacks claimed by an insurgent group based in Nepal fighting for the rights of ethnic Nepalese in Bhutan.

The king, an Oxford-educated Elvis fan crowned in 2008 who is known to invite his subjects round for tea, had requested a simple and traditional ceremony. No foreign VIPs or fellow royals have been invited.

The announcement of the nuptials in May broke the hearts of the monarch’s many admirers.

The “prince charming of the Himalayas” was once mobbed on a trip to Thailand by weeping teenagers on one of his rare official foreign trips.

Few people know much about their future queen, save for some details about her competitiveness on the basketball court, her tender age and her striking looks.

Pema, who studied in London and is pursuing a degree in international relations, is admired for her beauty and the apparent impact she has had on the king, who talks often of his love for her, even holding her hand at public functions. The Bhutanese royal family are credited with bringing stability to the formerly war-wracked nation and ensuring its independence despite giant neighbours India and China to the north and south.

Bhutan, which has never been colonised, remained in self-imposed isolation for centuries and is still wary of outside influence and the impact of globalisation.

The country had no roads or currency until the 1960s and continues to resist mass tourism to this day. Foreign tourists must travel in groups with official guides and pay fees of up to $200 a day.

King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck greets journalists after his marriage to Queen Jetsun Pema at the Punkaha Dzong in Bhutan's ancient capital Punakha

Bhutan’s much-publicised royal wedding that will see King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck tying the nuptial knot with his childhood sweetheart Jetsun Pema began on Thursday morning amid chanting of hymns by Buddhist monks in the historical city of Punakha.

Thousands of Bhutanese, including children and women, started thronging the ground near the stunning 17th century fortress in this ancient city, 71 km from capital Thimphu, from various parts of the tiny Himalayan hingdom as early as 5 am (local time), braving intense cold.

Majority of the 71 lakh population remained glued to their television sets to watch the wedding ceremony which was being telecast live on Bhutan Broadcasting Service TV.

The elaborate wedding ceremony, which is being conducted according to Bhutanese Buddhist traditions, began at 4 am with the initiation of special prayers by 100 monks led by His Holiness Je Khenpo, the head monastic preceptor.
Image: King Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck greets journalists after his marriage to Queen Jetsun Pema at the Punkaha Dzong in Bhutan’s ancient capital Punakha

Prince Bhutan Wedding Ceremony


Prince Bhutan wedding anniversary collections

the end @copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Highest Value of Rarest Chinese Red In Glazed Vase










The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum


(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Rarest and valuable Chinese red In Glazed Vase


I have read about the New world record for Ming vase
from China Daily newspaper Updated: 2006-05-31 05:52 HONG KONG: about A rare underglaze copper-red Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) vase sold for HK$78.52 million (US$10.13 million) in Hong Kong yesterday, setting a world auction record for Ming porcelain.Ming Vase Theow Tow, Deputy Chairman of Christie’s Asia and the Americas International Director of Chinese works of Arts, looks at an early Ming underglaze copper-red vase after it was sold for a world record of US$10,122,558 for any Ming porcelain during an auction in Hong Kong May 30, 2006. [Reuters]
“He’s bought the vase at the right price, making a world record,” said Edward Dolman, chief executive officer of Christie’s International, referring to buyer Steve Wynn, chairman of Macao-based Wynn Resorts.


The pear-shaped vase, decorated with a peony scroll, is the only copper-red vase of the early Ming Dynasty still in perfect condition to be offered at auction in more than 15 years, said Christie’s Hong Kong office.

The vase was originally inherited by a Scottish couple who used it as a lamp and did not realize its value until they saw a similar example in a museum.

Ceramics with underglaze copper-red decoration are very rare, owing to their complicated production process.

Dr Iwan note

I have found in Indonesia near same copper red vase but in broken condition one only top and the other which have restoration.,what about the value of this artifact ,please comment.This artifact important to compere with your own collections because many fake exist now.


I also found semipor celain red in glazed in boken near 80% per shape vase, so0meonje said to me that this is from anamaese,please comment


the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

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