Sejarah Meletusnya Gunung Galunggung Yang dahsyat(Mt.Galungung Eruptions history) in 1822

Sejarah Meletusnya gunung Galunggung Yang Dahsyat tahun 1922

INTRODUCTION

Pada umumnya di Indonesia meletusnya gunung Kratau abad ke 19  sangat terkenal dan sudah ditulis dalam web ini, tetapi yang cukup dahyat juga meletusnya gunung Galunggung tahun 1922. Informasi ini diperoleh dalam web timeline dengan sumber info emergency menegement .net, info tersebut sesuai aslinya berbunyi  sebagai berikut:

1822        Oct 8,

 The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.


   
saya belum pernah membaca dan mendengar info ini sehingga  saya mulai melakukan penelitian dan mengumpulkan data yang dapat dibaca dalam bab sejarah(history).Masih banya info yang belum diperoleh sehingga tulisan ini belum lengkap,harap bagi yang memiliki info terseb ut harap berkenan memberikannya kepada saya liwat comment di web blog ini,untuk itu terima kasih.

Tulisan ini khsus saya tulis bagi masyarakat Indonesia,khususnya yang bermukim disekitar gunung galunggung,karena sekitar tahun 1982  gunung galunggung meletus kembali sehingga debu dan asapnya menganggu penerbangan pesaqwat Qantas dari Singapore ke Melbourne,karena tak ada informasi pilot pesawat tersebut binggung melihat pesawatnya berasap dengan percikan api,kemudian memutuskan kembali mendarat darurat ke lapangan terbang Halim Perdana Kusuma Jakarta, dengan cara mematikan mesin pesawat dan saat hampir tiba di halim dihidupkan kembali untung selamat mendarat diHalim dan seluruh penumpang pesawat selamat.

 

Jakarta Januari 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy

HISTORY

 Early signs of eruption known in July 1822, where the water becomes turbid and muddy Cikunir. The result of examination of the crater showed that the turbid water was hot and sometimes appear in the column of smoke from the crater. Then on October 8, s.d. October 12, the eruption of reddish sand produces rain very hot, fine ash, hot clouds and lava. Lava flow moving toward the southeast following the river flows. This eruption killed 4011 people and 114 villages destroyed, with damage to the land to the east and south as far as 40 km from the mountaintop.

indonesian volcano

 

Mount Galunggung ever recorded erupted in 1882 (VEI = 5).

Galunggung Mountain

Mount Galunggung ever recorded erupted in 1882 (VEI = 5). Early signs of eruption known in July 1822, where the water becomes turbid and muddy Cikunir. Results of the crater showed that the turbid water is hot and sometimes appear in the column of smoke from the crater.
 

Gunung Galunggung terletak di Tasikmalaya, merupakan gunung berapi yang masih aktif dengan jarak letusan sekitar 72 – 88 tahun.

Pada tahun 1822 letusan dasyat gunung Galung gung telah merengut korban jiwa sebanyak 4.000 orang. Letusan besar berikutnya terjadi pada tahun 1894 dengan korban jiwa yang lebih kecil.

Pada bulan Juni tahun 1982 Gn. Galunggung mengeluarkan 36 kali letusan besar dan 300 letusan kecil. Lahar dan abu yang di muntahkan merusak tanaman, ternak dan kolam ikan, namun tidak merengut korban jiwa manusia. Abu menyembur sampai sejauh 20 km ke angkasa, dan sampai bulan September terbentuk lapisan abu setebal 3 cm di area yang berjarak 15 km dari kawah, dengan jumlah rerntuhan sekitar 200 juta meter kubik.

Untuk menuju Kawah Gunung Galunggung dapat di tempuh dari Obyek wisata Taman rekreasi air panas Cipanas Galunggung yang merupakan kawasan wisata air panas yang terletak di kaki gunung Galunggung.

Taman rekreasi air panas Cipanas Galunggung terletak sekitar 20 km barat laut kota Tasikmalaya. Untuk mencapai tempat ini dengan menggunakan angkot dari Terminal bus Tasikmalaya menuju Bantar melalui Jalan Raya utama, dan dari Bantar naik ojek ke kawasan air panas sejauh 14 km melalui jalan yang bergelombang.

Dari Taman rekreasi air panas Cipanas Galunggung ini wisatawan dapat meneruskan perjalanan mengikuti jalan kecil kesebuah air terjun kecil dan terus ke kawah Gunung Galunggung sejauh 3 km.

Perjalanan mendaki ke kawah tidak terlalu sukar namun pemandangannya kurang menarik. Terdapat tangga yang terbuat dari semen untuk menuju kelokasi Kawah Gunung Galunggung

Galunggung

 

 
Galunggung

Lightning strikes during the 1982 eruption of Galunggung
Elevation 2,168 m (7,113 ft)
Listing Ribu
Location
Location West Java, Indonesia
Coordinates 7°15′24″S 108°04′37″E / 7.2567315°S 108.0770588°E / -7.2567315; 108.0770588Coordinates: 7°15′24″S 108°04′37″E / 7.2567315°S 108.0770588°E / -7.2567315; 108.0770588
Geology
Type Stratovolcano (active)
Last eruption 1982

Mount Galunggung (Indonesian: Gunung Galunggung, formerly spelled Galoen-gong) is an active stratovolcano in West Java, Indonesia, around 80 km southeast of the West Java provincial capital, Bandung (or around 25 km to the east of the West Java town of Garut). Mount Galunggung is part of the Sunda Arc extending through Sumatra, Java and Bali, which has resulted from the subduction of the Indian oceanic plate and the Australian plate beneath the Eurasian plate.

 

 

 Hazardous eruption of 1982

A lahar from the 1982 eruption of Galunggung.

The last major eruption on Galunggung was in 1982, which had a Volcanic Explosivity Index of 4 and killed 72 people. This eruption also brought the dangers of volcanic ash to aviation to worldwide attention, after two Boeing 747 passenger jets flying downwind of the eruption suffered temporary engine failures and damage to exterior surfaces, both planes being forced to make emergency landings at Jakarta airport.

One, a British Airways aircraft carrying 240 passengers, accidentally entered the ash cloud during night time in June 1982 150 km downwind of the volcano. All four engines failed due to the buildup of volcanic ash, and the aircraft descended for 16 minutes, losing 7,500 metres of its 11,500-meter altitude, until the crew managed to restart the engines.

The following month a Singapore Airlines aeroplane with 230approx passengers aboard also inadvertently entered the cloud at night time, and three of its four engines stopped. The crew succeeded in restarting one of the engines after descending 2,400 metres. Both aircraft suffered serious damage to their engines and exterior surfaces

 Historical avalanche deposits

A hummocky deposit known as the Ten Thousand Hills of Tasikmalaya attracted the attention of early 20th century geologists. Houses were built on the hummocks since they provided good defence against hostile people, and being above the paddy fields were free of mosquitoes and rats.

Originally, it was thought that either it had been formed by a lahar caused by the release of the waters of the crater lake, or that it was man-made; composed of rocks and boulders dumped there after being cleared from paddy fields.

However, in the light of the Mount St. Helens eruption of 1980 and from examination of the Mount Shasta deposits it has become clear that the hummocks are a debris-avalanche deposit. Like these mountains, Galunggung has a horseshoe-shaped crater indicating a massive landslide, and examination of shattered lava blocks revealed them to be similar to deposits on the other two volcanoes. According to radiocarbon dating of samples taken from a lava flow the landslide happened within the last 23,000 years

 

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4 responses to “Sejarah Meletusnya Gunung Galunggung Yang dahsyat(Mt.Galungung Eruptions history) in 1822

  1. ronny sayang bunda

    mulai lah waspada karena gunung galunggung telah aktif kembali

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