The Japan Historic Collections 1700-1900

THE JAPAN HISTORIC COLLECTIONS 1700-1900

photo

IMG_2451-Kyoto-RW-1800

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-ROM

Copyright@Dr Iwan Suwandy 2012

THIS E-BOOK DEDICATED TO MY SON ANTON JIMMI SUWANDY AND GRANDCHILD CESSA

part two 1800-1900

owariya.jpg

HAPPYBIRTHDAY ANTON IN  JANUARY,14th AND CESSA IN JANUARY,21th.

INTRODUCTIONS

Anton ever visit Japan several time  and ever stayed one years in 2003 at Toyoya City, he ever go to Kyoto and naother area, this e-book many informations about the old Japan capital Kyoto. and other place with rare Japan old artwork  illustration

.

Geisha on Gion district

Geisha on Gion district

I hope Anton and Cessa will enjoy to look the informations with illustrations below.

Jakarta,January 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy

COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION

1700

1776

Willowy Beauties

These images, possibly by Isoda Koryûsai (fl. mid-1760s to 1780s), were intended for display on support pillars in buildings. In one of the images, a woman is shown engrossed in reading a scroll, perhaps a love letter, while a young man emerges from behind a painted screen and reads over her shoulder. The other print shows two beauties, one holding sumptuous fabric, and the other a long-stemmed pipe that extends beyond the border of the image.

Untitled Untitled

Attributed to Isoda Koryûsai.
Untitled, pre-1789.
Image 1Image 2
Color woodblock prints, hashira-e,
28 1/4 in. x 4 3/4 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (13, 14)
(LC-USZC4-8533, LC-USZC4-8534)

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Delicate Beauty

This print by Kitao Shigemasa (1739-1820) is in the style of Suzuki Harunobu (1724-1770) and shows the small dainty figures associated with his artwork. Harunobu is credited with developing the method of multicolor printing seen here, known as nishiki-e or brocade prints.

Girl with Insect Cage and Girl Reading a Letter
Kitao Shigemasa.
Girl with Insect Cage and Girl
Reading a Letter
, pre-1820.
Color woodblock print, chûban,
10 in. x 7 1/2 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (15)
(LC-USZC4-8408)
------
Assembled Beauties, New Impression
Issai.
Assembled Beauties, New Impression

(Shinpan bijo-zukushi).
Tokyo: Izutsuya, ca.1870.
Wild cherry woodblock,
13 in. x 6 in. x 1 in.
Asian Division (16)
(LC-USZC4-8639)

Beauties Engaged in Various Occupations, Preserved
in Woodblock

This late nineteenth-century woodblock features women attired in dress appropriate for their various occupations. Images here include the servant girl with the umbrella (fourth row) and the girl at writing practice (second row). Prints made from a block such as this may have been pasted to cardboard, cut into small cards, and placed as prizes in bags of sweets. The block itself, a single cut of Japanese wild cherry, has a hardwood surface that can withstand hundreds of impressions.

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The “Beautiful People” of Victorian Japan

True Beauties, illustrated by Toyohara Chikanobu (1838-1912), contains delicately hued portraits of a host of “modern” Japanese women who thrived in the new and changing world three decades into the Meiji era (1868-1912). Clad in a kimono bearing her family crest, the young woman depicted here combines East and West in an exciting blend of fashions. From her blue-tinted spectacles to her gold ring, her accessories announce that she is a woman of means and expansive taste. Chikanobu, his carver, and his printer all worked to provide a rich palate of tones to mesmerize the viewer more than a century later.

True Beauties
Toyohara Chikanobu.
True Beauties
(Shin bijin).
Tokyo: Matsumoto Heikichi, 1898.
Woodblock-printed book,
14 in. x 9 1/2 in.
Asian Division (17)
(LC-USZC4-8743)
------
Views and Costumes of Japan by Stillfried & Andersen
Baron von Raimund Stillfried-Rathenitz
and H. Andersen.
Views and Costumes of Japan
by Stillfried & Andersen
.
Yokohama: ca. 1877.
Silver albumen photograph
with hand-applied watercolor,
14 7/8 in. x 11 5/8 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (18)
(LC-USZC4-8493)

Western Photographic Portrait

Although not an Ukiyo-e image, this portrait is evocative of Ukiyo-e bijin-ga, or pictures of beautiful women. Western photographers, working during the nineteenth century in the Japanese city of Yokohama, often drew inspiration from conventions, subjects, and compositions found in Ukiyo-e images–by that time well known to Western audiences. Among the most successful of these photographers were Baron von Raimund Stillfried-Rathenitz and his predecessor, Felice Beato.

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Blending Genres:
Beauty in Landscape

Here Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1865) uses Utagawa Hiroshige’s famous print of the village of Kanbara from the series The Fifty-three Stages of the Tôkaidô as a backdrop for an enigmatic portrait of a beauty riding a bull. The print reveals the extent to which the artists of Ukiyo-e would borrow images from one another as the traditions of this school developed. Not only did Kunisada use Hiroshige’s landscapes in this series, but he also made a second set of half-length portraits of actors paired against these same landscapes.

Courtesan painting a screen
Utagawa Kunisada.
Picture of Kanbara” from
The Fifty-three Stages of the Tôkaidô

(Tôkaidô gojûsan sugi no uchi: Kanbara zu),
ca. 1853.
Color woodblock print, chûban,
10 in. x 7 1/2 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (19)
(LC-USZC4-8431)
------

Beauties of the Yoshiwara

These high-ranking courtesans from Edo’s famous pleasure district, Yoshiwara, are identified on each print by their names, the houses in which they worked, and the locations of the houses. Gorgeously attired from their elaborately coiffed hair to their lofty platform shoes, these women create a dramatic impression. There were several parallels between kabuki actors and high-ranking courtesans during the Edo Period, including the use of hereditary names that could carry the caché of celebrity down through generations.

Shigeoka from Okamotoya house on Kyô Street Sugatano from Ebiya house on Kyô Street Hanamurasaki from Tamaya house on Edo Street

Artist unidentified. New Yoshiwara (Shin-Yoshiwara).
Shigeoka from Okamotoya house on Kyô Street;
Sugatano from Ebiya house on Kyô Street
;
Hanamurasaki from Tamaya house on Edo Street (left to right)

Late nineteenth century.
Color woodblock print, ôban triptych, 15 in. x 10 in. each.
Prints and Photographs Division (104)
(LC-USZC4-8464, 8465, 8466)

------

Ninth-Century Poet

This print by Kikugawa Eizan (1787-1867) depicts Ono no Komachi (ca. ninth century), a celebrated poet, famed also for her spectacular beauty and its decline in her old age. The translated inscription on this print reads:

Even if we say life is limited,
The accumulating years would not matter
If one’s appearance did not change.

The Modern Seven Komachi
Kikugawa Eizan.
The Modern Seven Komachi
(Fûryû shichi Komachi), pre-1867.
Color woodblock print, ôban,
15 in. x 10 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (56)
(LC-USZC4-8486)
------
The Sketchbooks of Hiroshige
Andô Hiroshige.
The Sketchbooks of Hiroshige

(Hiroshige gajô), ca. 1840.
Album of hand-drawn sketches in two vols.,
10 in. x 6 1/4 in.
Ink and pigment on paper.
Asian Division (112)
(LC-USZC4-8753)

Catching Fireflies

Andô Hiroshige (1797-1858) is world renowned for his masterpieces of graphic art. The album displayed here provides a glimpse of a private side of the artist’s oeuvre not apparent in his published prints. Here a young woman stands on a riverbank and waves an uchiwa fan to catch fireflies. She will keep them in the netted cage on the ground to her left and enjoy their charms at home. Hiroshige employs a moist brush together with a light wash and accents in red and yellow to yield an effective scene, both real and dreamlike in its mood.

Actors

Actor prints, considered ephemera at the time, were almost always created to coincide with performances of a particular kabuki play. The prints were inexpensive–costing about the same as a bowl of noodles–and were intended to be sold immediately as souvenirs and enjoyed briefly. While exploiting the public fascination with kabuki, Ukiyo-e artists in turn served to promote the actors, who were viewed as cultural icons, some with a “superstar” status. In some instances artists were allowed to attend dress rehearsals in order to create the most up-to-date portrait of an actor in the latest play.Theatrical prints often focus on actors in a climactic scene in a play–during a moment of epiphany or extreme emotional turmoil. The actors are shown in a frozen position, or mie, a dramatic pose often accompanied by exaggerated facial expressions, essential to kabuki theater tradition.

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Rare Actor Print

This print is one of only seven known works, all portraits of actors, by Kabukidô Enkyô (1749-1803), the sole follower of the enigmatic Tôshûsai Sharaku (fl. 1794-1795). Nothing was known of Enkyô until 1926, when it was discovered that he also used the name “Nakamura Jûsuke II”; under this name he was known as an author and kabuki actor. It is likely that the subject here is Nakayama Tomisaburô, a male actor who played female roles, as identified by an identical print by Enkyô in the collection of the Art Institute of Chicago.

Portrait of Nakayama
Kabukidô Enkyô.
Portrait of Nakayama

Tomisaburô, ca. 1800.
Color woodblock print,
11 1/4 in. x 9 1/4 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (20)
(LC-USZC4-8439)
------

Theatrical Scene

This triptych by Utagawa Kunisadai (1786-1865) depicts a scene from a kabuki play in which six actors appear–three are dressed as a tiger, an elephant, and a lion. The figures are identified as Hachiman Tarô Yoshiie (left, with parasol), Abe no Sadatô (center, holding tiger), and Sadatô’s wife, Sodehagi, (right, holding long letter).

Hachiman Tarô Yoshiie Abe no Sadatô Sodehagi
Utagawa Kunisada.
Night scene lit by a lantern, ca. 1847-1852.
Hachiman Tarô YoshiieAbe no SadatôSadatô’s wife, Sodehagi
Color woodblock print, ôban triptych,
15 in. x 10 in. each.
Prints and Photographs Division (21)
(LC-USZC4-8444, LC-USZC4-8445, LC-USZC4-8446)
------

Special Effects in Woodblock Prints

This book of portraits by Hanagasa Bunkyô (1785-1861) and Ryûsai Shigeharu (1803-1853) depicts actors from Edo, Kyoto, and Osaka. Shown here, an actor sits in his dressing room, pipe in hand, collecting his thoughts before his performance. On the left, the actor is dressed to play an elderly aristocratic woman. This print is a fine example of printing technology and shows great attention to detail. The surface of a mirror gleams with flecks of mica, while the luxurious brocade robe on the right achieves three dimensionality through the use of embossing on the paper.

The Three Kingdoms of Actors' Customs The Three Kingdoms of Actors' Customs
Hanagasa Bunkyô.
The Three Kingdoms of Actors’ Customs

(Yakusha fûzoku sangokushi).
Ryûsai Shigeharu, illustator.
Image 1Image 2
Osaka: Kawachiya Tasuke, 1831.
Woodblock-printed book,
9 in. x 5 3/4 in. Vol. 1 of 3.
Asian Division (22)
(LC-USZC4-8715, LC-USZC4-8716)
------

The Persistence of Convention

This group of prints by Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861) and Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1865) illustrates how certain conventions and motifs were sometimes repeated. The two multi-panel prints in particular are strikingly similar in composition. Each of these works shows a figure with a sword wearing an ankle-length costume fringed with tassels. The figures stand in almost identical poses in both Kuniyoshi’s triptych and Kunisada’s four-part work. The single sheet, once owned by Oliver Wendell Holmes, shows the figure in the same style of costume, though in a different pose. The Holmes print, which shows Danjûrô VIII, has a label indicating that it is a scene from the play Tale of the Monstrous Rat of the Priest Raigô (Raigô ajari kaisoden), an adaptation of Kyokutei Bakin’s (1767-1848) famous 1808 novel of the same title.

Kurôda Ukinaga Saitôgo Kunitake & Onna Gyôja Osada no Tarô Nagamune

Utagawa Kuniyoshi.
Actors Kurôda Ukinaga, Saitôgo Kunitake & Onna Gyôja, Osada no Tarô Nagamune
(Osada no Tarô Nagamune), ca. 1847-1852.
Color woodblock print, ôban triptych,
15 in. x 10 in. each.
Prints and Photographs Division (23)
(LC-USZC4-8518, 8519, 8520)

------
Saitôgo Kunitake Tada Kurôda Yukitsuna Lady Naruto no mae Akugenta Yoshihira

Utagawa Kunisada.
Actors Saitôgo Kunitake, Tada Kurôda Yukitsuna, Lady Naruto no mae, and Akugenta Yoshihira
ca. 1847-1852.
Color woodblock, ôban tetrych, 15 in. x 10 in. each.
Prints and Photographs Division (24)
(LC-USZC4-8521, 8522, 8523, 8524)

------

In the Tale of the Monstrous Rat

Utagawa Kunisada.
In the Tale of the Monstrous Rat

(Kaisoden no uchi),

ca. 1842.
Color woodblock print, ôban,15 in. x 10 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (25)
(LC-USZC4-8443)
------

Sawamura Sanjûrô III

This print is from the series Forms of Actors on Stage (Yakusha Butai no Sugata-e) by Utagawa Toyokuni (1769-1825). Each actor in this series is shown full length in a simple, distinctive pose that captures a sense of immediacy. The print on view shows Sawamura Sanjûrô III (1753-1801), a leading actor at the Nakamura theater in Edo, famous for his large, fat ear lobes and his great round eyes. Toyokuni carefully portrayed these features of the actor in this print.

Kinokuni ya Sawamura Sanjûrô III as Ôboshi Yuranosuke
Utagawa Toyokuni.
Kinokuni yaSawamura Sanjûrô III as
Ôboshi Yuranosuke
from the series
Forms of Actors on Stage
(Yakusha Butai no Sugata-e
),
ca. 1815-1842.
Color woodblock print, ôban,
15 in. x 10 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (26)
(LC-USZC4-8437)
------

Portraits of Actors in Various Roles

This scroll-mounted group of twenty actor prints, many of which are diptychs, includes numerous images of the same actors. Pictured most often is Nakamura Shikan IV (1831-1899), who appears first at the far right. He is shown emerging from a background image amid floating chess game pieces emblazoned with such characters as “performance” and “gold.” He sticks his tongue out in a gesture associated with a humorous dance performed at felicitous occasions such as the start of the new theatrical season. Also shown is Sawamura Tanosuke III (1845-1878), a leading male actor famed for playing female roles. Other actors pictured include Ôtani Tomoemon V (1833-1873), Ichimura Uzaemon XIII (1844-1903), and Ichikawa Kuzô III (1836-1911)

Artist Portrait from scroll Artist Portrait from scroll Artist Portrait from scroll
Utagawa Kunisada (1786-1864), Toyohara Kunichika (1835-1900),
and Utagawa Kuniaki (1835-1888).
Half-length Portrait Brocade Prints
(Nishiki-e hanshin ga), ca. 1860-1866.
All 20 images, from left to right:
Image 1Image 2Image 3Image 4Image 5
Image 6 Image 7Image 8Image 9Image 10
Image 11Image 12Image 13Image 14Image 15
Image 16Image 17Image 18Image 19Image 20
Twenty scroll-mounted color woodblock prints, ôban,
15 in. x 10 in. each.
Prints and Photographs Division (27)
(LC-USZC4-8659 through LC-USZC4-8671)
------

An Album of Toyokuni Actor Portraits

Portrait series, such as this excellent example of thirty-three Edo actors, illustrated by Utagawa Toyokuni I (1769-1825), provided coveted information to fans about actors’ roles, coiffures, makeup, and personal matters. Shown here are (right) Onoe Shôsuke (1744-1815) and (left) Bandô Yasosuke I (1759-1814). Books of portraits of popular kabuki actors were in as great demand as single-sheet prints.

TA Mirror of Actors' Likenesses A Mirror of Actors' Likenesses A Mirror of Actors' Likenesses A Mirror of Actors' Likenesses
Asakusa no Ichihito.
A Mirror of Actors’ Likenesses (Yakusha nigao kagami).
Utagawa Toyokuni I, illustrator.
Image 1Image 2Image 3Image 4
Edo: Yamadaya Sanshirô, 1804.
Woodblock-printed book, 10 1/4 in. x 7 in.
Asian Division
(117)

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Landscapes

Travel blossomed in Edo society. Driven by an edict requiring that all daimyo (feudal lords with domains awarded by the shogun) maintain residences in Edo and alternate their time between the administrative center and their home domains, the shogunate developed five highways branching outward from Edo. Regular traffic to and from Edo was stimulated by these major thoroughfares–such as the Tôkaidô Highway running three hundred-odd miles along the coast between Edo and Kyoto. The highways were regularly traveled by daimyoprocessions, as well as ordinary people on pilgrimages, merchants, entertainers, and other sightseers and travelers.Ukiyo-e artists celebrated their surroundings in their artwork and, fueled in part by the Edo passion for travel, landscape art became a popular genre in the nineteenth century. Artists such as Utagawa Hiroshige and Katsushika Hokusai produced numerous prints and books featuring beautiful and famous places; architecture, temples, and monuments; and natural phenomena. Natural beauty was also expressed in microcosm through the detailed depiction of birds, plants, shells, and insects.

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The Sketchbooks of Hiroshige
Andô Hiroshige.
The Sketchbooks of Hiroshige

(Hiroshige gajô), early 1840s.
Album of hand-drawn sketches,
10 in. x 6 1/4 in. Two volumes.
Asian Division (28)
(LC-USZC4-8542)

An Album of Masterful Sketches

Andô Hiroshige (1797-1858), who is world renowned for his masterpieces of graphic art, including the Fifty-Three Stages of the Tôkaido and One Hundred Views of Famous Places of Edo, was also a gifted sketch artist. This two-volume album provides an intimate look into Hiroshige’s private life. Shown here is Arashiyama, or “Storm Mountain,” a scenic place in Kyôto, famous for cherry blossoms in spring, and the moon and maple leaves in autumn.

------

Distant View of Kinryûzan Temple at Asakusa

Although both worked fluently in a wide range of styles and subject matter, Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) and Utagawa Hiroshige (1797-1858) brought landscape imagery in Ukiyo-e to a pinnacle. This scene by Hiroshige comes from a series of pictures of famous places. Hiroshige captures the viewer’s eye by radically cropping the boat and its passenger, and placing them in the extreme foreground. In the distance is the Azuma Bridge, built in 1774, stretching in front of Mount Fuji. To the right stands a five-story pagoda with the golden hall of the Kinryûzan Temple, more commonly known as Sensô-ji or the Asakusa Temple.

Distant View of Kinryûsan from Azuma Bridge
Utagawa Hiroshige.
Distant View of Kinryûsan from Azuma Bridge
(Azumabashi kinryûsan enbô) from the series
A Hundred Famous Views of Edo

(Meisho Edo hyakkei), 1856.
Color woodblock print, ôban,
15 in. x 10 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (29)
(LC-USZC4-8423)
------
Great Bridge at Senju
Utagawa Hiroshige.
Great Bridge at Senju
(Senju no ôhashi)
from the series
A Hundred Famous Views of Edo
(Meisho Edo hyakkei
), 1856.
Color woodblock, ôban,
15 in. x 10 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (30)
(LC-USZC4-8425)

The Great Bridge at Senju

This view by Utagawa Hiroshige (1797-1858) shows the great bridge of Senju crossing the Arakawa River. The Senju Bridge was built in 1594 and stood for nearly 300 years until it was washed away in the great flood of 1885. Mount Bukô (4,383 feet) is also depicted. The superb printing of the wood grain and the crisp detail attests that this image is an early edition. Notably, the wood grain creates a rhythmic pattern in the water, adding a rich texture to its surface.

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Night Rain on Karasaki Pine

Katsushika Hokusai (1760-1849) was the first Ukiyo-e printmaker to make landscape a primary concern. This example is from his Eight Views of Ômi series, which depicts beautiful scenes of Lake Biwa in Ômi Province in Japan. The subject represents a Japanese transmutation of an old Chinese theme and depicts the Karasaki pine on a rainy night, using a wide and flat space based on the traditional perspective of Chinese-style painting. The Eight Views of Ômi became a popular theme in Ukiyo-e–there was even an erotic version of Eight Views of Ômi.

Night Rain on Karasaki Pine
Katsushika Hokusai.
Night Rain on Karasaki Pine
(Karasaki no yoru no ame
)from the series
Eight Views of Ômi (Ômi hakkei),
ca. 1800-1802.
Color woodblock, chûban,
10 in. x 7 1/2 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (31)
(LC-USZC4-8530)

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The Stream of Asazawa in Spring
Utagawa Kuniyoshi.
The Stream of Asazawa in Spring
, 1828.
Color woodblock print, chûban,
10 in. x 7 1/2 in.
Prints and Photographs Division (32)
(LC-USZC4-8426)

The Stream of Asazawa

Utagawa Kuniyoshi (1798-1861) produced several privately commissioned prints after 1828, including this view of Mount Fuji from the hot springs at Hakone. The translated poem reads:

In the spring wind, there is the scent of the laughing plum.
The soft snow melts to be the waters of the Asazawa.

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Idyllic Life in the Countryside

The renowned Kyoto artist of the Kishi and Shijô Schools, Kawamura Bunpô (1779-1821) demonstrates his familiarity with Chinese motifs in his painting manuals, which appeared in print between 1807 and 1814. In this landscape a bent elderly woman trudges up a mountain path toward her home. Even without an awareness of the Chinese poem which inspired this image, the stillness, broken only by the rushing waters of the mountain stream, as well as the implied loneliness, create a moving tribute.

Bunpô Painting Manual: Second Series Bunpô Painting Manual: Second Series
Kawamura Bunpô.
Bunpô Painting Manual: Second Series
(Bunpô gafu ni-hen).
Image 1Image 2
Osaka: Kawachiya Kihei; Kyoto: Yoshida Shinbei, 1811.
Woodblock-printed book, 10 1/4 in. x 6 5/8 in.
Asian Division (33)
(LC-USZC4-8678, LC-USZC4-8679)

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Perspective View of a Post Station

This drawing, executed with a dry brush, or perhaps charcoal, shows the main street of the town of Ômi-hachiman, along the Nakasendô Highway just east of Lake Biwa. The artist employed a vanishing point and horizon in the European manner, as well as a low perspective, indicating training in the Shijô school, which drew from both European and Chinese teachings. From the thick-walled warehouse in the foreground to the inns lining the road ready to feed, entertain, and provide rest for travelers, the sketch compels the viewer to explore the town further.

Sketches from Life Sketches from Life
Anonymous. Sketches from Life (Shasei-jô), ca. 1840.
Image 1Image 2
Album of hand-drawn sketches, 9 1/4 in. x 5 3/4 in.
Asian Division (34)
(LC-USZC4-8735, LC-USZC4-8736)

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Fields of Flowers

One of the most delicate collections of flowering plants ever printed is Fields of Musashi. This album reveals a collection of twelve prints of flora from the Musashi Plain, to the immediate west of Tokyo. Shown on the left is a delicate rendering of egrets perched on willow branches. The birds are drawn usinggofun pigment, which is made from ground shells; the willow leaves are done using a silver, mica-based ink. On the right is an autumn scene of the moon shining over tufts of pampas grass. Here the shimmering moon is rendered using mica, giving the image a luminous appearance.

Fields of Musashi Fields of Musashi

Tanaka Ôseki (n.d.), illustator.
Fields of Musashi
(Musashino).
Tokyo: Kokkadô, 1894.
Image 1Image 2
Album of woodblock prints, single sheets mounted,
12 in. x 9 7/8 in.
Asian Division (105)
(LC-USZC4-8745)

 

 

 1860

City of Yeddo, 1860: “I was bewildered and confounded when I saw this.”

 
An article published by Samuel C. Damon in the July 1860 edition of The Friend describes the Japanese city of Yeddo. Today that city is known as Japan’s capital city, Tokyo.

“By the Chaplain of the Powhatan,” writes Damon, “we were presented with a map of the City of Yeddo, executed by Japanese artists. It is nearly five feel square. The streets, public squares, temple-grounds, and residence of the Princes, are drawn with great care. Yeddo is truly an immense city, and probably as large, if not larger, than even London. It is one of the three great cities of the world, viz., London, Pekin, Yeddo.”

I am curious to know what

 
 
Hand warmer 1800-1868 Kyoto Japan Kiyomizu ware stoneware with polychrome enamel 

 

Reform as Resistance: Meiji Modernity and Japan’s Asian Empire/Aoki Girardelli- May 4,2009

 
Edo(Tokugawa) Period (1602-1868)
Shôgun – Supreme General
Tennô -Emperor
Daimyô -Feudal Lords
Sakoku(country in chain)
-started gradually 1616
Completed 1641 lasted until 1868 (Meiji Restoration)

Commodore Perry’s arrival in Japan

1858-Treaty of Amity and Commerce (US and Japan)

-exchange of diplomatic agents
-Edo, Kobe, Nagasaki, Niigata and Yokohamas opening to foreign trade as ports
ability of United States citizens to live and trade in those ports
-a system of extraterritoriality that provided for the subjugation of foreign residents to the laws of their own consular courts instead of the Japanese law system
-fixed low import-export duties, subject to international control
Similar unequal treaties were signed with Britain, France, Russia and Holland

Black Ships

 

Square Ao-Oribe ware dish 1573-1615 CE Japan Mino region Gifu prefecture 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pickle jar

Pickle jar

Unknown
1965

 

Pickle jar

Pickle jar

  • Date: 1965 (made)
  • Place: Rongchang
  • Artist/maker: Unknown
 
Kimono

Kimono

Unknown
1820-1860

 

Kimono

Kimono

  • Date: 1820-1860 (made)
  • Place: Japan
  • Artist/maker: Unknown
 
 
Kimono

Kimono

Unknown
1870-1900

 
Kimono

Kimono

  • Date: 1870-1900 (made)
  • Place: Japan
  • Artist/maker: Unknown
 
Kesa

Kesa

Unknown
1800-1880

 
Kesa

Kesa

  • Date: 1800-1880 (made)
  • Place: Kyoto
  • Artist/maker: Unknown
 
Kesa

Kesa

Unknown
1800-1880

1800

Kyoto

Kyoto, Japan’s former ancient capital in the late 1800’s, has the reputation for

being Japan’s most beautiful city.  Having an abundance of traditional temples,

shrines, gardens, and castles, you will surely find beauty, peace, and relaxation.

Kyoto is located on the western island of Honshu surrounded by mountains.  It has survived many wars and is now on the UNESCO World Heritage sites list

 

Netsuke
 

Monkey netsuke,
 
.
 

Heavenly Angel by Yabe Ryosei
 Kyoto Seishu Netsuke Art Museum
 

Japan Stereoview Card from Late 1800s-062

Japan Stereoview Card from Late 1800s-062
zoom
 
Antique Original Stereoview/Stereoscope card number 658. The main street to Gion temple at Kyoto, Japan- from the late 1800’s in very good condition

Japan Stereoview Card from Late 1800s-095

Japan Stereoview Card from Late 1800s-095
zoom
 
Antique Original Stereoview/Stereoscope card number 614. Approach to the Shinto Temple at Inari, Kyoto, Japan. – from the late 1800’s in very good condition

Wall of Sake Barrels
Matsuo Shrine (松尾大社)
Kyoto Japan

Desktop-Background Versions

Having recovered from a mild but lingering cold, I went out for some lite temple/shrine exploration in western Kyoto with Paul Barr yesterday. The autumn colors are late and weak this year, but it’s always fun to explore new nooks and crannies of Kyoto, so I enjoyed it.

There’s a tradition of sake (rice wine) companies sending donations to shrines in exchange for prominent display of their patronage, and the barrels on display at this particular shrine we came across were particularly large.


Born

It’s the season for children’s “7-5-3” celebrations (as described here, and as seen with my own kid here)…

Cute Photo Op
Child celebrating the “7-5-3” holiday

Nikon D700 + Voigtländer 125mm f/2.5 — 1/500 sec, f/2.5, ISO 500 Heading Home
Nikon D700 + Voigtländer 125mm f/2.5 — 1/500 sec, f/2.5, ISO 320 Weathered

Nikon D700 + Voigtländer 125mm f/2.5 — 1/500 sec, f/2.5, ISO 320 — full exif & mapnearby photos
Taking Aim

I’m not really sure what the above thing was about, but I suspect it has to do with fortune telling. The girls were giggling the whole time. She missed, but they clearly got their presumably small fee’s worth of fun.

golden red-orange leaves
Nikon D700 + Voigtländer 125mm f/2.5 — 1/500 sec, f/2.5, ISO 1800 Finally
 
photo

Hand warmer 1800-1868 Kyoto Japan Kiyomizu ware stoneware with polychrome enamel

Honke Owariya

1867

Meiji Restoration
November 9 1867 Official end of Edo Shogunate: Restoration of Imperial rule (Taisei Houkan)January 3 1868: Emperor fully regained the power
1868 Boshin War (forces from Chôshû and Satsuma vs. ex Shôguns army)
1872Abolition of the Han system
1877 End of Satsuma Rebellion (Seinan Sensou, Southwestern War)
1885 System of Cabinet was adopted
1889 Meiji Constitution (constitution of the Empire of Japan) (1889-1847)
Cf. Kanunuesasi (December 23 1876-1878)
1890 Foundation of the Imperial Diet

Emperor Meiji

Victories:
1894-95 First Sino-Japanese War
1894 (1899) Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Commerce and Navigation
(similar treaties were signed with 14 countries including the United States, France, Germany, Russia, Holland and Italy)
owariya.jpg

Area: Central
Address: Nijo-sagaru, Kuruyama-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto
Open Hours: 11:00-19:00 Last Order 18:30
Closed: Open All Year  (However, closed on January 1 and 2)
Recommended: Horai Soba ¥1,800 Seiro Soba ¥650
1904
1904-1905 Russo-Japanese War

 
 
1905
Tokyo Street 1905.jpg

 
File:Crowded Tokyo Street 1905.jpg
S

Meiji Period The Imperial Army with it’s banner–The patriots of the Meiji Restoration
jidai1.jpg jidai2.jpg

Edo Period Tokugawa Shogun’s Deputy payed a visit from Edo (today’s Tokyo) to Emperor in Kyoto with 1,700 attendants
jidai3.jpg jidai4.jpg

A Shrine Maiden called Okuni performed a prayer dance which was the origin of Kabuki in Kyoto
jidai5.jpg

Azuchi Momoyama Period Lord Toyotomi rides on an ox-cart to visit Emperor
jidai6.jpg jidai7.jpg

jidai8.jpg jidai9.jpg

Muromachi Period
jidai12.jpg

Heian Period Tomoe-Gozen, the wife of lord in men’s armor courageously fought alongside her husband in battle. Heroines of Heian Period are performed by professional Geiko in entertainment district like Gion.
jidai22.jpg

Tokiwa-Gozen, the mother of tragic hero, Yoshitsune–Lady Murasaki wrote the first novel in Japan
jidai14.jpg jidai15.jpg

Ono-no-Komachi, an outstanding poet renowned for her wit and beauty
jidai16.jpg jidai17.jpg

jidai18.jpg While men looks shy or tired with heavy armors, women and women’s costumes always catch an attention of the people. It’s better to include some perfomances by men…., or include samurai movie actors…

 
 
 
 

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Mikoshi (portable Shrines) At Yasaka Shrine During Gion Matsuri Kyoto Japan July 2007
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Festival (Matsuri) / People Carrying Portable Shrine (Mikoshi), Tokyo, Honshu, Japan. Festival (Matsuri) / People Carrying Po…

Festival (Matsuri) / People Carrying Portable Shrine (Mikoshi), Tokyo, Honshu, Japan. Festival (Matsuri) / People Carrying Portable Shrine (Mikoshi), Tokyo, Honshu, Japan
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Mikoshi (portable Shrines) At Yasaka Shrine During Gion Matsuri Kyoto Japan July 2007
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Oiyama Kasanarashi, Mikoshi, Hakata Gion Yamagasa, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Kyushu, Japan. Oiyama Kasanarashi, Mikoshi, Hakata Gion …

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Yearly matsuri (festival) of Kannon Temple in Asakusa featuring a procession of 200 ´Mikoshi´ (mobile shrines).
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People carrying a Mikoshi Shrine, Matsuri Festival, Tokyo, Honshu, Japan
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Mikoshi portable shrine of the gods parade, Sanja Matsuri Festival, Sensoji Temple, Asakusa Jinja, Asakusa, Tokyo, Japan, Asi…

Mikoshi portable shrine of the gods parade, Sanja Matsuri Festival, Sensoji Temple, Asakusa Jinja, Asakusa, Tokyo, Japan, Asia
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Yearly matsuri (festival) of Kannon Temple in Asakusa featuring a procession of 200 ´Mikoshi´ (mobile shrines).Tokyo. Japan
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Japan,Hokkaido,Ashikawa,’Mikoshi’ portable summer shrine festival
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Mikoshi portable shrine of the gods parade and crowds of people, Sanja Matsuri Festival, Sensoji Temple, Asakusa Jinja, Asaku…

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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Portable shrine Mikoshi, Summer shrine festival, Asahikawa, Hokkaido, Japan, Asia
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Zuiki festival Mikoshi Kitano Tenmangu festival Kyoto-shi Kyoto Gateway at the entrance to a Shinto shrine People
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Mikoshi portable shrine being carried at Hadaka Matsuri Naked Festival, Hofu city, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan, Asia
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A mikoshi portable shrine being carried to Sensoji Temple during the Sanja Festival in Asakusa, Tokyo, Japan, Asia
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Mikoshi portable shrine of the gods parade and crowds of people, Sanja Matsuri Festival, Sensoji Temple, Asakusa Jinja, Asaku…

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Yearly matsuri (festival) of Kannon Temple in Asakusa featuring a procession of 200 ´Mikoshi´ (mobile shrines).Tokyo. Japan
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Japan, Tokyo City, Kanda Miyojin Festival, Mikoshi Parading
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Toshogu spring Grand festival Nikko Tochigi Japan Forest Tree Mikoshi People Stone lantern
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Japan, Honshu, Tokyo, Shinjuku. Men Carrying Mikoshi Throught The Street During A Festival Celebration
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Matsuri Shrine festival, Asakusa Jinja Shrine, Tokyo, Japan, Asia
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Gion Matsuri Paper Lanterns And Mikoshi (portable Shrines) At Yasaka Shrine Kyoto Japan July 2007
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Nagasaki, Kyushu Island, Japan
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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City view, Nishikawa´s house, Pine of Mikoshi, Oumihachiman, Shiga, Japan
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Ouchijuku, Summer festival, Shimogo, Fukushima, Japan
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Mikoshi portable shrine of the gods parade and crowds of people, Sanja Matsuri Festival, Sensoji Temple, Asakusa Jinja, Asakusa, Tokyo, Japan, Asia
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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A mikoshi portable shrine being carried through the streets during the Sanja Festival in Asakusa, Tokyo, Japan, Asia
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Mikoshi procession under torii gate at Futarasan Shrine during the Shunki Reitaisai festival in Nikko, Tochigi, Japan, Asia
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Wooden mikoshi of the India style India
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Yearly matsuri (festival) of Kannon Temple in Asakusa featuring a procession of 200 ´Mikoshi´ (mobile shrines).
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

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Mikoshi (portable Shrines) At Yasaka Shrine During Gion Matsuri Kyoto Japan July 2007
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Bridge, River, Mikoshi, Cherry Blossoms, Takayama Festival, April, Takayama, Gifu, Japan
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Float, Sakurayama Hachiman, temple, Autumn, Takayama festival, Gifu, Japan
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Japan, Tokyo: children with mobile phones during the Shrine festival, called Matsuri
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Matsuri Shrine festival, Asakusa Jinja Shrine, Tokyo, Japan, Asia
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Hakata Gion Yamagasa, Float racing festival, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
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Hakata Yamakasa, Fukuoka, Fukuoka, Japan
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Japan, Honshu, Tochigi, Nikko. Shinto Priests Watch And Bow As The Omikoshi Or Residence Of The Local Kami Or Deity Is Carried Past At Futara-Gu Jinga During The Tosho-Gu Festival.
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Japan, Honshu, Tokyo, Men Carrying Mikoshi Shrine Through The Street During A Festival
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple distri…

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Japan, Tokyo: child with mobile phone during the Shrine festival, called Matsuri
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through the streets of the Shinto temple district. Local people carrying the shrine on their shoulders, dressed in happi_coats, religious festival
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Nada, Kenkal festival, Himeji, Hyogo, Japan
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Udatsuno, Mino festival, Mino, Gifu, Japan
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Takayama Yatai hall, Takayama, Gifu, Japan
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Matsuri Shrine festival, Asakusa Jinja Shrine, Tokyo, Japan, Asia
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Beppu Island of Kyushu Japan
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Japan, Tokyo: Shrine festival, called Matsuri. The Shinto shrines are carried through
 

1 pair of winter scrolls :rotetsu gain or seal for paintings of Rotetsu—————————————————————————————————————– 2; The box says: Image of a pair of Cockerels

signed by Shouzui (or Shozui) himself (Shouzui Jitei, or inscribed by himself, Shouzui) in the spring of 1929.

( We found a different Shouzui, but that Shozui did subjects of Beautiful women,  and was not known for painting Kacho (bird and flower) )

——————————————————————————————————————–

    

3 The box:

cover: Image of a rich green (blue green in direct translation) landscape painted by myself.

On the year of 1923 by Hyakuseki .

———————————————————————————————————————

4; Toro Stone Lantern

Stone lanterns were not only decorative elements (especially this type of design) in Japanese gardens, but also served as grave stones for some of the samurai or memorials as found in Toshogu were all the daimyos donated lanterns to the shrine in honor of Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Haiga is by a lady named Mitsuko,

Poem says:

Within the fenced area,

a place where the deceased are

a brush from the tree in the corner.

—————————————————————————————————————————

5;

Painted in 1852 by Hanko ( seal says Fukuda Yoshito ) possibly around mid summer from the end of July to the beginning of August in the old lunar calendar. Fukuda Hanko :

Born in Shizuoka prefecture, Mitsuke. In the beginning Hanko was trained under the Kakegawa clan resident artist, Muramatsu Ikou and later with Magata Dairyo. Around 1830-1844 he is trained under Watanabe Kazan. During the Nansha purge of 1839 when Kazan was arrested, Hanko traveled to tawara in Aichi pref. where Kazan was detained. In the beginning, Hanko painted flower and bird subjects, but with his fellow, Tsubaki Chinzan gaining popularity in the theme, Hanko changed his specialty in landscapes.
——————————————————————————————————————

6; Bairyo, This scroll is interesting, because the theme is summer but the painting was painted around early winter, I assume the artist felt cold and wanted to evoke the heat of summer to keep the artist warm ( in a sense).

Title is: Ryoku in Jiki Kadouryou or The self is content under the shade of green during summer in the cool hut.

c. 1911 around october ( lunar calendar) at the artist’s studio.-

————————————————————————————————————————-

7; Okamura Keiho (b c1920) Tora 1950

————————————————————————————————————————-

8; Yamana Shouei

(seals says, Yamana no in (the top one) and Shoei)

no further information is found on the artist.


New Silks and to be restored

9. Signature says Kounan sanjin houko ( The hermit Kounan learning the old style) sealed with Kounan.

I don’t think this is Tanigami Konan’s work, the characters are not the same except for the last one.

Tanigami Konan is Ko (large or wide) and nan (south), this Konan is Ko (incense, fragrance) and nan (south).


  

Koyama Ryudo:


 

    

Miyake Kazumitsu:

Born in 1939 in Gifu prefecture, learns painting from his father who was also a painter. Later he is trained under Gifu prefecture’s top artist, Kojima Shikou and begins creating his own works. Kazumitsu is skilled in almost all subjects, whether it is kacho-ga (flower and bird), landscapes, or human subjects his has received high praise for his skills and work as an artist. Former member of the Bokujin-kai and President of Toyo Bijutsu Kai.



10 . Signature is Kanseki  Being remounted and new box being made


 

12. Suizan (seal says suizan gain or painting seal of Suizan)

(note: there are two suizan in the Japanese art world, Yajima Suizan and Miki Suizan, Yajima suizan is way too recent and different in style compared to this painting, and Miki Suizan is known for his bijin-ga or paintings of beauties and while he has not been known to done work on animal or subjects of nature, this might be an exception)

 

 
Baiitsu Yamamoto 1783-1856 68×13.2  
Cedar in Snow Sansui Ga  
Two Bujin pines on a empty beach signed Chikuho (?Mizuta (1883-1958)  
Chikuho Mizuta(1883-1958) Crane on Rocks under Bamboo  
KANSETSU HASHIMOTO. A.D 1883-1945. Born in KOBE city, HYOGO pref.  
 
FUGEN-SAI 1800 Taki Sansui 52×16.7. signature  
Gaho

Hashimoto Gahō(橋本雅邦; August 21, 1835 – January 13, 1908) was a Japanese painter, one of the last to paint in the style of the Kanō school.Born in Edo, he studied painting under Kanō Shōsen’in, and was influenced as well by the work of Kanō Hōgai. He created many works in the traditional style of the Kanō school, using color & gold, or otherwise monochrome black ink. But while his paintings are very much the works of a traditionalist, using traditional methods and depicting traditional subjects, Gahō, like Kanō Hōgai, incorporated elements of Western art as well. Brush-strokes, various types of detailing, and in particular, attempts at the proper depiction of perspective are evident in Gahō’s paintings and in many others of this period.He opened his own studio in 1860, but the political and economic upheavals surrounding the Meiji Restoration forced Gahō to seek income in other ways than by selling fine art. He produced maps for the Naval Academy, painted on fans, and used his skills in a number of other ways to earn a living.Gahō was invited in 1884, by Okakura Kakuzō, to become the chief professor of painting at the Tōkyō Bijutsu Gakkō (東京美術学校, now the Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music) which would open five years later. In 1898, Gahō joined Okakura in leaving the Bijutsu Gakkō, and founding the Japan Fine Arts Academy (日本美術院, Nihon Bijutsuin). He would teach there until his death in 1908.As a result of his position as chief painting professor, Gahō had a number of important pupils, including Yokoyama Taikan and Kawai Gyokudō Reserved/ sold

 

 
The Retreat in the Mountains  
Kamo. Flying Duck into Reeds  
Keigetsu Matsubayashi (1876-1963) also known as Keigetsu Sanjin/ Ito Atsushi a Nihnga style painter18.8.1876 Born in Yamaguchi


Kikuchi Keigetsu c 1930

Keigetsu Matsubayashi (1876-1963) also known as Keigetsu Sanjin/ Ito Atsushi a Nihnga style painter

18.8.1876 Born in Yamaguchi

 

 
Sansui ga Taki Sumei painting of remarkable quality  
SEIDO Lantern and Sakura  
Mending Nets  
Suzume To Sakura -Sparrow and Cherry 1900 70.4×22.1  
RAISHO pine and taki sansui ga 1850 being restored  
UNREI SATOMI. A.D 1849-1928. Born in HIROSHIMA city. His teachers were TAIREI NAKAI, NISHO YAMAGATA.
Most of his art works were lost by the atomic-bomb.
 
   
 
Samurai Armour. With box 46.5×19.8
 
Autumn Landscape Sansui Ga. With multiple waterfalls this intensely detailed and extremely elegant painting shows an almost deign quality in the artists brush. . A constantly dropping landscape you come down the main falls in teh background and just keep going down the scene. Such movement is hard to achieve other than from a great artist. This painting is of the waterfall known as Akiu Waterfall (Akiu Otaki [秋保大滝])70×23.5With Box £190
Akiu Waterfall (Akiu Otaki [秋保大滝])The Akiu Waterfall (Akiu Otaki [秋保大滝]; also Akiu Great Falls or just Akiu Falls) is a 55m waterfall on the outskirts of Sendai towards the northern part of Honshu in the Miyagi-ken. It’s said to be one of the three most beautiful waterfalls in Japan.  It is popular in late autumn and just as the leaves start to drop around the end of November. The name of the waterfall has something to do with Autumn since the first character is Chinese for Autumn. 

River in full Speight. This autumn scene is what is called a Red Leaf Scroll. usually shown around October and November, this elegantly painted scene in the mountains is full of movement with the rushing waters and waterfalls through the mist. A fisherman catching carp in a pool under the rocks completes this study. Remounted top and bottom silks retaining the original side silks adds to the scrolls beauty.72.5×25.4 £180
 
Rising sun and mountain TAIKAN YOKOYAMA.
He was a very famous painter living in 1868-1958 58.3×25
However this is a hand made screen print from the early part of the 20th century  and partially hand painted by the artist. Remounted onto new silks and with a box. This scroll is £160

TORYU-MON Leaping Carp 74.5 x 20.7 The jumping Carp is an analogy  called the Rising dragon’s gate the gateway to success 1900. With a new box
   
 
 
 
Painted by scroll artist Saneatsu Mushakoji, the little Waka Poem says: Always green’
   
 The Design  follows Chinese precedents with which the artist was undoubtedly familiar, but the brushwork and composition have an individualistic flair that epitomises Japanese techniques. In particular, the uplifting energy of the work is ubiquitous. Chikuson (Ishikawa Katsumi) was born in Tokyo in 1883. He began his studies under Matsumoto Fuuko, and later Ikeda Kimpo and Okada Kaien 
 
   
   
   
   

 

Jōdo Shinshū (浄土真宗, “True Pure Land School”?), also known as Shin Buddhism, is a school of Pure Land Buddhism. It was founded by the former Tendai Japanese monk Shinran Shōnin. Today, Shin Buddhism  or Shinto, is considered the most widely practiced branch of Buddhism in Japan. 
SHINRAN, Jodoshin-shu the founder of Shinto Buddhism by Shunsui 1920 A short scroll beautifully painted by the Buddhist Scroll artists Shunsui. Remounted onto new silks with a box. £195 52.5x23The article below outlines the background to the founder of Shinto Buddhism in Japan.All ten schools of Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism will commemorate the 750th memorial of their founder, Shinran Shonin, in 2011 in Kyoto, Japan. 
Shinran (founder)
Shinran (1173–1263) lived during the late-Heian early-Kamakura period (1185–1333), a time of turmoil for Japan when the Emperor was stripped of political power by the Shoguns. Shinran’s family had a high rank at the Imperial court in Kyoto, but given the times many aristocratic families were sending sons off to be Buddhist monks instead of having them participate in the Imperial government. When Shinran was nine (1181) he was sent by his uncle to Mount Hiei, where he was ordained as a Tendai monk. Over time Shinran became disillusioned with what Buddhism in Japan had become, foreseeing a decline in the potency and practicality of the teachings espoused.Shinran left his role as a really low-ranking doso (“Practice-Hall Monk”) at Mount Hiei and undertook a 100-day retreat at Rokkakudo temple in Kyoto, where he had a dream on the 95th day. In this dream Prince Shōtoku (in Japan he is sometimes regarded as an incarnation of Kannon Bosatsu) appeared to him, espousing a pathway to enlightenment through verse. Following the retreat, in 1201, Shinran left Mount Hiei to study under Hōnen for the next six years. Hōnen (1133–1212) another ex-Tendai monk, left the tradition in 1175 to found his own sect, Jōdo shū (“Pure Land School”). From that time on, Shinran considered himself, even after exile, a devout disciple of Hōnen rather than a founder establishing his own, distinct Pure Land school.During this period, Hōnen taught the new nembutsu-only practice to many people in Kyoto society and amassed a substantial following, but also increasingly came under criticism by the Buddhist establishment in Kyoto. Among the strongest critics was the monk, Myōe, and the temples of Enryaku-ji and Kōfuku-ji. The latter continued to criticize Hōnen and his followers, even after they pledged to behave with good conduct, and to not slander other BuddhistsIn 1207, Hōnen’s critics at Kōfuku-ji persuaded Emperor Go-Toba to proscribe Hōnen and his teachings after two of his ladies-in-waiting converted to the new faith.[1] Hōnen and his followers, among them Shinran, were forced into exile, and four of Hōnen’s disciples were executed. Shinran was given a lay name, Yoshizane Fujii by the authorities but called himself Gutoku (“Stubble-headed One”) instead and moved to Echigo Province (today Niigata Prefecture)It was during this exile that Shinran cultivated a deeper understanding of his own beliefs, the Pure Land teachings of Hōnen. In 1210 he married Eshinni, the daughter of an aristocrat of Echigo Province. Shinran and Eshinni had several children. His eldest son, Zenran, was alleged to have started a heretical sect of Pure Land Buddhism through claims that he received special teachings from his father. Zenran demanded control of local monto (lay follower groups), but after writing a stern letter of warning, Shinran disowned him in 1256, effectively ending Zenran’s legitimacy.

In 1211 the nembutsu ban was lifted and Shinran was pardoned, but by 1212 Hōnen had died in Kyoto. Shinran never saw Hōnen following their exile. In the year of Hōnen’s death, Shinran set out for the Kantō area of Japan, where he established a substantial following and began committing his ideas to writing. In 1224 he wrote his most significant book, the Kyogyoshinsho (“The True Teaching, Practice, Faith and Attainment of the Pure Land”), which contained excerpts from the Three Pure Land sutras and the Nirvana Sutra along with his own commentaries[2] and the writings of the Jodo Shinshu Patriarchs whom Shinran drew inspiration from.

In 1234, at the age of sixty, Shinran left Kantō for Kyoto (Eshinni stayed in Echigo and she may have outlived Shinran by several years), where he dedicated the rest of his years to writing. It was during this time he wrote the Wasan, a collection of verses summarizing his teachings for his followers to recite. Shinran’s daughter, Kakushinni, came to Kyoto with Shinran, and cared for him in his final years and his mausoleum later became Hongwanji (‘The Temple of the Original Vow’). Kakushinni was instrumental in preserving Shinran’s teachings after his death, and the letters she received and saved from her mother, Eshinni, provide critical biographical information regarding Shinran’s earlier life. These letters are currently preserved in the Nishi Hongwanji temple in Kyoto. Shinran died at the age of 90 in 1263

Shinran’s thought was strongly influenced by the doctrine of Mappō, a largely Mahayana eschatology which claims humanity’s ability to listen to and practice the Buddha-Dharma (the Buddhist teachings) deteriorates over time and loses effectiveness in bringing individual practitioners closer to Buddhahood. This belief was particularly widespread in early medieval China, and in Japan at the end of the Heian period. Shinran, like his mentor Hōnen, saw the age he was living in as being a degenerate one where beings cannot hope to be able to extricate themselves from the cycle of birth and death through their own power, or jiriki (自力). For both Hōnen and Shinran, all conscious efforts towards achieving enlightenment and realizing the Bodhisattva ideal were contrived and rooted in selfish ignorance; for humans of this age are so deeply rooted in karmic evil as to be incapable of developing the truly altruistic compassion that is requisite to becoming a Bodhisattva.
Due to his awareness of human limitations, Shinran advocates reliance on tariki, or other power (他力)—the power of Amida Buddha’s made manifest in Amida Buddha’s Primal Vow—in order to attain liberation. Shin Buddhism can therefore be understood as a “practiceless practice,” for there are no specific acts to be performed such as there are in the “Path of Sages” (the other Buddhist schools of the time that advocated ‘jiriki’ (‘self-power’). In Shinran’s own words, Shin Buddhism is considered the “Easy Path” because one is not compelled to perform many difficult, and often esoteric, practices in order to attain higher and higher mental states.Earlier schools of Buddhism that came to Japan, including the Tendai and Shingon sects, gained acceptance because of the way they meshed the Buddhist pantheon with the native Japanese Shinto pantheon. For example, a Shinto god could be seen as a manifestation of a bodhisattva. It is common even to this day to have Shinto shrines within the grounds of some traditional Buddhist temples.Jōdo Shinshū, on the other hand, intentionally separated itself from the Shinto religion, and left out many practices associated with it as they contradicted the notion of reliance on Amida’s Other-power, and are also explicitly prohibited in sutras such as the Mahayana Nirvana Sutra and Pratyutpanna Sutra. Other practices such as accepting donations for special blessings and prayers were similarly omitted from Jōdo Shinshū.Jōdo Shinshū traditionally had an uneasy relationship with other Buddhist schools because it discouraged virtually all traditional Buddhist practices except the nembutsu, and discouraged kami veneration. Relations were particularly hostile between the Jōdo Shinshū and Nichirenshu, also known as Hokkeshu. On the other hand, newer Buddhist schools in Japan, such as Zen, tended to have a more positive relationship and occasionally shared practices, although this is still controversial. In popular lore, Rennyo Shonin (the 8th Head Priest of the Hongan-ji sub-sect) was good friends with the famous Zen master Ikkyu.Jōdo Shinshū drew much of its support from lower social classes in Japan who could not devote the time or education to other esoteric Buddhist practices or merit-making activities.
 Following the unification of Japan during the Edo period, Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism adapted, along with the other Japanese Buddhist schools, into providing memorial and funeral services for its registered members (danka seido), which was legally required by the Tokugawa shogunate in order to prevent the spread of Christianity in Japan. The danka seido system continues to exist today, although not as strictly as in the premodern period, causing Japanese Buddhism to also be labeled as “Funeral Buddhism” since it became the primary function of Buddhist temples. The Hongwanji also created an impressive academic tradition, which led to the founding of Ryukoku University in Kyoto, Japan, and formalized many of the Jōdo Shinshū traditions which are still followed today. Following the Meiji Restoration and the subsequent persecution of Buddhism (haibutsu kishaku) of the late 1800s due to a revived nationalism and modernization, Jōdo Shinshū managed to survive intact due to the devotion of its monto. During World War II, the Hongwanji, as with the other Japanese Buddhist schools, was compelled to support the policies of the military government and the cult of State Shinto. It subsequently apologized for its wartime actions

In contemporary times, Jōdo Shinshū is one of the most widely followed forms of Buddhism in Japan, although like other Japanese Buddhism it faces challenges from many popular New Religious Movements (known in Japan as shin shinkyo religions, which emerged following World War II), and the growing secularization and materialism of Japanese society

All ten schools of Jōdo Shinshū Buddhism will commemorate the 750th memorial of their founder, Shinran Shonin, in 2011 in Kyoto, Japan.
 

 

 
1815
 

House President Nagasaki District Court Glover Garden
1866

First Baptism’s: Yano Riuzan and Murata Wakasa and Ayabe in Nagasaki! (May 1866)

9 08 2010

 
Yokohama Kaigan Kyokai(Church) was founded on March 10.1872, as the first Protestant church for the Japanese in this country. At the time of its establishment, it inherited the faith and tradition of the Reformed Church and Presbyterian Church in the U.S.A. The first pastor was Rev. J.H.Ballagh, who arrived in Yokohama with his wife in 1861 as one of the earliest Christian missionaries, after studying at Rutgers College and New Brunswick Theological Seminary.

In November, 1864, occurred the first recorded baptism on Japanese soil of a Protestant Christian. Rev. J. H. Ballagh has given the following account of this person. (* Missionary Herald, 1864, p. 6g.)

Yano Riuzan, a shaven-headed Buddhist, a yabu-isha or quack doctor, who held an inferior position, was selected by the Shogun’s Council of State for a language teacher for Dr. S. R. Brown. On my arrival on November 9nth, 1861, he became my teacher. With him I undertook the translation of St John, more to translate the Gospel into him than for the use of others. In the summer of 1864 he became quite weak. I was impressed with a failure of duty and asked him if he would be willing for me to seek a blessing upon our translation. On his consenting, I made my first impromptu Japanese prayer, which seemed to impress him much and which made a remarkable impression on me.

One day, while explaining a picture of the baptism of the Ethiopian eunuch, he suddenly said to me : ‘ I want to be baptized ; I want to be baptized because Christ commanded it’ I warned him of the law against Christianity and the fact that, even should he escape, his son might not The son, being consulted, said that whatever would please his father should be done On the first Sabbath in November his baptism took place in the presence of his wife, son, and daughter.’

The next baptisms were those of Murata Wakasa and Ayabe in Nagasaki, May, 1866. The story of their conversion sounds like a romance. Wakasa was born in 1815, and on reaching manhood became a minister {karo) of the Daimyo of Saga. He was a man of unusual stature; his grandson asserts that he was seven feet in height and therefore was obliged to have a house made especially for him, since he was so much inconvenienced by the low rooms of ordinary Japanese buildings. When, in 1855, some French and English vessels anchored in the bay of Nagasaki, Wakasa was put in charge of a patrol appointed to watch the movements of the foreign ships. One day he noticed something floating upon the water and sent one of his men to pick it up.

Nabeshima Naomasa (鍋島 直正?, January 16, 1815 – March 8, 1871) was the 10th and final daimyō of Saga Domain in Hizen Province, Kyūshū, Japan. His honorary title was Hizen-no-Kami, and he was occasionally referred to as “Prince Hizen” in western accounts during the Bakumatsu period.

It proved to be a book printed in some unknown language. After Wakasa’s return to Saga, he became so curious to know what was in the book that he sent one of his retainers to Nagasaki, professedly to study medicine, but really to inquire about the contents of the book. He thus discovered that it was a Dutch translation of the New Testament, the book on which the religion of Europeans was founded * A while after, he learned that a Chinese translation of the book had been made, and he therefore sent a man to Shanghai to purchase a copy. With four other persons, one of whom was his younger brother, Ayabe, he then began an earnest study of the book. In the autumn of 1862, Ayabe went to Nagasaki to see if any of the foreigners there could explain some portions that had been difficult to understand. While there he met Dr. Verbeck, who gladly answered his questions. The following spring, Ayabe again appeared and warned Dr. Verbeck that the latter’s life was in danger, as a company of young men had formed a conspiracy for assassinating him. In consequence of this warning Dr. Verbeck found it advisable to withdraw with his family to China for a few months. On his return to Nagasaki he found that Ayabe had received an appointment that removed him to another part of the country; but soon after this, Wakasa sent one of his servants, named Motono, with a new set of questions. Dr. Verbeck now became, though in a round-about way, the teacher of the little Bible-class, for Motono would frequently come from Saga, a journey occupying about two days, bringing a list of questions to which answers were desired, and after receiving Dr. Verbeck’s explanations would return with them to Saga.

In May, 1866, Dr. Verbeck was informed that some high officials from the province of Hizen (in which Saga is situated) desired to come in two parties to meet him. He writes:

“Accordingly, on the afternoon of the fifteenth of May, my visitor presented himself with a retinue of about thirty men, consisting of a number of attendant officers who quite filled my parlour, and of a greater number of common retainers, all two- s worded, who had to content themselves with an outside view of our premises. . . . My principal visitor proved to be no less a personage than a relative of the Prince of Hizen. . . . After the usual introductory compliments, the absorbing topic of the ‘ Doctrine’ was entered upon with a good deal of interest. I may say that I reasoned with him of ‘ righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come/ but I could hardly brine him and his attendant to dwell on the higher topics of faith, hope, and love; for my august visitor insisted on reasoning concerning the unprofitable subjects of the origin of evil in the world, the mysterious permission of the continuance of evil, the justice of God or the apparent want of it under various aspects, and more of the like. I was prepared for his arguments, as I have found that on heathen ground we are often obliged to rehandle the bones of contention of the church of old, but my principal endeavour was to get him to see the wickedness and danger of all evil; that it is infinitely more important to know how to be now and forever saved from it than to know all about its origin and yet be left helpless; that it is vastly more worthy of our thought to know how we are to escape hell and gain heaven than to find out the exact location of either, if such a thing were possible. Yet my efforts to lead him to higher views at the time were vain. . . . “The interview of the other parties was arranged to take place on the seventeenth of May. My visitors on this occasion were Wakasa, one of the ministers of state or governors of the principality of Hizen, and his younger brother Ayabe. Wakasa was a tall man, about forty-five years of age and looking older: His is one of those faces that make sunshine in a shady place, most pleasing and amiable in expression, with a very dignified bearing, his eyes beamed love and pleasure as I met him He said he had long known me in his mind, had long desired to see and converse with me, and that he was very happy that now in God’s providence he was permitted to do so. . . .

 
Ranald MacDonald (3 February 1824 – August 24, 1894) was the first man to teach the English language in Japan, including educating Einosuke Moriyama, one of the chief interpreters to handle the negotiations between Commodore Perry and the Tokugawa Shogunate.

“At this time there were admitted to our parlor Wakasa, Ayabe, Wakasa’s two sons, young men of twenty and twenty-two respectively, and the servant, Motono, who had acted the part of messenger between us for four years. How different was this meeting from that of two days before! These men like those of Berea in the Apostles time, had received the Word with all readiness of mind and did not come to puzzle themselves or me with unprofitable controversies, but asked several quite natural  and sensible questions to gain additional light on some points in reference principally to Christian character and customs. They had been taught of the Spirit.

“They showed great familiarity with their Bibles, made several pertinent quotations, and when during the conversation I referred them to sacred passages, they readily identified them and always accepted them as conclusive proofs. They were prepared to believe all that Jesus said and to do all that He required. It must be remembered that these men had been studying the Scriptures and reading a great variety of religious books with great diligence for at least four years, having begun to do so with a favorable disposition of mind. Like perhaps most of the higher classes in this country, they had no faith in Buddhism, the religion of the common people, while at the same time they were graciously with-held from falling into the opposite of a total atheism. Their minds were in a state of expectant transition when, just in time, they were led to search for and find salvation through faith in Christ.

“We spent a delightful afternoon in conversing on the saving power and love of Christ, and just as I thought my friends were about to leave me, Wakasa took me by surprise by inquiring if I would object to baptizing him and his brother Ayabe before they left town. I was surprised because so many Japanese had at different times talked to me of the great peril of becoming Christians in the full sense of the word. I had expected from these men to hear something as follows: “We believe and would like to be baptized; but we cannot think of realizing our wish in this one particular so long as the law of the land hangs the inevitable sword over the heads of all who dare to change their religion; for the present we must remain as we are, but when this cruel edict is repealed, we will come forward for baptism”

“I warned my visitors not to think lightly of the act and not to entertain superstitious notions concerning its efficacy. I urged the solemn importance of the sacrament and the great obligations which devolve on those to whom it is administered; I repeated the questions which, according to our form, they would have to answer with a hearty affirmative; and finally told them to decide, as if in the presence of God who searches the heart. They listened attentively and repeated their desire to be baptized, requesting only that it should be done and kept in secret.

“The following Lord’s Day, the Day of Pentecost [May 20], was chosen, the hour selected being seven o’clock, p. m. Wakasa, whose position did not permit him to move about the streets without a half-dozen followers, and who could not visit me without making himself conspicuous, I did not see again until the appointed hour on Sunday night; but Ayabe came to me twice during the intervening days, and I gave him such instructions for himself and his brother as I thought might be useful to them.

 
Moriyama Einosuke (森山栄之助?, 1820 – 1872) was a samurai during the Tokugawa Shogunate, and an interpreter of Dutch and English. He studied English under Ranald MacDonald, and as “Chief Dutch Interpreter” was one of the chief men involved in the negotiations with Commodore Perry in regard to the opening of Japan to the outside world.

“At last, when the Sabbath evening came, the two candidates presented themselves, attended into the room by none but Motono. The retinue, consisting of eight followers, was dismissed at our door with orders to return in an hour. I had arranged everything beforehand to avoid unnecessary detention. The shutters were closed; the lamps lit, a white cloth spread on the centre-table, a large cut-glass fruit-dish, for want of anything better, prepared to serve as a font. Besides Motono, my wife was the only witness present, so that there were but five persons in the room. I began by reading Matthew twenty-eight, then dwelt on the concluding verses, spoke of the purpose of missionary societies, and referred to the bearing of the words of Jesus upon our present meeting. I exhorted them not to be discouraged in their peculiarly difficult situation, but rather, by a life of faith, of love, and of holiness, to disarm all the criticism of their neighbors and even persecution itself. We then united in prayer both in English and Japanese, proceeded with our liturgy, translating ex tempore the form for baptism; and after the administration of the sacrament, concluded with prayer and thanksgiving.”

On reaching home, Wakasa and Ayabe reported to their Daimyo what they had done. He left them unmolested. In some way Wakasa’s conversion became known to the Central Government, and the Daimyo was ordered to punish him. Nothing was done, however, except to burn some of Wakasa’s books.

Soon after this Dr. Verbeck removed to Tokyo, and thus had no more direct dealings with Wakasa. The latter soon retired from active life to his country villa, where he spent much of his time in translating the Bible from Chinese into Japanese. He died in 1874, with a firm faith in his Savior.

Though it is in anticipation of our narrative, it may be well here to give some further intelligence of Wakasa’s family. In 1880, Rev. Mr. Booth of Nagasaki noticed in his audience on Sunday morning two strangers, one of whom was evidently a woman of high rank. They gave close attention to his address, and their eyes often filled with tears. At the close of the service they introduced themselves, one being Wakasa’s daughter and the other her former nurse. They had learned from Wakasa the Lord’s Prayer and some other portions of Scripture that he had written out for them in simple characters.

The daughter had married and was living in Nagasaki; but she was acquainted with no Christians there. She was about to remove with her husband to Osaka, and desired to receive baptism before going there. Therefore, she had sent to Saga for her old nurse, and they had attempted to find some Christian teacher. They at first fell in with a Roman Catholic priest, who gave them a prayer-book; but on examination, its teaching did not seem to them like that which they had before received.

They were afraid to make inquiries, fearing that they would be insulted as suspected followers of Christianity. After wandering about the city for some days, they saw a shop where the characters on the covers of the books seemed familiar. On opening one volume, they found the Sermon on the Mount, and recognized its words. They purchased several books and had a long talk with the bookseller, who, as it was Saturday, told them where they could find a Christian service the next day.

As both asked for baptism, Mr. Booth asked their reason for desiring it. ”’Whosever believeth and is baptized shall be saved,’ “they quoted. When he said: “How can I know that you are true believers?” the younger woman replied: *’it has been my custom for years to go into my husband’s storehouse every day for private meditation and prayer to God and the Father of Jesus Christ.” “How do you know that this salvation is for you?” “It is written: ‘ Whosoever will, let him take the water of life freely.*” After some days had been spent in instructing the women, the rite was administered. The younger woman’s husband was present, paying close attention to the service and afterwards expressing a desire to know more about Christianity.

The nurse soon returned to Saga, where she resumed her work of teaching a small school for girls. She also organized a Bible-class for women, and its members soon became the teachers of a Sunday school. Though she is no longer living, the influence of her work still remains in Saga. Among the believers there was a son of Wakasa. The daughter, who removed to Osaka and later to Tokyo, became prominent in religious and philanthropic work. Her husband also became a Christian.

At the close of a meeting held in Tokyo about 1883, a man stepped forward and said to Dr. Verbeck: “I am Ayabe. Since my baptism I have been in the army and also employed in surveying. During all these years I have always carried the Bible with me, and I have been accustomed to read it daily.” The next day he came with his only daughter, about fifteen years old, asking that she be baptized. At one time he was a local preacher in the Methodist Church.

Former House of the President of the Nagasaki District Court, Glover Garden – 1815
Glover GardenNagasaki’s top tourist attraction features Japan’s oldest Western style house. Glover Garden also features views of Nagasaki Port. – 1815
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