THE JAPAN HISTORIC COLLECTIONS
DURING MEIJI PERIOD
Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM
Periode Meiji (1868-1912)
Periode Meiji, atau Era Meiji,
menunjukkan masa pemerintahan 45 tahun dari Kaisar Meiji, berlari, dalam kalender Gregorian, dari 23 Oktober 1868 sampai 30 Juli 30, 1912.
Jepang mulai modernisasi dan naik ke status dunia kekuasaan. Ini berarti nama
era “Peraturan Tercerahkan”.
Setelah kematian Kaisar Meiji pada tahun 1912,
Kaisar Taisho naik takhta,
sehingga awal periode Taisho.
Meiji RestorationThe Restorasi Meiji, juga dikenal sebagai Meiji Ishin, Revolusi, atau Pembaruan, adalah rangkaian kejadian yang menyebabkan perubahan besar dalam struktur Jepang politik dan sosial. Ini terjadi pada paruh kedua abad ke-19, sebuah periode yang mencakup kedua periode akhir Edo (sering disebut Akhir Keshogunan Tokugawa) dan dimulainya Era Meiji.
Mungkin account asing yang paling penting dari peristiwa antara 1862-1869 terkandung dalam A Diplomat di Jepang oleh
Sir Ernest Satow.
Restorasi ini merupakan respon langsung terhadap pembukaan Jepang dengan kedatangan Kapal Hitam
Komodor Matthew Perry
dan dibuat Imperial Jepang daya yang besar.
Periode Taisho (1912-1926) Periode Taisho (“periode kebenaran besar”), atau Era Taisho, adalah periode dalam sejarah Jepang kencan mulai tanggal 30 Juli 1912 hingga 25 Desember 1926, bertepatan dengan masa pemerintahan Taisho Kaisar.
Kesehatan kaisar baru ini yang lemah, yang mendorong pergeseran kekuatan politik dari kelompok oligarki lama negarawan tua (atau genro) ke Diet Jepang dan partai-partai demokratis. Dengan demikian, era dianggap saat gerakan liberal yang dikenal sebagai “demokrasi Taisho” di Jepang, biasanya dibedakan dari periode Meiji sebelumnya kacau dan setengah militerisme-driven berikut pertama periode Showa.
Jepang selama Perang Dunia I
Periode Showa (1926-1989) Periode Showa “masa damai tercerahkan”), atau Era Showa, adalah periode sejarah Jepang yang sesuai dengan pemerintahan Kaisar Showa (Hirohito), sejak tanggal 25 Desember 1926 7 Januari 1989. Dalam pesan penobatannya yang dibacakan kepada rakyat dan untuk angkatan bersenjata, kaisar yang baru bertahta direferensikan nama ini zaman Jepang atau nengo:. “Saya telah mengunjungi medan perang Perang Besar di Perancis Di hadapan kehancuran seperti itu, saya memahami berkat perdamaian dan perlunya kerukunan antar bangsa. Namun, periode awal-pertengahan Showa adalah apa saja tetapi damai.
Periode Showa adalah pemerintahan terlama dari semua kaisar Jepang. Selama era ini, Jepang turun ke totalitarism politik sesaat runtuhnya kapitalisme dan ancaman menjulang komunisme memunculkan ultranationalism. Pada tahun 1937, ia terlibat dalam perang dengan China untuk kedua kalinya dan pada tahun 1941, meluncurkan invasi Jauh Asia timur dengan menyerang Amerika Serikat di Pearl Harbor, sehingga memasuki konflik di seluruh dunia Perang Dunia Kedua. Pada awal Agustus 1945, mengalami dua serangan bom atom hanya dalam sejarah.
Kekalahan dalam Perang Dunia II membawa perubahan dahsyat. Untuk pertama kalinya dan hanya dalam sejarahnya, Jepang diduduki oleh kekuatan asing – suatu pekerjaan yang berlangsung tujuh tahun. Pendudukan Sekutu melahirkan reformasi demokrasi menyapu dan pada tahun 1952, Jepang menjadi bangsa yang berdaulat sekali lagi (dan yang lebih damai dari sebelumnya pendudukan).
1960-an dan 70-an membawa suatu keajaiban ekonomi mirip dengan Jerman Barat. Jepang menjadi perekonomian terbesar kedua di dunia dan tampaknya untuk sementara waktu bahwa Jepang akhirnya akan mengambil alih posisi Amerika Serikat sebagai negara adidaya ekonomi.
Karena sifat budaya Jepang, lansekap, dan sejarah selama periode ini, hal ini berguna untuk membagi periode menjadi sedikitnya tiga bagian: periode militer, pendudukan Sekutu, dan era pasca-pendudukan. Orang mungkin menambah tiga era khas periode dimana demokrasi Taisho menurun dan jatuh, serta periode dimana Jepang melawan perang Sino-Jepang dan Pasifik Kedua (yang, bagaimanapun, dapat dianggap sebagai bagian dari periode militeris) .
Periode Heisei (1989 – Sekarang) Heisei adalah nama zaman sekarang di Jepang. Era Heisei dimulai pada tanggal 8 Januari, 1989 hari pertama setelah kematian Kaisar memerintah, Hirohito. Anaknya, Akihito, berhasil takhta. Sesuai dengan adat Jepang, Hirohito secara anumerta berganti nama menjadi “Kaisar Showa” pada tanggal 31 Januari, sama seperti yang Mutsuhito (Kaisar Meiji) dan Yoshihito (Kaisar Taisho).
Di Jepang selama masa Meiji,
mikroskop diproduksi dan dijual sebagai kaca pembesar. Namun, mereka kalah dengan mikroskop Eropa dalam hal kinerja dan ilmuwan terlibat dalam penelitian bakteriologi pada waktu itu harus bergantung pada impor mahal.
Takeshi Yamashita, pendiri Olympus, bermimpi entah bagaimana manufaktur mikroskop di Jepang. Dia mendirikan sebuah perusahaan di 1919 dan mulai bekerja untuk memenuhi mimpinya. Hal ini menandai awal dari periode 13-tahun tak menyimpang upaya Yamashita.
Kelahiran mikroskop luar negeri
Shared melihat mikroskop
KA Portabel Mikroskop
Periode Meiji koleksi bersejarah
Konstitusi Meiji Penetapan
woodblock cetak dengan Chikanobu
Meiji periode 1868-1912
Taisho periode 1912-1926
Jepang pada Perang Dunia I
Showa periode 1926-1989
Showa krisis keuangan
Pasca pendudukan Jepang
Heisei periode 1989-sekarang
Kekaisaran Jepang (sebelum perang)
1868-1945 (entitas politik)
Jepang (sesudah perang)
1945-sekarang (entitas politik)
Daftar kata · Timeline
Meiji periode (明治 时代, Meiji-Jidai?), Juga dikenal sebagai era Meiji, adalah era Jepang yang diperpanjang dari September 1868 sampai Juli 1912.  Periode ini merupakan semester pertama Kekaisaran Jepang di mana Jepang masyarakat yang semula feodalisme terisolasi untuk bentuk modern. Perubahan mendasar dipengaruhi struktur sosial, politik internal, ekonomi, militer, dan hubungan luar negeri.
Jepang untuk perdagangan luar negeri pada tahun 1853 dan Restorasi Meiji pada tahun 1867 ..
Jepang untuk perdagangan luar negeri pada tahun 1853
Para pengasingan Jepang berakhir pada tahun 1853
dengan kedatangan satu armada angkatan laut Amerika Serikat dipimpin oleh Laksamana Matthew C. Perry. Dia telah diperintahkan untuk membuka Jepang untuk perdagangan luar negeri dan kontak diplomatik. Pemerintahan bakufu Edo, mengakui keunggulan militer Amerika Serikat, menandatangani perjanjian persahabatan dalam kunjungan kedua oleh
Perry pada 1854.
Belanda, Rusia, Inggris, dan Perancis mengikuti jejak Amerika Serikat.
pemerintahan bakufu telah ditekan untuk menandatangani serangkaian “perjanjian tidak setara” membuka pelabuhan Jepang beberapa perdagangan luar negeri. Negara Barat diberi hak ekstrateritorial, atau pengecualian dari hukum setempat. Tingkat tarif yang menetapkan bahwa pemerintah Jepang tidak bisa mengubah.
Banyak orang Jepang dianggap penyerahan ke Barat sebagai penghinaan nasional, dan otoritas pemerintahan bakufu menurun drastis. Ada tuntutan yang berkembang untuk pengusiran orang asing dan untuk pemulihan kekuasaan politik kepada kaisar. Tuntutan ini didukung oleh pengadilan dan dua kuat daimyo domain di Jepang barat-Satsuma (di selatan Kyushu) dan Choshu (dalam Honshu barat ekstrim). Pada tahun 1868 shogun Tokugawa terpaksa turun tahta. Sebuah pemerintahan baru dibentuk di bawah Mutsuhito kaisar muda, yang mengambil nama pemerintahan Meiji (“Pemerintah tercerahkan”). Pengalihan kekuasaan dari Keshogunan Tokugawa kepada kaisar Meiji dikenal sebagai Restorasi Meiji. Hal ini dianggap sebagai awal dari era modern Jepang.
Para pemimpin pemerintah baru adalah mantan samurai Satsuma dan Choshu, seperti Toshimichi Okubo, Koin Kido, dan Saigo Takamori. Mereka ingin mengakhiri “perjanjian tidak setara” dan untuk mengejar ketinggalan militer dengan negara-negara Barat. Tugas pertama mereka, bagaimanapun, adalah untuk menciptakan keteraturan internal. Sebuah administrasi terpusat menggantikan sistem daimyo; perbedaan kelas banyak dihapuskan; dan tentara wajib ini dibangun, menggantikan samurai, atau kelas ksatria. Pada tahun 1868 diubah namanya Edo Tokyo, yang berarti “ibukota timur”, dan ditunjuk ibukota kekaisaran baru.
tentara memadamkan sejumlah pemberontakan oleh mantan samurai yang keberatan dengan modernisasi yang cepat. The naas Satsuma pemberontakan tahun 1877 dipimpin oleh Saigo, yang telah mengundurkan diri dari pemerintah pada tahun 1873. Itu adalah tantangan besar terakhir kepada rezim baru. Pemerintah kekaisaran juga meletakkan dasar bagi sebuah ekonomi industri. Uang modern dan sistem perbankan diperkenalkan. Kereta api, telegraf dan saluran telepon, dan pabrik-pabrik dibangun, dengan menggunakan teknologi terbaru. Perusahaan swasta disubsidi, dan undang-undang memungkinkan pemilikan pribadi atas tanah yang berlaku.
Pemimpin seperti Arinori Mori membantu menciptakan sistem pendidikan yang modern. Wajib pendidikan universal telah dilembagakan pada tahun 1872.
Pada tahun 1905
hampir 95 persen dari Jepang usia sekolah anak-anak di sekolah, dan Jepang segera mencapai salah satu tingkat melek huruf tertinggi di dunia.
Sebuah konstitusi disusun pada 1880 di bawah arahan pemimpin politik Hirobumi Ito, yang mengambil sebagai modelnya institusi kekaisaran Jerman. Konstitusi, akhirnya diumumkan pada tahun 1889, memberikan kekuasaan eksekutif yang kuat kepada Tenno dan dewan jamban. Seorang perdana menteri mengepalai kabinet yang anggotanya secara individual bertanggung jawab kepada kaisar. Kekuasaan legislatif yang dieksekusi oleh dua rumah parlemen, atau Diet. Majelis tinggi, House of Peers, terutama terdiri dari kaum bangsawan baru yang diciptakan pada tahun 1884. Majelis rendah, DPR, terpilih oleh pembayar pajak pria lebih dari 25 tahun.
Modernisasi yang cepat Jepang telah membuat bangsa yang paling kuat di Asia. Ekstrateritorialitas telah dilepaskan oleh Britania Raya, Amerika Serikat, dan negara Barat lainnya dengan 1899. Tetapi para pemimpin Meiji seperti Ito dan Yamagata Aritomo tetap curiga terhadap imperialisme Barat. Menggunakan daya tumbuh ekonomi dan militer, Jepang berusaha untuk membangun sebuah kerajaan sendiri.
Untuk mencapai tujuan ini Jepang terlibat dua perang besar. Setelah kemenangannya dalam pertama,
Perang Sino-Jepang 1894-1895,
Jepang memaksa kekaisaran Cina yang sangat besar tapi lemah untuk menyerahkan Taiwan, sebelumnya disebut Formosa, dan Kepulauan Penghu, atau Pescadores. Jepang juga seharusnya mendapatkan Semenanjung Liaotung di Manchuria, tetapi Rusia memaksa Jepang untuk tidak menerimanya. Sebaliknya, pada tahun 1898, Rusia mengambil semenanjung itu sendiri.
adalah salah satu dari 505 pulau tak berpenghuni di Prefektur Nagasaki sekitar 15 kilometer dari Nagasaki sendiri. Pulau ini dihuni 1887-1974 sebagai fasilitas penambangan batubara. Pada tahun 1959, kepadatan penduduk adalah 835 orang per hektar (83.500 orang/km2) untuk seluruh pulau, atau 1.391 hektar per (139.100 orang/km2) untuk daerah pemukiman, kepadatan penduduk tertinggi yang pernah tercatat di seluruh dunia.
Meiji restorasi dan kaisar
Jul 1, 1868 12:00
Pada tahun 1868, waktu yang lama berkuasa Tokugawa Shogun mencapai akhir dengan Satsuma dan Choshu kekuatan militer itu. Satsuma dan Choshu adalah tozama, klan lain dari daimyo, yang paling efektif dalam politik nasional. Setiap klan persaingan menduduki bagian yang berbeda dari Jepang. Tokugawa rezim dipulihkan oleh baru Kaisar Meiji. Untuk mencatat Tokugawa, para pemimpin Meiji menekankan bahwa Shogun telah mengambil semua kekuasaan dari Kaisar. Dalam Restorasi Pertama, para pemimpin menekankan loyalitas yang universal terhadap kaisar dan itu adalah kehendak-Nya untuk melakukan reformasi di negara ini. Juga, mereka berkonsultasi dengan daimyos menyerah domain mereka, untuk menggabungkan daerah menjadi bangsa tunggal. Pada 1889, konstitusi Meiji terjadi dan membawa bentuk baru pemerintahan di Jepang. Beberapa tokoh kunci atau pemimpin dalam restorasi Meiji adalah sebagai berikut: Okubo Toshimichi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kuroda Kiyotaka, Ito Hirobumi, Fukuzawa Yukichi, dll Penyebab: arahan Commodore Perry di Nagasaki dan tegas membuka port yang tertutup terbukti Shogun yang akan berdaya. Hanya “orang asing satu arah jalan perdagangan ke Jepang rusak pemerintah Jepang. Kekayaan akumulasi selama abad 17, 18, dan 19 membuat mereka siap untuk transformasi, politik sosial. Kombinasi dari korupsi internal masyarakat feodal dan pengakuan dari negara-negara Barat, juga menyebabkan reformasi. Hasil: Restorasi Meiji membuang pemerintahan Tokugawa dan bersatu bangsa. Para pemimpin samurai membujuk daimyos menyerah domain mereka. Kemudian, daimyos ditunjuk sebagai gubernur dari domain mereka. Sistem dibuat wajib militer jelata untuk berpartisipasi dalam tugas-tugas kepolisian. Tentara dikumpulkan membawa mobilitas sosial dan stabilitas. Struktur pemerintahan baru dibentuk: bikameral legislatif, hak pasti dari seorang kaisar, dll Perubahan yang dibuat selama Restorasi Meiji dapat dilihat di Jepang modern. Kerja dikutip: – Borthwick, Mark. Pacific Century: Munculnya Asia Pasifik Modern. 3 ed. Oxford: Westview Press, 2007. Cetak. – “Restorasi Meiji.” TheCorner. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mei 2010. . gambar: http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=514&catid=18
Jul 1, 1868 12:00
Meiji restorasi (1868-1912) –
Pada tahun 1868,
waktu yang lama berkuasa Tokugawa Shogun mencapai akhir dengan Satsuma dan Choshu kekuatan militer itu. Satsuma dan Choshu adalah tozama, klan lain dari daimyo, yang paling efektif dalam politik nasional. Setiap klan persaingan menduduki bagian yang berbeda dari Jepang. Tokugawa rezim dipulihkan oleh baru Kaisar Meiji. Untuk mencatat Tokugawa, para pemimpin Meiji menekankan bahwa Shogun telah mengambil semua kekuasaan dari Kaisar. Dalam Restorasi Pertama, para pemimpin menekankan loyalitas yang universal terhadap kaisar dan itu adalah kehendak-Nya untuk melakukan reformasi di negara ini. Juga, mereka berkonsultasi dengan daimyos menyerah domain mereka, untuk menggabungkan daerah menjadi bangsa tunggal. Pada 1889, konstitusi Meiji terjadi dan membawa bentuk baru pemerintahan di Jepang. Beberapa tokoh kunci atau pemimpin dalam restorasi Meiji adalah sebagai berikut: Okubo Toshimichi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kuroda Kiyotaka, Ito Hirobumi, Fukuzawa Yukichi, dll Penyebab: arahan Commodore Perry di Nagasaki dan tegas membuka port yang tertutup terbukti Shogun yang akan berdaya. Hanya “orang asing satu arah jalan perdagangan ke Jepang rusak pemerintah Jepang.
Kekayaan akumulasi selama abad 17, 18, dan 19 membuat mereka siap untuk transformasi, politik sosial.
Kombinasi dari korupsi internal masyarakat feodal dan pengakuan dari negara-negara Barat, juga menyebabkan reformasi.
Restorasi Meiji membuang pemerintahan Tokugawa dan bersatu bangsa. Para pemimpin samurai membujuk daimyos menyerah domain mereka. Kemudian, daimyos ditunjuk sebagai gubernur dari domain mereka. Sistem dibuat wajib militer jelata untuk berpartisipasi dalam tugas-tugas kepolisian. Tentara dikumpulkan membawa mobilitas sosial dan stabilitas. Struktur pemerintahan baru dibentuk: bikameral legislatif, hak pasti dari seorang kaisar, dll Perubahan yang dibuat selama Restorasi Meiji dapat dilihat di Jepang modern. Kerja dikutip: – Borthwick, Mark. Pacific Century: Munculnya Asia Pasifik Modern. 3 ed. Oxford: Westview Press, 2007. Cetak. – “Restorasi Meiji.” TheCorner. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mei 2010. . gambar: http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=514&catid=18
Artikel utama: Penghapusan sistem han
Pada 3 Februari 1867, lima belas tahun pangeran Mutsuhito menggantikan ayahnya, Kaisar Komei, ke Tahta Chrysanthemum sebagai kaisar 122.
Imperial restorasi terjadi pada tahun berikutnya pada 3 Januari 1868 dengan pembentukan pemerintahan baru. Keshogunan Tokugawa digulingkan dengan jatuhnya Edo pada musim panas 1868, dan era baru yang disebut Meiji, yang berarti “aturan tercerahkan”, menyatakan.
Reformasi pertama adalah pengumuman dari Sumpah Piagam Lima pada tahun 1868, pernyataan umum tujuan dari para pemimpin Meiji untuk meningkatkan semangat dan memenangkan dukungan keuangan bagi pemerintah baru. Lima ketentuan terdiri dari
1. Pembentukan majelis deliberatif
2. Keterlibatan semua kelas dalam menjalankan urusan negara
3. Pencabutan hukum sumptuary dan pembatasan kelas terhadap lapangan kerja
4. Penggantian “adat jahat” dengan “hanya hukum alam” dan
5. Sebuah pencarian internasional untuk pengetahuan untuk memperkuat dasar-dasar aturan kekaisaran.
Tersirat dalam Sumpah Piagam adalah diakhirinya kekuasaan politik eksklusif oleh bakufu dan bergerak ke arah partisipasi yang lebih demokratis dalam pemerintahan. Untuk melaksanakan Sumpah Piagam, konstitusi dengan sebelas artikel itu disusun. Selain menyediakan untuk Dewan baru Negara, badan legislatif, dan sistem peringkat untuk bangsawan dan pejabat, itu terbatas masa jabatan kantor untuk empat tahun, memungkinkan pemungutan suara publik, yang disediakan untuk sistem perpajakan baru, dan memerintahkan aturan baru administrasi lokal.
Pemerintah Meiji meyakinkan kekuatan asing bahwa mereka akan mengikuti perjanjian lama dinegosiasikan oleh bakufu dan mengumumkan bahwa mereka akan bertindak sesuai dengan hukum internasional. Mutsuhito, yang memerintah sampai tahun 1912, memilih pemerintahan baru judul-Meiji, atau Peraturan-Tercerahkan untuk menandai awal dari era baru dalam sejarah Jepang. Untuk lebih mendramatisir orde baru, ibu kota dipindahkan dari Kyoto, di mana ia telah berada sejak 794, ke Tokyo (Timur Modal), nama baru untuk Edo. Dalam sebuah langkah penting untuk konsolidasi rezim baru, daimyo paling sukarela menyerahkan tanah mereka dan catatan sensus kepada kaisar dalam penghapusan sistem Han, melambangkan bahwa tanah dan orang-orang di bawah yurisdiksi kaisar.
Lima belas tahun Kaisar Meiji, bergerak dari Kyoto ke Tokyo, akhir 1868, setelah jatuhnya Edo
Dikonfirmasi di posisi keturunan mereka, daimyo menjadi gubernur, dan pemerintah pusat diasumsikan biaya administrasi dan tunjangan samurai dibayar. Han itu diganti dengan prefektur tahun 1871, dan otoritas terus mengalir ke pemerintah pusat. Pejabat dari han mantan disukai, seperti Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa, dan Hizen staf kementerian baru. Sebelumnya luar pengadilan dan mendukung bangsawan berpangkat rendah, tetapi lebih radikal, samurai diganti ditunjuk bakufu, daimyo, dan bangsawan pengadilan tua sebagai kelas penguasa baru muncul.
Sakura Sōgorō oleh Yamamoto Goi
Pulau Hashima (Gunkanjima)
“Battleship Island” adalah salah satu dari 505 pulau tak berpenghuni di Prefektur Nagasaki sekitar 15 kilometer dari Nagasaki sendiri. Pulau ini dihuni 1887-1974 sebagai fasilitas penambangan batubara. Pada tahun 1959, kepadatan penduduk adalah 835 orang per hektar (83.500 orang/km2) untuk seluruh pulau, atau 1.391 hektar per (139.100 orang/km2) untuk daerah pemukiman, kepadatan penduduk tertinggi yang pernah tercatat di seluruh dunia.
Foto-foto Pendudukan Jepang (1948-1951)
Meiji dan Taisho Eras dalam Foto
Fudo Temple di Meguro, Tokyo
Lama Foto-foto Bakumatsu-Meiji Periode
Diambil oleh Beato. Berjudul “dokter Jepang, Azuma Ian dan pasien”. Seorang dokter botak mengenakan kimono dengan lambang keluarga dan pedang mengambil denyut nadi seorang pasien wanita muda. Sebuah ketel duduk di anglo di latar belakang, tapi ini mungkin kediaman dokter.
Kenjyutsu Machidojo di Jepang pada awal periode Meiji
Ketika melihat kembali ke dalam Sejarah Kendo, ada beberapa poin mendasar yang tidak dapat diabaikan.
Yang pertama adalah munculnya pedang Jepang. Pedang Jepang yang muncul pada pertengahan abad 11 (tengah Era Heian 794-1185 〔〕) memiliki pisau sedikit melengkung dengan pegunungan mengangkat (disebut Shinogi). Model asli Its mungkin ditangani oleh suatu suku yang mengkhususkan diri dalam pertempuran kavaleri di Jepang utara pada abad ke-9. Sejak itu, pedang ini digunakan oleh teknologi Samurai dan produksi maju pesat selama periode awal Samurai-pemerintah pemerintahan (akhir Era Kamakura di abad ke-13). Dengan cara ini, tidak berlebihan untuk mengatakan bahwa kedua teknik tersebut menghunus menggunakan Shinogi yang menghasilkan ekspresi Shinogi-wo-kezuru, terlibat dalam persaingan sengit dan pedang Jepang produk Jepang lahir itu.
Setelah Perang Onin terjadi pada paruh kedua era Muromachi (1392-1573), Jepang mengalami anarki selama seratus tahun. Selama ini, banyak sekolah dari Kenjutsu didirikan. Pada 1543, senjata api dibawa ke Tanegashima (Pulau terletak di lepas ujung selatan Jepang). Pedang Jepang dibuat dengan menggunakan metode pengecoran Tatarafuki dengan besi kualitas tinggi diperoleh pasir dari dasar sungai. Namun, tidak butuh waktu lama sebelum jumlah besar senjata api dibuat berhasil menggunakan pasir besi berkualitas tinggi dan metode pengecoran yang sama untuk menghasilkan pedang. Akibatnya, gaya berat lapis baja berjuang yang berlaku hingga kemudian berubah secara dramatis dengan gaya tangan ke tangan yang lebih ringan berjuang. Pengalaman berjuang yang sebenarnya mengakibatkan pengembangan lanjutan dan spesialisasi pedang menempa serta pembentukan lebih halus pedang penanganan teknik dan keahlian yang telah diwariskan hingga saat ini melalui berbagai sekolah seperti Shinkage-ryu dan Itto-ryu.
Jepang mulai mengalami waktu yang relatif damai dari awal Era Edo (1603-1867). Selama ini, teknik dari Ken (pedang Jepang) dikonversi dari teknik membunuh orang untuk mengembangkan salah satu orang yang melalui konsep-konsep seperti Katsunin-ken yang meliputi tidak hanya teori tentang ilmu pedang yang kuat, tetapi juga konsep-konsep kehidupan yang disiplin ala Samurai. Ide-ide ini disusun dalam buku ada penjelasan mengenai seni peperangan di Era Edo awal. Contoh di antaranya adalah: “Heiho kadensho (Pedang Hidup memberi)” oleh Yagyu Munenori, “Fudochi shinmyaroku (Pikiran Unfettered)” oleh Imam Takuan yang merupakan interpretasi tertulis dari Yagyu Munenori “Ken Zen (Pedang dan Zen)” ditulis untuk Tokugawa Iemitsu, Shogun Ketiga untuk Pemerintah Tokugawa, dan “Gorin-no-sho (Kitab Lima Lingkaran)” oleh MiyamotoMusashi. Banyak buku lain tentang teori-teori ilmu pedang diterbitkan pada paruh tengah dan akhir Era Edo. Banyak dari tulisan-tulisan ini telah menjadi klasik dan mempengaruhi praktisi Kendo banyak hari ini.
Apa publikasi ini mencoba untuk menyampaikan kepada Samurai ini bagaimana hidup setelah mati. Ajaran-ajaran itu harus digunakan untuk kehidupan sehari-hari. Samurai mempelajari buku-buku dan ajaran sehari-hari, hidup kehidupan yang keras, dibudidayakan pikiran mereka, dan mengabdikan diri untuk penyempurnaan Bujutsu, belajar untuk membedakan antara baik dan jahat, dan mengetahui bahwa dalam keadaan darurat mereka siap mengorbankan hidup mereka untuk mereka Han (klan) dan tuan feodal. Dalam istilah sekarang, mereka bekerja sebagai birokrat dan tentara. Semangat Bushido yang berkembang selama ini, yang dikembangkan selama 246 tahun damai periode Tokugawa. Bahkan setelah keruntuhan sistem feodal, semangat Bushido hidup dalam pikiran orang Jepang.
Di sisi lain, sebanyak damai terus, sementara Kenjutsu mengembangkan teknik anggun baru dari Ken diciptakan dari pedang yang sebenarnya memerangi keterampilan, NaganumaShirozaemon-Kunisato sekolah Jiki-Shinkage-ryu dikembangkan landasan baru dalam teknik dari Ken. Selama Era Shotoku (1711-1715) Naganuma mengembangkan dari Kendo-gu (peralatan pelindung) dan mendirikan sebuah metode pelatihan menggunakan Shinai (pedang bambu). Inilah asal mula langsung dari disiplin Kendo hari ini. Setelah itu, selama Era Horeki (1751-1764), NakanishiChuzo-Kotake dari Itto-ryu memulai sebuah metode pelatihan baru menggunakan Pria besi (tutup kepala) dan Kendo-gu terbuat dari bambu, yang menjadi umum di kalangan banyak sekolah dalam waktu singkat waktu. Dalam Era Kansei (1789-1801), kompetisi antar sekolah menjadi populer dan Samurai perjalanan luar provinsi mereka untuk mencari lawan yang lebih kuat untuk meningkatkan keterampilan mereka.
Dalam paruh kedua era Edo (awal abad 19), jenis baru dari peralatan yang diproduksi seperti Shinai Yotsuwari (bambu pedang dipersatukan oleh tetramerous bambu). Ini Shinai baru lebih elastis dan tahan lama daripada Shinai Fukuro (secara harfiah, tas tertutup pedang bambu) yang diganti. Juga, Jangan (pelindung tubuh) yang diperkuat oleh kulit dan dilapisi dengan pernis diperkenalkan. Selama ini, tiga dojo yang mendapatkan popularitas yang besar untuk menjadi dikenal sebagai Mereka adalah: Genbukan dipimpin oleh Chiba Shusaku; Renpeikan dipimpin oleh Saito Yakuro, dan Shigakkan dipimpin oleh Momoi Shunzo “Tiga dojo Besar Edo.”. Chiba berusaha untuk melakukan sistematisasi Waza (teknik) pelatihan pedang bambu dengan mendirikan “Enam puluh delapan Teknik Kenjutsu” yang diklasifikasikan sesuai dengan poin yang mencolok. Teknik seperti Oikomi-pria dan Suriage-pria dan teknik lain yang disebut oleh Chiba masih digunakan hari ini.
Setelah Restorasi Meiji pada tahun 1868, kelas samurai dibubarkan dan pemakaian pedang dilarang. Akibatnya, Samurai banyak kehilangan pekerjaan dan Kenjutsu menurun secara dramatis. Setelah itu, Konflik Seinan yang terjadi di Tahun 10 Era Meiji (1877) adalah gerakan perlawanan berhasil Samurai terhadap Pemerintah Pusat yang tampaknya memberikan indikasi pemulihan Kenjutsu yang terutama di antara Polisi Metropolitan Tokyo. Pada Tahun 28 Era Meiji (1829), Dai-Nippon Butoku-Kai didirikan sebagai organisasi nasional untuk mempromosikan Bujutsu termasuk Kenjutsu Pada sekitar waktu yang sama pada 1899, “Bushido” diterbitkan dalam bahasa Inggris yang dianggap sebagai. kompilasi pikiran Samurai dan filsafat. Ini berpengaruh secara internasional.
Pada Tahun Pertama Taisho (1912), Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kendo Kata (kemudian diubah namanya menjadi Nippon Kendo Kata) didirikan menggunakan Kendo kata. Pembentukan Kata Kendo disediakan untuk penyatuan banyak sekolah untuk memungkinkan mereka untuk menyampaikan kepada generasi berikutnya teknik dan semangat pedang Jepang, dan untuk memperbaiki penyalahgunaan tangan yang telah disebabkan oleh pelatihan pedang bambu dan untuk mengoreksi yang tidak akurat pemogokan yang tidak pada sudut yang tepat untuk lawan. Ia berpikir bahwa Shinai (pedang bambu) itu harus diperlakukan sebagai alternatif dari pedang Jepang. Dan, pada Tahun Kedelapan Taisho (1919), Nishikubo Hiromichi dikonsolidasikan tujuan asli dari Bu (atau dalam kata lain Samurai) atas nama Budo dan Kendo karena mereka serupa dengan mereka.
Setelah Perang Dunia Kedua, Kendo diskors untuk sementara waktu di bawah Pendudukan Sekutu. Pada tahun 1952, namun, ketika All Japan Kendo Federation didirikan, Kendo dihidupkan kembali. Kendo saat ini memainkan peran penting dalam pendidikan sekolah dan juga populer di kalangan laki-laki tua dan muda dan perempuan. Praktisi Kendo beberapa juta dari segala usia menikmati berpartisipasi dalam sesi reguler Keiko (Kendo pelatihan).
Selanjutnya, Kendo adalah mendapatkan bunga di seluruh dunia, dan praktisi semakin internasional bergabung dengan dunia Kendo. Internasional Kendo Federation (FIK) didirikan pada tahun 1970 dan tiga tahunan pertama Kejuaraan Dunia Kendo (WKC) diadakan di Nippon Budokan pada tahun yang sama. Pada bulan Juli 2009, WKC 14 diadakan di Sao Paulo, Brasil. Kendo praktisi dari 38 negara dan wilayah berpartisipasi.
Kaisar Meiji lima puluhan
Karena Restorasi Meiji telah berusaha untuk kembali kaisar ke posisi unggul, upaya dilakukan untuk mendirikan negara Shinto berorientasi seperti keadaan 1.000 tahun sebelumnya. Sejak Shinto dan Buddha telah dibentuk menjadi sebuah kepercayaan sinkretis dalam satu-ribu tahun sebelumnya, suatu Negara baru Shinto harus dibangun untuk tujuan tersebut. Kantor Ibadah Shinto didirikan, peringkat bahkan di atas Dewan Negara penting. Ide-ide Kokutai sekolah Mito telah memeluk, dan keturunan ilahi rumah kekaisaran ditekankan. Pemerintah didukung Shinto guru, sebuah langkah kecil tapi penting. Meskipun Kantor Ibadah Shinto diturunkan pada tahun 1872, dengan 1877 Kementerian Dalam Negeri menguasai semua kuil Shinto dan sekte tertentu Shinto diberi pengakuan negara. Shinto dibebaskan dari Buddha administrasi dan sifat-sifatnya dipulihkan. Meskipun Buddhisme menderita sponsor keadaan Shinto, itu kebangkitan sendiri. Kekristenan juga disahkan, dan Konghucu tetap merupakan doktrin etis yang penting. Semakin Namun, pemikir Jepang diidentifikasi dengan ideologi Barat dan metode.
Artikel utama: Meiji oligarki, Pemerintah Meiji Jepang, dan Meiji konstitusi
Ketika Itagaki Taisuke diserang oleh preman di Gifu serunya, “Itagaki mungkin mati, tetapi kebebasan tidak pernah!”, Woodblock cetak dengan Utagawa Toyonobu
Seorang pendukung utama pemerintah adalah wakil Itagaki Taisuke (1837-1919), pemimpin Tosa kuat yang telah mengundurkan diri dari Dewan Negara atas urusan Korea pada tahun 1873. Itagaki berusaha damai, bukan pemberontak, berarti untuk mendapatkan suara dalam pemerintahan. Dia memulai sebuah sekolah dan sebuah gerakan yang bertujuan untuk membangun sebuah monarki konstitusional dan majelis legislatif. Perpindahan tersebut disebut Kebebasan dan Gerakan Hak Rakyat. Itagaki dan lain-lain menulis Memorial Tosa tahun 1874 mengkritik kekuatan yang tak terkendali dari oligarki dan menyerukan pembentukan segera pemerintahan yang representatif.
Antara 1871 dan 1873, serangkaian undang-undang pajak bumi dan diberlakukan sebagai dasar untuk kebijakan fiskal modern. Kepemilikan swasta disahkan, perbuatan tersebut diterbitkan dan tanah dinilai pada nilai pasar wajar dengan pajak yang dibayar secara tunai dan bukan dalam bentuk seperti dalam pra-Meiji hari dan dengan harga sedikit lebih rendah.
Tidak puas dengan laju reformasi setelah bergabung kembali dengan Dewan Negara pada tahun 1875, Itagaki diselenggarakan pengikutnya dan pendukung demokrasi lainnya ke dalam Aikokusha nasional (Masyarakat Patriot) untuk mendorong pemerintahan yang representatif pada tahun 1878. Pada tahun 1881, dalam suatu tindakan yang dia adalah yang terbaik yang dikenal, Itagaki membantu menemukan Jiyuto (Partai Liberal), yang disukai doktrin politik Prancis.
Pada tahun 1882 Okuma Shigenobu mendirikan Kaishintō Rikken (Partai Progresif Konstitusi), yang menyerukan demokrasi gaya Inggris konstitusional. Sebagai tanggapan, pemerintah birokrat, pejabat pemerintah daerah, dan konservatif lainnya mendirikan Teiseitō Rikken (Imperial Peraturan Partai), pihak pro-pemerintah, pada tahun 1882. Demonstrasi politik banyak diikuti, beberapa dari mereka kekerasan, mengakibatkan pembatasan pemerintah lebih lanjut. Pembatasan menghambat partai politik dan menyebabkan perpecahan di dalam dan di antara mereka. Para Jiyuto, yang telah menentang Kaishinto, dibubarkan pada 1884 dan mengundurkan diri sebagai Okuma Kaishinto presiden.
Pemerintah pemimpin, lama sibuk dengan ancaman kekerasan untuk stabilitas dan perpecahan kepemimpinan serius atas urusan Korea, umumnya sepakat bahwa pemerintahan konstitusional suatu hari nanti harus ditetapkan. Para pemimpin Chōshū Kido Takayoshi telah disukai bentuk konstitusional pemerintah sejak sebelum 1874, dan beberapa proposal untuk jaminan konstitusional telah dirancang. Meskipun mengakui realitas tekanan politik, bagaimanapun, oligarki bertekad untuk tetap mengontrol. Dengan demikian, langkah-langkah sederhana diambil.
Konferensi Osaka pada tahun 1875 mengakibatkan reorganisasi pemerintah dengan peradilan yang independen dan Kamar ditunjuk Tetua (Genrōin) bertugas meninjau proposal untuk legislatif.
Meiji Period (1868-1912)
denotes the 45-year reign of the Meiji Emperor, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from October 23, 1868 to 30 July 30, 1912.
During this time,
Japan started its modernization and rose to world power status. This era name means “Enlightened Rule”.
After the death of the Meiji Emperor in 1912,
the Taisho Emperor took the throne,
thus beginning the Taisho period.
Meiji RestorationThe Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japan’s political and social structure. It occurred in the latter half of the 19th century, a period that spans both the late Edo period (often called Late Tokugawa shogunate) and the beginning of the Meiji Era.
Probably the most important foreign account of the events between 1862-1869 is contained in A Diplomat in Japan by Sir Ernest Satow. The restoration was a direct response to the opening of Japan by the arrival of the Black Ships of Commodore Matthew Perry and made Imperial Japan a great power.
Taisho Period (1912-1926)The Taisho Period(“period of great righteousness”), or Taisho Era, is a period in the history of Japan dating from July 30, 1912 to December 25, 1926, coinciding with the reign of the Taisho Emperor.
The health of the new emperor was weak, which prompted the shift in political power from the old oligarchic group of elder statesmen (or genro) to the Diet of Japan and the democratic parties. Thus, the era is considered the time of the liberal movement known as the “Taisho democracy” in Japan; it is usually distinguished from the preceding chaotic Meiji period and the following militarism-driven first half of the Showa period.
Showa Period (1926-1989)The Showa Period“period of enlightened peace”), or Showa Era, is the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of Emperor Showa (Hirohito), from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. In his coronation message which was read to the people and to the army, the newly enthroned emperor referenced this Japanese era name or nengo: “I have visited the battlefields of the Great War in France. In the presence of such devastation, I understand the blessing of peace and the necessity of concord among nations. However, the early-mid Showa period was to be anything but peaceful.
The Showa period was the longest reign of all Japanese emperors. During this era, Japan descended into political totalitarism as the momentary collapse of capitalism and looming threat of communism gave rise to ultranationalism. In 1937, it engaged in war with China for a second time and in 1941, launched the invasion of Far east Asia by attacking the United States at Pearl Harbor, thus entering the world-wide conflict of the Second World War. In early August 1945, it suffered the only two atomic bomb attacks in history.
Defeat in the Second World War brought about cataclysmic change. For the first and only time in its history, Japan was occupied by foreign powers – an occupation that lasted seven years. Allied occupation brought forth sweeping democratic reforms and in 1952, Japan became a sovereign nation once more (and a more peaceful one than before the Occupation).
The 1960s and ’70s brought about an economic miracle similar to that of West Germany’s. Japan became the second largest economy in the world and it seemed for a time that Japan would ultimately overtake the United States as an economic superpower.
Due to the nature of Japan’s culture, landscape, and history during this period, it is useful to divide the period into at least three parts: the militarist period, the Allied occupation, and the post-occupation era. One might add to those three distinctive eras the period in which the Taisho democracy declined and fell, as well as the period in which Japan fought the Second Sino-Japanese and Pacific wars (which, however, can be considered part of the militarist period).
Heisei Period (1989 – Present)Heisei is the current era name in Japan. The Heisei era started on January 8, 1989, the first day after the death of the reigning Emperor, Hirohito. His son, Akihito, succeeded to the throne. In accordance with Japanese customs, Hirohito was posthumously renamed “Emperor Showa” on January 31, just as were Mutsuhito (Emperor Meiji) and Yoshihito (Emperor Taisho).
In Japan during the Meiji period,
microscopes were produced and sold as magnifying glasses. However, they were inferior to European microscopes in terms of performance and scientists engaged in bacteriology research at that time had to rely on expensive imports.
Takeshi Yamashita, the founder of Olympus, dreamed of somehow manufacturing microscopes in Japan. He established a company in 1919 and started working to fulfill his dream. This marked the beginning of a 13-year period of unswerving efforts by Yamashita.
Meiji Period Historic collections
Meiji Constitution Promulgation
The Meiji period (明治時代, Meiji-jidai?), also known as the Meiji era, is a Japanese era which extended from September 1868 through July 1912. This period represents the first half of the Empire of Japan during which Japanese society moved from being an isolated feudalism to its modern form. Fundamental changes affected its social structure, internal politics, economy, military, and foreign relations.
Japan to foreign trade in 1853 and the Meiji Restoration in 1867..
Japan to foreign trade in 1853
The seclusion of Japan ended in 1853
with the arrival of a United States naval fleet commanded by Commodore Matthew C. Perry. He had been instructed to open Japan to foreign trade and diplomatic contact. The Edo bakufu, recognizing United States military superiority, signed a treaty of friendship during a second visit by
Perry in 1854.
The Netherlands, Russia, Great Britain, and France followed the lead of the United States.
the bakufu had been pressured into signing a series of “unequal treaties” opening several Japanese ports to foreign trade. Western nationals were given the right of extraterritoriality, or exemption from local law. Tariff rates were established that the Japanese government could not alter.
Many Japanese regarded the surrender to the West as a national humiliation, and the bakufu‘s authority declined rapidly. There were growing demands for the expulsion of the foreigners and for the restoration of political power to the emperor. These demands were supported by the court and two powerful daimyo domains in western Japan—Satsuma (in southern Kyushu) and Choshu (in extreme western Honshu). In 1868 the Tokugawa shogun was forced to abdicate. A new government was established under the young emperor Mutsuhito, who took the reign name of Meiji (“enlightened government”). This transfer of power from the Tokugawa shogunate to the Meiji emperor is known as the Meiji Restoration. It is regarded as the beginning of Japan’s modern era.
Leaders of the new government were former samurai of Satsuma and Choshu, such as Toshimichi Okubo, Koin Kido, and Takamori Saigo. They wished to end the “unequal treaties” and to catch up militarily with the Western nations. Their first task, however, was to create internal order. A centralized administration replaced the daimyo system; many class distinctions were abolished; and a conscript army was built up, replacing the samurai, or warrior class. In 1868 Edo was renamed Tokyo, meaning “eastern capital,” and designated the new imperial capital.
During the 1870s
the army quelled a number of rebellions by former samurai who objected to rapid modernization. The ill-fated Satsuma rebellion of 1877 was led by Saigo, who had resigned from the government in 1873. It was the last major challenge to the new regime. The imperial government also laid the foundations for an industrial economy. Modern money and banking systems were introduced. Railroads, telegraph and telephone lines, and factories were built, using the newest technology. Private enterprises were subsidized, and laws permitting the private ownership of land were enacted.
Leaders like Arinori Mori helped create a modern educational system. Compulsory universal education was instituted in 1872.
nearly 95 percent of Japanese school-age children were in school, and Japan soon achieved one of the highest literacy rates in the world.
A constitution was drafted in the 1880s under the direction of the political leader Hirobumi Ito, who took as his model the institutions of the German empire. The constitution, finally promulgated in 1889, gave strong executive powers to the emperor and a privy council. A prime minister headed a cabinet whose members were individually responsible to the emperor. Legislative powers were exercised by a two-house parliament, or Diet. The upper house, the House of Peers, consisted mainly of a new nobility created in 1884. The lower house, the House of Representatives, was elected by male taxpayers over 25 years of age.
By the 1890s
Japan’s rapid modernization had made it the most powerful nation in Asia. Extraterritoriality was relinquished by Great Britain, the United States, and the other Western powers by 1899. But Meiji leaders like Ito and Aritomo Yamagata remained suspicious of Western imperialism. Using its growing economic and military power, Japan sought to build an empire of its own.
To achieve this objective Japan fought two major wars. After its victory in the first,
the Sino-Japanese War of 1894–95,
Japan forced the enormous but weak Chinese empire to cede Taiwan, formerly called Formosa, and the Penghu Islands, or Pescadores. Japan was also supposed to get the Liaotung Peninsula in Manchuria, but Russia forced Japan not to accept it. Instead, in 1898, Russia took the peninsula itself.
is one among 505 uninhabited islands in the Nagasaki Prefecture about 15 kilometers from Nagasaki itself. The island was populated from 1887 to 1974 as a coal mining facility. In 1959, its population density was 835 people per hectare (83,500 people/km2) for the whole island, or 1,391 per hectare (139,100 people/km2) for the residential district, the highest population density ever recorded worldwide.
Meiji restoration and the emperor
- Meiji Restoration
Jul 1, 1868 12:00 pm
In 1868, the long time of Tokugawa Shogunate’s ruling reached its end by Satsuma and Choshu’s military force. Satsuma and Choshu were tozama, the other clans of daimyo, who were most effective in national politics. Each rivalry clans occupied the different parts of Japan. Tokugawa regime was restored by new Meiji Emperor. To take down Tokugawa, the Meiji leaders highlighted that the Shogun had taken all the power away from the Emperor. In the First Restoration, the leaders emphasized the universal loyalty towards the emperor and it was his will to make reforms in the nation. Also, they consulted with daimyos to give up their domains, in order to combine regions into a single nation. In 1889, Meiji constitution took place and brought a new form of government in Japan. Some of the key figures or leaders in the Meiji restoration were the following: Okubo Toshimichi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kuroda Kiyotaka, Ito Hirobumi, Fukuzawa Yukichi, etc. Cause: Commodore Perry’s landing on Nagasaki and forcefully opening the closed ports proved the Shogunate to be powerless. Only the foreigners’ one-way street of trade to Japan damaged the Japanese government. The wealth accumulated during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries made them ready for a political, social transformation. The combination of the internal corruption of feudal society and recognition of Western powers, also led to the reforms. Result: Meiji Restoration discarded the Tokugawa polity and unified the nation. The samurai leaders persuaded the daimyos to give up their domain. Later, the daimyos were appointed as governors of their domains. The conscription system made commoners to participate in police duties. The collected army brought social mobility and stability. A new government structure was formed: bicameral legislature, definite rights of an emperor, etc. The changes made during the Meiji Restoration can be seen in modern Japan. Work cited: – Borthwick, Mark. Pacific Century: The Emergence of Modern Pacific Asia. 3 ed. Oxford: Westview Press, 2007. Print. – “Meiji Restoration.” TheCorner. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2010. . image: http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=514&catid=18
- Meiji Restoration
Jul 1, 1868 12:00 pm
Meiji restoration (1868-1912) –
the long time of Tokugawa Shogunate’s ruling reached its end by Satsuma and Choshu’s military force. Satsuma and Choshu were tozama, the other clans of daimyo, who were most effective in national politics. Each rivalry clans occupied the different parts of Japan. Tokugawa regime was restored by new Meiji Emperor. To take down Tokugawa, the Meiji leaders highlighted that the Shogun had taken all the power away from the Emperor. In the First Restoration, the leaders emphasized the universal loyalty towards the emperor and it was his will to make reforms in the nation. Also, they consulted with daimyos to give up their domains, in order to combine regions into a single nation. In 1889, Meiji constitution took place and brought a new form of government in Japan. Some of the key figures or leaders in the Meiji restoration were the following: Okubo Toshimichi, Matsukata Masayoshi, Kuroda Kiyotaka, Ito Hirobumi, Fukuzawa Yukichi, etc. Cause: Commodore Perry’s landing on Nagasaki and forcefully opening the closed ports proved the Shogunate to be powerless. Only the foreigners’ one-way street of trade to Japan damaged the Japanese government.
The wealth accumulated during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries made them ready for a political, social transformation.
The combination of the internal corruption of feudal society and recognition of Western powers, also led to the reforms.
Meiji Restoration discarded the Tokugawa polity and unified the nation. The samurai leaders persuaded the daimyos to give up their domain. Later, the daimyos were appointed as governors of their domains. The conscription system made commoners to participate in police duties. The collected army brought social mobility and stability. A new government structure was formed: bicameral legislature, definite rights of an emperor, etc. The changes made during the Meiji Restoration can be seen in modern Japan. Work cited: – Borthwick, Mark. Pacific Century: The Emergence of Modern Pacific Asia. 3 ed. Oxford: Westview Press, 2007. Print. – “Meiji Restoration.” TheCorner. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 May 2010. . image: http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=514&catid=18
Main article: Abolition of the han system
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on 3 January 1868 with the formation of the new government. The Tokugawa Shogunate was overthrown with the fall of Edo in the summer of 1868, and a new era called Meiji, meaning “enlightened rule”, proclaimed.
The first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of
- 1. Establishment of deliberative assemblies
- 2. Involvement of all classes in carrying out state affairs
- 3. The revocation of sumptuary laws and class restrictions on employment
- 4. Replacement of “evil customs” with the “just laws of nature” and
- 5. An international search for knowledge to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule.
Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu and a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a constitution with eleven articles was drawn up. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, and systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, and ordered new local administrative rules.
The Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law. Mutsuhito, who was to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo (Eastern Capital), the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyo voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the emperor’s jurisdiction.
Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, and the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends. The han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, and authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Tosa, and Hizen staffed the new ministries. Formerly out-of-favor court nobles and lower-ranking, but more radical, samurai replaced bakufu appointees, daimyo, and old court nobles as a new ruling class appeared.
“Battleship Island” is one among 505 uninhabited islands in the Nagasaki Prefecture about 15 kilometers from Nagasaki itself. The island was populated from 1887 to 1974 as a coal mining facility. In 1959, its population density was 835 people per hectare (83,500 people/km2) for the whole island, or 1,391 per hectare (139,100 people/km2) for the residential district, the highest population density ever recorded worldwide.
Fudo Temple at Meguro, Tokyo
Taken by Beato. Entitled “Japanese doctor, Azuma Ian and patient “. A bald doctor wearing a kimono with the family emblem and a sword takes the pulse of a young woman patient. A kettle sits on a brazier in the background, but this may be the residence of the doctor.
The History of Kendo
Kenjyutsu Machidojo in Japan at the beginning of Meiji period
The History of Kendo
When looking back into the History of Kendo, there are several fundamental points that cannot be overlooked.
The first point is the advent of the Japanese sword. The Japanese sword that emerged in the middle of the 11th Century (middle of the Heian Era〔794-1185〕 ) had a slightly arched blade with raised ridges (called Shinogi). Its original model was presumably handled by a tribe that specialized in cavalry battles in northern Japan during the 9th century. Since then, this sword was used by the Samurai and production technology advanced rapidly during the period of early Samurai-government reign (end of the Kamakura Era in the 13th Century). In this manner, it is not an exaggeration to say that both its wielding techniques using Shinogi which produced the expression of Shinogi-wo-kezuru, engaging in fierce competition and the Japanese sword were Japanese born products.
After the Onin War occurred in the latter half of the Muromachi Era (1392-1573), Japan experienced anarchy for a hundred years. During this time, many schools of Kenjutsu were established. In 1543, firearms were brought to Tanegashima (Island located off the southern tip of Japan). The Japanese sword was made using the Tatarafuki casting method with high quality iron sand obtained from the riverbed. However, it did not take long before large quantities of firearms were made successfully using this high quality iron sand and the same casting method to produce swords. As a result, the heavy-armored battling style that prevailed up to then changed dramatically to a lighter hand-to-hand battling style. Actual battling experiences resulted in advanced development and specialization of sword-smithing as well as the establishment of more refined sword-handling techniques and skills that have been handed down to the present through the various schools such as the Shinkage-ryu and Itto-ryu.
Japan began to experience a relatively peaceful period from the beginning of the Edo Era (1603-1867). During this time, techniques of the Ken(the Japanese sword) were converted from techniques of killing people to one of developing the person through concepts such as the Katsunin-ken which included not only theories on strong swordsmanship, but also concepts of a disciplinary life-style of the Samurai. These ideas were compiled in books elaborating on the art of warfare in the early Edo Era. Examples of these include: “Heiho Kadensho (The Life-giving Sword)” by Yagyu Munenori; “Fudochi Shinmyoroku (The Unfettered Mind )” by Priest Takuan which was a written interpretation of Yagyu Munenori’s “Ken to Zen (Sword and Zen)” written for Tokugawa Iemitsu, Third Shogunate for the Tokugawa Government; and “Gorin-no-sho (The Book of Five Rings)” by MiyamotoMusashi. Many other books on theories of swordsmanship were published during the middle and latter half of the Edo Era. Many of these writings have become classics and influence many Kendo practitioners today.
What these publications tried to convey to the Samurai was how to live beyond death. These teachings were to be used for everyday life. The Samurai studied these books and teachings daily, lived an austere life, cultivated their minds, and devoted themselves to the refinement of Bujutsu, learned to differentiate between good and evil, and learned that in times of emergency they were ready to sacrifice their lives for their Han (clan) and feudal lord. In present day terms, they worked as bureaucrats and soldiers. The Bushido spirit that evolved during this time, developed during a peaceful 246 years of the Tokugawa period. Even after the collapse of the feudal system, this Bushido spirit lives on in the minds of the Japanese.
On the other hand, as peaceful times continued, while Kenjutsu developed new graceful techniques of the Ken created from actual sword battling skills, NaganumaShirozaemon-Kunisato of the Jiki-shinkage-ryu school developed a new foundation in techniques of the Ken. During the Shotoku Era (1711-1715) Naganuma developed the of Kendo-gu (protective equipment) and established a training method using the Shinai (bamboo-sword). This is the direct origin of present day Kendo discipline. Thereafter, during the Horeki Era (1751-1764), NakanishiChuzo-kotake of Itto-ryu started a new training method using an iron Men (headgear) and Kendo-gu made of bamboo, which became prevalent among many schools in a short period of time. In the Kansei Era (1789-1801), inter-school competition became popular and Samurai traveled beyond their province in search of stronger opponents to improve their skills.
In the latter half of the Edo Era (beginning of the 19th Century), new types of equipment were produced such as the Yotsuwari Shinai (bamboo swords united by tetramerous bamboo). This new Shinai was more elastic and durable than the Fukuro Shinai (literally, bag-covered bamboo sword) which it replaced. Also, a Do (body armor) that was reinforced by leather and coated with lacquer was introduced. During this time, three Dojos that gained great popularity became to be known as the “Three Great Dojos of Edo.” They were: Genbukan led by Chiba Shusaku; Renpeikan led by Saito Yakuro; and Shigakkan led by Momoi Shunzo. Chiba attempted to systematize the Waza (techniques) of bamboo sword training by establishing the “Sixty-eight Techniques of Kenjutsu” which were classified in accordance with striking points. Techniques such as the Oikomi-men and Suriage-men and other techniques that were named by Chiba are still used today.
After the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the Samurai class was dissolved and the wearing of swords was prohibited. As a result, many Samurai lost their jobs and Kenjutsu declined dramatically. Thereafter, the Seinan Conflict which occurred in the 10th Year of the Meiji Era (1877) was an unsuccessful resistance movement of Samurai against the Central Government that seemed to give an indication of Kenjutsu’s recovery mainly among the Tokyo Metropolitan Police. In the 28th Year of the Meiji Era (1829), the Dai-Nippon Butoku-Kai was established as the national organization to promote Bujutsu including Kenjutsu. At around the same time in 1899, “Bushido” was published in English which was considered a compilation of Samurai’s thoughts and philosophy. It was influential internationally.
In the First Year of Taisho (1912), the Dai-Nippon Teikoku Kendo Kata (later renamed to Nippon Kendo Kata) was established using the word Kendo. The establishment of the Kendo Kata provided for the unification of many schools to enable them to pass on to later generations the techniques and spirit of the Japanese sword, and to remedy improper use of hands which had been caused by bamboo sword training and to correct inaccurate strikes which were not at the right angle to the opponent. It was thought that the Shinai (bamboo sword) was to be treated as an alternative of the Japanese sword. And, in the Eighth Year of Taisho (1919), Nishikubo Hiromichi consolidated the original objectives of Bu (or in other words Samurai) under the names of Budo and Kendo since they conformed to them.
After the Second World War, Kendo was suspended for a while under the Occupation of the Allied Forces. In 1952, however, when the All Japan Kendo Federation was established, Kendo was revived. Kendo presently plays an important role in school education and is also popular among the young and old, men and women alike. Several million Kendo practitioners of all ages enjoy participating in regular sessions of Keiko (Kendo training).
Furthermore, Kendo is gaining interest all around the world, and more and more international practitioners are joining the Kendo world. The International Kendo Federation (FIK) was established in 1970 and the first triennial World Kendo Championships (WKC) was held in the Nippon Budokan in the same year. In July 2009, the 14th WKC was held in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Kendo practitioners from 38 different countries and regions participated.
Emperor Meiji in his fifties
Inasmuch as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like the state of 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. The Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking even above the Council of State in importance. The kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, and the divine ancestry of the imperial house was emphasized. The government supported Shinto teachers, a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored. Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity also was legalized, and Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. Increasingly, however, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods.
When Itagaki Taisuke was attacked by thugs in Gifu he cried, “Itagaki may die, but liberty never!”, woodblock print by Utagawa Toyonobu
A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke (1837–1919), a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, means to gain a voice in government. He started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called The Freedom and People’s Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874 criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government.
Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, and lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in kind as in pre-Meiji days and at slightly lower rates.
Dissatisfied with the pace of reform after having rejoined the Council of State in 1875, Itagaki organized his followers and other democratic proponents into the nationwide Aikokusha (Society of Patriots) to push for representative government in 1878. In 1881, in an action for which he is best known, Itagaki helped found the Jiyuto (Liberal Party), which favored French political doctrines.
In 1882 Okuma Shigenobu established the Rikken Kaishintō (Constitutional Progressive Party), which called for a British-style constitutional democracy. In response, government bureaucrats, local government officials, and other conservatives established the Rikken Teiseitō (Imperial Rule Party), a pro-government party, in 1882. Numerous political demonstrations followed, some of them violent, resulting in further government restrictions. The restrictions hindered the political parties and led to divisions within and among them. The Jiyuto, which had opposed the Kaishinto, was disbanded in 1884 and Okuma resigned as Kaishinto president.
Government leaders, long preoccupied with violent threats to stability and the serious leadership split over the Korean affair, generally agreed that constitutional government should someday be established. The Chōshū leader Kido Takayoshi had favored a constitutional form of government since before 1874, and several proposals for constitutional guarantees had been drafted. While acknowledging the realities of political pressure, however, the oligarchy was determined to keep control. Thus, modest steps were taken.
The Osaka Conference in 1875 resulted in the reorganization of government with an independent judiciary and an appointed Chamber of Elders (Genrōin) tasked with reviewing proposals for a legislature. The emperor declared that “constitutional government shall be established in gradual stages” as he ordered the Council of Elders to draft a constitution.
Three years later, the Conference of Prefectural Governors established elected prefectural assemblies. Although limited in their authority, these assemblies represented a move in the direction of representative government at the national level, and by 1880 assemblies also had been formed in villages and towns. In 1880 delegates from twenty-four prefectures held a national convention to establish the Kokkai Kisei Domei (League for Establishing a National Assembly).
Although the government was not opposed to parliamentary rule, confronted with the drive for “people’s rights”, it continued to try to control the political situation. New laws in 1875 prohibited press criticism of the government or discussion of national laws. The Public Assembly Law (1880) severely limited public gatherings by disallowing attendance by civil servants and requiring police permission for all meetings.
Within the ruling circle, however, and despite the conservative approach of the leadership, Okuma continued as a lone advocate of British-style government, a government with political parties and a cabinet organized by the majority party, answerable to the national assembly. He called for elections to be held by 1882 and for a national assembly to be convened by 1883; in doing so, he precipitated a political crisis that ended with an 1881 imperial rescript declaring the establishment of a national assembly in 1890 and dismissing Okuma.
Rejecting the British model, Iwakura and other conservatives borrowed heavily from the Prussian constitutional system. One of the Meiji oligarchy, Itō Hirobumi (1841–1909), a Chōshū native long involved in government affairs, was charged with drafting Japan’s constitution. He led a Constitutional Study Mission abroad in 1882, spending most of his time in Germany. He rejected the United States Constitution as “too liberal” and the British system as too unwieldy and having a parliament with too much control over the monarchy; the French and Spanish models were rejected as tending toward despotism.
Ito was put in charge of the new Bureau for Investigation of Constitutional Systems in 1884, and the Council of State was replaced in 1885 with a cabinet headed by Ito as prime minister. The positions of chancellor, minister of the left, and minister of the right, which had existed since the seventh century as advisory positions to the emperor, were all abolished. In their place, the Privy Council was established in 1888 to evaluate the forthcoming constitution and to advise the emperor.
To further strengthen the authority of the state, the Supreme War Council was established under the leadership of Yamagata Aritomo (1838–1922), a Chōshū native who has been credited with the founding of the modern Japanese army and was to become the first constitutional prime minister. The Supreme War Council developed a German-style general staff system with a chief of staff who had direct access to the emperor and who could operate independently of the army minister and civilian officials.
When finally granted by the emperor as a sign of his sharing his authority and giving rights and liberties to his subjects, the 1889 Constitution of the Empire of Japan (the Meiji Constitution) provided for the Imperial Diet (Teikoku Gikai), composed of a popularly elected House of Representatives with a very limited franchise of male citizens who were over twenty-five years of age and paid fifteen yen in national taxes, about one percent of the population, and the House of Peers, composed of nobility and imperial appointees; and a cabinet responsible to the emperor and independent of the legislature. The Diet could approve government legislation and initiate laws, make representations to the government, and submit petitions to the emperor. Nevertheless, in spite of these institutional changes, sovereignty still resided in the emperor on the basis of his divine ancestry.
The new constitution specified a form of government that still was authoritarian in character, with the emperor holding the ultimate power and only minimal concessions made to popular rights and parliamentary mechanisms. Party participation was recognized as part of the political process. The Meiji Constitution was to last as the fundamental law until 1947.
In the early years of constitutional government, the strengths and weaknesses of the Meiji Constitution were revealed. A small clique of Satsuma and Chōshū elite continued to rule Japan, becoming institutionalized as an extra-constitutional body of genro (elder statesmen). Collectively, the genro made decisions reserved for the emperor, and the genro, not the emperor, controlled the government politically.
Throughout the period, however, political problems usually were solved through compromise, and political parties gradually increased their power over the government and held an ever larger role in the political process as a result. Between 1891 and 1895, Ito served as prime minister with a cabinet composed mostly of genro who wanted to establish a government party to control the House of Representatives. Although not fully realized, the trend toward party politics was well established.
On its return, one of the first acts of the government was to establish new ranks for the nobility. Five hundred people from the old court nobility, former daimyo, and samurai who had provided valuable service to the emperor were organized in five ranks: prince, marquis, count, viscount, and baron.
It was at this time that the Ee ja nai ka movement, a spontaneous outbreak of ecstatic behaviour, took place.
In 1885 an intellectual, Yukichi Fukuzawa, wrote the influential essay Leaving Asia, arguing that Japan should orient itself at the “civilized countries of the West”, leaving behind the “hopelessly backward” Asian neighbors, namely Korea and China. This essay certainly contributed to the economic and technological rise of Japan in the Meiji period, but it also may have laid the foundations for later Japanese colonialism in the region.
The Industrial Revolution in Japan occurred during the Meiji period.
There were at least two reasons for the speed of Japan’s modernization: the employment of more than 3,000 foreign experts (called o-yatoi gaikokujin or ‘hired foreigners’) in a variety of specialist fields such as teaching English, science, engineering, the army and navy, among others; and the dispatch of many Japanese students overseas to Europe and America, based on the fifth and last article of the Charter Oath of 1868: ‘Knowledge shall be sought throughout the world so as to strengthen the foundations of Imperial rule.’ This process of modernization was closely monitored and heavily subsidized by the Meiji government, enhancing the power of the great zaibatsu firms such as Mitsui and Mitsubishi.
Hand in hand, the zaibatsu and government guided the nation, borrowing technology from the West. Japan gradually took control of much of Asia’s market for manufactured goods, beginning with textiles. The economic structure became very mercantilistic, importing raw materials and exporting finished products—a reflection of Japan’s relative poverty in raw materials.
Japan emerged from the Tokugawa–Tennō (Keiō-Meiji) transition in 1868 as the first Asian industrialized nation. Domestic commercial activities and limited foreign trade had met the demands for material culture until the Keiō period, but the modernized Meiji period had radically different requirements. From the onset, the Meiji rulers embraced the concept of a market economy and adopted British and North American forms of free enterprise capitalism. The private sector—in a nation with an abundance of aggressive entrepreneurs—welcomed such change.
Economic reforms included a unified modern currency based on the yen, banking, commercial and tax laws, stock exchanges, and a communications network. Establishment of a modern institutional framework conducive to an advanced capitalist economy took time, but was completed by the 1890s. By this time, the government had largely relinquished direct control of the modernization process, primarily for budgetary reasons.
Many of the former daimyo, whose pensions had been paid in a lump sum, benefited greatly through investments they made in emerging industries. Those who had been informally involved in foreign trade before the Meiji Restoration also flourished. Old bakufu-serving firms that clung to their traditional ways failed in the new business environment.
The government initially was involved in economic modernization, providing a number of “model factories” to facilitate the transition to the modern period. After the first twenty years of the Meiji period, the industrial economy expanded rapidly until about 1920 with inputs of advanced Western technology and large private investments. Stimulated by wars and through cautious economic planning, Japan emerged from World War I as a major industrial nation.
Undeterred by opposition, the Meiji leaders continued to modernize the nation through government-sponsored telegraph cable links to all major Japanese cities and the Asian mainland and construction of railroads, shipyards, munitions factories, mines, textile manufacturing facilities, factories, and experimental agriculture stations. Greatly concerned about national security, the leaders made significant efforts at military modernization, which included establishing a small standing army, a large reserve system, and compulsory militia service for all men. Foreign military systems were studied, foreign advisers, especially French ones, were brought in, and Japanese cadets sent abroad to Europe and the United States to attend military and naval schools.
 Early Meiji period 1868-1877
In 1854, after Admiral Matthew C. Perry forced the signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa, Japan began to realize it must modernize its military to prevent further intimidation from western powers (Gordon, 2000). The Tokugawa shogunate did not officially share this point of view, however, as evidenced by the imprisonment of the Governor of Nagasaki, Shanan Takushima for voicing his views of military reform and weapons modernization (GlobalSecurity.org, 2008).
It wasn’t until the beginning of the Meiji Era in 1868 that the Japanese government began taking modernization seriously. In 1868, the Japanese government established the Tokyo Arsenal. This arsenal was responsible for the development and manufacture of small arms and associated ammunition (GlobalSecurity.org, 2008). The same year, Masujiro Omura established Japan’s first military academy in Kyoto. Omura further proposed military billets be filled by all classes of people including farmers and merchants. The shogun class, not happy with Omura’s views on conscription, assassinated him the following year (Shinsengumihq.com, n.d.).
In 1870, Japan expanded its military production base by opening another arsenal in Osaka. The Osaka Arsenal was responsible for the production of machine guns and ammunition (National Diet Library, 2008). Also, four gunpowder facilities also were opened at this site. Japan’s production capacity gradually improved.
In 1872, Yamagata Aritomo and Saigo Tsugumichi, both new field marshals, founded the Corps of the Imperial Guards. This corps was composed of the warrior classes from the Tosa, Satsuma, and Chusho clans (GlobalSecurity.org, 2008). Also, in the same year, the hyobusho (war office) was replaced with a War Department and a Naval Department. The samurai class suffered great disappointment the following years, when in January the Conscription Law of 1873 was passed. This law required every able-bodied male Japanese citizen, regardless of class, to serve a mandatory term of three years with the first reserves and two additional years with the second reserves (GlobalSecurity.org, 2008). This monumental law, signifying the beginning of the end for the samurai class, initially met resistance from both the peasant and warrior alike. The peasant class interpreted the term for military service, ketsu-eki (blood tax) literally, and attempted to avoid service by any means necessary. Avoidance methods included maiming, self-mutilation, and local uprisings (Kublin, 1949, p 32). The samurai were generally resentful of the new, western-style military and at first, refused to stand in formation with the lowly peasant class (GlobalSecurity.org, 2008).
Reception by the Meiji Emperor of the Second French Military Mission to Japan, 1872
In conjunction with the new conscription law, the Japanese government began modeling their ground forces after the French military. Indeed, the new Japanese army used the same rank structure as the French (Kublin, 1949, p 31). The enlisted corps ranks were: private, noncommissioned officers, and officers. The private classes were: joto-hei or upper soldier, itto-sottsu or first-class soldier, and nito-sotsu or second-class soldier. The noncommissioned officer class ranks were: gocho or corporal, gunso or sergeant, socho or sergeant major, and tokumu-socho or special sergeant major. Finally, the officer class is made up of: shoi or second lieutenant, chui or first lieutenant, tai or captain, shosa or major, chusa or lieutenant colonel, taisa or colonel, shosho or major general, chujo or lieutenant general, taisho or general, and gensui or field marshal (GlobalSecurity.org, 2008). The French government also contributed greatly to the training of Japanese officers. Many were employed at the military academy in Kyoto, and many more still were feverishly translating French field manuals for use in the Japanese ranks (GlobalSecuirty.org, 2008).
Despite the Conscription Law of 1873, and all the reforms and progress, the new Japanese army was still untested. That all changed in 1877, when Takamori Saigo, led the last rebellion of the samurai in Kyūshū. In February 1877, Saigo left Kagoshima with a small contingent of soldiers on a journey to Tokyo. Kumamoto castle was the site of the first major engagement when garrisoned forces fired on Saigo’s army as they attempted to force their way into the castle. Rather than leave an enemy behind him, Saigo laid siege to the castle. Two days later, Saigo’s rebels, while attempting to block a mountain pass, encountered advanced elements of the national army enroute to reinforce Kumamoto castle. After a short battle, both sides withdrew to reconstitute their forces. A few weeks later the national army engaged Saigo’s rebels in a frontal assault at what now is called the Battle of Tabaruzuka. During this eight-day-battle, Saigo’s nearly ten thousand strong army battled hand-to-hand the equally matched national army. Both sides suffered nearly four thousand casualties during this engagement. Due to conscription, however, the Japanese army was able to reconstitute its forces, while Saigo’s was not. Later, forces loyal to the emperor broke through rebel lines and managed to end the siege on Kumamoto castle after fifty-four days. Saigo’s troops fled north and were pursued by the national army. The national army caught up with Saigo at Mt. Enodake. Saigo’s army was outnumbered seven-to-one, prompting a mass surrender of many samurai. The remaining five hundred samurai loyal to Saigo escaped, travelling south to Kagoshima. The rebellion ended on September 24, 1877 following the final engagement with Imperial forces which resulted in the deaths of the remaining forty samurai including Takamori Saigo, who, having suffered a fatal bullet wound in the abdomen, was honourably beheaded by his retainer. The national army’s victory validated the current course of the modernization of the Japanese army as well as, ended the era of the samurai.
 Foreign relations
Main article: Foreign relations of Meiji Japan
When United States Navy ended Japan’s sakoku policy, and thus its isolation, the latter found itself defenseless against military pressures and economic exploitation by the Western powers. For Japan to emerge from the feudal period, it had to avoid the colonial fate of other Asian countries by establishing genuine national independence and equality. Japan released the Chinese coolies from a western ship in 1872, after which the Qing imperial government of China gave thanks to Japan.
Following her defeat of China in Korea in the Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895), Japan broke through as an international power with a victory against Russia in Manchuria (north-eastern China) in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–1905. Allied with Britain since the Anglo-Japanese Alliance signed in London on January 30, 1902, Japan joined the Allies in World War I, seizing German-held territory in China and the Pacific in the process, but otherwise remained largely out of the conflict.
After the war, a weakened Europe left a greater share in international markets to the United States and Japan, which emerged greatly strengthened. Japanese competition made great inroads into hitherto-European-dominated markets in Asia, not only in China, but even in European colonies such as India and Indonesia, reflecting the development of the Meiji era.
 Observers and historians
- ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). “Meiji” in Japan encyclopedia, p. 624 at Google Books; n.b., Louis-Frédéric is pseudonym of Louis-Frédéric Nussbaum, see Deutsche Nationalbibliothek Authority File.
- This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies.
- GlobalSecurity.org (2008). Meiji military. Retrieved August 5, 2008.
- Gordon, B. (2000, March). Japan’s march toward militarism. Wesleyan.edu. Retrieved August 5, 2008.
- Kublin, H. (1949, November). The “modern” army of early meiji Japan. The Far East Quarterly, [9(1)], 20-41.
- National Diet Library (n.d.). Osaka army arsenal (osaka hohei kosho). Retrieved August 5, 2008.
- Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth. (2005). Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. 10-ISBN 0-674-01753-6; 13-ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5; OCLC 58053128
- Rickman, J. (2003).Sunset of the samurai. Military History. August, 42-49.
- Shinsengumihq.com, (n.d.). No sleep, no rest: Meiji law enforcement.[dead link] Retrieved August 5, 2008.
- Vos, F., et al., Meiji, Japanese Art in Transition, Ceramics, Cloisonné, Lacquer, Prints, Organized by the Society for Japanese Art and Crafts, ‘s-Gravenhage, the Netherlands, Gemeentemuseum, 1987. ISBN 9070216035
 External links
- Meiji Taisho 1868-1926
- Meiji Period Architecture (1868-1912)
- National Diet Library, “The Japanese Calendar” — historical overview plus illustrative images from library’s collection
The second war was fought in 1904–05 Japan against Russia,
which had become Japan’s chief rival in eastern Asia. It was this war that woke Europe and the United States to the extent of Japanese military power, because Russia was also a major player in European politics. Japan won from Russia the southern half of Sakhalin Island and a leasehold in Liaotung, together with the South Manchurian Railway (see Russo-Japanese War).
Japan successfully ended a war against China in 1895. This was followed, however, by demands from Russia, Germany, and France that Japan evacuate Port Arthur (now Lüshun) and the Liaodong Peninsula, on which Port Arthur was located. The entire peninsula had earlier been ceded to Japan by China. Japan yielded, but in 1898 Russia seized the peninsula for itself. Later Russia occupied
This article is about the war between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan. For the conflict between the Soviet Union and Japan in the 1930s, see Soviet–Japanese border conflicts. For the war in 1945, see Soviet–Japanese War (1945).
Commanders and leaders
Casualties and losses
The Russo-Japanese War (8 February 1904 – 5 September 1905) was “the first great war of the 20th century.” It grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and Japanese Empire over Manchuria and Korea. The major theatres of operations were Southern Manchuria, specifically the area around the Liaodong Peninsula and Mukden, the seas around Korea, Japan, and the Yellow Sea.
for their navy as well as for maritime trade.
was only operational during the summer season,
but Port Arthur
would be operational all year.
From the end of the First Sino-Japanese War and 1903,
negotiations between Russia and Japan had proved impractical. Japan chose war to gain dominance in Korea.
The resulting campaigns, in which the Japanese military attained victory over the Russian forces arrayed against them, were unexpected by world observers. As time transpired, these victories would transform the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan’s recent entry onto the world stage.  Background
After the Meiji Restoration in 1868,
the Meiji government embarked on an endeavor to assimilate Western ideas, technological advances and customs. By the late 19th century, Japan had emerged from isolation and transformed itself into a modernized industrial state in less than half a century. The Japanese wanted to preserve their sovereignty and be recognized as an equal with the Western powers.
Russia, a very strong Imperial power, had ambitions in the East. By the 1890s it had extended its realm across Central Asia to Afghanistan, absorbing local states in the process. The Russian Empire stretched from Poland in the west to the Kamchatka peninsula in the East. With its construction of the Trans-Siberian Railway to the port of Vladivostok, Russia hoped to further consolidate its influence and presence in the region. This was precisely what Japan feared, as they regarded Korea (and to a lesser extent Manchuria) as a protective buffer.
 Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895)
Main article: First Sino-Japanese War
The Japanese government regarded Korea, which was close to Japan, as an essential part of its national security; Japan’s population explosion and economic needs were also factored into Japanese foreign policy. At the very least, the Japanese wanted to keep Korea independent, if not under Japanese influence. Japan’s subsequent victory over China during the First Sino-Japanese War led to the Treaty of Shimonoseki under which China abandoned its own suzerainty over Korea and ceded Taiwan, Pescadores and the Liaodong Peninsula (Port Arthur) to Japan.
However, the Russians, having their own ambitions in the region persuaded Germany and France to apply pressure on Japan. Through the Triple Intervention, Japan relinquished its claim on the Liaodong Peninsula for an increased financial indemnity.
 Russian encroachment
In December 1897,
a Russian fleet appeared off Port Arthur. After three months, in 1898, a convention was agreed between China and Russia by which Russia was leased Port Arthur, Talienwan and the surrounding waters. It was further agreed that the convention could be extended by mutual agreement. The Russians clearly believed that would be the case for they lost no time in occupation and in fortifying Port Arthur, their sole warm-water port on the Pacific coast, and of great strategic value. A year later, to consolidate their position, the Russians began a new railway from
to Port Arthur.
The development of the railway was a contributory factor to the Boxer Rebellion and the railway stations at Tiehling and Lioyang were burned. The Russians also began to make inroads into Korea. By 1898 they had acquired mining and forestry concessions near Yalu and Tumen rivers, causing the Japanese much anxiety. Japan decided to strike before the Trans-Siberian Railway was complete.
Harbin itself doesn��t have a long history as a city unlike most other Chinese cities. The area had fishing villages until the Russians started to build a railroad into this area in 1897. The Russians wanted a shortcut through this area. In 1896, the Qing Empire granted a construction concession to Russia to construct the Chinese Eastern Railway in northern Inner Manchuria. Then the Russians built a town to house the personnel who were helping to build the railroad. When the railroad was opened in 1901, railroad personnel lived in the town. The residents included many Russian Jews who escaped to this area during the Russian pogroms. After that, many thousands of other Jews settled here, and they took a leading role in building the new city��s buildings, businesses and schools. A record shows that Harbin had a total of about 70,000 people about the year 1913 who were mostly Russian or Chinese, but many people of dozens of other nationalities lived there as well. During the 1910s and 1920s, about 150,000 Russians moved here to escape from Russia, and there was an attempt by White Russians to make the city a base in the eastern area of Russia. Thousands of Jews and other people moved here to escape the Fascists in Europe during the 1930s and 1940s.
The hundreds of thousands of Europeans who settled here left for various reasons during the 1930s, during the Japanese invasion, and afterwards. Japanese troops occupied Harbin in 1932, and the Soviet Union sold the Chinese Eastern Railway to the Japanese. There was an exodus of Russians to the Soviet Union and other places. During an occupation of Harbin by the Soviet Army from August 1945 to April 1946, thousands of Russians who fled the Soviet Union were forced back. Other Russians and the Europeans who lived there moved back to their own countries or to the USA,Australia, Brazil or Israel
 The Boxer Rebellion
Main article: Boxer Rebellion
Troops of the Eight nations alliance in 1900. Left to right: Britain, United States, Russia, British India, Germany, France, Austria, Italy, Japan.
The Russians and the Japanese were both part of the eight member international force sent in 1900 to quell the Boxer Rebellion and relieve the international legations under siege in the Chinese capital. As with other member nations, the Russians sent troops into Beijing. Russia had already sent 177,000 soldiers to Manchuria, nominally to protect its railways under construction. The troops of the Qing empire and the participants of the Boxer Rebellion could do nothing against this massive army. As a result, the Qing troops were ejected from Manchuria and the Russian troops settled in. Russia assured the other powers that it would vacate the area after the crisis. However, by 1903, the Russians had not yet established any timetable for withdrawal and had actually strengthened their position in Manchuria.
 Pre-war negotiations
The Japanese statesman, Itō Hirobumi, started to negotiate with the Russians. He believed that Japan was too weak to evict Russia militarily, so he proposed giving Russia control over Manchuria in exchange for Japanese control of northern Korea. Meanwhile, Japan and Britain had signed the Anglo-Japanese Alliance in 1902, the British seeking to restrict naval competition by keeping the Russian Pacific seaports of Vladivostok and Port Arthur from their full use. The alliance with the British meant, in part, that if any nation allied itself with Russia during any war with Japan, then Britain would enter the war on Japan’s side. Russia could no longer count on receiving help from either Germany or France without there being a danger of the British involvement with the war. With such an alliance, Japan felt free to commence hostilities, if necessary.
On 28 July 1903, the Japanese Minister in St. Petersburg was instructed to present his country’s view opposing Russia’s consolidation plans in Manchuria. On August 12, the Japanese minister handed on the following document to serve as the basis for further negotiations:
- “1. Mutual engagement to respect the independence and territorial integrity of the Chinese and Korean Empires and to maintain the principle of equal opportunity for the commerce and industry of all nations in those countries.
- 2. Reciprocal recognition of Japan’s preponderating interests in Korea and Russia’s special interests in railway enterprises in Manchuria, and of the right of Japan to take in Korea and of Russia to take in Manchuria such measures as may be necessary for the protection of their respective interests as above defined, subject, however, to the provisions of Article I of this Agreement.
- 3. Reciprocal undertaking on the part of Russia and Japan not to impede development of those industrial and commercial activities respectively of Japan in Korea and of Russia in Manchuria, which are not inconsistent with the stipulations of Article I of this Agreement. Additional engagement on the part of Russia not to impede the eventual extension of the Korean railway into southern Manchuria so as to connect with the East China and Shan-hai-kwan-Newchwang lines.
- 4. Reciprocal engagement that in case it is found necessary to send troops by Japan to Korea, or by Russia to Manchuria, for the purpose either of protecting the interests mentioned in Article II of this Agreement, or of suppressing insurrection or disorder calculated to create international complications, the troops so sent are in no case to exceed the actual number required and are to be forthwith recalled as soon as their missions are accomplished.
- 5. Recognition on the part of Russia of the exclusive right of Japan to give advice and assistance in the interest of reform and good government in Korea, including necessary military assistance.
- 6. This Agreement to supplant all previous arrangements between Japan and Russia respecting Korea”.
On October 3, the Russian Minister to Japan, Roman Rosen, presented to Japanese government the Russian counter-proposal as the basis of negotiations, as follows:
- “1. Mutual engagement to respect the independence and territorial integrity of the Korean Empire.
- 2. Recognition by Russia of Japan’s preponderating interests in Korea and of the right of Japan to give advice and assistance to Korea tending to improve the civil administration of the Empire without infringing the stipulations of Article I.
- 3. Engagement on the part of Russia not to impede the commercial and industrial undertakings of Japan in Korea, nor to oppose any measures taken for the purpose of protecting them so long as such measures do not infringe the stipulations of Article I.
- 4. Recognition of the right of Japan to send for the same purpose troops to Korea, with the knowledge of Russia, but their number not to exceed that actually required, and with the engagement on the part of Japan to recall such troops as soon as their mission is accomplished.
- 5. Mutual engagement not to use any part of the territory of Korea for strategical purposes nor to undertake on the coasts of Korea any military works capable of menacing the freedom of navigation in the Straits of Korea.
- 6. Mutual engagement to consider that part of the territory of Korea lying to the north of the 39th parallel as a neutral zone into which neither of the Contracting Parties shall introduce troops.
- 7. Recognition by Japan of Manchuria and its littoral as in all respects outside her sphere of interest.
- 8. This agreement to supplant all previous Agreements between Russia and Japan respecting Korea”.
Negotiations followed and, on 13 January 1904, Japan proposed a formula by which Manchuria would be outside the Japanese sphere of influence and, reciprocally, Korea outside Russia’s. By 4 February 1904, no formal reply had been received and on 6 February Kurino Shinichiro, the Japanese Minister, called on the Russian Foreign Minister, Count Lambsdorff, to take his leave. Japan severed diplomatic relations with Russia on 6 February 1904.
This situation arose from the determination of Tsar Nicholas II to use the war against Japan as a spark for the revival of Russian patriotism. His advisors did not support the war, foreseeing problems in transporting troops and supplies from European Russia to the East.[Full citation needed] This attitude by the Tsar led to repeated delays in negotiations with the Japanese government. The Japanese understanding of this can be seen from a telegram dated December 1, 1903 from Japanese Minister of Foreign Affairs Komura to the Minister to Russia, in which he stated:
“the Japanese Government have at all times during the progress of the negotiations made it a special point to give prompt answers to all propositions of the Russian Government. The negotiations have now been pending for no less than four months, and they have not yet reached a stage where the final issue can with certainty be predicted. In these circumstances the Japanese government cannot but regard with grave concern the situation for which the delays in negotiations are largely responsible”.
The assertion that Tsar Nicholas II dragged Japan into war intentionally, in hopes of reviving Russian nationalism is disputed by his comment that “there will be no war because I do not wish it”. This does not reject the claim that Russia played an aggressive role in the East, which it did, rather that Russia unwisely calculated that Japan would not go to war against its far larger and seemingly superior navy and army. Evidence of Russians’ false sense of security and superiority to Japan is seen by their reference to the latter as an “infantile monkey”.
 Declaration of war
Greater Manchuria, Russian (outer) Manchuria is the lighter red region to the upper right.
Japan issued a declaration of war on 8 February 1904. However, three hours before Japan’s declaration of war was received by the Russian Government, the Imperial Japanese Navy attacked the Russian Far East Fleet at Port Arthur. Tsar Nicholas II was stunned by news of the attack. He could not believe that Japan would commit an act of war without a formal declaration, and had been assured by his ministers that the Japanese would not fight. Russia declared war on Japan eight days later. Japan shrewdly made reference to the Russian attack on Sweden in 1809 without declaration of war, and the requirement to declare war before commencing hostilities was not made international law until after the war had ended, in October 1907, effective from 26 January 1910. Montenegro also declared war against Japan as a gesture of moral support for Russia out of gratitude for Russian support in Montenegro’s struggles against the Ottoman Empire. However, for reasons of logistics and distance, Montenegro’s contribution to the war effort was limited to the presence of Montenegrins serving in the Russian armed forces. The Qing empire favoured the Japanese position and even offered military aid, but Japan declined it. However, Yuan Shikai sent envoys to Japanese generals several times to deliver foodstuffs and alcoholic drinks. Native Manchurians joined the war on both sides as hired troops.
Causes of the Japanese War
Japanese Minister of War Yamagata Aritomo Japanese Emperor Meiji Japanese Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi
Few people outside of Japan realized the extraordinary military progress that Japan had made . The Japanese had no doubts about this and the weakness of China. While professing to seek peace with China over Korea to bring reform and modernization for Korea, the Japanese minister in Seoul, had instructions that he was to use any pretext to begin a war .
After the Meiji restoration of 1868,
a parliament was established,
but it nor the emperor wielded real power, that was done by the Genro ( (元老) imperial advisors,
an oligarchy of seven elder statesmen, who collectively made the most important decisions.
and Yamagata Aritomo,
were the most prominent of the seven.
who became field marshal and was war minister during the Sino-Japanese War, was heavily influenced by the success of Prussia in the Franco-Prussian War and is considered the father of Japanese militarism .
Another member of the Genro,Itō Hirobumi was Prime Minister during the war. With Yamagata’s instigation and encouragement of ultra-nationalistic secret societies such as the Genyosha ( 玄洋社 Black Ocean Society ), Japan pressed for war .
There was also strong public feeling in Japan for action in Korea.
It is not clear if Emperor Meiji supported the war
The Guangxu Emperor r.1875-1908 Empress Dowager Cixi (1838-1908) Li Hongzhang (Li Hung-chang)
The defacto ruler of China after the death of the Xianfeng Emperor in 1861 was Empress Dowager Cixi .
Cixi was extremely conservative and refused reform of the political system.Efforts were made through the Self-Strengthening Movement of 1861-1895 to improve the China’s military and economic position, but the country was racked by massive internal rebellions such as the Taiping, Nien and Muslim rebellions.
Corrupt officials filled some shells with sand instead of gunpowder
from The Sino-Japanese War 1962
Corruption, incompetent officials and tariff restrictions among other problems kept China from modernizing as fast as Meiji Japan did. The Chinese plan if war broke out was to call for a levy of 20,000 men from each Chinese province, send an army to march overland to Seoul and reenforce the troops already stationed near Seoul by sea and drive the Japanese out of Korea .
Most Europeans expected China to defeat Japan, since the Chinese navy looked stronger on paper cartoon from Punch 1894
.The Sino-Japanese War
would come to symbolize the degeneration and enfeeblement of the Qing Dynasty and demonstrate how successful modernization had been in Japan since the Meiji Restoration as compared with the Self-Strengthening Movement in China. The principal results were a shift in regional dominance in Asia from China to Japan and a fatal blow to the Qing Dynasty and the Chinese classical tradition. These trends would result later in the 1911 Revolution
The Korean Situation
Korea had been a tributary state of the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasty China .China and Japan had last clashed in Korea during the Imjin War (1592-98), when Ming and Korean forces drove out the Japanese .
The Koreans modeled their institutions on the Chinese Confucian model and were heavily influenced by Chinese culture .
Since 1637, Korea had cut-off contact with most of the world with the exception of China. After the opening of Japan and the modernization of the Meiji Restoration of 1868 , China began to advise Korea to establish relations the West to counter the growing strength of Japan .Japan pressed Korea to open up and was rebuffed.By the 1880s, court power struggles were no longer a domestic issue and took on international aspects .
A factory in Meiji-era Japan. Japan was able to modernize much faster than China
As a newly emergent country, Japan turned its attention towards Korea. It was vital for Japan, in order to protect its own interests and security, to either annex Korea before it fell prey (or was annexed) to another power or to insure its effective independence by opening its resources and reforming its administration. As one Japanese statesman put it, Korea was “an arrow pointed at the heart of Japan”. Japan felt that another power having a military presence on the Korean peninsula would have been detrimental to Japanese national security, and so Japan resolved to end the centuries-old Chinese suzerainty over Korea. Moreover, Japan realized that Korea’s coal and iron ore deposits would benefit Japan’s increasingly-expanding industrial base.
a Japanese surveying ship, accompanied by gunboats, where fired upon by forts in Kanghwa Bay. The Japanese returned fire and destroyed the Korean forts and used it as an excuse to force Korea to open up. The Chinese, eager to avoid a clash with Japan, instructed Korea to enter into negotiations. In 1876 the Japanese-Korean Treaty of Kanghwa was signed which recognized Korea as an independent country and the opening of three ports . China did not protest its loss of suzerainty .However, in 1882 , Korea issued a statement declaring her position as a dependency of China .
King Kojong and his son, Sunjong in 1890
King Kojong began his rule and his wife, Queen Min,
gained increasing power, which she used to support reform and use Japanese officers to train a new Korean army
a Japanese military instructor arrived to train Korean soldiers in modern methods .The Korean Daewongun (Prince of the Court) Prince Gung, who rejected modernization, used the discontent of the dismissed soldiers and a food shortage to incite them to attack the palace and the Japanese legation in 1882 .Queen Min barely escaped and seven Japanese officers were killed along with 300 pro-reform Koreans .The Chinese sent Admiral Ding Ju-chang with six gunboats and two transports of troops to investigate the situation who took steps to avoid Japanese punitive action by having the Daewongun arrested and an indemnity of $550,000 to be paid to Japan.Japan was allowed to station troops at its legation .Queen Min returned, who was now strongly opposed to the Japanese .
Kim Ok-kyun and the Kapshin coup
After the insurrection of 1882,
Li Hung-zhang took steps to strengthen China’s position in Korea with a commercial treaty, loans and six Chinese battalions to maintain order and check Japanese aggression .Tension mounted between pro-Chinese and pro-Japanese forces. In 1884, China was involved in a war with France and withdrew three battalions. the pro-Japanese faction took this opportunity to launch a coup, known as the Kapshin coup ( 갑신정변) and captured the king.
One of the major Korean leaders of the coup was
Kim Ok-kyun ( Gim Ok-gyun 김옥균 ),
a Choson official who sought to reform and modernize Korea .During his national civil service, Kim found many others who agreed with him, and they formed the Dongnidang, or “Independence Party.” He became involved in the Shirhak (Practical Learning) movement which advocated government reform, industrialization, and other reforms to improve Korea. In the early 1880s he went to Japan to report to Kong Kojong on the rapid moderization of Japan and if it had plans to invade Korea .Kim discovered that the Japanese did not feel strong enough go to war with Qing China, but that it would in the future .Kim wanted to Korea to implement Western learning so it could become independent and would not be taken over by Japan, which he foresaw . He agreed to support the Japanese planned coup and planned with his reformist group,the Gaehwapa faction, to assassinate conservative political leaders during the choas of the coup. After the coup, a pro-Japanese government was sworn in,dominated by the Gaehwapa faction, independence from China was proclaimed and a new Japanese fiance minister was appointed .
The Japanese had been too heavy handed however, and many reformers and pro-Japanese switched to the conservative, pro-Chinese faction
.A force of 5,000 Korean and Chinese soldiers under
fell on the palace The Chinese broke through the palace gates, and the Japanese detonated a mine which killed 90 Chinese soldiers .However, there were too many against the Japanese and pro-Japanese forces, and a company of 140 Japanese soldiers and the Japanese minister fought their way to Chemulpo ( Inchon). With the conservatives victorious, the remaining pro-Japanese and progressives were rounded up and executed , along with their families .Kim Ok-kyun also fled to Japan and later to Shanghai. There he was assinated by a assassin , possible sent by Yuan Shi-kai on March 28, 1894 .The Japanese government took this as a direct affront.
An envoy, Ito Hirobumi,
was sent to confer with Li Hung-chang, where they reached the Sino-Japanese Tientsin Convention on April 18, 1885. Ito felt that Japan was not yet modernized enough for a war with China .This stipulated that both China and Japan would withdraw their troops from Korea in four months, neither side would train Korean troops and that each would notify the other before dispatching troops to Korea .This in effect made Korea a co-protectorate of China and Japan . Yuan Shi-kai, as Chinese pro-consul was very powerful in Korea at this time.and basically ran the Korean government. He dismissed all pro-Japanese advisors, prohibited inland trade with Russia and the sale of rice to Japan, which had in part caused the food shortage before . This greatly angered the Japanese, who granted asylum to progressives who were wanted by the Korean government .There was great anger in the Korean countryside over the abuses of the Yangban ruling class over high taxes, buying land cheap or stealing it, forcing farmers into debt bondage and xenophobia against foreign intrusion in Korea. The Japanese secret society, began to secretly aid a group fighting these injustices, the Tonghaks, hoping Japan could profit from an unstable situation in Korea .
The Tonghak Rebellion
Tonghak founder Ch’oe Che-u
In the 1860s,
an indigenous religion, Tonghak (동학, 東學,Eastern Learning, for more details on the Tonghaks ) which combined such aspects as the meditation of Buddhism, ethics of Confucianism, primal nature of Shamanism, Taoism cultivation of energy and the personal God of Catholicism to oppose ‘Western Learning’ (Catholicism) arose from the indignation of the lower classes of yangban (ruling aristocratic class) oppression and foreign influence in Korea, especially Christian missionaries and Japanese imports .
It was not only a religious movement but a social movement as well and concerned with the peasantry and the improvement of their conditions and reform of the corrupt government. The idea of the dignity and equality of all men was to influence future democratic movements.
Increased taxes that forced many Korean farmers to sell their land, forced labor
and other abuses caused many farmers to throw their lot in with the Tonghaks
The Korean government banned the movement and had its founder Ch’oe Che-u, executed by decapitation in 1864 and the movement was forced to go underground .The Tonghaks, were aided by the Japanese Genyosha secret society, to organize a mass movement with large protests and stage a rebellion .A Korean army sent to attack the Tonghaks was defeated at Gobu in southwest Korea on January 11, 1894 and the Korean court, fearing a Tonghak invasion of Seoul, asked for Chinese aid
Chinese troops in Korea
The initial success of the revolt led a panic court to seek help from China .
In early June
a Chinese force of 2,800 was dispatched from Chefoo ( Yingtan) to Asan under general Yuan Shikai, a port outside of Seoul, where they camped Yuan Shi-kaigave promises of pardon to the rebels who submitted, and dreadful threats to those who resisted, Korea was mentioned as a tributary state of China, was loudly commented on in the Japanese press, and aroused great indignation. The arrival of the Chinese forces caused the Tonghaks to call off their attack on Seoul after the Korean government arranged a truce . The Tonghak leader, Chon Pong-chun regarded this as an opportunity to archive his objectives without further recourse to warfare. In consequence hostilities came to an end, on condition that an end also be put to government misrule. .The Japanese considered this action to be a violation of the Convention, and sent their own expeditionary force of 8,000 troops to Korea. to its legation in Seoul ad the surrounding area .
Landing of Japanese troops on June 12, 1894
The Japanese force subsequently seized the emperor,
occupied the Royal Palace in Seoul on June, 8 1894,
and replaced the existing government with the members from the pro-Japanese faction. The Japanese Government considered the Tonghak movement not an accidental occurrence, but the inevitable consequence of the persisting misgovernment of the country, and argued that the rebellion could not be suppressed, nor its recurrence prevented, unless radical reforms were carried out in Korea.
Japan proposed that reforms should be instituted, and asked China to assist her in enforcing them. China refused to join in such measures, not deeming them necessary, and not wishing to interfere in the internal affairs of the peninsula. Topknots were banned, and Japanese soldiers with scissors manned the city gates, cutting topknots off .The King was forced to declare Korea’s independence from China at the Altar of the Spirits of the Land .The Japanese demanded concessions which gave them a monopoly on industry and trade .
Tonghak leader Chon Pong-chun ( Jeon Bong-jun ), who was betrayed and arrested in 1894 and later executed
the Tonghak again took up their arms and began to move northward, with the avowed intent of expelling the pro-Japanese government. But they were defeated in fighting at Kongju against government troops reinforced by a Japanese army contingent, and they met defeat again at T’aein, at the decisive Battle of Ugeumchi. The Japanese had cannons and other modern weapons, whereas the Korean peasants were armed only with bow and arrows, spears, swords, and some flintlock muskets.
The unsuccessful 1884 coup d’etat brought frustration to the reform efforts, but the need for reform was still keenly felt byt he populace and some leaders of the government as well. The disintegration of the traditional social order was accelerated by the peasant struggle. Such developments led Korea to implement institutional reform.
The conservative government had been compelled to accept the administrative reform proposals submitted by the Tonghak rebels at the time of the cease-fire in Chonju in 1894. This peasant struggle was utilized by the Japanese army for its aggressive purposes. Then, in the course of the Sino-Japanese War, Japan forced Korea to carry out reform by armed threat, while expelling the China-oriented conservative politicians from the government. The peace treaty ending the Sino-Japanese War was concluded on April 17, 1895, at Shimonoseki, Japan. China’s influence waned, and the Korean government was forcibly integrated into Japan’s design of imperialistic aggression.
On July 27, 1894, a Supreme Council for Military and State Administration was established to function as the nation’s highest executive and legislative organ. On July 29, it passed a 23-article reform plan, but this was not by any means autonomous, as it was accompanied by the aggressive intent of Japan. The reform movement was led mainly by politicians heavily Japan-oriented, but the Taewon-gun fought Japanese aggression by inciting Tonghak followers to engage in anti-Japanese activities.
The Supreme Council passed no less than 208 reform measures. These included the use of the founding of the Choson Dynasty as a basis for the calendar; disciplinary action against corrupt officials; the liberalization of commercial activities; the establishment of a new currency system on the silver standard; unity in financial administration under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Finance; the standardization of weights and measures; cash payment of all taxes; the establishment of a military system on the basis of universal conscription; the reform of the local government system; the protection of civil life and property; the enactment of civil and criminal codes; the employment of competent persons at government offices; and the provision of opportunities for talented young men to pursue advanced studies abroad to acquire modern knowledge and techniques.
Intensified Japanese Agression
Japanese aggression in Korean was “a matter of life or death,” as was earlier expressed by Hayashi Tadashi, a one-time Japanese minister to London. As Japanese aggression intensified, the Min clique collaborated with Russian Minister Karl Waeber to force Kim Hong-jip to reorganize his cabinet, and pro-Russian figures such as Yi Pom-jin were given cabinet posts.
The government, reorganizing the military structure in April 1895, hired Japanese officer as instructors. They trained about 800 Korea officers and men who were then assigned to the royal palace as guards under training. It was under these circumstances of questionable palace security that militant Japanese Minister Miura Goro and other Japanese decided to assassinate Queen Min, the leading figure in the Min clique, as she was again making secret overtures to China and Russia. Taking advantage of the trainee-guards and those who opposed the Min family, Japanese troops, crushing resistance put up by the royal bodyguards, intruded into Kyongbokkung palace at dawn on October 8.
Storming into the Ok’oru pavilion, the Japanese found and killed Queen Min, and burned her body with kerosene. The foreign missions were outraged by this atrocity. The Japanese government hurriedly repatriated those who had taken part in the action and detained them briefly at Hiroshima Prison as a subterfuge. Their trial, to borrow the worlds of a Japanese historian Yamabe Kentaro, was “a deliberate miscarriage of justice, designed to protect the culprits.”
Despite the Japanese brutality, the European powers, in their apprehension over Russia’s southward expansion, welcomed the overt Japanese aggression as a counter to the Russian threat. Germany saw the continued presence of the Japanese army as indispensable, while other powers maintained that a demand for its withdrawal would only produce more trouble. Great Britain believed the entrustment of Korea to Japan was a proper measure to check the Russian advance. The American government instructed its minister not to make any statement unfavorable to Japan.
Informed of the assassination of Queen Min
by a mob of Japanese intruders, the nation was gripped with indignation. Confucian scholars mobilized volunteers to fight against the Japanese. The Kim Hong-jip cabinet, spurred greatly by the incident, expedited reform. It adopted the solar calendar, established primary schools in Hanyang, introduced smallpox vaccinations, started modern postal service, and reorganized the military system, with the Royal Army Guards stationed in Hanyang and other detachments in the provinces. During this reform, the Japanese forced the cabinet to issue a decree banning topknots. Citizens wearing topknots were arrested on the streets or at their homes, and were forced to cut them off. Ch’oe Ik-hyon defying the decree, was arrested and imprisoned, but he did not yield. With these attempts, the Japanese tried to wipe out Korean heritage, only to stimulate the armed resistance of the Korean volunteer “righteous armies.”
Spontaneous “righteous troops” protesting the ban on topknots spread all over the country. The Royal Guards of Hanyang were dispatched to suppress them. The resultant weakening of palace security was seen by Russia as an opportunity to extend its influence. From a Russian warship lying at anchor off Inch’on, 100 sailors were summoned, ostensibly to protect the Russian legation. Shortly afterward, they were reinforced by an additional contingent of 120 sailors. Ex-minister Waeber, remaining in Seoul, plotted to persuade King Kojong to take refuge at the Russian legation. Home Minister Yu Kil-chun, meanwhile, conferred with Japanese Minister Komura Jutaro concerning countermeasures that might be taken against Russia. At dawn on February 11, 1896, King Kojong and the Crown Prince went to the Russian legation to escape the Japanese menace, and were protected by guards provided by other legations as well. Japanese Minister Komura called on Russian Minister Speyer at the Russian legation and requested that the King return to the royal palace, but King Kojong refused, knowing that he had chosen the lesser of two evils.
At the same time the Korean government, following a proposal made by the Russian minister, appointed Russians as consultants for military training and financial administration. In May, a Korean delegation led by Min Yong-hwan and Yun Ch’i-ho concluded a treated in Russia with Foreign Minister Lobanoff, agreeing to the following: Russia would protect the Korean monarch and, if necessary, would send additional troops to Korea; the consultants in question would be subject to the guidance of the Russian minister; the two governments would enter into a loan agreement when deemed necessary in view of Korea’s economic conditions; and the Russian government would be authorized to connect its telegraph lines with the Korean telegraph network. With the Korean King in custody, Russia lost no time in implementing the aggressive provisions of the treaty.
During the King’s stay at the Russian legation, Korea’s foreign relations were aimed at protecting the royal family from the atmosphere of terror created in the royal palace by Japanese violence. This overriding concern was conducive to reliance on Russia despite its aggressive policy.
The United States, Great Britain, France, Germany and Japan competed for concessions. From its Russian refugee, the Korean government granted unconditional concessions without the usual stipulations as to the terms of lease or conditions of taxes. Korea was deprived of its properties by the world powers through such concessions.
Awakening of the People
So Chae-p’il (Philip Jaisohn) processed in 1884 from asylum in Japan to America and studied medicine. On his return to Korea in 1896, he resumed leadership of the nation’s modern reform program. Appointed a consultant to the Privy Council, So was able to broaden his contacts with prominent government leaders. Obtaining a donation of 5,000 Won from Home Minister Yu Kil-chun, he inaugurated the newspaper Tongnip Shinmun (The Independent) on April 7, 1896. Published in pure Han-gul (the Korean script) and in English, the journal was well received by the public.
Aimed at conveying both domestic and foreign news to the Korean people, the newspaper argued both for and against government policies in an impartial manner. It called for the nation’s all-out effort to strengthen its autonomy and promote the public good. It reflected the needs of the time when the Korea government was being shaken to its foundations by the aggressive policies of Japan and Russia. So demanded that the government give top priority to the promotion of civil rights and that it safeguard national sovereignty by combatting the growth of foreign influence. The publisher also did his utmost to introduce to his readers modern science and the ideology of the Western world. The Tongnip Shinmun grew rapidly, from an initial circulation of 300 to 3,000. In his tireless efforts to enlighten the masses. So also availed himself of every opportunity to address the people on the streets on current topics. His newspaper awakened the citizenry to the urgent needs of the day: eliminating corruption, expanding education, solidifying national sovereignty and promoting civil rights.
The Independence Club, which So helped to found, was formally activated in July 1896, with Minister of War An Kyong-su as president and Foreign Minister Yi Wan-yong as chairman. Prominent government and civic personages who had led the country in modern reform and in the struggle for independence were counted among its members, as well as a number of important government leaders. The Crown Prince, as a token of cooperation, made a donation of 1,000 Won to the club, thereby arousing great interest among people throughout the country.
So Chae-p’il did his best to awaken the public to the needs of modernization. He asserted that the following steps were vital to national development: mass education, road construction, commerce promoting national wealth, women’s education, the promotion of Han-gul for mass education, currency in domestic transactions, wide circulation of both domestic and foreign newspapers, exploitation of mining resources and the establishment of a congress.
Voicing his strong opposition to the government’s delegation of its financial and military authority to Russia since Febuary 1897, So made a protest to the government concerning Russia’s demand for the concession of Choryongdo (present Yongdo) island off Pusan, and for the establishment of a Korean-Russian Bank. Speaking at a mass rally in the heart of Hanyang, So asked the government to dismiss the Russian military and financial consultants. Syngman Rhee and other speakers who took the rostrum at the same rally also drew enthusiastic applause from the audience by pointing out the absurdity of entrusting the financial and military authority of Korea to another country.
The Independence Club frequently presented to the government opinions concerning the reform of domestic administration and did not hesitate to register opposition. Its demands for the dismissal of ranking government officials guilty of irregularities and fraud were put in effect. Through “outside” sources, the club also conducted an investigation of the government’s concession of rights in lumbering, mining and railway construction, and filed a protest with the government to correct abuses. The government thereupon imprisoned leading members of the club and by imperial edict ordered its dissolution, an oppressive action that stifled the club’s movement for civil rights and national sovereignty. The club, albeit short-lived, bequeathed its spirit of independence to subsequent national movements.
The people were united in condemning the King’s flight to a foreign legation and the continuous granting of economic concessions to foreigners and their outrage coalesced in the Independence Club’s campaign. As a result, Kojong moved out of the Russian legation to Kyong-un-gung (today’s Toksugung) palace in February 1897, and changed his reign name to Kwangmu (Martial Brilliance) in August. He proclaimed to the nation and the world the establishment of an independent “Taehan (Great Han) Empire” in October, after which he was called by the title “Emperor.” This was a significant victory for the pressure of Korean public opinion.
On the condition that Japan tacitly consent to Russia’s 25-year lease of Port Arthur as a naval base and Dalian as a commercial port, Russia agreed not to hamper Japanese commercial and industrial activities in Korea. Such was the substance of the Russo-Japanese Treaty III, concluded on April 25, 1899, between Japanese Foreign Minister Nishi and Russia’s Minister to Japan, Rosen. Russia thereby gave Japan a free hand for its aggressive operations in Korea.
As an anti-foreign movement erupted in Manchuria in the wake of the Boxer Rebellion, Russian threw a huge army of 180,000 troops into the area on the pretext of guarding its railways. Three-fourths of the Manchurian territory came under occupation by the Russians, where they watched for an opportunity to invade Korea.
Precisely such a proposal to invade was made to the Russian government in 1903 by the manager of a Russian lumber company operating on the Amnokkang river, a company owned by the imperial Russian foundation. Russian Minister Pavloff proposed that Russia establish a sphere of influence south of the river and reject any interference by other powers in Manchuria. Accordingly, Russia assembled its fleet in Port Arthur and deployed ground forces in Fenghuang-ch’eng and along the Amnokkang river. In August 1903, Russia occupied Yong-amp’o and hastily constructed military facilities, including fortresses, barracks and communication lines.
Through the Anglo-Japanese treaty of alliance in 1902, Japan, with the cooperation of Great Britain, obtained international recognition for its aggressive policy toward Korea. This treaty provided that in return for British support, Japan would assume the burden of checking the Russian southward advance in the Far East. Japan agreed to recognize the Russia occupation of Manchuria, on condition that Russia recognize its activities in Korea.
Russia and Japan stood face to face, each attempting to occupy both sides of the Amnokkang river as a preliminary step toward the occupation of both Korea and Manchuria. On February 8, 1904, Japan opened fire on the Russian fleets off Inch’oon and Port Arthur, thereby touching off the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905).
At the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War, Korea proclaimed its neutrality to the world. Nevertheless, Japan sent troops into Hanyang in large numbers and, on February 23, 1904, forced the Korean government to sign the Korea-Japan Protocol. This unilaterally exacted Korean concessions necessary for Japan’s execution of the war. Japan stationed six and a half battalions in Korea, which laid military railways, seized Korean telegraphic and telephone networks by occupying the Central Telecommunications Office, and pre-empted land for military use. In September, Japan proclaimed military control over the whole territory of Korea, decreeing the death penalty for any Korean national caught trespassing on the military railway communications line.
By a revision of the military rule of January 6, 1905, Japan suppressed any anti-Japanese movement through assembly, associations, or the press, proclaiming on July 3 that those violating the military rule would be dealt with under Japanese law. In the first Korea-Japan Agreement concluded on August 22, 1904, it was stipulated that a financial consultant would be appointed from among the Japanese and a diplomatic consultant from among nationals of third powers recommended by the Japanese government. This provision was obviously designed to deprive Korea of its national rights.
The agreement was reinforced by the “Principles Concerning Facilities in Korea” concluded late in May 1904, which granted extensive privileges to Japan. These included the stationing of troops in Korea even after the Russo-Japanese War, expropriation of land for military use, supervision of Korea’s diplomacy and financial administration, seizure of Korea’s transportation and communications facilities, and exploitation of concessions in agriculture, forestry, mining and fisheries.
Japan sent as diplomatic consultant an ex-official of its foreign office, an American named Stevens, and as financial consultant, Megata Tanetaro, an official of its Ministry of Finance. The latter assumed full authority over Korea’s financial administration, and by a currency reform, brought the Korean currency under the Japanese monetary system, devaluating it by from one-fifth to one half in order to plunder Korean properties. Japanese officials further penetrated the Korean government to work in the Ministry of War, the Police, and the Ministry of Education, and in the Royal Household as consultants, thereby undermining the government’s authority.
During the war with Russia, Japan and Great Britain revised the Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Alliance on August 12, 1905, and Japan obtained British consent to colonize Korea under the guise of protection. In the secret Taft-Katsura agreement, Japan and the United States recognized Japan’s prerogatives in Korea. At the Portsmouth Peace Conference, which was concluded in September 1905, Japan requested that “Korea be placed at Japan’s free disposal” in accordance with the second Anglo-Japanese Treaty of Alliance and the U.S.-Japanese agreement.
The United States, Great Britain and Russia at last gave international acquiescence to Japanese aggression in Korea. Recognizing that Japan possessed superior political, military and economic interests in Korea, the U.S. president rejected Emperor Kojong’s personal letter on the illegitimacy of the Korea-Japan Treaty presented through the efforts of missionary-diplomat Homer B. Hulbert.
Immediately after the Portsmouth Treaty went into effect, Japan sent Ito Hirobumi to Korea and forced the Korean government to conclude the second Korea-Japan Treaty. By that time Hanyang had already been invaded by a Japanese cavalry unit, an artillery battalion and a military police unit. On November 17, Ito pressed the Korean government to sign the draft treaty designed to isolate the Korean government by severing its foreign relations completely. Diplomacy was then taken from Korean control and placed under the control of the Japanese Foreign Office. The treaty also established the Office of the Resident-General in Korea to enforce colonial
 Campaign of 1904
Battlefields in the Russo-Japanese War.
Port Arthur, on the Liaodong Peninsula in the south of Manchuria, had been fortified into a major naval base by the Imperial Russian Army. Since it needed to control the sea in order to fight a war on the Asian mainland, Japan’s first military objective was to neutralize the Russian fleet at Port Arthur.
 Battle of Port Arthur
Main article: Battle of Port Arthur
On the night of 8 February 1904, the Japanese fleet under Admiral Togo Heihachiro opened the war with a surprise torpedo boat destroyer attack on the Russian ships at Port Arthur. The attack badly damaged the Tsesarevich and Retvizan, the heaviest battleships in Russia’s far Eastern theater, and the 6,600 ton cruiser Pallada. These attacks developed into the Battle of Port Arthur the next morning. A series of indecisive naval engagements followed, in which Admiral Togo was unable to attack the Russian fleet successfully as it was protected by the shore batteries of the harbor, and the Russians were reluctant to leave the harbor for the open seas, especially after the death of Admiral Stepan Osipovich Makarov on 13 April 1904.
However, these engagements provided cover for a Japanese landing near Incheon in Korea. From Incheon the Japanese occupied Seoul and then the rest of Korea. By the end of April, the Imperial Japanese Army under Kuroki Itei was ready to cross the Yalu river into Russian-occupied Manchuria.
 Battle of Yalu River
Main article: Battle of Yalu River (1904)
In contrast to the Japanese strategy of rapidly gaining ground to control Manchuria, Russian strategy focused on fighting delaying actions to gain time for reinforcements to arrive via the long Trans-Siberian railway, which was incomplete near Irkutsk at the time. On 1 May 1904, the Battle of Yalu River became the first major land battle of the war; Japanese troops stormed a Russian position after crossing the river. The defeat of the Russian Eastern Detachment removed the perception that the Japanese would be an easy enemy, that the war would be short, and that Russia would be the overwhelming victor. Japanese troops proceeded to land at several points on the Manchurian coast, and in a series of engagements drove the Russians back towards Port Arthur. The subsequent battles, including the Battle of Nanshan on 25 May 1904, were marked by heavy Japanese losses largely from attacking entrenched Russian positions.
 Blockade of Port Arthur
The Japanese attempted to deny the Russians use of Port Arthur. During the night of 13 February – 14 February, the Japanese attempted to block the entrance to Port Arthur by sinking several cement-filled steamers in the deep water channel to the port, but they sank too deep to be effective. A similar attempt to block the harbor entrance during the night of 3–4 May also failed. In March, the charismatic Vice Admiral Makarov had taken command of the First Russian Pacific Squadron with the intention of breaking out of the Port Arthur blockade.
On 12 April 1904, two Russian pre-dreadnought battleships, the flagship Petropavlovsk and the Pobeda slipped out of port but struck Japanese mines off Port Arthur. The Petropavlovsk sank almost immediately, while the Pobeda had to be towed back to port for extensive repairs. Admiral Makarov, the single most effective Russian naval strategist of the war, perished on the battleship Petropavlovsk.
On 15 April 1904, the Russian government made overtures threatening to seize the British war correspondents who were taking the ship Haimun into warzones to report for the London-based Times newspaper, citing concerns about the possibility of the British giving away Russian positions to the Japanese fleet.
The Russians learned quickly, and soon employed the Japanese tactic of offensive minelaying. On 15 May 1904, two Japanese battleships, the Yashima and the Hatsuse, were lured into a recently laid Russian minefield off Port Arthur, each striking at least two mines. The Hatsuse sank within minutes, taking 450 sailors with her, while the Yashima sank while under tow towards Korea for repairs. On June 23, 1904, a breakout attempt by the Russian squadron, now under the command of Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft failed. By the end of the month, Japanese artillery were firing shells into the harbor.
 Anglo-Japanese intelligence co-operation
Even before the war, British and Japanese intelligence had co-operated against Russia. Indian Army stations in Malaya and China often intercepted and read wireless and telegraph cable traffic relating to the war, which was shared with the Japanese. In their turn, the Japanese shared information about Russia with the British with one British official writing of the “perfect quality” of Japanese intelligence. In particular, British and Japanese intelligence gathered much evidence that Germany was supporting Russia in the war as part of a bid to disturb the balance of power in Europe, which led to British officials increasingly perceiving that country as a threat to the international order.
 Siege of Port Arthur
Main article: Siege of Port Arthur
Bombardment during the Siege of Port Arthur.
Japan began a long siege of Port Arthur. On 10 August 1904, the Russian fleet again attempted to break out and proceed to Vladivostok, but upon reaching the open sea were confronted by Admiral Togo’s battleship squadron. The situation was critical for the Japanese, for they had only one battleship fleet and had already lost two battleships to Russian mines. Admiral Togo knew that another Russian battleship fleet would soon be sent to the Pacific. The Russian and Japanese battleships exchanged fire, until the Russian flagship, the battleship Tsesarevich, received a direct hit on the bridge, killing the fleet commander, Admiral Vitgeft. At this, the Russian fleet turned around and headed back into Port Arthur. Though no warships were sunk by either side in the battle, the Russians were now back in port and the Japanese navy still had battleships to meet the new Russian fleet when it arrived.
As the siege of Port Arthur continued, Japanese troops tried numerous frontal assaults on the fortified hilltops overlooking the harbor, which were defeated with Japanese casualties in the thousands. Eventually, though, with the aid of several batteries of 11-inch (280 mm) Krupp howitzers, the Japanese were finally able to capture the key hilltop bastion in December 1904. From this vantage point, the long-range artillery was able to shell the Russian fleet, which was unable to retaliate effectively against the land-based artillery and was unable or unwilling to sortie out against the blockading fleet. Four Russian battleships and two cruisers were sunk in succession, with the fifth and last battleship being forced to scuttle a few weeks later. Thus, all capital ships of the Russian fleet in the Pacific were sunk. This is probably the only example in military history when such a scale of devastation was achieved by land-based artillery against major warships.
Meanwhile, attempts to relieve the besieged city by land also failed, and, after the Battle of Liaoyang in late August, the northern Russian force that might have been able to relieve Port Arthur retreated to Mukden (Shenyang). Major General Anatoly Stessel, commander of the Port Arthur garrison, believed that the purpose of defending the city was lost after the fleet had been destroyed. Several large underground mines were exploded in late December, resulting in the costly capture of a few more pieces of the defensive line. Nevertheless, the Russian defenders were effecting disproportionate casualties each time the Japanese attacked. Despite this, Stessel decided to surrender to the surprised Japanese generals on 2 January 1905. He made this decision without consulting the other military staff present, or of the Tsar and military command, who all disagreed with the decision. Stessel was convicted by a court-martial in 1908 and sentenced to death for his incompetent defense and disobeying orders, though he was later pardoned.
 Baltic Fleet redeploys
Meanwhile, at sea, the Russians were preparing to reinforce their Far East Fleet by sending the Baltic Fleet, under the command of Admiral Zinovy Rozhestvensky. The squadron sailed half way around the world from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific via the Cape of Good Hope. After a port of call at Madagascar, then Cam Ranh Bay (later part of South Vietnam), Rozhestvensky finally reached the Far East in May 1905. On 21 October 1904, while steaming past Great Britain (an ally of Japan, but neutral, unless provoked by a non-combatant nation), vessels of the Russian fleet nearly sparked a war with Britain in the Dogger Bank incident by firing on British fishing boats that they mistook for enemy torpedo boats.
 Campaign of 1905
Retreat of Russian soldiers after the Battle of Mukden.
With the fall of Port Arthur, the Japanese 3rd army was now able to continue northward and reinforce positions south of Russian-held Mukden. With the onset of the severe Manchurian winter, there had been no major land engagements since the Battle of Shaho the previous year. The two sides camped opposite each other along 60 to 70 miles (110 km) of front lines, south of Mukden.
 Battle of Sandepu
Main article: Battle of Sandepu
The Russian Second Army under General Oskar Gripenberg, between January 25–29, attacked the Japanese left flank near the town of Sandepu, almost breaking through. This caught the Japanese by surprise. However, without support from other Russian units the attack stalled, Gripenberg was ordered to halt by Kuropatkin and the battle was inconclusive. The Japanese knew that they needed to destroy the Russian army in Manchuria before Russian reinforcements arrived via the Trans-Siberian railroad.
 Battle of Mukden
Main article: Battle of Mukden
The Battle of Mukden commenced on 20 February 1905. In the following days Japanese forces proceeded to assault the right and left flanks of Russian forces surrounding Mukden, along a 50-mile (80 km) front. Approximately half a million men were involved in the fighting. Both sides were well entrenched and were backed by hundreds of artillery pieces. After days of harsh fighting, added pressure from the flanks forced both ends of the Russian defensive line to curve backwards. Seeing they were about to be encircled, the Russians began a general retreat, fighting a series of fierce rearguard actions, which soon deteriorated in the confusion and collapse of Russian forces. On 10 March 1905 after three weeks of fighting, General Kuropatkin decided to withdraw to the north of Mukden. The Russians lost 90,000 men in the battle.
The retreating Russian Manchurian Army formations disbanded as fighting units, but the Japanese failed to destroy them completely. The Japanese themselves had suffered large casualties and were in no condition to pursue. Although the battle of Mukden was a major defeat for the Russians it was not decisive, and the final victory still depended on the navy.
 Battle of Tsushima
Main article: Battle of Tsushima
The Russian Second Pacific Squadron (the renamed Baltic Fleet) sailed 18,000 nautical miles (33,000 km) to relieve Port Arthur. The demoralizing news that Port Arthur had fallen reached the fleet while at Madagascar. Admiral Rozhestvensky’s only hope now was to reach the port of Vladivostok. There were three routes to Vladivostok, with the shortest and most direct passing through Tsushima Straits between Korea and Japan. However, this was also the most dangerous route as it passed between the Japanese home islands and the Japanese naval bases in Korea.
Admiral Togo was aware of Russian progress and understood that with the fall of Port Arthur, the Second and Third Pacific Squadrons would try to reach the only other Russian port in the Far East, Vladivostok. Battle plans were laid down and ships were repaired and refitted to intercept the Russian fleet.
The Japanese Combined Fleet, which had originally consisted of six battleships, was now down to four (two had been lost to mines), but still retained its cruisers, destroyers, and torpedo boats. The Russian Second Pacific Squadron contained eight battleships, including four new battleships of the Borodino class, as well as cruisers, destroyers and other auxiliaries for a total of 38 ships.
By the end of May the Second Pacific Squadron was on the last leg of its journey to Vladivostok, taking the shorter, riskier route between Korea and Japan, and travelling at night to avoid discovery. Unfortunately for the Russians, while in compliance with the rules of war, the two trailing hospital ships had continued to burn their lights, which were spotted by the Japanese armed merchant cruiser Shinano Maru. Wireless communication was used to inform Togo’s headquarters, where the Combined Fleet was immediately ordered to sortie. Still receiving naval intelligence from scouting forces, the Japanese were able to position their fleet so that they would “cross the T“ of the Russian fleet. The Japanese engaged battle in the Tsushima Straits on 27–28 May 1905. The Russian fleet was virtually annihilated, losing eight battleships, numerous smaller vessels, and more than 5,000 men, while the Japanese lost three torpedo boats and 116 men. Only three Russian vessels escaped to Vladivostok. After the Battle of Tsushima, the Japanese army occupied the entire chain of the Sakhalin Islands to force the Russians to sue for peace.
 Military attachés and observers
Japanese General Kuroki and his staff, including foreign officers and war correspondents after the Battle of Shaho (1904).
Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. Most were able to report on events from the perspective of “embedded” positions within the land and naval forces of both Russia and Japan. These military attachés and other observers prepared first-hand accounts of the war and analytical papers. In-depth observer narratives of the war and more narrowly focused professional journal articles were written soon after the war; and these post-war reports conclusively illustrated the battlefield destructiveness of this conflict. This was the first time the tactics of entrenched positions for infantry defended with machine guns and artillery became vitally important, and both were dominant factors in World War I. Though entrenched positions were a significant part of both the Franco-Prussian War and the American Civil War due to the advent of breech loading rifles, the lessons learned regarding high casualty counts were not taken into account in World War I. From a 21st century perspective, it is now apparent that tactical lessons available to observer nations were disregarded in preparations for war in Europe, and during the course of World War I.
In 1904–1905, Ian Standish Monteith Hamilton was the military attaché of the British Indian Army serving with the Japanese army in Manchuria. Amongst the several military attachés from Western countries, he was the first to arrive in Japan after the start of the war. As the earliest, he would be recognized as the dean of multi-national attachés and observers in this conflict; but he was out-ranked by a soldier who would become a better known figure, British Field Marshal William Gustavus Nicholson, 1st Baron Nicholson, later to become Chief of the Imperial General Staff.
 Peace and aftermath
 Treaty of Portsmouth
Main article: Treaty of Portsmouth
Negotiating the Treaty of Portsmouth (1905). From left to right: the Russians at far side of table are Korostovetz, Nabokov, Witte, Rosen, Plancon; and the Japanese at near side of table are Adachi, Ochiai, Komura, Takahira, Sato. The large conference table is today preserved at the Museum Meiji Mura in Inuyama, Aichi Prefecture, Japan.
The defeats of the Russian Army and Navy shook Russian confidence. Throughout 1905, the Imperial Russian government was rocked by revolution. The population was against escalation of the war. The Empire was certainly capable of sending more troops, but the poor state of the economy, the embarrassing defeats of the Russian army and navy by the Japanese, and the relative unimportance of the disputed land to Russia made the war incredibly unpopular. Tsar Nicholas II elected to negotiate peace so he could concentrate on internal matters after the disaster of Bloody Sunday on January 22, 1905.
Japan-Russia Treaty of Peace, 5 September 1905.
American President Theodore Roosevelt offered to mediate, and earned a Nobel Peace Prize for his effort. Sergius Witte led the Russian delegation and Baron Komura, a graduate of Harvard, led the Japanese Delegation. The Treaty of Portsmouth was signed on September 5, 1905, at the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard in Kittery, Maine. Witte became Russian Prime Minister the same year.
After courting the Japanese, Roosevelt decided to support the Tsar’s refusal to pay indemnities, a move that policymakers in Tokyo interpreted as signifying that the United States had more than a passing interest in Asian affairs. Russia recognized Korea as part of the Japanese sphere of influence and agreed to evacuate Manchuria. Japan would annex Korea in 1910, with scant protest from other powers.
Russia also signed over its 25-year leasehold rights to Port Arthur, including the naval base and the peninsula around it, and ceded the southern half of Sakhalin Island to Japan (to be regained by the USSR in 1952 under the Treaty of San Francisco following the Second World War).
A Japanese propaganda of the war: woodcut print showing Tsar Nicholas II waking from a nightmare of the battered and wounded Russian forces returning from battle. Artist Kobayashi Kiyochika, 1904 or 1905.
Sources do not agree on a precise number of deaths from the war because of lack of body counts for confirmation. The number of Japanese army dead in combat is put at around 47,000 with around 80,000 if disease is included. Estimates of Russian army dead range from around 40,000 to around 70,000 men. The total number of army dead is generally stated at around 130,000. China suffered 20,000 civilian deaths, and financially the loss amounted to over 69 million taels worth of silver.
During many of the battles at sea, several thousand soldiers being transported by sea drowned after their ships went down. There were no agreed consensus about what to do with transported soldiers at sea, and as a result, many of the ships denied rescuing casualties that were left shipwrecked. This led to the creation of the second Geneva Convention in 1906, which gave protection and care for shipwrecked soldiers in armed conflict.
 Political consequences
Punch cartoon, 1905; A cartoon in the British press of the times illustrating Russia’s loss of prestige after the nation’s defeat. The hour-glass representing Russia’s prestige running out.
This was the first major military victory in the modern era of an Asian power over a European nation. Russia’s defeat was met with shock in the West and across the Far East. Japan’s prestige rose greatly as it became seen as a modern nation. Concurrently, Russia lost virtually its entire Pacific and Baltic fleets, and also much international esteem. This was particularly true in the eyes of Germany and Austria–Hungary before World War I. Russia was France and Serbia‘s ally, and that loss of prestige had a significant effect on Germany’s future when planning for war with France, and Austria–Hungary’s war with Serbia. The war caused many nations to underestimate Russian military capabilities in World War I.
In the absence of Russian competition, and with the distraction of European nations during World War I, combined with the Great Depression that followed, the Japanese military began efforts to dominate China and the rest of Asia, which eventually led to the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Pacific War theatres of World War II.
 Revolution in Russia
Popular discontent in Russia after the war added more fuel to the already simmering Russian Revolution of 1905, an event Nicholas II of Russia had hoped to avoid entirely by taking intransigent negotiating stances prior to coming to the table at all. Twelve years later, that discontent boiled over into the February Revolution of 1917. In Poland, which Russia partitioned in the late 18th century, and where Russian rule already caused two major uprisings, the population was so restless that an army of 250,000–300,000—larger than the one facing the Japanese—had to be stationed to put down the unrest. Notably, some political leaders of the Polish insurrection movement (in particular, Józef Piłsudski) sent emissaries to Japan to collaborate on sabotage and intelligence gathering within the Russian Empire and even plan a Japanese-aided uprising.
In Russia, the defeat of 1905 led in the short term to a reform of the Russian military that allowed it to face Germany in World War I. However, the revolts at home following the war planted the seeds that presaged the Russian Revolution of 1917.
 Effects on Japan
Although the war had ended in a victory for Japan, Japanese public opinion was shocked by the very restrained peace terms which were negotiated at the war’s end. Widespread discontent spread through the populace upon the announcement of the treaty terms. Riots erupted in major cities in Japan. Two specific requirements, expected after such a costly victory, were especially lacking: territorial gains and monetary reparations to Japan. The peace accord led to feelings of distrust, as the Japanese had intended to retain all of Sakhalin Island, but were forced to settle for half of it after being pressured by the U.S.
 Assessment of war results
Russia had lost two of its three fleets. Only its Black Sea Fleet remained, and this was the result of an earlier treaty that had prevented the fleet from leaving the Black Sea. Japan became the sixth-most powerful naval force, while the Russian navy declined to one barely stronger than that of Austria–Hungary. The actual costs of the war were large enough to affect the Russian economy and, despite grain exports, the nation developed an external balance of payments deficit. The cost of military re-equipment and re-expansion after 1905 pushed the economy further into deficit, although the size of the deficit was obscured.
A lock of Admiral Nelson‘s hair was given to the Imperial Japanese Navy by the British Royal Navy after the war to commemorate the victory of the Battle of Tsushima, which was considered on a par with Britain’s victory at Trafalgar in 1805. It is still on display at Kyouiku Sankoukan, a public museum maintained by the Japan Self-Defense Force.
The Japanese were on the offensive for most of the war and used massed infantry assaults against defensive positions, which would become the standard of all European armies during World War I. The battles of the Russo-Japanese War, in which machine guns and artillery took a heavy toll on Japanese troops, were a precursor to the trench warfare of World War I. A German military advisor sent to Japan, Jakob Meckel, had a tremendous impact on the development of the Japanese military training, tactics, strategy, and organization. His reforms were credited with Japan’s overwhelming victory over China in the First Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895. However, his over-reliance on infantry in offensive campaigns also led to a large number of Japanese casualties.
Military and economic exhaustion affected both countries. Japanese historians regard this war as a turning point for Japan, and a key to understanding the reasons why Japan may have failed militarily and politically later. After the war, acrimony was felt at every level of Japanese society and it became the consensus within Japan that their nation had been treated as the defeated power during the peace conference. As time went on, this feeling, coupled with the sense of “arrogance” at becoming a Great Power, grew and added to growing Japanese hostility towards the West, and fueled Japan’s military and imperial ambitions. Only five years after the War, Japan de jure annexed Korea as its colonial empire. In 1931, 21 years later, Japan invaded Manchuria in the Mukden Incident. This culminated in the invasion of East, Southeast and South Asia in World War II in an attempt to create a great Japanese colonial empire, the Greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere. As a result, most Chinese historians consider the Russo-Japanese War as a key development of Japanese militarism.
Not only Russia and Japan were affected by the war. As a consequence, the British Admiralty enlarged its docks at Auckland, New Zealand; Bombay, British India; Fremantle, Australia; British Hong Kong; Simon’s Town, Cape Colony; Singapore and Sydney, Australia. The 1904–1905 war confirmed the direction of the Admiralty’s thinking in tactical terms while undermining its strategic grasp of a changing world. For example, the Admiralty’s tactical orthodoxy assumed that a naval battle would imitate the conditions of stationary combat, and that ships would engage in one long line sailing on parallel courses; but in reality, more flexible tactical thinking would be required in the next war. A firing ship and its target would maneuver independently at various ranges and at various speeds and in convergent or divergent courses.
 List of battles
- 1904 Battle of Port Arthur, 8 February: naval battle Inconclusive
- 1904 Battle of Chemulpo Bay, 9 February: naval battle Japanese victory
- 1904 Battle of Yalu River, 30 April to 1 May: Japanese victory
- 1904 Battle of Nanshan, 25 May – 26 May, Japanese victory
- 1904 Battle of Telissu, 14 June – 15 June, Japanese victory
- 1904 Battle of Motien Pass, 17 July, Japanese victory
- 1904 Battle of Ta-shih-chiao, 24 July, Japanese victory
- 1904 Battle of Hsimucheng, 31 July, Japanese victory
- 1904 Battle of the Yellow Sea, 10 August: naval battle Japanese victory strategically/tactically inconclusive
- 1904 Battle off Ulsan, 14 August: naval battle Japanese victory
- 1904–1905 Siege of Port Arthur, 19 August to 2 January: Japanese victory
- 1904 Battle of Liaoyang, 25 August to 3 September: Inconclusive
- 1904 Battle of Shaho, 5 October to 17 October: Inconclusive
- 1905 Battle of Sandepu, 26 January to 27 January: Inconclusive
- 1905 Battle of Mukden, 21 February to 10 March: Japanese victory
- 1905 Battle of Tsushima, 27 May to 28 May naval battle: Japanese victory
 Cause of IRN and IJN Warships Sunk During the War 1904–1905
Although submarines, torpedoes, torpedo boats, and steel battleships preceded the Russo-Japanese by many years, since 1866 in the case of the automotive self propelled torpedo for example, and its first successful use in 1877 during the Russo-Turkish War. The Russo-Japanese war was the first conflict to see the first massive deployment of all of those weapon systems. The war would witness the deployment of over a hundred of the newly invented torpedo boats and nearly the same number in torpedo boat destroyers (termed destroyers by the end of the war), from both sides. The Imperial Russian Navy would become the first navy in history to possess an independent operational submarine fleet on 1 January 1905. With this submarine fleet making its first combat patrol on 14 February 1905, and its first clash with enemy surface warships on 29 April 1905, all this nearly a decade before World War I even began.
During the course of the war, the IRN and IJN would launch nearly 300 self propelled automotive torpedoes at one another. Dozens of warships would be hit and damaged, but only 1 battleship, 2 armoured cruisers, and 2 destroyers would be permanently sunk (not salvaged). Another 80 plus warships would be destroyed by the traditional gun, mine, or other cause. The Russian battleship Oslyabya was the first modern battleship sunk by gunfire alone, and Admiral Rozhestvensky‘s flagship, the battleship Knyaz Suvorov was the first modern battleship sunk by the new “torpedo” on the high seas.
- Battleships lost to naval gunfire-3 (plus 1 Coastal Battleship) IRN
- Battleships lost to land/shore batteries-4 IRN
- Battleships lost to combination of gunfire & torpedoes-2 IRN
- Battleships lost to strictly torpedoes-1 IRN
- Battleships lost to mines-2 (plus 1 Coastal Battleship) IJN/1 IRN
- Cruisers lost to naval gunfire-5 IRN
- Cruisers lost to land/shore batteries-3 IRN
- Cruisers lost to mines-1 IRN/4 IJN
- Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to naval gunfire-6 IRN/3 IJN
- Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to shore batteries-3 IRN
- Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to gunfire & torpedoes-1 IJN
- Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to torpedoes-2 IRN
- Destroyers (DDs, GBs, TBDs, TBs) lost to mines-3 IRN/3 IJN
- Auxiliary cruisers lost to naval gunfire-1 IRN
- Auxiliary Cruisers lost to shore batteries-1 RN
- Auxiliary Gunboats lost to mines-1 IJN
- Minelayers lost to shore batteries-1 IRN
- Minelayers lost to mines-1 IRN
- Submarines-3 lost to scuttling & 1 lost by shipwreck IRN (Note: Only IRN submarines were operational during the war)
The above data includes vessels that were sunk and consequently salvaged (raised) and put back into service by either combatant. Data regarding surface vessels either shipwrecked or scuttled was excluded.
 Imperial Russian Navy warships sunk, 1904–1905
From 1880 through the end of the war, Russia prepared a systematic plan to build their navy into a major naval power, able to meet any modern adversary—which during this time period were primarily based in Europe. By 1884 Russia lead the world in numbers of the newly invented torpedo boats and torpedo boat destroyers with 115 such vessels. By 1904, the IRN was a first rate navy, but by the end of 1905, Russia was reduced to a third rate naval power.
- Battleship Navarin 28 May 1905
- Battleship Sissoi Veliky 28 May 1905
- Battleship (Coastal) Admiral Ushakov 28 May 1905
- Battleship Petropavlovsk 13 April 1904
- Battleship Sevastopol 2 January 1905
- Battleship Oslyabya 27 May 1905
- Battleship Borodino 27 May 1905
- Battleship Imperator Aleksandr III 27 May 1905
- Battleship Knyaz Suvorov 27 May 1905
- Cruiser Vladimir Monomakh 28 May 1905
- Cruiser Dmitri Donskoy 28 May 1905
- Cruiser Admiral Nakhimov 28 May 1905
- Cruiser Rurik 14 August 1904
- Cruiser Svetlana 28 May 1905
- Gunboat Gremyashchi 18 August 1904
- Gunboat Otvajni 2 January 1905
- Torpedo Boat Destroyer (TBD) Steregushchi 19 March 1904
- TBD Strashni 13 April 1904
- TBD Stroini 13 November 1904
- TBD Vnushitelni 25 February 1904
- TBD Vuinoslivi 24 August 1904
- TBD Buini 28 May 1905
- TBD Gromki 28 May 1905
- TBD Glestyashtchi 28 May 1905
- TBD Bezuprechni 28 May 1905
- Torpedo Boat (TB) Tantchikhe (#201) 21 August 1904
- TB Ussuri (#204) 30 June 1904
The above list excludes captured, surrendered, or sunken warships that were raised and put back into service by either combatant.
Despite its gold reserves of £106.3 million, Russia’s pre-war financial situation was not enviable. The country had had large budget deficits year after year, and was largely dependent on borrowed money.
Russia’s war effort was funded primarily by France, in a series of loans totalling Fr.800 million; another loan in the amount of Fr.600 million was agreed upon, but later cancelled. These loans were extended within a climate of mass bribing of the French press (made necessary by Russia’s precarious economic and social situation and poor military performance). Although initially reluctant to participate in the war, the French government and major banks were co-operative since it became clear that Russian and French economic interests were tied. In addition to French money, Russia secured a German loan in the amount of M500 million.
Conversely, Japan’s pre-war gold reserves were a modest £11.7 million; a major portion of the total cost of the war was covered by money borrowed from the United Kingdom and the United States.
During his canvassing expedition in London, the Japanese Vice-Governor of the Bank of Japan met Jacob Schiff, a Jewish-American banker and head of Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Schiff was sympathetic to Japan’s cause, and extended a critical series of loans to the Empire of Japan, in the amount of $200 million.
 Arts and literature
- Between 1904–05 in Russia, the war was covered by anonymous satirical graphic luboks that were sold at common markets and recorded much of the war for the domestic audience. Around 300 were made before their creation was banned by the Russian government.
- The disastrous war was among the reasons that spurred Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to compose his satirical opera, The Golden Cockerel, which was immediately banned by the government.
- The Russo-Japanese War was covered by dozens of foreign journalists who sent back sketches that were turned into lithographs and other reproducible forms. Propaganda images were circulated by both sides and quite a few photographs have been preserved.
- Russian novelist Vikenty Veresayev wrote a detailed and scathing memoir of his experiences in the Russo-Japanese War, entitled In the War.
- Russian-born British spy Sidney Reilly‘s role in providing intelligence that allowed the Japanese surprise attack that started the Siege of Port Arthur is dramatised in Episode 2 of the TV series Reilly, Ace of Spies.
- The Siege of Port Arthur is covered in an encompassing historical novel Port Arthur by Alexander Stepanov (1892–1965), who, at the age of 12, lived in the besieged city and witnessed many key events of the siege. He took a personal role in Port Arthur defense by carrying water to front line trenches. He was contused and narrowly evaded amputation of both legs in the hospital. His father, Nikolay Stepanov, commanded one of the Russian onshore batteries that protected the harbor. Through him, Alexander knew many of the city’s top military commanders personally—generals Stessels, Belikh, Nikitin, Kondratenko, Admiral Makarov, and others. He wrote the novel in 1932, based on his diaries and his father’s notes. Though it might be subject to an ideological bias, as anything published in the USSR at that time, Russians generally consider it one of the best historical novels of the Soviet period.
- “On the hills of Manchuria” (Na sopkah Manchzhurii), a melancholy waltz composed by Ilya Shatrov, a military musician who served in the war, became an evergreen popular song in Russia and in Finland. The original lyrics are about fallen soldiers lying in their graves in Manchuria, but alternative lyrics were written later, especially during Second World War.
- The Russo-Japanese War is occasionally alluded to in James Joyce‘s novel, Ulysses. In the “Eumaeus” chapter, a drunken sailor in a bar proclaims, “But a day of reckoning, he stated crescendo with no uncertain voice—thoroughly monopolizing all the conversation—was in store for mighty England, despite her power of pelf on account of her crimes. There would be a fall and the greatest fall in history. The Germans and the Japs were going to have their little lookin, he affirmed.”
- The 1969 Japanese film Nihonkai daikaisen (Battle in the Sea of Japan) depicts the naval battles of the war, the attacks on the Port Arthur highlands, and the subterfuge and diplomacy of Japanese agents in Sweden. Admiral Togo is portrayed by Toshirô Mifune.
- The Russo-Japanese War is the setting for the naval strategy computer game Distant Guns developed by Storm Eagle Studios.
- The Russo-Japanese War is the setting for the first part of the novel The Diamond Vehicle, in the Erast Fandorin detective series by Boris Akunin.
- The Domination series by S.M. Stirling has an alternate Battle of Tsushima where the Japanese use airships to attack the Russian Fleet. This is detailed in the short story “Written by the Wind” by Roland J. Green in the Drakas! anthology.
- Kentaro Kaneko
- Baron Rosen
- Imperialism in Asia
- Liancourt Rocks
- List of wars
- Russian Imperialism in Asia and the Russo-Japanese War
- Sergius Witte
Emperor Taisho (Yoshihito) 大正天皇
Yoshihito (大正天皇), the Taishō Emperor (大正天皇), (August 31, 1879 – December 25, 1926, r. 1912-1926),
was the 123rd Emperor of Japan.
He was the surviving son of Emperor Meiji
by Yanagiwara Naruko,
a lady-in-waiting at the Imperial Palace.
Emperor Meiji’s consort,
Empress Shoken (Haruko),
was officially regarded as his mother. He received the personal name of Yoshihito and the title Haru no miya (Prince Haru) from the emperor on September 6, 1879. He was officially declared heir apparent on August 31, 1887 and had his formal investiture as crown prince on November 3, 1888.
On May 25, 1900, Crown Prince Yoshihito married then 16-year-old Sadako, the daughter of Prince Kujo Mitchitaka [peer], the head of the five senior branches of the Fujiwara clan, and had the following children:
- The future Emperor Showa (Hirohito), (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989); married Princess Nagako (March 6, 1903 – June 16, 2000), eldest daughter of Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi.
- Prince Chichibu (Yasuhito), (May 26, 1902 – January 4, 1953); married September 28, 1928 Miss Matsudaira Setsuko (September 9, 1909 – August 25, 1995), eldest daughter of Mr. Matsudaira Tsuneo, sometime Japanese ambassador to Britain and the United States, and imperial household minister.
- Prince Takamatsu (Nobuhito), (March 1, 1905 – February 3, 1987); married February 4, 1930 Tokugawa Kikuko (December 26, 1911 – December 18, 2004), second daughter of Prince Tokugawa Yoshihisa.
- Prince Mikasa (Takahito), (born December 2, 1915); married October 22, 1941 Yuriko (born June 6, 1923), second daughter of Viscount Takagi Masanori.
Yoshihito had contracted meningitis shortly after birth, leaving him in poor health both physically and mentally. There are also rumors of lead poisoning. He was kept out of view from the public as much as possible, even after his ascension to the throne in 1912. On one of the rare occasions he was seen in public, the 1913 opening of the Diet, he famously rolled his prepared speech into a telescope and stared at the assembly through it instead of reading it. After 1919, he undertook no official duties, and Hirohito was named Prince Regent in 1921.
Upon his death, he was succeeded by his son, Hirohito.
- ^ a b Samuel Dumas, Losses of Life Caused By War (1923)
- ^ a b Erols.com, Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides.
- ^ Olender p. 233
- ^ Forczyk, p. 22 “Tsar’s diary entry”
- ^ University of Texas: Growth of colonial empires in Asia
- ^ Paine, p. 317
- ^ Connaughton, pp. 7–8.
- ^ Paine, p. 320.
- ^ Text in Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Correspondence Regarding Negotiations… (1903–1904) pp. 7–9.
- ^ Text in Correspondence Regarding Negotiations… (1903–1904) pp. 23–24.
- ^ Connaughton, p. 10.
- ^ Tolf, p.156.
- ^ Text in Correspondence Regarding Negotiations… (1903–1904) p. 38.
- ^ David Schmmelpenninck van der Oye, “The Immediate Origins of the War”, in John W. Steinberg et al., The Russo-Japanese War in Global Perspective: World War Zero (Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2005), 42.
- ^ Jukes, The Russo-Japanese War, 21.
- ^ Some scholarly researchers credit Enjiro Yamaza with drafting the text of the Japanese Declaration of War — see Naval Postgraduate School (US) thesis: Na, Sang Hyung. “The Korean-Japanese Dispute over Dokdo/Takeshima,” p. 62 n207 December 2007, citing Byang-Ryull Kim. (2006). Ilbon Gunbu’ui Dokdo Chim Talsa (The Plunder of Dokdo by the Japanese Military), p. 121.
- ^ Connaughton, p. 34.
- ^ Yale University: Laws of War: Opening of Hostilities (Hague III); October 18, 1907, Avalon Project at Yale Law School.
- ^ Grant p. 12, 15, 17, 42
- ^ Shaw, Albert (March, 1904). “The Progress of the World – Japan’s Swift Action”. The American Monthly Review of Reviews (New York: The Review of Reviews Company) 29 (3): 260. http://books.google.com/?id=Jr8CAAAAYAAJ&dq=%22Review+of+Reviews%22
- ^ Connaughton, p.65
- ^ Grant p. 48–50
- ^ Chapman, John W.M. “Russia, Germany and the Anglo-Japanese Intelligence Collaboration, 1896–1906” pages 41–55 from Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004 page 42.
- ^ Chapman, John W.M. “Russia, Germany and the Anglo-Japanese Intelligence Collaboration, 1896–1906” pages 41–55 from Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004 page 55.
- ^ Chapman, John W.M. “Russia, Germany and the Anglo-Japanese Intelligence Collaboration, 1896–1906” pages 41–55 from Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004 page 54.
- ^ Chapman, John W.M. “Russia, Germany and the Anglo-Japanese Intelligence Collaboration, 1896–1906” pages 41–55 from Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 2004 pages 52–54.
- ^ Watts p. 22
- ^ Mahan p. 455
- ^ Mahan p. 456
- ^ Sisemore, James D. (2003). CDMhost.com, “The Russo-Japanese War, Lessons Not Learned.” U.S. Army Command and General Staff College.
- ^ Chapman, John and Ian Nish. (2004). “On the Periphery of the Russo-Japanese War,” Part I, p. 53 n42, Paper No. IS/2004/475. Suntory Toyota International Centre for Economics and Related Disciplines (STICERD), London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE).
- ^ Connaughton, p. 272; “Text of Treaty; Signed by the Emperor of Japan and Czar of Russia,” New York Times. October 17, 1905.
- ^ Cox, Gary P. “The Russo-Japanese War in Global Perspective: World War Zero” Journal of Military History. 70. 1 (2006): 250–251.
- ^ Twentieth Century Atlas – Death Tolls and Casualty Statistics for Wars, Dictatorships and Genocides
- ^ Abraham Ascher, The Revolution of 1905: Russia in Disarray, Stanford University Press, 1994, ISBN 0-8047-2327-3, Google Print, p.157–158
- ^ For Polish–Japanese negotiations and relations during the war, see:Bert Edström, The Japanese and Europe: Images and Perceptions, Routledge, 2000, ISBN 1-873410-86-7, pp.126–133
Jerzy Lerski, “A Polish Chapter of the Russo-Japanese War”, Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan, III/7 p. 69–96
- ^ “Japan’s Present Crisis and Her Constitution; The Mikado’s Ministers Will Be Held Responsible by the People for the Peace Treaty – Marquis Ito May Be Able to Save Baron Komura,” New York Times. September 3, 1905.
- ^ a b Sondhaus, Lawrence, Naval Warfare, 1815–1914, p. 192
- ^ Strachan, p. 844.
- ^ Keegan p. 179, 229, 230
- ^ Strachan, p. 384.
- ^ Strachan, p. 386.
- ^ Strachan, p. 388.
- ^ Olender p. 235, 236 & 249-251
- ^ a b Olender p. 175
- ^ Olender p. 236
- ^ Forczyk p. 70
- ^ Olender p. 234
- ^ Watts p. 16
- ^ Watts p. 38-150
- ^ a b Sherman, A. J.”German-Jewish Bankers in World Politics, The Financing of the Russo-Japanese War” Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook(1983) 28(1): 59-73 doi:10.1093/leobaeck/28.1.59
- ^ “Schiff, Jacob Henry”. Dictionary of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1928–1936. pp. 430-432.
- ^ ‘Port Arthur’ by Alexander Stepanov, published by ‘Soviet Russia’ in 1978, ‘About Author’ section
- Chapman, John W. M. (2004). “Russia, Germany and the Anglo-Japanese Intelligence Collaboration, 1896–1906”. In Erickson, Mark; Erickson, Ljubica. Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 41–55. ISBN 0297849131.
- Connaughton, R. M. (1988). The War of the Rising Sun and the Tumbling Bear—A Military History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904–5. London. ISBN 0415009065.
- Forczyk, Robert (2009). Russian Battleship vs Japanese Battleship, Yellow Sea 1904-05. Osprey. ISBN 9781846033308.
- Grant, R. Captain (1907). Before Port Arthur in a Destroyer; The Personal Diary of a Japanese Naval Officer. London: John Murray. First and second editions published in 1907.
- Keegan, John (1999). The First World War. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. ISBN 0375400524.
- Mahan, Alfred Thayer (1906). “Reflections, Historic and Other, Suggested by the Battle of the Japan Sea”. US Naval Proceedings magazine. US Naval Institute, Heritage Collection 36 (2).
- Olender, Piotr (2010). Russo-Japanese Naval War 1904–1905, Vol. 2, Battle of Tsushima. Sandomierz, Poland: Stratus s.c.. ISBN 978-83-61421-02-3.
- Paine, S. C. M. (2003). The Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895: Perceptions, Power, and Primacy. ISBN 0521817145.
- Simpson, Richard (2001). Building The Mosquito Fleet, The US Navy’s First Torpedo Boats. South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 0-17385-0508-0.
- Strachan, Hew (2001). The First World War: To Arms. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199261911. http://books.google.com/?id=zv8Zrrt6vqgC&dq=ernest+troubridge+russo-japanese+war.
- Watts, Anthony J. (1990). The Imperial Russian Navy. London, Great Britain: Arms and Armour Press. ISBN 0-85368-912-1.
- Corbett, Sir Julian. Maritime Operations In The Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905. (1994) Originally classified, and in two volumnes, ISBN 1-55750-129-7.
- Hough, Richard A. The Fleet That Had To Die. Ballantine Books. (1960).
- Jentschura, Hansgeorg; Dieter Jung, Peter Mickel. Warships of the Imperial Japanese Navy, 1869–1945. United States Naval Institute, Annapolis, Maryland, 1977. Originally published in German as Die Japanischen Kreigschiffe 1869–1945 in 1970, translated into English by David Brown and Antony Preston. ISBN 0-87021-893-X.
- Jukes, Geoffry. The Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905. Osprey Essential Histories. (2002). ISBN 978-1-84176-446-7.
- Kowner, Rotem (2006). Historical Dictionary of the Russo-Japanese War. Scarecrow. ISBN 0-8108-4927-5.
- Matsumura Masayoshi, Ian Ruxton (trans.), Baron Kaneko and the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05), Lulu Press 2009 ISBN 978-0557117512
- Morris, Edmund (2002). Theodore Rex, Books.Gooble.com. New York: Random House. 10-ISBN 0-8129-6600-7; 13-ISBN 978-0-8129-6600-8
- Novikov-Priboy, Aleksei. Tsushima. (An account from a seaman aboard the Battleship Orel, which was captured at Tsushima). London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd. (1936).
- Nish, Ian Hill. (1985). The Origins of the Russo-Japanese War. London: Longman. 10-ISBN 0-582-49114-2; 13-ISBN 978-0-582-49114-4
- Okamoto, Shumpei (1970). The Japanese Oligarchy and the Russo-Japanese War. Columbia University Press.
- Pleshakov, Constantine. The Tsar’s Last Armada: The Epic Voyage to the Battle of Tsushima. ISBN 0-465-05792-6. (2002).
- Saaler, Sven und Inaba Chiharu (Hg.). Der Russisch-Japanische Krieg 1904/05 im Spiegel deutscher Bilderbogen, Deutsches Institut für Japanstudien Tokyo, (2005).
- Seager, Robert. Alfred Thayer Mahan: The Man And His Letters. (1977) ISBN 0-87021-359-8.
- Semenov, Vladimir, Capt. The Battle of Tsushima. E.P. Dutton & Co. (1912).
- Semenov, Vladimir, Capt. Rasplata (The Reckoning). John Murray, (1910).
- Tomitch, V. M. Warships of the Imperial Russian Navy. Volume 1, Battleships. (1968).
- Warner, Denis & Peggy. The Tide at Sunrise, A History of the Russo-Japanese War 1904–1905. (1975). ISBN 0-7146-5256-3.
- Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Correspondence Regarding the Negotiations between Japan and Russia (1903–1904), Presented to the Imperial Diet, March 1904 (Tokyo, 1904)
Japan annexed Korea and held onto it until 1945, the end of World War II.
Japan expanded its influence in Manchuria after presenting “Twenty-one Demands” to the Chinese government. The empire of Japan had become a recognized world power
the complete info exist will full illustration,but only fo rpremiuj member
The end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2012