Russia Historic Collections

RUSSIA HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

Russia History Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

Biography

Emperor Alexander I

 

 

 

Orangtuanya Paulus, anak dari Catherine yang Agung dan Maria Fyodorovna, Putri mantan Wurttemburg. Saat lahir, ia dibawa untuk dibesarkan oleh Nenek nya Catherine Agung. Alexander adalah seorang anak laki-laki, berambut pirang tampan dan cerdas. Masa kanak-kanak terganggu oleh divisons dalam keluarga. Kedua belah pihak mencoba menggunakan dia untuk tujuan mereka sendiri dan ia robek emosional antara neneknya dan ayahnya, Pewaris takhta. Ini diajarkan Alexander, sangat awal, bagaimana memanipulasi orang-orang yang mencintainya dan dia datang bunglon alami, mengubah pandangannya dan kepribadian tergantung pada siapa dia bersama pada saat itu.

Dia dibimbing langsung oleh filsuf republik Swiss, La Harpe, yang secara pribadi dipilih oleh Catherine untuk cetakan Alexander pribadi dan memberinya pendidikan yang luas. Sang Ratu tidak takut memiliki pendidikan Tsar masa depan di tangan seorang republikan, karena ia tahu kekuatan otokrasi dan kesadaran politik terbelakang dari Rusia pada saat itu. Catherine diharapkan bahwa pendidikan liberal akan membantu Alexander untuk memerintah dengan bijak untuk kepentingan negara. Di bawah bimbingan La Harpe Alexander seorang ahli budaya Eropa, sejarah dan kepala sekolah politik – sang pangeran muda menjadi seorang idealis dalam tradisi Pencerahan – namun, fokus La Harpe pada teoritis, kepala sekolah abstrak meninggalkan Alexander tanpa kekuatan karakter dan memutuskan untuk menjadi pemimpin benar-benar efektif.

Alexander adalah 17 pada 1793 ketika ia menikah dengan Elizabeth indah Baden, seorang putri cantik yang hanya empat belas tahun. Mereka sangat bahagia bersama di tahun-tahun pertama pernikahan mereka. Elizabeth dipandang Alexander sebagai tampan ‘pangeran menawan’ dan dia mencintainya sebagai balasannya. Sebagai hadiah pernikahan, Catherine memberikan Alexander Istana Alexander, menunjukkan preferensi dia untuk cucunya lebih putranya, Paul, dengan memberikan Alexander pengadilan lebih besar dari ayahnya. Hal ini semakin meracuni suasana dalam keluarga.

Catherine meninggal pada tanggal 6 November 1796 dan anaknya Paulus diasumsikan tahta. Dia segera melakukan sejumlah undang-undang baru untuk merusak aspek-aspek pemerintahan ibunya dia tidak setuju dengan. Tindakan Paulus pergi terlalu jauh, ia marah negara dan khususnya kaum bangsawan. Plot aristokrat yang menetas terhadap kehidupan Paulus. Dengan persetujuan diam-diam dari Alexander, Tsar dibunuh di Castle Mikhailovski di St Petersburg pada malam tanggal 11 Maret 1801.

Alexander dinobatkan Tsar untuk menggantikan ayahnya. Ibunya, Maria, menolak untuk berbicara kepada anaknya untuk waktu yang lama, dia tidak pernah sepenuhnya memaafkan dia karena keterlibatannya dalam pembunuhan ayahnya. Dalam tahun pertamanya di tahta Rusia, Alexander berusaha memerintah dengan cara yang tercerahkan. Negara itu sangat gembira dengan prospek masa pemerintahan Alexander; ada harapan besar bagi masa depan Rusia dan antisipasi dari bentuk yang lebih liberal dari pemerintah dan kebebasan meningkat. Beberapa pergi sejauh untuk berharap untuk mengakhiri lembaga perbudakan, yang melemahkan bangsa energi itu. Pada awalnya Tsar tidak sedikit untuk mencegah aspirasi. Perlahan-lahan, untuk sejumlah alasan, Alexander berpaling dari mimpi masa kecilnya dan kepala sekolah. Semakin ia merasa lebih mudah untuk mendapatkan hasil dengan menggunakan kekuatan otokrasi. Setelah ia mulai menggunakan kekuasaan otokratis, yang dikelola melalui pria yang disajikan di kehendaknya, itu rusak dia. Semakin lama ia menggunakan metode memerintah Rusia, semakin sulit ia Bagan baginya untuk kembali ke prinsip-prinsip pemerintahan yang baik dan peran raja yang telah dipelajarinya di masa mudanya.

Perang dengan Napoleon, yang melanda Rusia mengambil ratusan ribu nyawa dan menghancurkan beberapa kota Kekaisaran terbaik, mengambil itu sendiri, pulsa pribadi tentang Alexander. Dia terganggu oleh hilangnya nyawa dan perang itu sendiri, yang dia melihat sebagai pertempuran tidak hanya antara negara, tetapi juga peperangan rohani antara kekuatan baik dan jahat. Setelah banyak pertempuran dan kemunduran, kemenangan Sekutu atas Napoleon dinobatkan oleh entri kemenangan para jenderal triumpant ke Paris. Alexander berkuda di kepala mereka. Dia adalah puncak dari pemerintahannya. Alih-alih beristirahat pada kemenangan dan menikmati status pahlawan ia menikmati seluruh Eropa, Alexander adalah lebih dan lebih bermasalah spiritual. Sementara di Eropa Barat dengan Tentara Rusia ia dicari dan berada di bawah pengaruh dari penasihat spiritual dari luar negeri. Dia bermain-main dengan beberapa konsep dan ide, akhirnya membuang mereka untuk iman Orthodox dari negerinya sendiri. Tahun terakhir-Nya dipenuhi dengan obsesi dengan Tuhan dan Kristen. Pada akhir pemerintahannya ia meninggalkan nyonya Polandia nya 13 tahun, Maria Naryshkina, dan kembali ke istrinya, Elizabeth, yang telah menderita dari perselingkuhan dan kelalaian selama bertahun-tahun. Dia orang yang bermasalah dan rusak. Satu jatuh dia dan Elizabeth pergi ke bagian selatan Rusia. Di sana, pada 19 November 1825 di kota Taganrog, itu diklaim telah memalsukan kematiannya sendiri, menghilang menjadi seorang biarawan bernama Kuzmich, berkeliaran di hutan Siberia beberapa tahun setelahnya. Pemerintah Soviet mengipasi api dari rumor ini ketika mengumumkan peti mati telah dibuka pada tahun 1920-an dan ditemukan menjadi kosong.

 

 

Nicholas II

Tsar terakhir Rusia

Nicholas II adalah Tsar terakhir yang memerintah atas Rusia. Istana Alexander adalah tempat kelahirannya, tempat ibunya disampaikan dia di Kamar Tidur mewah Biru nya di keenam bulan Mei tahun 1868. Menakutkan, ini kebetulan menjadi hari raya Ortodoks Ayub St Penderita, yang tampaknya meramalkan uji tak berujung yang akan mengganggu kehidupan tragis Nicholas. Kecil “Nicky”, karena dia dipanggil, adalah produk dari, menakjubkan mungil berambut cokelat, Maria Fyodorovna Romanova – sebelumnya Dagmar, Putri Denmark – Alexandrovich dan ayah, raksasa mengintimidasi, Alexander Romanov.

Alexander III adalah orang yang mengesankan, yang mendominasi orang lain dengan ukuran dan kuat secara pribadi. Sepanjang abad ke-19 pria Romanov memiliki reputasi untuk menjadi besar dan megah. Sayangnya, Nicholas ambil setelah ibunya. Dia adalah tentang 5’6 “tinggi dan Romanov-nya paman semua tampak menjulang di atasnya Ia mencoba untuk mengimbangi tinggi badannya dengan bekerja dengan bobot dan peralatan olahraga.. Tidak peduli apa yang dia lakukan untuk membangun ukuran tubuhnya dia masih tetap sedikit dan liat di fisik Kakinya. pendek, tapi ini kurang jelas ketika dia menunggang kuda. Nicholas tampak paling anggun ketika dipasang. Kebanyakan orang yang bertemu Tsar mengomentari mata birunya yang menakjubkan Denmark, yang menurut pendapat sebagian adalah baik untuk nya jiwa. Dia selalu mengenakan rambut cokelatnya berpisah di sebelah kiri dan tumbuh jenggot tebal diisi dengan highlight emas ketika ia masih muda. Ini tinggal bersamanya sepanjang hidupnya dan menjadi fitur tanda tangannya, bersama dengan kebiasaan gugup ia menyikat gigi kumisnya dengan punggung tangannya. Dari ayahnya ia mewarisi hidung pesek, yang tidak disukai karena mengingatkannya pada Paulus I, yang ia menganggap paling jelek dari nenek moyangnya.

Nicholas memiliki pendidikan yang sangat baik dan mungkin adalah raja terbaik Eropa terpelajar pada masanya. Orang tuanya di mana cukup lihai untuk melihat tantangan menghadapi Tsar 20th Century akan cukup berbeda daripada masa lalu dan mencoba mempersiapkan dirinya untuk tanggung jawab masa depannya. Ancaman yang sangat nyata dari terorisme menutupiku Keluarga Kekaisaran terus-menerus. Setelah bom meledak mobil kereta mereka, dan hanya bahu kuat Alexander disimpan atap dari menghancurkan seluruh keluarga. Sebuah barisan yang kuat dari polisi rahasia dan penjaga militer melindungi mereka, tapi ini berarti Nicholas tumbuh di isolasi dari keluarganya. Ini menahannya dan ia terlambat jatuh tempo. Dia tidak pernah mendapatkan rasa percaya diri dan kemandirian. Kurangnya teman dari luar kaum bangsawan Eropa kehilangan Nicholas dari kepentingan memahami cara subyek masa depannya tinggal. Dalam hal ini ia tidak berbeda dari kebanyakan rekan-rekan kerajaannya. Tapi Nicholas juga sengaja terputus dari pemikiran liberal dan ide-ide oleh orang tuanya. Karena ia hampir tidak memiliki kontak dengan komunitas tumbuh Rusia intelektual dan artistik dia mengembangkan ide-ide sempit kehormatan, pelayanan dan tradisi yang akan membahayakan kemampuannya untuk memerintah Rusia di masa mendatang.

Sementara pewaris tahta, sebagai Tsarevich, Nicholas mencapai pangkat Kolonel Pengawal Kehidupan. Dia mencintai militer dan selalu menganggap dirinya seorang tentara. Karakter dan kebiasaan sosial sangat dipengaruhi oleh pengalamannya sebagai perwira muda dan ia membuat banyak persahabatan terpanjang nya abadi antara petugas saudaranya. Ini di mana tahun-tahun paling berbahagia, ketika ia hampir bebas perawatan dan khawatir tentang masa depan. Ayahnya masih relatif muda dan Nicholas bisa berharap beberapa tahun untuk mengisi peran petugas, gagah aristokrat sebelum ia dipanggil untuk melayani negaranya dalam sebuah peran yang lebih serius. Para Tsarevich memeluk kebebasan relatif dari kehidupan tentara dengan penuh semangat. Dia bisa minum dan melakukan seperti yang paling hedonistik petugas sesama. Hidup penuh dengan makan malam resimen, konser, tarian dan wanita cantik. Ia selama ini waktu dia bertemu dengan seorang penari muda dari Ballet Imperial bernama Mathilde Kschessinka, yang menjadi yang pertama, teman gadis nyata. Itu bukan hubungan serius. Keduanya tahu itu tidak bisa pergi ke mana saja dan selain itu, Nicholas sudah memberikan hatinya kepada yang muda bermata sedih dan ditarik bernama Jerman putri Alix dari Hesse. Banyak pikir itu tidak cocok. Alix tidak dianggap memiliki ciri-ciri kepribadian yang tepat dan agresivitas keluar dicari dalam seorang Rusia Ratu-to-be. Nicholas tidak bisa dibujuk untuk mempertimbangkan pengantin selain Alix, dan pasangan mana secara resmi terlibat dalam 1893. Pada musim gugur, 1894, ayah Nicholas mengembangkan kondisi nefritis serius yang menjadi semakin buruk. Dokter Alexander menyarankan perjalanan ke iklim lembut Krimea. Penyembuh terkenal John dari Kronstadt dipanggil ke samping tempat tidur Tsar meninggal di pelukan istrinya di Lividia berusia 47 dari nefritis.

Nicholas merasa belum siap untuk memerintah. Dia tahu tugas berat memerintah Rusia lebih besar dari pengalaman dan kemampuan. Namun ia percaya, bahkan dengan semua kekurangan dan keraguan diri, bahwa Allah telah memilih takdirnya. Kaisar baru mengambil sumpah penobatannya sangat serius dan melihat urapan sebagai Tsar sebagai pengalaman spiritual. Setelah mahkota itu ditempatkan di kepalanya Nicholas akan mencari dukungan dan bimbingan pertama dalam dirinya sendiri dan kemudian kepada Allah, yang telah memberinya beban ini. Cepat menyadari ia dikelilingi oleh kekejian dan kepentingan pribadi para birokrat dan penjilat, Nicholas menyimpulkan bahwa di bumi ia bisa percaya beberapa orang. Diganggu dan disesatkan oleh keluarganya ia semakin berpaling kepada istrinya untuk dukungan. Nicholas menjadi sinis dan tidak percaya sifat manusia. Kesepian dan isolasi akan jauh dalam hidup.

Di atas segalanya, Nicholas dicintai Rusia pertama dan kemudian keluarganya. Dia berpikir nasib kedua adalah tak terpisahkan. Tidak ada yang tahu kekurangan dari Dinasti Romanov lebih baik dari dia namun dia merasa monarki adalah satu-satunya kekuatan mencegah Rusia dari semakin hancur lebur. Nicholas cukup cerdas untuk menyadari mungkin pembunuhannya cukup tinggi. Keputusan Alexandra untuk menikah dengannya dan berbagi masa depan tidak pasti itu adalah sebuah komitmen dia selalu dihargai.

Nicholas adalah orang yang sangat religius dan umumnya soliter, yang mencintai persahabatan setia anjing nya ke perusahaan menteri negara. Berburu di perkebunan itu adalah hobi favorit, di mana ia bisa menghindari politik kisruh St Petersburg dan urusan mengganggu menterinya. Daripada tinggal di Istana Musim Dingin di pusat kota, Nicholas memilih untuk tinggal di pedesaan terdekat. Istana Alexander menjadi rumah utama dan Peterhof mundur pantai nya. Di istananya, Tsar bekerja sendirian di mejanya. Menolak untuk memiliki sekretaris, ia melakukan bisnis sendiri, dibantu oleh pembantu-d-kampnya, pejabat Pengadilan dan pelayan pribadi-Nya. Nicholas adalah seorang pekerja keras dan rajin tentang bisnis negara, meskipun prestasinya mana sangat dibatasi oleh kecenderungannya untuk fokus pada detail daripada gambaran besar. Dia tidak yakin pendapat sendiri tentang hal dan merasa meminta nasihat menjadi tanda kelemahan atau keraguan. Oleh karena itu ia mencoba untuk mengikuti sendiri ‘naluri’ yang dibatasi oleh pengalaman dan asuhan yang sempit.

Nicholas menyukai musik, terutama Wagner. Tristan dan Isolde adalah miliknya dan sepotong favorit Aleksandra tentang musik. Ketika ia bisa menemukan waktu, menulis ke teman atau membaca adalah hiburan favorit setelah menghabiskan waktu dengan keluarganya. Nicholas sangat pribadi dan dibenci disentuh oleh orang asing, meskipun ia tidak angkuh. Orang menyayangi dia sangat ramah dan baik hati di alam.

Meskipun dipuji karena kualitas mengagumkan pribadinya, sebagai otokrat Nicholas mutlak telah dianggap gagal. Dia merasa tidak mungkin untuk mendamaikan pandangan sendiri yang ketat dari apa yang benar dan salah bagi Rusia dengan tanggung jawab seorang raja modern untuk berkompromi pandangan sendiri untuk kebaikan bangsa.

Bukan orang bodoh, tapi ragu-ragu untuk menarik kesimpulan sendiri, Nicholas terombang-ambing isu-isu penting. Kurang cerdas politik dan naluri, dia jarang yakin bagaimana untuk menangani urusan negara. Hal ini membuatnya tampil sebagai lemah dan bertentangan dengan menterinya. Mereka merasa sulit untuk membaca pikiran sejati dan merasa sulit untuk mengikuti kepemimpinannya. Meski telah sangat argumen oleh orang lain, keputusan politik Nicholas tidak didominasi oleh istrinya, Aleksandra. Dia memutuskan sendiri dan fakta bahwa mereka setuju pada poin begitu banyak hanya menunjukkan kedekatan naluri politik mereka tentang Rusia.

Pada akhirnya, dalam beberapa minggu sebelum revolusi, Nicholas benar-benar rusak dengan tanggung jawabnya dan masalah keluarga. Kesehatannya buruk tetapi ia melakukan yang terbaik untuk menyembunyikan kelelahan dan rasa sakit fisik (tanda-tanda lebih lanjut dari kelemahan sendiri untuk Nicholas) dari orang lain. Yang tiba-tiba turun tahta-Nya adalah tanda lebih lanjut dari seorang pria yang tidak pasti dan bermasalah.

– Alexander III

oleh Scott Malsom

Dianggap benar otokrat terakhir Rusia, Alexander III adalah teladan dari apa yang Tsar Rusia seharusnya. Kuat, tangguh, keras patriotik, dan pada 6 ‘4 “menjulang tinggi di atas rekan senegaranya Dia adalah perwujudan dari beruang Rusia dongeng.. Dia berkuasa pada titik kritis dalam sejarah Rusia Imperial. Revolusi Industri akhirnya datang ke Rusia dan kapitalisme telah mengakar Investasi asing di dalam negeri adalah di semua waktu tinggi.. Bapa-Nya, Alexander II adalah beberapa jam setelah pemberian negara konstitusi pertama. pewaris Ironisnya, Alexander III tidak dilahirkan ke tahta Rusia.

Lahir di St Petersburg pada 26 Februari 1845 (gaya lama), dia adalah anak kedua dari Alexander II, “Tsar Pembebas” yang membebaskan budak. Kakaknya dan pewaris takhta, Nicholas, meninggal pada 1865. The Grand Duke muda sangat dipengaruhi oleh guru nya Konstantin Petrovich Pobedonostsev yang ditanamkan ke dalam dirinya fundamental konservatif otokrasi, Ortodoks dan nasionalisme yang diperlukan untuk memerintah Kekaisaran Rusia. Pobedonostsev percaya bahwa semua oposisi terhadap pemerintah akan tanpa ampun menghancurkan ide-ide liberal dan dilihat sebagai konstitusi dan kebebasan pers sebagai ancaman terhadap negara. Itu juga Pobedonostsev yang mengajarkan Alexander III sebagai anti-Semit dan melihat komunitas Yahudi Kekaisaran sebagai “Kristus Killers”.

Dengan kematian saudaranya, Alexander mewarisi lebih dari sekedar judul Tsarevich. Sementara di ranjang kematiannya, saudaranya Nicholas bersikeras bahwa dia juga mengambil fiancÚe nya. Pada Oktober 1866 Alexander menikah dengan Putri Dagmar Denmark. Setelah konversi ke Ortodoks, dia mengambil nama Marie Fedorovna. Bersama-sama, Alexander III dan Ratu Marie memiliki lima anak. Anak pertama mereka, Nicholas, lahir pada 1868 dan akan menjadi Tsar terakhir dari Rusia. Anak kedua mereka, George, lahir pada tahun 1871 diikuti oleh Xenia (1871), Michael (1878) dan Olga (1882). George meninggal pada 27 TB pada 1899. Michael kadang-kadang dianggap ‘Tsar untuk sehari’, seperti Nicholas turun tahta menguntungkannya pada tahun 1917 sebelum ia juga meninggalkan tahta. Kaum Bolshevik membunuh Michael enam hari sebelum Nicholas dan keluarganya pada bulan Juli 1918. Xenia dan Olga berhasil kabur Rusia bersama dengan ibu mereka selama Revolusi.

Pemerintahan Alexander III dimulai pada tragedi. Pada tanggal 1 Maret 1881, menjelang penandatanganan dalam konstitusi pertama hukum Rusia, dua pembunuh melemparkan bom di kereta Tsar di St Petersburg. Alexander II terluka parah dan meninggal tak lama setelahnya. Harapan Rusia untuk sebuah konstitusi juga meninggal hari itu. Seseorang tidak dapat reaksi kesalahan Alexander mati ayahnya. Ayahnya, Pembebas Tsar, telah membebaskan budak, mendahului Proklamasi Emansipasi Lincoln dengan dua tahun. Kita hanya bisa membayangkan kemarahan dia, istrinya dan anak-anak merasa saat mereka menyaksikan Tsar berdarah dan mati di St Petersburg istana. Acara ini akan memperkuat nada reaksioner dari 13 tahun pemerintahannya.

Sebagai hasil dari pembunuhan itu, Alexander III tidak akan mempertimbangkan pemberian konstitusi. Ia memperketat sensor pers dan mengirimkan ribuan revolusioner ke Siberia. Dalam Manifesto Aksesi, ia menyatakan keinginannya untuk memiliki “iman penuh pada keadilan dan kekuatan otokrasi” bahwa ia telah dipercayakan. Setiap proposal liberal dalam pemerintah dengan cepat dipecat. Alexander bertekad untuk memperkuat pemerintahan yang otokratis sebagai Allah yang diberikan benar. Pemerintahannya sering disebut sebagai Zaman Reformasi Counter.

Untuk banyak orang Barat ia muncul mentah dan tidak terlalu cerdas. Ratu Victoria berkomentar bahwa ia menganggapnya sebagai “berdaulat yang ia tidak memandang sebagai gentlemen”. Memang, ia tidak dididik atau dipersiapkan di masa mudanya untuk menjadi Kaisar. Tapi apa dia kekurangan dalam gaya ia lebih dari dibuat dalam keyakinannya posisinya, cintanya untuk negaranya, dan pemahaman tentang pentingnya ia bisa bermain dalam membentuk masa depan negaranya. Ia memiliki semacam kuat akan memerintah sebagai Kekaisaran Rusia sebagai otokrat absolut, ke titik di mana Kekaisaran stabil dan makmur, sehingga memungkinkan kapitalisme untuk mulai berakar. Selama pemerintahannya otokrasi stabil dan perbedaan pendapat dipaksa bawah tanah. Dia bekerja untuk memperkuat dan memodernisasi angkatan bersenjata Rusia sementara menghindari konflik bersenjata dan meningkatkan posisi Rusia sebagai kekuatan dunia.

Untuk kreditnya, sebagai seorang suami dan ayah ia sangat sukses. Ia juga baik dengan anak-anak dan sangat menyayanginya pada putri-putrinya. Dia berpakaian sederhana dan akan memakai pakaiannya sampai mereka usang. Kesederhanaan juga terbukti dalam pilihannya dari tempat tinggal. Meskipun ia tinggal di Istana Gachina besar, dia memilih untuk tinggal di daerah hamba direnovasi. Dia dikenal sebagai “Tsar Petani”, dan karena ukuran tubuhnya selalu dipandang sebagai lebih besar dari kehidupan. Dia mencintai kesederhanaan kehidupan Rusia dan memiliki sedikit rasa untuk apa pun barat.

Pada bulan Oktober 1888 Imperial kereta tergelincir sementara Tsar dan keluarganya sedang makan di gerbong makan. Tidak ada yang terluka parah, tetapi Alexander kuat III mengangkat atap mobil dari reruntuhan sehingga keluarga bisa melarikan diri. Itu tidak diketahui pada saat itu, tapi Tsar menderita memar parah pada ginjalnya yang akan berkontribusi pada kematiannya 6 tahun kemudian.

Pada awal 1894 Alexander III adalah 49 tahun. Ia percaya bahwa ia, melarang pembunuhan, bertahun-tahun tersisa untuk pemerintahannya. Dengan berjalannya tahun, kesehatannya memburuk pada tingkat yang mengkhawatirkan. Para dokter terbaik waktu dipanggil untuk membantu, tapi tidak mampu menyimpan Kaisar sekarat. Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov, Tsar dari semua Rusia, meninggal karena Nefritis pada 20 Oktober 1894 (OS) di istana musim panas di Livadia di Crimea. Dia dimakamkan di St Petrus & Paulus Katedral di St Petersburg, Tsar terakhir begitu. Dia meninggalkan warisan yang tidak lengkap, karyanya belum selesai, dan pewaris tidak siap untuk memerintah.

Sejarah cenderung melihat Alexander III sebagai lalim kasar. Prestasi satu-satunya adalah untuk memperkuat pemerintahan yang otokratis nya dengan mengorbankan kelas pekerja dan kaum tani. Untuk kredit, ia stabil pemerintah Rusia dan dipelihara perdamaian dengan tetangganya Eropa dan Asia. Sejarah diberkati dengan tabir sempurna. Alexander III, bagaimanapun, tidak memiliki kemewahan tersebut. Dia tidak tahu bahwa penyebab ia dirawat dan sarana di mana ia memperoleh mereka akan menyebabkan kehancuran akhirnya cara hidup dan pemerintah dia dihargai begitu dalam. Membatalkan Nya konstitusi yang direncanakan ditetapkan menjadi peristiwa gerak yang akhirnya akan membawa Rusia ke jurang kehancuran. Tsar ketidakmampuan atau keengganan untuk mempersiapkan putranya Nicholas pada usia dini untuk memerintah sebagai otokrat absolut diperburuk peristiwa masa depan yang akan menyapu atas Empire. Akhirnya, Alexander adalah putus asa keluar dari sentuhan dengan realitas muncul dari Rusia industri modern. Pemerintahan yang otokratis didirikan pada suatu waktu dalam sejarah Rusia ketika negara itu buta huruf, tidak berpendidikan, dan menyerang dari kekuatan asing di semua sisi. Waktu itu tidak lebih. Pada saat pemerintah Rusia harus mulai menyesuaikan diri dengan realitas perubahan abad 19, Alexander bukan menempel dan diperkuat otokrasi. Ini kegagalan terbesarnya. Dia adalah seorang ayah dan suami yang setia. Tidak ada keraguan bahwa ia mencintai negaranya dan sangat berharap untuk menjawab kepada Tuhan seperti ketika akuntabilitas sebagai Tsar. Sejarah telah membuat keputusannya. Haruskah kita pernah berpretensi tahu

 

Emperor Alexander I

 

 

 

His parents were Paul, son of Catherine the Great and Maria Fyodorovna, the former Princess of Wurttemburg. At his birth he was taken to be raised by his Grandmother Catherine the Great. Alexander was a blond, handsome and intelligent boy. His childhood was troubled by the divisons in the family. Both sides tried to use him for their own purposes and he was torn emotionally between his grandmother and his father, the Heir to the throne. This taught Alexander, very early on, how to manipulate those who loved him and he came a natural chameleon, changing his views and personality depending on who he was with at the time.

He was tutored by the Swiss republican philosopher, La Harpe, who was personally chosen by Catherine to mold Alexander’s personally and give him a broad education. The Empress had no fear of having a future Tsar’s education in the hands of a republican, for she knew the strength of the autocracy and the underdeveloped political awareness of Russia at the time. Catherine expected that a liberal education would help Alexander to reign wisely for the benefit of the country. Under La Harpe’s tutelage Alexander was well versed in European culture, history and political principals – the young prince became an idealist in the tradition of the Enlightenment – however, La Harpe’s focus on theoretical, abstract principals left Alexander without the strength of character and resolve to be a truly effective leader.

Alexander was 17 in 1793 when he married the lovely Elizabeth of Baden, a pretty princess who was only fourteen years old. They were very happy together in the first years of their marriage. Elizabeth looked upon Alexander as her handsome ‘prince charming’ and he loved her in return. As a wedding present, Catherine gave Alexander the Alexander Palace, showing her preference for his grandson over her son, Paul, by granting Alexander a larger court than his father’s. This further poisoned the atmosphere in the family.

Catherine died on November 6, 1796 and her son Paul assumed the throne. He quickly instituted a number of new laws to undermine those aspects of his mother’s reign he disagreed with. Paul’s actions went much too far, he infuriated the country and especially the nobility. Aristocratic plots were hatched against Paul’s life. With the tacit approval of Alexander, the Tsar was murdered at the Mikhailovski Castle in St. Petersburg during the night of March 11, 1801.

Alexander was crowned Tsar to succeed his father. His mother, Maria, refused to speak to her son for a long while, she never entirely forgave him for his complicity in his father’s murder. In his first years on the Russian throne, Alexander tried to rule in an enlightened way. The country was very excited at the prospects of Alexander’s reign; there were great hopes for the future of Russia and an anticipation of a more liberal form of government and increased freedom. Some went so far as to hope for an end to the institution of serfdom, which sapped the nation of it’s energy. At first the Tsar did little to discourage these aspirations. Slowly, for a number of reasons, Alexander turned away from his childhood dreams and principals. Increasingly he found it easier to get results by using the power of autocracy. Once he began using autocratic power, administered through men who served at his will, it corrupted him. The longer he used this method of ruling Russia, the more difficult he bagan for him to return to the principals of good government and the role of the monarch he had learned in his youth.

The war with Napoleon, which ravaged Russia taking hundreds of thousands of lives and destroyed some of the Empire’s finest cities, took it’s own, personal toll on Alexander. He was troubled by the loss of life and the war itself, which he saw as a not only a battle between nations, but also a spiritual battle between the forces of good and evil. After many battles and setbacks, the victory of the Allies over Napoleon was crowned by a triumphal entry of the triumpant generals into Paris. Alexander rode at their head. He was the apogee of his reign. Instead of resting on his laurels and enjoying the hero status he enjoyed across Europe, Alexander was more and more troubled spiritually. While in western Europe with the Russian Army he sought out and came under the influence of spiritual advisors from foreign countries. He toyed with some of their concepts and ideas, eventually discarding them for the Orthodox faith of his own country. His last years were filled with an obsession with God and Christianity. At the end of his reign he left his Polish mistress of 13 years, Maria Naryshkina, and returned to his wife, Elizabeth, who had suffered from his infidelity and neglect for years. He was a troubled and broken man. One fall he and Elizabeth travelled to the south of Russia. There, on November 19, 1825 in the town of Taganrog, it is claimed to have faked his own death, disappearing to become a monk named Kuzmich, wandering the forests of Siberia for years afterward. The Soviet Government fanned the flames of these rumours when it announced his coffin had been opened in the 1920’s and was found to be empty.

Nicholas II

The Last Tsar of Russia

 

Nicholas II was the last Tsar to reign over the Russia. The Alexander Palace was the site of his birth, where his mother delivered him in her plush Blue Bedroom on the sixth of May in 1868. Ominously, this chanced to be the Orthodox feast day of St. Job the Sufferer, which seemed to foretell the endless trials that would plague Nicholas’ tragic life. Little “Nicky”, as he was called, was the product of a stunning, petite brunette, Maria Fyodorovna Romanova – formerly Dagmar, Princess of Denmark – and a giant, intimidating father, Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov.

Alexander III was an impressive man, who dominated others by his size and powerful personally. Throughout the 19th century Romanov men had the reputation for being big and imposing. Unfortunately, Nicholas took after his mother. He was about 5’6″ tall and his Romanov uncles all seemed to tower over him. He tried to compensate for his height by working out with weights and athletic equipment. No matter what he did to build up his size he still remained slight and wiry in physique. His legs were short, but this was less apparent when he was on horseback. Nicholas looked the most regal when mounted. Most people who meet the Tsar commented on his stunning Danish blue eyes, which some thought were the well to his soul. He always wore his brown hair parted on the left and grew a thick beard filled with golden highlights when he was a young man. It stayed with him throughout his life and became his signature feature, along with the nervous habit he had of brushing his moustache up with the back of his hand. From his father he inherited a pug nose, which he disliked as it reminded him of Paul I, who he considered the ugliest of his ancestors.

Nicholas had an excellent education and was perhaps the best educated European monarch of his time. His parents where astute enough to see the challenges of facing a 20th Century Tsar would be quite different than those of the past and tried to prepare him for his future responsibilities. The very real threat of terrorism loomed over the Imperial Family constantly. Once a bomb blew apart their train car, and only Alexander’s powerful shoulders kept the roof from crushing the entire family. A powerful cordon of secret police and military guards protected them, but this meant Nicholas grew up in the isolation of his family. This held him back and he was late in maturing. He never gained a sense of confidence and self reliance. The lack of friends from outside the clan of European royalty deprived Nicholas of the benefit of understanding the way his future subjects lived. In this he was no different than most of his royal peers. But Nicholas was also purposely cut off from liberal thought and ideas by his parents. Since he had almost no contact with Russia’s growing intellectual and artistic community he developed narrow ideas of honor, service and tradition which would harm his ability to govern Russia in the future.

While heir to the throne, as Tsarevich, Nicholas achieved the rank of Colonel in the Life Guards. He loved the military and always considered himself an army man. His character and social habits were strongly influenced by his years as a young officer and he made many of his longest lasting friendships among his brother officers. These where his happiest years, when he was almost free of care and worry about the future. His father was still relatively young and Nicholas could expect a few years to fill the role of a dashing, aristocratic officer before he was called to serve his country in an more serious role. The Tsarevich embraced the relative freedom of army life with gusto. He could drink and carry on like the most hedonistic of his fellow officers. Life was full of regimental dinners, concerts, dances and beautiful women. It was during this time he met a young dancer from the Imperial Ballet named Mathilde Kschessinka, who became his first, real girl friend. It wasn’t a serious relationship. Both of them knew it couldn’t go anywhere and besides, Nicholas had already given his heart to a young, sad eyed and withdrawn German princess named Alix of Hesse. Many thought it was not a good match. Alix wasn’t thought to have the right personality traits and outgoing aggressiveness sought in a Russian Empress-to-be. Nicholas could not be persuaded to consider any other bride than Alix, and the couple where formally engaged in 1893. In fall, 1894, Nicholas’ father developed a serious nephritis condition which became progressively worse. Alexander’s doctors advised a trip to the gentle climate of the Crimea. The famous healer John of Kronstadt was summoned to the Tsar’s bedside died in the arms of his wife at Lividia aged 47 from nephritis.

Nicholas felt he was not ready to rule. He knew the weighty task of ruling Russia was greater than his experience and abilities. Yet he believed, even with all his inadequacies and self-doubt, that God had chosen his destiny. The new Emperor took his coronation oath very seriously and saw anointing as Tsar as spiritual experience. After the crown was placed on his head Nicholas would look for support and guidance first within himself and then to God, who had given him this burden. Quickly realising he was surrounded by deceit and the self-interest of bureaucrats and sycophants, Nicholas concluded that on earth he could trust few people. Bullied and misled by his relatives he increasingly turned to his wife for support. Nicholas became cynical and mistrustful of human nature. Loneliness and isolation would be his lot in life.

Above all else, Nicholas loved Russia first and then his family. He thought the fate of the two was inseparable. No one knew the shortcomings of the Romanov Dynasty better than he and yet he felt the monarchy was the only force preventing Russia from coming apart at the seams. Nicholas was intelligent enough to realise the probably of his assassination was quite high. Alexandra’s decision to marry him and share his uncertain future was a commitment he always appreciated.

Nicholas was a deeply religious and generally solitary person, who loved the faithful companionship of his dogs to the company of state ministers. Hunting on his estates was a favorite pastime, where he could avoid the tumultuous politics of St. Petersburg and the pestering affairs of his ministers. Rather than living in the Winter Palace at the center of the city, Nicholas chose to live in the countryside nearby. The Alexander Palace became his primary home and Peterhof his seaside retreat. In his palace, the Tsar worked alone at his desk. Refusing to have a secretary, he conducted business on his own, assisted by his aide-d-camp, officials of the Court and his valets. Nicholas was a hard worker and diligent about state business, although his accomplishments where severely limited by his tendency to focus on detail rather than the big picture. He was uncertain of his own opinions on things and felt asking for advice to be a sign of weakness or hesitancy. Therefore he tried to follow his own ‘instincts’ which were limited by his experience and narrow upbringing.

Nicholas loved music, particularly Wagner. Tristan and Isolde was his and Aleksandra’s favorite piece of music. When he could find time, writing to friends or reading were favorite pastimes after spending time with his family. Nicholas was intensely private and abhorred being touched by strangers, though he wasn’t standoffish. People fond him extremely affable and kindly in nature.

Though lauded for his admirable personal qualities, as an absolute autocrat Nicholas has been deemed a failure. He found it impossible to reconcile his own strict views of what was right and wrong for Russia with the responsibility of a modern monarch to compromise his own views for the good of the nation.

Not an unintelligent man, but hesitant to draw his own conclusions, Nicholas vacillated on important issues. Lacking political savvy and instinct, he was seldom sure how to handle the affairs of state. This made him come across as weak and contradictory to his ministers. They found it difficult to read his true thoughts and found it hard to follow his leadership. Although it has been strongly argued by others, Nicholas’ political decisions were not dominated by his wife, Aleksandra. He made up his own mind and the fact that they agreed on so many points only indicates the closeness of their political instincts concerning Russia.

In the end, in the weeks before the revolution, Nicholas was completely broken by his responsibilities and family problems. His health was bad but he did his best to conceal his exhaustion and physical pain (further signs of his own weakness to Nicholas) from others. The suddenness of his abdication was a further sign of an uncertain and troubled man.

 

– Alexander III

by Scott Malsom

 

Considered Russia’s last true autocrat, Alexander III was the epitome of what a Russian Tsar was supposed to be. Forceful, formidable, fiercely patriotic, and at 6′ 4″ towered over his fellow countrymen. He was the embodiment of the fabled Russian bear. He came to power at a critical point in Imperial Russian history. The Industrial Revolution had finally come to Russia and capitalism was taking root. Foreign investment within the country was at an all time high. His Father, Alexander II was within hours of granting the country its first constitution. Ironically, Alexander III was not born heir to the Russian throne.

Born in St Petersburg on February 26, 1845 (old style), he was the second son of Alexander II, the “Tsar Liberator” who had freed the serfs. His older brother and heir to the throne, Nicholas, died in 1865. The young Grand Duke was greatly influenced by his tutor Constantine Petrovich Pobedonostsev who instilled into him conservative fundamentals of autocracy, Orthodoxy and nationalism that were required to govern the Russian Empire. Pobedonostsev believed that all opposition to the government be ruthlessly crushed and viewed liberal ideas as constitutions and free press as a threat to the state. It was also Pobedonostsev that taught Alexander III to be anti-Semitic and view the Jewish community of the Empire as “Christ Killers”.

With the death of his brother, Alexander inherited more than just the title of Tsarevich. While on his deathbed, his brother Nicholas insisted that he also take his fiancÚe. In October 1866 Alexander married the Danish Princess Dagmar. After her conversion to Orthodoxy, she took the name of Marie Fedorovna. Together, Alexander III and Empress Marie had five children. Their first child, Nicholas, was born in 1868 and would be the last Tsar of Russia. Their second child, George, was born in 1871 followed by Xenia (1871), Michael (1878) and Olga (1882). George died at 27 of tuberculosis in 1899. Michael is sometimes considered ‘Tsar for a day’, as Nicholas abdicated in his favor in 1917 before he, too, renounced the throne. The Bolsheviks murdered Michael six days before Nicholas and his family in July 1918. Xenia and Olga were able to escape Russia along with their mother during the Revolution.

The reign of Alexander III began in tragedy. On March 1, 1881, on the eve of the signing into law Russia’s first constitution, two assassins threw bombs at the Tsar’s carriage in St. Petersburg. Alexander II was mortally wounded and died shortly thereafter. Russia’s hopes for a constitution also died that day. One cannot fault Alexander’s reaction to his father’s death. His father, the Tsar Liberator, had freed the serfs, predating Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation by two years. One can only imagine the rage he, his wife and children felt as they watched the Tsar bleed and die in a St Petersburg palace. This event would solidify the reactionary tone of his 13-year reign.

As a result of the assassination, Alexander III would not consider granting the constitution. He tightened censorship of the press and sent thousands of revolutionaries to Siberia. In his Accession Manifesto, he declared his intention to have “full faith in the justice and strength of the autocracy” that he had been entrusted with. Any liberal proposals in government were quickly dismissed. Alexander was determined to strengthen autocratic rule as a God given right. His reign is often referred to as the Age of Counter Reform.

To many westerners he appeared crude and not overly intelligent. Queen Victoria commented that she thought him as “a sovereign whom she does not look upon as a gentlemen”. Indeed, he was not educated or prepared in his youth to be Emperor. But what he lacked in style he more than made up for in his conviction of his position, his love for his country, and an understanding of the importance he could play in shaping his country’s future. He possessed such a strong will as to rule the Russian Empire as absolute autocrat, to the point where the Empire stabilized and prospered, thus allowing capitalism to begin to take root. During his reign the autocracy stabilized and dissent was forced underground. He worked to strengthen and modernize Russia’s armed forces while avoiding armed conflict and improve Russia’s standing as a world power.

To his credit, as a husband and a father he was greatly successful. He was also good with kids and doted upon his daughters. He dressed simply and would wear his clothes until they were threadbare. His simplicity was also evident in his choice of living quarters. Though he lived in the large Gachina Palace, he chose to live in the renovated servants area. He was known as “The Peasants Tsar”, and because of his size was always viewed as larger than life. He loved the simplicity of Russian life and had little taste for anything western.

In October 1888 the Imperial train derailed while the Tsar and his family were eating in the dining car. No one was seriously hurt, but the strong Alexander III lifted the roof of the car from the wreckage so that his family could escape. It was not known at the time, but the Tsar had suffered a severe bruise to his kidney that would contribute to his death 6 years later.

At the beginning of 1894 Alexander III was 49 years old. It was believed that he had, barring assassination, many years left to his reign. As the year progressed, his health deteriorated at an alarming rate. The best doctors of the time were called to help, but none were able to save the dying Emperor. Alexander Alexandrovich Romanov, Tsar of all the Russia’s, died of Nephritis on October 20, 1894 (OS) at the summer palace at Livadia in the Crimea. He was buried in the St. Peter & Paul Cathedral in St Petersburg, the last Tsar be so. He left behind an incomplete legacy, his work unfinished, and an heir unprepared to rule.

History tends to view Alexander III as a brutish despot. His only accomplishment being to strengthen his autocratic rule at the expense of the working class and peasantry. To his credit he stabilized the Russian government and maintained peace with his European and Asian neighbors. History is blessed with perfect hindsight. Alexander III, however, had no such luxury. He had no idea that the causes he cared for and the means at which he obtained them would cause the eventual destruction of the way of life and government he cherished so deeply. His canceling of the planned constitution set into motion events that would eventually take Russia to the brink of annihilation. The Tsar’s inability or unwillingness to prepare his son Nicholas at an early age to rule as absolute autocrat further exacerbated the future events that would sweep over his Empire. Finally, Alexander was hopelessly out of touch with the emerging realities of a modern industrialized Russia. Autocratic rule was established at a time in Russian history when the nation was illiterate, uneducated, and attacked from foreign powers on all sides. That time was no more. At a time when the Russian government should have begun adjusting itself to the changing realities of the 19th Century, Alexander instead clung to and strengthened the autocracy. This is his greatest failure. He was a loving father and devoted husband. There is no doubt that he loved his country and fully expected to answer to God as to his accountability as Tsar. History has made its judgement. Should we ever presume to know

The Icon of our Lady of the Sign – Znamenskaya

In Russia the icon of Our Lady of the Sign is called “Znamenskaya”.  The icon shows Mary, the Mother of God with her arms outstretched in an attitude of prayer.  This position of prayer is called Orans and the image of the Mother of God in this position is sometimes called the “Oranta”.  In her breast is a circular medallion with the Christ child blessing the world.  The icon originated in Byzantium and was considered a talisman of the Imperial throne there and in Russia.

The Church of Our Lady of the Sign in Tsarskoe SeloLeft: The Church of Our Lady of the Sign in Tsarskoe Selo.

This icon is closely associated with Tsarskoe Selo and the Romanov family.  One of the earliest churches in the town was dedicated to this icon and it is located very close to the Catherine Palace.  The church had a huge, silver-covered ikon of this ikon that was a popular place for prayer.  Alexandra and her daughters would come here frequently to ask for the intercessionary prayers of the Virgin and light candles before the icon.

The icon was brought to the Alexander Palace for special services, frequently when the Tsarevich was sick.

After the revolution, just prior to the exile of the Romanovs to Siberia where they were eventually murdered, the icon was carried in procession from the church and throughout the halls of the palace.  As Countess Sophia Buxhoeveden writes in the Life and Tragedy of Alexandra Feodorovna writes:

At Makarov’s order, packing was begun very discreetly, so as not to suggest to the soldiers that there was any idea of departure. As August 12th was the Grand Duke Alexei’s thirteenth birthday, a Te Deum was sung before the ikon of “Our Lady of Znamenie,” which was specially brought to the Palace. Prayers for the success of the journey were added to the usual ones. The Emperor and Empress took leave of all the servants who were not going with them, and thanked them for their faithful service. The Empress sorted out her dresses, and sent parcels of them to humble friends and Polish refugees, who were living at Tsarskoe Selo. The departure was fixed for the night of August 13th, but owing to some mistake on the part of the authorities it was delayed for hours. There were not enough men to move the luggage, which was to be taken at the last moment, and in the meantime the soldiers had got wind of the departure, and held meetings in all the barracks to discuss whether or not it should be allowed. The Emperor and Empress waited patiently for many hours till they were told they could leave. No one knew yet where they were being taken, and they only heard their actual destination when they were in the train.

Another account follows from Last Days at Tsarskoe Selo by Count Paul Beckendorff (the difference in dates is due to the Russian Calendar which was behind the calendar used in the West):

On the 30th of July, the birthday of the Tsarevich, we went to Mass, and at 2 o’clock in the afternoon a holy ikon, which was greatly venerated, was brought from the Church of Our Lady of the Sign (A feast of purely Russian origin.), which is next to the Lyceum. It was brought in procession and the clergy of this church were admitted to the Palace and to the Chapel. The Te Deum was sung and prayers were said asking God for a prosperous journey for their Majesties, their children and all those who accompanied them. The scene was moving. The ceremony was as poignant as could be: all were in tears. The soldiers themselves seemed touched, and approached the holy ikon to kiss it. They followed the procession as far as the balcony, and saw it disappear through the Park. It was as if the past were taking leave, never to come back. The memory of this ceremony will always remain in my mind, and I cannot think of it without profound emotion. In the course of the day we all went, as usual, to the kitchen-garden, and groups were taken.

Alexandra had a special icon of the Znamenskaya which she placed in her private bedroom chapel.  This icon always traveled with her and the Empress took it with her into exile in Siberia.  It was found in Yekaterinberg stripped of it’s jeweled cover (if anyone knows what became of ths ikon I would like to know!).  The grandduchesses had identical copies of the ikon in Siberia, which were also found by the Whites after the Bolsheviks withdrew from Yekaterinburg.

Copies of the ikon hung in many of the rooms of the Alexander Palace and in the rooms of Marie and Anastasia’s hospital in the Feodorovski Village (Gorodok).  These versions wore distinctive white cowls.

Here are three icons of the Znamenskaya:

Our Lady of the Sign from Alexandra's Bedroom

Above: This ikon was on the wall behind the Imperial bed.  It hung at the top on the right-hand side near the entrance to Alexandra’s small chapel.  It was presented to the Imperial family around 1910.  This ikon shows “Our Lady of the Sign” in the center, surrounded by images of the Imperial family’s heavenly protectors.  The ornate silver setting is by the Moscow firm of Olovianishnikov.  This icon stayed in the Empress’s bedroom until 1941.  After the war it was sent to the central depot in the Alexander Palace, where all of the returning treasures of Tsarskoe Selo and Pavlovsk were stored.  In 1956 many of the treasures of the Alexander Palace were divided up and sent to other museums.  This icon went to the Hermitage, where it is today.

Icon of the Mother of God of the Sign

Above:  This was one of the last icons given to Alexandra before the revolution. This icon hung in the Imperial bedroom ad It was presented to the Tsaritsa on December 11, 1916 during the fateful visit of the Empress and her daughters to Novgorod.  This was just a few days before the murder of Rasputin.  This visit is described by Anna Vyrubova in Memories of the Russian Court:

In the last days of 1916 the Empress with Olga, Tatiana, and General Racine paid a brief visit to Novgorod to inspect military hospitals and to pray in the monastery and church of Sofivsky Sobor, one of the oldest churches in Russia. Her visit was opposed, quite senselessly, by St. Petersburg society, which accused her of going for some bad purpose, God knows what. But at Novgorod the people poured out in throngs to greet her with peals of bells, music, and cheers. Before leaving the city the Empress paid a visit to a very old woman who had spent forty helpless years in bed, still wearing the heavy chains of penitence which as a pilgrim she had, almost a lifetime before, assumed. As her Majesty entered the old woman’s cell a feeble voice uttered these words: “Here comes the martyred Empress, Alexandra Feodorovna.” What could this aged and bedridden recluse have known or guessed of events which were to come?

Below: The ikon of our Lady of the Sign below was reproduced in books and prints.  This image was printed in the last years of the dynasty.  It shows a very sentimentalized version of the icon, encrusted in gold, with a jeweled veil.  This is a loose replica of the celebrated icon in the Tsarskoe Church.

Our Lady of the Sign icon
 
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2 responses to “Russia Historic Collections

  1. It’s difficult to find educated people in this particular topic, but you sound like you know what you’re talking about!
    Thanks

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