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THE BASIC PICTURES
Uchimura Kanzō in 1918
March 28, 1930(1930-03-28) (aged 69)
Writer, Christian evangelist
Uchimura Kanzō (内村 鑑三?, March 26, 1861 – March 28, 1930) was a Japanese author, Christian evangelist, and the founder of the Nonchurch Movement (Mukyōkai) of Christianity in the Meiji and Taishō period Japan. Early life
Uchimura was born in Edo, and exhibited a talent for languages from a very early age; he started to study the English language at the age of 11. In 1877, he gained admission to the Sapporo Agricultural College (present-day Hokkaido University), where English was the main language of instruction.
Prior to Uchimura’s arrival, William S. Clark, a graduate of Amherst College, had spent the year assisting the Japanese government in establishing the college. While his primary role was to teach agricultural technology, Clark was a committed lay Christian missionary who introduced his students to the Christian faith through Bible classes. All of his students converted and signed the “Covenant of Believers in Jesus”, committing themselves to continue studying the Bible and to do their best to live moral lives. Clark returned to the United States after one year, but Uchimura felt his influence through the small Covenant group that was left behind. Under considerable pressure from his senpai (先輩, a term for senior peers), Uchimura signed the Covenant during his first year at the College at the age of 16 and went on to receive baptism from a Methodist missionary in 1878.
Dissatisfaction with the mission church, however, led Uchimura and his Japanese supporters to establish an independent church in Sapporo. This experiment turned out to be a precursor to what is now called the Nonchurch Movement. Through Clark’s teaching and example, this small group believed that they could practice and live an authentic life of faith without depending on an institution or clergy.
Tombstone of Uchimura Kanzō. It is inscribed “I for Japan, Japan for the World, The World for Christ, And All for God.”
Uchimura departed for the United States following a brief and unhappy first marriage in 1884. He was first befriended by Wister Morris and his wife, a Quaker couple, who helped him find employment shortly after his arrival in Pennsylvania. The Quaker faith and pacifism made a lasting impression upon Uchimura. He and his Sapporo friend Nitobe Inazō were influential in the establishment of the Friends School in Tokyo as a result of his sojourning in the Philadelphia area.
Following eight months of stressful work at a mental hospital in Elwyn, Pennsylvania, Uchimura resigned and traveled through New England, entering Amherst College in September 1885. Julius Hawley Seelye, the president of Amherst College, became his spiritual mentor, and encouraged him to attend the Hartford Theological Seminary. After completing his second bachelor’s degree (B.Sc.) in general science at Amherst, he enrolled in Hartford Seminary, but quit after only one semester, disappointed by theological education. He returned to Japan in 1888.
Japanese religious leader
Nakada Juzi, Uchimura Kanzō, Kimura Seimatu
After his return to Japan, Uchimura worked as a teacher, but was fired or forced to resign in several instances over his uncompromising position toward authorities or foreign missionary bodies that controlled the schools. The most famous such incident was his refusal to bow deeply to
the portrait of Emperor Meiji
read more about imperial rescript on Soldier and sailor bwlow
Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors
The Rescript was intended to be the official code of ethics for military personnel, and is often cited along with the Imperial Rescript on Education as the basis for Japan’s prewar national ideology. All military personnel were required to memorize the 2700 kanji document by heart.
The Rescript was presented to Army Minister Yamagata Aritomo directly by Emperor Meiji in person in a special ceremony held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace. This unprecedented action was meant to symbolize the personal bond between the Emperor and the military, making the military in effect, the Emperor’s personal army. Coming shortly after the Satsuma Rebellion, the Rescript stressed absolute personal loyalty of each individual member of the military to the Emperor. The Rescript also cautioned to military personnel to avoid involvement with political parties or politics in general, and to avoid being influenced by current opinions in the newspapers, reflecting Yamagata’s distrust of politicians in particular and democracy in general. The Rescript also advises military personnel to be frugal in their personal habits (reflecting back to the samurai tradition), and respectful and benevolent to civilians (reflecting on European traditions of chivalry). However, a clause that the military was subordinate to civilian authority did not make it into the final draft.
The Rescript also contains a number of Confucian themes including “proper respect to superiors,” and also draws upon Buddhist influences in that “The soldier and the sailor should make simplicity their aim.”
A famous precept in the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors states that “duty is heavier than a mountain; death is lighter than a feather.”
Realizing that his religious beliefs were incompatible with a teaching career, he turned to writing, becoming senior columnist for the popular newspaper, Yorozu Chōhō. Uchimura’s fame as a popular writer became solid as he launched a series of sharp criticism against industrialist Ichibei Furukawa over one of modern Japan’s first industrial pollution cases involving
Furukawa’s Ashio Copper Mine.
read more about this mine history below
Welcome to Ashio!! In Ashio,visitors are amazed by its natural beauty and long history.
Do you know the Ashio copper mine? Once, it was the biggest copper mine in Japan.In the early Meiji Era (1868～1912), the town took a lead in Japanese modern industry.There are a lot of industrial heritages here. Surely, Ashio is the cradle of Japanese modern industry and a good place to learn about industrial heritages and enveironmental problems.Here many people pay attention to the natural environment destroyed by smoke damage from the refineries.
This guide book is made in order to introduce “Ashio”. It is a town like a museum, so you can enjoy it wherever you visit.
I ‘d like you to use this book not only as a guide but also as a study material.
“ASHIO-no-SHIKI ”(Four Seasons in Ashio) is a song loved by people living in Ashio. The melody is used as the time signal at noon.
ASHIO-no-SHIKI(Four Seasons in Ashio)
1. Shunseisenri Mizukiyoku Kasumitomago Sakurabana Imatakenawano Wataraseya
2. NatsuKoshinnno Takinooto Midorishitataru Manzanni Kumokurenaino Yuhikage
3. Susukiononoku Yamanomine Datsuryutono Kagekuroku Tsukityutenni Akihukashi
4. Nantaioroshi Hukiarete Hakugaigaino Bizentate Horobasyaisogu Kurenomachi
Origin of the Name “ＡＳＨＩＯ”
There are two stories about the origin of the name “ASHIO”.
One is the “rat story”. According to the story , the kanji for Ashio was written “足緒”.
Long ago, there was a priest called “SHODO-SHONIN”. When he stayed in the mountain of Nikko, he saw a rat with grains of millet and rice.He was so surprised to see the rat in the heart of such a mountain, so he tied a string to the rat’s foot, and followed it. At last, he found houses at the foot of a mountain.
“SHODO-SHONIN”named this place“ASHI(meaning one’s foot)O(meaning string)”. After that, his pupils were said to come to this place. they trained and built temples there.
Another opinipn relates to Ashio’s topographic view. The high point of a mountain range is called “O(meaning tail written“尾”in kanji). So many people think the name “Ashio”came from its topographic condition. It is an interesting fact that there are other areas near Ashio which use the kanji “尾”also.HOSOO is eritten“細尾”in kanji and KASOO is written “粕尾”in kanji.
History of Ashio
Ashio was a silent mountain village begore copper was found. In 1610, two farmers were said to find copper in Mt.Bizentate. The Ashio Copper Mine then started under the direct administration of the Tokugawa Shogunate.The Ashio Copper Mine enjoyed remarkable prosperity, and was referred to as “Ashio,the Town of 1,000 House ”. Not only was the copper used in Japan,
but also it was sent to foreign countries. It was used to make the roofs for the “Toshogu Shrine”, the “Edo Castle”and the “Kaneiji Temple in Ueno”and so on. In addition to this, the copper was used to make money called “Kaneitsuho(‘Ashijisen’)”
In 1877, Mr.Ichibe’e Furukawa began management of the Ashio copper mine. He used new machines and skills. As a result of this, the mine was electrified and modernized, and the amount of copper output increased. In 1916, the population of Ashio reached 38,428. Ashio was the largest town next to Utsunomiya(about58,000) in Tochigi prefecture.
However, people dug copper without sufficient planning during World WarⅡ；they couldn’t produce as much copper as they thought.
At last, the Ashio copper mine was closed in February in 1973, closing the chapter to about 400 years of history.
Minerals Mined Ashio
In the Ashio Copper Mine, more than 40 minerals were found.The most general ore is Chalcopyrite(“ODOKO” in Japanese）. It is a compound of copper, iron and sulfur. “ODOKO” consisits of about 34,5 percent copper.
There are two different museums near the “The Ashio Dozan Kanko” and the “Furukawa Kakemizu Club” where one can see many mineral samples.
Please come to see those valuable materials !
Minerals Mined in Ashio
*Rock crystal etc
The mineral museum near the Ashio Dozan Kanko
Mr.Ichibe’e Furukawa’s original name was Kimura Minosuke. He was born on March 16th, 1832 in Tokyo as the second son. His family ran a Tofu store, But it fell into hard time leaving them poor off. Because of these hardships, Ichibe’e seemed to value money. When he was six years old, his mother passed away.To help his family, he sold tofu by blowing a bugle. After that, he went to his uncle’s house in Morioka. There, he changed his name from Minosuke to Kosuke.Later he was adopted into a family acquaintance of his uncle, the Furukawa’s, and he changed his name from Kosuke to Ichibe’e.
In those days, thousands of people gave up digging for copper from the Ashio copper mine. However, Ichibe’e thought he could get much copper there because it was a very famous copper mine in Japan.
In 1877, he bought the Ashio copper mine and started to dig. All his efforts were rewarded ; he found a big bed of ore in 1884. which led the way to the mine’s quick development and its place as a leader of Japan’s modernization.
Remains of the Kodaki Mine
Environmental Problems the Ashio Copper Mine
In Ashio, the production of copper totaled more than 40 percent of Japan’s total copper output.The Ashio Mines made a great contribution to the development of Japanese industry. On the other hand, it was said to be “the root of environmental pollution” as the place where pollution problems happened first in Japan. One of the notorious matters was sulfurous acid gas emitted by the smelter’s chimneys. It affected all people living in Ashio. The smoke damage continued from the middle of Meiji period to about the 30th year of the SHowa period(1955). It damaged plants, and soon there were no trees left on the mountain. Because of this, the mountains were called “HAGEYAMA” (which means “bald mountain”)
Recently, many organizations including national, perfectural and private sectors, and the NPO group “Growing Greenery in Ashio” are working to restore greenery on Ashio’s mountains. It is drawing attention from all over Japan, creating opportunities to think about environmental problems. There are many efforts now to revive Ashio from its “root of environmental pollution” past to a place rich in nature once again.
The state of the “Matsuki”valley
Labor Problems and the Sickness “Yoroke”
As the copper mines developed more and more, laborers gathered in Ashio. Tsuruzo Nagaoka and Sukematsu Minami established a labor union here. In 1907, they organized a big riot to demand for higher wages and the improvement of labor conditions, 24 items in all.
After that, four more riots broke out. Also, the Second Annual May Day was carried out in Ashio in 1921. It was the first May Day held in a copper mine. After World War 2, a new labor union was formed and many labor movements active.
Another problem was “YOROKE”, an incurable disease. People working in copper mines became ill after breathing in dust for many years. Laborers demanded measures against the disease . It look many years for it to be recognized as a worker’s accident and the nation guaranteed laborer’s livelihood.
Laborers met their leaders at the Tsudo Station
The War Memorial for Chinese Martyrs
This tower is near the “Kajika-so” Hotel in the Ginzandaira area. During World War2, many Koreans and Chinese were abducted and forced to work at the Ashio copper mines. About 250 people were taken to the Ashio copper mines. 109 of them died in the mines. It is said that many people died because of malnutrition.
The tower was built on 30th July in 1973 to comfort their spirits and pledge never to wage war after China and Japan issued a joint statement on the recovery of diplomatic relations in 1972.
The site of the “Koaryo” dormitory
The War Memorial for Chinese Martyrs
Company Houses and Life
In the heyday of the Ashio copper mine, there were many company houses like “Honzan”, “Uenotaira” and “Kodaki” and so on. The roots were made of zinc, and people used communal water-works,rest rooms, and bath rooms. Also, water rates,electric charges, and house repairs were free. Near the company houses, there was a park, a tennis court, a pool,and so on. In addition to this, they used “KARAMI” as a fireproof wall. “KARAMI” is a blac brick used to prevent the spreading of fires.
“Sanyokai” co-ops were also a characteristic of Ashio. They were located near the company houses, so people could buy daily necessities. Some of them are still used today.
Tsudo Company Kouses
The Fireproof Wall
The Ashio Smelter
The Ashio smelter was built as the “Naori Bridge Sub Factory”in 1884. To keep up with the increasing smelting operations, a Bessemer rotary kiln was introduced in 1893; however, the amount of sulfuric acid gas inceased.
At the Ashio smelter, many systems were improved in order to remove the gas. In1956, with the flash-smelting system technology imported from Finland’s Outokumpu Company, a method to remove smoke and other by-products of sulfuric acid gas was completed. It was the first time in Japan for the emission of sulfuric acid gas to be stopped. these smelting techniques developed in Japan and around the world continue to help eliminate pollutions from copper factories even today.
In 1973, the Ashio copper mine was closed. After that, the smelter began to refine imported minerals. The Ashio line was abolished in 1989, forcing the Ashio Smelter to stop operation since it was no longer able to transport copper by freight cars.
The storage tanks of sulfuric acid
Cultural Assets of Ashio
Ashio is abundant in cultural assets.
*The Cultural Assets of Ashio
1:The remains of the Governor’s office
2:The remains of one of Japan’s first Hydro-Erectric Stations
3:The monument of Mt.Koshin
4:The Honzan mine entrance
5:The Kodaki mine entrance
6:The Furukawa bridge
7:The remains of the “Chusenza”
8:The Honzan MIne Copper Shrine Alter
1:The rope way tunnels
2:The Watarase Bridge
3The Furukawa Kakemizu Club
4:The remains of the Horse-Cart Railroad
5:”The Tower for the Unfortunate” in Matsuki village
Shinto Shrines, Temples and Churches
Although Ashio is a small town, there are many old Shinto shrines and temples.
The Iwasaku Shinto Shrine, built in 808, is a village shrine in the Tojimo area which was used as a mountain entrance.
In 1889, a Copper Mine Shrine was built at the highest point in Honzen to worship God to protect the mines. Another Copper
mine Shrine which is now located near the Dozan Kanko Museum, was built in 1920. these shrines are also called Mountain Shrines. Every spring they held a joint festival which was said to be the best festival in the Kanko Area.That spring festival now become the”Ashio Festival”
The temples of Ashio include the Ryuzoji Temple, the Hozenji Temple, the Sennenji Temple and so on. At the Ryuzoji Temple,there is the Tower for the Unfortunate, built for the ancestors of the Matsuki Village which was evacuated due to damages by smoke pollutions. Also at the Ryuzoiji Temple there are graves for many miners who dedicated their lives to the Mines. In the Hozoji Temple, there is a wooden statue of the god “HASHIRIDAIKOKU” which was engraved by Shodo Shonin.
In addition to these temples and shrines, there is also a church built by the effort of a Copper mine Owner from England who built churches near copper mines all over the world.
Tsudo Mine Shrine
The Watarase Bridge
There are two bridges in parallel which cross the Watarase River in the Watarase area. The bridge upstream is the new bridge, and the bridge downstream is the original bridge. In the beginning, the original bridge was made bｙ steel; it was changed to concrete in 1935. This bridge was badly damaged; so, new bridge was built upstream. The structure of the old bridge was so valuable due to its unique construction that it is now being preserved.
Around the bridge, there are many cherry trees which bloom in spring to delight many onlookers.
The Original Watarase Bridge
The Cherry Tree in the Watarase Park
Kodaki Area and the Monument of Kodaki Village
The Kodaki mine opened in 1885, and the area arounded became known as The Kodaki. Kodaki area spans from the national highway to the Ginzandaira area.
The Kodaki Copper Mine was closed in 1954; it had fallen into ruins. Now, there are remains of the mine entrance, company houses, hospitals, school and so on; one could visualize their previous existence.
Also here, one can see the conditions of the Chinese and Koreans who were forced to work inthe mines during WWⅡ.
After the mines closed, the people left the Kodaki Village. Later they erected a monument in the middle of the old town in rememblance of the past.
Monument of the Kodaki Village
Furukawa Kakemizu Club
The Furukawa Kakemizu Club was built in about 1899, but the designer isn’t clear, it is said however, that there is much influence from England’s Josiah Conder. This building is a max of Western and Japanese styles.
The Furukawa Miming Company used it as a guest house for customers to stay and as a place to have meetings. In the building, there is a billiards table, the first one made in Japan, and a piano made in Germany in 1924.
Near the main building, there are two smaller museums-a mineral museum and a telephone museum. The telephone was invented by Mr.Bell in 1876, and the next year it was imported into Japan. After that, the Furukawa Company introduced telephones to the mines in 1886. It is a surprising fact that one enterprise introduced telephones only 10 years after its invention. It was the first introduction of telephones to private businesses. In Ashio, these telephones were called “the Copper Mine Telephones” , and were located at the city office and the train stations.
Open: Saturdays, Sundays, Public Holidays 10:00-15:00
Closed: December through March
Consecutive holidays from the end of April to Golden Week
Charge: Adult 300yen
Junior High School Students and under 200yen
Phone: Daily 0288-93-3255 Holidays 0288-93-2015
Ashio History Museum
The Ashio History Museum was opened by “the Ashio GAKUGEIIN Association” on April in 2005. GAKU means ” happily”(“楽”in kanji) GEI means “to welcome customer” (“迎”in kanji) .
Although people know about pollution problems in the Ashio Copper Mine, few good points are known. However through various inverstigations and studies, members found that the Ashio Copper Mine contributed towards Japanese modern industry. They started volunteer activities to talk its proud history and to give guides about valuable industrial heritages in Ashio.
In the museum, there are valuable pictures one can see only in Ashio.
Open : April through December (except Monday)10:00-16:00
Closed : Nonember through March
Charge : (one day ticket)Adult 300yen,
Junior High School Students under 200yen
Address : 2825 Matsubara, Ashio-machi, Nikko, Tochigi 321-1523
Phone : 0288-93-0189
Ashio Dozan Kanko Mine Tunnels
Over the course of 400years, miners dug 1,234 kilometers to get ocpper. (the distance is about from Tokyo to Hakata). The depth also reached about that of Tokyo Bay.
Dozan Kanko is a Copper Mine Museum which has been created throughout 400years of history. Within the tunnels, one can view the history of the Ashio Copper Mine from the Edo Period(1610-1867) through the Meiji, Taisho, and Showa Eras. Mannequins and mine trains are displayed to demonstrate how the mine worked. You can study the history and system of the Ashio Copper Mine here.
In addition to this, there is “Chusenza” outside. One can see the process of how to make coins from copper. Also, one can look at tools used in the Ashio copper mines and materials in that museum.
It takes customers to the Mine Tunnel by tram / Welcome to the “Ashio Dozan Kanko”
Uchimura’s career as a journalist was cut short as well, largely due to his pacifist views and vocal opposition against the Russo-Japanese War in his newspaper columns, which came into conflict with the paper’s official editorial views. He started publishing and selling his own monthly magazine, Tokyo Zasshi (Tokyo Journal) and later Seisho no Kenkyu (Biblical Study), and supported himself by addressing weekly audiences of 500–1000 people in downtown Tokyo in lectures on the Bible. His followers came to share Uchimura’s attitude that an organized church was actually a hindrance to the Christian faith, and Christian sacraments, such as baptism and communion, are not essential to salvation. Uchimura named his Christian position as “Mukyokai” or Nonchurch Movement. Uchimura’s movement attracted many students in Tokyo who later became influential figures in academia, industry, and literature. His “prophetic” views on religion, science, politics, and social issues became influential beyond his small group of followers.
His writings in English include: Japan and the Japanese (1894) and How I became a Christian (1895), and reflect his struggle to develop a Japanese form of Christianity. In his lifetime, Uchimura became famous overseas. His major English-language works were translated into numerous languages. After his death, however, Uchimura’s reputation grew more, as his followers produced an enormous amount of literature.
- Caldarola, Carlo, Christianity, The Japanese Way (Leiden, E.J. Brill, 1979).
- Howes, John F., Japan’s Modern Prophet: Uchimura Kanzo, 1861–1930 (UBC Press; New Edition, 2006), ISBN 0774811463.
- Atsuhiro Asano, “Uchimura and the Bible in Japan,” in Michael Lieb, Emma Mason and Jonathan Roberts (eds), The Oxford Handbook of the Reception History of the Bible (Oxford, OUP, 2011), 323-339.
Ugaki Kazushige (1868-1956)
|Military officer and statesman. Born in Okayama. Although he had been a substitute teacher at an elementary school, he came to Tokyo wanting to become a military man. He graduated from the Military Academy and the Army War College. Ugaki became the Vice War Minister in 1923. In 1924, he was appointed War Minister in the Kiyoura cabinet, and held that post through the first Wakatsuki cabinet and the first and second Kato cabinets. While in the post, he succeeded in reducing arms in 1925. He was re-elected as War Minister in the Hamaguchi cabinet in 1929, but resigned from the post for his involvement in the March Incident in 1931. Ugaki then made a fresh start as Governor-General of Korea. He was requested to form a cabinet in 1937, but gave up the idea because of opposition from the army. In 1938, he was installed as Foreign Minister and Minister of Colonial Department in the first Konoe cabinet. He made efforts to establish peace against China. In 1953, he was elected as a member of the House of Councilors.|
|Kazushige Ugaki (1868-1956) japanese general,governor general of Korea, c. 1920. (Photo by APIC/Getty Images)|
|01 Jan 1920|
Umeda Unpin (1815-1859)
Japanese hangin scroll by Umeda Unpin
Born in Obama, Fukui, the son of a samurai of the Obama Clan. He entered the clan-built school, Junzokan, where he learned kimongaku. He also studied in Kyoto and Edo. At age 26 or 27, he adopted his grandfather’s real family name of Umeda. Later he opened his own private school, Konanjuku, in Otsu and became the chief lecturer of Bonanken in Kyoto. He sent a memorandum concerning naval defenses to the clan, but it incurred the displeasure of the lord Tadayoshi Sakai and he was expelled from the clan in 1852. After the arrival of the black ships of Commodore Perry, he became a central figure in sonno joi group (supporters of the doctrine of revering the emperor and expelling the barbarians) and tried to prevent the signing of the United States-Japan Treaty of Amity and Commerce, gain support for Yoshinobu Hitotsubashi and exclude tairo (chief minister) Naosuke Ii. When the Ansei Purge began, he was captured and died from illness while being examined
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