Russia History Collections Part Four

Russia history Four

The Russia Office In China

History Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA



Several year ago I found the Russian postoffice stamps in china with overprint KTH means Kitai or china


And this day I found the other type with overprint oblique Dollar currency on russsia stamps.


later horizontal overprint

In order to know thehistory of Russian office in china,I have made the study and this is the report of the study in CD-ROM

This is only the sample,the complete CD with full illustrations exist but only for premium member

Jakarta April 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA




Postal History Collections


Russian Post Offices in the Chinese Empire


Russia opened a series of Imperial Russian Post Offices in China, the first being opened in 1870,



The Russian post offices in China were a collection of post offices established by Imperial Russia in various cities of China beginning in 1870

First offices

The first offices were in Beijing,Tientsin, Kalgan, Tientsin, and Urga (in Mongolia), all in areas near to Russian-controlled territory





Cover from Tientsin to Germany,

 taken to Peking for dispatch by Merchants post as the Russian P.O. was not operating from Tienstin at that time, sent via Kyakhta and Moscow before arriving in Rossleben, originally franked on the reverse with four pen cancelled stamps paying the 30k Merchants rate and 14k from Russia to Germany, before the stamps were removed in transit between Russia and the German border, noted by German inspector who applied “FRANCO” cds with ms “f 2” on front, with ms “China” and arrival cds over traces of stamps on reverse, very fine, also including 1858 perf. 12 1/2 30k with ms “27 July / 1867 / Pekin” cancel.

The earliest known mail from the Russian Post in China and one of the two known cover from the Merchants Pos

€ 15,000




TIENTSIN: 1875 Cover to Dereham, England,

 franked with 1866-75 10k strip of four and 3k pair, tied by three clear strikes of dateless double-framed “TYAN-TSZIN. POCHT. KONT.” (Tientsin Post Office) hs, with Kyakhta transit adjacent dated 1 May 1875, the letter having left Tientsin about two weeks earlier, showing Moscow transit and Dereham arrival bs.

Postage of 46k represents pre-UPU rates of 30k for conveyance to the Russian border at Kyakhta and 16k for onward transmission from Russia to England.

Earliest known mail from the official Russian Postal Administration in China, using Russian canceller on Russian stamps, and only known use of Tientsin’s first Russian handstamped canceller on cover.

The Jewel in the crown of the Russian post in China

Note: Illustrated in the BJRP nos.18 (1955) and 71 (1991) and “The London Philatelist” Nos. 1151-52 (1988)- The “Kyakta Type 2” of Tchilingirian & Stephen, “Stamps of the Russian Empire used Abroad” pt. 4 (1959), 9.312, said to be based on the cancellation on this cover, is a fantasy, showing posthorns at foot instead of the fleuron depicted herin. € 70,000



In November 1886

additional offices opened in Shanghai, Chefoo, Hankow with offices in Port Arthur, and Dairen following soon afterwards.

In addition, many Russian Field Post Offices operated throughout Manchuria and civilian mail was frequently accepted there as well.








Japanese Military mail from KAWAHASHI Yosouemon, 9th Company, Infantry 9th Regiment,

Hsi-mu-ch’eng Garrison, Shengching Province, Manchuria, China.

Cancel reading ‘1st Army No. 14, Field Post Office, 28. 10. 16′ (16th October 1895), located at Hai-ch’eng.

Sent to a relative, KAWAHASHI YKyosouemon, Ikagu-mura, Ika-gun, Shiga-ken, Japan.







1896 Japanese Military mail from KAWAHASHI, 9th Company, Infantry 9th Regiment, Taiwan.

Cancel reading ‘No. 2, Field Post Office Formosa, 29. 3. 1’, (1st March 1896), located at T’ai-pai.

Sent to a relative KAWAHASHI, Ika-gun, Shiga-ken, Japan.

Receiving cancel ‘Omi, Kinomoto, 29. 3. 16’, (16th March 1896).











A July 1900

 telegram from the British Legation, Peking, China, to England.


Reading ‘Allies routed Chinese round Tientsin July 9th. Capturing 6 Guns destroyed fort, Chinese made

determined attack on twelth repulsed with heavy loss, Allies lost 150 killed wounded.







Mail from German Expeditionary Force China.



German Military mail from the German warship at Taku, China.

Cancel reading ‘Kaiser Deutsche Marine Schiffspost No. 69, 24/10 00’, (24th October 1900).






Mail from the French Expeditionary Force in China.



French Military mail from the French Legation in Peking, China.

Oval cancel reading ‘Peking, MAR 1 1901’, (1st March 1901).







Mail to the Japanese Expeditionary Force in China.



Japanese Military mail outgoing from Japan to the Army Garrison in Tientsin, China.

Outgoing cancel dated 35. 2. 18, (18th February 1902).

Receiving cancel of ‘TIENTSIN I.J.P.O. 22 FEB 02′, (22nd February 1902).







Mail showing the foreign post offices in China of Japanese, Germany, Russian, British, French and the Chinese post office all at Tient-sin.












Japanese Military mail from SASAMOTO Tomigoro, 101 Relief Team, Japan Red Cross Society,

Commissariat Hospital, Manchuria, Expeditionary 3rd Army.

Handstamps in red-orange read ‘Military Mail’ and ‘Senior Doctor HOSOYA Osamu, 101 Relief Team,

Japan Red Cross Society’.

Mail sent to FUKAZAWA Tomizo, Ochiai-mura, Naka-Koma-mura, Kai-no-kuni, Japan.









Japanese Military Mail from ship of the Japanese Navy ‘No. 38 Torpedo Boat’ of the 2nd Fleet.

Mail carried back to Japan by the ship ‘Genkai-maru’ built in 1891 at Glasgow, Scotland, of 1,446 tons.

On-board post office of ‘Genkai-maru’ cancel ‘No. 3, Navy Post Office, 37. 7. 12’, (12th July 1904).

Sent to Fujima-mura, Seta-gun, Kouzuke-no-kuni, Gumma-ken, Japan.

Receiving cancel of Kouzuke, Komino, 37. 7. 20′, (20th July 1904).







 Military Mail from the Japanese 2nd Army at the Sha-ho (Sha River), Manchuria.

Cancel reading ‘No 2 Army, Fied Office No. 1, Branch No. 1, 37 – 9 – 30’, (30th September 1904).

Sent to Japan with receiving cancel dated 37. 10. 8, (8th October 1904).








Russian Military mail from the Ruusia-Holland Sanitary Troops, Kharbin, Manchuria.

Circular ‘Red’ Cross handstamp. Cancel of ‘Head Field Post Office, 22. 9. 04′, (22 September 1904).

On reverse 7 kopek stamp paying the registration fee to St. Petersburg. 




Finally, the Chinese Eastern Railway had Russian post offices operating at most of the major stations, and important cities along the railway such as Harbin had several Russian post offices in the town itself.

In addition, Travelling Post Offices operated in trains along the Chinese Eastern Railway.








TIENTSIN: 1891 Cover (flap missing) registered to His Imperial Highness the Grand Duke Aleksander Mikhailovich in St. Petersburg, with two Arms 14k, playing the three times 7k rate plus an additional 7k for registeration, tied by a fine crisp strike of double oval TYAN-TSZIN ds (T&S type 3A, variety month above day), above strike at left & ms registeration number, Troitskosvask transit bs.

An attractive and superb item for the Royalty collector. An Iconic cover of the Russian post in China€ 20,000


additional ones being added in 1897 and subsequently during the Russian military occupation of parts of China 1900-7.




Regular Russian stamps were used prior to 1899, and then a series of overprinted stamps were released, initially bearing the word “Kitai” on regular Russian issues



Registered Letter Card to Halle (Germany)), 1c Chefoo letter card with additional Russia 1k, 3k, 7k, 14k all tied by light Khabarovsk c.d.s., cirlced “R” and boxed Khabarovsk registry handstamp, backstamped Moscow, Halle arrival cancel on front side, slight separation along the fold, Fine and attractive.
Estimate $200 – 300







Russian post offices in China



TIENTSIN: 1900 Cover to England with “KITAI” 1k, 2k and 3k tied by Tientsin 3.12.1900 cds in red (T&S type 4X, characterised by defective year numerals), with Chefoo Russian P.O. transit in violet (T&S type 2) adjacent, reverse with Shanghai Russian P.O. cds (Gregorian calendar) and French paquebot cds, a very attractive three colour franking with coloured cancels€ 400











URGA: 1903 Native cover registered to Kalgan, franked with vertical strip of three Russia Arms 2k blue paying double the internal rate plus registration fee, tied by Urga 15.XI.03 type 4 cds in violet, registration label on the reverse (Hellrigl type 3 rated RRR), Troitskosavsk transit, opened for display, a rare registered cover € 2,000















1899, diagonal overprint ”Kiai”, 1k, 2k and 5k, printed on horizontally laid paper, sheet margin horizontal pairs, each one has a part of perfin ”Obrazets” (Specimen), full OG, NH, VF $ 140.00



China – Foreign Offices, 1902 (May 2), picture post card from Shanghai to Germany, franked with China ½¢ Dragon and with the stamps of the U.S., British (Hong Kong), French, Japanese and Russian P.O.s tied by appropriate cancels between May 2 and May 12, 1902; card written in German and sent to Freiburg, Germany, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $100 – 150SOLD for $325.00




URUMCHI: 1906 Envelope sent registered from the Russian Consular Office in Urumchi to Switzerland with “KITAI” 1k, 2k (2), 3k, 5k and 7k on the obverse tied by “URUMTSI (CHINA) / POST OF THE IMPERIAL CONSULATE OF RUSSIA” 22.VI.06 cds, sent to Chuguchak where it was re-registered and franked on the reverse with unoverprinted 1k, 2k, 4k, 5k and 7k tied by the Chuguchak type 1B cds, with Sergiopol and Moudon bs.

Very fine and unique, the only known cover from the Russian Post in Urumchi.

Note: Illustrated in “Stamps of the Russian Empire Used Abroad” p.286 by Tchilinghirian & Stephen
Provenance: Ex Adler € 20,000





KULDJA: 1913 Envelope sent registered to Odessa, franked with “KITAI” 4k and 10k tied by Kuldja 23.4.13 type 7B cds, reg’n label adjacent, very fine and very rare, “KITAI” stamps were not stocked in Russian P.Os in Sinkiang but were accepted for postage, however this is the only known use at Kuldja € 4,000



URGA: 1915 Native cover sent registered to the USA, franked with “KITAI” 1k, 4k, 10k and 15k paying double the foreign postal rate plus registration fee, tied by the Urga 14.11.15 type 7B cds, with “Ourga / Poste Russe” registration label (designed for foreign destinations other than Russia or China, Hellrigl type 14 rated RRR, only known example, adjacent, with Yokohama and Seattle bs, very fine and unique cover with a rare usage of the “KITAI” overprints € 4,000


HANKOW: 1903 Cover registered from Hankow to England, franked with China “KITAI” 3k (2) and 7k (2) and tied by the Hankow “I.P.O” hs (T&S type H-3), with Chinese 22.6.03 cds (Tchil. H-2) and boxed registration hs adjacent, sent to Shanghai where it was transferred to the Russian P.O., re-registered (label on reverse) and the stamps further cancelled by Shanghai cds type 1), with Port Arthur and London bs.

The only known example of I.P.O. markings on Russian stamps. € 4,000


SHANGHAI: 1916 Improvised envelope for photographs registered to Zurich with “KITAI” 5k and 7k paying the 2k printed matter rate plus 10k reg’n fee, tied by Shanghai 2.11.16 cds (unrecorded type with Cyrillic “c”), reg’d label in French (with misspelt “Poste”), with different censor mark on both sides applied at Petrograd, Zurich arrival, a very rare if not unique cancel on cover.

Note: There is no previous record of serial “s” in any of the cancels used in the Russian P.O.s in China. € 2,000



SHANGHAI: 1900 Cover sent registered to France with “KITAI” 1k (4), 2k (3), 3k, 5k (2), 7k and 10k, all tied by Shanghai 4.IIII.1900 (T&S type 1), paying triple 10k rate plus registration, with rare registration label in English adjacent reading “I(mperial). R(ussian). P(ost). O(ffice). / Shanghai, China,” with French paquebot ds struck on SS Tonkin, Marseille and Chauny bs, a highly attractive franking and rare registered cover€ 1,500


Russia post offices in  China


in 1917 the overprint was changed to clarify the situation, simply consisting of the value in Chinese money and using Latin letters. The valuation was still one-to-one. A later round of overprints,

subsequently having a value in cents or dollars overprinted


Used, opened for $1 and sold at that price.  Scott values at $15, SG values at £3.50 (about $5.25) and Michel at DM6 (about $3) – a rare example of Scott pricing higher than SG and Michel (Aug 00).





Two blocks as shown of seven stamps plus whatever you choose to call the other piece – interesting to see that it, too, has been surcharged, and probably worth a premium because of this.  MNH.  Opened for $3.50 and four people bid up to $11.50 (or $1.65 a stamp).  Scott values each stamp at $1.25 (Aug 00).





1918 (4 Apr.)

official cover to Urga bearing, on the reverse, Peking Junk 1c. (2), 3c. and 6c. tied by superb strikes of Uliassutai bilingual c.d.s. type I and fine Urga arrival (15.4), the face with a magnificent strike of the registration handstamp. Est $HK100,000-$HK150,000.


RUSSIAN OFFICES IN CHINA 1918 P.O.W. Cover to Krasnoyarsk, #52(3), 55(2), 57 tied on back side by Tyanyszin Russkaya Pochta 16.2.18 c.d.s., accompanying registry label of same post office on address side along with Changchun J.P.O. transit c.d.s., two indistinct Japanese transit cancels on franking side plus Krasnoyarsk receiving cancel, cover with five wax seals and small break along central vertical fold, a Fine cover.
Estimate $100 – 150



in 1920, changed to use a horizontal overprint in mixed case, but these saw little use, all Russian post offices in China being closed in that year


RUSSIAN OFFICES IN CHINA 1920 Registered Cover to USA, #58 single franking tied on oversized cover by Chefoo 28 2 20 c.d.s with accompanying similar strike alongside and bilingual registry label, commercial arrival date stamp on front side, backstamped Chicago Mar 27, cover some minor faults incl numerous staple holes at top, Fine nice commercial use.
Estimate $150 – 200SOLD for $120.00






Cover registered to the USA with pairs of the Russia Chinese surcharged 1c on 1k, 2c on 2k, 3c on 3k and 4c on 4k, all tied by Shanghai 29.10.20 cds (T&S type 7A, no example had been recorded), reg’d label in Cyrillic and English adjacent, Yokohama transit, a rare cancel and a late usage (the Russian P.O.s in China were closed November 1920) € 2,000



RUSSIAN OFFICES IN CHINA 1917, “5 DOLLARS” on 5r indigo, green and pale blue, Inverted overprint (Scott 68a), bottom right corner margin single with color indicator label, o.g., never hinged, hinged in the margin only; nibbed perfs at top, some thinning in the margin well away from the stamp, fresh and well centered, otherwise Very Fine.
Scott $500 for hinged Estimate $250 – 350


Overprint one dollar

The last stamps were issued in 1920.

Scott lists these stamps at the end of its Russia section, and Stanley Gibbons and Michel have separate sections.  Scott shows 80 major types, SG 66, and Michel 61.



Described on eBay by a Professional dealer as “Russia PO China 1917 $7 on 7r “Invtd Ovpt” (#66var) MLH: An exceptional example of this exceedingly rare stamp – only 25 issued – having superb centering and very rich colors. Expertizing mark on reverse and offered with our usual full guarantee. A gem rarity. Unlisted in Scott, mentioned in Yvert and catalogued #41Ab in SG but unpriced.”  Opened for $3000 and closed with no bids (Aug 00).




Described on eBay, offered for sale at the same time and by the same dealer as the S66 invert above, as “Russia PO China 1917 $5 on 5r “Invtd Ovpt” (#68a) MLH: A very well centered and fresh example having an inverted overprint. Expertized on reverse. Fault free and VF.”  Opened for $180 and closed with no bids.  Scott values at $250 (Aug 00).



in 1920,

changed to use a horizontal overprint in mixed case, but these saw little use, all Russian post offices in China being closed in that year





“5 Cent.” on 5k claret, Double surcharge (Scott 80b), pair, each stamp with full surcharge plus portions of two more, o.g., left stamp l.h., right stamp small h.r., Very Fine.
Scott $500 Estimate $150 – 200


Russian Post office In mongol



KASHGAR: 1908 Envelope sent registered from the Secretary at the Imperial Russian Consulate in Kashgar “via town OSH, Ferghana Province” to St. Petersburg, franked with Arms 14k tied by green Kashgar 12.12.08 type 1 cds, reg’n label adjacent (showing “K” of Kashgar inverted), arrival bs, slightly reduced at left, a rare example of Consulate mail € 1,800


KASHGAR: 1915 4k Romanov postal stationery card sent to Sweden, initially franked with Chinese 1c “Junk” paying postage from Yarkand (Chinese Shufu) to Kashgar, with the imprint cancelled the following day with Kashgar 17.9.15 type 2b cds, Tashkent transit, as China was not a member of the UPU, Chinese stamps were not valid for postage to Sweden. € 800

Russian Offices in China: Real or fake overprint?

I am doing my best to research these and have not seen a reference to forged overprints on these issues, but somehow they look just too perfect to me MNH. These are beyond my level of knowledge thats for sure. Horizontally laid paper, vertically laid paper, wove paper, lozenges of varnish!!!! Poor quality of the overprint too. just don’t know..


Here is the first thing to check- Look at the serif on the top of the ‘K’

Notice that the right side is shorter than the left side.

Most forgeries will get this wrong and the serif will be even on both sides.

Beyond that means getting the handbook for these by Ray Ceresa.

I do not have any forgeries of this issue, so can’t show any

i have this kind of stamps like the 1 rouble brown & orange.

Mine is different of this mentioned above and has ‘1 DOLLARD’ in place of cyrilic caracters.

Did you see it in our search before ? and is there any history for this overprint ?

I cannot attest to whether yours are forgeries or real ( i still dont know if mine are). But your stamp overprinted with ‘1 Dollar’ is Scott Russian Offices in China #63 $1 on 1 ruble overprint value $1.25 mint and $15.00 used.

Certainly those are different printings of the basic stamp
(the one with the 1 Dollar overprint), as the large brownish-
orange “1’s” are quite different in the serif and base…that
suggests that one is a counterfeit.


That is just the normal printing variation on the basic stamp.

The basic stamps were made in huge quantities from many different plates.

I do not know of any forgeries of the basic 1 ruble stamp. Just some of the higher values.

below is a link to a quite old, but very analytical article on the KITAI overprints and their forgeries in the “Journal of the Rossica Society of Russian Philately”:

You may also find useful a later note in the Journal, describing a rather simple method of evaluating genuine overprints:

Apparently “on all genuine stamps from Scott numbers 1-47, the angle of inclination (of the overprint) is approximately 57o-58o, whereas the angle of the forgeries varies between 38o and 53o” (usually an angle around 50o being the most common).




USA Foreign PostOffice


Italian Foreign Postoffica



German Foreign Post Office



German Empire

Offices in China – Stamps


The German Empire post offices in China started to operate in 1886. At first, German definitive postage stamps of the era were used, without overprints. These “forerunners” can only be told apart from regular used German stamps, by the cancellations. Many of these are not expensive, and collecting these forerunner issues is very popular with German postmark collectors.

Post offices existed in the following towns. These are the German spellings of the town names, as used on their circular date stamps. They are Shanghai, Tientsin, Tschifu, Amoy, Kanton, Futschau, Nanking, Peking. Swatau, Tsinanfu, Tschinkiang, Tongku, Weihsien, Itschang, Tschingtschoufu, and Tschonsun. During the Boxer Rebellion of 1900-01, military post offices were also maintained. Stamps canceled with “Tsingtau” were used in the German colony of Kiauchau (kiautschou).


In March of 1898, the then current German postage stamps were overprinted “China” diagonally, for use in their post offices there. The first overprints were positioned at a 45 degree angle. Later, in December 1898, the positioning of the overprints was changed to a 56 degree angle. The scan above shows a few examples of the 56 degree overprints in the first row and the 45 degree overprints in the second row.

In July 1900, the 10 Pf. overprinted definitive stamp of 1898 was hand-surcharged “5 pf” for use in Foochow. These are very scarce and should only be purchased with certification or an expert’s mark on the back of them.

In November 1900, some of the denominations of the German “Germania” REICHPOST set were handstamped diagonally “China” for use in Tientsin. These are ALL very rare, and fake handstamps are plentiful. Extreme caution should be exercised, when buying any of these stamps.


In 1901, the German Empire “Germania” REICHPOST issue was officially overprinted with “China”. Examples are shown above.

Fake overprints and postmarks exist on all of these, and subsequent Post Offices in China issues, especially on the high-values. Care should be taken in purchasing these, especially with used examples of the high-values. If possible, certified or examples with expert proofing marks, should be purchased.


In 1905, the 1902 German Empire “Germania” DEUTSCHES REICH issue was overprinted “China” in a new font and surcharged in Chinese currency, for use in their post offices there. Examples shown above.



From 1906 through 1917,

the “Germania” DEUTSCHES REICH stamps, printed on lozenge watermarked paper, were overprinted and surcharged as before. These issues exist in the same prewar and wartime printings and with the same perforation varieties on the high-values that are known on the un-overprinted stamps used in Germany. The set is shown in the scan above.

All of the German Empire post offices in China were closed, after China declared war on Germany in March of 1917.





Numismatic history Collections

 History Collections

Russian post offices in China



A 35 kopecks stamp of 1904.



A 25 cents on 25 kopecks stamp of 1917.

The Russian post offices in China were a collection of post offices established by Imperial Russia in various cities of China beginning in 1870.

First offices

The first offices were in Beijing, Kalgan, Tientsin, and Urga (in Mongolia), all in areas near to Russian-controlled territory.

In November 1886

additional offices opened in Shanghai, Chefoo, Hankow with offices in Port Arthur, and Dairen following soon afterwards. In addition, many Russian Field Post Offices operated throughout Manchuria and civilian mail was frequently accepted there as well. Finally, the Chinese Eastern Railway had Russian post offices operating at most of the major stations, and important cities along the railway such as Harbin had several Russian post offices in the town itself. In addition, Travelling Post Offices operated in trains along the Chinese Eastern Railway.


Initially, the offices used the regular stamps of Russia, but in 1899, they received stamps overprinted with “KITAI” (Russian for China) in Cyrillic script. This overprint was applied to all types of stamps up to 1916, including the varieties on horizontally laid, vertically laid, and wove paper. The overprint was also applied to postal stationery envelopes, postcards, letter cards and newspaper wrappers. The overprint itself was in black, blue, or red, generally being chosen to contrast with the stamp colors. Most of these types are commonly available today (less than one US$); the most problematic is the blue overprint on the 14-kopeck wove paper variety, whose existence has been questioned.

Although the offices had always accepted Chinese currency at par, a Chinese cent being considered equivalent to a kopeck, in 1917 the overprint was changed to clarify the situation, simply consisting of the value in Chinese money and using Latin letters. The valuation was still one-to-one. A later round of overprints, in 1920, changed to use a horizontal overprint in mixed case, but these saw little use, all Russian post offices in China being closed in that year.

[edit] See also

[edit] References and sources


  • Prigara, S V, translated by David M Skipton, The Russian post in the Empire, Turkey, China and the post in the Kingdom of Poland, pp. 148–156, 1941.
  • Rossiter, Stuart & John Flower. The Stamp Atlas. London: Macdonald, 1986, p. 258. ISBN 0356108627


Posted in 1902 (undecipherable date) in the Russian post-office in Tientsin, China to Paris, France and re-directed from there to Liverpool (arrival postmark of 17/11/1902).

The opening of the Trans-Siberian mail route promised to accelerate the transmission of correspondence to and from the north of China. In August 1902 a letter from Tientsin took about 28 days to be delivered to Liverpoool if forwarded via Siberia. At the same time, the transmission of mail via Brindisi or Vancouver usually took 36-40 days. Therefore, the routing via Siberia saved at least a week.

Mail had to be marked accordingly for transmission via the Trans-Siberian railway. In the case of this letter, this is done by the red cachet (unclear if it is of post-office or private origin) with the insciption: “Via Port Arthur and Siberia (to) France”.

So your letter travelled along the following route: Tientsin-Port Arthur-(nearby)Dalny-Kharbin-along the Chinese Eastern Railway to Manchuli-via the Trans-Siberian Railway to Moscow and beyond.

A condensed overview of its journey can be seen in the following map of the rail route as it existed in 1903:

In the lower map, Tientsin is marked with a red dot, Port Arthur with a green one.

Does the cover bear any other franking besides the 5k Offices in China on the front?


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