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The Yuan Mongol Dynasty
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
Private Limited Edition In CD-ROM
I hope this information in limited e-book will useable for the collectors or the writer as the basic info for their collections or for writing book and research book.
During my study I realized that the rare and very difficult cast coind were during YUAN MONGOL DYNASTY
During Yuan dynasty for the first time issued the cast coin with
Mongol stye script the informations related with this type of cast coin very limited and many lack informations.
I have found only a litle of yuan dynasty coins in Indonesia because after emperor Kublai khan sent the army to subdue Kng Kartanegara Of singosari kingdom at java and how the raden wijaya trick to sent back the Yuan mongol army back home(please read at Majapait kingdom e-book in CD-ROM) but I never found enough info related with this cast coin.also ther ceramic art work related with this coins.
I hope all the collectors and scientist sinology will be kind to help me with their own informations especially to comment and correctios ,also upload the sample cast coinst from Yuan mongol dynasty
I hope with this study we can know why the Yuan mongol qounquered Chinese empire , and what kind of numismatic collections . Also what another ceramic
art work exist during that era.
This is the whole world study as the movement to save the world heritage from china empire which many relation with South east asia country,s kingdom especially from Thailand,Vietnam and Indonesia like srivijaya kingdom,and old Java Kingdom.
For all that info ,thanks very much.
Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA
The brief History
THE YUAN (Mongol) DYNASTY (1279-1368)
The Mongols were the first of the northern barbarians to rule all of China. After creating an empire that stretched across the Eurasian continent and occupying northern China and Korea in the first half of the 13th century, the Mongols continued their assault on the Southern Sung. By 1276 the Southern Sung capital of Hangzhou had fallen, and in 1279 the last of the Sung loyalists perished. (Photo – Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson and founder of the Yuan Dynasty).
Before this, Kublai Khan, the fifth “great khan” and grandson of Genghis Khan, had moved the Mongol capital from Karakorum to Peking. In 1271 he declared himself emperor of China and named the dynasty Yuan, meaning “beginning,” to signify that this was the beginning of a long era of Mongol rule.
In Asia, Kublai Khan continued his grandfather’s dream of world conquest. Two unsuccessful naval expeditions were launched against Japan in 1274 and 1281. Four land expeditions were sent against Annam and five against Burma. However, the Mongol conquests overseas and in Southeast Asia were neither spectacular nor were they long enduring.
Mongol rule in China lasted less than a century. The Mongols became the most hated of the barbarian rulers because they did not allow the Chinese ruling class to govern. Instead, they gave the task of governing to foreigners. Distrusting the Chinese, the Mongol rulers placed the southern Chinese at the lowest level of the four classes they created. The extent of this distrust was reflected in their provincial administration. As conquerers, they followed the Ch’in example and made the provincial governments into direct extensions of the central chancellery. This practice was continued by succeeding dynasties, resulting in a further concentration of power in the central imperial government. (Photo – Yuan Banknote with its printing plate, 1287).
The Chinese despised the Mongols for refusing to adapt to Chinese culture. The Mongols kept their own language and customs. The Mongol rulers were tolerant about religions, however. Kublai Khan reportedly dabbled in many religions.
The Mongols and the West. The Mongols were regarded with mixed feelings in the West. Although Westerners dreaded the Mongols, the Crusaders hoped to use them in their fight against the Muslims and attempted to negotiate an alliance with them for this purpose. Friar John of Carpini and William of Rubruck were two of the better known Christian missionaries sent to establish these negotiations with the Mongol ruler. (Photo – Bailin Temple Pagoda built in 1330).
The best account of the Mongols was left by a Venetian merchant, Marco Polo, in his `Marco Polo’s Travels’. It is an account of Polo’s travels over the long and perilous land route to China, his experience as a trusted official of Kublai Khan, and his description of China under the Mongols. Dictated in the early 14th century, the book was translated into many languages. Although much of medieval Europe did not believe Polo’s tales, some, like Christopher Columbus, were influenced by Polo’s description of the riches of the Orient.
After the death of Kublai Khan in 1294, successive weak and incompetent khans made the already hated Mongol rule intolerable. Secret societies became increasingly active, and a movement known as the Red Turbans spread throughout the north during the 1350s. In 1356 a rebel leader named Chu Yuan-chang and his peasant army captured the old capital of Nanjing. Within a decade he had won control of the economically important middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, driving the Mongols to the north. In 1368 he declared himself the emperor Hung-wu and established his capital at Nanjing on the lower Yangtze. Later the same year he captured the Yuan capital of Peking. (Photo – Hand Cannon from the period).
Kublai Khan (1215-94). The founder of China’s Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty was a brilliant general and statesman named Kublai Khan. He was the grandson of the great Mongol conqueror, Genghis Khan, and he was overlord of the vast Mongol Empire. The achievements of Kublai Khan were first brought to the attention of Western society in the writings of Marco Polo, the Venetian traveler who lived at the Chinese court for nearly 20 years.
Kublai Khan was born in 1215, the fourth son of Genghis Khan’s fourth son. He began to play a major role in the consolidation of Mongol power in 1251, when his brother, the emperor Mongke, resolved to complete the conquest of China. He therefore vested Kublai with responsibility for keeping order in conquered territory. After Mongke’s death in 1259, Kublai had himself proclaimed khan. During the next 20 years he completed the unification of China. He made his capital in what is now Beijing.
Kublai’s major achievement was to reconcile China to rule by a foreign people, the Mongols, who had shown little ability at governing. His failures were a series of costly wars, including two disastrous attempts to invade Japan; they brought little benefit to China. Although he was a magnanimous ruler, Kublai’s extravagant administration slowly impoverished China; and in the 14th century the ineptitude of his successors provoked rebellions that eventually destroyed the Mongol dynasty.
Archibishop John of Cilician Armenia, in a painting from 1287. His dress displays a Chinese dragon, an indication of the thriving exchanges with the Mongols during the period.
In 1298 a Venetian adventurer named Marco Polo wrote a fascinating book about his travels in the Far East. Men read his accounts of Oriental riches and became eager to find sea routes to China, Japan, and the East Indies. Even Columbus, nearly 200 years later, often consulted his copy of `The Book of Ser Marco Polo‘.
In Marco’s day the book was translated and copied by hand in several languages. After printing was introduced in the 1440s, the book was circulated even more widely. Many people thought that the book was a fable or a gross exaggeration. A few learned men believed that Marco wrote truly, however, and they spread Marco’s stories of faraway places and unknown peoples. Today geographers agree that Marco’s book is amazingly accurate.
Marco Polo was born in the city-republic of Venice in 1254. His father and uncles were merchants who traveled to distant lands to trade. In 1269 Marco’s father, Nicolo, and his uncle Maffeo returned to Venice after being away many years. On a trading expedition they had traveled overland as far as Cathay (China). Kublai Khan, the great Mongol emperor of China, asked them to return with teachers and missionaries for his people. So they set out again in 1271, and this time they took Marco.
From Venice the Polos sailed to Acre, in Palestine. There two monks, missionaries to China, joined them. Fearing the hard journey ahead, however, the monks soon turned back. The Polos crossed the deserts of Persia (Iran) and Afghanistan. They mounted the heights of the Pamirs, the “roof of the world,” descending to the trading cities of Kashgar (Shufu) and Yarkand (Soche). They crossed the dry stretches of The Gobi. Early in 1275 they arrived at Kublai Khan’s court at Cambaluc (Peking). At that time Marco was 21 years old.
Polo at the Court of the Great Khan
Marco quickly became a favorite of Kublai Khan. For three years he governed busy Yangchow, a city of more than 250,000 people. He was sent on missions to far places in the empire: to Indochina, Tibet, Yunnan, and Burma. From these lands Marco brought back stories of the people and their lives.
The Polos became wealthy in Cathay. But they began to fear that jealous men in the court would destroy them when the khan died. They asked to return to Venice. Kublai Khan refused. Then came an envoy from the khan of Persia. He asked Kublai Khan for a young Mongol princess for a bride. The Polos said that the princess’ journey should be guarded by men of experience and rank. They added that the mission would enable them to make the long-desired visit to Venice. The khan reluctantly agreed.
Since there was danger from robbers and enemies of the khan along the overland trade routes, a great fleet of ships was built for a journey by sea. In 1292 the fleet sailed, bearing the Polos, the princess, and 600 noblemen of Cathay. They traveled southward along Indochina and the Malay Peninsula to Sumatra. Here the voyage was delayed many months.
The ships then turned westward and visited Ceylon and India. They touched the East African coast. The voyage was hazardous, and of the 600 noblemen only 18 lived to reach Persia. The Polos and the princess were safe. When the Polos landed in Venice, they had been gone 24 years. The precious stones they brought from Cathay amazed all Venice.
Later Marco served as gentleman-captain of a ship. It was captured by forces of the rival trading city of Genoa, and he was thrown into a Genoese prison. There he wrote his book with help from another prisoner. Marco was released by the Genoese in 1299. He returned to Venice and engaged in trade. His name appears in the court records of his time in many lawsuits over property and money. He married and had three daughters. He died about 1323.
A peasant revolt started the collapsed of the Yuan Dynasty.
Art work Collections
[ ] Genghis Khan
Portrait of Genghis Khan in his sixties, following his conquests. Painted by a Chinese artist on stretched silk.
Palace Museum, Taipei, Taiwan
[ ] Khubilai Khan (Shizu)[Shih-tsu] , first emperor of Yuan Dynasty
[ ]Queen of Khubilai Khan (Shizi)[Shih-tsu] , first empress of Yuan Dynasty
- CHINA, YUAN Dynasty, 1260-1368, bronze hat top, looped top tab, 46mm diameter x 32mm tall, minor flaws $21.00 sold
Warriors Armor ,The Yuan Dynasty Armor Has Willow Leaf Armor, To Have The Iron Round First-Class. The Hard Round Armor Inner Layer Makes With The Cowhide, The Outer Layer For The Hard Net Armor, The Armor Piece Connected Like Scale, The Arrow Cannot Penetrate, The Manufacture Is Extremely Exquisite. In Addition Has Leather Armor, The Cloth Cover First-Class. AD1271—AD1368
YUAN (MONGOL) DYNASTY
Emperor CH’ENG TSUNG
reign title: YUAN-CHEN, AD 1295-1296
FD-1711. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “YUAN-CHEN T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimen) 24.2 mm, 3.08 grams.
There is some question in our mind about the authenticity of the specimen illustrated above. We would appreciate hearing form anyone that can give a reasonable informed opinion on it.
Emperor WU TSUNG
reign title: CHIH-TA, AD 1308-1311
S-1098. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-TA T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox script. Reverse: blank. The size and weigh of this issues seems to vary somewhat. The last two specimens we had access two were 24.5 mm at 3.1 grams and 23.5 mm at 2.85 grams.
VG $3.00 F $5.00
S-1099, Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “TA-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in Mongol seal-writing. Reverse: blank. Average (5 specimens) 42.3 mm, 20.5 grams. These are said to have been first cast in the third year of Chih-Ta (AD 1310). These tend to be crudely cast, often with casting holes in the fields, and attractive specimens are scarce and command a premium.
F $32.00 VF $45.00
Paper money was used extensively during this period, although to the best of my knowledge only two examples of Yuan Dynasty paper money are know to still exist today.
Emperor HEN TSUNG
reign title: HUANG-CH’ING, AD 1312-1313
S-1102, “CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in Mongol seal-writing. Value 2. RARE. The only specimen was have handled was VG with the top character weakly cast.
Emperor SHUN TI
Shun Ti’s coins of the first two years of his reign (AD 1333 to 1334) do not have a reign title on them, but rather come YUAN TONG YUAN BAO inscription in Chinese characters.
reign title: CHIH-YUAN, AD 1335-1340
Shun Ti adopted the title CHIH-YUAN in AD 1335 and used it until 1340. The coin of this period are rare, and we do not have one yet available to image.
S-1102. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-YUAN T’UNG-PAO” in Mongolian square script. Reverse: blank. Schjoth specimen was about 28 mm, 5.08 grams.
reign title: CHIH-CHENG, AD 1341-1367
IMAGE NOT YET AVAILABLE
Shun Ti adopted the title CHIH-CHENG in AD 1341 and used it until he died in 1367. This is an interesting series, in that many of the coins have date and/or denomination indicators on them.
S-1103. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: “MAO” in Mongol seal script. MAO is short for HSIN MAO, indicating this coin was struck in AD 1351. The date indicator on the reverse is normally somewhat weak on these. Average (2 specimens) 25 mm, 3.55 grams.
F $65.00 VF $85.00
|S-1109. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: The number “2” written in Mongolian script above the hole, and in chinese numbers below the hole. Average (2 specimen) 28.9 mm, 6.2 grams (range 5.04 to 7.15 grams)
F $65.00 VF $100.00
S-1107. Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: “SSU” in Mongol seal script. SSU is short for Kuei Ssu indicating this coin was struck in AD 1353. Average (2 specimens) 30.1 mm, 8.5 grams.
F $75.00 VF $100.00
|S-1108. Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: “CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: “SHEN” in Mongol seal script. SHEN is short for PING SHEN indicating this coin was struck in AD 1356. Average (1 specimens) 34.0 mm, 11.22 grams.
F $75.00 VF $115.00 XF $195.00
|S-1110. Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: The number “3” written in Mongolian script above the hole, and in chinese numbers below the hole. Average (2 specimen) 35.5 mm, 11.55 (range 9.85 to 12.24 grams)
F $75.00 VF $110.00
S-1111. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “”CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: the denomination indicator as the Mongol seal script word for “10” above the hole. Average (two specimens) 45 mm, 22.9 grams.
F $75.00 VF $110.00
|FD-1810. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “”CHIH-CHENG T’UNG-PAO” in orthodox Chinese script. Reverse: the denomination indicator as the Mongol square script word for “10” above the hole, and the Chinese number “10” with a dot above it, below the hole. Average (1 specimen) 48 mm, 63.6 grams. The casting on this particular coin is rather crude with only partially finished rims. The specimen illustrated while grading only F for visual appearance is pretty much as cast with full original file marks on the high points.
This type tends to be bold and well cast with high rims,
but the edges tend to be poorly finished.
Pretender Emperor CH’EN YU-LIANG OF HAN
reign title: T’ien-ting, ca. AD 1363
S-1124, Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: “T’IEN TING T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (2 specimens) 32.5 mm, 8.89 grams.
F $175.00 VF $245.00
CHU YUAN-CHANG as the REBEL PRINCE WU
Chu Yuan-Chang (later to become Emperor Tai Tsu, the first Emperor of the Ming Dynasty (see below)) was one of the Yuan Rebels fighting each other to see who would take control of China at the eventual fall of the Yuan Dynasty. His coins of this period bare the inscription TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO but TA-CHUNG is not actually a reign title.
I have run into some confusion over the Ta-Chung coinage, because Schjoth states that the inscription was first cast by Chu Yuan-Chang in AD 1361 when the Pao-Yuan Minting Department was set up at Nanking, however as he did not declare himself as Prince Wu until 1364, this draw into question exactly who he was minting them for between 1361 and 1364. Apparently only the 1 cash denomination was cast during this period.
In 1364, after defeating Ch’en Yu-liang of Han (another of the Yuan Rebels), and gaining control over a much larger part of China, Chu Yuan-chang declared himself the Prince Wu and adopted the reign title of Ta-ming but rather than putting the Ta-ming title on the coins he continued casting the Ta-Chung types, but now from a number of mints. In 1368 he controled enough of China to Declare himself as Emperor T’ai Tsu of the Ming Dynasty, at which time he adopted the reign title Hung-Wu.
The Ta-chung coinage tends to be somewhat crudely cast when compared to the later coins cast under the Ming Dynasty.
S-1127. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (5 specimens) 23.5 mm (range 23.2 to 24.0 mm), average 3.30 grams. These coins tend to be of inferior quality to the later coinage of Ming.
VG $4.50 F $8.50 VF $15.00
S-1128. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “PEI-P’ING” (a mint in Chihli). Average (1 specimen) 23.5 mm, 3.44 grams. We do not have a record of a price for this type at this time.
S-1129. Bronze 1 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “CHE” (Chekiang mint). Average (1 specimen) 23.5 mm, 2.53 grams. We do not have a record of a price for this type at this time.
S-1130. Bronze 2 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimens) 29 mm, 6.11 grams.
S-1131. Bronze 3 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimens) 35 mm, 10.10 grams.
S-1132. Bronze 5 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: blank. Average (1 specimens) 41 mm, 17.49 grams.
S-1133. Bronze 5 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “YU” (Honan mint). Average (1 specimens) 40 mm, 15.41 grams.
|S-1134. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “SHIH” (for value 10). Average (2 specimens) 45.5 mm, 23.8 grams (these vary several grams either side of this).
VG $65.00 F $99.50
S-1135. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “SHIH CHE” (for value 10 of Chekiang mint). Average (1 specimens) 45.5 mm, 25.69 grams. We have not yet recorded a value for this type.
S-1136. Bronze 10 cash. Obverse: “TA-CHUNG T’UNG-PAO”. Reverse: “SHIH CHI” (for value 10 of Shantung mint)). Average (1 specimens) 45.5 mm, 27.09 grams. We have not yet recorded a value for this type.
||Late Yuan Dynasty, Hsu Shou-hwei, “Tien Tien Tung Pao”, diameter 32mm, XF.||US $ 244||
US $ 280
||Late Yuan Dynasty, Chan You-liang, “Dah Yee Tung Pao”, diameter 31mm, XF.ta yee tung pao||US $ 244||
US $ 709
||Yuan Dynasty, “Chih Cheng Tung Pao” reverse “Chen” (2), diameter 29mm & 33mm, XF.||US $ 244||
US $ 560
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