The History Of Betawi Music Record and Composer Kusbini,R Sutedjo,ismael marzuki,M.sagi, S Jahja,S Padimin and Markasan etc

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(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

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The historical development of   Jakarta Betawi Music Record 

 In 20th Century.

Sejarah Perkembangan Rekaman Musik Betawi (1920-1960)

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books and Music Record Collections             

             By

               

     Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

    Limited Private Publication In CD-ROM

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INTRODUCTIONS

I have just find  a vintage magazine  Budaya 23,Year IX,Pebruary March 1960 ,in this rare magazine I find a informations of Composer

Kusbini ,

 

He created the Jacatra Betawa native song Stambul II  notification based on the 1935 Betawi song ,composer anonim (NN) in 1959.

This new informations will added the my article about Betawi Music record which upload in this web before.

I hope the Betawi Jacatra native people will enjoy to read and sing theoir old native stambul song name Masuk kampung Keluar Kampung

(enter the village and exit of Village, Jakarta May 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

The Composer Kusbini Biography Read more about Composer Kusbini

Komedie Stamboel 1891-1903

born in the city of Port of Surabaya in 1891, a Performance Style Instanbul, which held a road show in the Netherlands East Indies, Singapore and Malaya by rail or steamer. In general, the show includes the story 1001 Nights (Arabian) and the European story (and the People’s Opera), including Tale of India and Persia. As an interlude, between the scene and the opening, the music is played marches, polkas, harp, and keroncong. Special music keroncong Stambul known at that time I, Stambul II, and III Stambul.

At that time Stambul upbeat songs (about 120 meters to one beat a quarter note), in which village residents as a monument or call Kusbini Keroncong Portuguese, while Gesang said as Keroncong Quick, and mingle with the native Betawi Tanjidor. At this time the Indo known musicians, and the legendary violinist M. Sagi (note recording Idris Sardi violin song Jali-jali Stambul II based on the arrangement of M. Sagi)

In the Year 1935

 Two notations Stambul entitled to enter the village of Kampung Exit vocal text that are prevalent diperdengarkan.sampai currently unknown creator, and then notified by the composer in 1959 Kusbini

How beautiful and full of innuendo popular melody, we invite readers to sing sebagimana written below, which illustri In 1935

 Kusbini composer who created the notation Stambul two caption

“Exit and enter the Village “

 Kusbini notation  the original lyric 1935 according to the melody composed by Kusbini complete in 1959

Lyrics of Song stambul  II

Exit the village entered the village,

which unknown composer  NN (unknown),

Kusbini composed notation:

Stambul two songs keepsake from my friends

“Ungkapan kasih” looving act longing song saying

Longing of my blood spilled soil kampong page

I remember there is much your wispering

Stambul II in my blood spill ‘s land

Log out kampong kampong

 looking for a self-hosted food by  feet’s walking

sell the sound while playing the guitar

In 1950,

 where the village is then loaded with artists, emerging as the Tangkiwood – like Hollywood

In the Year 1959

To introduce the song Stambul II in the wider circles, composed Kusbini Stambul III in the form of piano-forte, by not leaving the basic harmonies that have become classics that while the text is the result of adjustments Kusbini own. Stambul III can be played on an ad labium and accordingly also to be held in the orchestra with or without kendangan (source magazine Budaja 23, year IX, February-March 1960, the collection of Dr. Iwan)

 

original Info

Komedie Stamboel 1891-1903

lahir di Kota Pelabuhan Surabaya tahun 1891, berupa Pentas Gaya Instanbul, yang mengadakan pertunjukan keliling di Hindia Belanda, Singapura, dan Malaya lewat jalur kereta api maupun kapal api. Pada umumnya pertunjukan meliputi Cerita 1001 Malam (Arab) dan Cerita Eropa (Opera maupun Rakyat), termasuk Hikayat India dan Persia. Sebagai selingan, antar adegan maupun pembukaan, diperdengarkan musik mars, polka, gambus, dan keroncong. Khusus musik keroncong dikenal pada waktu itu Stambul I, Stambul II, dan Stambul III.

Pada waktu itu lagu Stambul berirama cepat (sekitar meter 120 untuk satu ketuk seperempat nada), di mana Warga Kampung Tugu maupun Kusbini menyebut sebagai Keroncong Portugis, sedangkan Gesang menyebut sebagai Keroncong Cepat, dan berbaur dengan Tanjidor yang asli Betawi. Pada masa ini dikenal para musisi Indo, dan pemain biola legendaris adalah M. Sagi (perhatikan rekaman Idris Sardi main biola lagu Stambul II Jali-jali berdasarkan aransemen dari M. Sagi)

Pada Tahun 1935

 notasi Stambul Dua yang berjudul masuk Kampung Keluar Kampung dengan teks  vokalnya  yang  yang lazim diperdengarkan.sampai saat ini tidak diketahui penciptanya,dan kemudian dinotifikasi oleh komposer Kusbini tahun 1959

Betapa indah dan penuh sindiran kerakyatan  melodi itu ,kami persilahkan  para pembaca menyanyikan sebagimana tertulis dibawah ini,yaitu illustri Pada tahun  1935

 Komposer Kusbini menciptakan  notasi Stambul dua yang bejudul Masi notasi  kusbini 1935 menurut melodi aslinya.serta  notasi gubahan kusbini yang lengkap tahun 1959

 

 

 

Lirik lagu stambul II

Masuk kampung Keluar Kampung,

penciptanyanya NN(tidak diketahui),

notasi digubah Kusbini:

Stambul dua lagu tanda mata dari kawanku

Lagu rindu ungkapankasih saying

Rindu kampong halaman tanah tumpah darahku

Aku mengenang bisikanmu jauh disana

Stambul duaditanah tumpah darahku

Masuk kampong keluar kampong

 mencari makanjalan kaki seorang diri  tuan

menjual suara sambil bermain gitar

Pada 1950,

 di mana kampung ini kemudian dijejali seniman, muncul sebutan Tangkiwood – seperti Hollywood

Pada Tahun 1959

Guna memperkenalkan lagu Stambul II  dalam kalangan yang lebih luas, Kusbini menggubah Stambul III dalam bentuk piano-forte,dengan tidak meninggalkan dasar harmoninya yang telah menjadi klasik itu sedangkan teks adalah hasil penyesuaian Kusbini sendiri. Stambul III dapat dimainkan secara ad labium dan sesuai pula untuk digelar dalam orkes dengan atau tanpa kendangan( sumber majalah Budaja 23,tahun ke IX,pebruari-Maret 1960,koleksi dr Iwan)

read more about Kusbini

 

Kusbini (Kemlagi, Mojokerto, East Java, January 1, 1910 – Yogyakarta, February 28, 1991) is an Indonesian composer.
In his day, Kusbini known as a keroncong musician.
Kusbini better known as

Kusbini Bagimu Negeri

Bagimu Negeri

“For My Country”

by Kusbini

Top songs by Kusbini:

the creator of the national song Bagimu Negeri.


Kusbini died in Yogyakarta in 1991. As a tribute, the local government of Yogyakarta to change the name of the street in front of his house into Kusbini Road.

original info

 

 Read More Info about Native Betawi Music Record

Keroncong Betawi
Keroncong is the name of a type of musical instrument ukulele as well as the name of the type of music that uses distinctive Indonesia keroncong musical instruments, flute, and a female singer.

Keroncong come from similar roots music known as fado Portuguese introduced by sailors and merchant slave ship that nation since the 16th century to the archipelago. From mainland India (Goa) was first entered music in the Malacca and then played by the slaves of the Moluccas. The weakening influence of the Portuguese in the 17th century in the archipelago does not necessarily mean the loss of this music as well. This early form of music called Moresco (a dance of Spanish origin, such as the rather slow polka rhythm), where one of the rearranged songs by Kusbini now known as Kr. Muritsku, accompanied by a stringed musical instrument. Keroncong music coming from the monument called the monument keroncong. During its development, it makes a number of traditional elements of the archipelago, such as the use of the flute as well as some components of the gamelan. At about the 19th century forms of popular music has been mixed in many places in the archipelago, even down to the Malay Peninsula. This golden era continued until sometime in the 1960s, and then faded due to the inclusion of a wave of popular music (rock music that developed since 1950, and victories Beatle music and the like since 1961 until now). Nevertheless, keroncong music still played and enjoyed by all walks of life in Indonesia and Malaysia until now. In its earliest form, Moresco music accompanied by strings, like a violin, ukulele, and cello. Percussion is also sometimes used. Set the orchestra of this kind are still used by keroncong monument, which still form keroncong played by the community of Portuguese descendants of slaves who lived in Kampung Ambon Monument, North Jakarta, which later expanded to the south in Kemayoran and Gambir by Betawi people mingle with the music Tanjidor (year 1880 to 1920). 1920-1960 year development center moved to Solo, and adapt to a slower rhythm of nature according to the Javanese.

Keroncong music leaning more on chord progressions and the type of tool used. Since the mid-20 th century has been known for at least three kinds of keroncong, which can be recognized from the pattern of progression akordnya. For musicians who already understand the plot, to accompany the songs keroncong actually not difficult, because quite fit the prevailing pattern. Development is done by keeping the consistency of the pattern. In addition, there are mixed forms and adaptations.

 

 

After experiencing a long evolution since the arrival of the Portuguese in Indonesia (1522) and the settlement of the slaves in the village monument in 1661 [1], and this is the early evolution of the long keroncong music (1661-1880), nearly two centuries, but keroncong not show the actual identity of the voice-crong crong-crong, so it may be said keroncong music was not born in 1661-1880.

And finally experienced the evolution of music keroncong last short since 1880 until now, with three stages of the recent developments that have taken place and an estimate of new developments (keroncong millenium). Initial milestone was in 1879 [2], in the discovery of the ukulele in Hawaii [3] which soon became the main instrument in keroncong (ukulele sound: crong-crong-crong), whereas the early millennium keroncong existing signs, but not yet developing (Mariah Carey).

Four stages of the development is [4]

(A) The keroncong old days (1880-1920),
(B) The eternal keroncong (1920-1960), and
(C) keroncong modern period (1960-2000), and
(D) The keroncong millennium (2000-present)
Ukulele was found in 1879 in Hawaii, it is estimated that next year a new Keroncong transformed in 1880, in the monument and then spread to the southern region and Gambir Kemayoran (see there is a track and Markets Gambir Kemayoran, circa 1913).

 
 
 

original info

Keroncong Betawi

Keroncong merupakan nama dari instrumen musik sejenis ukulele dan juga sebagai nama dari jenis musik khas Indonesia yang menggunakan instrumen musik keroncong, flute, dan seorang penyanyi wanita.

Akar keroncong berasal dari sejenis musik Portugis yang dikenal sebagai fado yang diperkenalkan oleh para pelaut dan budak kapal niaga bangsa itu sejak abad ke-16 ke Nusantara. Dari daratan India (Goa) masuklah musik ini pertama kali di Malaka dan kemudian dimainkan oleh para budak dari Maluku. Melemahnya pengaruh Portugis pada abad ke-17 di Nusantara tidak dengan serta-merta berarti hilang pula musik ini. Bentuk awal musik ini disebut moresco (sebuah tarian asal Spanyol, seperti polka agak lamban ritmenya), di mana salah satu lagu oleh Kusbini disusun kembali kini dikenal dengan nama Kr. Muritsku, yang diiringi oleh alat musik dawai. Musik keroncong yang berasal dari Tugu disebut keroncong Tugu. Dalam perkembangannya, masuk sejumlah unsur tradisional Nusantara, seperti penggunaan seruling serta beberapa komponen gamelan. Pada sekitar abad ke-19 bentuk musik campuran ini sudah populer di banyak tempat di Nusantara, bahkan hingga ke Semenanjung Malaya. Masa keemasan ini berlanjut hingga sekitar tahun 1960-an, dan kemudian meredup akibat masuknya gelombang musik populer (musik rock yang berkembang sejak 1950, dan berjayanya musik Beatle dan sejenisnya sejak tahun 1961 hingga sekarang). Meskipun demikian, musik keroncong masih tetap dimainkan dan dinikmati oleh berbagai lapisan masyarakat di Indonesia dan Malaysia hingga sekarang. Dalam bentuknya yang paling awal, moresco diiringi oleh musik dawai, seperti biola, ukulele, serta selo. Perkusi juga kadang-kadang dipakai. Set orkes semacam ini masih dipakai oleh keroncong Tugu, bentuk keroncong yang masih dimainkan oleh komunitas keturunan budak Portugis dari Ambon yang tinggal di Kampung Tugu, Jakarta Utara, yang kemudian berkembang ke arah selatan di Kemayoran dan Gambir oleh orang Betawi berbaur dengan musik Tanjidor (tahun 1880-1920). Tahun 1920-1960 pusat perkembangan pindah ke Solo, dan beradaptasi dengan irama yang lebih lambat sesuai sifat orang Jawa.

Musik keroncong lebih condong pada progresi akord dan jenis alat yang digunakan. Sejak pertengahan abad ke-20 telah dikenal paling tidak tiga macam keroncong, yang dapat dikenali dari pola progresi akordnya. Bagi pemusik yang sudah memahami alurnya, mengiringi lagu-lagu keroncong sebenarnya tidaklah susah, sebab cukup menyesuaikan pola yang berlaku. Pengembangan dilakukan dengan menjaga konsistensi pola tersebut. Selain itu, terdapat pula bentuk-bentuk campuran serta adaptasi.

 

 

Setelah mengalami evolusi yang panjang sejak kedatangan orang Portugis di Indonesia (1522) dan pemukiman para budak di daerah Kampung Tugu tahun 1661 [1], dan ini merupakan masa evolusi awal musik keroncong yang panjang (1661-1880), hampir dua abad lamanya, namun belum memperlihatkan identitas keroncong yang sebenarnya dengan suara crong-crong-crong, sehingga boleh dikatakan musik keroncong belum lahir tahun 1661-1880.

Dan akhirnya musik keroncong mengalami masa evolusi pendek terakhir sejak tahun 1880 hingga kini, dengan tiga tahap perkembangan terakhir yang sudah berlangsung dan satu perkiraan perkembangan baru (keroncong millenium). Tonggak awal adalah pada tahun 1879 [2], di saat penemuan ukulele di Hawai [3] yang segera menjadi alat musik utama dalam keroncong (suara ukulele: crong-crong-crong), sedangkan awal keroncong millenium sudah ada tanda-tandanya, namun belum berkembang (Bondan Prakoso).

Empat tahap masa perkembangan tersebut adalah[4]

(a) Masa keroncong tempo doeloe (1880-1920),
(b) Masa keroncong abadi (1920-1960), dan
(c) Masa keroncong modern (1960-2000), serta
(d) Masa keroncong millenium (2000-kini)

Ukulele ditemukan pada tahun 1879 di Hawaii, sehingga diperkirakan pada tahun berikutnya Keroncong baru menjelma pada tahun 1880, di daerah Tugu kemudian menyebar ke selatan daerah Kemayoran dan Gambir (lihat ada lagu Kemayoran dan Pasar Gambir, sekitar tahun 1913).

_____________________________ 

The History Of Betawi Music record deevlopment 1951-1980 

1.TANGKIWOOD

DSC_0061_25_preset1.jpg

Once down the narrow alleys and crowded, we finally see a big way again. It seems a brother salted fish sellers were hawking wares. It becomes us to explore the region Tangkiwood end. Next time I want to visit the house djadoel artists who once lived here, and explore again the remains of the triumph of “Hollywood” her this Betawi

Child Puppet at Village Tank

Still remember August Mahieu with Komedie Stamboel? Mahieu like a trend setter in Java. He makes others emulate the style of the stage spectacle Komedie Stamboel or dkenal as Komedie Nobility. In fact, all of the show mimics Mahieu Abdul Muluk. Many people say, Abdul Muluk also mimic a similar performance from Iran. Throughout the history of human movement, of course subject imitate imitation, adaptation, collaboration, mixing, merging, or influenced by the arts and culture is inevitable.

Mahieu anesthetize the public in the Netherlands East Indies and stimulate other artists founded the alias comedy show. Call it Komedie Samboel Opera, Opera Sri Permata, Royal Opera, and Lord Indra. Unlike the group that contains the player Indo Mahieu Java, the new group using entirely indigenous players. However, the taste was abandoned Mahieu, namely the appearance of dancing tango, cabaret, pantomime, waltz, polka, with a costume a la noble, prince, queen, princess, just the smell of the west. That’s why Komedie Stamboel and their associated Komedie called Duke.

So the spectacle was entertaining a lot of heart grassroots “in those days, the 19th century. Town square is often so big stage for the comedy troupe. Audience? Diverse. But mostly yes “grassroots earlier. Even the plantation coolies want to be entertained entourage, according to Misbach Yusa Biran in the History of Film 1900-1950: Film Making in Java.

Mixed-repertoire repertoire of Baghdad, Europe, India, they play without using a script. Only the outline only understood the players. They do not know the script stage, all other conversations hanylah no improvisation. What article? The players were mostly illiterate.

Knowledge of the original Kroncong not complete unless we turn our attention to other forms of folk song which is usually called Stambul II.

III, including the song Stambul keroncong. Both can not be separated from each other, where one enjoys the original Keroncong and certainly not isolated from the opera II.

Stambul III song is poetry improvisatoris selurunhnya kgusus shaped, other than a form of poetry Keroncong, but both are songs of romance, as a solace or a song of yearning.

Stambul II is for a single song, performed by using the “twisted” Keroncong original, accompanied by orchestra keroncong use kendangan

It’s also probably why the show is not changing

original info

Pengetahuan tentang Kroncong asli tidak lengkap rasanya kalau kita tidak memalingkan perhatian  kita kepada bentuk lagu rakyat lain yang biasanya disebut Stambul II.

Lagu Stambul III termasuk wilayah  keroncong. Kedua-duanya tidak dapat dipisahkan satu sama lainnya,dimana seseorang menyenangi Keroncong asli dan tentu  tidak terasing dari stambul II.

Lagu stambul III selurunhnya bersyair secara improvisatoris berbentuk kgusus ,lain dari daripada bentuk syair Keroncong , akan tetapi kedua-duanya bersifat lagu asmara,sebagai pelipur lara atau lagu rindu .

Stambul II  adalah untuk nyanyian tunggal, dibawakan dengan mengunakan “Cengkok” Keroncong asli ,diiringi dengan orkes keroncong mempergunakan kendangan

It’s also probably why the show is not changing the comedy troupe repertoire or create their own style story. Until finally came Tio Tek Djien with Miss Riboet Orion and Piedro the Dardanelles. Two large entourage was spawned stories of their own devising with expertise Andjar Asmara and Nyoo Cheong Seng.

The development of this comedy troupe determine this nation’s artistic journey, especially in terms of cinema. From this comedy troupe and then appeared the term puppet children follow a term that developed in the land of Malacca, where Mahieu imitate the appearance of Abdul Muluk. The term is commonly used by the crew of the party. They called a puppet show stage.

Human life stage, kids puppet, is a life that consists of players in one group. They live, eat, drink. sleeping, playing, joking, playing in one house or village to then play together on stage, as always. Misbach wrote, if you’re in the recital tour, they lived in a house joint venture – empty buildings hired by the owner of the group. This causes them to not get along with other human beings other than humans in the group that the average illiteracy. Players are paid a daily comedy, they often have to work extra if the show in a deserted town audience.

In Batavia, children gathered in the region puppet named Tank, at Mangga Dua area. In the 1920s, stood Malayan Opera. Child puppets Malayan Opera is what most of living in the tank. In 1950, in which the village is then loaded with the artist, emerged as Tangkiwood – like Hollywood

 Puppet children in Kampung Tank

Tangkiwood portrait piece, the City
  
 
  DSC_0061_25_preset1.jpg
  

Once down the narrow alleys and crowded, we finally see a big way again. Seems a brother of salted fish vendors were hawking wares. This be the end of our exploring Tangkiwood region. Next time I want to visit the house the artists who once lived here djadoel, and again eksplore remnants glory “Hollywood” it Betawi
 
 

Still remember the komedie Stamboel August Mahieu? Mahieu as trend setters in Java. He makes others imitate the style of the stage spectacle komedie Stamboel or dkenal as komedie Lord. In fact, Mahieu also mimic the performance of Abdul Muluk. Many people say, Abdul Muluk was imitating a similar show from Iran. Throughout the history of the movement of people, of course, subject to imitate imitation, adaptation, collaboration, blending, merging, or the influence of the elements of art and culture is inevitable.

Mahieu anesthetize the people in the Netherlands Indies and stimulate other artists founded the comedy show alias. Call it komedie Samboel Opera, Opera Sri Jewels, the Royal Opera, and Lord Indra. Unlike the group that contains the player Mahieu Indo Java, a new group of players who are using entirely indigenous. However, the taste was abandoned Mahieu, namely the appearance of dancing tango, cabaret, pantomime, waltz, polka, with costume nobleman, prince, queen, princess, just the smelling west. That’s why komedie Stamboel and ikutannya called komedie Lord.

Thus the spectacle was entertaining a lot of the underprivileged in the liver, the 19th century. The town square often the big stage for the comedy troupe. Audience? Diverse. But mostly it was the underprivileged. Even the farm laborers want to be entertained that group, so Misbach Yusa Biran in the History of Film 1900-1950: Make Film in Java.

Mixed-repertoire repertoire of Baghdad, Europe, India, they play without using a script. Only the outline is understood the players. They do not know the script stage, all the other conversations hanylah improvisation. What article? The players were generally illiterate.

That’s also probably why the show is a comedy troupe did not alter the repertoire or create their own style of story. Tio Tek finally came up with Miss Riboet Djien Piedro with Orion and the Dardanelles. This great group spawned two stories of their own with the expertise of Asmara and Nyo Andjar Seng Cheong.

The development of this comedy troupe determine the course of this nation’s art, especially in terms of cinema. Of this comedy troupe and the term following the term puppet child that develops in the land of Malacca, which imitate the appearance of Abdul Muluk Mahieu. The term is commonly used by the crew of the troupe. They called a puppet show stage.

Stage of human life, kids puppet, is a life that consists of players in one group. They live, eat, drink. sleeping, playing, joking, playing in a home or neighborhood for later play together on stage, as always. Misbach wrote, if it is being joined on tour, they lived in a house joint venture – an empty building owner hired a group. This causes them to not get along with other human beings other than humans in the group that the average illiterate. Comedian is paid daily, they often have to work extra if the show in a deserted town audience.

In Batavia, children gathered in the puppet named Tank, in the Mango Two. In the 1920’s, standing Malayan Opera. Malayan Opera puppet children who mostly live in this tank. In 1950, in which the village is then packed with artists, emerging as the Tangkiwood – like Hollywood

 
 
 

original info

Anak Wayang di Kampung Tangki wood

Sepenggal potret Tangkiwood, Kota
 
 
 
 
 
 
DSC_0061_25_preset1.jpg
Setelah menyusuri gang-gang sempit dan padat, akhirnya kami ketemu jalan besar lagi. Nampak seorang abang penjual ikan asin sedang menjajakan jualannya. Ini menjadi akhir kami menjelajahi kawasan Tangkiwood. Next time saya ingin berkunjung ke rumah artis-artis djadoel yang pernah tinggal disini, dan eksplore lagi sisa-sisa kejayaan “Hollywood”nya Betawi ini

Masih ingat August Mahieu dengan Komedie Stamboel? Mahieu bagai trend setter di Jawa. Ia membuat orang lain meniru tontonan panggung ala Komedie Stamboel atau dkenal sebagai Komedie Bangsawan. Padahal, Mahieu meniru pula dari pertunjukan Abdul Muluk. Banyak orang bilang, Abdul Muluk pun meniru pertunjukan serupa asal Iran. Sepanjang sejarah pergerakan manusia, tentu saja perihal tiru meniru, adaptasi, kolaborasi, percampuran, penggabungan, atau pengaruh  unsur seni dan budaya tak terelakkan.

Mahieu membius masyarakat di Hindia Belanda dan merangsang seniman lain mendirikan komedi alias pertunjukan. Sebut saja Komedie Opera Samboel, Opera Sri Permata, Opera Bangsawan, dan Indra Bangsawan. Tak seperti rombongan Mahieu yang berisi pemain Indo Jawa, rombongan baru tersebut menggunakan pemain yang seluruhnya pribumi. Meski demikian, cita rasa Mahieu tak ditinggalkan, yaitu penampilan dansa tango, kabaret, tablo, waltz, polka, dengan kostum ala bangsawan, pangeran, ratu, putri, pokoknya yang berbau barat. Itu sebabnya Komedie Stamboel dan ikutannya disebut Komedie Bangsawan.

Demikianlah tontonan tersebut menghibur banyak hati wong cilik di masa itu, abad 19. Alun-alun kota seringkali jadi panggung besar bagi rombongan komedi tersebut. Penontonnya? Beragam. Tapi kebanyakan ya wong cilik tadi. Bahkan kuli perkebunan ingin dihibur rombongan tersebut, demikian Misbach Yusa Biran dalam Sejarah Film 1900-1950:Bikin Film di Jawa.

Repertoar-repertoar campuran dari Baghdad, Eropa, India, mereka mainkan tanpa menggunakan naskah. Hanya garis besarnya saja yang dipahami para pemain. Mereka tak kenal naskah panggung, semua percakapan tak lain hanylah improvisasi. Apa pasal? Para pemain itu umumnya buta huruf.

Itu juga barangkali, kenapa pertunjukan rombongan komedi tersebut tak mengubah repertoar atau membuat sendiri kisah ala mereka. Hingga akhirnya muncullah Tio Tek Djien dengan Miss Riboet Orion dan Piedro dengan Dardanella. Dua rombongan besar ini menelurkan berbagai kisah karangan mereka sendiri dengan kepiawaian Andjar Asmara dan Nyoo Cheong Seng.

Perkembangan rombongan komedi ini menentukan perjalanan kesenian bangsa ini terutama dalam hal perfilman. Dari rombongan komedi ini kemudian muncul istilah anak wayang mengikuti istilah yang berkembang di tanah Malaka, di mana Mahieu mencontoh penampilan Abdul Muluk. Istilah tersebut biasa digunakan oleh awak rombongan itu. Pertunjukan mereka disebut wayang panggung.

Kehidupan manusia panggung, anak-anak wayang, adalah kehidupan yang terdiri dari pemain dalam satu rombongan. Mereka hidup, makan, minum. tidur, bermain, bercanda, bermain di satu rumah atau kampung untuk kemudian bermain bersama di atas panggung, begitu selalu. Misbach menuliskan, jika sedang ikut pertunjukan keliling, mereka tinggal di satu rumah kongsi – bangunan kosong yang disewa pemilik rombongan. Ini menyebabkan mereka tak bergaul dengan manusia lain selain manusia dalam rombongan itu yang rata-rata buta huruf. Pemain komedi dibayar harian, mereka seringkali harus bekerja tambahan jika pertunjukan di satu kota sepi penonton.

Di Batavia, anak wayang dikumpulkan di kawasan bernama Tangki, di daerah Mangga Dua. Di tahun 1920-an, berdiri Malayan Opera. Anak wayang Malayan Opera inilah yang kebanyakan tinggal di Tangki. Pada 1950, di mana kampung ini kemudian dijejali seniman, muncul sebutan Tangkiwood – seperti Hollywood

1a. Miss Tjitjih 

The group leader named Miss Tjitjih S.A. Bafaqih, one born in Pasuruan, East Java. He was already quite advanced ditahun 1962, 75 years old, born in 1888. Theoretical Dad has been retired, according to its own terms, but in practical secraa still lead straight. Actually he was bored with the play, both as a player or a leader or a play, but somehow, when you hear there is a play, just want to watch, apaun would happen, maybe it’s inborn. He told me that he knew very well that people who play it are snadiwara liar, is tantamount to a drug seller, is not entirely correct. The difference, play and the players got dressed lakon.punya story interesting. Perhaps in this world does need people like him. The people who are just moving the field of arts and culture. People said of him, people who are not so normal, he watched people, but we also sometimes be a spectacle because people rarely live IAMI no worse than a trash. but let us feel satisfied, and the audience that we need seba if they are not satisfied, recording will not come again.

  Bafaqih father was a traveling salesman from a disorder of the city, indeed the family is a family of merchants. Then went along with the heartfelt drama. Then mewrasa interested in the play field, seterusna easement and release their commercial work into play. in the history of the father hidunya Bafaqih met alone showman, a virgin from Sumedang who have talent with a fairly good-looking face, which later became his wife. The name comes from the name of Miss Tjitjih isterinyalah, before the play group was given the name: Opera De Nacht “. then” Valencia Opera “, and so Miss Tjitjih until 1962

Let stumbling We Were There …
Community Arts Miss Tjitjih
 

 
 
 
When you cross the street in East Cempakabaru, Central Jakarta, was standing strong a building that is named Miss Tjitjih Art Building. In the era of the 1970s, the building is always crowded with society are “thirsty” entertainment. They want to see pergelaraan Sundanese traditional arts groups.

Miss Tjitjih Arts Building with a capacity of 400 people were at the time keemasaannya never empty. “In that year (1970), we have a gig if you can up to three hours. Moreover, even a Saturday night gig could be up to four hours,” said Maman Sutarman, the player who doubles as director and screenwriter staging of Miss Tjitjih, when found in the Warta Kota his home in the back of the building arts, Friday (15 / 1).

In conversation, Maman Sutarman from West Java who was familiarly called Mang Esek, accompanied by Mohammad, co seprofesinya. They both claim to remember very well once their better period, especially when staged a play titled Bridge Shirotul Mustaqim.

“If now remember, sometimes sad also with our fate now. If we had played, the audience is full. Due to limited building capacity, the audience at that time in the queue. So every show the audience is always full,” recalled Mohammad diamini Asek Mang.

Mang Esek said, the group named their artistry Miss Tjitjih taken from a showman who was born in Sumedang, West Java, on tahun1928. In the past, this art is so popular because of the entertainment world and segemerlap not as much as now.

According to Mang Esek, the popularity of their community began to seem to fade in 1987. Along with the times especially the entertainment world that increasingly rampant, eventually displaced them as the times. Then Mang Esek along with members of the arts can survive only with the Foundation bernanung Miss Tjitjih who managed the city administration.

Today, Mang Esek with Miss Tjitjih arts group members lived in a two-story building behind the arts building as a “gift” to the struggle of the artist plays Miss Tjitjih first. “Yes, thank God we were still given a place to shelter,” said Mang Esek about two-storey building consisting of 17 rooms that.

When asked if they still do performances in the building that now run DKI Jakarta Provincial Government through the Department of Tourism and Culture, he says, “It depends.”

The point? “It depends on subsidies. If you go down so we play. Now these subsidies more widely used to treat the building. Even if we are playing well now quiet crowd,” he said. They appear usually on Saturday night. Every spectator entrance fee charged Rp 10,000.

Although the audience appeared minus Mang Esek and Mohammad and his colleagues always look excited. “We do not care if quiet is important we entertain people with Sundanese traditional theater. Intention we now want to prove even if we struggled we struggled there,” said Mang Esek

Miss Tjitjih, Devotion A Girl Sumedang

————————————————– ——————————

Nyi Tjitjih originally was just a regular performer in Sumedang Sunda. His role on stage is also somewhat indifferent to the role as a singer or a princess in another time. However, the story of life’s journey Nyi Tjitjih slowly changed after meeting with Aboe Fuel Bafaqih. At that time, Bafaqih, an Arab-born Bangil (East Java), with entourage stambulnya are conducting tour in West Java.

In the area of Sumedang, Bafaqih met with Nyi Tjitjih who was playing with Tonil Sunda. Bafaqih immediately attracted him into bentukannya repertory, Opera Valencia. Bafaqih invitation was welcomed Nyi Tjitjih. From then Nyi Tjitjih become part of the Opera Valencia. When joining the Opera Valencia, Nyi Tjitjih 18 years old. In this bevy of new looks Nyi Tjitjih hidden talent. Besides her beautiful face, this girl also has a lovely voice, acting ability, and agility in dancing. From day to day ability to grow Tjitjih Nyi so she became a prima donna in these associations.

In 1928, the association Opera Valencia arrived at Batavia. In the same year, Bafaqih edit Nyi Tjitjih become his second wife. When it had just Tjitjih age 20 years. Furthermore, Nyi Tjitjih changed its name to Miss Tjitjih and the name was used as the name of this association Bafaqih leadership.

The full name is Miss Tjitjih association Toneel Gezelschap. So, practically defined as the birth of the 1928 Miss Tjitjih repertory.

The prima donna

It has become a common thing, at that time the name of the association serve as the prima donna perkumpulannya name. This is part of the “arms” to grab the attention of major public and commercial purposes / commercial. This is called the “star system”. Star system began to be a trend in the world of theater since the early 1920s.

Previously, the leadership repertoire Orion Tio Tek Djien Jr. established in Batavia in 1925 changed its name to the repertory of Miss Riboet Orion, following the name of a prima donna who is also wife of Tio, Riboet. At that time, rival Miss Tjitjih to grab public attention among them Miss Dja, a society belle of Dardanelles, and Miss Riboet of Miss Riboet Orion association.

Change the name was also accompanied by changes in the language of the show. Society Miss Tjitjih who previously used to switch to Malay language. This decision was taken on the idea of Miss Tjitjih own who want to preserve the native culture and based on the reality that the public is a public supporter of Miss Tjitjih Jabar.

However, this decision is not without risk. Sundanese language usage in dialogue on the stage make the space for this group increasingly narrow. They are fixated on areas of West Java and Batavia only.

Miss Tjitjih Society who lived in Batavia since 1928 remained held regional tour to Jabar. In this tour, transportation equipment they use is a cow-drawn cart. If the journey is too far, they use the train.

The play-act that is often brought on stage was the play-the play that close to nature the majority of people thought the Dutch East Indies. Folktales like Sangkoeriang, Tjioeng Vanara, and played an active Kasaroeng Loetoeng on stage. Normally they play with improvisation.

In 1931, Miss Tjitjih theatrical troupe was invited to hold a show at the Bogor Palace. This association seems more famous so that the palace had asked for their performances. Among the audience of course there is the governor-general. In addition, they also have a fixed schedule for performing at Gambir Market Batavia until market closes in 1936.

Name Miss Tjitjih increasingly flying in stage liver lovers. In fact, various district hall who was a social event of the marvelous, as in Cianjur, Garut, Lebak, and Kasepuhan Keraton Cirebon, become the places visited Miss Tjitjih to show skill. If Miss Tjitjih’re onstage, the audience seemed mesmerized by the skill.

Age 28 years

Year 1936 seems to be the last year Tjitjih can waddle on stage. In that year, Tjitjih last breath. Before the last breath, Nyi Tjitjih still had time to play with his entourage in Cikampek (West Java) to perform a play written by Crow Solo Tek Tio Jr. Djien.

In these plays a role as Tandak Nyi Tjitjih who decided his love by the crown prince. Tjitjih who always played with all my heart on the stage when the screen suddenly fell down. Viewers who watched the show thought that what they watch is part of acting Tjitjih. Performing at this Cikampek stopped in the middle of the road. Nyi Tjitjih indeed been suffering from illness for a long time.

Although the conditions are not favorable, he was still forced to play. Nyi Tjitjih died after being taken to his homeland, Sumedang. Tjitjih died at the age of 28 years. After the death of Nyi Tjitjih, Bafaqih remain consistent to continue breathing Miss Tjitjih repertory. The prima donna has died after part of his life spent devoted to the theatrical Sunda.

Devotion Sumedang girl was not in vain. Up to now the name of Miss Tjitjih still standing in the middle of the public who support it. It is appropriate Sunda theatrical life is getting more attention from the government, and we can not simply forget the bevy of 80 years standing who has this. Hopefully

Culture Award to Sundanese Artists

sundanese award

Indonesian Culture – indonesiaculture.net. Center of Sunda Association bestowed the Culture Award to several Sunda artists considered consistent in preserving the Sundanese art and culture. Among the recipients were Ms. Tien Rostini Asikin (Ma Ageung) and Kang Ebet Kadarusman.

 Consultative Body (bammus) Sundanese Cultural Center gives grace to the few artists who are considered konsistan Sunda and serious in maintaining the culture and art sunda, including the award bestowed upon Mrs. Tien Rostini Asikin (Ma Ageung) and kang Ebet Kadarusman

Accompanied with minimal lighting, drum beats and traditional HARPS were sounded out in welcome towards the audience. Sited at the ‘Miss Tjitjih Arts Centre’, the occasion was Attended with Sundanese song performances from singers.

With a simple lighting, music started playing, just the sound of drum beat and harp audience as addressed by the language “Wilujeng Sumping” by the sound of music. Housed in the Art Building Miss Tjitjih, also lively cultural event title song by the champions pasanggiri sunda sunda song.

Every song sung by the singers were adorned with dancers accompanying the Sundanese melodies, and poetry Carried out by Adang Darajatun and Hasanudin

In each of songs sung by singers, dancing to the rhythm of the song sunda, as well as poetry verses sung by Adang Darajatun and Hasanudin complement cultural performance events Sundanese artist.

‘Miss Tjitjih Arts Centre’ endeavors to maintain and develop the Sundanese arts through performances done and the struggle of artists Sundanese Trying to maintain the preservation of Sundanese arts.

Miss Tjitjih future Art Building hope with the implementation of this cultural event may the activities of culture, especially Sunda culture can thrive and crowded audience. “The artist is trying desperately to preserve Sundanese culture”.

 
(WHO ino i have after 1962, please be willing to tell me, thank you, Dr. John)

The group leader named Miss Tjitjih S.A. Bafaqih, a birth Pasuruan, East Java. He was already quite advanced in the year 1962, 75 years old, born in 1888. Theoretically this man retired, according to its own terms, but it remains practically lead directly. Actually he was bored with the drama, both as a player or a leader or watch a play, but somehow, when you hear there is a play, to just come to watch, apaun that would happen, maybe it’s inborn. He told me that he knew very well that the people who play it are snadiwara liar, just the same as a drug seller, not entirely true. The difference, plays and players got dressed lakon.punya interesting story. This world may indeed need people like him. People are just moving the field of art and culture. People said of him, people who are not so normal, he watched people, but we also sometimes be a spectacle for the people living IAMI often worse than a hobo. but let us feel satisfied, and the audience that we need if they are not satisfied Seba, recording will not come again.

 Bafaqih father was a traveling salesman from a disorder of the city, indeed the family is a family of merchants. Then went along with the charade oragnisasi. Mewrasa interested in the field plays later, seterusna easement and release the theatrical work of trade entry. in the history hidunya Bafaqih father met with a lady performer, a virgin of Sumedang who has enough talent to look beautiful, which later became his wife. The name comes from the name of Miss Tjitjih isterinyalah, before the group is named hammy theatrics e Nacht Opera “. Then” Valencia Opera “, and so Miss Tjitjih until 1962

Let stumbling We Still …
Community Arts Miss Tjitjih
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
When you cross the street in Cempakabaru East, Central Jakarta, was standing tall a building named Miss Tjitjih Arts Building. In the era of the 1970s, the building is always crowded with society are “thirsty” entertainment. They want to see pergelaraan Sundanese traditional arts groups.

Miss Tjitjih Arts Centre with a capacity of 400 people during its Golden Age was never empty. “In that year (1970), if we can get three-hour gig. Moreover, even a Saturday night gig could be up to four hours, “said Maman Sutarman, the player who doubles as director and screenwriter staging Miss Tjitjih, when met at his house in Warta Kota behind the opera house on Friday (15/1).

In conversation, Maman Sutarman from West Java who was familiarly called Mang Esek, accompanied by Mohammad, co seprofesinya. They both remember once confessed their heyday, especially when staging a play titled Bridge Shirotul Mustaqim.

“I now remember, sometimes sad fate also with us today. If we had been playing, the audience is full. Due to limited capacity of the building, it’s time to line up the audience. So every show the audience is always full, “recalled Mohammad diamini Asek Mang.

Mang Esek said, those arts groups, named Miss Tjitjih taken from a performer who was born in Sumedang, West Java, on tahun1928. In the past, this art is so popular because of the entertainment world and segemerlap not as much as now.

According to Mang Esek, the popularity of their community begun to fade in 1987. As the times especially the world of entertainment that increasingly widespread, as they eventually displaced the times. Then Mang Esek with members of the arts can only survive with the Foundation Miss Tjitjih bernanung run the city administration.

Currently, Mang Esek with Miss Tjitjih member arts groups living in a two-story building behind the opera house as a “gift” of the struggle of the artist plays Miss Tjitjih first. “Yes, thank God we were given a place to shelter,” said Mang Esek of two-storey building consisting of 17 room.

When asked if they still do the gig in the building that now run the city government through the Department of Tourism and Culture, he says, “It depends.”

The point? “It depends on subsidies. If we play it down. These subsidies are now more widely used to treat the building. Even if we play well now quiet crowd, “he said. They appear usually on Saturday night. Every spectator tickets are Rp 10,000.

Although appearing minus the audience Mang Esek and Mohammad and his partners always look vibrant. “We do not care about silent essential we entertain people with traditional Sundanese theatrics. We now want to prove intent even though we struggled, we struggled there, “said Mang Esek

Miss Tjitjih, Devotion A Girl Sumedang

————————————————– ——————————

Nyi Tjitjih originally was a regular performer in Sumedang Sunda. His role on the stage is also fairly normal with the role as a singer or a princess in another time. However, the journey of life Nyi Tjitjih slowly changed after meeting with Aboe Bakar Bafaqih. At that time, Bafaqih, an Arab born in Bangil (East Java), the entourage stambulnya’re doing on tour in West Java.

In the area of Sumedang, Bafaqih met with Nyi Tjitjih who was playing with Tonil Sunda. Bafaqih immediately attracted him into bentukannya repertory, Opera Valencia. Bafaqih invitation was welcomed Nyi Tjitjih. From then Nyi Tjitjih be part of the Valencia Opera. When joining the Opera Valencia, Nyi Tjitjih only 18 years old. In this group the new look Nyi Tjitjih hidden talent. In addition to her beautiful face, she also has a lovely voice, acting ability, and agility in dancing. From day to day Tjitjih Nyi ability to evolve so it becomes the belle of the association.

In 1928, associations Opera Valencia until at Batavia. In the same year, Bafaqih edit Nyi Tjitjih become his second wife. When it had just Tjitjih age of 20 years. Furthermore, Nyi Tjitjih renamed Miss Tjitjih and the name was used as the name of this association Bafaqih leadership.

Association’s full name is Miss Tjitjih Toneel Gezelschap. So, practically established in 1928 as the birth of Miss Tjitjih repertory.

The prima donna

Has become a common thing, in the name of the prima donna was used as the name perkumpulannya associations. This is part of the “arms” to grab the attention of major public and commercial purposes / commercial. This is called the “star system”. Star system began to be a trend in the theater since the early 1920’s.

Earlier, the head of Orion repertory Tio Tek Djien Jr. established in Batavia in 1925 changed its name to Orion Riboet Miss repertoire, following the name of a prima donna who is also wife of Tio, Riboet. At that time, rival Miss Tjitjih to grab public attention in between Miss Dja, a society belle of the Dardanelles, and Miss Riboet of Miss Riboet Orion association.

The name change was also accompanied by changes in the language of instruction show. Miss Tjitjih associations who previously used to switch to Malay language. This decision was taken on the idea of Miss Tjitjih who wants to preserve his native culture and based on the reality that public support is the Miss Tjitjih Jabar.

However, this decision is not without risk. Sundanese language usage in dialogue on the stage to make room for these associations increasingly narrow. They focused on areas of West Java and Batavia only.

Miss Tjitjih association that since 1928 it settled in Batavia held a road show to the West Java area. In these tours, transportation equipment they use is cattle-drawn carts. If it travels too far, they use the train.

Play-play that is often brought on the stage-play is a play that is close to the minds of the majority of the Dutch East Indies. Folktales as Sangkoeriang, Tjioeng Wanara, and played an active Kasaroeng Loetoeng on stage. Usually they play with improvisation.

In 1931, Miss Tjitjih theatrical troupe was invited to hold a show at the Bogor Palace. This association seems to becoming famous, so the court also asked their performances. Among the audience of course there is the governor-general. In addition, they also have a fixed schedule for a gig at the Market Gambir Batavia until market closes in 1936.

Name Miss Tjitjih growing in the hearts of lovers of the stage waving. In fact, various county hall who was a marvelous event of the association, as in Cianjur, Garut, Lebak, and Cirebon Kasepuhan palace, into the places visited by Miss Tjitjih to show his skill. If Miss Tjitjih being on stage, the audience as if mesmerized by his skill.

Age 28 years

Year 1936 seems to be the last year could Tjitjih waddle on stage. In that year, Tjitjih last breath. Before the last breath, Nyi Tjitjih still had time to play with his entourage in Cikampek (West Java) with a stage play written by Tio Tek Solo Crow Jr. Djien.

In the play the role as Nyi Tjitjih love Tandak decided by the crown prince. Tjitjih is always the heart on the stage when the screen suddenly fell down. Viewers who watched the show thinking that what they watch is part of the acting Tjitjih. Performances in this Cikampek stopped in the middle of the road. Nyi Tjitjih indeed have the disease for a long time.

Although the conditions were not favorable, he was still forced to play. Nyi Tjitjih died after being taken to his homeland, Sumedang. Tjitjih died at the age of 28 years. After the death of Nyi Tjitjih, Bafaqih remain consistent to continue breathing Miss Tjitjih repertory. The prima donna dies after most of his life spent devoted to the theatrical Sunda.

Sumedang her devotion was not in vain. Up to now the name of Miss Tjitjih remained standing in the middle of a public that supports it. It is appropriate this Sunda theatrical life received more attention from the government, and we do not just forget the 80 associations that have been established this year. Hopefully

(Anyone who has info after 1962, please deign to inform me, thank you, Dr. Iwan)

 
 
 

original info

Badan Musyawarah (bammus) Sunda Pusat memberikan Anugerah Budaya kepada beberapa seniman sunda yang dianggap konsistan dan serius dalam memelihara kebudayaan dan kesenian sunda, penghargaan tersebut diantaranya dianugerahkan kepada Ibu Tien Rostini Asikin (Ma Ageung) dan kang Ebet Kadarusman

Accompanied with minimal lighting, drum beats and traditional harps were sounded out in welcome towards the audience. Sited at the ‘Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih’, the occasion was attended with song performances from Sundanese singers.

Dengan tata lampu yang sederhana, Musik mulai dimainkan, hanya suara tabuhan gendang dan kecapi penonton seolah disapa dengan bahasa “wilujeng sumping” oleh suara musik tersebut. Bertempat di Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih, juga dimeriahkan gelar acara budaya tembang sunda oleh para juara pasanggiri tembang sunda.

Every song sung by the singers were adorned with dancers accompanying the Sundanese melodies, and poetry carried out by Adang Darajatun and Hasanudin

Ditiap lagu-lagu yang dinyanyikan oleh penyanyi, para menari mengiringi alunan tembang sunda, juga bait-bait puisi yang dibawakan oleh Adang Darajatun dan Hasanudin melengkapi  acara pagelaran budaya seniman sunda.

sundanese award kolg

‘Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih’ endeavors to maintain and develop Sundanese arts through the performances done and the struggle of Sundanese artists trying to maintain the preservation of Sundanese arts.

Kedepan Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih berharap dengan dilaksanakannya acara budaya ini semoga kegiatan-kegiatan budaya khususnya budaya sunda dapat berkembang dan ramai penonton.“para seniman tetap berusaha mati-matian mempertahankan budaya sunda”.

 

(who have i ino after 1962, please be willing to tell me, thank you-Dr Iwan)

Ketua rombongan Miss Tjitjih bernama S.A. Bafaqih, seorang kelahiran Pasuruan, Jawa timur. Usianya sudah agak lanjut ditahun 1962 ,75 tahun,kelahiran 1888. Teoritis Bapak ini sudah pensiun, menurut istilah sendiri, tapi secara praktisnya masih tetap memimpin secara langsung. Sebenarnya ia sudah bosan dengan sandiwara, baik sebagai pemain ataupun pemimpin atau menonton sandiwara, tetapi entah bagaimana, kalau mendengar ada sandiwara, ingin saja ikut menonton, apaun yang bakal terjadi, mungkin sudah dibawa sejak lahir. Ia bercerita bahwa , ia tahu betul bahwa orang yang main snadiwara itu adalah tukang bohong,sama saja dengan seorang penjual obat,tidak seluruhnya benar. Bedanya, sandiwara punya lakon.punya cerita dan pemain berpakaian menarik. Mungkin didunia ini memang perlu orang-orang seperti dia. Orang-orang yang hanya bergerak dilapangan seni dan budaya. Orang berkata tentang dia, orang yang tidak begitu normal,ia ditonton orang, tetapi kami juga kadang-kadang jadi tontonan orang  sebab tak jarang hidup iami lebih jelek daripada seorang gembel. tetapi biarlah kami merasa  puas, dan penonton yang memerlukan kami  seba  jika mereka tidak puas, merekan tidak akan datang lagi.

 bapak Bafaqih adalah seorang pedagang keliling dari satu kelain kota, memang keluarganya adalah keluarga pedagang. Kemudian ikut-ikutan dalam oragnisasi sandiwara. Kemudia mewrasa tertarik dilapangan sandiwara, seterusna keenakan dan melepaskan pekerjaan dagangnya masuk sandiwara. dalam sejarah hidunya bapak Bafaqih bertemu dengan sorang pemain sandiwara, seorang dara dari sumedang yang memiliki bakat dengan paras yang cukup rupawan ,yang kemudian menjadi isterinya. Dari Nama isterinyalah bersumber nama Miss Tjitjih, sebelumnya rombongan sandiwaranya diberi nama :D e Nacht Opera”.kemudian “Valencia Opera”, lalu jadi Miss Tjitjih sampai tahun 1962

Biar Terseok Kami Masih Ada…
Komunitas Kesenian Miss Tjitjih
 
 
 
 

Bila Anda melintasi jalan di Cempakabaru Timur, Jakarta Pusat, tampak berdiri kokoh sebuah bangunan yang diberi nama Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih.

 Di era 1970-an, gedung tersebut selalu dipadati masyakarat yang “haus” hiburan. Mereka ingin menyaksikan pergelaraan kelompok kesenian tradisonal Sunda itu.

Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih yang berkapasitas 400 orang itu pada masa keemasaannya tak pernah sepi. “Di tahun itu (1970-an), kami kalau manggung bisa sampai tiga jam. Apalagi malam Minggu malah bisa sampai manggung empat jam,” kata Maman Sutarman, pemain yang merangkap sebagai sutradara dan penulis skenario pementasan Miss Tjitjih, saat ditemui Warta Kota di rumahnya di belakang gedung kesenian tersebut, Jumat (15/1).

Dalam obrolan itu, Maman Sutarman asal Jawa Barat yang akrab disapa Mang Esek, ditemani Mohammad, rekan seprofesinya. Mereka berdua mengaku sangat ingat sekali masa jaya mereka, terlebih saat mementaskan sandiwara berjudul Jembatan Shirotul Mustaqim.

“Kalau sekarang ingat lagi, kadang sedih juga dengan nasib kita sekarang. Kalau dulu kita main, penonton penuh. Karena kapasitas gedung terbatas, penonton waktu itu pada antre. Jadi setiap tampil penonton selalu penuh,” kenang Mang Asek diamini Mohammad.

Mang Esek menuturkan, kelompok kesenian mereka yang diberi nama Miss Tjitjih diambil dari seorang pemain sandiwara yang lahir di Sumedang, Jawa Barat, pada tahun1928. Pada masa lalu, kesenian ini begitu diminati karena dunia hiburan belum sebanyak dan segemerlap seperti sekarang.

Menurut Mang Esek, popularitas ko-munitas mereka mulai terasa meredup tahun 1987. Seiring perkembangan zaman terlebih dunia hiburan yang semakin marak, akhirnya mereka seperti tergusur zaman . Kemudian Mang Esek bersama anggota kesenian itu hanya bisa bertahan hidup dengan bernanung di Yayasan Miss Tjitjih yang dikelola Pemerintah Provinsi DKI Jakarta.

Saat ini, Mang Esek bersama anggota kelompok kesenian Miss Tjitjih tinggal di sebuah bangunan berlantai dua di belakang gedung kesenian itu sebagai “hadiah” atas perjuangan para seniman sandiwara Miss Tjitjih dulu. “Ya alhamdulillah kami masih diberi tempat untuk berteduh,” kata Mang Esek tentang bangunan dua lantai yang terdiri atas 17 kamar itu.

Ketika ditanya apakah sekarang mereka masih melakukan pementasan di gedung yang kini dikelola Pemprov DKI Jakarta melalui Dinas Pariwisata dan Kebudayaan itu, dia mengatakan, “Tergantung.”

Maksudnya? “Tergantung subsidi. Kalau turun ya kita main. Sekarang ini subsidi lebih banyak digunakan untuk merawat gedung. Kalaupun kita main juga sekarang penonton sepi,” katanya. Mereka tampil biasanya pada Sabtu malam. Setiap penonton dikenai tiket masuk Rp 10.000.

Meski tampil minus penonton Mang Esek dan Mohammad bersama rekan-rekannya selalu tampil bersemangat. “Kita nggak peduli sepi yang penting kita menghibur orang dengan sandiwara tradisional Sunda. Niat kita sekarang ingin membuktikan biarpun kita terseok-terseok kami masih ada,” kata Mang Esek

Miss Tjitjih, Pengabdian Seorang Gadis Sumedang


Nyi Tjitjih awalnya hanyalah seorang pemain sandiwara Sunda biasa di Sumedang. Perannya di atas panggung juga terbilang biasa saja dengan peran sebagai penyanyi atau seorang putri raja di waktu lain. Namun, kisah perjalanan hidup Nyi Tjitjih perlahan berubah setelah bertemu dengan Aboe Bakar Bafaqih. Ketika itu, Bafaqih, seorang Arab kelahiran Bangil (Jawa Timur), bersama rombongan stambulnya sedang melakukan pertunjukan keliling di Jawa Barat.

Di daerah Sumedang, Bafaqih bertemu dengan Nyi Tjitjih yang sedang bermain dengan Tonil Sunda. Bafaqih langsung tertarik mengajaknya masuk ke dalam perkumpulan sandiwara bentukannya, Opera Valencia. Ajakan Bafaqih tersebut disambut baik Nyi Tjitjih. Mulai saat itu Nyi Tjitjih menjadi bagian dari Opera Valencia. Ketika bergabung dengan Opera Valencia, Nyi Tjitjih baru berusia 18 tahun. Dalam perkumpulan ini baru terlihat bakat Nyi Tjitjih yang terpendam. Selain wajahnya yang cantik, gadis ini juga mempunyai suara merdu, kemampuan akting, dan kelincahan dalam menari. Dari hari ke hari kemampuan Nyi Tjitjih berkembang sehingga ia menjadi primadona dalam perkumpulan tersebut.

Pada 1928, perkumpulan Opera Valencia sampai di Batavia. Pada tahun yang sama, Bafaqih menyunting Nyi Tjitjih menjadi istri keduanya. Ketika itu usia Tjitjih baru menginjak 20 tahun. Selanjutnya, Nyi Tjitjih diubah namanya menjadi Miss Tjitjih dan nama tersebut dipakai sebagai nama perkumpulan pimpinan Bafaqih ini.

Nama lengkap perkumpulan itu adalah Miss Tjitjih Toneel Gezelschap. Maka, praktis tahun 1928 ditetapkan sebagai kelahiran perkumpulan sandiwara Miss Tjitjih.

Sang primadona

Sudah menjadi suatu hal yang lazim, pada masa itu nama sang primadona perkumpulan dijadikan sebagai nama perkumpulannya. Ini merupakan bagian dari “senjata” utama untuk meraih perhatian publik dan maksud dagang/komersial. Hal ini disebut dengan “sistem bintang”. Sistem bintang mulai dijadikan tren pada dunia teater sejak awal tahun 1920-an.

Sebelumnya, perkumpulan sandiwara Orion pimpinan Tio Tek Djien Jr yang dibentuk di Batavia tahun 1925 mengganti namanya menjadi perkumpulan sandiwara Miss Riboet Orion, mengikuti nama seorang primadona yang juga istri Tio, Riboet. Ketika itu, saingan Miss Tjitjih untuk meraih perhatian publik di antaranya Miss Dja, seorang primadona dari perkumpulan Dardanella, dan Miss Riboet dari perkumpulan Miss Riboet Orion.

Perubahan nama itu ternyata juga diikuti dengan perubahan bahasa pengantar pertunjukan. Perkumpulan Miss Tjitjih yang sebelumnya menggunakan bahasa Melayu beralih ke bahasa Sunda. Keputusan ini diambil atas ide dari Miss Tjitjih sendiri yang ingin melestarikan budaya tanah kelahirannya dan berdasarkan realita bahwa publik pendukung Miss Tjitjih adalah masyarakat Jabar.

Namun, keputusan ini bukan tanpa risiko. Pemakaian bahasa Sunda dalam dialog di atas panggung membuat ruang gerak perkumpulan ini semakin sempit. Mereka terpaku pada daerah-daerah Jabar dan Batavia saja.

Perkumpulan Miss Tjitjih yang sejak 1928 menetap di Batavia tetap mengadakan pertunjukan keliling ke daerah Jabar. Dalam perjalanan keliling ini, alat transportasi yang mereka gunakan adalah gerobak yang ditarik sapi. Jika perjalanannya terlampau jauh, mereka menggunakan kereta api.

Lakon-lakon yang sering dibawa di atas panggung adalah lakon-lakon yang dekat dengan alam pikiran mayoritas masyarakat Hindia Belanda. Cerita-cerita rakyat seperti Sangkoeriang, Tjioeng Wanara, dan Loetoeng Kasaroeng aktif dimainkan di atas pentas. Biasanya mereka bermain dengan improvisasi.

Pada 1931, rombongan sandiwara Miss Tjitjih diundang untuk mengadakan pertunjukan di Istana Bogor. Tampaknya perkumpulan ini kian masyhur sehingga pihak istana pun meminta mereka pentas. Di antara penontonnya tentu saja ada gubernur jenderal. Selain itu, mereka juga mempunyai jadwal tetap untuk mengadakan pertunjukan di Pasar Gambir Batavia hingga pasar ini tutup pada 1936.

Nama Miss Tjitjih kian berkibar di hati pencinta panggung. Bahkan, berbagai pendopo kabupaten yang saat itu menjadi ajang pergaulan para menak, seperti di Kabupaten Cianjur, Garut, Lebak, serta Keraton Kasepuhan Cirebon, menjadi tempat-tempat yang dikunjungi Miss Tjitjih untuk memperlihatkan kebolehannya. Jika Miss Tjitjih sedang berada di atas panggung, penonton seolah-olah tersihir oleh kebolehannya.

Usia 28 tahun

Tahun 1936 tampaknya menjadi tahun terakhir Tjitjih bisa berlenggak-lenggok di atas panggung. Pada tahun itu, Tjitjih mengembuskan napas terakhirnya. Sebelum mengembuskan napas terakhir, Nyi Tjitjih masih sempat bermain dengan rombongannya di Cikampek (Jabar) dengan mementaskan lakon Gagak Solo karangan Tio Tek Djien Jr.

Dalam lakon tersebut Nyi Tjitjih berperan sebagai Tandak yang diputuskan cintanya oleh putra mahkota. Tjitjih yang selalu berperan sepenuh hati di atas panggung mendadak terjatuh pada saat layar turun. Penonton yang menyaksikan pertunjukan itu mengira bahwa apa yang mereka tonton adalah bagian dari akting Tjitjih. Pertunjukan di Cikampek ini terhenti di tengah jalan. Nyi Tjitjih memang telah mengidap penyakit sejak lama.

Walaupun kondisinya sedang tidak menguntungkan, dia tetap memaksakan untuk bermain. Nyi Tjitjih meninggal dunia setelah dibawa ke tanah kelahirannya, Sumedang. Tjitjih meninggal pada usia 28 tahun. Sepeninggal Nyi Tjitjih, Bafaqih tetap konsisten melanjutkan napas perkumpulan sandiwara Miss Tjitjih. Sang primadona meninggal dunia setelah sebagian hidupnya dihabiskan untuk mengabdikan diri pada sandiwara Sunda.

Pengabdian gadis Sumedang itu tidak sia-sia. Hingga kini nama Miss Tjitjih tetap berdiri di tengah-tengah publik yang mendukungnya. Sudah selayaknya kehidupan sandiwara Sunda ini mendapat perhatian lebih dari pemerintah, dan kita tidak begitu saja melupakan perkumpulan yang sudah 80 tahun berdiri ini. Semoga

(siapa yang memiliki info setelah tahun 1962,harap berkenan menginformasikannya kepada saya,terima kasih-Dr Iwan)

2.orchestra sound dibp R Sutedjo Space
song: Call terumi godly creation


2) Four Gang Djakarta Orchestra leader John S.
Side one: The song to convey my compliments (nn)

1) High in the clouds song (pious)

2) Say hello (nn)

Four Gang
One of the musical group that was formed under the auspices of Ismail Marzuki Jakarta RRI. Core personnel are only four people, namely Saleh Soewita (guitar), Isaac (contra-bass), Jachja (violin), and Ariston da Cruz (piano; musician from the Philippines which changed its name to Arief Effendi). Contra-bass is sometimes held by Sarom. Ismail himself acting as a leader and that orchestra music arranger. This group was formed shortly after the proclamation of independence, which is intended to lower the political temperature of the hot and could explode at any time into open battle. Curtain time is given by the RRI Jakarta to the orchestra Four Sekawan about 30 minutes to 1 hour. Hours of their broadcast twice in one week, usually every Tuesday and Wednesday afternoon.

In 1946,

days and hours of play Four Gang erratic, sometimes on Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday. Generally, this orchestra is playing about 45 minutes, and broadcast three times in one day, lunch at 13:15, 17:15 o’clock in the afternoon, and evening at 20.00. Four Gang music event in Jakarta RRI Programa Hiboeran entitled Heroes, Hiboeran Oentoek Armed Forces sea and is difficult to determine RI, Hieboeran Saturday night, Hiboeran evening, Bidder Rindoe, and Alam Ria Indonesia. In addition to regularly fill the musical events in the radio studio, Four Gang also took down directly to the various fronts. They cheer the fighters and the local community who love the song of struggle, especially the songs that were created by the quartet orchestra personnel, including Ismail Marzuki.

   

Ismail Marzuki song creation work of the most popular is the seduction of Palm Island are used as final cover songs broadcast by TVRI station on the reign of the New Order.

Ismail Marzuki blessed honor in 1968 with the opening of Taman Ismail Marzuki, a park and cultural center in Salemba, Central Jakarta. In 2004 he was crowned a national hero of Indonesia.

He had founded the orchestra Four Gang

2. Kroncong Assorted Colors Markasan DBP (Srimpi record Inc.)
Side 1 with the song:

1) pack sakerah (Sueb) 2) Kuto Suroboyo (Sukemi)

3) numpak railroad (j, Sudarminto et al),

4) Nyang T.H.R (noerjatian)

Side 2:

1) Motor Uduk (Ahmad & J.sudarminto)

2) The pansy (Juwariyah T.M.)

3) Dream dicokot Ulo (Soekemi / Achmad),

4) Nanggelo (Sueb)

original info

A.ERA BUNG KARNO 1951-1965

1a.Grup Musik Sunda Miss Tjitjih di Betawi(Jakarta)

Hampir setiap orang di Indonesia ini tahu dimana terletak tontonan Miss Tjitjih. tontonan berupa tonil Sunda atau Sandiwara yang memakai bahasa penagntar bahasa Sunda. Setiap abang becak akan tahu ,bahkan kondektur Bis yang mempunyai trayek keluar kota atau datang dari jurusan luar kota di terminal Bus di Palputih akan bertanya kepada setiap penumpangnya:” Miss Tjitjih ! Ada yang turun! (hal sama diterminal kemapung melayu jatinegara, “Mester Mester turun”. Kenapa Miss Tjitjih samapi begitu terkenal? kenapa ia telah dapat merebut hati sebagian besar penduduk Jakarta? Dan mungkin pembaca tidak akan pertjaya bahwa tidak sedikit penonton asingyang pada waktu tertentu menonton sandiwara itu. Misalnya saja penonton yang berkebangsaan Rusia,Jerman,Ceko,Amerika Serikat dan sudah tentu bangsa asia seperti orang jepang dan lainnya.

Faktor pertama yang akan menonjol kedepan dalam menjawab pertanyaan tersebut diatas, yang sudah pasti adalah untuk hiburan, karena orang membutuhkan hiburan ,hiburan yang sehat dan murah. Faktor kedua adalah sejarah,s ebab rombongan miss Tjitjih sejak lama telah beroiperasi di jakarta (Betawi) ,mereka telah menanamkan sesuatu dihati penduduk Betawi. Orang Jakarta mengenal iss Tjitjih melalui tiga zaman, era Belanda,era Pendudukan Jepang dan era Republik Indonesia sampai sekarang (1962). Rombongan Miss Tjitjih sekali menginjak Jakzarta,tetap di Jakarta. Orang Jakarta mengenal Miss Tjitjih semenjak menempati suatu persil,ditempat mana orang sekarang mengenal sebagai Pasar Burrung didalam kompleks Senen.Kemudian pindah disekitar kompleks  Stasiun Pasar senen lama dan semenjak 1952 menempati tempat yang sekarang(saya tidak menemuinya lagi dis enen tahun 1971-Dr iwan)

RAMAI-LUCU-MENDEBARFKAN-MENGHARUKAN

Mengapa orang asing juga suka denagn pertunjukan Miss Tjitjih, dalam hal ini karena faktor Seni. Terus zterang, orang asing itu tidak akan mengerti baahasa pengantar yang dipergunakan Miss Tjitjih, mungkin mereka dapat menikmati cerita secara keseluruhannya, karena ada jurubahasanya. tetapi orang asing itu akan menemukan sesuatu penilaian lain yang terdapat pada permainan dan pemain Miss Tjitjih dan juga mereka menemukan faktor seni dan budaya yang khas ditempat eprtunjukan tersebut serta juga menemukan sekelumit hiburan rakyat  yang berisikan pendidikan  dalam bidang moral yang tetap mempertahankan nilai-nilai budaya yang khusus pula.Selain itu ditemukan lakon cerita dengan latar belakang sejarah,cerita rakyat yang tetap hidup dan akhirnya ceritanya bersifat ringan,lucu,mengharukan,mendebarkan dan berakhir dengan menyenangkan.Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas ,pada tahun 1962  Presiden Sukarno menganugerahkan suatu penghargaan kepada rombongan  Miss Tjitjih pada bulan september 1962, selain penghargaan juga diberikan hadiah uang Rp.50.000,(setara us 5000.-) , bersama Miss Tjtjih juga diberikan hadiah kepada Sriwedari solo dan Ngesti Pandowo Semarang.

ORANG YANG MAIN SANDIWARA TUKANG BOHONG

Ketua rombongan Miss Tjitjih bernama S.A. Bafaqih, seorang kelahiran Pasuruan, Jawa timur. Usianya sudah agak lanjut ditahun 1962 ,75 tahun,kelahiran 1888. Teoritis Bapak ini sudah pensiun, menurut istilah sendiri, tapi secara praktisnya masih tetap memimpin secraa langsung. Sebenarnya ia sudah bosan dengan sandiwara, baik sebagai pemain ataupun pemimpin atau menonton sandiwara, tetapi entah bagaimana, kalau mendengar ada sandiwara, ingin saja ikut menonton, apaun yang bakal terjadi, mungkin sudah dibawa sejak lahir. Ia bercerita bahwa , ia tahu betul bahwa orang yang main snadiwara itu adalah tukang bohong,sama saja dengan seorang penjual obat,tidfak seluruhnya benar. Bedanya, sandiwara punya lakon.punya cerita dan pemain berpakaian menarik. Mungkin didunia ini memang perlu orang-orang seperti dia. Orang-orang yang hanya bergerak dilapangan seni danb udaya. Orang berkata tentang dia, orang yang tidak begitu mnormal,ia ditonton orang, tetapi kami juga kadang-kadang jadi tontonan orang  sebab tak jarang hidup iami lebih jelek daripada seorang gembel. tetapi biarlah kami merasa  puas, dan penonton yang memerlukan kami  seba  jika mereka tidak puas, merekan tidak akan datang lagi.

Padahal setiap malam pertunjukan selain penuh ,bahkan lebih dari penuh serta penonton terus memaksa untuk menonton,mereka rela untuk menonton sambil berdiri.Didekat pintu masuk,terbaca tulisan besar Harga karcil Rp.20,-(US$10.) keterangan Bapak Bafaqig pemimpin Rombongan Miss Tjitjih, bahwa  harga keperluan hidup terus meningkat, biaya eksploitasi sebenarnay tidak cocock lagi, selain berat buat dia,lebih-lebih karena mereka memberikan kesempatan kepada anggota Angkatan Bersenjata untuk menonton pada setiap malam Jumaat tanpa memungut bayara( saya masih ingat tahun 1973,dijawa tengah angota ABRI gratis nonton bioskop dan naik kendaran umum di jawa tengah-Dr Iwan)

DARI DUNIA DAGANG KE SANDIWARA

Suka duka pengalaman Pemimpin rombongan sandiwara Muiss Tjitjih  adalahs ebagai berikut,

Sebelum menempati kompleks bagunan tahun 1962, pemain berjumlah 84 orang, beserta seluruh karyawan beerta keluarga berjumlah 120 orang ,seluruhnya menempati kompleks tersebut. sebelum menjadi anak wayang(anak sandiwara) , bapak Bafaqih adalah seorang pedagang keliling dari satu kelain kota, memang keluarganya adalah keluarga pedagang. Kemudian ikut-ikutan dalam oragnisasi sandiwara. Kemudia mewrasa tertarik dilapangan sandiwara, seterusna keenakan dan melepaskan pekerjaan dagangnya masuk sandiwara. dalam sejarah hidunya bapak Bafaqih bertemu dengan sorang pemain sandiwara, seorang dara dari sumedang yang memiliki bakat dengan paras yang cukup rupawan ,yang kemudian menjadi isterinya. Dari Nama isterinyalah bersumber nama Miss Tjitjih, sebelumnya rombongan sandiwaranya diberi nama :D e Nacht Opera”.kemudian “Valencia Opera”, lalu jadi Miss Tjitjih sampai tahun 1962 (siapa yang emiliki ino setealh tahun 1962,harap berkenan menginformasikannya kepada saya,terima kasih-Dr Iwan)

Orkes suara Angkasa dibp R Sutedjo

lagu : Seruan terumi ciptaan saleh

2)Orkes Empat Sekawan Djakarta pimpinan S.Jahja 

side one : Lagu sampaikan salamku (nn)

1) lagu Tinggi di awan (saleh)

2)  Sampaikan salamku(nn)

Empat Sekawan
 

Salah satu kelompok musik yang dibentuk Ismail Marzuki di bawah naungan RRI Jakarta. Personel inti memang hanya empat orang, yaitu Saleh Soewita (gitar), Ishak (contra-bass), Jachja (biola), dan Ariston da Cruz (piano; pemusik asal Filipina yang berganti nama menjadi Arief Effendi). Contra-bass kadang-kadang dipegang oleh Sarom. Ismail sendiri bertindak sebagai pemimpin sekaligus pengaransemen musik orkes itu. Grup ini dibentuk sesaat setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan, yang ditujukan untuk menurunkan suhu politik yang makin panas dan setiap saat bisa meletus menjadi pertempuran terbuka. Jam main yang diberikan oleh pihak RRI Jakarta kepada orkes Empat Sekawan sekitar 30 menit sampai 1 jam. Jam siaran mereka dua kali dalam satu pekan, biasanya setiap hari Selasa dan Rabu siang. Pada 1946, hari dan jam main Empat Sekawan tidak menentu, kadang-kadang hari Senin, Selasa, atau Rabu. Umumnya orkes ini bermain sekitar 45 menit, dan tiga kali siaran dalam satu hari; siang pukul 13.15, sore pukul 17.15, dan malam pukul 20.00. Acara musik Empat Sekawan di RRI Programa Jakarta diberi tajuk Hiboeran Pahlawan, Hiboeran Oentoek Tentara Angkatan Laoet dan Oedara RI, Hieboeran Malam Minggu, Hiboeran Petang, Penawar Rindoe, dan Alam Ria Indonesia. Selain secara berkala mengisi acara musik di studio radio, Empat Sekawan juga menyempatkan diri turun langsung ke pelbagai front. Mereka menghibur para pejuang dan masyarakat setempat yang menyukai lagu perjuangan, khususnya lagu-lagu yang diciptakan oleh personel orkes kuartet itu, termasuk Ismail Marzuki.

 

Lagu ciptaan karya Ismail Marzuki yang paling populer adalah Rayuan Pulau Kelapa yang digunakan sebagai lagu penutup akhir siaran oleh stasiun TVRI pada masa pemerintahan Orde Baru.

Ismail Marzuki mendapat anugerah penghormatan pada tahun 1968 dengan dibukanya Taman Ismail Marzuki, sebuah taman dan pusat kebudayaan di Salemba, Jakarta Pusat. Pada tahun 2004 dia dinobatkan menjadi salah seorang tokoh pahlawan nasional Indonesia.

Ia sempat mendirikan orkes Empat Sekawan

2. Kroncong Aneka Warna dbp Markasan(Srimpi record Inc)

side 1 dengan lagu :

1)pak sakerah(sueb)2)kuto suroboyo(sukemi),

3)numpak sepur (j,sudarminto dkk),

4) Nyang T.H.R (noerjatian)

Side 2 :

1)Motor Uduk(Achmad &J.sudarminto),

2)Si Banci (Juwariyah T.M.),

3)Mimpi dicokot ulo(Soekemi/Achmad),

4)Nanggelo(Sueb)

3. Orkes Kroncong Tjendrawasih dbp S.Padimin(lokananta record Inc)

Song side 1 :

1)Nandur Djagung(M arif),

2)Burung Merpati(S.Padimin)

song side 2 : 

1)ditepi bengawan solo(s.Padimin-kustiati),

 2).Kroncong Mesra (sunarno-supardi achijat)

:

3.Orkes Kroncong Kemayoran dbp  M.Sagi

(Irama record Inc)

1)Irama produksi  India with song

side one : Djali Djali  (NN) singer Oje

 

side two : Mengenang Nasib ciptaaan Sukamto-St.P.Bustamil

Keroncong M.Sagi Info (google explorations)

irama

I thought that, coupled with the previous post of today, I’d post something languid and tranquil, something somewhat relaxed. So, I brought out another classic Indonesian krontjong piece from the mid-20th century, on the local Irama label. “Irama” actually means “rhythm” in English – thus the title of the piece as well as the name of the record label are explained.

I posted a krontjong tune of the same vintage, and on another independent Indonesian label (Dendang), . This one is similar – it’s the style of krontjong that I quite enjoy, featuring the walking guitar and fiddle player trading runs in between smooth vocals. Krontjong itself is a relatively new type of urban folk music, developing in Indonesian urban areas a little over 100 years ago, with Batavian, Portuguese, Malay, and even African influence. Krontjong had changed dramatically since it was first recorded ca. 1904, and when this record was released (probably the late 1940s or so). The instrumentation was bare bones at first, featuring trios and the like. I’ve heard 1920s krontjong that sounds influenced by Stamboel theater, with a slightly more operatic sound, showing further influences at work. By the 1940s, krontjong was a rage, with whole orchestras and popular singers getting into the act…yet, to me this music is not easily explained. Indonesian-Hawaiian-guitar-and-fiddle-ballads?

As for the singer and band – I’m afraid these are muddy waters. I am mostly sure that “Moh.” stands for Mohammed, and “Kr.” stands for krontjong, but at the risk of being incorrect, I will let the original label stand as the official record

3)Jasa pemain biola M.Sagi

Awalnya dengan nama Kroncong Betawi lalu Kroncong Jakarta” … Di Jakarta saat itu … Susunan instrument seperti ini adalah berkat jasa M.Sagi seorang Violinist keroncong

also in Indonesia (Irama indonesian music co ltd) look below compare with above :

1) Dimin ,Mengenang nasib with M.Sagi Keroncong Orchestra ,productions Irama Record

FRAME FOUR :

THE INDONESIA KRONCONG HISTORY FROM GOOGLE EXPLORATION FOR COMPERATIVE STUDY:

Musik keroncong lahir di Indonesia melalui proses perjalanan sejarahnya yang panjang dan penuh keunikan dilihat dari unsur pembentuknya yang terdiri dari berbagai komponen budaya, etnik, dan bahasa. Apabila kita menarik benang merah tentang asal mula lahirnya musik keroncong di Indonesia, kita akan dihadapkan pada misteri sejarah yang menyangkut sejarah dunia. Sejarah tentang pendudukan Islam di wilayah selatan semenanjung Iberia dari abad kelima hingga abad ketigabelas. Latar belakang sejarah yang menjelaskan mengapa bangsa Eropa pada abad keenambelas begitu gigih mengerahkan segala kemampuan navigasi dan kekuatan militernya untuk memperoleh rempah-rempah dari Timur. Sejarah tentang kedatangan bangsa Portugis dan bangsa Belanda pada abad ketujuhbelas untuk memperebutkan hegemoni di Asia Tenggara melalui monopoli perdagangan di Malaka, Sunda Kelapa, dan kepulauan Maluku. Sejarah tentang perbudakan, dan kehidupan para musisi jalanan selama masa Hindia Belanda. Sejarah pembentukan jatidiri bangsa Indonesia sebagai bangsa yang merdeka dan memiliki warisan budaya yang tidak terhingga banyaknya termasuk musik keroncong. Beruntunglah bahwa pada akhirnya musik keroncong diterima dan menjadi milik bangsa Indonesia, suatu kenyataan yang telah memperoleh pengakuan dunia internasional.

Saat ini ketika kita berbicara tentang keroncong, kita dihadapkan pada sebuah terminologi yang mengandung pengertian yang luas. Secara etimologis, keroncong berasal dari nama sebuah alat musik sejenis gitar berukuran kecil berdawai empat yang lazimnya terbuat dari nylon, sehingga apabila dimainkan menghasilkan bunyi crong, bukan jreng seperti halnya bunyi dawai logam. Istilah keroncong diyakini berasal dari para perajin waditra di kampung Tugu yang mewarisi keahlian seni kriya waditra gitar. Gitar itu dinamakan keroncong sebagai adaptasi dari gitar cavaquinho yang dibawa oleh para pelaut Portugis berlayar mengelilingi dunia. Ketika tiba di kepulauan Madeira gitar itu dinamakan braguinha, karena berasal dari wilayah Braga di Portugal. Di Brazil penduduk menamakannya machete yang digunakan untuk mengiringi tari-tarian. Di kepulauan Karibia gitar itu dinamakan cuatro, karena berdawai empat. Ketika tiba di Polynesia samudera Pasifik, penduduk pribumi menyebutnya sebagai ukelele, atau jari yang melompat, karena cara memainkannya tidak dipetik melainkan digerus. Menarik untuk disimak bahwa gitar itu memperoleh popularitas sebagai ukulele dengan paten Hawaii, sedangkan sebutan ukulele sebagai keroncong telah diakui sebagai paten Indonesia menurut Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco dalam kamus The Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, “Portugal” (2002:197).

Dengan demikian ukulele dapat dikatakan menempati posisi kunci dalam setiap permainan musik keroncong, sehingga orkestrasinya harus memiliki warna crong yang berfungsi sebagai rhythmic riff (motif berulang-ulang). Selain itu, ukulele yang tersebar dan digunakan dalam berbagai jenis ensambel memberi petunjuk bahwa warna crong juga turut membahana di manapun ukulele itu dimainkan. Kita di Indonesia juga sepakat bahwa tidak ada musik apapun yang boleh tampil menyandang label keroncong tanpa memiliki keunikan warna crong dari permainan ukulele. Secara universal diyakini bahwa tiada keroncong tanpa crong, dan melalui penyebaran ukulele tidak mustahil musik keroncong dalam berbagai versi juga dapat ditemukan di berbagai pelosok. Saat ini warna crong masih dapat ditemukan antara lain di kepulauan Halmahera dalam ensambel bastidor yang generik, di Malaka dalam ensambel dondang sayang, di Negeri Belanda dalam ensambel toegoenezen, di Hawaii dalam ensambel hawaiian guitar, di Suriname dengan krontjong ensambelnya, selain di Indonesia dalam ensambel orkes keroncong.

Apabila keroncong sebagai waditra telah mendunia, maka keroncong sebagai ensambel musik, keroncong sebagai bentuk lagu, dan keroncong sebagai gaya permainan gitar merupakan ciri khas Indonesia, yang dipengaruhi oleh gagrak gamelan Jawa. Orkestrasi ensambel keroncong lazimnya menampilkan biola atau flute sebagai pembawa alur melodi, gitar sebagai pengiring dan pembawa alur kontra-melodi, ukulele sebagai time-beater, dan cello petik (pizzicato) sebagai rhythm tune-percussion yang terkadang dipertebal dengan bass petik.

Seperti halnya pengendang menjadi pemimpin kelompok gamelan Jawa, maka pemain cello dengan pola gedugannya yang khas menurut Kusbini menjadi conductor dalam orkes keroncong. Gedugan itu memiliki fungsi ganda sebagai bass dan perkusi, yang menyebabkan orkes keroncong tidak membutuhkan dan menghindari penggunaan drum-set dalam orkestrasinya. Dari sini dapat kita saksikan betapa kuatnya dominasi waditra berdawai dalam menampilkan karakter chordophonic sebuah orkes keroncong secara total dari peranannya sebagai pembawa melodi hingga ritme dan harmoni.

Orkestrasi keroncong sebenarnya merupakan iringan tarian Moresco yang terdiri dari gitar dan tambourine perkusi yang berkeping logam sebagai perpaduan musik Arab-Kaukasia. Tambourine juga digunakan dalam orkes keroncong para pemusik Indies di Batavia pada masa Hindia Belanda. Itu sebabnya muncul versi lain tentang istilah keroncong ketika tambourine tersisih dari orkes keroncong akibat pengaruh gamelan Jawa, sehingga warna kerincing logamnya tidak lagi terdengar, dan yang tinggal hanyalah warna keroncong gitarnya. Warna kerincing logam dikembalikan sebagai properti para penari Jawa yang mengenakan gelang pada kaki mereka. Saat ini meski tambourine masih terdengar di kampung Tugu, orkes keroncong di Indonesia tidak lagi menggunakannya.

Orkes keroncong komunitas Indies di Batavia  (Ilustrasi: A.Th. Manusama (1919:12a))

Pada masa Hindia Belanda, keroncong tampil sebagai ars nova, seni baru yang bersifat non-tradisi dan non-klasik Barat, seni yang digemari oleh masyarakat perkotaan. Kota-kota besar di Jawa kemudian tumbuh menjadi sentra keroncong, sejak mencapai popularitas melalui Pasar Malam di Gambir, komunitas Krokodilen di Kemajoran, hingga concours Jaar Markt di Surabaya. Keroncong ketika itu menjadi bagian dari budaya massal yang memiliki nilai komersial, sehingga ensambel keroncong bermunculan di mana-mana. Namun setelah masa kemerdekaan, terjadi revolusi musikal di seluruh dunia dengan lahirnya musik berirama rock yang digemari kaum muda. Musik berirama rock dengan cepat menyebar melalui teknologi rekaman dan menjadi musik masa kini yang menggusur popularitas musik berirama konvensional termasuk keroncong.

Secara musikologis, musik konvensional adalah musik dengan irama yang aksentuasinya jatuh pada ketukan pertama, seperti irama tarian walsa dalam tiga hitungan, atau irama marcia dalam empat hitungan. Sebaliknya irama rock memberikan nafas yang segar ketika aksentuasi itu berpindah dari ketukan pertama yang ditandai dengan hentakan stick snare-drum pada ketukan kedua di antara permainan pola ritmik bass-drum dan hi-hat cymbal. Perpindahan aksentuasi itu melahirkan karakter sinkopatik, ketergantungan yang berkelanjutan, sehingga menimbulkan sensasi psikologis dari tanya yang tidak terjawab. Tidak mengherankan apabila irama rock berhasil menarik perhatian generasi muda, dan dengan cepat menguasai kehidupan musikal secara universal.

Tidak dapat disangkal bahwa drum-set menempati posisi kunci dalam irama rock. Saat ini tidak ada musik populer dari jenis apapun yang tidak menggunakan drum-set, mulai dari kelompok band yang sederhana hingga kelompok symphonic band atau light music orchestra yang canggih. Irama rock melalui permainan drum-set telah mendunia dan menjadi basis dari semua jenis musik populer masa kini. Sejalan dengan itu popularitas musik konvensional menjadi terpinggirkan dan dianggap representasi musik masa lalu yang telah usang, yang hanya diminati oleh kaum tua saja.

Dalam hal ini keberadaan musik keroncong menghadapi dilema, karena di satu fihak popularitasnya akan semakin merosot apabila tetap mempertahankan iramanya yang konvensional, sementara di lain fihak penggunaan drum-set dalam orkestrasi keroncong akan membunuh karakteristik musiknya. Waktu dengan cepat berlalu ketika musik keroncong akhirnya beranjak dari budaya massal musik industri yang bernilai komersial memasuki budaya tradisi yang dikelompokkan sebagai musik etnik. Jenis musik seperti ini selalu rentan menghadapi ancaman kepunahan, sehingga konsep tentang pelestarian dan revitalisasi menjadi agenda utama. Beruntung bahwa modal sosial dari keroncong terletak pada dukungan sebagian masyarakat Indonesia yang menjamin bahwa musik yang telah lahir sejak berabad-abad itu tidak akan punah. Namun upaya revitalisasi perlu terus menerus dilakukan untuk tujuan apapun, termasuk tujuan rekonstruksi, tujuan go-international, atau untuk kepentingan eksperimental dan archiving.

Upaya go-international terhadap musik keroncong pernah dilakukan oleh Rudi Pirngadie melalui penampilan orkes keroncong Tetap Segar yang membawakan gagrak Keroncong-beat dalam New York World’s Fair tahun 1964. Keroncong beat merupakan konsep yang mengetengahkan irama keroncong dalam bentuk gedugan cello, rhythmic riff ukulele, dan banyu mili gitar untuk mengiringi semua jenis lagu termasuk lagu Barat. Tidak kurang penyanyi keroncong seperti M. Rivani, Rita Zahara, dan Sayekti berhasil menarik perhatian masyarakat Amerika dalam membawakan lagu Barat seperti I left my heart in San Francisco yang dikeroncongkan. Eksperimentasi Keroncong beat ternyata tidak membawa hasil disebabkan antara lain karena tidak memiliki akar budayanya yang kuat di Indonesia. Tidak mustahil bahwa kegagalan itu juga diakibatkan karakteristik iramanya yang eksotik, tidak berdaya melawan irama rock yang sensasional. Namun betapapun juga, inovasi Pirngadie telah berhasil menunjukkan posisi dan nilai tawar musik keroncong Indonesia dalam kancah internasional.

Upaya go-international lainnya dapat dilakukan melalui penyusunan kemasan orkestra untuk keroncong seperti yang dilakukan oleh RRI melalui Orkes Studio Jakarta pimpinan Isbandi dalam acara Bintang Radio Televisi jenis Keroncong. Demikian pula eksperimentasi Singgih Sanjaya melalui garapan Light Keroncong dalam format orkestra yang tetap mempertahankan pakem keroncongnya. Upaya ini lebih sesuai bagi pelestarian musik keroncong sebagai musik tradisi yang dikemas secara artistik musikal. Upaya ini lebih akademik dan terhormat dalam mengangkat keroncong sebagai repertoar Indonesia di forum internasional, lebih dari sekedar menawarkan iramanya yang generik.

Upaya go-international juga berarti mempromosikan kepada dunia internasional bahwa keroncong adalah musik Indonesia, melalui hak paten atau hak atas kekayaan intelektual yang diikuti dengan berbagai publikasi tentang keroncong dari para peneliti. Sejauh ini peneliti seperti Surya Brata, Paramita Abdurachman, Harmunah, Budiman BJ, dan Suka Hardjana telah banyak berperan, sementara para peneliti asing seperti Bronia Kornhauser dan Ernst Heins turut memberikan kontribusi mereka. Penelitian Philip Yampolsky menghasilkan rekaman penyanyi keroncong generik tahun 1930-an yang berbeda warna suaranya dengan penyanyi keroncong saat ini, selain selama bertahun-tahun Philip telah menaruh perhatian besar terhadap musik-musik etnik Nusantara.

Upaya go-international juga menuntut kita untuk menghargai para maestro yang telah berhasil menumbuhkembangkan musik keroncong sejak masa Hindia Belanda hingga dapat tampil saat ini sebagai salah satu mainstream musik Indonesia, seperti yang telah dirintis oleh komunitas Tugu dalam Krontjong Toegoe, Kusbini dalam Keroncong Asli, Gesang dalam Langgam Keroncong, Andjar Any dalam Langgam Jawa, serta para penyanyi yang telah turut mendukung kehidupan musik keroncong dari generasi ke generasi. Diharapkan semoga dengan semakin pesatnya pendidikan musik di Indonesia, para pemusik akademik generasi muda secara naluriah akan tergugah kepedulian mereka untuk turut menjaga pusaka yang telah diwariskan leluhur bangsa kita.

Dengan demikian upaya go-international yang sejati terhadap musik keroncong semata-mata tidak terletak pada penyebaran dan popularitas musik keroncong secara internasional, atau pada archiving sosok musiknya dalam bentuk partitur, atau berupa pergelaran orkes keroncong yang immanent, akan tetapi lebih tertuju pada sikap yang mencerminkan keinginan para pencipta, pemusik, dan peneliti keroncong Indonesia untuk berperilaku secara musikal.

Pada akhirnya kita berkewajiban secara moral untuk menjaga dan mendukung kepercayaan dunia internasional bahwa keroncong adalah musik Indonesia, seperti halnya fado dikenal sebagai musik Portugis, blues menjadi identitas musik negro Amerika, flamenco dari Spanyol, dan tango sebagai nyanyian rakyat Argentina, musik nasional yang bersifat kerakyatan dengan lagunya yang tidak sekedar dinyanyikan melainkan juga diekspresikan secara coração, atau dari lubuk hati yang paling dalam.

Selamatkan Musik Kroncong Kita

Membaca beberapa terbitan buletin ”Tjroeng”, nampak geliat semangat komunitas keroncong Indonesia (KKI), baik penggemar, musisi, penyanyi, dan pemerhati keroncong berkeinginan untuk menggali kembali dan melestarikan seni musik keroncong yang dirasa mulai surut pamornya. Secara jumlah KKI mungkin semakin meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan jumlah penduduk di Indonesia, tetapi secara prosentase mungkin menurun. Dapatkah dikatakan musik keroncong mulai surut pamorya?

Bila dibandingkan dengan keadaan tahun 70an mungkin ada benarnya. Saat itu event kegiatan musik keroncong yang disponsori oleh pemerintah atau negara dapat dikatakan padat. Diantaranya, yang belum hilang dari ingatan adalah selalu diadakan rutin setiap tahun lomba pemilihan bintang radio dari tingkat daerah (provinsi) sampai dengan tingkat nasional. Pemilihan ini disponsori (diadakan) oleh Departemen Penerangan, dan Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) yang merupakan lembaga dibawah naungan Departemen Penerangan selalu menyiarkan acara lomba pemilihan bintang radio tsb. Pada saat itu yang dilombakan tidak hanya musik keroncong tetapi juga dari jenis seriosa dan “hiburan”, atau lebih dekenal saat ini sebagai jenis pop.

Antusias masyarakat mengikuti penyelenggaraan pemilihan bintang radio sangat besar. Terbukti acara ini yang disiakan oleh RRI sampai larut malam selalu ditunggu oleh para pendenganya. Dan musik keroncong dikalangan masyarakat pada saat itu menduduki posisi lebih tinggi, lebih populer bila dibandingkan dengan jenis musik seriosa dan hiburan. Perkembangan kondisi di masyarakat mempengaruhi pula perkembangan selera masyarakat terhadap musik yang ada. Secara alami terbentuk polarisasi selera dan apresiasi terhadap musik sekaligus mempengaruhi perkembangan musik itu sendiri. Terjadi pergeseran selera, terutama dikalangan anak usia muda (remaja) yang lebih menyenangi musik jenis hiburan atau pop. Banyak bermunculan group musik pop seperti Koes Plus, Favourit Group, D’lloyd, Pambers, Mercys dll. Selain itu, pelan tapi pasti, mulai merangkak naik popularitas musik dangdut yang pada waktu itu lebih dikenal sebagai musik “Melayu”. Bahkan dedengkot musik dangdut seperti Oma Irama pada awal karier musiknya melalui jalur musik pop, dan beberapa single lagunya sempat populer waktu itu. Keadaan sekarang, popularitas kedua jenis musik ini semakin tinggi (penggemarnya semakin banyak) jauh meninggalkan jenis musik kroncong dan seriosa.

Tidak puas dengan wadah yang disediakan oleh pemerintah sebagai ajang lomba, para musisi musik pop menyelenggarakan sendiri pemilihan bintang pop, baik ditingkat daerah maupun tingkat nasional, yang lebih dikenal dengan pemilih “Pop Singer”. Semakin banyak event musik pop diselenggarakan, sementara event untuk musik keroncong semakin sedikit bahkan tidak ada sama sekali.

Perkembangan selanjutnya, dengan dihapuskannya Departemen Penerangan dari jajaran kabinet, otomatis hilang pula kalender kegiatan lomba pemilihan bintang radio yang menyertakan musik keroncong didalamnya. Berarti hilang pula ajang untuk sosialisasi dan mempopulerkan musik keroncong dikalangan masyarakat luas.

Apakah rentetan kejadian ini pada akhirnya menurunkan pamor musik keroncong secara keseluruhan dan mulai ditinggalkan penggemarnya?

Dimata masyarakat Indonesia secara menyeluruh mungkin pamor musik keroncong turun drastis kalau tolok ukurnya adalah jumlah bilangan pengemar atau penikmat musik keroncong. Tetapi dikalangan KKI sendiri popularitas atau pamor musik keroncong tetap ada dan terjaga, hanya jumlahnya mungkin lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan penggemar musik pop atau dangdut. Penambahan jumlah penggemar juga tidak terlalu signifikan, mungkin menunggu perubahan selera seiring dengan penambahan umur para penggemar musik bukan keroncong. Kenyataannya, komunitas musik keroncong tetap ada, bahkan tidak hanya di Indonesia tetapi merambah ke negara lain dibawa oleh orang-orang Indonesia yang migrasi ke negara lain, seperti Malaysia, Suriname, Belanda dsbnya. Di negara yang disebutkan tadi, komunitas musik keroncong tetap konsisten menyenangi dan memainkan musik keroncong.

Menyenangi atau membeci suatu jenis musik atau lagu-lagu, berkaitan dengan selera, jadi sifatnya sangat subyektif, tidak dapat dipaksakan. Berjalan secara alami menuruti lingkungan dan kebiasaan yang ada. Lagu musik pop yang dibawakan oleh grop musik Peterpan atau oleh group musik Radja di Indonesia sangat digandrungi dikalangan anak remaja atau anak bau gede (ABG), tetapi mungkin lagu-lagu group tadi tidak dikenal sama sekali oleh masyarakat Suriname. Masyarakat disana boleh jadi lebih mengenal artis Waljinah dengan lagu “Walang Kekeknya”. Kesimpulannya, secara global, mana yang lebih punya pamor atau lebih populer? Musik pop atau musik keroncong? Silahkan pembaca mempersepsikan sendiri untuk menjawab pertanyaan lain yang telah disebutkan diatas.

Permasalahan yang dihadapi komunitas keroncong di Indonesia dan dibelahan dunia lainnya adalah bagaimana menjaga sustainable eksistensi musik keroncong. Hal ini perlu mendapat perhatian mengingat adanya keprihatinan dari beberapa kalangan yang menyangsikan daya tahan musik keroncong terhadap “gempuran” jenis musik lainnya, khususnya musik pop. Sebagaimana berita yang dilansir oleh situs internet antara.co.id, tanggal 19 Oktober 2008, memuat berita tentang harapan besar maestro keroncong Indonesia, ”Gesang”, meminta masyarakat penggemar musik keroncong ikut melestarikan aliran musik asli jawa ini (maksudnya keroncong) agar tetap hidup sepanjang masa. Dibalik harapan beliau menyiratkan adanya kekhawatiran bahwa musik keroncong Indonesia mulai surut pamornya. Lambat laun, jika tidak ada upaya ”nguri-uri” musik keroncong, bukan tidak mungkin nantinya akan punah ditinggalkan penggemarnya. Keadaan ini merupakan tantangan sekaligus peluang seluruh insan komunitas keroncong untuk mengembalikan kemasyhuran musik keroncong agar harapan maestro “Gesang” keroncong dapat diwujudkan.

Bagaimana upaya kita melestarikan budaya seni musik keroncong?

,Terdapat beragam jenis keroncong, ada Keroncong Asli, Langgam Keroncong, Stambul Keroncong, ditambah dengan Krontjong Toegoe. Dari masing-masing jenis tadi memiliki ”rumus” atau ”pakem” sendiri-sendiri [mengenai rumus ini telah dimuat di buletin Croeng sebelumnya]. Melihat rumus atau pakemnya, musik keroncong dapat dikatagorikan sebagai musik yang serius, setara dengan musik klasik karena ada kaidah yang harus dipenuhi agar dapat disebut sebagai musik keroncong. Disinilah letak indah dan ”adiluhungnya” musik keroncong! Jadi kalau ada sebagian warga masyarakat mengatakan bahwa musik keroncong adalah ”kampungan” atau ”jadul” itu syah-syah saja karena berbeda persepsinya, tetapi itu keliru besar! Tidak sembarang orang dan tidak banyak yang dapat mencipta dan memainkan musik “pure” keroncong dengan baik dan benar. Hanya orang-orang yang memiliki talenta khusus. Oleh karena itu, musik keroncong yang dimainkan tanpa mentaati kaidah-kaidah, atau menyimpang yang ada dapat dikatakan sebagai musik keroncong kontemporer atau eksperimental. Biasanya dari kalangan anak muda yang senang melakukan eksperimen sehingga lahirlah musik CongDut (keroncong Dangdut), CongRock (paduan keroncong dan rock), CongLan (paduan keroncong dan gamelan), dll. Bagaimana kita menyikapi terhadap lahirnya jenis musik tersebut.

2.10 th Year Anniversary Asia Africa Confrence memorable in 1965, lokanata national kroncong song record

a) Cover(sampul Depan)

 A.ERA BUNG KARNO 1951-1965
Miss Sunda Music 1a.Grup Tjitjih in Batavia (Jakarta)
Almost everyone in Indonesia is to know where lies the spectacle of Miss Tjitjih. tonil spectacle of Sunda or Plays by using language penagntar language. Each pedicab brother would know, even the bus conductor who has a route out of town or coming from outside the major cities in the bus terminal in Palputih will ask each passenger: “Miss Tjitjih! There are down! (Same thing diterminal kemapung melayu Jatinegara, “Mester Mester down”. Why Miss Tjitjih till so famous? Why he has been able to win the hearts of many people in Jakarta? And perhaps the reader will not pertjaya asingyang that not a few viewers at any given time watching the play. For example, spectators are Russians, Germans, Czechs, of course, the United States and Asia as the Japanese nation and others.

The first factor that will stand forward in answering the questions mentioned above, which certainly is for entertainment, because people need entertainment, healthy and cheap entertainment. The second factor is the history, the group’s ebab miss Tjitjih has long been beroiperasi in Jakarta (Betawi), they had invested something Betawi people hearts. Jakarta people know iss Tjitjih through three times, the Dutch era, the era of Japanese occupation and the era of the Republic of Indonesia to the present (1962). Miss Tjitjih entourage once trod Jakzarta, stay in Jakarta. People familiar with Miss Tjitjih Jakarta since occupying a plot, to a place where people are now known as Market Burrung move around within the complex Senen.Kemudian Senen Market Station complex and time since 1952 that now occupies the place (I did not see him again in 1971 dis-Dr enen iwan)

Busy-FUNNY-MENDEBARFKAN-moving

Why are foreigners also love the show Miss Tjitjih denagn, in this case because of Art. Continue zterang, the stranger would not understand baahasa Miss Tjitjih of instruction, they may be able to enjoy the story as a whole, because there jurubahasanya. but the stranger will find something other assessments contained in the game and players Miss Tjitjih and they also find arts and cultural factors that are typical eprtunjukan place and also find a bit of entertainment that contains people in the field of moral education that maintains the cultural values pula.Selain was found to play a special story with historical background, folklore is alive and finally the story is light, funny, touching, thrilling and ends with menyenangkan.Berdasarkan the above, in 1962 President Sukarno confer an award to the group Miss Tjitjih in September 1962, but the award was also given 50,000 in prize money, (the equivalent of us 5000. -), together with Miss Tjtjih also awarded prizes to Sriwedari Ngesti Pandowo solo and Semarang.

PEOPLE WHO PLAY plays liar

The group leader named Miss Tjitjih S.A. Bafaqih, a birth Pasuruan, East Java. He was already quite advanced in the year 1962, 75 years old, born in 1888. Theoretically this man retired, according to its own terms, but in practical secraa still lead straight. Actually he was bored with the drama, both as a player or a leader or watch a play, but somehow, when you hear there is a play, to just come to watch, apaun that would happen, maybe it’s inborn. He told me that he knew very well that the people who play it are snadiwara liar, just the same as a drug seller, tidfak entirely true. The difference, plays and players got dressed lakon.punya interesting story. This world may indeed need people like him. People are just moving the field of art danb cultural fabric. People said of him, people who are not so mnormal, he watched people, but we also sometimes be a spectacle for the people living IAMI often worse than a hobo. but let us feel satisfied, and the audience that we need if they are not satisfied Seba, recording will not come again.

Though each night in addition to full performances, even more than full and the audience continued to insist on watching, they are willing to watch while berdiri.Didekat entrances, legible writing karcil Rp.20 great price – (U.S. $ 10.) Group leader statement Bafaqig Mr Miss Tjitjih, that the prices of necessities continue to rise, the cost of exploitation sebenarnay cocock no longer, in addition to heavy for him, the more so because they provide an opportunity for members of the Armed Forces to watch on Friday nights without charging bayara (I still remember the year 1973, the middle menjawa Armed Forces members free ride to the movies and public vehicles in central java-Dr Iwan)

FROM THE WORLD TRADE plays

Experience ups and downs of theatrical troupe leader Muiss Tjitjih adalahs sa follows,

Before the buildings complex occupies 1962, the players numbered 84 people, employees and all family beerta totaling 120 people, occupies the whole complex. before becoming a puppet child (boy plays), Bafaqih father was a traveling salesman from a disorder of the city, indeed the family is a family of merchants. Then went along with the charade oragnisasi. Mewrasa interested in the field plays later, seterusna easement and release the theatrical work of trade entry. in the history hidunya Bafaqih father met with a lady performer, a virgin of Sumedang who has enough talent to look beautiful, which later became his wife. The name comes from the name of Miss Tjitjih isterinyalah, before the group is named hammy theatrics e Nacht Opera “. Then” Valencia Opera “, and so Miss Tjitjih until the year 1962 (which features a ino who setealh 1962, please deign to inform me, thank you, Dr. Iwan)

Space orchestra sound dibp R Sutedjo

song: Call terumi godly creation

2) Gang of Four New York orchestra leader S.Jahja
side one: songs to convey my greetings (nn)

1) High track in the cloud (pious)

2) Say hello (nn)

Gang of Four
One of the musical group formed under the auspices of Ismail Marzuki RRI Jakarta. Key personnel are only four, namely Soewita Saleh (guitar), Isaac (contra-bass), Jachja (violin), and Ariston da Cruz (piano; musician from the Philippines, renamed Arief Effendi). Contra-bass is sometimes held by Sarom. Ismail himself acting as a leader and arranger of music that the orchestra. This group was formed shortly after the proclamation of independence, which is intended to lower the political temperature is getting hot and could explode at any moment become an open battle. Curtain time is given by the RRI Jakarta to the Gang of Four orchestras around 30 minutes to 1 hour. Hours of their broadcast twice a week, usually every Tuesday and Wednesday afternoon. In 1946, the days and hours playing Gang of Four erratic, sometimes on Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday. Generally, the orchestra is playing about 45 minutes, and broadcast three times a day; afternoon at 13:15, 17:15 o’clock in the afternoon and evening at 20.00. Gang of Four music show on RRI Jakarta Programa Hiboeran entitled Heroes, Hiboeran Oentoek Army and Navy Laoet Oedara RI, Hieboeran Saturday night, Hiboeran evening, Rindoe bidder, and Alam Ria Indonesia. In addition to regularly fill the musical events in the radio studio, Gang of Four also took time to come down directly to the various fronts. They cheer the fighters and the local community who love the fight song, especially songs that were created by the quartet orchestra personnel, including Ismail Marzuki.
   

The creation of works of Ismail Marzuki song is the most popular Flirt Coconut Island is used as a cover song by the end of the broadcast station TVRI in the New Order government.

Ismail Marzuki got grace tribute in 1968 with the opening of the Taman Ismail Marzuki, a park and cultural center in Salemba, Central Jakarta. In 2004 he was hailed as one of Indonesia’s national heroes.

He had founded the band Gang of Four

2. Assorted Colors Markasan Kroncong DBP (srimpi record Inc)
one side with a song:

1) pack sakerah (Sueb) 2) Kuto Suroboyo (Sukemi),

3) numpak gauge (j, sudarminto et al),

4) Nyang T.H.R (noerjatian)

Side 2:

1) Motor Uduk (Ahmad & J.sudarminto),

2) The Pansy (Juwariyah T.M.),

3) Dream dicokot ulo (Soekemi / Achmad),

4) Nanggelo (Sueb)

3. Kroncong orchestra Tjendrawasih S.Padimin DBP (Lokananta record Inc)
Song side 1:

1) Nandur maize (M wise),

2) Birds Pigeons (S.Padimin)

song side 2:

1) the edge of the river solo (s.Padimin-kustiati),

 2). Kroncong Mesra (Sunarno-Supardi achijat)

:

3.Orkes Kroncong Kemayoran DBP M.Sagi
(Tune record Inc)
1) Cadence India with song production

side one: Djali Djali (NN) singer Oje

 

side two: Remembering the fate of ciptaaan Sukamto-St.P.Bustamil

Keroncong M.Sagi Info (google Explorations)

1) Keroncong
At this time the Indo known musicians, and the legendary violinist M. Sagi Lief Java … Listen to the Orchestra, Orchestra Keroncong Cafrino Monument, George de Fretes, and orchestra …

2) Moh. Sjah & Orchestra Kerontjong M. Sagi – Kr. Rhythm
I thought that, coupled with the previous post of today, I’d post something languid and tranquil, something somewhat relaxed. So, I Brought out another classic piece from the Indonesian krontjong mid-20th century, on the local Rhythm label. “Cadence” actually means “rhythm” in English – Thus Spake the title of the piece as well as the name of the record labels are explained.

I posted a krontjong tune of the same vintage, and on another Indonesian independent label (Dendang). This one is similar – it’s the style of krontjong That I quite enjoy, featuring the guitar and fiddle player walking trading runs in Between smooth vocals. Relatively Krontjong Itself is a new type of urban folk music, developing in Indonesian urban areas a little over 100 years ago, with Batavian, Portuguese, Malay, and even African influences. Dramatically Krontjong had changed since it was first recorded ca. 1904, and when this record was released (probably the late 1940s or so). The Instrumentation was bare bones at first, featuring trios and the like. I’ve heard 1920s krontjong Stamboel That sounds influenced by theater, with a slightly more operatic sound, showing further influences at work. By the 1940s, krontjong was a rage, with whole orchestras and popular singers getting into the act … yet, to me this music is not easily explained. Indonesian-Hawaiian-guitar-and-fiddle-ballads?

As for the singer and band – I’m afraid these are muddy waters. I am mostly sure that “Moh.” Stands for Mohammed, and “Kr.” Stands for krontjong, but at the risk of being incorrect, I will let the original label stand as the official record

3) Service violinist M.Sagi

Initially with the name and Kroncong Kroncong Betawi Jakarta “in Jakarta at the time … … The composition of this instrument is thanks to a violinist keroncong M.Sagi

also in Indonesia (Indonesian rhythm music co ltd) look below compare with above:

1) Dimin, Remembering the fate with M.Sagi Keroncong Orchestra, Rhythm productions Record

FRAME FOUR:

INDONESIA THE HISTORY FROM GOOGLE kroncong Exploration COMPERATIVE FOR STUDY:

Keroncong music was born in Indonesia through the course of its long history and full of unique views of its constituent elements are composed of various components of cultural, ethnic, and language. If we draw a red thread on the origin of the birth of keroncong music in Indonesia, we will be faced with the mystery concerning the history of the world’s history. History of the Islamic occupation of the Iberian peninsula in the southern region of the fifth century until the thirteenth century. Historical background that explains why the Europeans in the sixteenth century is so determined to mobilize all its military forces the ability to navigate and to get the spices from the East. History of the arrival of the Portuguese and the Dutch in the seventeenth century to compete for hegemony in East Asia through trade monopoly in the Malacca, Sunda Kelapa, and the Moluccas. History of slavery, and the lives of street musicians during the Dutch East Indies. Identity formation history of the nation of Indonesia as an independent nation and has a cultural heritage that is not including the infinite number keroncong music. Fortunately that eventually accepted keroncong music and Indonesia belong to the nation, a fact which has gained international recognition.

Today when we talk about keroncong, we are faced with a term containing a broad sense. Etymologically, keroncong derived from the name of a musical instrument similar four-stringed small guitar that is typically made of nylon, so that when played crong produce sound, not like the sound of stringed jreng metal. Keroncong term believed to derive from the craftsmen in the village monument waditra who inherited craft arts skills waditra guitar. Keroncong guitar called cavaquinho guitar as an adaptation of which was taken by Portuguese sailors sailed around the world. When he arrived in Madeira archipelago was named braguinha guitar, because it comes from the region of Braga in Portugal. In Brazil resident named machete is used to accompany dances. Caribbean guitar called Cuatro, for four strings. When he arrived in Polynesia, the Pacific, the natives call it a ukelele, a jump or a finger, because it learned how to play but not crushed. Interesting to note that the guitar is gaining popularity as a ukulele with Hawaii patents, while the ukulele as the title has been recognized as a patent keroncong Indonesia according to Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco in the dictionary of The Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, “Portugal” (2002:197) .

Thus the ukulele can be said to occupy a key position in every game keroncong music, so it must have a color crong orkestrasinya that serves as a rhythmic riff (repeated motif). In addition, the ukulele spread and used in various types of ensemble indicate that the color crong also blaring wherever it is played ukulele. We in Indonesia have also agreed that there is no any kind of music that may appear bearing the label has a unique color keroncong without crong of play ukulele. It is universally believed that there is no keroncong without crong, and through the deployment of ukulele music keroncong not impossible in many different versions can also be found in various corners. Currently crong color can still be found among others in the islands of Halmahera in bastidor a generic ensemble, the ensemble dondang Malacca unfortunately, in the Netherlands in the ensemble toegoenezen, in Hawaii in hawaiian guitar ensemble, in Suriname with krontjong ensambelnya, except in Indonesia in the ensemble keroncong orchestra.

If keroncong as waditra has worldwide, then keroncong as ensemble music, keroncong as a form of song, and keroncong as guitar playing style is the hallmark of Indonesia, which is influenced by Javanese gamelan gagrak. Keroncong usual ensemble orchestration featuring violin or flute as a carrier flow of melody, accompaniment and guitar as a carrier flow of counter-melodies, ukulele as a time-beater, and stringed cello (Pizzicato) as a tune-percussion rhythm that sometimes dipertebal with stringed bass.

Just as pengendang become the leader of the Javanese gamelan, the cellist with the typical pattern according Kusbini gedugannya a conductor in the orchestra keroncong. Gedugan it has a dual function as a bass and percussion, which led the orchestra keroncong not need it and avoid the use of drum-set in orkestrasinya. From here we can see how strong dominance in the display character strings waditra chordophonic an orchestra keroncong the total of its role as carriers of melody to rhythm and harmony.

Keroncong orchestration is actually a dance accompaniment Moresco consisting of guitar and tambourine percussion music as a blend of metal smashed Arab-Caucasian. Tambourine is also used in the orchestra musicians keroncong Indies in Batavia in the Dutch East Indies. That’s why another version of the term appears when the tambourine keroncong keroncong excluded from the orchestra under the influence of Javanese gamelan, so the color of the metal triangle is no longer heard, and that remains is the color of his guitar keroncong. The color of the metal triangle is returned as a property of the Javanese dancers who wear bracelets on their legs. Currently though tambourine is still heard in the village monument, keroncong orchestra in Indonesia are no longer using it.

At the time of the Dutch East Indies, keroncong appeared as ars nova, a new art that is non-traditional and non-classical Western art favored by the urban community. Big cities in Java and then grow into the center of keroncong, since its popularity through the Night Market in Gambier, in Kemajoran Krokodilen community, to the concours Jaar Markt in Surabaya. Keroncong when it became part of mass culture that has commercial value, so the ensemble keroncong popping up everywhere. But after independence, there was a musical revolution in the whole world with the birth of rock is a popular rhythmic music of youth. Rhythmic rock music quickly spread through recording technology and a contemporary musical that displace the popularity of conventional rhythmic music including keroncong.

A musicologist, music is music with a conventional rhythm accentuation falls on the first beat, like a dance rhythm walsa in three counts, or in a four-count rhythm marcia. Conversely rock rhythms provide a fresh breath as it moves from the accentuation of the first beat is marked by the beat of snare-drum stick on the second beat of rhythmic patterns play bass-drum and hi-hat cymbal. Accentuation of character displacement gave birth sinkopatik, continuous dependence, giving rise to the psychological sensation of the question is not answered. Not surprisingly, when the rhythm of rock caught the attention of the younger generation, and quickly master the musical life of the universal.

There is no denying that the drum-set occupies a key position in the rhythm of rock. Currently there are no popular music of any kind that do not use drum-set, ranging from a simple band to the symphonic band or orchestra sophisticated light music. Rock rhythms through drum-set game has worldwide and became the basis of all kinds of popular music today. In line with the popularity of conventional music to be marginalized and regarded musical representation of the past that have been outdated, the only attractive to the elderly only.

In this case the existence of music keroncong face a dilemma, because on the one hand its popularity will further decline if a conventional retaining the rhythm, while on the other hand the use of drum-set orchestration keroncong will kill the characteristics of his music. Time passes quickly when music keroncong finally moved from the mass culture of the music industry into the commercial value of cultural traditions that are classified as ethnic music. Types of music such as this are always vulnerable to the threat of extinction, so the concept of preservation and revitalization of the agenda. Fortunate that the social capital of keroncong lies in the support of most of the people of Indonesia to ensure that the music has been born since centuries will not become extinct. But revitalization efforts should continue to be done for any purpose, including the purpose of reconstruction, international go-purpose, or for the benefit of experimental and archiving.

Go-international efforts against keroncong music ever undertaken by Rudi Pirngadie orchestra through performances that bring keroncong Stay Fresh gagrak Keroncong-beat the New York World’s Fair in 1964. Keroncong beat that explores the concept of rhythm is in the form gedugan keroncong cello, rhythmic riffs ukulele, and guitar to accompany mili banyu all kinds of songs, including western song. No less keroncong singer like M. Rivani, Rita Zahara, and Sayekti successfully attracted the attention of American society in the Western rendition as I left my heart in San Francisco who dikeroncongkan. Keroncong beat experimentation was to no avail due to, among others because it does not have a strong cultural roots in Indonesia. Not impossible that the failure was also due to the characteristics of the exotic rhythm, helpless against the sensational rock rhythms. But after all, innovation Pirngadie have successfully demonstrated the position and value of fresh music keroncong Indonesia in the international arena.

Other go-international efforts can be done through the preparation of packaging for keroncong orchestra as conducted by the RRI Jakarta Studio Orchestra led by Isbandi in the event Television Radio Star Keroncong type. Similarly, experimentation Singgih Sanjaya through arable Light Keroncong in orchestral format which retains grip keroncongnya. This effort is more suitable for the preservation of music keroncong music tradition that is packaged as an artistic musical. This effort is more respectable in the academic and raised as a repertoire keroncong Indonesia in international forums, is more than just offer a generic rhythm.

Go-international effort is also meant to promote the international world of music that is keroncong Indonesia, through patents or other intellectual property rights, followed by numerous publications about keroncong of the researchers. So far researchers like Surya Brata, Paramita Abdurachman, Harmunah, Budiman BJ, and Love Hardjana has a lot to do, while foreign researchers like Bronia Kornhauser and Ernst Heins contributed to them. Philip Yampolsky research generates a generic recording keroncong singer of the 1930s a different color to the singer keroncong voice today, but over the years Philip has been paying great attention to the ethnic music of the archipelago.

Go-international effort also requires us to appreciate the maestro who has managed to develop keroncong music from the time of the Dutch East Indies to be able to look at this as one of the mainstream music of Indonesia, as has been pioneered by the community monument in Krontjong Toegoe, Kusbini in Keroncong Original, Gesang in Keroncong Idioms, Idioms Andjar Any in Java, and the singers who have contributed to the musical life of keroncong from generation to generation. May be expected with the rapid music education in Indonesia, the young academic musicians will instinctively aroused their concern for the heritage that has helped keep our nation’s ancestors bequeathed.

Thus the efforts of true international go-to keroncong music does not lie solely on the spread and popularity internationally keroncong music, or musical figure on archiving in the form of scores, or in the form of an immanent keroncong orchestra performances, but rather focused on the attitudes that reflect the desire of the creators, musicians, and researchers keroncong Indonesia to behave in a musical.

In the end we are morally obligated to maintain and support the international confidence that keroncong is the music of Indonesia, as well as Portuguese music known as fado, blues became the identity of African-American music, Spanish flamenco and Argentine tango as a folk song, a national music that is popular the song is not just sung but also expressed Coração, or from the deepest depths.

Save the Music Kroncong We

Read some publications bulletin “Tjroeng”, appears twisted sense of community keroncong Indonesia (KKI), both fans, musicians, singers, and observer keroncong willing to dig up and preserve the art of music keroncong perceived prominence began to wane. In the KKI may further increase with the increasing number of people in Indonesia, but the percentage may be reduced. Can it be said keroncong music began to recede pamorya?

When compared with the 70 state may have a point. At that event keroncong music events sponsored by the government or state can be said to be solid. Among them, the loss of memory is not always held regularly every year election race radio stars of the regions (provinces) to national level. The selection was sponsored (held) by the Ministry of Information, and Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) which is an agency under the auspices of the Ministry of Information has always broadcast the race radio star selection page. At that point is contested not only music but also of the type keroncong Seriosa and “entertainment”, or more current dekenal as type pop.

Enthusiastic people to follow the holding of a huge radio star. This event proved that disiakan by RRI out late always awaited by pendenganya. And keroncong music among the public at that time occupied a higher position, more popular when compared with other types of music and entertainment Seriosa. Developments in society influence the development of public taste for the music. Naturally formed polarization taste and appreciation of music as well as influence the development of the music itself. A shift in tastes, especially among young children (teenagers) are more like the type of entertainment or pop music. A lot of pop music group pop like Shania Twain, Favourit Group, D’lloyd, Pambers, Mercys etc.. In addition, slowly but surely, began creeping up the popularity of dangdut music which at that time better known as the musical “Malay”. Even as Oma dedengkot dangdut rhythm at the beginning of his musical career through pop music, and some single song was popular at that time. The situation now, the popularity of these two types of music the higher (more fans) far left and the type of music kroncong Seriosa.

Not satisfied with the container provided by the government as an arena of competition, the musicians pop music pop star held his own elections, both at regional and national level, better known to voters “Pop Singer”. More and more pop music event was held, temporary keroncong music event for the less even none at all.

Subsequent developments, with the abolition of the Ministry of Information from the ranks of the cabinet, automatically lost the election race is also a calendar of activities which include a radio star music keroncong therein. Meaning is lost is also a place to socialize and popularize keroncong music among the general public.

Is this series of events ultimately reduce the overall prestige of keroncong music and fans began to be abandoned?

Indonesia in the eyes of society as a whole may fall dramatically keroncong music fame if the criterion is the amount or number Pengemar keroncong music lovers. But among his own popularity or prestige KKI keroncong music remain and be maintained, only the number is likely much less than the pop or dangdut music fans. Increasing the number of fans are also not very significant, perhaps waiting in line with the addition of changing tastes age music fans not keroncong. In fact, there remains keroncong music community, and not only in Indonesia but expanded into other countries brought about by the Indonesian people who migrate to other countries, like Malaysia, Suriname, the Netherlands etc.. In countries mentioned above, the music community keroncong consistent keroncong loved and played music.

Enjoys or hates a type of music or songs, with regard to taste, so it is highly subjective, can not be forced. Walk naturally follow the existing environment and habits. Pop songs sung by Shakira music Grop or by Radja music group in Indonesia very loved among adolescent or child big bad (ABG), but maybe the songs the group was not recognized at all by the people of Suriname. People there may be more familiar with the artist Waljinah song “Walang Kekeknya”. To sum up, globally, which have more prestige or more popular? Keroncong pop music or music? Please readers perceive themselves to answer the other questions mentioned above.

Problems faced by communities in Indonesia keroncong across the globe and the other is how to maintain sustainable existence keroncong music. This needs attention in light of concerns from some quarters who doubted the durability of music keroncong against “the onslaught of” other kinds of music, especially pop music. As the news reported by the website antara.co.id, dated October 19, 2008, carried stories about the great expectations maestro keroncong Indonesia, “Gesang”, asking people keroncong music fans to help preserve the original music flow this Java (meaning keroncong) to stay alive all time. Behind hope he implies the concerns that the music began to recede fallen keroncong Indonesia. Eventually, if nothing is done “nguri-uri” keroncong music, it is not likely to go extinct eventually abandoned his fans. This situation is a challenge and an opportunity keroncong entire human community to restore luster to the hope keroncong music maestro “Gesang” keroncong can be realized.

How do our efforts to preserve the cultural arts keroncong music?

, There are various types of keroncong, there Keroncong Original, Idioms Keroncong, Stambul Keroncong, coupled with Krontjong Toegoe. Of each type had had a “formula” or “grip” on their own [on this formula has been published in previous bulletins Croeng]. Looking at the formula or pakemnya, keroncong music can be categorized as serious music, equivalent to classical music because there are rules that must be met in order to be called music keroncong. Therein lies the beautiful and “adiluhungnya” keroncong music! So if there is some community residents said that keroncong music is “tacky” or “old school” was legitimate, valid only because of different perceptions, but it’s a big mistake! Not just anyone and there is not much that can create and play music “pure” keroncong properly. Only people who have special talents. Therefore, keroncong music that is played without obeying the rules, or distorted that there can be regarded as contemporary or experimental music keroncong. Usually of young people who likes to experiment so that the music was born CongDut (keroncong dangdut), CongRock (keroncong alloy and rock), CongLan (alloy keroncong and gamelan), etc.. How we respond to the birth of the musical kind.

 
 
 

 

A. ERA Bung Karno 1951-1965(Era Bung Karno)

 

Netty Bintang Kesayangan zsepanjang Masa
 
 
 
 
 

Netty

Karya Vol. 1

Karya Vol. 2
 

Kroncong

1.Lagu Betawi Era 1950-1960
1) orchestra sound dibp R Sutedjo Space
song: Call terumi godly creation

2) Four Gang Djakarta Orchestra leader  S.Jahja
Side one: The song to convey my compliments (nn)

1) High in the clouds song (pious)

2) Say hello (nn)

Four Gang
One of the musical group that was formed under the auspices of Ismail Marzuki Jakarta RRI. Core personnel are only four people, namely Saleh Soewita (guitar), Isaac (contra-bass), Jachja (violin), and Ariston da Cruz (piano; musician from the Philippines which changed its name to Arief Effendi). Contra-bass is sometimes held by Sarom. Ismail himself acting as a leader and that orchestra music arranger. This group was formed shortly after the proclamation of independence, which is intended to lower the political temperature of the hot and could explode at any time into open battle. Curtain time is given by the RRI Jakarta to the orchestra Four Sekawan about 30 minutes to 1 hour. Hours of their broadcast twice in one week, usually every Tuesday and Wednesday afternoon. In 1946, days and hours of play Four Gang erratic, sometimes on Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday. Generally, this orchestra is playing about 45 minutes, and broadcast three times in one day, lunch at 13:15, 17:15 o’clock in the afternoon, and evening at 20.00. Four Gang music event in Jakarta RRI Programa Hiboeran entitled Heroes, Hiboeran Oentoek Armed Forces sea and is difficult to determine RI, Hieboeran Saturday night, Hiboeran evening, Bidder Rindoe, and Alam Ria Indonesia. In addition to regularly fill the musical events in the radio studio, Four Gang also took down directly to the various fronts. They cheer the fighters and the local community who love the song of struggle, especially the songs that were created by the quartet orchestra personnel, including Ismail Marzuki.
   

Ismail Marzuki song creation work of the most popular is the seduction of Palm Island are used as final cover songs broadcast by TVRI station on the reign of the New Order.

Ismail Marzuki blessed honor in 1968 with the opening of Taman Ismail Marzuki, a park and cultural center in Salemba, Central Jakarta. In 2004 he was crowned a national hero of Indonesia.

He had founded the orchestra Four Gang

2. Kroncong Assorted Colors Markasan DBP (Srimpi record Inc.)
Side 1 with the song:

1) pack sakerah (Sueb) 2) Kuto Suroboyo (Sukemi)

3) numpak railroad (j, Sudarminto et al),

4) Nyang T.H.R (noerjatian)

Side 2:

1) Motor Uduk (Ahmad & J.sudarminto)

2) The pansy (Juwariyah T.M.)

3) Dream dicokot Ulo (Soekemi / Achmad),

4) Nanggelo (Sueb)

3. Kroncong orchestra Tjendrawasih DBP S. Padimin (Lokananta record Inc.)
Song Side 1:

1) Nandur Djagung (M wise),

2) Pigeon (S. Padimin)

song side 2:

1) alongside the river solo (s.Padimin-kustiati)

 2). Kroncong Mesra (Sunarno-Supardi achijat)

:

3.Orkes Kroncong Kemayoran DBP M. Sagi
(Rhythm record Inc.)
1) The rhythm of song production with India

side one: Djali Djali (NN) singer Oje

Side two: Remembering the fate of ciptaaan Sukamto-St.P.Bustamil

Keroncong M. Sagi Info (google Explorations)

1) Keroncong
At this time Indo known musicians, and legendary violinist is M. Sagi … Listen Orkest Lief Java, Tugu Cafrino Keroncong Orchestra, George de Fretes, and Orchestra …

2) Moh. Sjah & Orchestra Kerontjong M. Sagi – Kr. Rhythm
I thought that, coupled with the previous post of today, I’d post something languid and Tranquil, something Somewhat relaxed. So, I Brought out another classic piece Indonesian krontjong from the mid-20th century, on the local Rhythm label. “Rhythm” Actually means “rhythm” in Bahasa Indonesia – thus the title of the piece as well as the name of the record labels are explained.

I posted a krontjong tune of the Same vintage, and on another independent label Indonesian (Dendang). This one is similar – it’s the style of krontjong That I Quite enjoy, featuring the walking guitar and fiddle player trading runs in Between smooth vocals. Krontjong Itself Is a Relatively new type of urban folk music, developing in Indonesian urban areas a little over 100 years ago, with Batavian, Portuguese, Malay, and even African influences. Had Krontjong changed dramatically since it was first Recorded ca. 1904, and Pls this record was released (probably the late 1940s or so). The Instrumentation was bare bones at first, featuring trios and the like. I’ve Heard That sounds krontjong 1920s influenced by Stamboel theater, with a Slightly more operatic sound, showing Further Influences at work. By the 1940s, krontjong was a Rage, with whole orchestras and popular singers getting into the act … yet, to me this music is not Easily explained. Indonesian-Hawaiian-guitar-and-fiddle-ballads?

As for the singer and band – I’m Afraid these are Muddy Waters. Mostly I am sure That “Moh.” Stands for Mohammed, and “Cr.” Stands for krontjong, but at the risk of being incorrect, I will from the original label let stand as the official record

3) Service violinist M. Sagi

Initially under the name Kroncong ago Kroncong Jakarta Betawi “… In Jakarta at that time … The composition of instruments like this is thanks to M. Sagi a violinist keroncong

Also in Indonesia (Indonesian Rhythm music co ltd) look below compare with above:

1) Dimin, Remembering the fate of M. Sagi Keroncong with Orchestra, Rhythm productions Record

Four FRAME:

HISTORY FROM THE INDONESIA Kroncong GOOGLE Exploration COMPERATIVE FOR STUDY:

Music keroncong born in Indonesia through the course of its history is long and full of unique views of its constituent elements consisting of various components of culture, ethnicity, and language. If we draw a red thread about the origin of the birth of music keroncong in Indonesia, we will be faced with the mystery of history concerning the history of the world. History of Islamic occupation in the south of the Iberian peninsula from the fifth century until the thirteenth century. Historical background that explains why the Europeans in the sixteenth century was so persistent and navigation capability to mobilize all its military power to obtain the spices from the East. The history of the arrival of the Portuguese and the Dutch in the seventeenth century to compete for hegemony in Southeast Asia through trade monopoly in the Malacca, Sunda Kelapa, and the Maluku islands. The history of slavery, and the lives of street musicians during the Dutch East Indies. History of the Indonesian people’s identity formation as an independent nation and has a cultural heritage that is not infinite number including music keroncong. Fortunately for music that eventually keroncong accepted and become the property of Indonesia, a fact which has gained international recognition.

Today when we talk about keroncong, we are faced with a terminology that contains the broad sense. Etymologically, keroncong derived from the name of a musical instrument similar four-stringed small guitar that is typically made of nylon, so that when played produce sounds crong, jreng not like the sound of metal strings. Keroncong term believed to derive from the crafters waditra in Tugu village who had inherited the art of craft skills waditra guitar. Guitar is named as an adaptation of the guitar keroncong cavaquinho brought by Portuguese sailors sailed around the world. When she arrived in the archipelago of Madeira is called braguinha guitar, because it comes from the region of Braga in Portugal. In Brazil the people named Machete used to accompany dances. In the Caribbean islands were named Cuatro guitar, because the four-stringed. When he arrived at the Polynesian Pacific, the natives call it a ukelele, or fingers that jump, because it learned how to play it but not crushed. It is interesting to note that the guitar that gained popularity as a ukulele with Hawaiian patent, while the ukulele as keroncong designation has been recognized as a patent Indonesia by Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco in the dictionary of The Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, “Portugal” (2002:197) .

Thus the ukulele can be said to occupy a key position in every game keroncong music, so orkestrasinya must have crong color that serves as a rhythmic riffs (repeated patterns). In addition, the ukulele is spread and used in various types of ensembles gave instructions that the color also crong formations wherever it is played ukulele. We in Indonesia have also agreed that there is any music that may appear keroncong without bearing the label has a unique color of the game crong ukulele. It was universally believed that there is no keroncong without crong, and through the spread of ukulele music keroncong not impossible in many versions can also be found in various corners. Currently crong color can still be found among others on the island of Halmahera in the ensemble bastidor generic, in Malacca in the ensemble dondang unfortunately, in the Netherlands in the ensemble toegoenezen, in Hawaii in the Hawaiian guitar ensemble, in Suriname with krontjong ensambelnya, except in Indonesia in the ensemble keroncong orchestra.

If keroncong as waditra has worldwide, then keroncong as ensemble music, keroncong as a form of song, and keroncong as guitar playing style is a hallmark of Indonesia, which is influenced by Javanese gamelan gagrak. Orchestration keroncong usual ensemble featuring violin or flute as a bearer of a melody line, guitar as an accompanist and a carrier flow of counter-melodies, ukulele as a time-beater, and stringed cello (pizzicato) as a tune-percussion rhythm that sometimes dipertebal with stringed bass.

Just as pengendang become leader of a group of Javanese gamelan, the cellist with the typical pattern according Kusbini gedugannya became conductor in the orchestra keroncong. Gedugan it has a dual function as a bass and percussion, who led the orchestra keroncong not need it and avoid the use of drum-set in orkestrasinya. From here we can see how strong dominance in the display character string waditra chordophonic an orchestra keroncong in total from its role as the bearer of a melody to rhythm and harmony.

Orchestration keroncong Moresco actually a dance accompaniment consisting of guitar and tambourine percussion pieces of metal as a musical blend of Arab-Caucasian. Tambourine is also used in orchestral musicians keroncong Indies in Batavia in the Dutch East Indies. That’s why another version of the term emerged when the tambourine keroncong keroncong excluded from the orchestra under the influence of Javanese gamelan, so that the color of the metal triangle is no longer heard, and that is left is the color of his guitar keroncong. The color of the metal triangle is returned as a property of the Javanese dancers who wore bracelets on their legs. Currently, although the tambourine was heard in the village of Monument, orchestra keroncong in Indonesia are no longer using it.

 Keroncong community orchestra Indies in Batavia (Illustration: A.Th. Manusama (1919:12 a))
During the Dutch East Indies, keroncong appear as ars nova, a new art which is non-traditional and non-classical Western art favored by urban communities. Major cities in Java and then grow into a center keroncong, since its popularity through the Night Market in Gambir, Krokodilen community in Kemajoran, until Concours Jaar Markt in Surabaya. Keroncong when it became part of mass culture that has commercial value, so the ensemble keroncong popping up everywhere. But after independence, there was a musical revolution around the world with the birth of a popular rhythmic music rock youth. Rhythmic rock music quickly spread through recording technology and the music of today that displace the popularity of conventional rhythmic music including keroncong.

The musicologist, conventional music is music with rhythms that aksentuasinya falls on the first beat, like the rhythm of the dance walsa in three counts, or Marcia in a four-count rhythm. Conversely rock rhythms provide a fresh breath while accentuating it moves from the first beat which was marked by the beat of snare-drum stick on the second beat of the rhythmic pattern of the game bass-drum and hi-hat cymbal. The move gave birth to characters sinkopatik accentuation, continuous dependence, giving rise to the psychological sensation of questions unanswered. Not surprisingly, when the rhythm of rock managed to attract the younger generation, and quickly mastered the universal musical life.

There is no denying that the drum-set occupies a key position in the rhythm of rock. Currently there are no popular music of any kind which does not use a drum-set, ranging from a simple band to the symphonic band or a sophisticated light music orchestra. Rock rhythm through drumming sets worldwide and became the basis of all kinds of popular music today. Along with the popularity of conventional music become marginalized and is considered the representation of music past that have been deprecated, which is only interested by the elderly only.

In this case the existence of music keroncong facing a dilemma, because on the one hand its popularity will further decline if it retains a conventional rhythm, while on the other hand the use of drum-set in the orchestration keroncong will kill characteristics of the music. Time quickly passed when the music finally keroncong music moved from the mass culture industry into the commercial value of cultural traditions that are classified as ethnic music. Type of music such as this are always vulnerable to the threat of extinction, so the concept of preservation and revitalization agenda. Fortunate that the social capital of keroncong lies in the support part of Indonesian society that ensures that the music that has been born for centuries will not become extinct. However, revitalization efforts need to continue to be done for any purpose, including the purpose of reconstruction, go-international goals, or for experimental purposes and archiving.

Go-international effort against keroncong music ever made by Rudi Pirngadie through keroncong Stay Fresh orchestra performances that bring the gagrak Keroncong-beat in the New York World’s Fair in 1964. Keroncong beat is a concept that explores rhythm gedugan keroncong in the form of a cello, rhythmic riffs ukulele, and banyu milli guitar to accompany all types of music including Western songs. No fewer singers like M. keroncong Rivani, Rita Zahara, and Sayed managed to attract the attention of American society in the West like the song I left my heart in San Francisco that dikeroncongkan. Experimentation Keroncong beat did not bring results caused partly because they do not have strong cultural roots in Indonesia. It’s possible that the failure was also due to the characteristic rhythm of the exotic, are powerless against the sensational rock rhythms. But after all, innovation Pirngadie has successfully demonstrated the value of bargaining position and keroncong music of Indonesia in the international arena.

Go-other international efforts can be done through the preparation of packaging for keroncong orchestra as conducted by RRI through Jakarta Studio Orchestra Isbandi leader in event Star Radio Television type Keroncong. Similarly, experimentation Singgih Sanjaya through arable Light Keroncong in orchestral format that still maintains grip keroncongnya. This effort is more suitable for the preservation of keroncong music as music that is packaged in an artistic tradition of musicals. This effort is more academic and respectable in lifting keroncong as a repertoire of Indonesia in international forums, is more than just offer a generic rhythm.

Go-international effort is also meant to promote to the international world that keroncong is music of Indonesia, through patents or intellectual property rights, followed by various publications about keroncong of the researchers. So far, researchers such as Surya Brata, Paramita Abdurachman, Harmunah, Budiman BJ, and Like Hardjana has many roles, while foreign researchers such as Ernst Heins Bronia Kornhauser and contribute to them. Research Philip Yampolsky producing generic recording keroncong singer of the 1930s a different color of her voice with singer keroncong today, in addition to over the years Philip has been paying great attention to the ethnic music of the archipelago.

Go-international effort also requires us to appreciate the maestro who has managed to develop keroncong music since the days of the Dutch East Indies until today to appear as one of mainstream music of Indonesia, as has been pioneered by the community of Monument in Krontjong Toegoe, Kusbini in Keroncong Original, Gesang in Langgam Keroncong, Andjar Langgam Any in Java, and the singers who have contributed to musical life keroncong from generation to generation. It is expected that hopefully with the rapid music education in Indonesia, the musicians academic younger generation would instinctively moved them to participate in maintaining awareness that has been inherited ancestral heritage of our nation.

Thus the efforts of true international go-to music keroncong not solely lie in the spread and popularity internationally keroncong music, or at archiving the figure of his music in the form of scores, or in the form of an immanent keroncong orchestra performances, but more focused on the attitudes that reflect the desire of the creators, musicians, and researchers keroncong Indonesia to behave in a musical.

In the end we are morally obligated to maintain and support the international confidence that keroncong is the music of Indonesia, as well as Portuguese music known as Fado, the blues became the identity of the American Negro music, flamenco from Spain, and Argentine tango as a folk song, music that is popular national with songs that are not just sung but also expressed coração, or from my heart most deeply.

Save the Music Kroncong We

Reading several publications bulletin “Tjroeng”, appears twisted keroncong community spirit Indonesia (KKI), both fans, musicians, singers, and observer keroncong willing to dig back and preserve the art of music began to recede keroncong perceived prestige. The number of KKI probably increasing in line with the increase of population in Indonesia, but the percentage may decrease. Can it be said keroncong music began to recede pamorya?

When compared with the 70 state may have a point. At that event keroncong music events sponsored by the government or state can be said solid. Among them, who have not lost from memory is always held regularly every year the radio star contest election from the local level (provincial) to the national level. Selection was sponsored (held) by the Ministry of Information, and Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI), which is an institution under the auspices of the Ministry of Information always contest election broadcast radio star tsb. At that point is contested not only music but also of a kind keroncong seriosa and “entertainment”, or more dekenal today as a kind of pop.

Enthusiastic people to follow the holding of a huge radio star. This event proved that disiakan by RRI until late at night is always awaited by the pendenganya. And music keroncong among the community at that time occupied a higher position, more popular when compared with other types seriosa music and entertainment. The development of conditions in society may also influence the development of public taste for music that exists. Naturally formed polarization taste and appreciation of music as well as influence the development of music itself. Shifting tastes, especially among young children (teenagers) who preferred type of entertainment or pop music. Many emerging pop music groups such as Shania Twain, Favourit Group, D’lloyd, Pambers, Mercys etc. Also, slowly but surely, began creeping up the popularity of dangdut music which at that time better known as the musical “Malay”. Even dedengkot dangdut music like Oma Irama at the beginning of his musical career through pop music, and some single song was popular at that time. The situation now, the popularity of both kinds of music is higher (more fans) far left and seriosa kroncong kind of music.

Not satisfied with the container provided by the government as a race, the musicians of the pop music pop star held his own elections, at both regional and national level, better known by the voters “Pop Singer”. More pop music events were held, while the event to music keroncong the less even none at all.

Subsequent developments, with the abolition of the Ministry of Information from the ranks of the cabinet, automatically lost the election race is also a calendar of activities that include music radio star keroncong therein. Means also lost a place to socialize and popularize music keroncong among the community at large.

Is this the series of events ultimately lowering overall prestige keroncong music and fans began to be abandoned?

Indonesia in the eyes of society as a whole may prestige keroncong music dropped dramatically when its criterion is the amount of numbers keroncong Pengemar or music lovers. But among his own popularity or prestige KKI keroncong music still exists and is maintained, only the numbers might be smaller than the pop music fan or dangdut. The addition of the number of fans are also not very significant, perhaps waiting for changes in appetite along with the addition of age are not music fans keroncong. In fact, keroncong music community still exists, even not only in Indonesia but expanded to other countries brought by the Indonesian people are migrating to other countries, like Malaysia, Suriname, the Netherlands etc.. In the countries mentioned above, remain consistent keroncong music community enjoys and plays music keroncong.

Membeci favor or a type of music or songs, related to the taste, so its very subjective, can not be forced. Walk naturally obey the existing environment and habits. Pop songs sung by Shakira music grop or by the music group King in Indonesia very loved among teens or children smell gede (ABG), but maybe the songs the group had not known at all by the people of Suriname. The villagers may be more familiar with the artist Waljinah with the song “stinky Kekeknya”. In conclusion, globally, which have more prestige or more popular? Keroncong pop music or music? Please readers perceive themselves to answer the other questions mentioned above.

The problem faced by communities in Indonesia and dibelahan keroncong other world is how to maintain sustainable existence keroncong music. This needs to get attention in light of concerns from some quarters who doubted the durability of music keroncong against the “onslaught” other kinds of music, especially pop music. As quoted by news websites antara.co.id, October 19, 2008, carried stories about the great hope maestro keroncong Indonesia, “Gesang”, asking people keroncong music fan to help preserve the flow of original music this Java (meaning keroncong) to stay alive all time. Behind the hope he implies there is concern that Indonesia began to recede keroncong music prominence. Gradually, if no effort “nguri-uri” keroncong music, it is not impossible will be extinct abandoned fans. This situation is a challenge and an opportunity entire human community to restore the luster keroncong keroncong music maestro hopes for “Gesang” keroncong can be realized.

How do we attempt to preserve the artistic culture keroncong music?

, There are various types of keroncong, there Keroncong Original, Langgam Keroncong, Stambul Keroncong, coupled with Krontjong Toegoe. Of each type had a “formula” or “grip” on their own [regarding this formula has been published in previous bulletins Croeng]. Looking at the formula or pakemnya, keroncong music can be categorized as serious music, equivalent to classical music because there are rules that must be fulfilled to be called as music keroncong. Therein lies the beautiful and “adiluhungnya” keroncong music! So if there are some residents say that the music keroncong is “tacky” or “old school” Shah-Shah was only because of different perceptions, but it was a big mistake! Not just anyone and not many who can create and play music “pure” keroncong properly. Only people who have special talents. Therefore, keroncong music that is played without obey the rules, or that there can be said to deviate as keroncong contemporary or experimental music. Usually the young people who like to experiment so that music was born CongDut (keroncong Dangdut), CongRock (alloy keroncong and rock), CongLan (alloy keroncong and gamelan), etc.. How do we respond to the birth of the type music.

look more Keroncong record

 
1920年代
 
Early 1930-40
 
 
 
age 1950 to 1960

Netty

Karya Vol. 1

Karya Vol. 2
 

Orkes Kroncong Cenderawasih
 
 
1970~1980

Kroncong Beat Instrumentalia

Mus Mulyadi

O.K. Bintang Jakarta

Pasir Putih

Ismail Marzuki

Ismanto

O.K. Suara Kencana

Gesang
1990~2000年代

Keroncong Asli /
Hetty Koes Endang

Honocoroko

Titiek Puspa / Ronce Ronce

Koko Thole / / Relutan Warisan


The Golden Music of Indonesia
Kroncong


Keroncong Asli / Gesang

Keroncong Asli /
Sundari Soekotjo

Komedi Putar /
Sinten Remen
 
日本で発売された主なクロンチョンのCD
instrumentalia keroncong realeased in  Japan

A Guide To Kroncong

Kroncong Vocal
Kroncong Moritsuko

Kroncong Instrumental
Bengawan Solo

Lagu-Lagu Kroncong Karya Gesang
日本で発売されたワルジナのクロンチョンCD
 
Warujina Klong Chong was released in Japan
keroncong Waljinal produksi Japan
 

Walang Keke

Ratu Jawa

Kroncong Heart of Indonesia

Sings Gesang
Keroncong  Hetty Koes endang CD
produksi Japan

Keroncong Pilihan

Hati Yang Luka

Kroncong Collection

the end @ copyright 2012

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2 responses to “The History Of Betawi Music Record and Composer Kusbini,R Sutedjo,ismael marzuki,M.sagi, S Jahja,S Padimin and Markasan etc

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