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THIS ARTICLES DEDICATED TO THE USA INDIAN TRIBES
Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA
American Indian History & Culture
“Moenntarri Warrior in the costume of the dog danse”. Wied, Maximilian, Prinz von. Travels in the interior of North America during the years 1832-1834; illustrations by Karl Bodmer.
The rare books documenting Indian life-ways, and significant manuscript materials, including the papers of
anthropologist Morris Edward Opler,
incorporating his research notes on
the myths and folklore of Apache tribes;
the Pete Hest North American Indian collection.
Read more info
Lipan Apache Tribe
Indian Intruders From the North
Plains Indian warrior, inset from painting, “Comanches on the Trail,” by Theodore Gentilz, ca. 1840s. Original painting in Witte Museum. Historic Indian tribe locations map, ca. 1832, adapted from Hester 1989, Fig. 31.
Indian Intruders: Comanche, Tonkawa, and Other Tribes
By as early as the late 1600s, outside Indian groups had begun moving onto the South Texas Plains, accelerating the demise of the region’s vulnerable indigenous peoples. Among the new intruders were the Tonkawa, the Lipan and Mescalero Apache—groups which themselves had been displaced from their home territories far to the north and northwest. The availability of a new transportation system, horses, transformed many Plains Indian groups into societies that are sometimes characterized as “horse nomads.”
First and foremost, were the Comanche, who with the Kiowa, raided through south Texas and across the Rio Grande into northern Mexico. They were formidable foes to other native peoples as well as Anglo settlers in the 18th and 19th centuries. Facing increased hostilities, more competition for resources, and ravaged by Old World disease, local native groups were either pushed south into Mexico or assimilated into the new, more dominant tribes.
In late prehistoric times, the Lipan and Mescalero Apache lived in the Southern Plains of the United States. By the late 1600s, they found their homelands threatened by the Comanches and by Spanish raids seeking slaves for the silver mines around Parral and Chihuahua City or for the large ranches of what is today northern Mexico. To avoid those fates, they moved south and east, eventually reaching south-central Texas. As the tumultuous times unfolded, some Apache attempted alliances with other native peoples, including the Jumano and Tonkawa, groups with whom they had had hostile relationships in the past.
By the late 18th century, the Apache were pressing south across the Rio Grande and east into the South Texas Plains and brush country, where they began to align themselves with other native peoples. They chose this region, in part, because it had not been heavily settled by the Spanish, with the exception of the ranchos along the Rio Grande in the colony known as Nuevo Santander and the mission settlements there and in San Antonio de Bexar.
Although they lived a hunting and gathering lifestyle, the Lipan Apaches were mounted warriors who also raided homes and ranches for cattle and sheep. But as threats from Comanche and other groups intensified, the Lipan sought refuge in Spanish missions, including Santa Cruz de San Sabá (on the Edwards Plateau). In the second half of the eighteenth century and, after the mission on the San Saba River was destroyed by an allied force of their enemies, the Apache moved farther south, extending their range from the Bolson de Mapimi desert in north-central Mexico to the Rio Grande to the Nueces. In 1772, 300 Lipan Apache attacked haciendas and pueblos in Coahuila.
In the ensuing century, few Europeans settled in the region, and those that did, such as Richard King (founder of the fabled King Ranch), found that the key to success was the acquisition of vast lands for ranches. Thus, although the region was distant from their Southern Plains homeland, Lipan and Mescaleros found a refuge here until the early 1900s when they were forcibly moved onto a reservation in southern New Mexico where they reside today.
Although chiefly operating on the northeastern fringe of the area, the Tonkawa also played a role in the region’s history. Much has been made about whether the Tonkawa were an actual tribe or, rather, an amalgam of other groups and splinter tribes, some of which were from south Texas. Most likely, they were a bit of both and absorbed different peoples in later historic times.
The Tonkawa were first documented in 1601 in an area north of Texas on the Arkansas River, where the Wichita-speakers called them the Tancoa, a word meaning “they all stay together.” In their own language, the Tonkawa called themselves Titskanwatits, meaning “people of the country” or “Indian people here.” At that time, these hunting and gathering peoples lived in a number of large villages, but they faced increased conflicts with other native peoples. By the late seventeenth century, they were residing in Texas and were called the Tanquaay. During the late eighteenth century, they lived with various groups over a wide geographic area, ranging from the Red River to the area of present Waco, and, at times, even further south into the South Texas Plains.
Much of what we know of the Tonkawa during this period comes from documents written by a Frenchman named De Mezieres who visited them on several occasions in the 1770s, often in their camps close to the Red River. He estimated their population at about 500 and described them as hunters and gatherers living in tents and hunting buffalo and deer—both to eat and to obtain the animal skins that they traded.
By the late eighteenth century, the Tonkawa had absorbed several other Native American groups who sought protection within the larger Tonkawa nation. Some—such as the Sana and Yorica—were originally from the South Texas Plains and northern Mexico. These added numbers strengthened the increasingly threatened Tonkawas and helped them survive attacks by Apaches and others. Later, the Tonkawa served as scouts for the U.S. Army in west Texas during the Indian wars. In spite of their valued service, however, they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma in the late 1880s. (See Tonkawa Tribe website.)
Comanche and Other Groups
The Comanche, latecomers to the South Texas Plains, were among the most feared. Indeed, the name, Comanche, is believed to be a Spanish version of a Ute word meaning “someone who wants to fight all the time.” By the early 18th century the Comanches had moved from Colorado into New Mexico, where they alternately raided and traded with Spanish settlements. Their attacks upon pueblo Indians and the Apache were nearly constant. Throughout the 1700s, the Comanche continued to move to the southeast, driving deeper into Texas and pushing the Lipan in their wake. Having established control of the Southern Plains, the Comanche moved onto the Edwards Plateau and beyond, where they secured their dominance by entering into a truce with the Spanish in New Mexico and forming an alliance with the Kiowa. (See Comanche Nation website.)
Other tribes who are known to have had a brief presence in the South Texas Plains were the, Shawnee, Caddo, Kiowa, Kickapoo, and Seminole. While not all were hunters and gatherers, their activities in this sometimes harsh region generally mimicked those of the hunters and gatherers whom Cabeza de Vaca and his companions had met and lived among some 300 years earlier.
To learn more about Indian groups in Texas during the Historic Period, see the following exhibit sections on this website:
Additional information on the Comanche in later historic times is provided in:
The myths and tales of this volume are of particular significance, perhaps, because they have reference to a tribe about which there is almost no published ethnographic material.
The Lipan Apache were scattered and all but annihilated on the eve of the Southwestern reservation period. The survivors found refuge with other groups, and except for a brief notice by Gatshet,
they have been overlooked or neglected while investigations of numerically larger populations have proceeded. It is gratifying, therefore, to be able at this late date to present a fairly full collection of Lipan folk-lore, and to be in a position to report that this collection does much to illuminate the relations of Southern Athabaskan-speaking tribes and the movements of aboriginal populations in the American Southwest.
Lipan Apache Chief
Before the beginning of the 18th century the Lipan were already in the northern part of the present state of Texas, and were being forced southward by hostile Comanche. By the middle of the 18th century we find them in south central Texas, where the Spanairds sought to protect them from their persistent enemies by the erection of the Mission of San Sab?. Following the destruction of this mission, two others were established to the south and west to administer to these Apache. They met a like fate in 1767. In 1796 the Lipan are reported to have reached the Gulf Coast in the vicinity of the lower Rio Grande. For the next half century they lived on or in the vicinity of the coast and made a partial adjustment to that environment. The hostilities between the Texans and Mexicans during the last part of this period involved the Lipan as allies of the latter. Then part of the Kickapoo, who had ceded their lands in Illinois, invaded Texas and were added to the list of Lipan enemies. A serious epidemic of smallpox decimated the tribe further. The Lipan, wasted by warfare and disease, were forced northward and westward. Part of them found a retreat in the southern spurs of the Guadalupe Mountains, where they made contact with the southernmost settlements of the Mescalero Apache. These people, whom I have called the Northern Lipan in the tales, have become known as the “No Water People.” Another section of the tribe crossed the Rio Grande and settled in the neighborhood of Zaragoza, Coahuila. I place the date of the permanent removal of these Lipan to Old Mexico (raiding expeditions had penetrated into Old Mexico on previous occasions, of course) at about 1860 or shortly thereafter. This section of the tribe, the Southern Lipan of the tales, has become known as the “Big Water People.” The “Big Water People,” because their fate has been less involved with that of the Mescalero Apache until quite recently, are prone to consider themselves the true representatives of Lipan culture.
From 1860 on the Northern Lipan became increasingly amalgamated with the Mescalero. When attempts were made to concentrate the Mescalero at Ft. Stanton in 1870, many Lipan were gathered into the net. At this same time the Southern Lipan were having difficulty with the Mexican military and a group of them were happy to find protection to the north. Thus it was that in 1903, when a handful of Lipan who had survived a war of extermination which had been waged against them in Coahuila, were brought to Chihuahua, it became known that they had relatives on the Mescalero Reservation. Efforts were made to unite them with their kin living in the United States. In that year a small band of nineteen individuals was brought to Mescalero. This event has given rise to the impression that the Lipan were never anything more than an offshoot of the Mescalero tribe whose members somehow became separated from the main group and who were finally restored to their relatives.
Apache Encampment in the Texas Hill Country by George Nelson. The Lipan Apache were among several Plains tribes pushed southward as pressure for land and resources mounted across the western frontier. Image courtesy of the artist and the Institute of Texan Cultures, University of Texas at San Antonio.
Evidence is accumulating which suggests a different historical origin and other ethnic relationships for the Lipan, however. In an analysis of Southern Athabaskan kinship systems I have tried to show that the Lipan system resembles the Jicarilla and not the Chiricahua-Mescalero type, and the Lipan kinship stands closer to Jicarilla in respect to form, terms, and behavior patterns than to kinship usages of any other Southern Athabaskan-speaking tribe. Dr. Harry Hoijer?s scholarly analysis of the relationships of Southern Athabaskan languages demonstrates that Jicarilla and Lipan together constitute a sub-group of the eastern linguistic group, quite apart from Mescalero, which is classified in the other or western group. The conclusion seems inescapable that the affiliation of the Lipan and Mescalero is a recent and secondary one and that more ancient and fundamental connections must be sought to the north.
It is of interest and importance to consider whether the myths and tales yield materials which offer further insight concerning the place of the Lipan in Southwestern cultures. The results of such an inquiry have proved so gratifying that it is doubtful whether the value of mythology for purposes of ethnological analysis has ever been better vindicated.
A glance at the table of contents of this volume is enough to reveal one of the major differences in myth and conception which divides the Lipan from the Mescalero; the Lipan have a myth of emergence. This gives a definite cast to Lipan mythology which Mescalero mythology does not share, for a number of other Lipan stories take their inspiration from events which transpired in the underworld before the emergence (Section I, C). The myths of all Southern Athabaskan tribes (with the possible exception of the Kiowa Apache) include a story of a culture hero who slew the foes of the race.
The Navaho, Western Apache, and Jicarilla name the chief protagonist Killer-of-Enemies and have him attended by a subordinate (a younger brother, relative, or friend) who is ordinarily known as Child-of-the-Water.
By a curious twist
have reversed the positions of these two; for them Child-of-the-Water becomes the intrepid hero and monster slayer and Killer-of-Enemies his weaker companion. The Lipan lean towards the northern and western usage. Killer-of-Enemies is their culture hero. They use the term Child-of-Water seldom, and then only as a synonym for Killer-of-Enemies. In the Lipan tales a younger brother of the culture hero called Wise One appears, and to him are attributed the characteristics usually associated with the less important of the divine pair.
One of the monsters with whom the culture hero has difficulty is known as
Big Owl by
The Mescalero and Chiricahua think of him as a giant. He appears as Big Owl in Lipan mythology, again indicating the orientation we have remarked.
The Lipan names for important concepts or supernaturals of the myths show marked departures from Mescalero usage. The Mescalero call masked dancers and the supernaturals they impersonate gahe. The Lipan know them as hashchi (hactci) and therefore agree in this respect with the Jicarilla who refer to comparable supernaturals as hashchin (hactcin), and with the Navaho who use the cognate term haashch’èèh (hactce).
There are a number of myths of diagnostic value which the Lipan relate but which could not be found for the Mescalero. One such is the tale of the man who traveled down the river in a hollow log (Section V, A, 1). This story has been recorded for the Jicarilla, Western Apache, and Navaho also. Another tale of significance for our purpose is that of the race around the world (Section VIII, B, 1). This story, unknown to the Mescalero but common to the Lipan and Jicarilla, has been expanded to ceremonial importance by the latter.
As has been implied in the materials surveyed, the sharp differentiation of Lipan from Mescalero mythology contrasts vividly with the many parallels between Lipan and Jicarilla mythology. In addition to the myths and themes which have been identified as belonging to the joint stock in trade of the Lipan and Jicarilla but which are not shared by the Mescalero (such as the emergence myth), there are a number of others which deserve mention, for their weight lends a decided Jicarilla cast to Lipan folk-lore. One such is the hint of Lipan traditions concerning a people who live to the north in a land of darkness (p. 15). Another is that of the boy who aids in the capture of his twin (p. 23). Still another has to do with the attempts of a malign being to chop up and cook the culture hero and his companion (pp. 23-24). The vitalization of a person or animal by the entrance of wind into the body (p. 29) is one of a number of themes of like character. We are fully justified in saying tha between the legends of the Lipan and Jicarilla the correspondences are impressive in respect to themes, names, and terms as well as story outlines. Most of these resemblances will be noted in the text.
But the myths also contain ethnographic items which attest to the cultural gulf between the Mescalero and Lipan and to the unmistakable relation of Lipan to Jicarilla culture. It may be useful to call attention to one or two examples of such materials here. In Section VII (Tales Connected with Death) mention is made of the ghost or vakosh (vakoc) ; vakosh is a term descriptive of the material remains of the dead as distinguished from the breath or spirit. The term and description are applied by the Lipan and Jicarilla and, as far as I have been able to discover, by no other of these Apache tribes. In the same section of the volume the Lipan conception of the underworld or land of the dead is described. The underworld is said to be divided into north and south compartments, inhabited by the spirits of the sorcerers and of the good respectively. Fire and fog harass the wicked, and snakes and lizards are their only food. The Jicarilla have an identical picture of the afterworld, and, as far as I have been able to determine, they are the only other Apache group to entertain such a set of beliefs. In one of the warpath stories of this volume a Lipan who had been made captive by the enemy and escaped, refrains from entering the encampment before a purifying ceremony has been held over him. There is no trace of such a ceremony for the Mescalero and Chiricahua, but this duplicates exactly the Jicarilla procedure. A systematic review of the contents of this volume would reveal scores of elements which might be similarly compared and interpreted. A more comprehensive comparison will not be attempted now, however, for it can be more profitably pursued after the publication of the volumes of Chiricahua and Mescalero mythology which are now being prepared.
Enough evidence of various kinds has been submitted, nevertheless, to establish with high probability that the Lipan are an offshoot of a Lipan-Jicarilla group, that their line of migration took them east to the plains and south to the gulf, and that they were lately forced westward and northward, to be finally located with the Mescalero.
Opler, Morris E. (1940). Myths and legends of the Lipan Apache Indians. Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society (Vol. 36). New York: J. J. Augustin.
The Lipan Apaches of Texas and Northern Mexico and the Early Settlers of
Underground Worlds: Native American Mythology
The Apache and other Pueblo Indians, such as the Zunis and Hopi, have legends about their ancestors emerging from an underground world, generally after some cataclysmic event, as if a cycle in time, or another reboot in the programmed realities of the human experiment, always linked to star gods, or star people, who brought them here from outer space.
Hopi Prophecy speaks of the return of
the Blue Kachina,
Star People at the end of this cycle of time.
reae more about Hopi
The Hopi are a Native America Nation who primarily live on the 1.5 million acre Hopi Reservation in northeaster Arizona. The reservation is surrounded by the Navajo reservation. Hopis call themselves Hopitu- ‘The Peaceful People’.
The name Hopi is the shortened form of the title to what they called themselves, “Hopituh Sinom”, “the people of Hopi”. Hopi is a concept deeply rooted in the culture’s religion, spirituality, and its view of morality and ethics. To be Hopi is to strive toward this concept, but one never achieves in this life. This concept is one where you are in a state of total reverence and respect for all things, to be at peace with these things, and to live in accordance with the teachings of ‘maasaw’.
Hopis live in northeast Arizona at the southern end of the Black Mesa. A mesa is the name given to a small isolated flat-topped hill with three steep sides called the 1st< Mesa, 2nd Mesa, and the 3rd Mesa. On the mesa tops are the Hopi villages called pueblos. The pueblo of Oraibi on the 3rd Mesa started in 1050, and is the oldest in North America that was lived in continuously.
AncestryEvidence suggest that the Hopi consist of the descendants of various groups that entered the country from the north, the east, and the south, and that a series of movements covered a period of probably three centuries, and perhaps considerably longer.
Their ancestors, the Anasazi, appear to have been related to the Aztecs of Mexico, and may have arrived in their current location 5 to 10 thousand years ago. In that time, they have developed an intricate ceremonial calendar that has helped them survive and be strong in a place that would not seem to have enough reliable water to sustain life.
Related to people of the various Pueblos to the east, the Hopis never actually had a single group identity–they were independent villages, sharing with the Zuni and other Pueblos a basic culture and view of the sacred, while sharing among themselves their own (Uto-Aztecan) language base.
LanguageAlthough the Hopi are composed of elements that must have spoken diverse tongues, their speech is readily recognized as a dialog of the Shoshonean language, which in various forms was spoken in a large part of the Great Basin between the Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada, in southwestern Oregon, and in southern California even to the coast and on Santa Catalina island; and which furthermore is undoubtedly allied to the great Aztecan language. A linguistic map would represent the Hopi as an isolated people surrounded by alien tongues
Homes Hopi Mesa Homes
Hopis live in pueblos that are made of stone and mud and stand several stories high. The Kivas are an underground chamber in the pueblo home that they used to talk and have religious ceremonies in. They used the kivas for 100 years. The center of the floor had a fire pit. You climb down a ladder to get to the south end where a bench was placed for spectators.
The walls of some Hopi houses are constructed of undressed stone fragments bound with mud plaster. The flat roof consists of beams resting on the tops of the walls, pole battens, rod and grass thatching, a layer of gumbo plaster, and a covering of dry earth. Most of the houses are more than single story, some as much as four stories. The upper apartments are reached by outside ladders.
WomenThe traditional Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans. When a man marries, the children from the relationship are members of his wife’s clan. The Bear Clan is one of the more prominent clans.
The women and men each have specific jobs or duties they perform. The women own the land and the house. They also cook and weave the baskets. The men plant and harvest, weave cloth, and perform the ceremonies.
When a child is born they get a special blanket and a perfect ear of corn. On the 20thday they take the child to the mesa cliff and hold it facing the rising sun. When the sun hits the baby is given a name.
MarriageThe traditional Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans. When a man marries, the children from the relationship are members of his wife’s clan. The Bear Clan is one of the more prominent clans. The Hopi, more than most Native American peoples, retain and continue to practice their traditional ceremonial culture. However, like other tribes, they are severely impacted by the ambient American culture.
A Hopi bride grinds corn for three days at her future husband’s house to show she has wife skills. The groom and his male relatives weave her wedding clothes. After they are finished, the bride to be walks home in one wedding outfit, and carries the other in a container. Women are also buried in their wedding outfit so when they entered the spirit world they would be dressed appropriately. A Hopi man wears several bead necklaces on his wedding day.
EconomyTraditionally the Hopi were highly skilled subsistence farmers. With the installation of electricity and the necessity of having a motor vehicle and the other things which can be purchased, the Hopi have been moving into a cash economy with many people seeking and holding outside jobs as well as earning money from traditional crafts.
CraftsArt is a way for the Southwestern Native Americans to communicate their dreams, visions, and beliefs to each other or to people today.
Pottery, clothing, and making baskets are just a portion of the great arts and crafts of the Southwest Native Americans. Their art used symbols and signs to represent their ideas, beliefs, dreams, and visions.
Pottery was made for everyday use, including cooking, storage, bathing, and religious ceremonies.They were painted and carved with designs that told a story.
Modern earthen ware is considerably softer and of coarser texture than the pieces that have been exhumed in large numbers from the ruins of this region. The most successful imitator of this ancient ware, who is not a Hopi at all, but the Tewa woman Nampeyo, of the village Hano, says that its superiority was obtained by the use of lignite, by which the prehistoric potters were able to fire their vessels for several days; but a well-informed traditionalist, on the contrary, asserts that it is the result of burying the clay in moist sand for a long time, perhaps two moons, which ’caused something in the clay to rot’.”
Hopi Cross Rug
ClothingThe clothing they wore depended on what they did. They lived in a warm climate so they wore little clothing. They would dress in flowers and paint with feather headdresses. They also used clothing to signify their fighting skills.
The Southwest Indians were the most skilled in making baskets. They would decorate the baskets with colors and patterns. They could be very symbolic like the art they made. The Hopi method of basket making has not changed for hundreds of years.
DietThe very first Southwest Native Americans hunted mammoths until they became extinct. Then people began to hunt buffalo, also known as bison, as well as collect wild plants for food. They also learned to grow maize, or corn, that was their most common grain, which became domesticated in Mexico.
Corn is the central food of daily life, and piki – paper thin bread made from corn and ash–is the dominant food at ceremonies. Corn relies on the farmer to survive, and the Hopi relies on the corn – all life is designed to be interrelated.
The Hopi Indians grew food similar to the Navajo Indians. They raised corn or maize as the basic food. The Hopi Indians based religious ceremonies on the corn they grew.They grew 24 different kinds of corn, but the blue and white was the most common.They also grew beans, squash, melons, pumpkins, and fruit.
Kachina dolls were carved out wood by the Zuni and Hopi tribes. There are over 300 different Kachinas. They are generally clothed in masks and costumes to look like the men who dressed up as Kachina spirits. They were given to children to teach them to identify the different parts of Kachina dolls, and the parts they play in tribal ceremonies.
The Kachinas, or Gods, were beings of a great might and power to the Native Americans. They were known to come down to Earth and help the native Americans tend their fields brining wisdom about agriculture, law and government. They physically interacted with the people themselves. There are drawings of them on cave walls.
The famous Hopi Prophecy speaks about the return of the Blue Kachina to herald in the Fifth Age of Man. This is not unlike any other culture who await the return of their god or creational force – Example – Jesus.
Hopi Kachina Dancer and Kachina Doll
Mythology Kokopelli is a god worshipped by many southeastern tribes. He is a humpbacked flautist. Among the Hopi, he brought the fetuses to pregnant women, and took part in many rituals relating to marriage.
Muyingwa is the god of germination.
Taiowa is the creator god. He made Sotuknang and ordered him to make the universe. The first world was called Topela and had land, water and air, as well as Koyangwuti (spider woman), who then created twins, Poqanghoya and Palongawhoya. They made rivers, oceans and mountains. Koyangwuti then made all organisms, but most of the men did not obey the gods, so Sotuknang killed them with a flood. Two more bad worlds were created and destroyed.
The fourth world, the modern world, is Tuwaqachi.
Tokpela was the endless, primordial space before creation. Good people go west and become kachinas, but there is no absolute connection between the former soul and the kachina.
Myths From Hopi Stone Tablets
Myth 1: The Mission of Two Brothers
This Bow Clan chief had two grown sons. When they learned of their father’s misdeed, they were very sad. Their knowledge of the teachings which they had received from him was all in order. Now they were left alone to lead their people, for the very next day their father died.
They asked their mother to permit them to carry out the order of their instructions for an event of this nature. She replied that it was up to them, for their knowledge was complete. Upon agreement, the younger brother was to continue in search of Maasau’u, and to settle where he found him. There he would await the return of this older brother, who was to travel eastward toward the rising sun, where he would rest briefly. While resting, he must listen for the voice of his younger brother, who would expect him to come to his aid, for the change in the life pattern will have disrupted the way of life of his people. Under the pressure of a new ruler they will surely be wiped off the face of the earth unless he comes.
So today we are still standing firmly on the Great Spirit’s instructions. We will continue to look and pray toward the East for his prompt return. The younger brother warned the elder that the land and the people would change “But do not let your heart be troubled,” he said, “for you will find us. Many will turn away from the life plan of Maasau’u, but a few of us who are true to his teachings will remain in our dwellings. The ancient character of our heads, the shape of our houses, the layout of our villages, and the type of land upon which our village stands, and our way of life. All will be in order, by which you will find us.”
Before the first people had begun their migrations the people named Hopi were given a set of stone tablets. Into these tablets the Great Spirit inscribed the laws by which the Hopi were to travel and live the good way of life, the peaceful way. They also contain a warning that the Hopi must beware, for in time they would be influenced by wicked people to forsake the life plan of Maasau’u. It would not be easy to stand up against this, for it would involve many good things that would tempt many good people to forsake these laws. The Hopi would be led into a most difficult position. The stones contain instructions to be followed in such a case.
The older brother was to take one of the stone tablets with him to the rising sun, and bring it back with him when he hears the desperate call for aid. His brother will be in a state of hopelessness and despair. His people may have forsaken the teachings, no longer respecting their elders, and even turning upon their elders to destroy their way of life. The stone tablets will be the final acknowledgment of their true identity and brotherhood. Their mother is Sun Clan. They are the children of the sun.
So it must be a Hopi who travelled from here to the rising sun and is waiting someplace. Therefore it is only the Hopi that still have this world rotating properly, and it is the Hopi who must be purified if this world is to be saved. No other person anyplace will accomplish this. The older brother had to travel fast on his journey for there was not much time, so the horse was created for him. The younger brother and his people continued on in search of Maasau’u.
On their way they came to a land that looked fertile and warm. Here they marked their clan symbols on the rock to claim the land. This was done by the Fire Clan,the Spider Clan, and the Snake Clank. This place is know called Moencopi. They did not settle there at that time. While the people were migrating, Maasau’u was waiting for the first ones to arrive. In those days he used to take walks near the place where he lived, carrying a bunch of violet flowers (du-kyam-see) in his belt. One day he lost them along the way. When he went to look for them he found that they had been picked up by the Hornytoad Woman. When he asked her for the flowers she refused to give them back, but instead gave him her promise that she would help him in time of need. “I too have a metal helmet,” she told him, (possibly meaning that certain people with metal helmets would help the Hopi when they get into difficulty).
Often Maasau’u would walk about a half mile north of his du-pa-cha ( a type of temporary house) to a place where there lay a long rock which formed a natural shelter, which he must have picked as the place where he and the first people would find each other. While waiting there he would amuse himself by playing a game to test his skill, the name of which (Nadu-won-pi-kya), was to play an important part later on in the life of the Hopi, for it was here that the knowledge and wisdom of the first people was to be tested. Until recent times children used to play a similar game there, something like “hide-and-seek.” One person would hide, then signal by tapping on the rock, which would transmit the sound in a peculiar way so that the others could not tell exactly where the tapping was coming from. (Some years ago this rock was destroyed by government road builders.) It was here that they found Maasau’u waiting.
Before the migrations began Maasau’u had let it be known, though perhaps not by direct instructions, that whoever would find him first would be the leader there. Later it became clear that this was a procedure by which their true character would be specified.
When they found him, the people gathered and sat down with him to talk. The first thing they wanted to know was where he lived. He replied that he lived just north of there at a place called Oraibi. For a certain reason he did not name it fully. The full name is Sip-Oraibi, meaning something that has been solidified, referring to the fact that this is the place where the earth was made solid.
They asked permission to live there with him. He did not answer directly, for within them he saw evil. “It is up to you,” he said. “I have nothing here. My life is simple. All I have is my planting stick and my corn. If you are willing to live as I do, and follow my instructions, the life plan which I shall give you, you may live here with me, and take care of the land. Then you may have a long, happy, fruitful life.”
Then they asked him whether he would be their leader, thinking that thus they would be assured a peaceful life. “No,” he replied, “the one who led you here will be the leader until you fulfill your pattern of life,” (for he saw into their hearts and knew that they still had many selfish desires). “After that I will be the leader, but not before, for I am the first and I shall be the last.” Having left all the instructions with them, he disappeared.
Myth 2Chief Dan Evehema, Grandfather Martin Gashweseoma and son-in-law Emery Homes shared wisdom’s about the stones how they came to be and current events and where about of the sacred tablets. The presentation took over 2 hours but according to the Chief Martin & Emery to get the full details you would need 8 to 9 days. This is what was recorded of this conversation.
As Emery spoke of mankind’s future according to our Native Prophecies he unfolded the story of the five Hopi stone tablets, given by the creator long, long ago. One of these tablets was kept by the Creator.
Two tablets were kept by the Hopis themselves passed down from generation to generation and used to renew Holy vows of spiritual commitments to the people and the creator at special times of the year. Martin was the last one who held the great responsibility for its care, a duty that had evolved to him by default because his uncle had lost honor by an act of adultery and was therefore no longer worthy to be the caretaker. Miss fortune later came to Martin also in this quest.
He was instructed and trained by his uncle earlier that when certain signs in nature were observed, the tablet should be taken to Santa Fe, the first US capital in the West recognized by the Hopi people. The signs came, Emery explained as he translated Martins story, Chief Martin set in deep thought and prayer a sadness of the ages around him.
As Grandfather Martin has been taught, he watched for the sign. It was the middle of winter, and the peach tree came into full bloom. Desert flowers came into full bloom, and snakes were seen out when they should have been in hibernation. These were the signs he had been waiting for, his signal to take the tablet to Santa Fe. So a delegation was organized to go to Santa Fe to share this knowledge with other Spiritual leaders.
As this story unfolds his relatives objected strongly. They organized and assessed that he had done wrong in taking the stone to Santa Fe saying he had made grave errors in judgments and was not fit to have the stone, saying that it was in the wrong household. So they took the stone tablet from him by force. Now Martin and Emery, said as of that day they did not know where the stone is.
In asking what the tablets looked like the Elders explained that 4 of them were exactly the same, two were left with the Hopi people, two were given to the true brothers to bring back at a special time in history, along with other sacred items from the four directions, when the world reunites in peace. The fifth one the Elders tell us was kept by the Creator and was different markings. Similar to one on the poster of a Hinduism Today paper “Truth is One, Paths Are Many” Grandfather Martin said.
This is a great loss for the Elder and now his life is centered around finding the true Brothers and telling the world of the great prophecies of the Hopis, the Mayans and other civilizations. These were shared next as the elders explained to us about there commitment to the human race and mother earth Chief Martin would often say, “We are humans: we cannot eat the money.” We must plant our fields and pray for guidance honor all the ceremonials, we can eat the Corn. He then disclosed a package of pictographs, the main one the size of a road map, consisting of numerous papers tapped together all in a single strip that we rolled out, page after page until it was open, over 8 feet long.
Emery and Martin explained to us very patiently and slowly the Mayan pictographs. The story of the pictures in words sometimes Hopi sometimes English. Beginning in ancient times and ending with four possible pathways that mankind can choose from their actions as a collective group. The choices range from complete destruction and loss of sunlight, to less server circumstances, providing corruption and greed has not already gone to far. The Elders seemed less optimistic then we had all hoped. The main concerns of the Elders and Holy people was Starvation and Marshal Law both they are already seeing to close as a new reality.
On this day, still waiting for the true white brother, the Elders came together in a meeting when East meets West. Hopi spiritual leaders of Hotevilla Arizona hosted The Hindu delegation led by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami in a special prayer meeting at the corn fields at Chief Dan Evehema’s corn fields.
ReligionThe Hopi have been affected by missionary work by several religions and also by consumerism and alcoholism. Nevertheless there remains a traditionalist core.
The people of the Southwest, along with the Southeast had full-time religious leaders with shrines or temple buildings. Most Native Americans believe that in the universe there exists an Almighty, a spiritual force that is the source of all life. The Almighty belief is not pictured as a man in the sky, but is believed to be formless and exist in the universe. The sun is viewed as the power of the Almighty.
They are not worshipping the sun, but praying to the Almighty, and the sun is a sign and symbol for that. Native Americans show less interest in an afterlife unlike the Christians. They assume the souls of the dead go to another part of the universe where they have a new existence carrying on everyday activities like they were still alive. They are just in a different world.
The religious and ceremonial life of the Hopi centers in the kiva, which is simply a room, wholly or partly subterranean and entered by way of ladder through an opening in the flat roof. While the membership of the kiva consists principally of men and boys from certain clan or clans, there is no case in which all the members of a kiva belong to one clan- a condition inseparable from the provision that a man may change his kiva membership, and in fact made necessary by the existence of more clans than kivas. It is probable, nevertheless, that originally the kivas were clan institutions.”
The Hopi or “Hopituh Shi-nu-mu” meaning “The Peaceful People” or the “Peaceful Little Ones” are a well know Indian Nation in Northern Arizona, especially known for their “Kachina Dolls”. The Navajo name for the Hopi is Anazazi which means “ancient enemies”. The Hopi’s are a very peaceful tribe whose reservation lies somewhat in the center of the Navajo Nation and although the co-exist because of their geography their relationship is somewhat strained because of their tribal histories.
The cliff painting of the Mesa Verde and other areas are said to be “guides” for their warriors and they claim that the “snake-shaped” mounds in the eastern United States were built by their ancestors.
The “Snake Dance” is performed even today although the picture is of a Snake Priest Circa 1890. The dance takes about two weeks to prepare and the snakes are gathered and watched over by the children. The snakes are usually rattle snakes and are dangerous but no harm seems to befall the children. Before the dance begins the dancers take an emetic (probably a sedative herb or hallucinogenic) and then dance with the snakes in their mouths. There is usually an Antelope Priest in attendance who helps with the dance, sometimes stroking the snakes with a feather or supporting their weight. After the dance the snakes are released to carry the prayers of the dancers.
Beside the trail that leads from the Hopi mesas to an ancient shrine where salt was gathered in the Grand Canyon, a large boulder bears the markings of clans which carved their emblems into the rock each time they passed on a pilgrimage.
From various quarters, the Hopi have brought with them in their migration from other regions or have borrowed from other pueblo a mass of religious practices, and the result is a complex presenting many anomalies and obscurities. They recognize a very large number of deities, and of none can it be said that he is supreme. The explanation may be that that each was the principal deity of some one group that entered into the making of the present Hopi people. Numerous ceremonies are performed at proscribed times, which are determined by the position of the rising sun with reference to certain landmarks or by the moon.
Hopi Medicine Wheel
In the Hopi Medicine Wheel of the Hopi prophecyof the four peoples of the Earth, the cardinal direction North represents the body, plants and animals, the color white and ‘white skinned peoples’, and Childhood. (can also represent birth, and/or meeting a stranger and learning to trust as in infancy, explained in Erik Erikson’s stages of Psychosocial development).
The East is held to represent the mind, air, the color yellow and ‘yellow skinned peoples’, learning the groups to which people belong and Adolescence.
The South holds the heart, fire, the color red and ‘red skinned peoples’, and Adulthood.
Finally West holds the spirit, water, the color blue or black, and ‘black-skinned peoples’ and Elderhood. West also represents the final life stage in the wheel, being an elder and passing on knowledge to the next generation so that the wheel may start again just like the circle it takes after.
In many other tribes, however, the Northern direction corresponds to Adulthood (the White Buffalo), the South represents Childhood (the Serpent), the West represents Adolescence (the Bear) and the Eastern direction represents Death and Re-birth (Eagle). In terms of social dynamics, community building and the use of Circles in Restorative Justice work, the four quadrants of the circle correspond to Introductions.
Star Knowledge – Ant People
Native Americans followed the movements of the celestial markers – much as we do today. They called it Star Knowledge. Beyond the land where they lived, was the sky, and that beyond were dimensional portals or sky holes.Beyond that was an area that they called the Ocean of Pitch, were the beauty of the night sky and the galaxies spun out towards them. Beyond that were the boundaries of the universe. And that set along the rim at the boundaries of the universe were 4 different exterrestrial groups.
The Hopis called the Pleiadians the Chuhukon, meaning those who cling together. They considered themselves direct descendents of the Pleiadians. The Navajos named the Pleiades the Sparkling Suns or the Delyahey, the home of the Black God. The Iroquois pray to them for happiness. The Cree came to have come to earth from the stars in spirit form first and then became flesh and blood.
Each year a medicine man performs the green corn dance where he takes 7 ears of corn from 7 fields of the 7 clans to insure a healthy harvest. Early Dakota stories speak of the Tiyami home of the ancestors as being the Pleiades. Astronomy tells us that the Pleiades rise with the sun in May and that when you die your spirit returns south to the seven sisters.
They believe that Mythic Mountain is actually the home of the Kachinas. This mountain top is a sacred one. Being the home of the kachina spirits it is the place where all of the large mythic beings they honor in their rituals land. “We come as clouds to bless the Hopi people” is a quote passed from generation to generation.
There are some remarkable drawings that appear to be luminous discs of light in the petroglyphs all along the south west. Photographs of Billy Meier’s Pleiadian space and beam ships look just like these rock petroglyphs from long ago.
The Apache and other Pueblo Indians, such as the Zunis and Hopi, have legends about their ancestors emerging from an underground world, generally after some cataclysmic event, as if a cycle in time, or another reboot in the programmed realitiesof the human experiment, always linked to star gods, or star people, who brought them here from outer space.
They speak of the Snake People (metaphor for human DNA) and the Ant People (gray aliens,) who protected them beneath the surface. Physical reality is a metaphor for ‘beneath the surface’. To rise above is to return to higher consciousness, through the Back Hole (Eye of Time) or the Stargate of human creation.
Hopi Prophecyspeaks of the return of the Blue Kachina, or Star People at the end of this cycle of time.
Present DayToday there are 12 Hopi villages on or below the three mesas, with Moencopi to the west (on Dinetah), and Keams Canyon to the east. Each village has its own village chief, and each contributes to the annual cycle its own ceremonies. Each village presents its own distinct cast of katsinam, and each village has maintained its own balance of engagement with the Euro-American culture and traditional Hopi practices and views.
Today, the Hopi Indians are divided into to traditional –which preserve ancient lands and customs, and new – who work with outsiders. The Hopi Indians today love their traditions, arts, and land, but also love the modern American life. Their kids go to school and they use medical centers. The Hopi live and work outside of the reservations. Troubles with the Navajo whose reservations surround the Hopi still continue today.
There are now eight Hopi pueblos, all of them on the tops of mesas. The Hopi villages were established on their present almost inaccessible sites for purposes of defense; and with the same object in view the builders formerly never left a door in the outer walls of the first story, access to the rooms invariably being through hatchways in the roof.
They speak of the Snake People (metaphor for human DNA) and the Ant People (gray aliens,) who protected them beneath the surface. Physical reality is a metaphor for ‘beneath the surface’. To rise above is to return to higher consciousness, through the Back Hole (Eye of Time) or the Stargate of human creation.
|ca. 1600−||Lipan Apaches enter Texas from Great Plains; claim area around San Antonio as homeland and call it “Many Houses;” Lipans develop a tribal identity−Lipan means “Light Gray People.”|
|ca. 1650−||Lipans develop a trade route to the Pecos Pueblo by following Rio Grande upriver to the Pecos. Lipans call Pecos Pueblo “White House.” Look the map
The lipan Indian picture
Indians, Missionaries, Soldiers, and Settlers:
Missions and presidio at El Paso del Norte. Inset of 1727 map by Francisco Álvarez Barreiro, “Plano Corographñco de el Reyno y Provincia de el Nuevo Mexico una de las Nueva España…”. Paintings of Indios and Spaniards from O’Crouley 1747. Map courtesy of the Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin (di03656). See full map.
|The history of the El Paso missions and settlements is one of amalgamation of European and native cultures and, with few exceptions, the loss of identities of once-distinct native groups. Before the arrival of the Spanish, El Paso had been inhabited for thousands of years by hunting and gathering peoples. Around A.D. 400, native peoples of the area began living in pithouse villages and experimenting with crops. Through time they built larger and more complex villages and by A.D. 1200, they were living in pueblos, relying heavily on crops for food, and participating in trade with peoples across the American Southwest and northern Mexico. Around A.D. 1450, the pueblos of El Paso were abandoned and the people who remained in the region reverted to the mobile hunting and gathering lifestyle of their ancestors. In their early expeditions to the El Paso area, the Spanish explorers encountered two groups of Native Americans whom they referred to as the Mansos and the Sumas. The Mansos occupied the Rio Grande in the immediate area of El Paso, north to Las Cruces. The Sumas were found along the Rio Grande southeast of El Paso, as well as in portions of northern Chihuahua, Mexico. Both groups lived in small communities, or rancherías, of primitive structures consisting of straw, brush, or poles. They may have also slept outside on beds of grass while in more temporary camps. Neither practiced horticulture, but subsisted primarily on rabbits, rats, fish, mesquite beans, mescal, prickly pear, agave, yucca, and various roots and seeds. Both groups wore body paint and little clothing, and carried bows, arrows, and clubs. The Spanish described the Sumas as participating in ceremonies or communal gatherings involving intoxication. Whether this involved some form of fermented beverage or hallucinogen, such as peyote, is unclear. The first recorded Spanish expedition, or entrada, to pass through El Paso was the Rodríguez/Chamuscado entrada of 1581. Hernán Gallegos, chronicler of the expedition, described the area south of present-day El Paso as suitable for ranches and cultivation, but reported no people living there. Two years later, Antonio de Espejo and his expedition camped in an area south of El Paso which he described as having very good land and climate, with buffalo herds nearby, abundant game and birds, mineral deposits, many forests and pasture lands, rich natural deposits of salt, and abundant water in large marshes and pools. Here they encountered Sumas who brought the explorers such large quantities of mesquite, corn, and fish that they feasted for three days, and much of it still went to waste. These people, who must have numbered more than a thousand men and women, and who are settled in their rancherías and grass huts, came out to receive us…. Each one brought us his present of mesquital, which is made of a fruit like the carob bean, fish of many kinds, which are very plentiful in those lagoons, and other kinds of their food, in such quantity that the greater part spoiled because the amount they gave us was so great.
–Antonio de Espejo, 1583
The Entry of Don Juan de Oñate
The most important entrada to pass through El Paso was the Oñate entrada. In 1595, King Phillip II of Spain appointed Don Juan de Oñate as governor, captain general, caudillo, discoverer, and pacifier of New Mexico, a territory that had not yet been conquered. The purpose of the entrada was both to find riches for Spain and to convert the native population to Christianity. Oñate was commanded to “attract” the native people he encountered to the Catholic faith with peace, friendship, and good treatment.
The promise of titles, riches, and adventure coaxed many Spaniards like Oñate to financially support their own expeditions. The son of a wealthy silver mine developer, Oñate arranged to lead 400 soldiers, 130 families, 1000 head of cattle, 1000 head of sheep, and 150 mares on a trek across the dune seas of the Chihuahuan desert. In late January 1598, Onate and his party departed from Santa Barbara in southern Chihuahua, Mexico. While previous Spanish expeditions to the Trans-Pecos region (of what is now Texas) and New Mexico had followed an established northbound course along the Río Conchos, Oñate chose his route as a shortcut. Crossing the desert resulted in many hardships as the company struggled for survival. They traveled for four days without shelter or fresh water in hopeless search of “el paso por las moñtanas”-a pass through the mountains-that would allow them to continue west. To their relief they came upon the Rio Grande and followed it upstream to present-day San Elizario, Texas.
On this site on April 30 1598, Oñate held a ceremony to formally take possession of all the land surrounding the Rio Grande in the name of King Phillip II of Spain. Oñate gave a sermon thanking God for delivering them safely across the harsh desert. His speech was witnessed and a written copy notarized by Juan Perez de Donis, royal notary and secretary of the jurisdiction and expedition, so that it could become a legal claim to the land for the King in the eyes of Spain. The ceremony, an event also known as “La Toma,” marked the beginning of over 200 years of Spanish rule in Texas. The celebration was concluded with a play written by Captain Marcos Farfán de los Gados. Although copies of the play have not survived, it is likely the first theatrical piece written in what is now the United States.
On May 1, 1598, the entrada continued traveling up the Rio Grande and within three days met their first native people. They were armed with bow and arrow, but offered as their first words “manxo, manxo, micos, micos,” which meant “peaceful ones” and “friends.” From these words, the Spanish derived the name, Mansos. The Indians also made the Sign of the Cross, considered by some to be evidence that the expeditions of Francisco Vasquez Coronado or Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca had passed through El Paso. The Mansos led the company to a ford on the river that they commonly used and helped them to cross it. The entrada then continued up the river until it reached present-day El Paso. Here, the river flowed through a break in the mountains. Termed “El Paso del Río del Norte—the pass of the north—it would serve as the Spanish gateway to the West.
Soon after leaving the pass, the entrada encountered a Manso village. Oñate and his men presented the Mansos with clothing and the Mansos repaid them with fish freshly caught from the river. In an act of thanksgiving, Oñate arranged for a feast to be held in honor of the company’s miraculous survival and asked the Mansos to be their guests. The banquet included fish, duck, and geese as well as supplies from the entrada’s stores. Though not a harvest celebration, this act of thanksgiving was the first to be celebrated in what is now the United States.
The entrada continued well into present-day New Mexico where Oñate established the first European settlements in the region. He sent out scouting parties in all directions to search for gold and silver, but they returned empty-handed. With no gold, silver, or other significant resources to be gained, the company fell into disarray. Oñate’s soldiers began to demand tribute from the Pueblo people of New Mexico. When the people of the Acoma pueblo refused and rose up against the Spanish, Oñate cruelly punished them by killing 800 people, enslaving 500, and cutting the left foot off of all men over the age of 25. Formal charges were brought against Oñate for mismanagement which claimed that he had become oblivious to the needs of the colonists and falsified information about the entrada’s findings in reports to the King. In 1607 Oñate resigned command of New Mexico and returned to Spain to face charges.
Don Juan de Oñate is a controversial historical figure. To the Spanish, he was the “pacifier of the west,” credited with establishing Spain’s legal claim to New Spain, opening a portal to the west, and colonizing New Mexico. To the native people of New Mexico, however, he was a cruel tyrant who invaded their lands.
Establishment of Missions
After the founding of Santa Fe in 1609, El Paso became a critical point in the long north-south route of communication and trade (soon to be known as the Camino Real) between the Mexican interior and the missions and Spanish settlements of the province of New Mexico. The Franciscan Father Custodian Alonso de Benavides spent much time in the El Paso area during the early part of the 17th century, and recommended that a mission and presidio be built among the Mansos to convert and settle them, as well as guard the highway to New Mexico and develop mines and farms in the area.
Between 1656 and 1659, the conversion of the Mansos of El Paso and the nearby Sumas and Janos began in earnest. Fray García de San Francisco, Fray Francisco de Salazar, and a group of Christian Piros from New Mexico began the aggregation of most of the Manso rancherías into settled habitations. In 1659, they established Mission Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe del Rio del Norte de los Mansos on the south side of the Rio Grande in present-day Ciudad Juárez for the Mansos. In 1665, Fray García and Fray Benito de la Natividad established the missions of San Francisco de la Toma for the Sumas and La Soledad for the Janos. Guadalupe de los Mansos was situated at a strategic location at the pass of the Rio Grande and became the mother church for El Paso. Over the next several years, the crude structures of the early complex were replaced with more permanent buildings. At a dedication ceremony of its church in 1668, 400 Mansos were present. In addition to the local Mansos, the mission served Piros, Sumas, Tanos, Tiguas, Tompiros, Apaches, and Jumanos who had been forced to flee their homelands by famine, disease, and warfare. By 1680, the mission ministered to over 2,000 native people.
Exodus from the North
A violent upheaval among the native peoples of the upper Rio Grande missions in New Mexico brought drastic change to the missions of El Paso. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 left more than 400 Spanish colonists, 21 Franciscan missionaries, and 346 native people dead in New Mexico. Santa Fe was abandoned and more than 2,000 Spanish refugees and 317 Piros, Tiguas, Tompiros, Tanos, and Jemez retreated to El Paso. It is not clear whether these native people were loyal to the Spanish or were their slaves and hostages. The native people settled at Guadalupe de los Mansos while the Spanish settled in camps at San Pedro de Alcántara, Real del Santisimo Sacramento, and San Lorenzo de la Toma. Governor Antonio de Otermín made an attempt to reconquer New Mexico in the winter of 1681-1682, but was unsuccessful. On his trip back to El Paso, Otermín stopped at Isleta and burned the Tigua Pueblo there, taking its 385 residents hostage. Only 305 survived the trip to El Paso.
The Spanish now realized that the reconquest of New Mexico was not going to happen quickly and made arrangements for an indefinite stay, establishing El Paso as the temporary capital of New Mexico. Because they were considered temporary settlers, the New Mexicans were permitted to plant their crops wherever they considered it most convenient. They soon began to encroach on lands that belonged to the Mansos, Sumas, and Janos, making for uneasy neighbors. The large number of captive Tiguas now in El Paso further increased tensions between the native people and Spanish. The situation worsened when Apache raiders began to shift their activities south, from the recently abandoned New Mexico missions to El Paso.
In 1682, Otermín attempted to stabilize the situation by founding the missions of Corpus Christi de la Ysleta (Ysleta del Sur) for the Tiguas, San Antonio de Senecú for the Piros and Tompiros, and Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Conceptión del Socorro for the Piros, Tanos, and Jemez. These missions, particularly Socorro, strongly resembled the missions of New Mexico in their construction materials and use of native decorative elements.
In 1683, newly elected Governor Jironza Petríz de Cruzate established the Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Glorioso San José at San Pedro de Alcántara and, with Fray Nicolas López, reorganized the Spanish and native settlements, establishing two new missions for the Sumas called Santa Gertrudis del Ojito de Samalayuca and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Sumas. The Spanish now lived at San Lorenzo, Ysleta, San Pedro, and Señor San José, a new settlement at the presidio. The Piros resided at Socorro and Senecú, the Tompiros at Senecú, the Sumas at San Francisco, Santa Gertrudis, and Guadalupe de los Sumas, the Mansos at Guadalupe de los Mansos, the Tiguas at Sacramento and Ysleta, the Janos at La Soledad, and the Tanos and Jemez at Socorro.
Revolt in El Paso
But the establishment of missions and a presidio did little to quell the unrest of the native people of El Paso. Along with Indians of northern Chihuahua, they were pushed over the edge by widespread famine in the winter of 1683-1684, caused by the strain that the influx of people to the area had put on local resources. In the spring of 1684, the Mansos revolted along with the Sumas, Janos, Julimes, Apaches, Conchos, and other groups, while the Piros, Tiguas, and a small number of Mansos remained loyal to the Spanish. Many of the disaffected were young men 20-30 years old who had been inspired by the success of the New Mexico Pueblo Revolt. In El Paso, the settlements of Socorro, Santa Gertrudis, and San Francisco participated in the revolt. Most of the missionized Mansos deserted El Paso and gathered at the rancherías of the unconverted Mansos and Sumas.
The revolt was so devastating that Cruzate was forced to move the Presidio San José closer to Guadalupe de los Mansos at the pass of the Rio Grande and gather all of the Spanish and native people who remained loyal around it for protection. It was renamed the Presidio Paso del Rio and a Spanish settlement called Paso del Norte sprung up around it. San Lorenzo, Socorro, Senecú, and Ysleta were relocated to the area of the presidio and San Pedro, San José, and Guadalupe de los Sumas were abandoned. Santa Gertrudis, San Francisco, and Sacramento had been destroyed in the revolt and were not rebuilt. Driven by hunger, the Sumas returned late in 1684 to Guadalupe de los Sumas, but many of the Mansos continued to revolt until 1686. Most of the native people who participated in the revolt never returned to the missions of El Paso. They had been brought closer together by their experience and developed a common identity as “Apache,” which came to mean hostile bands that opposed Spanish ways.
In 1691, the mission of Nuestro Padre San Francisco was established for the Mansos who remained in El Paso. In early 1692, the mission of San Diego de los Sumas was established to replace Guadalupe de los Sumas. In the spring and summer of that year, newly elected Governor Diego de Vargas, 40 Spanish soldiers, and 50 Tigua and Piro warriors reconquered New Mexico. The following year, 500 Spanish and native families returned to New Mexico, depleting the populations of many of the El Paso settlements. The native population was further reduced at the end of the century by a smallpox epidemic.
Life in the Missions
The native people who remained in El Paso lived in clusters of jacal structures loosely arranged around central plazas in the vicinity of the missions. They served the friars of the missions by working their fields, tending their gardens, bringing them firewood, and performing various domestic tasks for them. They also served as wage laborers, and sometimes forced laborers, for building projects. Though corn continued to be their most important crop, the mission inhabitants adopted European cultigens and livestock, such as wheat, various fruits, cows, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens. The Franciscan visitor general praised the work of the native peoples in his 1754 report:
The Indians of [Ysleta] have their gardens adorned with beautiful grapevines, peach trees, apple trees, and good vegetables, and the garden of the convent imitates them in providing delight to the eyes and satisfaction to the taste. All the cultivation is due to the annual presence of the gardener and the sons [of the mission], who come to the convent every week with the boys needed for the daily cleaning of the cells; they also provide the other workers – a bellringer, porter, cook, two sacristans, and the Indian women needed to grind the wheat.
Continuing traditions that stretched back into prehistoric times, they made tools of chipped stone, using raw materials procured from local gravel deposits. They also revived the earlier tradition of making brownware utility vessels, using local clays. They still depended to differing degrees on wild resources, such as mesquite, prickly pear, deer, rabbit, antelope, and various bird species, and used riverine species such as turtle, fish, and shellfish as supplemental resources.
In 1707, the mission of Santa María Magdalena was established for the Sumas, but they rose up in revolt against the Spanish in 1710, then fled to the Organ Mountains to join the Apaches. In 1726, three Suma groups were settled at Guadalupe de los Sumas, which had been revived, Carrizal in northeastern Chihuahua, and San Lorenzo, which had previously been a Spanish settlement. Later that year, non-missionized Sumas revolted with the Apaches and Cholomes. The Spanish established the mission of Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Caldas for these Sumas in 1730. The Sumas who settled at the mission revolted in 1745 killing one Spaniard, and again in 1749 destroying the mission and fleeing to join the other Sumas in the mountains. The mission at San Lorenzo was abandoned by the Sumas in 1754, but resettled by a different group of Sumas in 1765.
|Inset from ca. 1740s map of New Mexico showing missions, presidios, and settlements along the Rio del Norte and El Paso valley (the label, Riego de las Missiones, refers to the irrigation canals emanating from the river). Shown are San Lorenzo (17); Ysleta del Sur (18); Socorro del Sur (19); Santa Maria de las Caldas (21) as well as the Presidio del Paso del Norte (15). The small structure shown as 20 may be Hacienda de los Tiburcios which was later the site of the Presidio and settlement of San Elizario. The map was drawn by Fray Juan Miguel Menchero following an inspection tour of the province during the 1740s.|
Defense against Apache Raiders
Apache raids for livestock became common in El Paso during the first half of the eighteenth century. They increased after 1760, due to Spanish military pressure in New Mexico, pressure from Comanche groups in the east, and stress brought on by drought and the Spanish slave trade for the silver mines. During the 1770s, the line of presidios along the frontier of New Spain was relocated by the Spanish government for more effective defense against raids by hostile Apache groups. The presidio at Paso del Norte was relocated to Carrizal in 1773 and the Presidio de Nuestra Señora de las Caldas de Guajoquilla was relocated from Jiménez in northeast Chiahuahua to the Valle de San Elceario in 1774. In 1789 the Presidio de San Elceario, or San Elizario as it came to be known, was moved 60 kilometers (some 37 miles) upriver to the abandoned site of the Hacienda of Los Tiburcios. After several years of construction, the presidio and church of Nuestra Señora del Pilar y el Glorioso San José were completed in 1793.
The Spanish attempted to coax peaceful Apache groups into settlement around the new presidio by offering them rations. Some Mescalero Apaches from southern New Mexico accepted the invitation, but many groups refused. Others pretended to be interested in peace only to receive rations from the presidio, then left to raid other settlements. The Spanish government responded to the failure of the frontier presidios to protect its people from attack by launching more frequent campaigns against hostile Apache groups and encouraging them to fight with each other. But this only caused the Apache groups to increase their attacks against the frontier settlements of New Spain, particularly Socorro and San Elizario. Despite frequent attacks, the settlement of San Elizario quickly sprung up around the presidio, soon becoming second only to Paso del Norte in population in El Paso. Apache raids became a permanent fixture of life at El Paso until 1880, when the last hostile Apache groups were finally defeated by Mexican and American forces.
In the 1780s, a major smallpox epidemic ravaged both the Spanish and native people of El Paso, reducing the Sumas to extinction. The disease was not brought under control until vaccinations became available in 1805. The only settlements that remained in El Paso at the start of the nineteenth century were Guadalupe de los Mansos, Paso del Norte, San Elizario, San Lorenzo, Senecú, Ysleta, and Socorro. Three years after Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, the settlements of El Paso became part of Chihuahua. In 1829, a devastating flood changed the course of the Rio Grande. The old river channel continued to flow trapping Socorro, Ysleta, and San Elizario on an island for several years.
In the middle of the 19th century, El Paso became a center for trade between the United States and Mexico. A customs house was established in Paso del Norte in 1835 to regulate the caravans traveling from Chihuahua to Santa Fe and back. This trade route was soon connected to Saint Louis, Missouri, and Anglo entrepreneurs flocked to El Paso to make their fortunes as merchants, traders, and freighters. In 1836, Texas won its independence from Mexico and claimed the Rio Grande as its western boundary. The boundary was finalized by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 and American troops were sent to El Paso to enforce the claim. With the troops came an influx of Anglo officials, adventurers, and settlers. After the discovery of gold in California the following year, El Paso became a major jumping off point for Americans headed west. Many of them decided to remain in El Paso and soon five settlements had been founded on the Texas side of the river, including one directly across from Paso del Norte called Franklin. In 1859, Franklin was renamed El Paso, causing a considerable amount of confusion until Paso del Norte was renamed Ciudád Juarez in 1888. When the Rio Grande finished changing its course in 1852, it left Socorro, Ysleta, and San Elizario on the north side of the river, making them legally part of Texas. As a result, Ysleta became the oldest mission and pueblo in Texas.
The influx of Anglos to El Paso in the 19th century created tension with the Hispanic and native inhabitants of the area, at times leading to violent clashes, such as the San Elizario Salt War of 1877. The most contentious issue between the two groups was their differing laws regarding land transactions and property ownership. In 1751, King Charles V of Spain had issued each pueblo in New Spain a land holding that was to be free from trespass and settlement by non-native peoples. The protected status of this land was reaffirmed several times by Spanish law during the late 18th century, and by Mexican law during the early 19th century. In 1840, Texas adopted English common law, but recognized land grants that had been issued under Spanish and Mexican law. As Anglos began to flood into El Paso, however, they demanded that the Hispanic and native landholders provide legal titles to prove their ownership of the land. Legal titles were very expensive to obtain, thus many landholders could not prove that the land they occupied had been granted to them under Spanish or Mexican law. Those without legal titles were removed from the land to make way for Anglo settlers.
Land owned by native people fell under the jurisdiction of the U.S. federal government, but the native people of El Paso had great difficulty getting their status recognized. By the mid 19th century, most native groups of El Paso had intermarried with each other and the Spanish to such an extent that they had lost their ethnic identity. The Tiguas were the only distinctive native group left in El Paso, but the Texas government would not recognize them. Texas regarded the Tiguas as “inhabitants,” rather than “Indians,” meaning that their land could be acquired by the state under the doctrine of eminent domain. Although they originally had been granted more than 35 square miles of land by the Spanish, rights to this land had been in dispute over the years and much of it lost. In 1871, the Texas Legislature illegally incorporated the Ysleta Pueblo and its land into El Paso County, then seized most of the land under eminent domain. In the next three years, 304 conveyances of Tigua land were made to Anglo settlers. The act of incorporation was reversed in 1874, but in the two months before it took effect, another 254 conveyances took place, leaving the Tiguas with almost no land.
In 1881, the railroad arrived in the tiny town of El Paso. Within months, the town had been linked by rail to Santa Fe, Mexico City, and both coasts of the United States. Railroad service was the key to regional commercial and agricultural development at the time, and by 1890 El Paso had been transformed into a bustling frontier community of more than 10,000 people. Though the coming of the railroad meant prosperity for the Anglos of El Paso, it caused conditions to worsen for its few remaining native people. After being stripped of their land, many native people had turned to cottage industries to support themselves, but cheap industrial products shipped in on the railroad soon replaced the demand for native handicrafts.
Though the population of El Paso had been a heterogeneous mix of Spaniards and many different native groups after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, the native people slowly lost their identities during the following centuries. The native groups of Socorro were the first to intermingle with the Spanish and each other, and by the end of the 18th century they referred to themselves largely as mestizo. By the middle of the 19th century most of the native groups of El Paso had lost their ethnic identities, and by the end of it the settlements of Ysleta, Senecú, San Lorenzo, and Socorro resembled any other Mexican town. Though the people of Ysleta identified themselves as Tiguas and the people of Senecú as Piros, they could no longer speak their native languages and could not explain the significance behind their rituals. Some in the El Paso area still identified themselves as Mansos and Apaches, but engaged in the same rituals as the Tiguas and Piros. San Lorenzo and Socorro had been thoroughly Mexicanized and their inhabitants did not identify themselves as native people at all. During the 20th century, those who wished to preserve their native heritage joined the Tiguas in Ysleta, the only native group who still maintained any sense of their identity. Today the Tiguas are the only surviving native group in El Paso and they observe celebrations deriving from native and Catholic traditions.
The Tribal Shield
This Tribal Shield heralds all that is Lipan, all that was Lipan, and all that will be Lipan and all these Truths reside with in the Sacred Hoop of Life.
Fourteen bones each engraved with an arrow, separated by four colored beads form a circle. Our Ancestors are represented by the bones.
Mountains, river, sky, desert, plants and a buffalo with calf are with in the confines of this circle.
Four Eagle feathers are carefully wrapped and hang in quiet eloquence from this Circle of Life.
To our Grandmothers and Grandfathers we owe honor and reverence.
Arranged in a ring, this speaks to the Circle of Life.
Fourteen arrows signify fourteen bands and the arrows track in a circular motion from East to West, a pathway Sacred to our People.
The beads that unite our Ancestors and clans together are painted in the colors of the East (black), the West (Yellow), the South (Blue), and the North (White). The pattern is of life and blessing prayers with smoke.
The People of the Forest and the People of the Plains, all of the Nde are seen as one family under the Great Sky of blue. Nopalito and Yucca plants reveal how the land gives life as food, medicine, and provides for gifts of shelter and daily needs.
At the very center of all is the Buffalo, for he represents the hunt and the knowledge that Creator will provide for His People. Standing within the Buffalo is a white and pure calf, a symbol of rebirth and strength of a new generation. Here is the promise to teach the children of the old ways, to preserve the traditions, language, and culture of all that is Lipan Apache.
In prayers to the Creator for all that has past, all that is, and all that will be are four Eagle feathers. The ties that unite the Feathers to the Sacred Hoop of Life are red for the blood of the People and are wrapped in sinew four times, as the number four is a metaphor that names the Lipan Apache. The Feathers are the gift of Creator for prayer and through His Will; the Lipan Apache People will endure. And having been prepared, the Lipan Apache will walk in Beauty.
The centerpiece of Cornell’s American Indian holdings is the Huntington Free Library Native American Collection, a spectacular gathering of more than 40,000 volumes on the archaeology, ethnology and history of the native peoples of the Americas from the colonial period to the present.
Transferred to Cornell University on June 15, 2004 from its former home in the Bronx, NY,
The Huntington Free Library Native American Collection is one of the largest collections of books and manuscripts of its kind.
The collection contains exceptional materials documenting the history, culture, languages, and arts of the native tribes of both North and South America. Contemporary politics, education, and human rights issues are also important components of the collection.
The rare portion of the Huntington Free Library Native American Collection encompasses more than 4,000 rare books, several significant manuscript collections, as well as photographs, artwork, and related materials. Highlights include a copy of
Bible in the Natick dialect (2nd edition, 1685),
The Eliot Indian Language Bible
Even wider in influence and more lasting in value than his personal labors as a missionary, was Eliot’s work as a translator of the Bible and various religious works into the Massachusetts dialect of the Algonquian language. The first work completed was the Catechism, published in 1653 at Cambridge, Massachusetts, the first book to be printed in the Indian tongue. Several years elapsed before Eliot completed his task of translating the Bible. The New Testament was at last issued in 1661, and the Old Testament followed in 1663. The New Testament was bound with it, and thus the whole Bible was completed. To it were added a Catechism and a metrical version of the Psalms. This book was printed in 1663 at Cambridge, Mass., by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, and was the first Bible printed in America. In 1685 appeared a second edition, in the preparation of which Eliot was assisted by the Rev. John Cotton (1640—1699), of Plymouth, who also had a wide knowledge of the Indian tongue.
Many people are shocked to discover that the first Bible printed in America was not English… or any other European language. In fact, English and European language Bibles would not be printed in America until a century later! Eliot’s Bible did much more than bring the Gospel to the pagan natives who were worshiping creation rather than the Creator… it gave them literacy, as they did not have a written language of their own until this Bible was printed for them. The main reason why there were no English language Bibles printed in America until the late 1700’s, is because they were more cheaply and easily imported from England up until the embargo of the Revolutionary War.
But the kind of Bible John Eliot needed for his missionary outreach to the native American “Indians” was certainly not to be found in England, or anywhere else. It had to be created on the spot. Eliot recognized that one of the main reasons why the native Americans were considered “primitive” by European settlers, is that they did not have a written alphabet of their own. They communicated almost exclusively through spoken language, and what little writing they did was in very limited pictorial images, more like Egyptian hieroglyphics than that of any functional alphabetical language like those of Europe or Asia or Africa.
an album of original drawings of American Indians by
the artist George Catlin;
Edward S. Curtis’s
Look more George catlin Indian painting
I AM SOORY AFTER THIS NO ILLUSTRATIONS UPLOAD, IF YOU WANT TO LOOK THE COMPLETE INFO AND ILLUSTRATIONS,PLEASE SUBSCRIBED AS PREMIYU M MEMBER VIA COMMENT,
THE COMPLETE CD-ROM EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER.
Look Edward S. Curtis indian painting
The North American Indian. Genres represented in great depth include early books of voyage and exploration, missionary reports, ethnography, travel writing, native language dictionaries, captivity narratives, and children’s books.
The collection also contains a large body of related ephemeral material, such as pamphlets, newspaper clippings, auction catalogs, newsletters, travel brochures, and biography files on prominent Native Americans.
Manuscript holdings include
a letter from Mohawk leader
early 20th century correspondence from
Seneca Indian individuals at
Joseph Keppler, a pictographic catechism in the Quechua language, field notes by 19th century ethnographers; and the papers of archaeological expeditions. Many of the larger manuscript collections have been microfilmed and are available for interlibrary loan. Primary manuscript collections include:
- Warner D. Miller Papers
- Clarence B. Moore Field Notes
- Stockbridge Indian Papers
- William Wallace Tooker Papers
- Wabanaki Indian Collection
- material culture of Wabanaki Indians
- A panel discussion and lecture at Bates College on Feb. 11 will focus on the material culture of the Wabanaki people, the Native Americans that include Maine’s Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Micmac and Maliseet tribes.
- The panel presentation Artistic Lives — Living Art: Wabanaki Basketmakers begins at 4:15 p.m. in the Keck Classroom (G52), Pettengill Hall, 4 Andrews Road (Alumni Walk). A Basket Is a Song Made Visible, a keynote talk by Native American scholar Clara Sue Kidwell, follows at 7 p.m. in the Edmund S. Muskie Archives, 70 Campus Ave.
- These events are made possible by a Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Mellon Collaborative Faculty Enhancement grant. For more information, please call 207-753-6933.
- As a program titled Learning and Teaching with Wabanaki Culture, these events will examine Wabanaki material culture as a means for integrating aspects of indigenous thought and practice into a curriculum.
- The program is part of a larger effort to increase awareness of Native American and Wabanaki issues at Bates, and to promote collaboration between the campus and Wabanaki communities.
- With panelists including basketmakers Jeremy Frey, a member of the Passamaquoddy tribe, and Richard Silliboy of the Micmacs, the afternoon discussion will explore what material culture means to the Wabanakis and the roles that material culture can play in intercultural education.
- Kidwell, director of the American Indian Center at the University of North Carolina, will address Native American knowledge systems, and scientific thought and practice.
- She is an enrolled member of the White Earth Chippewa tribe and is also of Choctaw descent. Prior to coming to North Carolina she was director of the Native American studies program and professor of history at the University of Oklahoma in Norman.
- Her publications include A Native American Theology (Orbis Books, 2001), co-authored with Homer Noley and George Tinker; Native American Studies (University of Edinburgh Press, 2005) co-authored with Alan Velie; and The Choctaws in Oklahoma: From Tribe to Nation, 1855-1970 (University of Oklahoma Press, 2007).
- She received a bachelor’s degree in letters and a master’s and doctorate in the history of science from the University of Oklahoma. Before joining the faculty there in 1995, she served as assistant director of cultural resources at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.
- Kidwell previously taught at the University of California at Berkeley, Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota, among other institutions
Other Resources for American Indian Studies:
JOB: The American Indian Program (AIP) at Cornell University seeks a Residence Hall Director (RHD)
Res Hall Assoc I-16400
American Indian Program
Residence Hall Associate I
Band E – Exempt
The American Indian Program at Cornell University in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) provides a unique combination of educational, social and cultural opportunities to Native students studying at the University. Our first commitment is to facilitate student’s academic success and address their cultural needs.
Edward S. Curtis. “Chaíwa. Tewa, Profile,”
from The North American Indian, Vol. XII,
The Hopi, 1922. Photogravure.
The American Indian Program (AIP) at Cornell University seeks a Residence Hall Director (RHD) as a team-oriented staff member for its residential program house, Akwe:kon. Akwe:kon is unique in that it is the only residential program house that is formally part of an academic program, the AIP. The RHD position is key in helping the AIP Director and Associate Director ensure achievement of AIP’s Mission and Goals.
The RHD will:
· carry out administrative, counseling, and programmatic responsibilities for the 35-student residential unit and the American Indian community at Cornell;
· facilitate student involvement & supervise student staff;
· administer and implement services and activities, and enhance community and individual development among residents;
· work to involve faculty in the lives of students, provide personal counseling and work with campus units to provide a safe and attractive learning environment for students in the house.
· The RHD will work closely with the AIP Associate Director and Director in developing and implementing other components of the Program with regard to student recruitment and development, academic programs, outreach initiatives, and in developing year-round programming in Akwe:kon that fully uses its resources and builds and enhances the AIP as a whole.
· Work with Campus Life/Community Development staff to develop services and programs, select and train student staff, and contribute to university-wide activities as appropriate through participation on committees, etc.
· May act as an advisor to a registered Cornell University student organization.
The AIP carries out the majority of the shared supervision of the RHD: the position reports to the AIP via the Associate Director (65% appointment) and to the Dean of Students office via the Assistant Director for Residential Programs (35% appointment).
· Bachelor’s degree required, with 1-2 years’ experience or equivalent combination, and coursework in American Indian studies.
· Substantial professional experience working with students in higher education in residential, counseling, and administrative functions.
· Direct experience with and knowledge of Native American students, communities, and issues is essential, along with the ability for meaningful and appropriate interaction with people from a wide range of ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds.
· Due to the nature of the position, you will be required to work some nights and weekends and reside at the community Akwe:kon house.
· Experience with events planning and development of programs. Must exercise sound judgment and respect highly confidential information.
· Master’s degree in counseling, cultural/ethnic studies, education, student development, social work, community development, or a related field with two to five years of experience in residential life or some other aspect of student development is preferred.
· Prior budgeting experience helpful.
This position is a full-time, 12 month, live-in appointment. Appointment term is for 3 years, renewable annually.
Background check is required.
Cornell University, located in Ithaca, New York, is an inclusive, dynamic, and innovative Ivy League University and New York’s land-grant institution. Its staff, faculty, and students impart an uncommon sense of larger purpose and contribute creative ideas and best practices to further the university’s mission of teaching, research, and outreach.
American Indian Studies
Aboriginal Canada Portal– “Links to the following sites in an organized manner: National Aboriginal Organizations, 12 Federal Government departments with Aboriginal mandates, all Provincial Governments and organizations with Aboriginal responsibilities, as well as all related Aboriginal community information.”Aboriginal Peoples Television Network– First network of its kind in the world, the APTN began broadcasting in Canada in September 1999.Resources for Aboriginal Studies – University of Saskatchewan Libraries and the University of Saskatchewan Archives. Consists of databases for photographs, Archival Material, Native Law Cases (with List of Cases), Northwest Resistance and several others. You can actually access the photographs in the collection and, although the images are relatively small, there are some gems: “Kooyook “a young Inuit woman from the Eastern Arctic, mixes dough for bannock in her tent at Lake Harbour, Northwest Territories. Her child is [in an armaut] on her back (1951)”, “Mrs. Andela Solomon (Patuanak), then 75 years old, working on a birch bark basket: an art she learned from her mother (1961),” Prosper John (ca 1938) and Yankine Whitecap and Wife (ca 1915.Administration for Native Americans – U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. See also the Office of Community Services Division of Tribal Servicespage.
AIROS: American Indian Radio on Satellite – “National distribution system for Native programming to Tribal communities and to general audiences through Native American and other public radio stations as well as the Internet.” With programming via Real Audio 24 hours a day. You can Listen Live. There are Native Producer Profile Podcastson:Michelle Danforth (Oneida)Gary RobinsonPatricia LoewJulianna BrannumDustinn CraigTerry JonesKimberley LymanSuree TowfighniaCourtney HermannGeorge BurdeauBeverly MorrisBennie Klain
Akwesasne Mohawk Cultural Center– Hogansburg, New York.
Akwesasne Notes Magazine– Kahniakehaka Nation ,Akwesasne Mohawk Territory, Rooseveltown, New York. (518-358-3326)Dating the Iroquois Confederacy by Bruce E. Johansen, Akwesasne Notes, Fall, October/November/December, 1995, Volume 1, #3 & 4, pp. 62-63. See also Johansen’s Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution (1982)
Alaska Digital Archive– Provides access to over 5,000 historical phhotographs and objects. Among them:Dance-House, Koutznahoo [Kootznahoo], Alaska (ca. 1896-1920)by Vincent SoboleffBaby Sleeping in Swing (ca. 1900)– ASL-P87-0180Nepcetaq Mask– UA2002-010-0005Eagle-headed dagger– UA92-001-0001-2Sealskin Belt and Pouch– UA64-021-0137-2Babiche Bag– 0900-0024Beaded Boots– UA97-025-0049ABBeaded Mitten– UA68-005-0001ABBeaded Moccasins– UA2002-007-0007AB
Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles – From the Search Page you can view the full-text of a number of periodicals including Outingfrom 1883 to 1899. A sampling of articles from Outing and more recent sources:Lacrosseby Ross Mackenzie, Outing, October, 1892, Vol. XXI, No. 1, p. 76-80.Lacrosse in the United Statesby J. A. Hodge, Outing, March, 1886, Vol. VII, No. 6, p. 665-676.Père Lacombe, A Wilderness Apostle of the Northby Agnes C. Laut, Outing, April, 1905, Vol. XLVI, No. 1, p. 1-15.The Indian Festival at Taosby James A. LeRoy, Outing, December, 1903, Vol. XLIII, No. 3, p. 282-288.Medicinal Games – Rites of the Iroquoian Linguistic Familyby Michael A. Salter, North American Society For Sport History. Proceedings And Newsletter, 1973, p. 30-31.Playing for the Creator: Iroquois Nationalism and Cultural Sovereignty Through Lacrosseby Donald M. Fisher, North American Society For Sport History. Proceedings And Newsletter, 1997, p. 49.American Indian and Alaska Native Areas 1990 Census– U.S. Census BureauAmerican Indian College Fund – Denver. With information on colleges.American Indian Environmental Office– EPAAmerican Indian Ethnobotany Database– Subtitled “Foods, Drugs, Dyes, and Fibers of Native North American Peoples”; Dan Moerman, Professor of Anthropology, University of MichiganAmerican Indian Heritage FoundationAmerican Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) – Provides links to Tribal Colleges.American Indian Library AssociationAmerican Indian Movement Grand Govering CouncilAmerican Indian Observed: Sketches and Documents From the Collections of the Archives of American Art – Artists include George Catlin, Charles Henry Humphriss, Olive Rush, Allen Tupper True, Dorothy Newkirk Stewart, W. (Wilfred) Langdon Kihn and Edwin Willard Deming. Among the online exhibitions at the Archives of American Art are Selections from the George Catlin Papers. There are oral history interviews witb artists who talk about their interest in Indian subject matter: Donal Hord, Oscar Collier, Fritz Scholder, and Louise Nevelson.American Indian Resources – Subtitled A Library of Native American literature, culture, education, history, issues and language, and part of the larger Multicultural Resourcessite, these links have been organized and annotated by Will Karkavelas of Osaka University.American Indian Studies Research Institute– Indiana University, Bloomington.American Indian Law Review– University of Oklahoma College of Law. (Index only.)American Indian Research Project – South Dakota Oral History Center. “Contains over 1,900 taped interviews, 70 percent of which were gathered in the field between 1967 and 1973.” Except for one sample, the interviews are not online, but there is a partial indexand you can order transcripts.American Indian Studies: A Bibliographic Guide (1995) – By Phillip M. White. Parts of this book are available in Google Books.American Indian Tribal Directory – Provided by the American Indian Heritage Foundation.American Indian Tribal Portal– U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, American Indian Environmental Office.EPA RegionsAmerican Indians: A Select Catalog of NARA Microfilm Publications– National Archives microfilm publications “that relate directly to American Indians, to the formation of federal Indian policy, and to the personnel who created or enforced that policy. The catalog is divided into civilian agency records and military establishment records. In each section, the publications containing the most information about Indians are listed first” followed by a roll-by-roll listing of the contents. Includes information on how to order the microfilm.”American Indians of the Pacific Northwest – “This digital collection integrates over 2,300 photographs and 7,700 pages of text relating to the American Indians in two cultural areas of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Coast and Plateau. These resources illustrate many aspects of life and work, including housing, clothing, crafts, transportation, education, and employment. The materials are drawn from the extensive collections of the University of Washington Libraries, the Cheney Cowles Museum/Eastern Washington State Historical Society in Spokane, and the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle.” Also accessible via the Library of Congress.
American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement– This is a valuable resource for schools and universities. Funded by the U.S. Institute of Museum & Library Services and by private donors, American Journeys is a collaborative project of the Wisconsin Historical Society and National History Day. Examples of texts include:Voyage Made by M. John Hawkins Esquire, 1565Catlin’s North American Indian PortfolioWabanip’s Speech to Assembled Iroquois Chiefs, April 30, 1798Joseph Brant’s Speech to British Government Concerning Indian Land Claims, Niagara, October 22, 1796Moravian Journals Relating to Central New York, 1745-66Trial of the Indians of Acoma, 1598Account of Florida, 1566-1568
American Museum of Natural History – New York. The Library provides access to Online Catalog. The Collections Database provides access to over 50,000 images and catalog descriptions from the North American Ethnographic Collection. You can search by culture, material, object name, catalog no., locale or donor name. A search for Catalog item E/ 2334 will retrieve the images of two Tlingit baskets. A search for ornament (object name) will retrieve over 800 images and a search for Plains (culture) and bead (material) will retrieve over 700 including a buffalo robe (50 / 5860). An object name search for kachinaretrieves 239 items. There are some lovely Navaho blankets (50.2/ 6840, 50.2/ 6841, 50.2/ 6842, 50 / 2091) and bracelets (50.2/ 4168, 50.2/ 4169, 50.2/ 4171, 50 / 6356 A, 50.2/ 2394). Searching by donor is particularly rewarding: try Auchincloss, Morgan, Wissler, Spinden, Boas, Harvey, Mead, Jesup, Peabody (baskets), or Emmons. Search for object name: amulet, apron, armlet, bag, ball, basket, beadwork, belt, bowl, brooch, canoe, carving, charm, club, coat, comb, cradle board (baby board), cup, dance, dice, doll, feather, fetish, fish, gambling, game, hat, headband, headdress, jacket, jar, knife, labret, lance, leggings, mask, medicine bundle, mittens, model, moccasin, necklace, paddle, parfleche, pipe, pottery, pouch, prayer stick, purse, rattle, robe, saddle, sheath, snowshoes (snow shoe), spear, spoon, tomahawk, totem pole, toy, tray, wampum.American Native Press Archives – The mission of the Sequoyah National Research Centeris “to acquire and preserve the writings and ideas of Native North Americans.”
American Philosophical Society – Founded by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1743. The Library houses over 180,000 volumes and bound periodicals, six million manuscripts, and thousands of maps and prints. You can search MOLE, the Manuscripts Online Guide and VOLE, the Vaughan Online Catalog, and there are Finding Aids and Subject Guides. Collections of note include:William N. Fenton Papers– “Yale-educated ethnographer, William Fenton has devoted most of his career to study of the Iroquois Indians of New York State and Canada.”Franz Boas Papers – Founder of modern American anthropology. See also Images of Franz Boas.Ely Samuel Parker Papers – Seneca Indian and Civil War adjutant to Ulysses Grant.
Other resources include:Native American Sound Recordings – Recording #3 features an August 12, 1950 recording of Lucenda George speaking in the Onondaga language about locusts, Clifford’s garden, winter and the dam built on the Onondaga reservation.David Van Keuren’s “The Proper Study of Mankind”: An Annotated Bibliography of Manuscript sources on Anthropology and Archeology in the Library of the American Philosophical Society (c1986)American Indian Manuscripts in the American Philosophical Society (c1999)– By John Freeman, Murphy D. Smith, Daythal Kendall, and R.S. Cox.Anercan Philosophical Society Proceedings – with recent issues available online. The March 2000 issue contains the full-text of Christian B. Keller’s Philanthropy Betrayed: Thomas Jefferson, the Louisiana Purchase, and the Origins of Federal Indian Removal Policy in pdf format. Other articles of interest include Retrospecting the Origins of the League of the Iroquois by William A. Starna, APS Proceedings, Vol. 152, 3 (September 2008); Illegal Alien? The Immigration Case of Mohawk Ironworker Paul K. DiaboBy Gerald F. Reid, APS Proceedings, Vol. 151, 1 (March 2007).Native American Images – See also Abbot-Charnay Photograph Collection
The American Revolution and Its Era: Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies, 1750-1789– Library of CongressAn American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera – More than 7,000 digitized primary source items dating from the seventeenth century to the present and encompassing key events and eras in American history. A search for Indianretrieves over 50 results, among which is an 1805 speech by Sagu-ua-what-hath (Red Jacket), a Seneca chiefAmon Olorin Flutes – Contemporary Native American Flutes by Ken Light, and flute workshops with R. Carlos Nakai, Native American flutist nominated for 2 Grammys. (You can also listen to clips from Earth Spirit, Changes: Native American Flute Music, Big Medicine or Feather, Stone & Light at Amazon.com.)Anasazi Heritage Center– Dolores, ColoradoAncient Cultures of the Southwest – Online exhibition of pottery at the Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Wisconsin. There is a pottery catalog index.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS): Partnerships Across NationsAnnual Review of Anthropology – Article abstracts (full-text available to subscribers only) from 1984 to the present. A search for American Indian(words in title or abstract), for example, retrieves 14 results.Anthropological Index of the Royal Anthropological Institute– “Anthropological Index Online is based on the journal holdings of The Anthropology Library at the The British Museum (Museum of Mankind) which receives periodicals in all branches of anthropology, from academic institutions and publishers around the world.”Anthropology Outreach Office – Smithsonian’s Department of Anthropology. Provides archives of AnthroNotes and Anthropolog. See Native Americans: General Topics.AnthroSource– Interactive repository of research and communications tools for anthropologists.Antique Tribal Art Dealers Association (ATADA)Theft AlertAntiquities of Wisconsin – Electronic text of the book by Increase A. Lapham, published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1855, includes 92 pages of text, illustrated with 61 wood engravings, and 55 lithographed plates.Archeological Research Institute – Arizona State University, Tempe. Host of Archnet. There is an online exhibition of Prehistoric Pottery of Arizona. Other resources include Pottery and Pigments in Arizona: Salado Polychrome and Roosevelt Platform Mound Study.Archives Canada France – A search in the database for Iroqouisretrieves over 900 documents.Archives nationales de France – A search for Iroquois in the Collections retrieves 26 results. See also Centre des archives dâ€™outre-mer Ã Aix-en-Provence (CAOM)whose mission is the “conservation des archives de lâ€™expansion coloniale franÃ§aise.”Archives of the Association on American Indian Affairs– Princeton University Library.Archives of Maryland Online – “The first 72 volumes of this series were published between 1883 and 1972 by the Maryland Historical Society. They contain many of the official records of Maryland from 1634 to 1820. We have also added 30 additional volumes to this series in the past year. The website contains images of the originals as well as fully searchable text.” Consider spelling variants as you search (Sasquehannah). The archives contains some interesting early records. Volume 6 of the series is a transcription of the Correspondence of Governor Horatio Sharpe, Volume 1,1753-1757 which includes some material about Indian Affairs. Starting on page 436 of this volume is a lengthy account from Fort George in New York on 4th June 1756, in which the author writes about Sir William Johnson, the Mohawks, and the Onondago. Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1732:1753, concerns the 1844 treaty council held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Members of the Six Nations, including Onondaga chief Canasatego (Cannasatego), met with representatives from Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Conrad Weiser (Conrade) was present as interpreter.ArchNet: Ethnoarchaeology and EthnohistoryArctic Circle– Peoples and environment of the Arctic and Subarctic regionArctic Studies Center – Smithsonian Institution. Has a number of online exhibitions including Yupik Masks, Ekven Burial Chamber and Northern Clans, Northern Traces.Arizona Memory Project– “Established by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records, is an online repository for digital collections from archives, libraries, museums, historical societies and other Arizona cultural institutions.” Collections of interest include:Medallion Papersa “series of 39 publications issued between 1928-1950 by the Gila Pueblo Archaeological Foundation. Gila Pueblo, as it later became known, was one of the earliest Arizona institutions doing archaeological surveying and research in the Southwest. It was founded by Winifred and Harold S. Gladwin as a private foundation and employed professional archaeologists whose research was published in the Medallion Papers. Their work was instrumental in defining the Hohokam, Mogollon, San Simon and Cochise cultures and in describing early pottery types including Hohokam red-on-buff, Salado polychrome, Casas Grandes and others.”Sharlot Hall Museum American Indians Image Collection– “This collection of still images is related to the American Indians of Arizona and the Southwest (1865-1970). Tribes include Navajo, Apache, Yavapai, Hualapai, Papago, Hopi, Mohave, Paiute, Yaqui, Havasupai, Pima and Maricopa.Also included in the collection are images of prehistoric ruins, pueblos, and rock art.”
Arizona State Museum – University of Arizona, Tucson. Established in 1893, this is the oldest and largest anthropology museum in the Southwest with the largest whole vessel collection of Southwest Indian pottery in the world. They offer Travel Tours and information on the Southwest Indian Art Fair. One of the Fair’s Award Winners for 2009 was Kachina Mana by Aaron Honanie, Hopi. The Libraryhas an online catalogue. Among the online resources are:PodcastsArizona Archaeological Site and Survey DatabasePottery Project 2,000 Years – 20,000 VesselsNampeyo Pottery Showcase – Includes a Black-on-red shallow bowlcollected 1926.With an Eye on Culture: The Photography of Helga TeiwesThe Trincheras Culture, Vignettes in Time
Arizona’s First People: The culture and lives of Arizona’s Native American tribes – Part of the Cultures AZ site. In Voices, Nan Telahongva recounts her experiences as a young Hopi girl new to Anglo schools and Betty Reid, a Native Navajo and a reporter for the Arizona Republic, talks about the transition from reservation life to city life.Arkansas Archeological Survey – University of Arkansas site provides Report Abstracts by county, Archeology Links, Educational Resources for Teachers and First Encounters: The Contact Period in the Mississippi Valley.Arnold Research Cave – Missouri. Contained 7500 years of prehistoric footwear.Michael J. Fuller– Provides photographs of footwear from the cave.ArtNet – A rich resource for art and antiques. (See their Site Index.) There is an Artist Index. The weekly ArtNet Magazine offers news & reviews, and features with archives back to 1996. The Galleriesdatabase is searchable by gallery name, artist name, gallery specialty, location, and furniture or design.As Long as the Waters Flow: Native Americans in the South and East – Photographs by Carolyn DeMeritt exhibited at the Light Factoryin Charlotte, North Carolina.Assembly of First Nations– National representative/lobby organization of the First Nations in Canada.Association for the Study of American Indian Literatures – Robert Nelson’s Guide to Native American Studies Programs in the United States and Canada provides a “comprehensive survey of U.S. and Canadian Native American Studies programs being offered as majors, minors, and certifications at the baccalaureate level or above.” The Association’s newsletter, SAIL, is searchableand is available in full-text from 1977-1987.Association of American Indian PhysiciansAssociation of American University Presses – With a search form for Native American Studies. (Try searching by year.)Avalon Project at Yale Law School – Collection of documents in law, history and diplomacy has texts of Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans, Statutes of the United States Concerning Native Americans and Relations Between the United States and Native Americans.Benedicte Wrensted: An Idaho Photographer in Focus– “Portraits of Indians from Southeastern Idaho Reservations, 1897.”Bethlehem Digital History Project – “Digitization and web publication of specific primary source materials relating to the early history of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania….selected to increase accessibility to sources that illuminate key elements of the Bethlehem community from its founding in 1741 through 1844.” Among the resources are Joseph Spangenberg’s Report on the Nanticokesâ€™ and Shawneeâ€™s Bethlehem visit in March 1753 and The Comprehensive Report on the Brethrenâ€™s Negotiations in Bethlehem and GnadenhÃ¼tten with the Nanticokes and Shawnee Nations from April 1752. (Moravian College and Theological Seminary)Betty Mae Jumper: a Seminole Legend – Maintained by the Seminole Tribe of Florida.Bibliographies of New England History– Volume 9 contains 4,231 citations to books, dissertations, pamphlets, and magazine and journal articles, most of which were published between 1989 and 1994.Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de CervantesBibliothèque Nationale de France – Although much of the site is in French you can locate many full texts in English and there are a number of outstanding visual resources as well. Gallica, a text and image digitization project comparable to the Library of Congress’s American Memory project, is a rich resource for material on American Indian history and anthropology. For example the Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins are available from 1881 to 1933. To find them, do a click on recherche and search for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). Among the images are 192 portraits of American Indians [Indiens des Etats-Unis] taken by the photographer Pinart between 1860-1876. The simplest way to search (recherche) this site is by keyword search (recherche libre). Try specific tribe names (Shawnee, Delaware, Huron) or use such terms as Indiens, indienne. To limit your search to images check the box for Lots d’images (under Types de documents). Bureau of American Ethnology List of Publicationshas an index to titles and authors for Bulletins and Annual Reports.A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibolaby Victor MindeleffBibliothèque nationale du QuÃ©bec – Their Banque images et sons is a rich source for images and texts. Look for Indiens d’AmÃ©rique Iroquois (Indiens), or Algonquiens for example, in the Index des sujets. Some of the titles which you will find in full-text are Histoire des AbÃ©nakis depuis 1605 jusqu’Ã nos jours (1866), Bref rÃ©cit et succincte narration de la navigation faite en MDXXXV et MDXXXVI / par le capitaine Jacques Cartier aux Ã®les de Canada, Hochelaga, Saguenay et autres (1863) and Vie de Catherine Tekakwitha, vierge iroquoise (1894). There are also maps (cartes gÃ©ographiques) and 7,000 images of QuÃ©bec from 1870 to 1907 in Revue d’un autre siècle.Bringing Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties to the World Wide Web– Suzanne L. Holcombe, Oklahoma State University Library. Presentation at the Proceedings of the 9th Annual Federal Depository Library Conference, October 22 – 25, 2000.British Columbia Archives – A keyword search for Haida in Visual Records, (checking the option Only match items with associated objects “AND LINK” e.g. images or finding aids) retrieves 54 images, a search for Indian People retrieves 858 images, a search for Dossetterretrieves 45 images.British Museum: North America – Their Compass database provides images of over 5,000 objects in the museum collection which includes a large collection of Native Arts. (Search for drawings of John White, Christy Collection, Sloane Collection, Canada, Algonquian, Ohio, pipe etc.)Buffalo Bill Historical Center – Cody, Wyoming library and museum provides access to their online catalog.
Built in America: Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) – Library of Congress collection of measured drawings, large-format photographs, and written histories for more than 35,000 historic structures and sites dating from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Search by keyword or browse by subject (Indians of North America) or place. Here you’ll find photographs of:Indian Castle Church– State Route 55, Town of Danube, Herkimer County (Fort Hendrick), taken by photographer Nelson E. Baldwin on May 5, 1936. “Indian Castle Church was built in 1769 by Captain Samuel Clyde for Sir William Johnson, who presented it to the Canajoharies (Mohawks of the Upper or Canajoharie Mohawks Castle), in 1770. It is the only Colonial Indian Mission Chursch standing in New York State and the only surviving Colonial building of the Mohawks or Iroquois Castles. The Church was built on land owned by Joseh Brandt [Brant], the famous Mohawk Chieftain, who was noted for his pity [piety?] and who translated the gospel of St. Mark into the Mohawk language. During the Revolution, the Mohawk Indian raiders, formerly residents here, attempted to steal the bell of this old church. They, however, neglected to fasten its clapper and its ringing awakened the parish settlers who armed themselves, sallied out and recovered the old church bell.” (Data Page 2).View (Southwest) down into Kiva– Pueblo Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (June 1966)Kalispel Indian Log Cabin– Usk, Pend Oreille County, Washington (1936)Rock Eagle Mound– Rock Eagle State Park, Putnam County, Georgia by Kenneth Kay (1980)Shoshone Indian Cemetery– Wind River Indian Reservation, Fort Washakie, Fremont County, Wyoming. “This cemetery supposedly contains the grave of Sacajawea, Indian guide of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Located in cemetery is the oldest chapel built for the Indians in Wyoming.” (Data page 2). Photograph by Jack E. Boucher (1974).Aztec Ruins – Detailed View of Through Passage– Aztec Ruins, West Ruin, New Mexico 44 near junction of U.S. 550, Aztec vicinity, San Juan County, New Mexico.Jeffers Petroglyphs– Image of turtle and man, looking East. Photograph by Jet Lowe, 12 April, 1990. Delton Township, Cottonwood County, Minnesota.
BuntingVisual Resources Library – University of New Mexico College of Fine Arts. Resources include Native American Arts Classification Manual and Visual Resources Catalog of Native American Artists (VIRCONA)Bureau of American Ethnology – Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Series Electronic Editions – Consists of Hair Pipes in Plains Indian Adornment: A Study in Indian and White Ingenuity by John C. Ewers. (See also the List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology with with index to authors and titles.) Also available is The Horse in the Blackfoot Indian Culture, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, vol. 159. This series is also available in Gallica, bibliothèque numÃ©rique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France. Do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). There are over 13,000 Glass Negatives of Indians, collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology from the 1850s-1930s in the National Anthropological Archives. You can browse images in the drawings, sketches and paintings from National Anthropological Archives or search the Archival, Manuscript and Photograph Collections Catalog in SIRIS, the research information system of the Smithsonian.Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions– Marquette University
Bureau of Indian Affairs– U.S. Department of the InteriorBureau of Indian EducationIndian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB)Press ReleasesTribal Leaders DirectoryLibrary: Subject Guides to the Internet – Native AmericansFederally Recognized Tribes
C-SPAN Digital Library – You can use search, advanced searchor search by tag.Oregon Indians– “Stephen Beckham talked about the book he edited Oregon Indians: Voices from Two Centuries.” 9/3/2009 [6:00]Native America, Discovered and Conquered – Robert J. Miller, Professor, Lewis and Clark College Law School, 9/03/2009 [06:00]– Daniel Usner, Professor of History, Vanderbilt University, 6/13/2009 [57:00] “I Am a Man”– Joe Starita talked about his book “I Am a Man”: Chief Standing Bear’s Journey for Justice…In 1879, Ponca Chief Standing Bear challenged decades of Indian policy when he stood in a federal courthouse in Omaha, Nebraska, and demanded to be recognized as a person by the U.S. government. The eventual results were that all Native American peoples were given the full rights of American citizenship.” 06/07/2009, [46:00]The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian– “Sherman Alexie talked about his young adult novel The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, published by Little, Brown Young Readers. It is a semi-autobiographical chronicle of growing up on a Washington State Indian reservation and transfering from the reservation school to the rich, white school. In a frequently humorous presentation he talked about his life and the differences from the book.” 11/03/2007 [44:00]Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site – Located near Collinsville, Illinois, the historic site holds the archaeological remnants of a sophisticated prehistoric civilization inhabited by the Mississippians from about A.D. 700 to 1400. A UNESCO World Heritage Site: “Cahokia Mounds, some 13 km north-east of St Louis, Missouri, is the largest pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico. It was occupied primarily during the Mississippian period (800â€“1400), when it covered nearly 1,600 ha and included some 120 mounds. It is a striking example of a complex chiefdom society, with many satellite mound centres and numerous outlying hamlets and villages. This agricultural society may have had a population of 10â€“20,000 at its peak between 1050 and 1150. Primary features at the site include Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthwork in the Americas, covering over 5 ha and standing 30 m high.” See also Cahokia and Surrounding Mound Groupsby D. I. Bushnell, Jr., Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. III, No. 1, May, 1904, pp. 1-84.
CBC Archives– Canadian Broadcasting Corporation archived interviews include:Rethinking Riel– MÃ©tis leader Louis RielGeorges Erasmus: Native Rights CrusaderThe Life and Legend of Bill Reid– Haida artistPhil Fontaine: Native Diplomat and DealmakerEeyou Istchee: Land of the CreeAn Inuit Education: Honouring a Past, Creating a FutureJames Bay Project and the CreeThe Oka CrisisThe Battle for Aboriginal Treaty RightsCreation of NunavutMercury Rising: The Poisoning of Grassy NarrowsA Lost Heritage: Canada’s Residential SchoolsLacrosse: A History of Canada’s GameDavis Inlet: Innu community in crisisLosing native languagesMÃ©tamorphose de l’Indien
California Heritage Digital Image Access Project – Online archive of over 28,000 images illustrating California’s history and culture consisting of photographs, pictures, and manuscripts from the collections of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. You can Browse the Collection. (Select “container listing” to access the images.) For example, the Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs, ca. 1890-1938, contains 1,447 digitized photographs of members of Californian tribes. See also California Cultures: Native Americans.California Digital LibraryCamping with the Sioux: Fieldwork diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher – National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Includes Folktales and a Photo Gallery.Canada’s Digital Collections – Rich resource for information on Canada’s First Peoples.Canada’s Native Peoples – Volume II in the Canada Heirloom Series of Canada’s Digital Collection.Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: News – Offers coverage of First Nations issues. INDEPTH: Aboriginal Canadians: From the Gift of the Iroquois to the Creation of Nunavut, by Martin O’Malley, July 2000 and After the Salmon Run: The Road to Nowhere by Peter McCluskey which offers video reports, archived stories and links.Canadian Encyclopedia Online– Full-text, multimedia encylopedia. The subject index shows 38 pages of entries for Native People. (Provided by Historica, a foundation whose mandate is to provide Canadians with a deeper understanding of their history.)Canadian Museum of Civilization – Toronto. Site provides a variety of information on indigenous cultures, archaeology, folk art and Canadian history. Virtual Collection Storage provides images of items on the museum, including some very handsome mittens and belts in the Ethnology Collection. Also provided is a collection of links to Online Resources for Canadian Heritage which has Ethnology and Archaeologysections.Canadian Medical Association – The site is searchable and provides tables of contents and selected articles from a number of its publications. A search for Cree, for example, retrieves 46 results, most of them abstracts of articles from the Canadian Medical Association Journal.Carlisle Indian Industrial School – Barbara Landis and Genevieve Bell. (See also Carlisle Studentsadapted from Charles Maclay’s index of “The Indian Industrial School” by Linda Witmer.)Carnegie Institution for Science– Washington, D.C.Casas Grandes and the Ceramic Art of the Ancient Southwest – Published by the Art Institute of Chicago in association with Yale University Press for the exhibition at the Art Institue of Chicago from April 22 to August 13, 2006. This is a beautiful book with 141 color photographs of pre-Columbian pottery, primarily from private collections. It’s $28.35 at Amazon.com (the list price is $45.00). See UNESCO’s World Heritage List – Archeological Zone of PaquimÃ©, Casas Grandes.Catholic Encyclopedia – With over 11,602 articles, this encyclopedia is a good resource for researching the Jesuit presence in North America. For example there are articles on Catholic Indian Missions of the United States, Santa Fe (New Mexico), Huron, Sioux, Chippewa, Algonquins and Iroquois.Center for Agricultural Bioinformatics: Botanical Databases – The Medicinal Plants of North America Database (MPNADB)is “based on a two-volume book of the same name published in 1986 by the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan. The database – which contains 17,634 items representing the medicinal uses of 2,147 species from 760 genera and 142 families by 123 different native American groups – was built over a period of about 10 years with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, and the University of Michigan-Dearborn.” The Food Plant Database, based on Food Plants of the North American Indians by Elias Yanovsky, c1936, reviewed approximately 80 years of literature, back to around 1850, listing 1,112 species in 444 genera of plants among 120 families, used for food by the North American Indians.Center for Southwest Research – University of New Mexico. Part of the larger Online Archive of New Mexico. Among their collections are the Robert E. Robideau American Indian Movement Papers, 1975-1994and the Kay Cole Papers.Center For World Indigenous Studies – Their Fourth World Documentation Projectis “an online library of texts which record and preserve our peoples’ struggles to regain their rightful place in the international community.”
A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1873 – “Consists of a linked set of published congressional records of the United States of America from the Continental Congress through the 43rd Congress, 1774-1875. Congressional bills and resolutions for selected sessions beginning with the 6th Congress (1799) in the House of Representatives and the 16th Congress (1819) in the Senate. A select number of documents and reports from the monumental U.S. Congressional Serial Set are available as well. This online collection houses the records of the U.S. Congress up to 1875, which includes the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, published by the Government Printing Office. To access the contemporary Congressional Record go to THOMAS, the Library of Congress’s legislative information Web site.” It includes:Journals of the Continental Congress (1774-89)Letters of Delegates to Congress (1774-89)Farrand’s Records: Records of the Federal Convention of 1787Elliot’s Debates: Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution (1787-88)Journals of the House of Representatives (1789-1875) and the Senate (1789-1875),Maclay’s Journal: Journal of William Maclay, United States Senator from Pennsylvania, 1789-1791The Annals of Congress – Formally known as The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States, the Amma;s “cover the 1st Congress through the first session of the 18th Congress, from 1789 to 1824. The Annals were not published contemporaneously, but were compiled between 1834 and 1856, using the best records available, primarily newspaper accounts. Speeches are paraphrased rather than presented verbatim, but the record of debate is nonetheless fuller than that available from the House and Senate Journals. The Annals were immediately succeeded by the Register of Debates, and subsequently by the Congressional Globe and Congressional Record.”Register of Debates (1824-37) – Consists of 14 volumesCongressional Globe (1833-73)Congressional Record (1873-75)House JournalSenate Journal– “The Journal should be seen as the minutes of floor action. It notes the matters considered by the Senate and the votes and other actions taken. It does not record the actual debates, which can be consulted through the “Link to date-related documents” in the full text transcription of the Journal.”Senate Executive Journal (1789-1875)– “Record of its executive proceedings that relate to its functions of confirming presidential nominees and consenting to the making of treaties. The Senate Executive Journal was not made public until 1828, when the Senate decided to print and publish the proceedings for all the previous Congresses and thereafter to publish the journal for each session at its close.”Bills and ResolutionsStatutes at Large (1789-1875)– “The eighteen volumes presented in this online collection cover the laws of the first forty-three Congresses, 1789-1875.”American State Papers (1789-1838)– “Thirty-eight physical volumes, contain the legislative and executive documents of Congress during the period 1789 to 1838.”U.S. Serial Set – “Began publication with the 15th Congress, 1st Session (1817). Documents before 1817 may be found in the American State Papers (1789-1838).” Of particular interest isIndian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894 compiled by Charles C. Royce. (U.S. Serial Set Number 4015 contains the second part of the two-part Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-97 by J.W. Powell, Director.) The report is browsable by Tribe, State/Territory and Date and includes treaties and 67 maps. You can search the entire site or browse individual titles. The 23rd Congress, 1833-1835 has Correspondence on the emigration of Indians, 1831-33. Use the find option (Indian) to locate material on Indian issues in the Register of Debates Browse List. Another important resource is Volume VII of the United States Statutes at Large, entitled Treaties between the United States and Indian Tribes. Published in 1845, this is a 604 page volume of treaties which has a chronological list of the treatiesstarting on p. iii.
Chaco Digital Initiative– Digitization of thousands of photographs from Neil Judd and Frank H.H. Roberts’ archaeological excavations in Chaco Canyon.Chaco Culture National Historical Park– National Park Service
Cherokee Field Office Records, 1968 – 1983 – Photographs in the National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 435: Records of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, 1929 – 1988.Burden Basket or Storage Basket Made of River Cane (ARC Identifier: 281597)Booger” Dance Mask with a Coiled Snake on Top (ARC Identifier: 281600)Hand Carved Pottery Designed Paddles (ARC Identifier: 281617)Seminole Coiled Sweet Grass Button Basket (ARC Identifier: 281626)Shell Tempered Duck Effigy Bowl Recovered from Williams Island Site, Hamilton County, Tennessee (ARC Identifier: 281637)Cherokee Craftsman, Jessie Saunlooke, Carving a Bear (ARC Identifier: 281633)Shell Tempered Double Wedding Vessel with a Human Effigy Recovered from the Cox Mound, Jackson County, Tennessee (ARC Identifier: 281639)Old Cherokee White Oak Basket (ARC Identifier: 281622)Single Weave River Cane Basket Owned by the Southern Hills Handicraft Guild (ARC Identifier: 281629)
Cherokee Nation – Official Site of the Cherokee Nation based in Tahlequah Oklahoma. They publish the Cherokee Phoenix and Indian Advocate, the the official newspaper of the Cherokee Nation, published monthly. The Fall 2000 issue has several articles on Diabetes.Code of Federal Regulations – National Archives and Records Administration. Title 25 deals with Indian issues. Other related titles include Native American Housing (Title 24, Part 1000), Indian Health (Title 42, Part 36), and Requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations on Indian Lands (Title 30, Part 75). You can also browse and search your choice of CFR titles and/or volumes; Title 25: Indians is available from 1997.CodeTalk– Federal interagency information network managed by native Americans at HUD’s Office of Native American Programs.Collector’s Guide to the Art of New Mexico – A rich resource for the collector. With sections on Indian Fetishes, milagros, Heishi, Antique Indian Silver Jewelry, Indian Pottery and Baskets.College & Research Library News – A publication of the Association of College & Research Libraries, they offer monthly columns on Internet Resources, one of which is Indigenous nations: Sites of interest, C&RL News, January 2004, Vol. 65, No. 1.Colonial Connecticut Records: the Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut 1636-1776 – The University of Connecticut, with the assistance of the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, has digitized microfilm copies of Connecticut (Colony). The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, from April 1636 to October 1776 … transcribed and published, (in accordance with a resolution of the General assembly). Hartford: Brown & Parsons. 1850-1890. 15 vols. Although not yet searchable by keyword, each volume is carefully indexed.Common Ground Online – Publication of the National Park Service Archeology and Ethnography Program. Online Archives go from the Summer 1994 to the present. Issues of interest include Earliest Americans (Spring/Summer 2000), Preservation on the Reservation (Fall 1999) and Speaking Nation to Nation(Summer/Fall 1997).Community Learning Network – “CLN is designed to help K-12 teachers integrate technology into their classrooms. We have over 265 menu pages with more than 5,800 annotated links to free resources on educational WWW sites — all organized within an intuitive structure.” There is a Theme Index and a section on First Nations History.Congressional Record – Via GPO Access for 1995 thru 2001 (Volumes 141 thru 147). Portions of the Congressional Record in pdf format are available for 2001, 2000 and 1999. You can also retrieve a specific page.Cornell American Indian ProgramCornell Powwow and Smokedance– Held annually in the SpringCouncil for Museum Anthropology – Offers links to Anthropology Museums on the Web.Cradleboard Teaching Project – Project begun by teacher and songwriter Buffy Sainte-Marie to help children through cross-cultural communication. Provides links to other resources and to other Tribal Websites.Creek Indian Bibliography: Sources for History, Biography and Genealogy; Print and Internet Links– Anne E. Gometz.A Critical Bibliography of North American Indians, For K-12 – Compiled in September 1996, this excellent resource for teachers and librarians describes over 800 books. There are sections organized by culture area and tribe and further divided into non-fiction and fiction, biographies, and traditional stories. From the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum of Natural History. There are sections for the Northeast, Southwest, Northwest Coast, California, Plateau, Arctic, Plains, Great Basin, Subarctic and the Southeast.Cross Cultural Symposium on Blacks and Native Americans – April 20-22, 2000, El Hajj Malik El Shabazz Center at Dartmouth College. To “explore the complex histories and experiences shared by Blacks and Indians.” Provides Speaker Biographies and links to related resources.Cultural Readings: Colonization and Print in the Americas – “Exhibition from the collections of the Jay I. Kislak Foundation and the Rosenbach Museum & Library, sponsored by the University of Pennsylvania Library.” Includes a section on Print and Native Cultures.Cultural Resource Management – Searchable and with Index of Past Issues. See Beyond Compliance: Tribes of the Southwest(Volume 23, No. 9, (2000).Dakota Conflict Trials (1862) – From Doug Linder’s Famous Trialspage.
- DAPHNE – Data in Archeology, Prehistory and History on the Net – “Portal providing a single entry point to free subject-oriented bibliographic databases.”
Delgamuukw / Gisday’wa National Process– Resources relating to the Delgamuukw decision, in which the Canadian Supreme Court recognized the validity of Aboriginal title.Denver Public Library Photography Collection – Western History Department/Genealogy Department. Online collection contains 100,000 images including many of Native Americans. Try searching for the following: Indians of North America, Wounded Knee, Dakota, Sioux, Ute, Pueblo, David Barry, George Beam, C. G. Morledge, Horace Poley, Edward Boos, Sitting Bull or Red Cloud. A search for Wounded Knee Massacre, for example, retrieves 85 photographs, each carefully catalogued and annotated and with a url which can be bookmarked (the url for Indian Chiefs and U.S. officials, NS-163, goes to the enlarged image only, without identification.) Other highlights include Sitting Bull of the Custer Massacre (X-31384), Standing Holy, daughter of Sitting Bull, wearing jewelry (B-144), and Red Tomahawk, who killed Sitting Bull (X-31680). A search for Ben Wittick (1845-1903) retrieves 68 images by the photographer including the following examples from the 1880s: Approach to Pueblo Acoma, View in Pueblo Acoma, N.M., View in Apache camp, San Carlos River, Arizona, View in Pueblo Acoma, New Mexico, View in Pueblo Laguna, N.M., View in Pueblo Laguna, N.M., View in Pueblo Santo Domingo N. M., View in the aristocratic quarter of Oraibi Moqui, Woman of Zuni & water olla and Zuni maiden, daughter of Pa-lo-wa-ti-wa. See also the Collaborative Digitization Programwhich provides descriptions and links to other Digital Collections.Digital Library of Appalachia – Search for Cherokee.Digital Library of Canada – National Library of Canada. Relevant resources include Indian Affairs Annual Reports 1864-1990, Jesuit Relations and the History of New France, Early Canadiana OnlineDigital Library of Georgia – Among the collections is Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842which “contains over 1,000 documents and images relating to the Native American population of the Southeastern United States from the collections of the University of Georgia Libraries, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville Library, the Frank H. McClung Museum, and the Tennessee State Library and Archives. The documents are comprised of letters, legal proceedings, military orders, financial papers, and archaeological images relating to Native Americans in the Southeast.” Georgia Historic Books “contains full-text, fully searchable books related to Georgia’s history and culture. Most are from the 19th to early 20th century and focus on Georgia history, biography, and literature.”Directory of Aboriginal Exporters– This directory, compiled by the Aboriginal Business Development (AIBD) Committee in 2002, lists 470 Canadian firms.Documenting the American South – Collection from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill of full-text primary sources on Southern history, literature and culture from the colonial period through the first decades of the 20th century. On July 27, 2001 there were 960 books and manuscripts in the collection. Includes, for example, the full-text of The Missionary Pioneer, or A Brief Memoir of the Life, Labours, and Death of John Stewart, (Man of Colour,) Founder, under God of the Mission among the Wyandotts at Upper Sandusky, Ohio (1827) by Joseph Mitchell. The collection is searchable and has a subject, author and titleindex.Documents Relating to the Negotiation of Ratified and Unratified Treaties With Various Indian Tribes, 1801-1869– “Collection has been created from the microfilm of record group 75, records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, specifically RG 75, Microcopy T494. These ten reels include instructions to treaty commissioners, reports, letters, and in some cases copies of the treaties.”Duke Collection of American Indian Oral History – “Provides access to typescripts of interviews (1967 -1972) conducted with hundreds of Indians in Oklahoma regarding the histories and cultures of their respective nations and tribes.”Early Americas Digital Archive (EADA) – “Collection of electronic texts originally written in or about the Americas from 1492 to approximately 1820… Published and supported by the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH)at the University of Maryland.”
Early Canadiana Online – “Full text online collection of more than 3,000 books and pamphlets documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the late 19th century. The collection is particularly strong in native studies, travel and exploration, and the history of French Canada.” (Note: a password is not required – leave username and password blank.) A search for Iroquoian Indians, for example, retrieves 12 documents including:William M. Beauchamp’s The Iroquois Trail, or, Footprints of the Six Nations: in Customs, Traditions and History(1892)Lewis Henry Morgan’s Houses and house-life of the American aborigines (1881)George Catlin’s Adventures of the Ojibbeway and Ioway Indians in England, France, and Belgium: being notes of eight years’ travels and residence in Europe with his North American Indian collection (1852)James Constantine Pilling’s Bibliography of the Iroquoian Languages(1888)Horatio Hale and Edward B. Tyler’s Four Huron Wampum Records: a Study of Aboriginal American History and Mnemonic Symbols(?1897).
A full-text search for Oswego retrieves 845 matching pages in 279 matching titles. A search for Sachems is also productive. Other items of interest include:
Collection de manuscrits contenant lettres, memoires, et autres documents historiques relatifs a la Nouvelle-France: recueillis aux Archives de la province de Quebec ou copies Ã l’etranger; mis en ordre et edites sous les auspices de la Legislature de Quebec, avec table, etc. by Jean Blanchet. A rich source for the years 1663-1713, with many letters from Frontenac to the French Minister (in French only). Contents include Lettre des Sauvages Abenaquis au Rois(page 433)
Sketch of the Life of Captain Joseph Brant, Thaydneanegea (1872)Ten years of Upper Canada in Peace and War, 1805-1815 being the Ridout letters (1890)Lives of Celebrated American Indians (1849)Life and Times of Kateri Tekakwitha, the Lily of the Mohawks, 1656-1680 (1891)– by Ellen Hardin WalworthLife of Tecumseh, and of his brother the prophet with a historical sketch of the Shawanoe Indians(1841)by Benjamin Drake
Eccles Centre for American Studies– British Library.United States Government Policies Toward Native Americans, 1787-1990: A Guide to Materials in the Gritish Libraryby David J.l Whittaker, Eccles Centre for American Studies 1996, 91pp. “This bibliographical guide to material in the British Library has been assembled to assist in locating the more important works on this significant topic. It is not comprehensive, but does call attention to the major studies and sources on American Indian policy history. Almost all of the books cited have their own bibliographies which will lead the serious researcher to additional material. A few items are listed which are not in the British Library.”British Travellers Report on the White Conquest of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1865-1905by R. A Burchell, First Annual Douglas W. Bryant Lecture, July 1993.
Educational Resources Information Center – There is a clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools with information on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. There is a searchable Native Education Directory which “includes organizations, governmental agencies, and schools that are involved in the education of Native students and serve a statewide, multistate, or national audience.” There are Expert Search Strategies for Programs for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Canada Native youth and Native students (American Indians, Canada Natives, Alaska Natives) and higher education.Edward S. Curtis’s The North American Indian – “One of the most significant and controversial representations of traditional American Indian culture ever produced. Issued in a limited edition from 1907-1930, the publication continues to exert a major influence on the image of Indians in popular culture…Featured here are all of the published photogravure images including over 1500 illustrations bound in the text volumes, along with over 700 portfolio plates.” (Library of Congress.) See also Edward S. Curtis’s The North American IndianEiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art– IndianapolisElkus Indian Papers – “California Academy of Sciences houses a collection of over 2,000 documents related to Indian affairs over the period 1922-1963. These papers came from the estate of Charles de Young Elkus, a San Francisco attorney…” The database is searchableand browsable by name of correspondant.Emory Women Writers Resource Project – Among the full-text Native-American related titles are Nowita, the Sweet Singer. A Romantic Tradition of Spavinaw, Indian Territory (1900) by Mabel Washbourne Anderson, Memoir Of Elizabeth Jones, a Little Indian Girl, Who Lived at the River-Credit Mission, Upper Canada by Anonymous, The Sick Child (1899), An Autobiography (1911), My People [Winnebagoes](1897) and Gray Wolf’s Daughter (1899) all by Angel De Cora (Hinook-Mahiwi-Kilinaka), An Indian Woman’s Letter (1879), Bright Eyes (1881), Omaha Legends and Tent-Stories (1883), The Indian Question (1880) all by Susette La Flesche (Bright Eyes), and Great Work of an Indian (1906)by Ora Eddleman Reed.Encyclopedia Mythica: Native American Mythology– With over 350 entries on Native American mythology.Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Native American History and Culture– Selected links to sites hosted by Smithsonian Institution museums and organizations.FBI Art Theft Program – With a section on stolen Native American Art and recovered art (Navajo Ceremonial Artifacts, Geronimo’s Headress, Washoe Indian Baskets).FBI Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room – FBI documents scanned from paper copies as released to FOIPA requesters. There is a file on the Osage Indian Murders.Falmouth Institute – Training and consulting organization to American Indian and Alaska Native communities. With list of publications and links to Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations. They monitor legislative activities on Capitol Hill, some of which can be read online in the American Indian Report’s Fedwatch.FedLaw: Native Americans– LawsFederally Recognized Tribes – “This notice publishes the current list of 561 tribal entities recognized and eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs by virtue of their status as Indian tribes. The list is updated from the notice published on November 25, 2005 (70 FR 71194).” Published in the Federal Register.
Fenimore Art Museum – Cooperstown. The Eugene and Clare Thaw Collection of American Indian Art is described by Steven M. L. Aronson: “…The 800 arrestingly beautiful objects…are incontestably the best of their kind – milestones of American Indian inventiveness.” (Native Beauties: Eugene V. Thaw on His Extraordinary Compilation of North American Indian Works, Architectural Digest, June, 2008.) In the Virtual Museum you can view catalog records and images of the 825 itemsin the collection including:Seneca Bag– Circa 1830-1860Eastern Ojibwa Birch Bark Domed Box– Circa 1847-1853Teton Sioux (Lakota) Painted Hide War Record– Circa 1880Teton Sioux (Lakota) Storage Bags– Circa 1880-1889Huron Moosehair Embroidered Black-dyed Moccasins– Circa 1838-1853Tlingit Berry Basket– Circa 1910
FindArticles.com – Free online article-search service allows you to search for (and read) articles published over the last 1 to 2 years in more than 300 reputable magazines and journals. You can view publications by subject or by name.First American West The Ohio River Valley, 1750-1820– American Memory, Library of Congress.First Nations Collection – Part of the Southern Oregon Digital Archives (SODA), the First Nations Collection has “documents, books, and articles relating to the indigenous peoples of this bioregion.” Particularly interesting are three books by the anthropologist Edward Sapir (1884-1939. These books are rich sources of creation stories in which Coyote plays a major role. Yana Texts (235 pages) were collected in 1907 from two locations in Shasta County California: near Redding and between Round Mountain and Montgomery Creek. In also incorporates material collected by Roland. B. Dixon in 1900 from Sam Bat’wi and Round Mountain Jack. Takelma Texts (267 pages ) were collected Sapir in the summer of 1906 in Siletz Resertaion in western Oregon. Frances Johnson (Gwisgwashan) was the “sole informant”. Wishram texts, Volume II, Together with Wasco Tales and Myths(333 pages). The Wishram texts were obtained, for the most part, in Yakima Reservation, in southern Washington, in the summer of 1905. Much of the Wishram material was gathered by an interpreter, Pete McGuff from Louis Simpson (Menait). Jeremiah Curtin collected the Wasco texts.First Nations Site Index – Jordan S. Dill. Has a section on First Nation Histories.First Nations Periodical Index – Searchable index of 20 Aboriginal newspapers, journals, and magazines, of mainly Canadian Native content, covering the years 1981 to 1997. With a Journal List. (An advanced keyword search for Residential schoolsreturned 49 citations.) A joint project of the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Saskatoon Campus, the Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre and the Library Services for Saskatchewan Aboriginal Peoples committee.First PeoplesFirst Perspective– News of Indigenous Peoples of Canada.FirstGov– Official website for searching the U.S. Government.Florida State Archives Photographic Collection– The Peithmann Collection consists of 573 photographs, taken by Irvin M. Peithmann in the 1950s, documenting the daily lives of the Seminoles on Brighton and Big Cypress Reservations in south Florida. (Go to the bottom of the search page for information and access to the collection.)FLITE Supreme Court Decisions 1937-1975 – FedWorld site contains 7,407 full-text decisions issued from volumes 300 through 422 of US Reports, searchable by keyword or case name. (Other resources include Cornell’s Legal Information Institute’s Supreme Court Decisions, GPO Supreme Court Decisions (1937-1975), Landmark Supreme Court Cases, Supreme Court of the United States, Oyez Project: U.S. Supreme Court Media and FindLaw’s U.S..Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI) – Highlights include a collection of online Books and the BibliografÃa Mesoamericana.Founders’ Constitution – Anthology of writings on American constitutional history edited by Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner. A joint venture of the University of Chicago Press and the Liberty Fund, the book was published in 1986. (It is not clear from the explanatory matter just how much of the print version appears online.) “The documents included range from the early seventeenth century to the 1830s, from the reflections of philosophers to popular pamphlets, from public debates in ratifying conventions to the private correspondence of the leading political actors of the day.” The site is searchable, contains a Table of Contents and an Index which includes Short Titles Used, Authors and Documents, Cases and Constitutional Provision. Pages dealing with Indian law: Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 (Indians), Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (5 Pet. 1 1831), United States v. Bailey (24 Fed. Cas. 937, no. 14,495 C.C.D.Tenn. 1834). United States v. Cisna (25 Fed. Cas. 422, no. 14,795 C.C.D.Ohio 1835) and Johnson & Graham v. M’Intosh (8 Wheat. 543 1823).The Four Indian Kings– Virtual Vault, Library & Archives, Canada. “The four Indian kings first travelled to London in 1710 to meet Queen Anne as delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy in an effort to cement an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life.”Friends Committee on National Legislation – Quaker lobby in the public interest. Provides Native American Legislative Updatesfor U.S. legislation.Fund of the Four Directions– “National Native-run charitable foundation dedicated to empowering Indigenous communities in North America to implement solutions that revitalize and are consistent with Indigenous ways and concepts.”Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France – Digitization project, currently available in French only. “Au 1er janvier 2004, Gallica offrait sur la Toile : 70 000 volumes imprimÃ©s en mode image, 1200 volumes imprimÃ©s en mode texte, 500 documents sonores, 80 000 images fixes.” A catalogue search (recherche) for Crèvecoeur locates the text (in pdf format) and illustrations for Voyage dans la Haute Pennsylvanie et dans l’Ã©tat de New-York depuis l’annÃ©e 1785 jusqu’en 1798. The search results also include illustrations (Mosaique) from the work: there are images of KÃ©skÃ©tomah, ancien Sachem de la Nation Onondaga and Koohassen, guerrier de la Nation OnÃ©ida. You can also browse many volumes of the Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution. Do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). For example, the Twenty-First Annual Report, published in 1903, and which covers the years 1899-1900, has articles on Hopi katcinas, drawn by native artists, by Jesse Walter Fewkes (Pp. 3-126, pls. II-LXIII) and Iroquoian cosmology, by J. N. B. Hewitt (Pp. 127-339, pls. LXIV-LXIX). (To locate contents of these Annual Reports, consult the Smithsonian’s List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology which provides article titles, authors and page numbers.) A title search for Bureau of American ethnology retrieves 64 results, which include the full texts of Bibliography of the Iroquoian languages by James Constantine Pilling, The Problem of the Ohio mounds by Cyrus Thomas and Siouan tribes of the east by James Mooney. (Use AltaVista’s Babel Fish to help with translation.)Gallup Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonial– August 9-13, 2000Ganondagan State Historic Site – Major seventeenth-century Seneca town and its palisaded granary, located in Victor, New York. With links to Haudenosaunee and Other Native American Sites.GaracontiÃ©- Daniel GaracontiÃ© was a 17th century Onondaga chief (SagochiendagehtÃ©) known for his diplomacy and peace-keeping efforts.Gathering of Nations– Billed as the largest powwow in North America, it brings in indigenous people from 500 tribes and cultures in the U.S., Canada, Mexico and Polynesia.George Catlin and His Indian Gallery– Smithsonian American Art Museum.George Eastman House – Located in Rochester, New York, the museum’s Schankman Image Server offers access to a portion of its extensive still photography collection. See, for example, New Mexico Views by Bennett & Brown, Frederick Monsen (1865-1929), Timothy O’Sullivan (1840-1882), and C. W. Carter (1832-1918).George Washington Papers – Library of Congress American Memory Project to digitize approximately 65,000 documents is a rich resource for locating primary source material relating to Indian affairs. For example, if you are researching the Sullivan Campaign of 1779in New York, a keyword search for Sullivan locates many letters written by Sullivan and Washington between May and September of 1779, when the campaign occurred. A search for James Clinton,and Tioga will also retrieve letters of interest.Geronimo: His Own Story – Part of the From Revolution to Reconstruction site which also has a section on Civilizations under Siege: the European Conquest of the Americas.Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument– National Park Service. Consists of two sites: the Gila Cliff Dwellings and the Heart-Bar Site or TJ Ruin.Gilcrease Museum– Tulsa, OklahomaGood Minds– Educational Resources for Aboriginal Studies, First Nations Studies, Indigenous Studies, and Native American Studies.
GÃ¶ttinger Digitalisierungszentrums – Digital Library at the Lower Saxony State and University Library, GÃ¶ttingen, includes a collection of over 2,000 volumes of early travel books. A title search for Onondaga, for example, retrieves the following titles:Dictionnaire de la Langue Huronne (1632)by Gabriel Sagard ThÃ©odatJournals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 (1887) by Frederick Cook [alternative url for this title.History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada (1747) by Cadwallader Colden [alternative url for this title]Memoirs of Lieut. Henry Timberlake, (Who accompanied the Three Cherokee Indians to England in the Year 1762)Travels in New-England and New-York (1821)by Timothy Dwight
Government Information Locator ServiceGPO Access Multi-Database Search – Will search Congressional Record, Federal Register, Congressional Bills, Public Laws, U.S. Code. For example, a search for Hopi, in the Federal Register, Volume 66 (2001), retrieves 20 results, one of which is a proposed rule change entitled “Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Religious Ceremonial Collection of Golden Eaglets From Wupatki National Monument”. There is also a Database List. A subject search for Indian in the General Accounting Office (GAO) Reports (on 4 June 2001) database retrieves 33 results including Money Laundering: Rapid Growth of Casinos Makes Them Vulnerable(01/04/96, GAO/GGD-96-28), Indian Programs: BIA Should Streamline Its Processes for Estimating Land Rental Values (06/30/1999, GAO/RCED-99-165) and Indian Trust Funds: Improvements Made in Acquisition of New Asset and Accounting System But Significant Risks Remain (09/15/2000, GAO/AIMD-00-259).Haida: Spirits of the Sea– Subjects include art, canoes, culture and ocean, food, First Totem, fishing, and Gwaii Haanas.GOVBOT– Searchable database of Federal Government web sites.Government of Canada Web Archive– “At the time of its launch in Fall 2007, approximately 100 million digital objects (over 4 terabytes) of archived Federal Government website data was made accessible.”Guide to Anthropological Fieldnotes and Manuscripts in Archival Repositories– Compiled by Robert Leopold, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.Guide to Law Online: Native Americans– Law Library of CongressGuide to Native American Studies Programs in the United States and Canada– Robert M. Nelson, EditorHandbook of Texas Online – 23,000 articles on people, places, events, historical themes, institutions, and a host of other topic categories. (A search for Indians retrieved over 1,000 articles.) A joint project of the General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas State Historical Association.Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development – John F. Kennedy School of Government. Offers a number of publications including American Indians on Reservations: A Databook of Socioeconomic Change Between the 1990 and 2000 Censuses is a 59 page pdf document. The is a list of all publications.Harvard Views of Readers, Readership, and Reading History – Harvard Open Collections Program. “Online exploration of the intellectual, cultural, and political history of reading as reflected in the historical holdings of the Harvard Libraries. For Internet users worldwide, Reading provides unparalleled digital access to a significant selection of unique source materials – more than 250,000 pages from 1,200 individual items, including 800 published books and 400 manuscript selections.” There is a section on Missions to Native North AmericansHarvard University Library Open Collections Program – “Provides access to digitized historical, manuscript, and image resources selected from Harvard’s library and museum collections.” In January 2006, the Women Working collection consisted of “7,500 pages of manuscripts 3,500 books and pamphlets 1,200 photographs.” You can browse by subject and genre, search by keyword, author, title and subject and search the full text. One of the items in the collection is Choup-nit-ki, with the Nez Perce (1909)by E. Jane Gay (1830-1919) is from the Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. It is described as “a two-volume collection of hand-colored photographs, illustrations, and letters providing a first-hand account of the implementation of the federal government’s allotment policy toward the American Indians, as well as commentary on missionary work, westward expansion, racial conflict, and women’s issues.” The work is “illustrated from photographs by the author with deorations by Emma J. Gay.” The author, in a prefatory note, states the following: “It was from the Nez Perce reservation, in the their territory of Idaho, that these letters were written by an unoffical member of her [Alice C. Fletcher] party. They were addressed to personal friends from whom they have been gathered by the compiler.” There is a list of photographs on pp. 22-25 and a list of drawings on p. 27. The first of the letters, on p. 35, was written in May 30, 1889 from Lewiston, Idaho.Haudenosaunee: People Building a Long House– Official source of news and information from the Haudenosaunee (Hodenosaunee), comprised of the traditional leadership of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Tuscarora Nations.Heard Museum – Phoenix, Arizona museum has a “world-class collection of Native American art, which includes the Fred Harvey Company collection of 19th and 20th century ceramics, baskets, jewelry and textiles as well as the 420-piece Goldwater Kachina Doll collection” as well as Documentary Research Collections. The online exhibition Inventing the Southwest: the Fred Harvey Company and Native American Art “interprets how Native American art in the Southwest was shaped in the first half of this century by the marketing and collecting activities of the Fred Harvey Company.” Other resources include a Documentary Research Collections Guide and The Native American Fine Art Movement: A Resource Guide and Watchful Eyes: Native American Women Artists.Hinds’ Precedents of the House of Representatives (1907) – Asher C. Hinds,Clerk at the Speaker’s Table, 1895 to 1910. With Search Page.Hisatsinom and the Hohokam – Links to resources on the Hohokam people of Central Arizona, the ancestors of the Pima and Tohono O’odham Indians, and the Hisatsinom of the Four Corners, the ancestors of the Hopi, Zuni, and Pueblo Indians compiled by librarian Joel Rane.History Cooperative – Project of the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, the University of Illinois Press and the National Academy Press. You can search the Journal of American History and the American Historical Review. A search for Mohawkretrieves 15 results. Contents (full-text):American Historical Review– from December, 1999Journal of American History– from June 1999Law and History Review– from Spring 1999William and Mary Quarterly– from January 2001History Matters – “Designed for high school and college teachers of U.S. History survey courses, this site serves as a gateway to Web resources and offers unique teaching materials, first-person primary documents and threaded discussions on teaching U.S. history.” Many Pasts “contains primary documents in text, image, and audio about the experiences of “ordinary” Americans throughout U.S. history.” (Examples: â€œThe Moment That The Snows Are Melted The Indian Women Begin Their Workâ€: Iroquois Women Work the Fields by Joseph-FranÃ§ois Lafitau; â€œYour People Live Only Upon Codâ€: An Algonquian Response to European Claims of Cultural Superiority by Chrestien LeClerq; The Dutch Arrive: A Native Perspective by John Heckewelder.) WWW.Historyis an annotated guide to the most useful Web sites for teaching U.S. history and social studies.History of Biomedicine – Indigenous Cultures– Collection of links from the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.History of Museums and Ethnographic Collections – Pitt Rivers Museum, School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford. See site map.History of the American West, 1860-1920 – Created by the Denver Public Library (see above) and now part of the National Digital Library Program at the Library of Congress, this collection “contains “over 30,000 photographs, drawn from the holdings of the Western History and Genealogy Department at Denver Public Library, illuminate many aspects of the history of the American West. Most of the photographs were taken between 1860 and 1920. They illustrate Colorado towns and landscape, document the place of mining in the history of Colorado and the West, and show the lives of Native Americans from more than forty tribes living west of the Mississippi River. Also included are World War II photographs of the 10th Mountain Division, ski troops based in Colorado who saw action in Italy.” Keyword searchable and indexed by subject and by name. Try searching for the following: Indians of North America, Wounded Knee, Dakota, Sioux, Ute, Pueblo, David Barry, George Beam, C. G. Morledge, Horace Poley, Edward Boos, Sitting Bull or Red Cloud. A search for Wounded Knee Massacre, for example, retrieves 85 photographs, each carefully catalogued and annotated and with a url which can be bookmarked. A search for Ben Wittick (1845-1903) retrieves 68 images of Zuni, Apache, Hopi and Navajo scenes.History of the Indian Tribes of North America – By Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall. This was a three volume work published between 1837 and 1844 and is notable for the hand-colored lithographs by Henry Inman, based on portraits of Native Americans by Charles Bird King. See A Gathering of Nations: Images from McKenney & Hall’s History of the Indian Tribes of North America and McKenney & Hall’s History of the Indian Tribes of North America: A Selected Bibliography(pdf) by Alice M. Cornell.History of the Northwest Coast– Bruce HallmanHudson’s Bay Company Archives – Held by the Provincial Archives of Manitoba. See the CBC Interviews.Huntington Free Library’s Native American Collection – Cornell University collection, received June 15, 2004, is “comprised of more than 40,000 volumes on the archaeology, ethnology and history of the native peoples of the Americas from the colonial period to the present. Genres represented in great depth include books of voyage and exploration, missionary reports, ethnography, travel writing, native language dictionaries, captivity narratives, and children’s books.” The Fidelia Fielding Diaries consist of five volumes by Fidelia Hoscott Fielding (1827-1908), considered to be the last speaker and preserver of the Mohegan Pequot language. For additional information on the collection see p. 4 of the Cornell University Library Update for Spring 2005. The collection is valued at more than $8 million dollars and includes an album of original drawings by George Catlin. The collection was previously held by the Huntington Free Library, a public library in the Bronx, and, prior to that (1930), the Museum of the American Indian, then located in New York City. Following a lengthy legal battle over ownership between the Huntington Free Library and the Smithsonian Institution, which had absorbed the Museum of the American Indian in 1990, the collection was transferred to Cornell in June 2004. There are “plans to digitize a significant portion of its manuscript holdings and rare books. An exhibition drawn from the collection will go on view in the Hirshland Gallery in Kroch Library in October, 2005.” See ‘Vanished Worlds, Enduring People’ — Cornell’s Native American Collection goes on display in the Cornell Chronicle, October 19, 2005 and Vanished Worlds, Enduring People: Cornell University Library’s Native American Collection, the online exhibition.“If you knew the conditions…”: Health Care to Native Americans– Online version of an exhibit held at the National Library of Medicine in 1994.
[There are many variations in search terms and spelling. When searching, particularly in older literature, look for Moki, Moqui, Moquis, Orayvi, Orabai, Oreibas, Tusayan, Sikyatki, Awatobi, Thomas Keam, Keams Canyon, Antelope Mesa, Jeddito…]
- American Museum of Natural History – New York. The Library provides access to Online Catalog. The Collections Database provides access to over 50,000 (47,000 in 2009) images and catalog descriptions from the North American Ethnographic Collection. See pottery food bowlwith a stylized image of a parrot, accession No: 1912-23, by Nampeyo.
- Designs on Prehistoric Hopi Pottery – By Jesse Walter Fewkes. 78pp. Reprinted from the Thirty-Third Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, Washington, Government Printing Office, 1919. The full-text is available in pdf in Google Books and can be downloaded and printed. Harvard University owns the original copy signed by Fewkes. “Sikyatki pottery is “recognized as the most beautiful and elaborately decorated prehistoric pottery found in the Southwest.â€¦a type of the most highly developed or golden epoch in Hopi ceramics” (p. 217). Winged figures predominate; many images provided starting on page 227 (30). Bibliography (Authorities Cited) is on p.284
- Field Museum – Chicago. Was known as the Field Columbian Museum from 1895 to 1909. The Apache Collection “is largely a representative collection of approximately 900 objects, most of which were obtained in Arizona in 1901 and 1903 by Charles Owen, a Museum curator. This material is supplemented by a large collection purchased from Fred Harvey in 1905.” For resources see Library, Photography Collections, and Anthropology. Of particular interest is Fieldiana, available and searchable via the Internet Archive. “Fieldiana series has been published as Anthropological Series by Field Columbian Museum (1895-1909) and Field Museum of Natural History (1909-1943), and as Fieldiana: Anthropology by Chicago Natural History Museum (1945-1966) and Field Museum of Natural History (1966-).” Hopi-related articles include:Oraibi natal customs and ceremonies (1905)by H. R. Voth and others, Fieldiana, Anthropology, v. 6, no.2, Publication No. 97, February 1905, describes the Stanley McCormick Hopi Expedition.The Oraibi Powamu ceremony (1901)by H. R. Voth, Fieldiana, Anthropology, v. 3, no.2.The Mishongnovi ceremonies of the Snake and Antelope fraternities (1902)by George Amos Dorsey, Fieldiana, Anthropology, v. 3, no.3.The Oraibi Soyal ceremony (1901)– By George Amos Dorsey and H.R. Voth, Fieldiana, Anthropology, v. 3, no.1The Oraibi summer snake ceremony (1903)– By H. R. Voth and George Amos Dorsey, Fieldiana, Anthropology, v. 3, no.4The Oraibi Marau ceremony (1912)– By H. R. Voth and George Amos Dorsey, Fieldiana, Anthropology, v. 11, no.1.The traditions of the Hopi (1905)– By H. R. Voth and George Amos Dorsey, Fieldiana, Anthropology, v. 8.
- Hopi Cultural Preservation Office
- Hopi Tribe- P.O. Box 123, Kykotsmovi, AZ 86039 (928-734-3000/3102 Fax: 928-734-6665). Benjamin H. Nuvamsa is the chairman of the Hopi Tribal Council, 1 Main Street, P.O. Box 123, Kykotsmovi, Arizona, 86039 (928-734-3100). The Bureau of Indian Affairs Hopi Agency Superintendent is Wendell Honanie, P.O. Box 158, Keams Canyon, Arizona, 86034 (928-738-2228).
- Nampeyo (Nampeo) – Hano.
- The Orayvi split: a Hopi transformation – By Peter M. Whiteley, Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History, no. 87, 2008, 1137 pages, 170 figures, 98 tables. Issued March 3, 2008 (American Museum of Natural History Scientific Publications Library, Item 2246-5954.) Part II: The Documentary Record, pp. 843-1133, consists of primary sources.
- Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology – Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Access is provided to Symbols, the the Peabody Museum’s annual magazine. Google Books provides full text access to a small number of volumes of the Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (1904, 1910, 1911, 1920, 1922). Online Exhibitions include: Rainmakers from the Gods: Hopi Katsinam, Ethnography of Lewis and Clark: Native American Objects and the American Quest for Commerce and Science, Gifting and Feasting in the Northwest Coast Potlatch, and Against the Winds: American Indian Running Traditions. Online Collections“provides access to the Peabody Museum’s database for objects, paintings, prints, drawings, and photographs. The Peabody’s Online Database offers access to over 300,000 records for which there are images.” Searching by collector name is always interesting: Edward G. Fast, William R. Wright, Especially interesting are the mural paintings from Awotovi on Antelope Mesa (“Mural painting full scale reproduction on sand ground”). See Peabody accession numbers: 39-97-10/23059C, 39-97-10/23108C, 39-97-10/22988C, 39-97-10/23111C (Smith/Ewing Figure 78b), 39-97-10/23108C (Smith/Ewing Plate F). Search for photographs of people: Helen Claflin and Madeleine Amsden (2004.1.123.1.33)
Illustrating Traveler: Adventure and Illustration in North America and the Caribbean, 1760-1895 – Online exhibition offered by Yale’s Beinecke Rare Book Library includes a section on Encountering Native Americans.Images Canada – Gateway to over 65,000 images from five Canadian institutions (Canada Science and Technology Museum, Glenbow Museum, National Library of Canada, Natural Resources Canada Earth Sciences Information Centre, Toronto Public Library). A search for Blackfoot, for example, retrieves 1419 images.Images of Native Americans– Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. “The Bancroft Library houses one the world’s finest collections of research materials relating to the history of California and the American West, and this exhibition presents a selection of visual materials relating to Native Americans. The panorama of images selected includes illustrations from rare books, pamphlets, journals, pulp magazines, newspapers, and ephemera in addition to selections of original photographs, including stereographs, lantern slides, and cyanotypes.”Index of Native American Resources on the Internet – Karen M. Strom’s comprehensive site includes Native American Electronic Text Resources on the Internet and an Index of Artistswhose work is shown on the site.Indian and Northern Affairs – Canada (INAC) – Department created in 1966 is responsible for Indian and Inuit affairs, the residents of the Yukon and Northwest Territories and their resources. The department fulfils the lawful obligations of the federal government to Aboriginal peoples arising from treaties, the Indian Act and other legislation. Among the department’s Publications and Research are First Nation Profiles, which are searchable by First Nation, Tribal Council or Reserve name, Information Sheets, Treaty Information, and a Claims section. Other valuable resources at the site are the Oral Narratives and Aboriginal Pasts: An Interdisciplinary Review of the Literatures on Oral Traditions and Oral Histories an April 1996 report by Alexander von Gernet and First Nations in Canada, an historical overview of Aboriginal peoples in Canada. Full-text access to the publication Circles of Lightis available from 2000 to 2002.Indian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB) – U. S. Department of the Interior. See NARA description.Indian Arts and Crafts Board MuseumsSource Directory of Arts and Crafts Businesses – View by state.Indian Country Today– Owned by Standing Stone Media, Inc., “an Indian owned and operated corporation and enterprise of the Oneida Indian Nation located within New York State.”Indian Health Service – With information on the Health Professions Scholarship Program which provides financial assistance for American Indian and Alaska Native (Federally recognized only) students only enrolled in health professions and allied health professions programs. A List of Recipients of Indian Health Scholarships under the Indian Health Scholarship Programfor 2001 appears in the Federal Register, April 4, 2001 (Volume 66, Number 65).Indian Land Claims – Special section in the Syracuse Post Standard. See also the regional news sections for Cayuga and Madisoncounties.Indian Lands in the United States– Detailed map showing Indian reservation boundaries provided by the BIA Geographic Data Service Center.Indian Law Resource Center – “Legal advocacy for the protection of indigenous peoplesâ€™ human rights, cultures, and traditional lands so that Indian tribes and nations may flourish for generations to come.” Has information on Land Rights and Sovereignty and Self-governance. They provide background information on the Onondaga Nation Land Claim.Indian Peoples of the Northern Great Plains– Searchable online database of over 1500 photograph, stereographs, and drawings is organized by tribe, including: Crow, Cheyenne, Blackfeet, Salish (Flathead), Kutenai, Chippewa-Cree, Gros Ventres (Atsina), and Assiniboine. (Montana State University.)Indian Sentinel, 1902-1962– Searchable full-text of 320 issues. Published by the Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions. Raynor Memorial Libraries, Marquette University.Indians of California – Maintained by Tad Beckman, Humanities and Social Sciences Department, Harvey Mudd College. See also his Indians of the Great Basin.Institute for the Preservation of the Original Languages of the Americas– Santa Fe.Institute of American Indian and Alaska Native Culture and Arts Development– Has a good collection of links to Native American Cultural Resources.Institute of American Indian Studies– University of North Dakota.International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) – The aim of the Heritage at Risk is to “identify threatened heritage places, monuments and sites, present typical case studies and trends, and share suggestions for solving individual or global threats to our cultural heritage.” The U.S. National Committe offers papers presented at the annual Symposia: U.S. Preservation in the Global Context (2000) and Culture, Environment and Heritage (1999). The latter contains Snow and Fire in the Fourth World: Perspectives on Western Preservation and Hopi Cultural Preservation Initiative, a paper presented by Philip Cryan Marshall, Associate Professor, Historic Preservation Program, School of Architecture, Roger Williams University, Bristol, Rhode Island.Internet Modern History Sourcebook – Part of Paul Halsall’s extensive Internet History Sourcebooks Project. There is a Native Americans section which provides links to Chief Black Hawk Autobiography, the Constitution of the Iroquois Confederacyand other important documents and primary sources.Internet School Library Media Center – Site for librarians and teachers. Native American sections include Native American Internet Resources and Native American Authors.inter/SECTION– Photographic exhibition by Jeffrey M. ThomasIroquois Doll Makers> – Located on the Cattaraugus Indian Reservation, home of the Seneca Nation of Indians.Iroquois Nationals Lacrosse Team – Official site. (Diane Hoyt-Goldsmith has written a book for young people, Lacrosse: the National Game of the Iroquois, which focuses on 13-year-old Monte Lyons, a member of the Onondaga Nation and a third-generation lacrosse player.)Iroquois Studies Association – Sponsors of the Otsiningo Pow Wow, held June 2-4, 2000. They have a good collection of Links of Interest.Jacques and Jean de Lamberville – Jesuit missionaries to the Onondaga. Jacques was born in 1641 in Rouen (France) and died in 1710 in Quebec. His brother Jean was born in 1633 in Rouen and died in Paris in 1714. There are entries on Jacques and Jean de Lamberville and Catholic Indian Missions of the United States in the Catholic Encyclopedia. Search also in Early Canadiana Onlinefor additional material.Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, 1610 to 1791 – “This site contains entire English translation of the The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, originally compiled and edited by Reuben Gold Thwaites and published by The Burrows BrothersCompany, Cleveland, throughout the latter part of the nineteenth century. Each file represents the total English contents of a single published volume. The original work has facing pages in the original French, Latin or Italian, depending on the author.” (Thom Mentrak and Rev. Raymond A. Bucko). (The Jesuit Relations are also available in Early Canadiana Online. Password not required.)JÃ¶nkÃ¶pings stadsbibliotek – Has a bibliography of Literature on Native Americans in Swedish – facts and fictionJoslyn Art Museum – With a selection of images from its Western and Native Americancollections.John Carter Brown Library – “One of the outstanding libraries of the world in the field of the history of the Americas, North and South, prior to 1825, and of European history as it bears on the Americas.” With access to online catalog.Journal of American Indian Education – Peer reviewed scholarly journal, which publishes papers specifically related to the education of American Indians and Alaska Natives published by the Center for Indian Education of the College of Education at Arizona State University. The site is searchable and provides full-text of past volumesfrom 1961 to 1993.Journals of Arthur Wellington Clah: Native American and Christian Convert – Clah (1831-1916), was a Tsimshian, from the coast of British Columbia and an assistant to the English missionary William Duncan. “Clah’s journals thus cover turbulent years in the history of his people. They deal with day-to-day personal issues, of course -Clahâ€™s trading activities, fishing expeditions, the weather, religious musings – but were also intended to form a broader history of his people during these years, with material on the disputes between Duncan and the CMS as well as epidemics, survivals of potlatch ceremonies, relations between Native Americans and whites and native land claims. The latter are particularly prevalent.” These journals fill over 70 notebooks and are owned by the Western Manuscripts division of the History of Medicine Library of the Wellcome Trust in London. Although only a few pages from the journal are available online, queries about the Clah journals can be directed to the Library’s Department of Archives and Manuscripts (email@example.com). A subject search in the library’s online catalog for Tsimshian Indians retrieves 9 records. In BC Studies: The British Columbia Quarterly there is a special issue on Native Peoples and Colonialism, Numbers 115/116, Autumn/Winter 1997-98, which has an article by R.M. Galois: Colonial Encounters: The Worlds of Arthur Wellington Clah, 1855-1881(pp. 105-147).Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition– University of Nebraska.Justice Systems of Indian NationsKahon:wes’s Mohawk & Iroquois Homepage IndexKansas Collection – University of Kansas digital collection contains full text Books, articles, images and other primary sources.Kappler’s Indian Affairs: Laws & Treaties – “Historically significant, seven volume compilation of U.S.treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to Native American Indian tribes. The volumes cover U.S. Government treaties with Native Americans from 1778-1883 (Volume II) and U.S. laws and executive orders concerning Native Americans from 1871-1970 (Volumes I, III-VII). The work was first published in 1903-04 by the U.S. Government Printing Office. Enhanced by the editors’ use of margin notations and a comprehensive index, the information contained in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties is in high demand by Native peoples, researchers, journalists, attorneys, legislators, teachers and others of both Native and non-Native origins.” A project of the Oklahoma State University Library.Keith Secola and Wild Band of Indians – Native musician. Songs include NDN Kars, Innocent Man, Fry Bread. and Wazza Bat. Secola is interviewed by Terry Gross on NPR’s Fresh Air (in RealAudio) on January 18, 2000.Keshi Zuni Collection – Arts & crafts from the Zuni Pueblo. Items for sale include traditional Zuni jewelry, fetish carvings and medicine bags.King, Charles Bird(1785-1862) – American artist known for his portraits of delegates of various tribes who visited Washington D.C. in 1821.Lakota Dakota Bibliography– Raymond A. Bucko, Creighton UniversityLakota na Dakota Wowapi Oti Kin: Lakota Information Home Page – Joint project by Martin Broken Leg at Augustana College, Sioux Falls, SD, and Raymond Bucko at Le Moyne College, Syracuse, NY. Includes links to Lakota Electronic Texts.Legal Information Institute – Cornell Law School site has a section on Indian Law Materials. Similar resources include Washburn University School of Law’s Native American Law (part of WashLaw Web), Emory Law Library’s Native American Law Links,University of Oklahoma Law Center’s comprehensive Native American Legal Resources, FedLaw: Native Americans, and Hieros Gamos’ Guide to Native Peoples Law. The U.S. Department of the Interior has a Library with an online catalog and links to Legal Sources which include the Bureau of Indian Affairs Laws and Executive Orders.Lenape-English Dictionary – From an anonymous ms. in the archives of the Moravian Church…By Daniel Garrison Brinton, David Zeisberger, Albert Seqaqkind Anthony, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, 1888, 228 pages. The Peabody Museum (Harvard) copy is available in pdf format through Google Books. See also Moravian Archives and Inventory of the records of the Indian Missions, 1742-1898 (1980)(136 page pdf document).Leonard Peltier Defense CommitteeLibrary and Archives Canada – A search for natives, limited to descriptions with a digitized image, in Archivanet: Documentary Art retrieves over 270 images including Indian Encampment, Fort William (Ontario) by William Armstrong and Head of a Sioux Indian (1867)by Alfred Jacob Miller. Other artists include Millicent Mary Chaplin, Sydney Prior Hall and William George Richardson Hind.
Library Catalogs:American Museum of Natural History – New York. The Library provides access to Online Catalog.Dallas Museum of Art LibraryLibrary of Congress Online CatalogLibrary of Congress Prints & Photographs Online Catalog (PPOC) – “Contains catalog records and digital images representing a rich cross-section of still pictures held by the Prints & Photographs Division and other units of the Library. It provides access through group or item records to about 50% of the Division’s holdings. About 90% of the records are accompanied by one or more digital images.” Search records in the 30 collections of the Prints and Photographs Division. With Subject Index and All Text Search. Two useful tools: Preview Images will display thumbnails in batches; Display Images with Neighboring Call Numbers will locate photographs from the same geographic area. There is also a Thesaurus for Graphic Materials(in two parts).
Library of Congress Map CollectionsLibrary of Congress Prints & Photographs Online Catalog (PPOC) – “Contains catalog records and digital images representing a rich cross-section of still pictures held by the Prints & Photographs Division and other units of the Library. It provides access through group or item records to about 50% of the Division’s holdings. About 90% of the records are accompanied by one or more digital images.” Search records in the 30 collections of the Prints and Photographs Division. With Subject Index and All Text Search. Two useful tools: Preview Images will display thumbnails in batches; Display Images with Neighboring Call Numbers will locate photographs from the same geographic area. There is also a Thesaurus for Graphic Materials(in two parts).
Library of Congress Webcasts – See also Library of Congress PodcastsIndian Religious Freedom, to Litigate or Legislate?– 28 November 2007 [65 minutes]Hoop Dances by Dallas Chief Eagle and Jasmine Pickner15 November 2007. “Dallas Chief Eagle, Rosebud Sioux tribal member, and Jasmine Pickner of the Crow Creek Sioux tribe are both world-traveled hoop dancers.” [58 minutes]Native American Heritage Month Keynote Address– Representatvie Tom Cole, 6 November 2007. “Rep. Tom Cole, who is a fifth-generation Oklahoman and a member of the Chickasaw Nation, is the only Native American currently serving in the U.S. Congress.” [54 minutes]Guiding Our Destiny– Loriene Roy, 2 November 2007 [45 minutes]. Roy is a librarian and a member of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe.Indian Yell: The Heart of an American Insurgency– Michael Blake, 25 June 2007 [69 minutes].Re-thinking Conquest: Spanish and Native Experiences in the Americas– Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, 9 November 2006 [61 minutes].Native American Women Writers discuss new book, Sister Nations, (03/04/2003);Vine Deloria Jr.: Bookfest 02– 10/12/2002 [25 minutes]Tony Hillerman Part 1– 10/12/2002Tony Hillerman Part 2– 10/12/2002Luci Tapahonso: Bookfest 02– 10/12/2002Fernando & Marlene Divina: Book Fest 05– 9/24/2005Mesa Verde Prehistoric Public Works– Kenneth R. Wright, 20 October 2003 [60 minutes].Virginia Sneve: Bookfest 02– 10/12/2002Susan Power: Bookfest 03– 10/04/2003MariJo Moore: Bookfest 04– 10/09/2004Cynthia Smith: Bookfest 02– 10/12/2002
Library of Daniel Garrison Brinton – By John M. Weeks, With the assistance of Andree Suplee, Larissa M. Kopytoff and Kerry Moore, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 2002. [455 page pdf document]. “Brinton was one of the academic pioneers in American anthropology” whose “most significant contributions were in the field of religion and mythology. He collected, translated, and annotated texts of indigenous mythology and folklore for his Library of Aboriginal American Literature series (1882â€“1890).” The Brinton Library at the University of Pennsylvania consists of over four thousand items (no single catalog yet available). See also The Daniel Garrison Brinton Collection by John M. Weeks, in Penn Library Collections at 250. Search Google Books to locate full text of his books. Some of his language-related titles include Grammar of the Choctaw language (Harvard College Library Copy); Linguistic cartography of the Chaco region; A Lenape-English dictionary, and A grammar of the Cakchiquel language of Guatemala. Volumes in Brinton’s Library of Aboriginal American Literature series include:Chronicles of the Mayas(No. 1)Iroquois Book of Rites– Edited by Horatio Hale (No. II), Princeton University Library copy.Comedy-Ballet of Gueguence (No. III)Migration Legend of the Creek Indiansby Albert S. Gatschet (No. IV)The Lenape and their legends(No, V)Annals of the Cakchiquels(No. VI), Indiana University copyAncient Nahuatl Poetry(No. VII)Rig Veda Americanus: Sacred Songs of the Ancient Mexicans(No. VIII)
Life Photo Archive– Hosted by Google.A Line in the Sand – Directory of Internet resources on cultural property, sovereignty, stereotypes, and legal resources.Literary History of the American West – Sponsored by the Western Literature Association and published by Texas Christian University Press in 1986, the book is now out-of-print, but the full-text version is available online in both html and pdf formats. With Contents and Index. Has chapters on Native Oral Traditions, Western American Indian Writers, 1854â€“1960, American Indian Fiction, 1968â€“1983 and Western American Indian Poetry 1968â€“1983.Logan Museum of Anthropology– Beloit College, Wisconsin.Lost and Found Sounds – NPR series on sound artifacts from this century (lost languages, vanished dialects, extinct speech). With RealAudio Archive. In House of Night: The Lost Creation Songs of the Mohave People, you can hear recordings of Emmett Van Fleet made by Guy Tyler on the Colorado River Indian Reservation in Parker, Arizona in the 1960s.McDougall Sound Archaeological Research Project– Virtual slide show depicting archaeological research carried out in the Canadian High Arctic.Magee Photograph Collection – “Selection of nearly 1,000 digitized photographic negatives depicting life on the Blackfeet Nation [Browning, Montana] and in Glacier National Park [U.S.] during the early twentieth century.” University of Lethbridge Library.Making of America – Digital library of nineteenth century books and journal volumes. The digitization project was undertaken at both the University of Michigan and Cornell University with funding from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation. Search both collections: Michigan and Cornell. You can also browse periodical titles at Cornell and Michigan. A sampling of the full-text titles available:Tah-koo wah-kan; or, the gospel among the Dakotas (1869)– By Stephen R. RiggsNarrative of my captivity among the Sioux Indians (1871)– By Fanny Kelly.Condition of the Indian tribes. Report of the joint special committee, appointed under joint resolution of March 3, 1865, submitted by James R. Doolittle, Chairman of the Joint Special Committee, January 26, 1867. “The committee are of opinion that in a large majority of cases Indian Wars are to be traced to the aggressions of lawless white men…” (page 5). This report, on pages 26-98, contains witness accounts of the Sand Creek Massacre, also known as the Chivington Massacre, of November 29, 1864, in which John M. Chivington and a regiment of Colorado volunteers killed between 200 and 400 Cheyenne, most of them women and children. For more information, see Documents on the Sand Creek Massacre from PBS’s The West.Documentary History of the State of New-York (1849) by E. B. (Edmund Bailey) O’Callaghan (1797-1880). For more on O’Callaghan see New York: the State of History by Joseph F. Meany Jr., originally presented in 1994 as the New York State Historian’s “State of History” Address to the annual meeting of the Association of Public Historians of New York State. Meany describes O’Callaghan’s Documentary history of the state of New-York (4 vols.) thus: ” although a potpourri of material, it is important as the first time New York State published a collection of documentary sources. As such, The Documentary History of New York is still used by students and scholars today and many of us are familiar with its four fat volumes sitting on our bookshelves.” Volume II includes The Papers relating to western New-York and The Manuscripts of Sir William Johnson, (Section III, pp. 543-1009), and is particularly intereesting. In 1746 Johnson was named Commissary for Indian Affairs by Governor Clinton of New York and in 1755 was appointed Superintendent of Indian Affairs by Major General Braddock. (See also Sir William Johnson and the six nations (1891)by William Elliot Griffis.) Volume II consists of the following sections:
I. Papers Relating to Lt. Gov. Liesler’s Administration [1689-1691] p. 1
II. Early Rate Lists of Long Island [1675, 1676 & 1683] p. 439
III. Manuscripts of Sir William Johnson, [From the originals on file in the Secretary of State’s Dep’t Albany] p. 543
IV. Early Steam Navigation, p. 1011
V. Papers Relating to Western New-York, p. 1103. The Index is on pp. 1190-1212
The first entry on p. 545 is the Proceedings of Commissioners from 6 Provinces Met at Albany Anno 1754 on Indian Affairs, p. 868 is the Journal of Indn Transactions at Niagara, in the Year 1767 From 2d July to the 24th Septemberand on p. 632 is a description of a Condolence Ceremony at Onondaga on September 8, 1753.
“September the 8th 1753. Entered the Onondaga Castle being mett by the Sachims a Mile on this Side, who said they were allready to receive me, Soon after I was seated, the Red Head one of the Chief Sachims of that Castle, rose up, and Spoke as follows: Brother Warraghiiyagey. As You enter our Meeting Place with wett Eyes, & sorrowfull Hearts, in Conjunction with our Bretheren the Mohawks, we do with this string of Wampum wipe away your tears, and asswage your greif, that you may speak freely in this Assembly –Here they gave the String of Wampum — Here follows what I said to the General Convention of the Six Nations att Onondaga spoke by Hendrick the Chief of the Mohawks — Bretheren of the Six Nations–The great conscern I am under for the loss of our three great and beloved Brothers, Caghniagarota, Onughsadego, and Gahusquerowana, who in their time made Your Assembly compleat makes it incumbent on me to condole thier death, and as it is a great loss to Us in general, I do by these three Belts of Wampum dry up your tears that we may see each other, clear your throats that we may speak together and wash away their Blood out of our Sight, and cover their Bones with these Strowd Blankets.”
Marius Barbeau – Barbeau was an anthropologist at the Canadian Museum of Civilization. “Barbeau’s first research interest was the Native peoples of Eastern Canada, especially the Huron. His research included the songs, customs, legends, art and social organization of Native cultures in the Western and Prairie regions.” See objects, photographs and publications. For example Totem Poles: According to Crests and Topics, National Museum of Canada bulletin; 119-Vol. I, 1950; and Assomption Sash, National Museum of Canada. 51 p., 1937.Mascots – The 46 minute documentary In Whose Honor? American Indian Mascots in Sports (1997) tells the story of Charlene Teters. See review by Orlando Archibeque, Auraria Library, University of Colorado at Denver. Distributed by New Day Films, 190 Route 17M, P.O. Box 1084, Harriman, NY. Teters is a founding member of the National Coalition on Racism in Sports and the Media. See also American Indian Sports Team Mascots.Mashantucket Pequot Museum and Research Center – “World’s largest and most comprehensive Native American museum and research center .” There ia access to Online catalog.Maxwell Museum of Anthropology – University of New Mexico, Albuquerque. The materials in the Clark Field Archive & Library are cataloged in Libros, the online catalog of the University of New Mexico.Martyrdom of Leonard Peltier – Scott Anderson, Outside Magazine, July 1995.Massachusetts Historical Society – Provides access to Abbigal, the library’s online catalog.Media Resources Center – University of California, Berkeley, has a bibliography of books and journal articles on Native Americans in the Movies, short descriptions of movies in Movies and Ethnic Representation: Native Americans and a list of Westernsin their collection.Medical Plant Images – Michael Moore, Southwest School of Botanical Medicine, Bisbee, Arizona. Over 1600 images and maps. With Index.Memories Come To Us In the Rain and the Wind – Extracts from Oral Histories and Photographs of Navajo Uranium Miners & Their Families. (In Motion Magazine)Mesoamerican Archaeology WWW Page – Also offers Pre-Columbian Archaeology Related Links.Miami Indians Ethnohistory Archives– Glenn Black Laboratory of Archaeology, Indiana University.Michigan County Histories – “The Michigan County Histories collection is a collaborative effort of Michigan’s Council of Library Directors. The collection is projected to provide access to 192 histories dating from 1866 to 1926. There are 202 volumes in 170 titles currently online.” One of the titles in the collection, Historic Michigan, land of the Great Lakes; its life, resources, industries, people, politics, government, wars, institutions, achievements, the press, schools and churches, legendary and prehistoric lore (1924)by George N. Fuller, has a chapter on the Indian Treaty of Saginaw, pp. 271-286. In an account of a January 1860 trial (Michigan Reports, vol. v., Cooley), there are extracts from the testimony of Chippewa witnesses who were present at the signing of the 1819 treaty.Mi’kmaq Portraits Collection – 660 selections from the Nova Scotia Museum’sMi’kmaq Portraits Database.MIT AISES– Homepage of the MIT Chapter of the American Indian Science and Engineering Society (AISES) and also the homepage of the Native American Student Association (NASA).“Modern Spartans” on the Great Plains: The Ascent of the Cheyenne Dog Soldiers, 1838-1869 – Richard S. Grimes, Volume One, No. 4 of Journal of the Indian Wars, Savas Publishing Co..Mohawk Nation Council of ChiefsMountain Men and the Fur Trade: Sources of the History of the Fur Trade in the Rocky Mountain West – With a Library of Western Fur Trade Historical Source Documents. Among the titles is Three Years Among the Indians and Mexicans (1846)by Thomas James, which has considerable material on Santa Fe and the Comanche Indians.Movies – From Amazon.com– Recommended items include:Smoke Signals (1998) – First movie written, directed and co-produced by Native Americans. It was based on stories from Sherman Alexie’s The Lone Ranger and Tonto Fistfight in Heaven. There is information on Alexie, a Spokane Coeur d’AlÃªne Indian, in Modern American Poetry. You can also buy the movie’s soundtrack which features music by Ulali.Dance Me Outside(1994) – Film by Bruce McDonald, based on W.P. Kinsella’s novel of the same name. It features the music of Keith Secola, whose Homeland won Best Instrumental Recording at the 2001 Native American Music Awards.Michael Apted’s Incident at Oglala – The Leonard Peltier Story (1992), described by New York Times reviewer Janet Maslin as a “straightforward, meticulous documentary” is available in dvd or video. Apted’s Thunderheart (1992)was filmed on the Pine Ridge Reservation and employs many Indian actors, including John Trudell and Chief Ted Thin Elk.Musée du quai Branly – Paris. You can search the collection of this Paris museum whose many strengths include cultural objects from the Americas (97,372). The site’s a bit difficult to use if you don’t know French, but here’s how to see some of the objects in the collection: click on Explorer les Collections, select le catalogue des objets from the sidebar menu, then select Voir le catalogue des objets . Under SÃ©lectionner un critère de recherche, select Ethonyme(s) from the drop-down menu and in the Saisir la recherche box type in Sioux. This search retrieves 85 images including a beaded bag (Petit sac en peau. DÃ©cor perlÃ©, NÂ° inventaire : 71.1990.174.7), and several pairs of beaded mocassins. Try also Blackfoot or Iroquois. Past exhibitions (manifestations passÃ©es) include: Premières nations, collections royales (January 2007). See Sam Solomon’s review, Quebec Heritage News, Fall 2007.Museum of the Cherokee IndianNahuatl Home Page– “Aztec [Nahua] studies in general and the Aztec language, Nahuatl, in particular.”National American Indian Court Judges Association (NAICJA)National Anthropological Archives – Located at the National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC, the NAA collections include 20,588 works of native art, mainly North American, Asian and Oceanic which are described in the Guide to the Collections of the National Anthropological Archives. The collection is searchable via SIRIS. They have a good collection of links to Ethnographic and Anthropological Resources. Extensive images can be found in Kiowa Drawings, which include Fort Marion Artists, drawings produced by Kiowa men imprisoned at Fort Marion in the 1870s; Anthropological Illustrations, primarily of shields and tipis; a Pictorial Calendar, produced by Silver Horn (Haungooah), in 1904; Silver Horn’s Target Record Book, which includes scenes of warfare, courting, personal dress, the Sun Dance, and stories of the mythical trickster figure, Saynday; and Twentieth Century Art by the Kiowa Five – Spencer Asah, James Auchiah, Jack Hokeah, Stephen Mopope, Monroe Tsatoke and, briefly, Lois Smokey, all of whom studied at the University of Oklahoma in the late 1920s. Researchers may be interested in the Papers of Raoul Weston La Barre. La Barre was an anthropologist and ethnologist who studied ethnobotany, particularly peyote, the Kiowa Indians and the Native American Church. Daniel C. Swan (author of Peyote Religious Art: Symbols of Faith and Belief, University Press of Mississippi, 1999) has created a database of La Barre’s research notes which will be available on the Web. See also Scanned Artwork and Photograph Collections.National Archeological Database: Reports – “Expanded bibliographic inventory of approximately 240,000 reports on archeological investigation and planning, mostly of limited circulation. This “gray literature” represents a large portion of the primary information available on archeological sites in the U.S. NADB-Reports can be searched by state, county, worktype, cultural affiliation, keyword, material, year of publication, title, and author.” Hosted by the Center For Advanced Spatial Technologies under a cooperative agreement with the National Park Service. Has a section on the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act.
National Archives and Records Administration – Valuable resource. For example, a search for Wheeler-Howard Act retrieved a number of interesting items including scanned images of Sample Records from the Senate Subcommittee on Indian Affairs. A search for Bureau of Indian Affairs retrieved 77996 items.Search Hints for Genealogical Data in ARC also has useful information for Native AmericansPhotographs of the American West: 1861-1912 – Has 196 images of Native Americans including one of the William B. Douglas party with Navajo and Paiute Indians, celebrating their discovery of Rainbow Bridge, Utah, as they eat watermelon in Paiute Canyon, 1909. You can also search for Dawes Commission applications (Dawes Rolls). Do a keyword search with Dawes on one line and an individual’s name on the next line. A standard keyword search for example for Dawes and Green retrieves 64 results. Click on display results. You can also limit your results to digital copies only by using the Digital Copies Search Form. “Commonly called the Commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, the Dawes Commission was appointed by President Grover Cleveland in 1893 to negotiate with the Cherokee, Creek, Choctaw, Chickasaw and Seminole tribes. In return for abolishing their tribal governments and recognizing state and federal laws, tribe members were allotted a share of common property. Heads of families, orphans, and children could receive 40 to 160 acres of land by proving their tribal membership. This series contains the original applications for tribal enrollments under the act of June 28, 1898, as well as supporting documents such as birth and death affidavits, marriage licenses, transcripts of testimony taken by the Commission, correspondence relating to the status of the application, and decisions and orders of the Commission.” Of particular interest is the Index to the Final Rolls of Citizens and Freedmen of the Five Civilized Tribes in Indian Territory (Dawes) and the Index to the Applications Submitted for the Eastern Cherokee Roll of 1909, also known as the Guion Miller Roll, which “includes the names of all persons applying for compensation arising from the judgment of the United States Court of Claims on May 28, 1906, for the Eastern Cherokee tribe. While numerous individuals applied, not all the claims were allowed. The information included on the index is the application number, the name of the applicant, and the State or Territory in which the individual resided at the time the application was filed.”Native American RecordsRecord Group 75: Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs [BIA]
National Archives of Canada – Ottawa. A number of digital collections are available, among which are Pride and Dignity: Aboriginal Portraits (c.1846 – c.1960) (which includes a portrait of Peter Newhouse, Onondaga and Chiefs from the Six Nations Reserve at Brantford, Ontario, reading Wampum belts), Indian Treaties (with scanned images of 13 treaties ranging from 1795 to 1808), Canadian West, and Tracing the History of New France. In ArchiviaNet you can limit your search to Descriptions with a digitized image. For example, a search for Indian$ in the Photographs Database (with 10,000 digitized images), limiting to Descriptions with a digitized image, retrieved over 300 images. The same search, in the Documentary Art Database (with 5,000 digitized images in the public domain) retreived over 100 images including Major John Norton, Teyoninhokarawen, the Mohawk Chief (1805), A View of the Rapids and Falls of Niagara from the Heights of Chippewa, with an encampment of Senekas (1804), Indian Wigwam in Lower Canada (1848), Moose hunter Quebec (1840), Shoshonie Woman: Throwing the Lasso (1867), Mary Bernard Whykokamagh (1840-46), and Indian Lodge United States (1867). Among ArchiviaNet’s Research Tools are the Colonial Archives Database (with 35,000 digital images) and Government of Canada Files (with over 16,000 digital images). Also useful is Aboriginal Peoples: Guide to the Records of the Government of Canada.National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine – This National Institutes of Health site is searchable and has information on herbal and folk medicine. The CAM Citation Index consists of more than 175,000 bibliographic citations from 1963 to the present (from MEDLINE). The CRISP Database is a biomedical database of research projects and programs and the CAM Newsletterhas a searchable archives of back issues.National Congress of American Indians– Founded in 1944, the NCAI is “the oldest, largest and most representative national Indian organization serving the needs of a broad membership of American Indian and Alaska Native governments.”National Cowboy & Western Heritage Museum – Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. On 3 September 2006 a keyword search for Sioux in the Donald C. & Elizabeth M. Dickinson Research Center Image Archiveretrieved 138 records.National Gallery of Art – A searchfor the artist George Catlin (checking off the images only box), retrieves 294 works of art by the artist, many portraying Indian chiefs.National Gallery of Canada – Ottawa. Cybermuse provides access to over 10,000 images. See, for example, works by Paul Kane (1810 -1871), Cornelius Krieghoff (1815 -1872), Frederick A. Verner (1836 -1928), Emily Carr (1871 -1945), Jessie Oonark (1906 -1985), and Robert Houle (1947- ). There are two portraits of Joseph Brant, one by George Romney – Joseph Brant (Thayendanegea) 1776 and another by William Berczy – Thayendanegea (Joseph Brant) c. 1807, both with audioguides. Other items of interest include a Beaded Sash by an unknown Huron-Wendat artist, Beaded Shoulder Bag by an unknown Anishnaabe [Ojibwa] artist, Pair of Beaded Leather Cuffsby an unknown Plains artist, all with audioguides.National Gambling Impact Study Commission – With Research Reports, Gambling Statutes Database and a report on Native American Gaming. The Gambling Impact and Behavior Study: Final Report was prepared by the National Opinion Research Centerat the University of Chicago.National Indian Education AssociationNational Indian Gaming AssociationNational Museum of American Art – Smithsonian museum has over 3,000 online images, searchable and browsable by subject. Over 300 artworks are found under the subject Native American Life and Culture, including works by George Catlin, Awa Tsireh, Elbridge Ayer Burbank and McKenney and Hall.National Museum of the American Indian – Smithsonian Institution site includes exhibitions, allows you to listen to Native American Music (Wood That Sings: Indian Fiddle Music of the Americas and Creation’s Journey: Native American Music), and provides links to Other Native American Sites. Current exhibitions can be viewed via Conexus. There are 150 photographs, with descriptions, of Native American cultural presentations taking place on the Mall on August 10 and 11, 1996. The Film and Video Center has information on the 2000 Native American Film and Video Festival. You can listen to two radio programs on Memory and Imagination: The Legacy of Maidu Indian Artist Frank Day and Coyote Bites Back: Indian Humor. Their NativeNetworksprovides information about film, video and radio produced by indigenous peoples of the Americas and Hawai’i. You can search the collection. A search for Nampeyo, for example, retrieves image and description of object, including original catalog card:Polacca Polychrome jar– “Large jar representing four bowls on top of each other, white ware, red and black painted decoration. Hopi, Arizona, William M. Fitzhugh Collection”, from original catalog card, number 19/4358.Potter Building Her Kiln– Photograph by Edward Sheriff Curtis, 1906. “Nampeyo (1859-1942), Hopi Pueblo woman, firing pottery outside.” Catalog number: P1369.Hopi potter Nampeyo (1869-1942) painting a large pottery vessel inside an adobe house at First Mesa– Photograph by Edward Sheriff Curtis, 1900. Catalog number: P04608.National Film Board of Canada – Good resource for locating Native films. The site is searchable and includes a category for First Nations Peoples of Canada. Recently released is Rocks at Whiskey Trench, by Alanis Obomsawin, a member of the Abenaki Nation and one of Canadaâ€™s most distinguished documentary filmmakers. This is her fourth film in a series on the 1990 Oka crisis. (The others were Kanehsatake: 270 Years of Resistance (1993), My Name is Kahentiiosta (1995) and Kahnawake Man (1997).)National Portrait Gallery: Native Americans– Portraits of distinguished North American Indians accompanied by biographical information.National Public Radio Online – Provides a list of programs, many with online audio resources, Directory of NPR Stations and links to Talk Shows. The Saturday, March 06,1999, Weekend Edition piece, Lost Brain [RealAudio sound file], features a talk with anthropologist Orin Starn, who helped to track-down the long lost brain of Ishi, a man known as the “last wild Stone Age Indian.” Laura Sydell reports on the the burial of Ishi in her August 8th, 2000 Morning Edition story, Remains of Last Yahi Indian To Receive Proper Burial [RealAudio sound file] . In Who is Indian?, (Morning Edition, January 31, 2001), Cheryl Corley talked to urban Indians in Chicago to get an idea of the challenges they face today.National Register of Historic Places – Offers a section on Teaching with Historic Places: Native American History which includes The Battle of Oriskany: “Blood Shed a Stream Running Down”, The Lewis & Clark Expedition: Documenting the Uncharted Northwest, The Battle of Honey Springs: The Civil War Comes to the Indian Territory, The Battle of Horseshoe Bend: Collision of Cultures, Gran Quivira: A Blending of Cultures in a Pueblo Indian Village, Knife River: Early Village Life on the Plains and San Antonio Missions: Spanish Influence in Texas.National Society for American Indian Elderly– Organization to improve the quality of life for on-reservation American Indian senior citizens through a network of tribally established and administered services.National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections – Searchable via RLIN AMC File Advanced Search Form, an Easy Search Form (word list) and an Easy Search Form (left-anchored phrase). A search for Iroquois, for example, retrieves over 170 records, among which is a citation which leads to a description of the Gideon Hawley Papers owned by the Congregational Library and Archivesin Boston and available in microfilm. Hawley established a mission among the Six Nations on the Susquehanna in 1754, near Windsor, New York. Volume 1 contains journal documentation of Hawley’s mission to the Six Nations from January 27-September 1754 and April 20, 1755-January 1756.Native American ActorsNative American Authors– Internet Public Library project provides “information on Native North American authors with bibliographies of their published works, biographical information, and links to online resources including interviews, online texts and tribal websites”Native American Constitution and Law Digitization Project– Cooperative effort among the University of Oklahoma Law Center, the National Indian Law Library (NILL), and Native American tribes providing access to the Constitutions, Tribal Codes, and other legal documents.Native American Consultation Database– Tool for identifying consultation contacts for each Indian tribe, Alaska Native corporation and Native Hawaiian organization.Native American Criminal Justice Resources– Maintained by Charles L. Dreveskracht, Criminal Justice & Legal Studies Department, Northeastern State University.Native American Documents Project– California State University, San Marcos has a large collection of Rogue River War and Siletz Reservation documents.Native American Ethnobotany Database: Foods, Drugs, Dyes, and Fibers of Native North American Peoples– Dan Moerman, Professor of Anthropology, University of Michigan. “The current edition of the database is substantially enlarged and including foods, drugs, dyes, fibers and other uses of plants (a total of over 44,000 items). This represents uses by 291 Native American groups of 4,029 species from 243 different plant families.”Native American Genealogy – Maintained by firstname.lastname@example.orgNative American Genealogy – Christine Cheryl Charity’s collection of annotated links is part of the larger African American Genealogy Resources.Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (1990)– ArchNetNative American Heritage Month– Library of CongressNative American History Archive: A New Center for Native American Studies in Internetworked Classrooms– Institute for Learning Technologies, Teacher’s College, Columbia University.Native American History Class Projects– “Projects developed by Duke University students in Professor Peter Wood’s Native American History class. They are based on documentary sources from the Duke University Special Collections Library and were developed in collaboration with the library’s Digital Scriptorium.They include transcribed text from manuscripts, scanned images of photographs and manuscript pages, and analytical essays by the students.”Native American Legal Materials Microfiche Collection– Historical collection of laws, treaties, and law-related materials produced by the Law Library Microform Consortium. In 1995 the Washburn University School of Law Library undertook a project to provide access through its online catalog to all of the titles in the NALM collection.Native American Literature: Remembrance, Renewal – By Geary Hobson. From the February 2000 issue of U.S. Society & Values, a publication of the U. S. Department of State.Native American Manuscript Collection – University of Georgia collection includes A Grammar of the Maskwke, or Creek Language, also known as “A Muscogee Grammar”, published in 1860 by H. F. Buckner.Native American Music AwardsNative American Political Systems and the Evolution of Democracy: An Annotated Bibliography (c1996, 1997)– Bruce E. Johansen, Professor of Communication and Native American Studies, University of Nebraska at Omaha, has assembled this “bibliography of commentary on assertions that the Haudenosaunee (Iroquois) and other Native American confederacies helped shape ideas of democracy in the early United States.”Native American Pow Wow Calendar– Four Winds Trading Co.Native American Public Telecommunications – Offers an audio and video archives. Topics include Kinaalda: A Navajo Rite of Passage, On & Off the Res’ with Charlie Hill (Indian stereotypes) and Social Security Conference with speeches by Wilma Mankiller, former Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation, Alma Snell, Ethno-Botanist, Crow Indian Reservation and Dan Wildcat, Haskell Indian Nations University given at the American Indian-Alaska Native National Service Delivery Conference held March 14, 15 and 16, 2000 in Denver, Colorado. You can also listen to two radio programs from the Smithsonian Institution’s National Museum of the American Indian on Memory and Imagination: The Legacy of Maidu Indian Artist Frank Day and Coyote Bites Back: Indian Humor.Native American Recipes – From SOAR, the searchable online archive of recipes.Native American Rights Fund (NARF) – Nationâ€™s leading Indian law firm located in Boulder, Colorado. Offers Case Updates and a valuable collection of Resources which includes access to their online catalog and material on “Tribalizing Indian Education” and Education Law. They publish the bi-annual NARF Legal Review.Native American Sites – Outstanding subject guide maintained by Lisa Mitten, “a mixed-blood Mohawk urban Indian, and a librarian at the University of Pittsburgh.” She provides the following categories: Information on Individual Native Nations, Organizations and Urban Indian Centers, Tribal Colleges, Native Studies Programs, and Indian Education, Native Languages, The Mascot Issue, Media, Powwows and Festivals, Music and Art, Business and General Indian-Oriented Home Pages.Native American Studies – Subscription-based resources from Congressional Information Service (CIS) (representing Lexis-Nexis) provides a number of valuable resources including Early American Indian Documents: Treaties and Laws, 1607â€“1789edited by Alden T. Vaughan.Native American Treaties and Information– Maintained by Margaret M. Jobe, Government Publications, University Libraries, University of Colorado at Boulder.Native Americans and the Environment– American Indian Heritage FoundationNative Americans and the Environment– Sponsored by the Center for Conservation Biology at Rice UniversityNative Americans and the Environment– Sierra Magazine, Vol. 81, November/December 1996Native Americas– Award-winning publication of Akwe:kon Press of the American Indian Program at Cornell University.Government Publications Native Americans in the Movies: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library– Books and journal articlesNative Americans in the Present Tense – Describes Harvard’s Native American Program. (Harvard Magazine, September-October, 1999.)Native Peoples Magazine– Selected articles from current issue.Native Sense– James McCanna, a trial attorney and Yupik Eskimo, maintains this site on Native American Indian law and federal legislation regarding Indians.NativeAuthors.com (North American Native Authors Catalog)– Online bookstore. Catalog is searchable by tribe, author, title, topic or region.NativeTech: Native American Technology and Art – Tara Prindle has assembled an extensive collection of resources on Native American art, crafts, literature, genealogy, food & recipesand games.Native Voice One– Native American Radio ServiceNativeWeb – Comprehensive site offers links to newsletters and journals, bibliographies, legal information, historical information and various tribal home pages. NativeWeb Law is a good resource for law and legal issues and offers a NativeWeb News Digest, a digest of national news stories, updated regularly.Naval Historical Society – Has a number of manuscripts including Transcription of notes of a conference between Governor William Shirley and the Chiefs of the Penobscot Indians, 3 and 8 December 1741. Other items of interest include Navajo Code Talkers’ Dictionary and 20th Century Warriors: Native American Participation in the United States Military.Navajo Art: A Way of Life – K-12 curriculum resource includes lesson plans, images, and links to other web pages. (Getty Education Institute for the Arts Arts EdNet)Navajo National Monument – “Preserves three of the most intact cliff dwellings of the ancestral puebloan people (Hisatsinom).” The Keet Seel / Kawestima & Betatikin/Talastima cliff dwellings in Tsegi Canyon can only be reached by foot. Permits are required for Keet Seel, a 17-mile hike (limited to 20 hikers per day.) Call to find out more about this hike (928-672-2700). “Betatakin guided hikes are available every day at 8:30 and 11 AM during the summer months and most days at 10:00 am (local time) from early September to late May. It is a three- to four-hour, five-mile ranger-guided tour.” There are two free campgrounds. “Camping at Keet Seel is available for backpackers at a primitive campground, 1/2 mile from the ruins. Composting toilets are available and no campfires are allowed. Carry a stove if you wish to cook.” See Navajo Administrative History for background. In Gallica, a digital library of the Bibliothèque nationale de France, is the full-text of Preliminary report on a visit to the Navaho National Monument, Arizonaby Jesse Walter Fewkes, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 50, 1911 (35 pages in all). Betatakin is described on p. 12, and Kitsiel (Keet Seel or Kiet Siel) on p. 16.Navajo Rugs of Hubbell Trading Post– National Historic Site is administered by the National Park Service and houses one of the world’s finest collection of Navajo rugs.Navajo Code Talkers– Harrison Lapahie Jr.Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art – Kansas City, Missouri, museum has an American Indian Art Collection.New Mexico’s Digital CollectionsBen Wittick Photo Collection– 576 photographs, many depicting Navajo and Zuni culture.New Perspectives on the West – PBS online companion to the television series by Ken Burns and Stephen Ives. The site is searchable and has an excellent collection of photographs and documents.New York Public Library Picture Collection Online – “30,000 digitized, public domain images from books, magazines and newspapers as well as original photographs prints and postcards, mostly created before 1923.” You can also browseby subject, title, name and author.New York State Library Excelsior Online CatalogNew York State Library Scanned Documents Collection: 900 HistoryLife among the Indians, or, Personal reminiscences and historical incidents illustrative – By James B. Finley, 1859.New York Times: Books – Provides access to the most recent New York Times Book Review, its back issues, reviews from the daily paper and a searchable archive of over 50,000 book reviews back to 1980. You can read First Chapters from selected books, browsable by author, for Fiction and Nonfiction. For example you can read Among the Sioux a review by Tracy Kidder of of Ian Frazier’s On the Rez which appeared in the January 16, 2000 New York Times Book Review, or ‘On the Rez’: Looking for a ‘Big Sky’ and Finding Despair, Michiko Kakutani’s review from January 4th, 2000. You can also read the first chapter of the book. Other reviews and first chapters include In a Barren Land, by Paula Mitchell Marks and Gardens in the Dunes by Leslie Marmon Silko. The New York Timessite requires registration, but it is free.Newberry Library – Located in Chicago, the library has a strong historical collection including Native American history and literature in its D’Arcy McNickle Center for American Indian History. Provides access to online catalog.NewsNative American TimesNational Native NewsNews from Indian CountryNativeWeb News DigestNative VoiceNative Voice OneNative America CallingNative American Public Telecommunications(NAPT)Indian Country TodayIndianz.comNorth, South, East, West: Native Visions of the Natural World – Carnegie Museum of Natural History explores four different visions of living in and with the natural world: the Tlingit of the Northwest Coast, the Hopi of the Southwest, the Iroquois of the Northeast, and the Lakotaof the Plains.Northwest History Database – Washington State University Libraries. “Core of the database is the Northwest newspaper clippings collection. The newspaper articles were collected and organized in the late 1930’s by dedicated historians working for the Works Progress Administration.” Try an advanced search by subject for Native American, Native Americans, Indian, Reservation, Klickitat, Warm Springs, Cascade, Nespelem, Yakima, Colville, Nez Perce, Chief Joseph, Lapwai, Lawrence Nicodemus, Spokane, salmon etc.”Keller Salmon Day Dramatic” – Spokesman-Review, May 29, 1927.”Nespelem Sees Great Spectacle” – Spokane Chronicle, July 13, 1928. “Colvilles, Spokanes, Okanogans, Methows, San Poils, Kalispels, Flatheads, yakimas, Umatillas, Coer d’Alenes and Nez Perces were prsent in the greatest gathering the Indians of the Nespelem valley have ever entertained and it was estimated that 2000 witnessed the closing parade.”Northern Arizona University Cline Library Special Collections and Archives Image Database – There is a Finding Guide which provides descriptions and indicates which collections have been digitized. For example, the Philip Johnston Collection, with 245 images, documents life on the Navajo Reservation between 1895-1945. The 93 images in the Jo Mora Collectionshows Hopi villages, dances, and daily life; ranching and ranchlife. (Jo Mora was a sculptor, painter, illustrator, muralist and author).Office of American Indian Trust – U.S. Department of the Interior. Has useful collection of links.Office of Tribal Justice– U.S. Department of JusticeOhwejagehka: Ha`degaenage – “Nonprofit organization based on Six Nations of the Grand River in Ontario Canada that was established to help preserve and nurture the Iroquoian languages and songs.” With descriptions and RealAudio samples of Iroquois Earth Songs.Ogden Family Papers– Contents description, William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan. “The Ogden Land Company, purchased huge tracts of land from Indians of the Six Nations and resold it to whites at an enormous profit.”Oglala Lakota College Archives – Contains the Jeanne Smith Collection. The bulk of the material consists of “family and community histories of the Pine Ridge Reservation, especially white men who married full-blood Lakota women. All subjects in the collection are related to the Pine Ridge Reservation and the Lakota people, history, genealogy (white/Indians inter-marrying), and government.” See also Selected Collections: Folder Lists.Omaha Indian Music– “Features traditional Omaha music from the 1890s and 1980s. The multiformat ethnographic field collection contains 44 wax cylinder recordings collected by Francis La Flesche and Alice Cunningham Fletcher between 1895 and 1897, 323 songs and speeches from the 1983 Omaha harvest celebration pow-wow, and 25 songs and speeches from the 1985 Hethu’shka Society concert at the Library of Congress. Segments from interviews with members of the Omaha tribe conducted in 1983 and 1999 provide contextual information for the songs and speeches included in the collection. Supplementing the collection are black-and-white and color photographs taken during the 1983 pow-wow and the 1985 concert, as well as research materials that include fieldnotes and tape logs pertaining to the pow-wow.” (American Memory, Library of Congress.)On Tribal Land, an Arson Leads to Murder, Prison – by Gary Fields, Wall Street Journal, August 13, 2007. “There are 3,470 American Indians serving time in the federal prison system. That’s more, proportionately, than any other racial group.”On the Rez– Article by Ian Frazier about the Oglala Sioux Indians who live on thePine Ridge Reservation, in southwestern South Dakota. (From Atlantic Monthly, December, 1999)Oneida Indian Nation – New York. (There’s also a site for the Oneida Nationin Wisconsin.)Oregon Legislative Commission on Indian Services – With a useful 65 page Oregon directory of American Indian resources(in pdf format).Oyate– “Native organization working to see that our lives and histories are portrayed honestly, and so that all people will know our stories belong to us … Our work includes evaluation of texts, resource materials and fiction by and about Native peoples; conducting of teacher workshops, in which participants learn to evaluate children’s material for anti-Indian biases; administration of a small resource center and library; and distribution of children’s, young adult, and teacher books and materials, with an emphasis on writing and illustration by Native people.”Pauline Johnson Archive – First Native poet to have her work published in Canada, Johnson was the daughter of a Mohawk Native-Canadian father and an English mother. She used the Mohawk name “Tekahionwake” and gave popular recitals of her poetry, comedy routines and plays from Halifax to Vancouver. Located in the Mills Memorial Archive of McMaster University, the archive contains an abundance of material including correspondence, photographs, postcards and manuscripts.Paul G. Reilly Indian Collection – Also known as the Seneca Nation of Indians Land Claims Collection, “Paul G. Reilly served as attorney of record for the land claims initiated by the Seneca Nation of Indians and the Tonawanda Band of Senecas before the Indian Land Commission between 1948 and 1976.” Provides History of Seneca Land Claims. (Buffalo State Archives)Peabody Essex Museum – Salem, Massachusetts. Among their past exhibitions are Indian Market:New Directions in Southwestern Native American Pottery and The Master Prints of Edwards S. Curtis: Portraits of Native America.
Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology – Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Access is provided to Symbols, the the Peabody Museum’s annual magazine. Google Books provides full text access to a small number of volumes of the Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology (1904, 1910, 1911, 1920, 1922). Online Exhibitions include: Rainmakers from the Gods: Hopi Katsinam, Ethnography of Lewis and Clark: Native American Objects and the American Quest for Commerce and Science, Gifting and Feasting in the Northwest Coast Potlatch, and Against the Winds: American Indian Running Traditions. Online Collections“provides access to the Peabody Museum’s database for objects, paintings, prints, drawings, and photographs. The Peabody’s Online Database offers access to over 300,000 records for which there are images.” Searching by collector name is always interesting: Edward G. Fast, William R. Wright, Especially interesting are the mural paintings from Awotovi on Antelope Mesa (“Mural painting full scale reproduction on sand ground”). See Peabody accession numbers: 39-97-10/23059C, 39-97-10/23108C, 39-97-10/22988C, 39-97-10/23111C (Smith/Ewing Figure 78b), 39-97-10/23108C (Smith/Ewing Plate F). Search for photographs of people: Helen Claflin and Madeleine Amsden (2004.1.123.1.33)Childs beaded moccasins in floral motif – Cree, William R. Wright, donor, #995-29-10/73427
Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission – Includes the Pennsylvania State Archives which describes the holdings for Minutes of the Provincial Council, 1682-1775. There is also information on the Conrad Weiser Homestead.Perry-CastaÃ±eda Library Map Collection – Located at the University of Texas, Austin, the Library has a section devoted to Historical Maps of the United States.Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies – Official journal of the Pennsylvania Historical Association (PHA). Provides all back issues of the journal–beginning with Vol. 1 (1934) and continuing up through Vol. 67 (2000). The site is searchable. (Some years are not yet available). Articles of interest include: George Morgan, Indian Agenet Extraordinary, 1776-1779, by Randolph C. Downes (October, 1934) 202-216; How the Indians Came to Carlisle by Louis Morton, 29 (January 1962), 53-73; George Washington’s Route from Venango to Fort Le Bouef, 175_, by Paul A.W. Wallace, 28 (October 1961), 325-334; Pennsylvania and the Albany Congress, 1754by Roger R. Trask, 27 (July 1960), 273-290;Philadelphia Yearly Meeting Indian Committee Records, ca. 1745-1983 – Special Collections, Haverford College. They have an extensive Quaker Collection which contains a great deal of material on Friends and the Indians. (Search the online catalog for indians society of friends.) There are descriptions of the Jonathan Richards Papers, 1870-1881, the Hoag Indian Papers 1865-1883, the John B. Garrett Papers, 1853-1961 and the Associated Executive Committee of Friends on Indian Affairs, 1758-1929.Phoebe Hearst Museum of Anthropology– University of California at Berkeley.Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases – Analyses and scientific abstacts for thousands of plants assembled by James A. Duke, an ethnobotanist at the Beltsville Agricultural Research Center, Beltsville, Maryland. For example, there is a list of Species used for Diabetes.Pioneering the Upper Midwest: Books from Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, ca. 1820-1910 – Library of Congress site “portrays the states of Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin from the seventeenth to the early twentieth century through first-person accounts, biographies, promotional literature, local histories, ethnographic and antiquarian texts, colonial archival documents, and other works.” (American Memory). Full-text titles include With pen and pencil on the frontier in 1851; the diary and sketches of Frank Blackwell Mayer, an account by a Baltimore artist, who journeyed to Traverse de Sioux and Mendota on the Minnesota frontier in 1851 to record meetings between United States officials and Indian tribes who were ceding title to much of Southern Minnesota and portions of Iowa and Dakota and History of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians of Michigan; a grammar of their language, and personal and family history of the author, by Andrew J. Blackbird, the son of a an Ottawa chief.Place and Vision: The Function of Landscape in Native American Fiction– Full-text of Robert M. Nelson’s book originally published by Peter Lang Publishing in 1993.PotteryAntiquities of the upper Gila and Salt river valleys in ArizÃ³na and New Mexico – By Walter Hough, (1859-1935), Smithsonian institution. Bureau of American ethnology ; Bulletin 35, Washington, Government printing office, 1907. The full-text of this document can be found in Gallica. Search also for Jesse Walter Fewkes.Powhatan’s Mantle– Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. “‘Powhatan’s Mantle’ is the only surviving example of five ‘match-coats’ and habits supposedly made by the Algonquian Indians of Virginia listed in the 1656 catalogue of the Tradescant collection.”Primary Source Microfilm Search – Thomson Gale resource is helpful in locating obscure names and places and unusual spelling. You won’t actually be able to view the primary sources. There is a useful alphabetical index. To view the entire alphabet change the url accordingly – 203000b.htm, 203000c.htm etc. Index for D has extensive notes on Thomas Dean, a Quaker missionary who represented the Brotherton Indians. You can download author index and reel listing from the author index and reel listing from Iroquois Indians: A Documentary History.PubMed– National Library of Medicine database of over 15 million citations for biomedical articles back to the 1950’s. The following phrase inserted in the search box will locate over 900 articles on Diabetes: “Indians, North American”[MeSH] AND “Diabetes Mellitus”[MeSH]Pueblo Cultural CenterPlaywrights’ Workshop Montreal – Their Carol Libman On-line Script Collection offers full-text of 30 scripts by Canadian playwrights, among which is Tomson Highway’s Dry Lips Oughta Move to Kapuskasing (full-text in pdf format), the second play in the trilogy which began with The Rez Sisters.Both plays are set in the mythical Wasaychigan Hill Indian Reserve. It is a story about seven “Wasy” men and the game of Hockey.“Ready, ‘Net, Go!” Archival Internet Resources– “Archival “meta index,” or index of archival indexes.That is, from here we refer you to the major indexes, lists, and databases of archival resources.”Register of Professional Archaeologists– Has a directory of Registered Professional Archaeologists, searchable by name or location.Repatriation Office– National Museum of Natural History Department of Anthropology division established in 1991 to carry out the statutory requirements of the National Museum of the American Indian Act.
- Reports of the Secretary of War – Subtitled: With Reconnaissances of Routes from San Antonio to El Paso; Also The Report of Capt. R. B. Marcy’s Route from Fort Smith to Santa Fe; and the Report of Lieut. J. H. Simpson [James Hervey Simpson (1813-1883)] of an Expedition into the Navaho Country; and The Report of Lieutenant W. H. C. Whiting’s Reconnaisances of the Western Frontier of Texas, Executive Document No. 64, U.S. Senate, 31st Congress, 1st Session, July 24, 1850. Full-text of Harvard University copy bequeathed by Francis Parkman can be found in Google Books. Of particular interest is Journal of a military reconnaisance from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Navajo country, made with the troops under the command of Brevet Lieutenant Colonel John M. Washington, chief of the 9th military department, and governor of New Mexico, in 1849, by James H. Simpson, A.M., First Lieutenat Corps of Topographical Engineers. The journal (pp. 55-168) includes several appendices and “seventy-five sketches and drawings of great interest and highly necessary to illustrate the report.” Watson Smith describes Simpson as an “interested and careful observer” (p. 84, Kiva Mural Decorations at Awativiand Kawaika-a). The journal describes August and September 1849. “I also submit a number of sketches illustrative of the personal, natural, and artificial objects met with on the route, including portraits of distinguished chiefs, costume, scenery, singular geological formations, petrifactions, ruins, and fac similes of ancient inscriptions found engraven on the side walls of a rock of stupendous proportions, and of fair surface. (Simpson gives credit to his assistants, brothers R. H. Kern and E. M. Kern, for the maps and sketches). The plates begin on p. 251. See, for example, Color Plate #6, You-Pel-Lay, or the Green Corn Dance of the Jemez Indians, August 19th (1849). See also Navaho Expedition: Journal of a Military Reconnaissance from Santa Fe, New Mexico, to the Navaho Country Made in 1849 edited and annotated by Frank McNitt, Norman, University of Oklahoma Press .
- Research Guide for American Indian Studies– Ida Martinez, Reference Librarian, Cornell University LibraryResearching American Indian Law– Nancy D. Stancel, Librarian, University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law.Return of the Natives: An eight-part series – Series on Northeast Indians by Daniel P. Jones, David Lightman, Hilary Waldman, Kenton Robinson, Edmund Mahony and Steve Grant that appeared in the Hartford Courant between May 22 and May 29, 1994. Unbroken treaties: How a new generation got the law on its side provides an account of how Syracuse attorney George C. Shattuck won a unanimous ruling in 1974 from the U.S. Supreme Court for the Oneidas (Oneida Indian Nation of New York State v. County of Oneida, New York, 414 U.S. 661, argued Nov. 6 and 7, 1973, decided Jan. 21, 1974). Related decisions include County of Oneida, New York v. Oneida Indian Nation of New York State, 470 U.S. 226, decided March 4, 1985 and Oneida Indian Nation v. County of Oneida, No. 70-CV-35, United States District Court, July 12, 1977. In Oneida & Madison Counties v. Oneida Indian Nation, 470 U.S. 226, argued Oct. 1, 1984 and decided March 4, 1985, the Oneidas sued two New York State counties seeking damages representing fair rental value of the land presently owned and occupied by the counties. Shattuck wrote a book on the issue The Oneida Land Claims: A Legal History, Syracuse University Press, 1991. ($19.95). On March 29, 2005, in City of Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation of N. Y., the Supreme Court decided that the Oneida Tribe cannot expand its tax-exempt holdings by buying up property that has been outside its reservation for generations.La Revue d’histoire de l’AmÃ©rique franÃ§aise – “ConsacrÃ©e Ã l’histoire du QuÃ©bec, du Canada franÃ§ais et de l’AmÃ©rique franÃ§aise.” Offers full-text articles (in French). Le voyage de Radisson et Des Groseilliers au lac SupÃ©rieur, 1659-1660: un Ã©vÃ©nement marquant dans la consolidation des relations franco-amÃ©rindiennes by Martin Fournier (Automne 1998) describes Radisson’s travel narratives which contain many precise and often exclusive details about the first commercial and diplomatic relations between Europeans and native Americans in the second half of the 17th century. (See also Radisson and Groseilliers and The Explorers.)Rockin’ Warriors– Documentary about contemporary Native American music, its artists and roots. With photos, video & audio.Royal Ontario Museum – Toronto. The site is searchable and provides access to the Library. With an online exhibition on Homes of the Past: The Archaeology of an Iroquoian Longhouse.Salon Magazine: Books – Searchable, with archives. From the New Yorker to the rez is a Feb. 1, 2000 interview with Ian Frazier, author of On the Rez. A search for Sherman Alexie retrieved 10 results.Samuel Proctor Oral History Program – University of Florida. The Native Americans Oral History Collections“has more than 900 interviews with Native Americans –including Seminoles, Cherokees, and Creeks.”School of American Research – Santa Fe. “Center for advanced study in anthropology, the humanities and Native American Art.” Catherine McElvain Library has an online catalog, there is an Indian Arts Research Center,the SAR Press, and a list of Resident Scholars.Selected American Indian Artifacts – Part of the ArtsEdNet Multicultural Art Print Serieswhich provides art prints and curriculum materials for elementary, middle school, and high school grade levels.Seminole Tribune – Searchable, and with archivesdating back to 1996.Seneca-Iroquois National Museum– Salamanca, New York (716-945-1760).Seneca Nation of Indians– New YorkSenate Committee on Indian Affairs – Offers press releases, and information on legislation, and hearings.Sharlot Hall Museum – Prescott, Arizona. See Native American ResorucesSid Richardson Collection of Western Art – Fort Worth, Texas museum houses a permanent exhibition of 56 paintingsby Western artists, Frederic Remington and Charles M. Russell.Sipapu: The Anasazi Emergence into the Cyber World – By John Kantneran assistant professor in the Anthropology and Geology Department at the University of California at Santa Barbara.The Six Nations: Oldest Living Participatory Democracy on EarthSix Nations Women Singers – Short article by J. Poet in the Fall 1999 Native Peoples Magazine about We Will All Sing by Six Nations Women Singers, a collection of traditional social songs from the Seneca, Onondaga, and Cayuga Nations. (Amazon provides RealAudio sound clipsfrom the cd.).Smithsonian Folkways Recordings: American IndianSmithsonian: Native American History and Culture– Selected links to sites hosted by Smithsonian Institution museums and organizations.SOAR: Searchable Online Archive of Recipes – Has a collection of Native American Recipes as does NativeTech.Society for the Study of the Indigenous Languages of the Americas (SSILA) – They offer Journal Contents: A comprehensive listing of articles on American Indian Languages in more than 100 journals (1988-present) which is searchable by keyword, a Dissertation & Thesis Index, Book Announcements, a catalog of Learning Aids, organized by Indian languages or groups of languages, Internet Links and the SSILA Bulletinin pdf format.Song Catcher, Frances Densmore of Red Wing – Minnesota Public Radio site about Frances Densmore who spent her life trying to gather up scraps and artifacts of the old Indian ways for the Smithsonian Institution. The site consits of audio files, interviews and photographs. Provides a Table of Contents.SOSIG: Ethnography and Anthropology – Subject directory, with annotations, of web resources assembled by SOSIG (Social Science Information Gateway). See also Anthropology with Map.Southwestern Native Americans Digital Archive– University of Southern California archive “contains over 1,000 images, dating between 1890 and 1905 that were created or collected by George Wharton James. They document Native American reservation and Southwestern mission daily life and culture and include images of the Agua Caliente, Cahuilla, Hopi, Mohave, Pala, Paum, Yokut, and Yuma peoples.”Spalding-Allen Collection– Nez Perce National Historic Museum, Spalding IdahoSpirit: A Journey in Dance, Drums and Song– Peter Buffett’s “music, dance and percussion spectacle that combines the power of contemporary music with the songs, chants and dances of Native American culture.”State and Local Government on the Net: Tribal Governments– Piper Resources guide.Staatliche Museen zu Berlin – North American Indians are represented by 30,000 objects in the Die MagazinrÃ¤ume des Ethnologischen Museums (see Interactive Map).Sto:lo Electronic Library– Sto:lo Nation site is “designed for use by grades ten to twelve students, [and] consists of 18 essays on StÃ³:lo culture and history, supplemented with images and sounds, 4 appendices, and a glossary of key words.”Sundance Film Festival – Their Online Resource Center offers a Native Forum category. Curated by Heather Rae, the 2001 Festival includes 13 films and videos dealing with issues relevant to indigenous people. (For more on the Native Forum see Dances With Indigenous Films by Jason Silverman. Wired News, January 19, 2001, Sundance Again Showcases Films by American Indians by Vince Horiuchi, Salt Lake Tribune, January 24, 1999 and Park City 2000: Native Forum Breaks Out by Beth Pinsker, Indiewire, January 24, 2000.)Sweat – Excerpts from Sweat: the illustrated history and description of the Finnish sauna, Russian bania, Islamic hammam, Japanese mushi-buro, Mexican Temescal, and American Indian & Eskimo sweat lodge by Mikkel Aaland (published in 1978 by Capra Press) include History of Sweat Lodges, A Guest at an Oglala Sun Dance Ceremony, Joining Running Foot in a Navajo Sweat Lodge, Hot Rock Sweat Lodge, Direct Fire Sweat Lodge, Sweating Without a Sweat Lodge, Origin of the Temescal and The Temescal Today.Sylvia Davis v. United States– United States Court of Appeals, Tenth Circuit, September 21, 1999. Sylvia Davis, a Seminole Indian (who is also African-American) of Shawnee, Oklahoma, was denied government assistance funds by the tribe on the grounds that she did not possess a Certificates of Degree of Indian Blood for her son.Talking History – Organization of American Historians. There is a Show Selector. There are interviews with Charles C. Mann, author of 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus, (December 19, 2005) and with Camilla Townsend, author of Pocahontas and the Powhatan Dilemma (March 13, 2006).Tears in the Sand– Rocky Mountain PBS video about the Sand Creek Massacre offers interview transcripts and QuickTime video.Texts by and about Native Americans from the Modern English Collection – From the outstanding Electronic Text Center at the University of Virginia. Some items available to UVA users only. Titles include The School Days of an Indian Girl by Zitkala-Sa and An Indian Boy’s Storyby Ah-nen-la-de-ni (his American name was Daniel La France). “My father was a pure-blooded Indian of the Mohawk tribe of the Six Nations, and our home was in the St. Regis reservation in Franklin County, N. Y.”THOMAS: U. S. Congress on the Internet– Locate legislation. Search by subject (Federal aid to Indians, Federal-Indian relations, Indians, Indian children, Indian claims, Indian economic development, Indian education, Indian gambling operations, Indian Lands, Indian law enforcement, Indian Medical Care, Indian water rights, Internet Gambling, etc.) or by bill number (S.1507, S.614, S.692, S.1290, S.613, H.R.1944, H.R.3125, etc.)Thomas Jefferson Papers – Library of Congress collection consists of over 83,000 images including correspondence, commonplace books, financial account books, and manuscript volumes. Searchable by keyword or browsable by collection.Thus Spoke Chief Seattle: The Story of An Undocumented Speech– By Jerry L. Clark, Prologue: Quarterly of the National Archives and Records Administration, Spring 1985, vol. 18, no. 1.Time of Visions: Interviews by Larry Abbott– Nineteen interviews with contemporary Native American artists.To the Totem Forests: Emily Carr and Contemporaries Interpret Coastal Villages – Drawings, paintings and prints created by Emily Carr, Walter Phillips, A.Y. Jackson, George Pepper, Langdon Kihn and F.M. Bell-Smith are accompanied by first-person testimony, anthropological records and historical photographs depicting Northwest Coast monumental sculpture. (Virtual exhibition of the Art Gallery of Greater Victoria.)Tracy Marks’ Native American Bookmarks– Collection of links to art, music and women’s resources.Traders: Voices from the Trading Post – Site includes history of the United Indian Traders Association (UITA), which was founded in 1860 for traders primarily on the Navajo, Hopi, and Zuni reservations. There are over 40 Oral Histories, available in written transcripts or audio files, exhibits of trade goods, and a clickable Mapof Reservation lands.
TreatiesAvalon Project at Yale Law School – Collection of documents in law, history and diplomacy has texts of Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans, Statutes of the United States Concerning Native Americans and Relations Between the United States and Native Americans.Bringing Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties to the World Wide Web– Suzanne L. Holcombe, Oklahoma State University Library. Presentation at the Proceedings of the 9th Annual Federal Depository Library Conference, October 22 – 25, 2000.“I desire all that I have said … may be taken down aright”: Revisiting Teedyuscung’s 1756 Treaty Council Speeches– By James H. Merrell, William & Mary Quarterly, Vol. LXIII, No. 4, October, 2006, pp. 777-826.Early Recognized Treaties with American Indian Nations – Electronic Text Center, University of Nebraska Libraries. See “The last few American Indian Treaties–An Extension of the Charles J. Kappler Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties Internet site at the Olahoma State University”by Charles D. Bernholz, Brian L. Pytlik Zillig, Laura K. Weakly and Zacharia A. Bajaber, Library Collections, Acquisitions & Technical Services 30 (2006) 47-43.Kappler’s Indian Affairs: Laws & Treaties – “Historically significant, seven volume compilation of U.S.treaties, laws and executive orders pertaining to Native American Indian tribes. The volumes cover U.S. Government treaties with Native Americans from 1778-1883 (Volume II) and U.S. laws and executive orders concerning Native Americans from 1871-1970 (Volumes I, III-VII). The work was first published in 1903-04 by the U.S. Government Printing Office. Enhanced by the editors’ use of margin notations and a comprehensive index, the information contained in Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties is in high demand by Native peoples, researchers, journalists, attorneys, legislators, teachers and others of both Native and non-Native origins.” A project of the Oklahoma State University Library. Provides 366 of the 375 treaties recognized by the U.S. Department of State.
Tribal Connections in the Pacific Northwest– Health resources on the Internet for American Indian and Alaska Native communities. (Funded by the National Library of Medicine.)Tribal Court Clearinghouse – Resource for tribal justice systems and others involved in the enhancement of justice in Indian country. Among the site’s resources are Tribal Codes and Constitutions, Native American Justice Systems and Law Review Articles and Essays.Tribal Preservation Program – National Park Service. Has a directory of Tribal Web Sites.Tyendinaga Mohawk Territory – Offers information about the territory in What is Tyendinaga?. You can listen to KWE Radio Live (105.9 FM).Ulali – First Nations Women’s Acapella Trio, with audio clips.UMI Research Collections ($) – Microfilm collection of original source material has a section on Native American Studies.
- Getty Union List of Artist Names – You can lookup by nationality. A search for Native American, for example, retrieves over 1500 names.
- U.S. Census Bureau – Has links to the latest trend data for Minorities including American Indian and Alaska Native Populations. Historical data is available in the1890 Census of Population and Housingwhich has Extra Census Bulletins forThe five civilized tribes in Indian territory: The Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, and Seminole Nations,Indians. Eastern bank of Cherokees of North Carolinaby by Thomas Donaldson,The Six Nations of New York. Cayugas, Mohawks (Saint Regis), Oneidas, Onondagas, Senecas, Tuscarorasand theMoqui Pueblo Indians of Arizona and Pueblo Indians of New Mexico.United States Code– Offered by Cornell University’s Legal Information Institute. Searchable.U.S. Code Search– Office of the Law Revision CounselU.S. Department of Housing an Urban Development (HUD) – Has a Native Americans section, which they define as a one-stop shoppingpage which contains information from all parts of HUD’s web site of interest to Native Americans.U.S. Department of the Interior – Has information on and for American Indians. There is a DOI Library with an online catalog and Legal Sources which include Bureau of Indian Affairs Laws and Executive Orders.United States District Court for the Northern District of New York – You can search for decisions. For example, you’ll find the October 18, 2001 opinion (01-CR-259), United States of America vs. Jennifer R. Johnson, in which United States District Judge David N. Hurd upheld the Border Patrol’s use of a temporary inland checkpoint to stop four illegal aliens (from Pakistan, Romania, the Dominican Republic and Bangladesh) and their driver, Jennifer Johnson, an Akwesnasne Mohawk.U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service: Native American Northeast RegionFederally Recognized Tribes within the Northeast RegionUniversity of Nebraska Press– Strong in the field of Native studies and history of the American West, the site is searchable and provides current and recent catalogs online.University of Oklahoma Press – Publishes a number of books on the American Indian, including the American Indian Literature And Critical Studies Series and The Civilization of The American Indian Series. Documents of American Indian Diplomacy: Treaties, Agreements, and Conventions, 1775-1979 edited by Raymond J. DeMallie and Vine Deloria, Jr., is part of the Legal History of North Americaseries.University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections– Among the collections:American Indians of the Pacific Northwest– “Extensive digital collection of original photographs and documents about the Northwest Coast and Plateau Indian cultures, complemented by essays written by anthropologists, historians, and teachers about both particular tribes and cross-cultural topics.”McKenney and Hall Indian Tribes of North America– “Text and 121 hand colored lithographs from: the history of the Indian tribes of North America, with biographical sketches and anecdotes of the principal chiefs.”University of Washington Medicinal Herb Garden – Access by botanical or commonname. Provides photographs, brief description, and links to Medline, Mrs. Grieve’s Modern Herbal, AGIS EthnobotDB and AGIS Medicinal Plants of North America DB.University Publications of America – Their American Studies collection has a Native American Studiescollection. (Note: This site provides descriptive material only and does not provide access to the actual documents.)Upper Midwest Rock Art Research Association– Petroglyph and pictograph research.Utah History Encyclopedia – 575 articles by over two hundred contributors on individuals, organizations, locations, institutions, and topics important to Utah history. Edited by Allan Kent Powell and originally published by the University of Utah Press. You can also search the Utah Collections Multimedia Encyclopedia.Voices from the Gaps: Women Writers of Color – “Ongoing collaborative effort between faculty and students in the Department of English and the Program in American Studies at the University of Minnesota.” There is a section on Indigenous/Native Americanwomen writers, with extensive biographical and bibliographical material and links to other resources.Voyage to Another Universe – Karen M. Strom’s dense and heavily hyperlinked account of her 17 day trip through Arizona and New Mexico in 1994 is full of photographs, poetry and intelligent commentary. There is a Table of Contents. Strom maintains the comprehensive Index of Native American Resources on the Internet. (See also her Travels With Daniel and Thanksgiving in the Yucatan).
WGBH Forum Network – Archived lectures related to Native American Culture and Heritageinclude:Native American Slave Trade in New England– April 22, 2004.Native Americans and the Boston Harbor Islands– May 7, 2003.
Wanamaker Collection of Photographs of American Indians – Mathers Museum of World Cultures, Indiana University. Collection consists of images of American Indians from 150 tribes made between 1908 and 1923 by Joseph Kossuth Dixo (not available online). Reading Photographsprovides more information about the collection.Waste Management in Indian Country– U.S. Environmental Protection Agency provides publications, educational materials, funding sources, federal and tribal regulations and links to other federal agencies, tribal programs and professional associations.Web Resources for Tribal Libraries – Elaine M. Cubbins provides links to potential funding sources for North American Indian tribal libraries. Her sections on Useful Websites for Tribal Libraries and Evaluating American Indian Web Sitesare valuable resources.Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents – Published every Monday by the Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Administration and contains statements, messages, and other Presidential materials released by the White House during the preceding week. A search for Navajo in the year 2000, for example, retrieves 23 results, one of which contains President Clinton’s Remarks to the People of the Navajo Nation in Shiprock, New Mexicoon April 17, 2000.Wild Apache Native American LinksWilliam L. Clements Library– University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. “The Clements Library collects primary source materials in all formats relating to the history of America prior to the mid-twentieth century. The holdings are particularly strong in the intellectual, cultural, and military history of the late colonial period, the Early Republic, and the 19th century…”William N. Fenton Papers – American Philosophical Society. “A Yale-educated ethnographer, William [Nelson] Fenton [1908-2005] devoted most of his career to study of the Iroquois Indians of New York State and Canada. Receiving his doctorate in 1937, Fenton worked with the Bureau of American Ethnology for a number of years before becoming Director of the New York State Museum and professor at SUNY Albany.” Fenton’s major works are the 786 page The Great Law and the Longhouse: a Political History of the Iroquois Confederacy, University of Oklahoma Press, 1998 and the 522 page The False Faces of the Iroquois, University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.A Woodsplint Basket– Harvard Magazine, March-April 2002: Volume 104, Number 4.Winter Counts – Plains Indians used buffalo hide paintings to record historical events. There are several articles on winter counts in the Bureau of American ethnology which is available full-text in Gallica, bibliothèque numÃ©rique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France. To locate the articles, do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). Pictographs of the North American Indians, Fourth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1886 (1882-1883) has 58 pages of text and 46 full-page plates devoted to the winter counts of the Dakota Indians and in the Tenth Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1983 (1888-1889) there is an article by Garrick Mallery on Picture-Writing of the American Indians.Wisconsin Judicare’s Indian Law Office– Indian law at the tribal, state, and federal levels. Includes Seminal Supreme Court Decisions, Map of Indian Lands In Wisconsin.
Wright American Fiction, 1851-1875 – Collection of 19th century American fiction, as listed in Lyle Wright’s bibliography which attempts to include every novel published in the United States from 1851 to 1875. Project of the Indiana University Digital Library Program. There are currently 2,887 volumes included (2,109 unedited, 778 fully edited and encoded) by 1,394 authors. You can search the full-text. Wright “listed a total of 2,923 titles in adult fiction, including “novels, novelettes, romances, short stories, tall tales, tract-like tales, allegories, and fictitious biographies and travels, in prose” (from the introduction), and inventoried 18 American libraries for holdings. This compilation is part of his three-volume set listing American fiction from 1774 through 1900, and is still considered the most comprehensive bibliography of American adult fiction of the 18th and 19th centuries.” The libraries inventoried were: American Antiquarian Society, Athenaeum of Philadelphia, Boston Athenaeum, Boston Public Library, Brown University Library, Columbia University Library, Harvard University Library, Henry E. Huntington Library, Library of Congress, Library Company of Philadelphia, Newberry Library, New York Historical Society Library, New York Public Library, University of Chicago Library, University of Minnesota Library, University of Pennsylvania Library, University of Virginia library, Yale University Library. You can also search by Wright numbers (search by idno). Relevant titles include:The Knight of the Golden Melice (also published as the Whte Chief among the Red Men)– By John Turvill Adams (1805-1882), New York: Derby & Jackson, 1857 (Wright 20).General Sherman’s Indian Spy– By Wesley Bradshaw (1837-1927), Philadelphia: C.W. Alexander, 1865 (Wright 46).The Fawn of the Pale Faces, or, Two Centuries Ago– By John Pierce Brace (1793-1872), New York : Appleton, 1853 (Wright 333).Therese, or, The Iroquois Maiden (1852)– By Osgood Bradbury, Boston: G.H. Williams, 1852 (Wright 352).Adventures in the Apache Country– By J. Ross Browne (1821-1875), New York: Harper & Brothers, 1869 (Wright 397).Ah-meek, the Beaver; or, The Copper-hunters of Lake Superior– By William H. Bushnell (1823- ), New York: American News Co., 1867, (Wright 436). Many of Bushnell’s sketches of Indian life were written under the name “Frank Webber.”Little Wolf: a tale of the Western Frontier– By Mrs. Mary Ann (Mann) Cornelius, Cincinnati: Journal and Messenger, 1872 (Wright 637). Takes place in Minnesota.Garangula, the Ongua-Honwa Chief: A tale of Indian Life Among the Mohawks and Onondagas, Two Hundred Years Ago– By “A Citizen of Milwaukee”, Milwaukee : Strickland, 1857 (Wright 974).General Sheridan’s Squaw Spy, and Mrs. Clara Blynn’s Captivity Among the Wild Indians of the Prairies – Anonymous, Philadelphia: Cooperative Publishing House, 1869 (Wright 992). Major General Philip H. Sheridan and the Battle of the Washita.Gertrude Morgan, or, Life and Adventures Among the Indians of the Far West– Anonymous, Philadelphia: Barclay, 1866 (Wright 999).An Adventure on a Frozen Lake: A Tale of the Canadial Rebellion of 1837-8– By Jedediah Hunt, Cincinnati, Ben Franklin Book and Job Office, 1853 (Wright 1305). Also contains The Massacre at Owego: An Indian Tale (pp. 39-46).Thayendanegea, the Scourge, or, the War-Eagle of the Mohawks: A Tale of Mystery, Ruth, and Wrong– By Ned Buntline [pseud. of Edward Zane Carroll Judson], (1822 or 3-1886), New York: F.A. Brady,  (Wright 1451).The Wild Rose of the Beaver– By Rudloph Leonhart (1832-) Tidioute, Pa.: G.A. Needle, 1873 (Wright 1537a). Western Pennsylvaniain in 1782.Old Fort Duquesne, or, Captain Jack, the Scout – By Charles McKnight (1826-1881), Pittsburgh: Peoples Monthly Publishing Co., 1873 (Wright 1638).1698Miss Annie Coleson’s Own Narrative of Her Captivity Among the Sioux Indians– By Ann Coleson, Philadelphia : Barclay, , (Wright 1716).Camp Fires of the Red Men, or, A Hundred Years Ago– By J. R. Orton (1806-1867), New York: J.C. Derby, 1855, (Wright 1824)The Story of Fort Hill: Giving an Account of Many Interesting Adventures Between the White and Indinas, Previous to the Settlement of Auburn– By Frederic Prince, Auburn: P.J. Becker, 1859 (Wright 1965). “When Fort Hill Was An Indian Battle Ground”.The Royal Greens, or, The Scout of the Susquehanna: A Tale of the Valley of Wyoming.– By J. H. Robinson, New York: S. French, [n.d.]. (Wright 2083).Me-Won-I-Toc: A Tale of Frontier Life and Indian Character– By Solon Robinson, New York: New York News Co., 1867 (Wright 2099). Takes place in Michigan and Illinois. Subtitled: Exhibiting Traditions, Superstitions, anc Character of a Race that is Passing Away. A Romance of the Frontier.The Doomed Chief, or, Two Hundred Years Ago– By Daniel P. Thompson (1795-1868), Philadelphia: J.W. Bradley, 1860 (Wright 2472).The True Narrative of the Five Years Suffering and Perilous Adventures– By Miss Barber, Wife of “Squatting Bear,” A Celebrated Sioux Chief, Philadelphia, Barclay , (Wright 2556). “”Miss Barber, a native of Massachusetts, in her religious enthusiasm, resolved to go among the Indians, as missionary, and with that purpose in view married Squatting Bear, at Washington D.C. After five years of suffering and stirring adventures, this beautiful young lady has just returned East, and her narrative is one of deep and entrancing interest. A valuable feature of this work is the Indian receipts, given by Miss Barber, for the cure of various diseases. They are very efficacious.” (From title page)
Yahoo: American Indian Tribal Colleges – Directory. Other good sources are Lisa Mitten’s Tribal Colleges, Native Studies Programs, and Indian Education and the AIHEC’s list of Tribal Colleges.Yamada Language Center – Guide to Internet language resources provides links to sites for Cherokee, Choctaw, Cree, Dakota, Inuit, Iroquois, Lakota, Ojibwe, Oneida and Osagelanguages.yourDictionary.com – Provides links to Language Dictionaries for North American Languages which include Iroquoian.Zuni murals connect two cultures – Murals painted on the walls of Our Lady of Guadalupe on the Zuni reservation in western New Mexico by Alex Seowtewa and sons Ken and Edwin. (See also Adding a Breath to Zuni Life.)
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