The USA Indian Archives History Collections


Created by

The Wabanaki Indian Collection,

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member Collectors




I have collected the archived collections from 1955 during young boy until now,

Some of the collections have upload in my web blog




Almost 400.000 collectors visit this web blog

I have million informations of rare old archives now, and if the scientist ,journalist or collectors want to have the rare archives’s informations and illustrations please contact me via comment, but before you must subscribed via comment to be my blog premium member.

I hope my bigger project to collect the informations from rare old archives will help everybody from all over the wolrd.

I have met the the archives scholar from KTLV(Koninjkijl Tropen Leiden Vereneging) ,the Dutch archived of tropic area at Leiden Netherland who came to Indonesia to seeking the rare old archives,many Indonesian scholar visit KTLV to found 8informations related with their thesis because KTLV and also their Netherland tropen museum archives collectiosn cann’t copy because the protect with copyright.

I will show the USA Indian Archive History Collections and  hope everybody will happy to read the info and look the illustrations  



Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA


American Indian History & Culture

“Moenntarri Warrior in the costume of the dog danse”. Wied, Maximilian, Prinz von. Travels in the interior of North America during the years 1832-1834; illustrations by Karl Bodmer.

 The  rare books documenting Indian life-ways, and significant manuscript materials, including the papers of


anthropologist Morris Edward Opler,

 incorporating his research notes on


the myths and folklore of Apache tribes;

the Pete Hest North American Indian collection.

Read more info



Lipan Apache Tribe

of Texas



Indian Intruders From the North

Plains Indian warrior, inset from painting, “Comanches on the Trail,” by Theodore Gentilz, ca. 1840s. Original painting in Witte Museum. Historic Indian tribe locations map, ca. 1832, adapted from Hester 1989, Fig. 31.

Indian Intruders: Comanche, Tonkawa, and Other Tribes

By as early as the late 1600s, outside Indian groups had begun moving onto the South Texas Plains, accelerating the demise of the region’s vulnerable indigenous peoples. Among the new intruders were the Tonkawa, the Lipan and Mescalero Apache—groups which themselves had been displaced from their home territories far to the north and northwest. The availability of a new transportation system, horses, transformed many Plains Indian groups into societies that are sometimes characterized as “horse nomads.”

First and foremost, were the Comanche, who with the Kiowa, raided through south Texas and across the Rio Grande into northern Mexico. They were formidable foes to other native peoples as well as Anglo settlers in the 18th and 19th centuries. Facing increased hostilities, more competition for resources, and ravaged by Old World disease, local native groups were either pushed south into Mexico or assimilated into the new, more dominant tribes.

In late prehistoric times, the Lipan and Mescalero Apache lived in the Southern Plains of the United States. By the late 1600s, they found their homelands threatened by the Comanches and by Spanish raids seeking slaves for the silver mines around Parral and Chihuahua City or for the large ranches of what is today northern Mexico. To avoid those fates, they moved south and east, eventually reaching south-central Texas. As the tumultuous times unfolded, some Apache attempted alliances with other native peoples, including the Jumano and Tonkawa, groups with whom they had had hostile relationships in the past.

By the late 18th century, the Apache were pressing south across the Rio Grande and east into the South Texas Plains and brush country, where they began to align themselves with other native peoples. They chose this region, in part, because it had not been heavily settled by the Spanish, with the exception of the ranchos along the Rio Grande in the colony known as Nuevo Santander and the mission settlements there and in San Antonio de Bexar.

Although they lived a hunting and gathering lifestyle, the Lipan Apaches were mounted warriors who also raided homes and ranches for cattle and sheep. But as threats from Comanche and other groups intensified, the Lipan sought refuge in Spanish missions, including Santa Cruz de San Sabá (on the Edwards Plateau). In the second half of the eighteenth century and, after the mission on the San Saba River was destroyed by an allied force of their enemies, the Apache moved farther south, extending their range from the Bolson de Mapimi desert in north-central Mexico to the Rio Grande to the Nueces. In 1772, 300 Lipan Apache attacked haciendas and pueblos in Coahuila.

In the ensuing century, few Europeans settled in the region, and those that did, such as Richard King (founder of the fabled King Ranch), found that the key to success was the acquisition of vast lands for ranches. Thus, although the region was distant from their Southern Plains homeland, Lipan and Mescaleros found a refuge here until the early 1900s when they were forcibly moved onto a reservation in southern New Mexico where they reside today.
(Learn more about the Apache.)


Although chiefly operating on the northeastern fringe of the area, the Tonkawa also played a role in the region’s history. Much has been made about whether the Tonkawa were an actual tribe or, rather, an amalgam of other groups and splinter tribes, some of which were from south Texas. Most likely, they were a bit of both and absorbed different peoples in later historic times.

The Tonkawa were first documented in 1601 in an area north of Texas on the Arkansas River, where the Wichita-speakers called them the Tancoa, a word meaning “they all stay together.” In their own language, the Tonkawa called themselves Titskanwatits, meaning “people of the country” or “Indian people here.” At that time, these hunting and gathering peoples lived in a number of large villages, but they faced increased conflicts with other native peoples. By the late seventeenth century, they were residing in Texas and were called the Tanquaay. During the late eighteenth century, they lived with various groups over a wide geographic area, ranging from the Red River to the area of present Waco, and, at times, even further south into the South Texas Plains.

Much of what we know of the Tonkawa during this period comes from documents written by a Frenchman named De Mezieres who visited them on several occasions in the 1770s, often in their camps close to the Red River. He estimated their population at about 500 and described them as hunters and gatherers living in tents and hunting buffalo and deer—both to eat and to obtain the animal skins that they traded.

By the late eighteenth century, the Tonkawa had absorbed several other Native American groups who sought protection within the larger Tonkawa nation. Some—such as the Sana and Yorica—were originally from the South Texas Plains and northern Mexico. These added numbers strengthened the increasingly threatened Tonkawas and helped them survive attacks by Apaches and others. Later, the Tonkawa served as scouts for the U.S. Army in west Texas during the Indian wars. In spite of their valued service, however, they were removed to a reservation in Oklahoma in the late 1880s. (See Tonkawa Tribe website.)

Comanche and Other Groups

The Comanche, latecomers to the South Texas Plains, were among the most feared. Indeed, the name, Comanche, is believed to be a Spanish version of a Ute word meaning “someone who wants to fight all the time.” By the early 18th century the Comanches had moved from Colorado into New Mexico, where they alternately raided and traded with Spanish settlements. Their attacks upon pueblo Indians and the Apache were nearly constant. Throughout the 1700s, the Comanche continued to move to the southeast, driving deeper into Texas and pushing the Lipan in their wake. Having established control of the Southern Plains, the Comanche moved onto the Edwards Plateau and beyond, where they secured their dominance by entering into a truce with the Spanish in New Mexico and forming an alliance with the Kiowa. (See Comanche Nation website.)

Other tribes who are known to have had a brief presence in the South Texas Plains were the, Shawnee, Caddo, Kiowa, Kickapoo, and Seminole. While not all were hunters and gatherers, their activities in this sometimes harsh region generally mimicked those of the hunters and gatherers whom Cabeza de Vaca and his companions had met and lived among some 300 years earlier.

To learn more about Indian groups in Texas during the Historic Period, see the following exhibit sections on this website:

Native Peoples of the Plateaus and Canyonlands

The Passing of the Indian Era

Additional information on the Comanche in later historic times is provided in:

The Die Is Cast

Among the new intruders in Texas were the Tonkawa, the Lipan and Mescalero Apache—groups which themselves had been displaced from their territories to the north and northwest.

The threat of enslavement by Spaniards seeking laborers for their mines caused some Plains peoples, including the Apache, to move southward to the South Texas Plains. This illustration from an early 16th-century Spanish document shows enslaved native peoples mining gold.

A Lipan Apache on the trail, upper Rio Grande.

Tonkawa Indians, as drawn during the 1828 Berlandier expedition. The Tonkawa were buffalo hunters who moved southward into Texas from the Plains. Note the incorporation of woven cloth into native dress and the traditional circular tattooing on the woman’s torso.
By the late eighteenth century, the Tonkawa had absorbed several other Native American groups, including the Sana and Yorica, natives of the South Texas Plains which became clans within the larger Tonkawa nation.

Sequence of Tonkawa migration during the historic period in Kansas, Okmlahoma, and Texas. Map by Dan Prikryl (2001: Fig. 1).

A Comanche family in Texas, as drawn during the Berlandier expedition, 1828. Note the buffalo robe worn by the man.

Comanche braves. Photo, circa 1867-1874, courtesy of the Center for American History (#01355), The University of Texas at Austin








The myths and tales of this volume are of particular significance, perhaps, because they have reference to a tribe about which there is almost no published ethnographic material.

The Lipan Apache were scattered and all but annihilated on the eve of the Southwestern reservation period. The survivors found refuge with other groups, and except for a brief notice by Gatshet,

they have been overlooked or neglected while investigations of numerically larger populations have proceeded. It is gratifying, therefore, to be able at this late date to present a fairly full collection of Lipan folk-lore, and to be in a position to report that this collection does much to illuminate the relations of Southern Athabaskan-speaking tribes and the movements of aboriginal populations in the American Southwest.


Lipan Apache Chief

Before the beginning of the 18th century the Lipan were already in the northern part of the present state of Texas, and were being forced southward by hostile Comanche. By the middle of the 18th century we find them in south central Texas, where the Spanairds sought to protect them from their persistent enemies by the erection of the Mission of San Sab?. Following the destruction of this mission, two others were established to the south and west to administer to these Apache. They met a like fate in 1767. In 1796 the Lipan are reported to have reached the Gulf Coast in the vicinity of the lower Rio Grande. For the next half century they lived on or in the vicinity of the coast and made a partial adjustment to that environment. The hostilities between the Texans and Mexicans during the last part of this period involved the Lipan as allies of the latter. Then part of the Kickapoo, who had ceded their lands in Illinois, invaded Texas and were added to the list of Lipan enemies. A serious epidemic of smallpox decimated the tribe further. The Lipan, wasted by warfare and disease, were forced northward and westward. Part of them found a retreat in the southern spurs of the Guadalupe Mountains, where they made contact with the southernmost settlements of the Mescalero Apache. These people, whom I have called the Northern Lipan in the tales, have become known as the “No Water People.” Another section of the tribe crossed the Rio Grande and settled in the neighborhood of Zaragoza, Coahuila. I place the date of the permanent removal of these Lipan to Old Mexico (raiding expeditions had penetrated into Old Mexico on previous occasions, of course) at about 1860 or shortly thereafter. This section of the tribe, the Southern Lipan of the tales, has become known as the “Big Water People.” The “Big Water People,” because their fate has been less involved with that of the Mescalero Apache until quite recently, are prone to consider themselves the true representatives of Lipan culture.

From 1860 on the Northern Lipan became increasingly amalgamated with the Mescalero. When attempts were made to concentrate the Mescalero at Ft. Stanton in 1870, many Lipan were gathered into the net. At this same time the Southern Lipan were having difficulty with the Mexican military and a group of them were happy to find protection to the north. Thus it was that in 1903, when a handful of Lipan who had survived a war of extermination which had been waged against them in Coahuila, were brought to Chihuahua, it became known that they had relatives on the Mescalero Reservation. Efforts were made to unite them with their kin living in the United States. In that year a small band of nineteen individuals was brought to Mescalero. This event has given rise to the impression that the Lipan were never anything more than an offshoot of the Mescalero tribe whose members somehow became separated from the main group and who were finally restored to their relatives.


Apache Encampment in the Texas Hill Country by George Nelson. The Lipan Apache were among several Plains tribes pushed southward as pressure for land and resources mounted across the western frontier. Image courtesy of the artist and the Institute of Texan Cultures, University of Texas at San Antonio.


Evidence is accumulating which suggests a different historical origin and other ethnic relationships for the Lipan, however. In an analysis of Southern Athabaskan kinship systems I have tried to show that the Lipan system resembles the Jicarilla and not the Chiricahua-Mescalero type, and the Lipan kinship stands closer to Jicarilla in respect to form, terms, and behavior patterns than to kinship usages of any other Southern Athabaskan-speaking tribe. Dr. Harry Hoijer?s scholarly analysis of the relationships of Southern Athabaskan languages demonstrates that Jicarilla and Lipan together constitute a sub-group of the eastern linguistic group, quite apart from Mescalero, which is classified in the other or western group. The conclusion seems inescapable that the affiliation of the Lipan and Mescalero is a recent and secondary one and that more ancient and fundamental connections must be sought to the north.

It is of interest and importance to consider whether the myths and tales yield materials which offer further insight concerning the place of the Lipan in Southwestern cultures. The results of such an inquiry have proved so gratifying that it is doubtful whether the value of mythology for purposes of ethnological analysis has ever been better vindicated.

A glance at the table of contents of this volume is enough to reveal one of the major differences in myth and conception which divides the Lipan from the Mescalero; the Lipan have a myth of emergence. This gives a definite cast to Lipan mythology which Mescalero mythology does not share, for a number of other Lipan stories take their inspiration from events which transpired in the underworld before the emergence (Section I, C). The myths of all Southern Athabaskan tribes (with the possible exception of the Kiowa Apache) include a story of a culture hero who slew the foes of the race.

The Navaho, Western Apache, and Jicarilla name the chief protagonist Killer-of-Enemies and have him attended by a subordinate (a younger brother, relative, or friend) who is ordinarily known as Child-of-the-Water.

 By a curious twist

the Mescalero



have reversed the positions of these two; for them Child-of-the-Water becomes the intrepid hero and monster slayer and Killer-of-Enemies his weaker companion. The Lipan lean towards the northern and western usage. Killer-of-Enemies is their culture hero. They use the term Child-of-Water seldom, and then only as a synonym for Killer-of-Enemies. In the Lipan tales a younger brother of the culture hero called Wise One appears, and to him are attributed the characteristics usually associated with the less important of the divine pair.

One of the monsters with whom the culture hero has difficulty is known as

Big Owl by

the Jicarilla


Western Apache.

The Mescalero and Chiricahua think of him as a giant. He appears as Big Owl in Lipan mythology, again indicating the orientation we have remarked.

The Lipan names for important concepts or supernaturals of the myths show marked departures from Mescalero usage. The Mescalero call masked dancers and the supernaturals they impersonate gahe. The Lipan know them as hashchi (hactci) and therefore agree in this respect with the Jicarilla who refer to comparable supernaturals as hashchin (hactcin), and with the Navaho who use the cognate term haashch’èèh (hactce).

There are a number of myths of diagnostic value which the Lipan relate but which could not be found for the Mescalero. One such is the tale of the man who traveled down the river in a hollow log (Section V, A, 1). This story has been recorded for the Jicarilla, Western Apache, and Navaho also. Another tale of significance for our purpose is that of the race around the world (Section VIII, B, 1). This story, unknown to the Mescalero but common to the Lipan and Jicarilla, has been expanded to ceremonial importance by the latter.

As has been implied in the materials surveyed, the sharp differentiation of Lipan from Mescalero mythology contrasts vividly with the many parallels between Lipan and Jicarilla mythology. In addition to the myths and themes which have been identified as belonging to the joint stock in trade of the Lipan and Jicarilla but which are not shared by the Mescalero (such as the emergence myth), there are a number of others which deserve mention, for their weight lends a decided Jicarilla cast to Lipan folk-lore. One such is the hint of Lipan traditions concerning a people who live to the north in a land of darkness (p. 15). Another is that of the boy who aids in the capture of his twin (p. 23). Still another has to do with the attempts of a malign being to chop up and cook the culture hero and his companion (pp. 23-24). The vitalization of a person or animal by the entrance of wind into the body (p. 29) is one of a number of themes of like character. We are fully justified in saying tha between the legends of the Lipan and Jicarilla the correspondences are impressive in respect to themes, names, and terms as well as story outlines. Most of these resemblances will be noted in the text.

But the myths also contain ethnographic items which attest to the cultural gulf between the Mescalero and Lipan and to the unmistakable relation of Lipan to Jicarilla culture. It may be useful to call attention to one or two examples of such materials here. In Section VII (Tales Connected with Death) mention is made of the ghost or vakosh (vakoc) ; vakosh is a term descriptive of the material remains of the dead as distinguished from the breath or spirit. The term and description are applied by the Lipan and Jicarilla and, as far as I have been able to discover, by no other of these Apache tribes. In the same section of the volume the Lipan conception of the underworld or land of the dead is described. The underworld is said to be divided into north and south compartments, inhabited by the spirits of the sorcerers and of the good respectively. Fire and fog harass the wicked, and snakes and lizards are their only food. The Jicarilla have an identical picture of the afterworld, and, as far as I have been able to determine, they are the only other Apache group to entertain such a set of beliefs. In one of the warpath stories of this volume a Lipan who had been made captive by the enemy and escaped, refrains from entering the encampment before a purifying ceremony has been held over him. There is no trace of such a ceremony for the Mescalero and Chiricahua, but this duplicates exactly the Jicarilla procedure. A systematic review of the contents of this volume would reveal scores of elements which might be similarly compared and interpreted. A more comprehensive comparison will not be attempted now, however, for it can be more profitably pursued after the publication of the volumes of Chiricahua and Mescalero mythology which are now being prepared.

Enough evidence of various kinds has been submitted, nevertheless, to establish with high probability that the Lipan are an offshoot of a Lipan-Jicarilla group, that their line of migration took them east to the plains and south to the gulf, and that they were lately forced westward and northward, to be finally located with the Mescalero.


Opler, Morris E. (1940). Myths and legends of the Lipan Apache Indians. Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society (Vol. 36). New York: J. J. Augustin.




The Lipan Apaches of Texas and Northern Mexico and the Early Settlers of

San Antonio


Zaragosa (Coahuila)


TIMELINE 1600 – 1900


Underground Worlds: Native American Mythology


Mythology: Hopi Ant People, Snake People, Blue Kachina, Star Gods


The Apache and other Pueblo Indians, such as the Zunis and Hopi, have legends about their ancestors emerging from an underground world, generally after some cataclysmic event, as if a cycle in time, or another reboot in the programmed realities of the human experiment, always linked to star gods, or star people, who brought them here from outer space.

 Hopi Prophecy speaks of the return of

the Blue Kachina,


Star People at the end of this cycle of time.

reae more about Hopi


The Hopi are a Native America Nation who primarily live on the 1.5 million acre Hopi Reservation in northeaster Arizona. The reservation is surrounded by the Navajo reservation. Hopis call themselves Hopitu- ‘The Peaceful People’.

The name Hopi is the shortened form of the title to what they called themselves, “Hopituh Sinom”, “the people of Hopi”. Hopi is a concept deeply rooted in the culture’s religion, spirituality, and its view of morality and ethics. To be Hopi is to strive toward this concept, but one never achieves in this life. This concept is one where you are in a state of total reverence and respect for all things, to be at peace with these things, and to live in accordance with the teachings of ‘maasaw’.

Hopis live in northeast Arizona at the southern end of the Black Mesa. A mesa is the name given to a small isolated flat-topped hill with three steep sides called the 1st< Mesa, 2nd Mesa, and the 3rd Mesa.  On the mesa tops are the Hopi villages called pueblos. The pueblo of Oraibi on the 3rd Mesa started in 1050, and is the oldest in North America that was lived in continuously.



AncestryEvidence suggest that the Hopi consist of the descendants of various groups that entered the country from the north, the east, and the south, and that a series of movements covered a period of probably three centuries, and perhaps considerably longer.

Their ancestors, the Anasazi, appear to have been related to the Aztecs of Mexico, and may have arrived in their current location 5 to 10 thousand years ago. In that time, they have developed an intricate ceremonial calendar that has helped them survive and be strong in a place that would not seem to have enough reliable water to sustain life.

Related to people of the various Pueblos to the east, the Hopis never actually had a single group identity–they were independent villages, sharing with the Zuni and other Pueblos a basic culture and view of the sacred, while sharing among themselves their own (Uto-Aztecan) language base.



LanguageAlthough the Hopi are composed of elements that must have spoken diverse tongues, their speech is readily recognized as a dialog of the Shoshonean language, which in various forms was spoken in a large part of the Great Basin between the Rocky mountains and the Sierra Nevada, in southwestern Oregon, and in southern California even to the coast and on Santa Catalina island; and which furthermore is undoubtedly allied to the great Aztecan language. A linguistic map would represent the Hopi as an isolated people surrounded by alien tongues



Homes Hopi Mesa Homes

Hopis live in pueblos that are made of stone and mud and stand several stories high. The Kivas are an underground chamber in the pueblo home that they used to talk and have religious ceremonies in. They used the kivas for 100 years. The center of the floor had a fire pit. You climb down a ladder to get to the south end where a bench was placed for spectators.

The walls of some Hopi houses are constructed of undressed stone fragments bound with mud plaster. The flat roof consists of beams resting on the tops of the walls, pole battens, rod and grass thatching, a layer of gumbo plaster, and a covering of dry earth. Most of the houses are more than single story, some as much as four stories. The upper apartments are reached by outside ladders.



WomenThe traditional Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans. When a man marries, the children from the relationship are members of his wife’s clan. The Bear Clan is one of the more prominent clans.

The women and men each have specific jobs or duties they perform. The women own the land and the house. They also cook and weave the baskets. The men plant and harvest, weave cloth, and perform the ceremonies.

When a child is born they get a special blanket and a perfect ear of corn. On the 20thday they take the child to the mesa cliff and hold it facing the rising sun. When the sun hits the baby is given a name.



MarriageThe traditional Hopi are organized into matrilineal clans. When a man marries, the children from the relationship are members of his wife’s clan. The Bear Clan is one of the more prominent clans. The Hopi, more than most Native American peoples, retain and continue to practice their traditional ceremonial culture. However, like other tribes, they are severely impacted by the ambient American culture.

A Hopi bride grinds corn for three days at her future husband’s house to show she has wife skills. The groom and his male relatives weave her wedding clothes. After they are finished, the bride to be walks home in one wedding outfit, and carries the other in a container. Women are also buried in their wedding outfit so when they entered the spirit world they would be dressed appropriately. A Hopi man wears several bead necklaces on his wedding day.



EconomyTraditionally the Hopi were highly skilled subsistence farmers. With the installation of electricity and the necessity of having a motor vehicle and the other things which can be purchased, the Hopi have been moving into a cash economy with many people seeking and holding outside jobs as well as earning money from traditional crafts.



CraftsArt is a way for the Southwestern Native Americans to communicate their dreams, visions, and beliefs to each other or to people today.

Pottery, clothing, and making baskets are just a portion of the great arts and crafts of the Southwest Native Americans. Their art used symbols and signs to represent their ideas, beliefs, dreams, and visions.

Pottery was made for everyday use, including cooking, storage, bathing, and religious ceremonies.They were painted and carved with designs that told a story.

Modern earthen ware is considerably softer and of coarser texture than the pieces that have been exhumed in large numbers from the ruins of this region. The most successful imitator of this ancient ware, who is not a Hopi at all, but the Tewa woman Nampeyo, of the village Hano, says that its superiority was obtained by the use of lignite, by which the prehistoric potters were able to fire their vessels for several days; but a well-informed traditionalist, on the contrary, asserts that it is the result of burying the clay in moist sand for a long time, perhaps two moons, which ’caused something in the clay to rot’.”


Hopi Cross Rug



ClothingThe clothing they wore depended on what they did. They lived in a warm climate so they wore little clothing. They would dress in flowers and paint with feather headdresses. They also used clothing to signify their fighting skills.

The Southwest Indians were the most skilled in making baskets. They would decorate the baskets with colors and patterns. They could be very symbolic like the art they made.  The Hopi method of basket making has not changed for hundreds of years.



DietThe very first Southwest Native Americans hunted mammoths until they became extinct. Then people began to hunt buffalo, also known as bison, as well as collect wild plants for food. They also learned to grow maize, or corn, that was their most common grain, which became domesticated in Mexico.

Corn is the central food of daily life, and piki – paper thin bread made from corn and ash–is the dominant food at ceremonies. Corn relies on the farmer to survive, and the Hopi relies on the corn – all life is designed to be interrelated.

The Hopi Indians grew food similar to the Navajo Indians. They raised corn or maize as the basic food. The Hopi Indians based religious ceremonies on the corn they grew.They grew 24 different kinds of corn, but the blue and white was the most common.They also grew beans, squash, melons, pumpkins, and fruit.




Kachina dolls were carved out wood by the Zuni and Hopi tribes. There are over 300 different Kachinas. They are generally clothed in masks and costumes to look like the men who dressed up as Kachina spirits. They were given to children to teach them to identify the different parts of Kachina dolls, and the parts they play in tribal ceremonies.

The Kachinas, or Gods, were beings of a great might and power to the Native Americans. They were known to come down to Earth and help the native Americans tend their fields brining wisdom about agriculture, law and government. They physically interacted with the people themselves. There are drawings of them on cave walls.

The famous Hopi Prophecy speaks about the return of the Blue Kachina to herald in the Fifth Age of Man. This is not unlike any other culture who await the return of their god or creational force – Example – Jesus.

Hopi Kachina Dancer and Kachina Doll



Mythology Kokopelli is a god worshipped by many southeastern tribes. He is a humpbacked flautist. Among the Hopi, he brought the fetuses to pregnant women, and took part in many rituals relating to marriage.

Muyingwa is the god of germination.

Taiowa is the creator god. He made Sotuknang and ordered him to make the universe. The first world was called Topela and had land, water and air, as well as Koyangwuti (spider woman), who then created twins, Poqanghoya and Palongawhoya. They made rivers, oceans and mountains. Koyangwuti then made all organisms, but most of the men did not obey the gods, so Sotuknang killed them with a flood. Two more bad worlds were created and destroyed.

The fourth world, the modern world, is Tuwaqachi.

Tokpela was the endless, primordial space before creation. Good people go west and become kachinas, but there is no absolute connection between the former soul and the kachina.


Hopi Prophecies – Blue Star Kachina

Spider Women Legends


Hopi Myths

Myths From Hopi Stone Tablets

Myth 1: The Mission of Two Brothers

This Bow Clan chief had two grown sons. When they learned of their father’s misdeed, they were very sad. Their knowledge of the teachings which they had received from him was all in order. Now they were left alone to lead their people, for the very next day their father died.

They asked their mother to permit them to carry out the order of their instructions for an event of this nature. She replied that it was up to them, for their knowledge was complete. Upon agreement, the younger brother was to continue in search of Maasau’u, and to settle where he found him. There he would await the return of this older brother, who was to travel eastward toward the rising sun, where he would rest briefly. While resting, he must listen for the voice of his younger brother, who would expect him to come to his aid, for the change in the life pattern will have disrupted the way of life of his people. Under the pressure of a new ruler they will surely be wiped off the face of the earth unless he comes.

So today we are still standing firmly on the Great Spirit’s instructions. We will continue to look and pray toward the East for his prompt return. The younger brother warned the elder that the land and the people would change “But do not let your heart be troubled,” he said, “for you will find us. Many will turn away from the life plan of Maasau’u, but a few of us who are true to his teachings will remain in our dwellings. The ancient character of our heads, the shape of our houses, the layout of our villages, and the type of land upon which our village stands, and our way of life. All will be in order, by which you will find us.”

Before the first people had begun their migrations the people named Hopi were given a set of stone tablets. Into these tablets the Great Spirit inscribed the laws by which the Hopi were to travel and live the good way of life, the peaceful way. They also contain a warning that the Hopi must beware, for in time they would be influenced by wicked people to forsake the life plan of Maasau’u. It would not be easy to stand up against this, for it would involve many good things that would tempt many good people to forsake these laws. The Hopi would be led into a most difficult position. The stones contain instructions to be followed in such a case.

The older brother was to take one of the stone tablets with him to the rising sun, and bring it back with him when he hears the desperate call for aid. His brother will be in a state of hopelessness and despair. His people may have forsaken the teachings, no longer respecting their elders, and even turning upon their elders to destroy their way of life. The stone tablets will be the final acknowledgment of their true identity and brotherhood. Their mother is Sun Clan. They are the children of the sun.

So it must be a Hopi who travelled from here to the rising sun and is waiting someplace. Therefore it is only the Hopi that still have this world rotating properly, and it is the Hopi who must be purified if this world is to be saved. No other person anyplace will accomplish this. The older brother had to travel fast on his journey for there was not much time, so the horse was created for him. The younger brother and his people continued on in search of Maasau’u.

On their way they came to a land that looked fertile and warm. Here they marked their clan symbols on the rock to claim the land. This was done by the Fire Clan,the Spider Clan, and the Snake Clank. This place is know called Moencopi. They did not settle there at that time. While the people were migrating, Maasau’u was waiting for the first ones to arrive. In those days he used to take walks near the place where he lived, carrying a bunch of violet flowers (du-kyam-see) in his belt. One day he lost them along the way. When he went to look for them he found that they had been picked up by the Hornytoad Woman. When he asked her for the flowers she refused to give them back, but instead gave him her promise that she would help him in time of need. “I too have a metal helmet,” she told him, (possibly meaning that certain people with metal helmets would help the Hopi when they get into difficulty).

Often Maasau’u would walk about a half mile north of his du-pa-cha ( a type of temporary house) to a place where there lay a long rock which formed a natural shelter, which he must have picked as the place where he and the first people would find each other. While waiting there he would amuse himself by playing a game to test his skill, the name of which (Nadu-won-pi-kya), was to play an important part later on in the life of the Hopi, for it was here that the knowledge and wisdom of the first people was to be tested. Until recent times children used to play a similar game there, something like “hide-and-seek.” One person would hide, then signal by tapping on the rock, which would transmit the sound in a peculiar way so that the others could not tell exactly where the tapping was coming from. (Some years ago this rock was destroyed by government road builders.) It was here that they found Maasau’u waiting.

Before the migrations began Maasau’u had let it be known, though perhaps not by direct instructions, that whoever would find him first would be the leader there. Later it became clear that this was a procedure by which their true character would be specified.

When they found him, the people gathered and sat down with him to talk. The first thing they wanted to know was where he lived. He replied that he lived just north of there at a place called Oraibi. For a certain reason he did not name it fully. The full name is Sip-Oraibi, meaning something that has been solidified, referring to the fact that this is the place where the earth was made solid.

They asked permission to live there with him. He did not answer directly, for within them he saw evil. “It is up to you,” he said. “I have nothing here. My life is simple. All I have is my planting stick and my corn. If you are willing to live as I do, and follow my instructions, the life plan which I shall give you, you may live here with me, and take care of the land. Then you may have a long, happy, fruitful life.”

Then they asked him whether he would be their leader, thinking that thus they would be assured a peaceful life. “No,” he replied, “the one who led you here will be the leader until you fulfill your pattern of life,” (for he saw into their hearts and knew that they still had many selfish desires). “After that I will be the leader, but not before, for I am the first and I shall be the last.” Having left all the instructions with them, he disappeared.


Myth 2Chief Dan Evehema, Grandfather Martin Gashweseoma and son-in-law Emery Homes shared wisdom’s about the stones how they came to be and current events and where about of the sacred tablets. The presentation took over 2 hours but according to the Chief Martin & Emery to get the full details you would need 8 to 9 days. This is what was recorded of this conversation.

As Emery spoke of mankind’s future according to our Native Prophecies he unfolded the story of the five Hopi stone tablets, given by the creator long, long ago. One of these tablets was kept by the Creator.

Two tablets were kept by the Hopis themselves passed down from generation to generation and used to renew Holy vows of spiritual commitments to the people and the creator at special times of the year. Martin was the last one who held the great responsibility for its care, a duty that had evolved to him by default because his uncle had lost honor by an act of adultery and was therefore no longer worthy to be the caretaker. Miss fortune later came to Martin also in this quest.

He was instructed and trained by his uncle earlier that when certain signs in nature were observed, the tablet should be taken to Santa Fe, the first US capital in the West recognized by the Hopi people. The signs came, Emery explained as he translated Martins story, Chief Martin set in deep thought and prayer a sadness of the ages around him.

As Grandfather Martin has been taught, he watched for the sign. It was the middle of winter, and the peach tree came into full bloom. Desert flowers came into full bloom, and snakes were seen out when they should have been in hibernation. These were the signs he had been waiting for, his signal to take the tablet to Santa Fe. So a delegation was organized to go to Santa Fe to share this knowledge with other Spiritual leaders.

As this story unfolds his relatives objected strongly. They organized and assessed that he had done wrong in taking the stone to Santa Fe saying he had made grave errors in judgments and was not fit to have the stone, saying that it was in the wrong household. So they took the stone tablet from him by force. Now Martin and Emery, said as of that day they did not know where the stone is.

In asking what the tablets looked like the Elders explained that 4 of them were exactly the same, two were left with the Hopi people, two were given to the true brothers to bring back at a special time in history, along with other sacred items from the four directions, when the world reunites in peace. The fifth one the Elders tell us was kept by the Creator and was different markings. Similar to one on the poster of a Hinduism Today paper “Truth is One, Paths Are Many” Grandfather Martin said.

This is a great loss for the Elder and now his life is centered around finding the true Brothers and telling the world of the great prophecies of the Hopis, the Mayans and other civilizations. These were shared next as the elders explained to us about there commitment to the human race and mother earth Chief Martin would often say, “We are humans: we cannot eat the money.” We must plant our fields and pray for guidance honor all the ceremonials, we can eat the Corn. He then disclosed a package of pictographs, the main one the size of a road map, consisting of numerous papers tapped together all in a single strip that we rolled out, page after page until it was open, over 8 feet long.

Emery and Martin explained to us very patiently and slowly the Mayan pictographs. The story of the pictures in words sometimes Hopi sometimes English. Beginning in ancient times and ending with four possible pathways that mankind can choose from their actions as a collective group. The choices range from complete destruction and loss of sunlight, to less server circumstances, providing corruption and greed has not already gone to far. The Elders seemed less optimistic then we had all hoped. The main concerns of the Elders and Holy people was Starvation and Marshal Law both they are already seeing to close as a new reality.

On this day, still waiting for the true white brother, the Elders came together in a meeting when East meets West. Hopi spiritual leaders of Hotevilla Arizona hosted The Hindu delegation led by Satguru Sivaya Subramuniyaswami in a special prayer meeting at the corn fields at Chief Dan Evehema’s corn fields.



ReligionThe Hopi have been affected by missionary work by several religions and also by consumerism and alcoholism. Nevertheless there remains a traditionalist core.

The people of the Southwest, along with the Southeast had full-time religious leaders with shrines or temple buildings. Most Native Americans believe that in the universe there exists an Almighty, a spiritual force that is the source of all life. The Almighty belief is not pictured as a man in the sky, but is believed to be formless and exist in the universe. The sun is viewed as the power of the Almighty.

They are not worshipping the sun, but praying to the Almighty, and the sun is a sign and symbol for that. Native Americans show less interest in an afterlife unlike the Christians. They assume the souls of the dead go to another part of the universe where they have a new existence carrying on everyday activities like they were still alive. They are just in a different world.

The religious and ceremonial life of the Hopi centers in the kiva, which is simply a room, wholly or partly subterranean and entered by way of ladder through an opening in the flat roof. While the membership of the kiva consists principally of men and boys from certain clan or clans, there is no case in which all the members of a kiva belong to one clan- a condition inseparable from the provision that a man may change his kiva membership, and in fact made necessary by the existence of more clans than kivas. It is probable, nevertheless, that originally the kivas were clan institutions.”

Snake Priest

The Hopi or “Hopituh Shi-nu-mu” meaning “The Peaceful People” or the “Peaceful Little Ones” are a well know Indian Nation in Northern Arizona, especially known for their “Kachina Dolls”. The Navajo name for the Hopi is Anazazi which means “ancient enemies”. The Hopi’s are a very peaceful tribe whose reservation lies somewhat in the center of the Navajo Nation and although the co-exist because of their geography their relationship is somewhat strained because of their tribal histories.

The cliff painting of the Mesa Verde and other areas are said to be “guides” for their warriors and they claim that the “snake-shaped” mounds in the eastern United States were built by their ancestors.

The “Snake Dance” is performed even today although the picture is of a Snake Priest Circa 1890. The dance takes about two weeks to prepare and the snakes are gathered and watched over by the children. The snakes are usually rattle snakes and are dangerous but no harm seems to befall the children. Before the dance begins the dancers take an emetic (probably a sedative herb or hallucinogenic) and then dance with the snakes in their mouths. There is usually an Antelope Priest in attendance who helps with the dance, sometimes stroking the snakes with a feather or supporting their weight. After the dance the snakes are released to carry the prayers of the dancers.

Beside the trail that leads from the Hopi mesas to an ancient shrine where salt was gathered in the Grand Canyon, a large boulder bears the markings of clans which carved their emblems into the rock each time they passed on a pilgrimage.

From various quarters, the Hopi have brought with them in their migration from other regions or have borrowed from other pueblo a mass of religious practices, and the result is a complex presenting many anomalies and obscurities. They recognize a very large number of deities, and of none can it be said that he is supreme. The explanation may be that that each was the principal deity of some one group that entered into the making of the present Hopi people. Numerous ceremonies are performed at proscribed times, which are determined by the position of the rising sun with reference to certain landmarks or by the moon.



Hopi Medicine Wheel

In the Hopi Medicine Wheel of the Hopi prophecyof the four peoples of the Earth, the cardinal direction North represents the body, plants and animals, the color white and ‘white skinned peoples’, and Childhood. (can also represent birth, and/or meeting a stranger and learning to trust as in infancy, explained in Erik Erikson’s stages of Psychosocial development).

The East is held to represent the mind, air, the color yellow and ‘yellow skinned peoples’, learning the groups to which people belong and Adolescence.

The South holds the heart, fire, the color red and ‘red skinned peoples’, and Adulthood.

Finally West holds the spirit, water, the color blue or black, and ‘black-skinned peoples’ and Elderhood. West also represents the final life stage in the wheel, being an elder and passing on knowledge to the next generation so that the wheel may start again just like the circle it takes after.

In many other tribes, however, the Northern direction corresponds to Adulthood (the White Buffalo), the South represents Childhood (the Serpent), the West represents Adolescence (the Bear) and the Eastern direction represents Death and Re-birth (Eagle). In terms of social dynamics, community building and the use of Circles in Restorative Justice work, the four quadrants of the circle correspond to Introductions.



Star Knowledge – Ant People

Native Americans followed the movements of the celestial markers – much as we do today. They called it Star Knowledge. Beyond the land where they lived, was the sky, and that beyond were dimensional portals or sky holes.Beyond that was an area that they called the Ocean of Pitch, were the beauty of the night sky and the galaxies spun out towards them. Beyond that were the boundaries of the universe. And that set along the rim at the boundaries of the universe were 4 different exterrestrial groups.

The Hopis called the Pleiadians the Chuhukon, meaning those who cling together. They considered themselves direct descendents of the Pleiadians. The Navajos named the Pleiades the Sparkling Suns or the Delyahey, the home of the Black God. The Iroquois pray to them for happiness. The Cree came to have come to earth from the stars in spirit form first and then became flesh and blood.

Each year a medicine man performs the green corn dance where he takes 7 ears of corn from 7 fields of the 7 clans to insure a healthy harvest. Early Dakota stories speak of the Tiyami home of the ancestors as being the Pleiades. Astronomy tells us that the Pleiades rise with the sun in May and that when you die your spirit returns south to the seven sisters.

They believe that Mythic Mountain is actually the home of the Kachinas. This mountain top is a sacred one. Being the home of the kachina spirits it is the place where all of the large mythic beings they honor in their rituals land. “We come as clouds to bless the Hopi people” is a quote passed from generation to generation.

There are some remarkable drawings that appear to be luminous discs of light in the petroglyphs all along the south west. Photographs of Billy Meier’s Pleiadian space and beam ships look just like these rock petroglyphs from long ago.



The Snake People and the Ant People


The Apache and other Pueblo Indians, such as the Zunis and Hopi, have legends about their ancestors emerging from an underground world, generally after some cataclysmic event, as if a cycle in time, or another reboot in the programmed realitiesof the human experiment, always linked to star gods, or star people, who brought them here from outer space.

They speak of the Snake People (metaphor for human DNA) and the Ant People (gray aliens,) who protected them beneath the surface. Physical reality is a metaphor for ‘beneath the surface’. To rise above is to return to higher consciousness, through the Back Hole (Eye of Time) or the Stargate of human creation.

Hopi Prophecyspeaks of the return of the Blue Kachina, or Star People at the end of this cycle of time.

Imprint of a gray alien placed in my crystal, while I meditated in the mountains of Sedona.



Present DayToday there are 12 Hopi villages on or below the three mesas, with Moencopi to the west (on Dinetah), and Keams Canyon to the east. Each village has its own village chief, and each contributes to the annual cycle its own ceremonies. Each village presents its own distinct cast of katsinam, and each village has maintained its own balance of engagement with the Euro-American culture and traditional Hopi practices and views.

Today, the Hopi Indians are divided into to traditional –which preserve ancient lands and customs, and new – who work with outsiders. The Hopi Indians today love their traditions, arts, and land, but also love the modern American life. Their kids go to school and they use medical centers.  The Hopi live and work outside of the reservations. Troubles with the Navajo whose reservations surround the Hopi still continue today.

There are now eight Hopi pueblos, all of them on the tops of mesas. The Hopi villages were established on their present almost inaccessible sites for purposes of defense; and with the same object in view the builders formerly never left a door in the outer walls of the first story, access to the rooms invariably being through hatchways in the roof.

They speak of the Snake People (metaphor for human DNA) and the Ant People (gray aliens,) who protected them beneath the surface. Physical reality is a metaphor for ‘beneath the surface’. To rise above is to return to higher consciousness, through the Back Hole (Eye of Time) or the Stargate of human creation.


ca. 1600− Lipan Apaches enter Texas from Great Plains; claim area around San Antonio as homeland and call it “Many Houses;” Lipans develop a tribal identity−Lipan means “Light Gray People.”
ca. 1650− Lipans develop a trade route to the Pecos Pueblo by following Rio Grande upriver to the Pecos. Lipans call Pecos Pueblo “White House.” Look the map



Trans peco


The lipan Indian picture

Indians, Missionaries, Soldiers, and Settlers:
History of the El Paso Valley


Missions and presidio at El Paso del Norte. Inset of 1727 map by Francisco Álvarez Barreiro, “Plano Corographñco de el Reyno y Provincia de el Nuevo Mexico una de las Nueva España…”. Paintings of Indios and Spaniards from O’Crouley 1747. Map courtesy of the Center for American History, University of Texas at Austin (di03656). See full map.


The history of the El Paso missions and settlements is one of amalgamation of European and native cultures and, with few exceptions, the loss of identities of once-distinct native groups. Before the arrival of the Spanish, El Paso had been inhabited for thousands of years by hunting and gathering peoples. Around A.D. 400, native peoples of the area began living in pithouse villages and experimenting with crops. Through time they built larger and more complex villages and by A.D. 1200, they were living in pueblos, relying heavily on crops for food, and participating in trade with peoples across the American Southwest and northern Mexico. Around A.D. 1450, the pueblos of El Paso were abandoned and the people who remained in the region reverted to the mobile hunting and gathering lifestyle of their ancestors. In their early expeditions to the El Paso area, the Spanish explorers encountered two groups of Native Americans whom they referred to as the Mansos and the Sumas. The Mansos occupied the Rio Grande in the immediate area of El Paso, north to Las Cruces. The Sumas were found along the Rio Grande southeast of El Paso, as well as in portions of northern Chihuahua, Mexico. Both groups lived in small communities, or rancherías, of primitive structures consisting of straw, brush, or poles. They may have also slept outside on beds of grass while in more temporary camps. Neither practiced horticulture, but subsisted primarily on rabbits, rats, fish, mesquite beans, mescal, prickly pear, agave, yucca, and various roots and seeds. Both groups wore body paint and little clothing, and carried bows, arrows, and clubs. The Spanish described the Sumas as participating in ceremonies or communal gatherings involving intoxication. Whether this involved some form of fermented beverage or hallucinogen, such as peyote, is unclear. The first recorded Spanish expedition, or entrada, to pass through El Paso was the Rodríguez/Chamuscado entrada of 1581. Hernán Gallegos, chronicler of the expedition, described the area south of present-day El Paso as suitable for ranches and cultivation, but reported no people living there. Two years later, Antonio de Espejo and his expedition camped in an area south of El Paso which he described as having very good land and climate, with buffalo herds nearby, abundant game and birds, mineral deposits, many forests and pasture lands, rich natural deposits of salt, and abundant water in large marshes and pools. Here they encountered Sumas who brought the explorers such large quantities of mesquite, corn, and fish that they feasted for three days, and much of it still went to waste. These people, who must have numbered more than a thousand men and women, and who are settled in their rancherías and grass huts, came out to receive us…. Each one brought us his present of mesquital, which is made of a fruit like the carob bean, fish of many kinds, which are very plentiful in those lagoons, and other kinds of their food, in such quantity that the greater part spoiled because the amount they gave us was so great.
–Antonio de Espejo, 1583

The Entry of Don Juan de Oñate

The most important entrada to pass through El Paso was the Oñate entrada. In 1595, King Phillip II of Spain appointed Don Juan de Oñate as governor, captain general, caudillo, discoverer, and pacifier of New Mexico, a territory that had not yet been conquered. The purpose of the entrada was both to find riches for Spain and to convert the native population to Christianity. Oñate was commanded to “attract” the native people he encountered to the Catholic faith with peace, friendship, and good treatment.

The promise of titles, riches, and adventure coaxed many Spaniards like Oñate to financially support their own expeditions. The son of a wealthy silver mine developer, Oñate arranged to lead 400 soldiers, 130 families, 1000 head of cattle, 1000 head of sheep, and 150 mares on a trek across the dune seas of the Chihuahuan desert. In late January 1598, Onate and his party departed from Santa Barbara in southern Chihuahua, Mexico. While previous Spanish expeditions to the Trans-Pecos region (of what is now Texas) and New Mexico had followed an established northbound course along the Río Conchos, Oñate chose his route as a shortcut. Crossing the desert resulted in many hardships as the company struggled for survival. They traveled for four days without shelter or fresh water in hopeless search of “el paso por las moñtanas”-a pass through the mountains-that would allow them to continue west. To their relief they came upon the Rio Grande and followed it upstream to present-day San Elizario, Texas.

On this site on April 30 1598, Oñate held a ceremony to formally take possession of all the land surrounding the Rio Grande in the name of King Phillip II of Spain. Oñate gave a sermon thanking God for delivering them safely across the harsh desert. His speech was witnessed and a written copy notarized by Juan Perez de Donis, royal notary and secretary of the jurisdiction and expedition, so that it could become a legal claim to the land for the King in the eyes of Spain. The ceremony, an event also known as “La Toma,” marked the beginning of over 200 years of Spanish rule in Texas. The celebration was concluded with a play written by Captain Marcos Farfán de los Gados. Although copies of the play have not survived, it is likely the first theatrical piece written in what is now the United States.

On May 1, 1598, the entrada continued traveling up the Rio Grande and within three days met their first native people. They were armed with bow and arrow, but offered as their first words “manxo, manxo, micos, micos,” which meant “peaceful ones” and “friends.” From these words, the Spanish derived the name, Mansos. The Indians also made the Sign of the Cross, considered by some to be evidence that the expeditions of Francisco Vasquez Coronado or Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca had passed through El Paso. The Mansos led the company to a ford on the river that they commonly used and helped them to cross it. The entrada then continued up the river until it reached present-day El Paso. Here, the river flowed through a break in the mountains. Termed “El Paso del Río del Norte—the pass of the north—it would serve as the Spanish gateway to the West.

Soon after leaving the pass, the entrada encountered a Manso village. Oñate and his men presented the Mansos with clothing and the Mansos repaid them with fish freshly caught from the river. In an act of thanksgiving, Oñate arranged for a feast to be held in honor of the company’s miraculous survival and asked the Mansos to be their guests. The banquet included fish, duck, and geese as well as supplies from the entrada’s stores. Though not a harvest celebration, this act of thanksgiving was the first to be celebrated in what is now the United States.

The entrada continued well into present-day New Mexico where Oñate established the first European settlements in the region. He sent out scouting parties in all directions to search for gold and silver, but they returned empty-handed. With no gold, silver, or other significant resources to be gained, the company fell into disarray. Oñate’s soldiers began to demand tribute from the Pueblo people of New Mexico. When the people of the Acoma pueblo refused and rose up against the Spanish, Oñate cruelly punished them by killing 800 people, enslaving 500, and cutting the left foot off of all men over the age of 25. Formal charges were brought against Oñate for mismanagement which claimed that he had become oblivious to the needs of the colonists and falsified information about the entrada’s findings in reports to the King. In 1607 Oñate resigned command of New Mexico and returned to Spain to face charges.

Don Juan de Oñate is a controversial historical figure. To the Spanish, he was the “pacifier of the west,” credited with establishing Spain’s legal claim to New Spain, opening a portal to the west, and colonizing New Mexico. To the native people of New Mexico, however, he was a cruel tyrant who invaded their lands.

Establishment of Missions

After the founding of Santa Fe in 1609, El Paso became a critical point in the long north-south route of communication and trade (soon to be known as the Camino Real) between the Mexican interior and the missions and Spanish settlements of the province of New Mexico. The Franciscan Father Custodian Alonso de Benavides spent much time in the El Paso area during the early part of the 17th century, and recommended that a mission and presidio be built among the Mansos to convert and settle them, as well as guard the highway to New Mexico and develop mines and farms in the area.

Between 1656 and 1659, the conversion of the Mansos of El Paso and the nearby Sumas and Janos began in earnest. Fray García de San Francisco, Fray Francisco de Salazar, and a group of Christian Piros from New Mexico began the aggregation of most of the Manso rancherías into settled habitations. In 1659, they established Mission Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe del Rio del Norte de los Mansos on the south side of the Rio Grande in present-day Ciudad Juárez for the Mansos. In 1665, Fray García and Fray Benito de la Natividad established the missions of San Francisco de la Toma for the Sumas and La Soledad for the Janos. Guadalupe de los Mansos was situated at a strategic location at the pass of the Rio Grande and became the mother church for El Paso. Over the next several years, the crude structures of the early complex were replaced with more permanent buildings. At a dedication ceremony of its church in 1668, 400 Mansos were present. In addition to the local Mansos, the mission served Piros, Sumas, Tanos, Tiguas, Tompiros, Apaches, and Jumanos who had been forced to flee their homelands by famine, disease, and warfare. By 1680, the mission ministered to over 2,000 native people.

Exodus from the North

A violent upheaval among the native peoples of the upper Rio Grande missions in New Mexico brought drastic change to the missions of El Paso. The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 left more than 400 Spanish colonists, 21 Franciscan missionaries, and 346 native people dead in New Mexico. Santa Fe was abandoned and more than 2,000 Spanish refugees and 317 Piros, Tiguas, Tompiros, Tanos, and Jemez retreated to El Paso. It is not clear whether these native people were loyal to the Spanish or were their slaves and hostages. The native people settled at Guadalupe de los Mansos while the Spanish settled in camps at San Pedro de Alcántara, Real del Santisimo Sacramento, and San Lorenzo de la Toma. Governor Antonio de Otermín made an attempt to reconquer New Mexico in the winter of 1681-1682, but was unsuccessful. On his trip back to El Paso, Otermín stopped at Isleta and burned the Tigua Pueblo there, taking its 385 residents hostage. Only 305 survived the trip to El Paso.

The Spanish now realized that the reconquest of New Mexico was not going to happen quickly and made arrangements for an indefinite stay, establishing El Paso as the temporary capital of New Mexico. Because they were considered temporary settlers, the New Mexicans were permitted to plant their crops wherever they considered it most convenient. They soon began to encroach on lands that belonged to the Mansos, Sumas, and Janos, making for uneasy neighbors. The large number of captive Tiguas now in El Paso further increased tensions between the native people and Spanish. The situation worsened when Apache raiders began to shift their activities south, from the recently abandoned New Mexico missions to El Paso.

In 1682, Otermín attempted to stabilize the situation by founding the missions of Corpus Christi de la Ysleta (Ysleta del Sur) for the Tiguas, San Antonio de Senecú for the Piros and Tompiros, and Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Conceptión del Socorro for the Piros, Tanos, and Jemez. These missions, particularly Socorro, strongly resembled the missions of New Mexico in their construction materials and use of native decorative elements.

In 1683, newly elected Governor Jironza Petríz de Cruzate established the Presidio de Nuestra Señora del Pilar y Glorioso San José at San Pedro de Alcántara and, with Fray Nicolas López, reorganized the Spanish and native settlements, establishing two new missions for the Sumas called Santa Gertrudis del Ojito de Samalayuca and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Sumas. The Spanish now lived at San Lorenzo, Ysleta, San Pedro, and Señor San José, a new settlement at the presidio. The Piros resided at Socorro and Senecú, the Tompiros at Senecú, the Sumas at San Francisco, Santa Gertrudis, and Guadalupe de los Sumas, the Mansos at Guadalupe de los Mansos, the Tiguas at Sacramento and Ysleta, the Janos at La Soledad, and the Tanos and Jemez at Socorro.

Revolt in El Paso

But the establishment of missions and a presidio did little to quell the unrest of the native people of El Paso. Along with Indians of northern Chihuahua, they were pushed over the edge by widespread famine in the winter of 1683-1684, caused by the strain that the influx of people to the area had put on local resources. In the spring of 1684, the Mansos revolted along with the Sumas, Janos, Julimes, Apaches, Conchos, and other groups, while the Piros, Tiguas, and a small number of Mansos remained loyal to the Spanish. Many of the disaffected were young men 20-30 years old who had been inspired by the success of the New Mexico Pueblo Revolt. In El Paso, the settlements of Socorro, Santa Gertrudis, and San Francisco participated in the revolt. Most of the missionized Mansos deserted El Paso and gathered at the rancherías of the unconverted Mansos and Sumas.

The revolt was so devastating that Cruzate was forced to move the Presidio San José closer to Guadalupe de los Mansos at the pass of the Rio Grande and gather all of the Spanish and native people who remained loyal around it for protection. It was renamed the Presidio Paso del Rio and a Spanish settlement called Paso del Norte sprung up around it. San Lorenzo, Socorro, Senecú, and Ysleta were relocated to the area of the presidio and San Pedro, San José, and Guadalupe de los Sumas were abandoned. Santa Gertrudis, San Francisco, and Sacramento had been destroyed in the revolt and were not rebuilt. Driven by hunger, the Sumas returned late in 1684 to Guadalupe de los Sumas, but many of the Mansos continued to revolt until 1686. Most of the native people who participated in the revolt never returned to the missions of El Paso. They had been brought closer together by their experience and developed a common identity as “Apache,” which came to mean hostile bands that opposed Spanish ways.

In 1691, the mission of Nuestro Padre San Francisco was established for the Mansos who remained in El Paso. In early 1692, the mission of San Diego de los Sumas was established to replace Guadalupe de los Sumas. In the spring and summer of that year, newly elected Governor Diego de Vargas, 40 Spanish soldiers, and 50 Tigua and Piro warriors reconquered New Mexico. The following year, 500 Spanish and native families returned to New Mexico, depleting the populations of many of the El Paso settlements. The native population was further reduced at the end of the century by a smallpox epidemic.

Life in the Missions

The native people who remained in El Paso lived in clusters of jacal structures loosely arranged around central plazas in the vicinity of the missions. They served the friars of the missions by working their fields, tending their gardens, bringing them firewood, and performing various domestic tasks for them. They also served as wage laborers, and sometimes forced laborers, for building projects. Though corn continued to be their most important crop, the mission inhabitants adopted European cultigens and livestock, such as wheat, various fruits, cows, goats, sheep, pigs, and chickens. The Franciscan visitor general praised the work of the native peoples in his 1754 report:

The Indians of [Ysleta] have their gardens adorned with beautiful grapevines, peach trees, apple trees, and good vegetables, and the garden of the convent imitates them in providing delight to the eyes and satisfaction to the taste. All the cultivation is due to the annual presence of the gardener and the sons [of the mission], who come to the convent every week with the boys needed for the daily cleaning of the cells; they also provide the other workers – a bellringer, porter, cook, two sacristans, and the Indian women needed to grind the wheat.
–Fray Miguel de San Juan Nepomuceno y Trigo, 1754

Continuing traditions that stretched back into prehistoric times, they made tools of chipped stone, using raw materials procured from local gravel deposits. They also revived the earlier tradition of making brownware utility vessels, using local clays. They still depended to differing degrees on wild resources, such as mesquite, prickly pear, deer, rabbit, antelope, and various bird species, and used riverine species such as turtle, fish, and shellfish as supplemental resources.

In 1707, the mission of Santa María Magdalena was established for the Sumas, but they rose up in revolt against the Spanish in 1710, then fled to the Organ Mountains to join the Apaches. In 1726, three Suma groups were settled at Guadalupe de los Sumas, which had been revived, Carrizal in northeastern Chihuahua, and San Lorenzo, which had previously been a Spanish settlement. Later that year, non-missionized Sumas revolted with the Apaches and Cholomes. The Spanish established the mission of Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Caldas for these Sumas in 1730. The Sumas who settled at the mission revolted in 1745 killing one Spaniard, and again in 1749 destroying the mission and fleeing to join the other Sumas in the mountains. The mission at San Lorenzo was abandoned by the Sumas in 1754, but resettled by a different group of Sumas in 1765.





 Artist’s depiction of native people of the Rio Grande. The Sumas, characterized by tattooed or painted faces, and the Mansos, known for their distinctive red-plastered hair, were groups that early Spanish explorers encountered in the El Paso area. The Mansos were so named because their first words to the Oñate expedition were “manxo, manxo, micos, micos,” which meant “peaceful ones” and “friends.” Photograph of display, El Paso Museum of Archeology, by Susan Dial.



Historic Timeline

  • ·  1581   Rodríguez/Chamuscado
  • ·  1583   Espejo entrada
  • ·  1598   Oñate entrada
  • ·  1609   Santa Fe established
  • ·  1659   Guadalupe de los Mansos mission established


 Passage of the Rio Grande, as shown in a circa 1850s lithograph. When the Oñate entrada reached present-day El Paso, it found that the river flowed through a break between the mountains. Named “El Paso del Río del Norte,” the pass would serve as the Spanish doorway to the West.


 In an act of thanksgiving for their safe passage across the Chihuahuan desert, the Oñate entrada arranged for a feast to be held and asked the Mansos to be their guests. This thanksgiving was the first to be celebrated in what is now the United States, a full 23 years before that of the Pilgrims at the Plymouth Colony. Painting by Jose Cisneros, courtesy of the University of Texas at El Paso Library and the artist.


 During the 1650s, Spanish priests began converting the Mansos, Sumas, and Janos of El Paso to Christianity and settling them in missions. Photo of mural at Guadalupe church in Juarez by Margaret Howard.


 “The Plaza and Church of El Paso,” painted by artist A. de Vauducourt during the 1850s, depicts the mission of Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe de los Mansos. Founded for the Mansos in 1659, the mission was the first to be established in the El Paso area. Today the carefully restored church stands in downtown Ciudad Juárez. Click to see the church as it appears today.


 Map of significant towns and pueblos during the Pueblo Revolt of 1680. Following the violent upheaval, a large number of Tigua, Piro, Tompiro, Tano, and Jemez refugees and hostages accompanied the Spanish to El Paso where the missions of Corpus Christi de la Ysleta, San Antonio de Senecú, and Nuestra Señora de la Limpia Conceptión del Socorro were established for them. This map depicts Ysleta and Socorro in their present-day locations on the north bank of the Rio Grande. Image from Martinez 2000, reprinted by permission of the El Paso Community Foundation.


 The mud-plastered jacal structures and outdoor ovens in this early 1900s photograph are probably very similar to those constructed by the native people of El Paso in the early 18th century. They were loosely arranged around central plazas in the vicinity of the missions. Photo from the Smithsonian Institution National Museum of American History.


 Corpus Christi de la Ysleta del Sur was established for the Tiguas in 1682. Though it has been at the mercy of floods and fires over the years, the mission and church were rebuilt on successive occasions. Ysleta and nearby Mission Socorro church are the two oldest, continuously active parishes in Texas. Photograph by Susan Dial.


 Saint Anthony of Padua, patron saint of the original Tigua mission and pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico, and the new mission and pueblo of Ysleta, Texas. Despite several changes to the mission’s name throughout the years, the Tiguas always considered Saint Anthony, who died in 1231, to be their patron saint and protector.


 Grapes growing on a Spanish arbor. In addition to their own domesticates, the native people of El Paso grew European crops, such as wheat, grapes, peaches, and other fruits. During his visit to El Paso in 1760, Bishop Don Pedro Tamarón y Romeral said of the missions that, “They maintain a large number of vineyards, from which they make generoso wines even better than those from Parras.. It is delightful country in summer..” Photograph by Carly Whelan.




 Inset from ca. 1740s map of New Mexico showing missions, presidios, and settlements along the Rio del Norte and El Paso valley (the label, Riego de las Missiones, refers to the irrigation canals emanating from the river). Shown are San Lorenzo (17); Ysleta del Sur (18); Socorro del Sur (19); Santa Maria de las Caldas (21) as well as the Presidio del Paso del Norte (15). The small structure shown as 20 may be Hacienda de los Tiburcios which was later the site of the Presidio and settlement of San Elizario. The map was drawn by Fray Juan Miguel Menchero following an inspection tour of the province during the 1740s.


Defense against Apache Raiders

Apache raids for livestock became common in El Paso during the first half of the eighteenth century. They increased after 1760, due to Spanish military pressure in New Mexico, pressure from Comanche groups in the east, and stress brought on by drought and the Spanish slave trade for the silver mines. During the 1770s, the line of presidios along the frontier of New Spain was relocated by the Spanish government for more effective defense against raids by hostile Apache groups. The presidio at Paso del Norte was relocated to Carrizal in 1773 and the Presidio de Nuestra Señora de las Caldas de Guajoquilla was relocated from Jiménez in northeast Chiahuahua to the Valle de San Elceario in 1774. In 1789 the Presidio de San Elceario, or San Elizario as it came to be known, was moved 60 kilometers (some 37 miles) upriver to the abandoned site of the Hacienda of Los Tiburcios. After several years of construction, the presidio and church of Nuestra Señora del Pilar y el Glorioso San José were completed in 1793.

The Spanish attempted to coax peaceful Apache groups into settlement around the new presidio by offering them rations. Some Mescalero Apaches from southern New Mexico accepted the invitation, but many groups refused. Others pretended to be interested in peace only to receive rations from the presidio, then left to raid other settlements. The Spanish government responded to the failure of the frontier presidios to protect its people from attack by launching more frequent campaigns against hostile Apache groups and encouraging them to fight with each other. But this only caused the Apache groups to increase their attacks against the frontier settlements of New Spain, particularly Socorro and San Elizario. Despite frequent attacks, the settlement of San Elizario quickly sprung up around the presidio, soon becoming second only to Paso del Norte in population in El Paso. Apache raids became a permanent fixture of life at El Paso until 1880, when the last hostile Apache groups were finally defeated by Mexican and American forces.

In the 1780s, a major smallpox epidemic ravaged both the Spanish and native people of El Paso, reducing the Sumas to extinction. The disease was not brought under control until vaccinations became available in 1805. The only settlements that remained in El Paso at the start of the nineteenth century were Guadalupe de los Mansos, Paso del Norte, San Elizario, San Lorenzo, Senecú, Ysleta, and Socorro. Three years after Mexican independence from Spain in 1821, the settlements of El Paso became part of Chihuahua. In 1829, a devastating flood changed the course of the Rio Grande. The old river channel continued to flow trapping Socorro, Ysleta, and San Elizario on an island for several years.

Becoming American

In the middle of the 19th century, El Paso became a center for trade between the United States and Mexico. A customs house was established in Paso del Norte in 1835 to regulate the caravans traveling from Chihuahua to Santa Fe and back. This trade route was soon connected to Saint Louis, Missouri, and Anglo entrepreneurs flocked to El Paso to make their fortunes as merchants, traders, and freighters. In 1836, Texas won its independence from Mexico and claimed the Rio Grande as its western boundary. The boundary was finalized by the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848 and American troops were sent to El Paso to enforce the claim. With the troops came an influx of Anglo officials, adventurers, and settlers. After the discovery of gold in California the following year, El Paso became a major jumping off point for Americans headed west. Many of them decided to remain in El Paso and soon five settlements had been founded on the Texas side of the river, including one directly across from Paso del Norte called Franklin. In 1859, Franklin was renamed El Paso, causing a considerable amount of confusion until Paso del Norte was renamed Ciudád Juarez in 1888. When the Rio Grande finished changing its course in 1852, it left Socorro, Ysleta, and San Elizario on the north side of the river, making them legally part of Texas. As a result, Ysleta became the oldest mission and pueblo in Texas.

The influx of Anglos to El Paso in the 19th century created tension with the Hispanic and native inhabitants of the area, at times leading to violent clashes, such as the San Elizario Salt War of 1877. The most contentious issue between the two groups was their differing laws regarding land transactions and property ownership. In 1751, King Charles V of Spain had issued each pueblo in New Spain a land holding that was to be free from trespass and settlement by non-native peoples. The protected status of this land was reaffirmed several times by Spanish law during the late 18th century, and by Mexican law during the early 19th century. In 1840, Texas adopted English common law, but recognized land grants that had been issued under Spanish and Mexican law. As Anglos began to flood into El Paso, however, they demanded that the Hispanic and native landholders provide legal titles to prove their ownership of the land. Legal titles were very expensive to obtain, thus many landholders could not prove that the land they occupied had been granted to them under Spanish or Mexican law. Those without legal titles were removed from the land to make way for Anglo settlers.

Land owned by native people fell under the jurisdiction of the U.S. federal government, but the native people of El Paso had great difficulty getting their status recognized. By the mid 19th century, most native groups of El Paso had intermarried with each other and the Spanish to such an extent that they had lost their ethnic identity. The Tiguas were the only distinctive native group left in El Paso, but the Texas government would not recognize them. Texas regarded the Tiguas as “inhabitants,” rather than “Indians,” meaning that their land could be acquired by the state under the doctrine of eminent domain. Although they originally had been granted more than 35 square miles of land by the Spanish, rights to this land had been in dispute over the years and much of it lost. In 1871, the Texas Legislature illegally incorporated the Ysleta Pueblo and its land into El Paso County, then seized most of the land under eminent domain. In the next three years, 304 conveyances of Tigua land were made to Anglo settlers. The act of incorporation was reversed in 1874, but in the two months before it took effect, another 254 conveyances took place, leaving the Tiguas with almost no land.

In 1881, the railroad arrived in the tiny town of El Paso. Within months, the town had been linked by rail to Santa Fe, Mexico City, and both coasts of the United States. Railroad service was the key to regional commercial and agricultural development at the time, and by 1890 El Paso had been transformed into a bustling frontier community of more than 10,000 people. Though the coming of the railroad meant prosperity for the Anglos of El Paso, it caused conditions to worsen for its few remaining native people. After being stripped of their land, many native people had turned to cottage industries to support themselves, but cheap industrial products shipped in on the railroad soon replaced the demand for native handicrafts.

Though the population of El Paso had been a heterogeneous mix of Spaniards and many different native groups after the Pueblo Revolt of 1680, the native people slowly lost their identities during the following centuries. The native groups of Socorro were the first to intermingle with the Spanish and each other, and by the end of the 18th century they referred to themselves largely as mestizo. By the middle of the 19th century most of the native groups of El Paso had lost their ethnic identities, and by the end of it the settlements of Ysleta, Senecú, San Lorenzo, and Socorro resembled any other Mexican town. Though the people of Ysleta identified themselves as Tiguas and the people of Senecú as Piros, they could no longer speak their native languages and could not explain the significance behind their rituals. Some in the El Paso area still identified themselves as Mansos and Apaches, but engaged in the same rituals as the Tiguas and Piros. San Lorenzo and Socorro had been thoroughly Mexicanized and their inhabitants did not identify themselves as native people at all. During the 20th century, those who wished to preserve their native heritage joined the Tiguas in Ysleta, the only native group who still maintained any sense of their identity. Today the Tiguas are the only surviving native group in El Paso and they observe celebrations deriving from native and Catholic traditions.

 Lipan Apache on the trail, drawn circa 1858 during a U.S. Mexican border survey. Apache raids became common in El Paso during the first half of the 18th century and increased after 1760, due to Spanish military pressure in New Mexico, pressure from Comanche groups in the east, and stress brought on by drought and the Spanish slave trade for the silver mines.


 In 1789 the Presidio de San Elizario was established in present-day San Elizario to protect the people of the El Paso area from Apache raids. This image, from “A Personal Narrative of Explorations and Incidents” by John Russell Bartlett, was drawn in 1850 after the structure had fallen into ruins.


 In 1793 the church Nuestra Señora del Pilar y el Glorioso San José was completed adjacent to the Presidio de San Elizario. The settlement of San Elizario sprung up around the presidio and church, soon becoming second only to Paso del Norte in population in the El Paso area. The structure shown was restored in 1877. Historic American Buildings Survey photo, Library of Congress.


 Shrine to Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe in the Ysleta church. The native people of El Paso integrated Catholicism with their own religions to create a unique system of beliefs that can still be seen today in Tigua religious ritual. Photograph by Susan Dial.


 Inset of boundary map between the United States and Mexico, reflecting changes under the Treaty of Dec. 30, 1853, as surveyed by William H. Emory, U.S. Commissioner in 1855. The movement of the Rio Grande to a new channel south of its original course (denoted as Old River or Rio Viejo) effectively brought the towns and missions of Ysleta, Socorro, and San Elizario into Texas and the United States. Map courtesy of National Archives.
See larger version and full map.


 By the end of the nineteenth century, most native people in El Paso had lost their native identity and considered themselves mestizos. During the twentieth century, those who wished to preserve their native heritage joined the Tiguas in Ysleta. Today the Tiguas are the only surviving native group in El Paso. Photograph by Bob Parvin. Courtesy of the Texas Historical Commission.
ca. 1670− In response to severe drought, Lipan tribe splits into 2 divisions: Plains Lipans (who move into upper Colorado River region) & Forest Lipans (who return to San Antonio area). Plains Lipans acquire horses from Jumanos and pueblos of New Mexico. Forest Lipans acquire horses from pueblo of La Junta (Presidio, TX).
1674− Mission San Ildefonso de la Paz founded on Rio Escondido of Coahuila near later site of villa of Zaragosa. San Ildefonso soon abandoned.
1700− Comanches enter Texas and begin to contest the Plains Lipans for control of the high plains of Texas.
1703− Mission San Francisco Solano revived on site of older San Ildefonso mission (Coahuila).
1708− San Francisco Solano moved to the Rio Grande.
1716− Presidio San Antonio de Béxar and small church founded at San Pedro Springs (Texas) but both burn down within 2 years.
May 1718− Béxar presidio moved to a site west of the San Antonio River. The Solano mission on the Rio Grande is dismantled and moved to the San Antonio River; renamed Mission San Antonio de Valero.
1715−1720 Comanches and Lipans fight epic 9-day battle in Red River Basin. Lipan corpses are “left in piles like leaves.”
1720−1725 Lipans begin sporadic raids against San Antonio; horse thefts escalate- up to ¼ of presidio’s saddle horse herd stolen at one time. Presidio troops begin retaliatory military campaigns. Nicholas Flores y Valdez follows Lipan horse thieves to Brazos River, attacks a ranchería, captures Lipan prisoners and recovering horses.
1726−1730 All quiet at San Antonio; no raids.
1730− 56 Canary Island settlers arrive at San Antonio; are offered land west of presidio but deem area too exposed to Lipan raids. Settle between presidio and mission. Found villa of San Fernando de Béxar.
1730− Lipan Apaches declare war on San Antonio; attacks escalate on anyone who ventures out of villa.
1731− On Sept. 18th, over 500 Lipan warriors ambush and attack 20 Spanish troops. Just when Spaniards think the end is near, Lipans break off attack.
1745− On the night of June 30th, over 300 Lipans attack the Béxar presidio, setting fire to many buildings; when soldiers fire guns, Lipans break off and run down side streets seeking to attack from another direction; the Apache attackers are run off by a large body of mission Indians.
1749− The Lipan Apaches and Spanish at San Antonio celebrate a grand peace; Apache hostages are released and a large pit dug in Military Plaza. A live horse, war club, arrows and lance are placed in the pit and covered with dirt to signify the end of a state of warfare.
1750− Smallpox breaks out in Lipan camps along Guadalupe River. Lipans are convinced that epidemic was caused by mission clothing worn by newly-released hostages. Lipans move their camps to upper Nueces River. Lipans establish stolen- horses-for-guns trade with east Texas tribes.
1751− A large group of Lipan traditionalists who wish no contact with Spanish other than raiding, and led by Bigotes (Whiskers or Mustached One), break away and cross the Rio Grande into Coahuila. This break-away group calls itself Kuné tsa (Big Water People) and camps along Rio Escondido and Rio San Rodrigo (Coahuila).
1753− On Feb. 1st, villa of San Fernando de Austria is founded on Rio Escondido (Coahuila); first settlers come from families of San Juan Bautista
1754− First mission dedicated to converting the Lipan is founded at the site of the old mission of San Ildefonso (Rio Escondido, Coahuila) on Dec. 21st. Mission San Lorenzo lasts one year; during night of Oct. 4, 1755, Lipans revolt, burn mission and ride away.
1757− Second Lipan mission established on San Saba River of Texas near Menard. Mission San Sabá is burned down in 1758 during an attack by Comanches and Wichitas.
1761− Third Lipan mission is founded on upper Nueces near Camp Wood, Texas- San Lorenzo de la Santa Cruz. A second small mission is founded several miles south near Montell, Texas- Nuestra Señora de la Candelaría; both missions abandoned by Lipans within 4 years.
1763− In March, Lipans attack villa of San Fernando de Austria (Coahuila), entering town by a ruse; 7 settlers killed, 40 horses stolen.
1780− Terrible smallpox epidemic ravages Lipan camps in Texas and then spreads to camps in Coahuila. so many Lipans die that priests a la Bahía fear the numerous corpses will cause other disease. Lipan shamans, seeking an herbal cure for small- pox, adapt the use of peyote from Carrizo Indians.
1760−1800 Lipan Apaches raid intensely in south Texas, Coahuila and Nuevo Leon. A series of military campaigns fail to “tame” them until 1800.
1814− Lipan Apaches fight along side rebels fighting for Mexican independence at Battle of Medina.
1827− Villa of San Fernando de Austria changes name to San Francisco de Rosas.
1836− Lipans watch Battle of Alamo unfold and want to assist Alamo defenders. Lipan proposed aid is based on friendship with Hispanic Tejano defenders, not on ties with Bowie and Travis, and dates back to Royalist-Republican battles of 1814, particularly the Battle of Medina.
1840−1880− Lipans from both sides of Rio Grande raid in Texas and drive stolen stock into Mexico to sell in border towns.
1850− Villa of San Fernando de Rosas changes name to Zaragosa (Coahuila).
1850− Zaragosa “adopts” the Lipan Apaches, offering them a settlement area at Hacienda Patiño. Villa of Musquiz (Coahuila) “adopts” Kickapoo, who had crossed into Mexico ca. 1850. Lipans and Kickapoo begin to fight each other in Coahuila.
1850− Smallpox epidemic in Texas drives many Texas Lipans into Mexico or New Mexico.
1869− Mexican troops from Monterrey brought to Zaragosa to eliminate Lipan Apaches, who are blamed for causing trouble. Troops attack many Lipan camps; survivors flee to the Mescaleros in New Mexico.
1873− US Army commander Ranald Mackenzie crosses Rio Grande with his troops and attacks Lipan camps at El Remolino (Coahuila).
1872−1875 US Army in New Mexico begins to force Mescalero Apaches and some Lipan Apaches onto a reservation in New Mexico.
1875−1876 US Army troops undertake joint military campaigns with Mexican Army to eliminate Lipans from Coahuila.
1881− Large campaign by Mexican Army’s Diaz division (assisted by US troops) runs all Lipans out of Coahuila and into Chihuahua State.
1884− A small number of Texas Lipans are transferred to a reservation in Oklahoma (Oakland Agency).
1903− About 30 Lipans are redeemed from a cattle pen in Chihuahua City, Chihuahua (where they were held as prisoners). This group is brought to New Mexico.






The Tribal Shield


This Tribal Shield heralds all that is Lipan, all that was Lipan, and all that will be Lipan and all these Truths reside with in the Sacred Hoop of Life.


Fourteen bones each engraved with an arrow, separated by four colored beads form a circle. Our Ancestors are represented by the bones.


Mountains, river, sky, desert, plants and a buffalo with calf are with in the confines of this circle.


Four Eagle feathers are carefully wrapped and hang in quiet eloquence from this Circle of Life.


To our Grandmothers and Grandfathers we owe honor and reverence.


Arranged in a ring, this speaks to the Circle of Life.


Fourteen arrows signify fourteen bands and the arrows track in a circular motion from East to West, a pathway Sacred to our People.


The beads that unite our Ancestors and clans together are painted in the colors of the East (black), the West (Yellow), the South (Blue), and the North (White).  The pattern is of life and blessing prayers with smoke.


The People of the Forest and the People of the Plains, all of the Nde are seen as one family under the Great Sky of blue. Nopalito and Yucca plants reveal how the land gives life as food, medicine, and provides for gifts of shelter and daily needs.


At the very center of all is the Buffalo, for he represents the hunt and the knowledge that Creator will provide for His People. Standing within the Buffalo is a white and pure calf, a symbol of rebirth and strength of a new generation. Here is the promise to teach the children of the old ways, to preserve the traditions, language, and culture of all that is Lipan Apache.


In prayers to the Creator for all that has past, all that is, and all that will be are four Eagle feathers. The ties that unite the Feathers to the Sacred Hoop of Life are red for the blood of the People and are wrapped in sinew four times, as the number four is a metaphor that names the Lipan Apache. The Feathers are the gift of Creator for prayer and through His Will; the Lipan Apache People will endure. And having been prepared, the Lipan Apache will walk in Beauty.






The centerpiece of Cornell’s American Indian holdings is the Huntington Free Library Native American Collection, a spectacular gathering of more than 40,000 volumes on the archaeology, ethnology and history of the native peoples of the Americas from the colonial period to the present.

Transferred to Cornell University on June 15, 2004 from its former home in the Bronx, NY,


 The Huntington Free Library Native American Collection is one of the largest collections of books and manuscripts of its kind.


The collection contains exceptional materials documenting the history, culture, languages, and arts of the native tribes of both North and South America. Contemporary politics, education, and human rights issues are also important components of the collection.


The rare portion of the Huntington Free Library Native American Collection encompasses more than 4,000 rare books, several significant manuscript collections, as well as photographs, artwork, and related materials. Highlights include a copy of

John Eliot’s


Bible in the Natick dialect (2nd edition, 1685),

The Eliot Indian Language Bible

Even wider in influence and more lasting in value than his personal labors as a missionary, was Eliot’s work as a translator of the Bible and various religious works into the Massachusetts dialect of the Algonquian language. The first work completed was the Catechism, published in 1653 at Cambridge, Massachusetts, the first book to be printed in the Indian tongue. Several years elapsed before Eliot completed his task of translating the Bible. The New Testament was at last issued in 1661, and the Old Testament followed in 1663. The New Testament was bound with it, and thus the whole Bible was completed. To it were added a Catechism and a metrical version of the Psalms. This book was printed in 1663 at Cambridge, Mass., by Samuel Green and Marmaduke Johnson, and was the first Bible printed in America. In 1685 appeared a second edition, in the preparation of which Eliot was assisted by the Rev. John Cotton (1640—1699), of Plymouth, who also had a wide knowledge of the Indian tongue.

Many people are shocked to discover that the first Bible printed in America was not English… or any other European language. In fact, English and European language Bibles would not be printed in America until a century later! Eliot’s Bible did much more than bring the Gospel to the pagan natives who were worshiping creation rather than the Creator… it gave them literacy, as they did not have a written language of their own until this Bible was printed for them. The main reason why there were no English language Bibles printed in America until the late 1700’s, is because they were more cheaply and easily imported from England up until the embargo of the Revolutionary War.

But the kind of Bible John Eliot needed for his missionary outreach to the native American “Indians” was certainly not to be found in England, or anywhere else. It had to be created on the spot. Eliot recognized that one of the main reasons why the native Americans were considered “primitive” by European settlers, is that they did not have a written alphabet of their own. They communicated almost exclusively through spoken language, and what little writing they did was in very limited pictorial images, more like Egyptian hieroglyphics than that of any functional alphabetical language like those of Europe or Asia or Africa.









an album of original drawings of American Indians by


the artist George Catlin;



Edward S. Curtis’s

twenty-volume opus,





Look more George catlin Indian painting





Look  Edward S. Curtis indian painting

The North American Indian. Genres represented in great depth include early books of voyage and exploration, missionary reports, ethnography, travel writing, native language dictionaries, captivity narratives, and children’s books.

The collection also contains a large body of related ephemeral material, such as pamphlets, newspaper clippings, auction catalogs, newsletters, travel brochures, and biography files on prominent Native Americans.





Manuscript holdings include

a letter from Mohawk leader


Joseph Brant,

early 20th century correspondence from


Seneca Indian individuals at


Cattaragus and





 Joseph Keppler, a pictographic catechism in the Quechua language, field notes by 19th century ethnographers; and the papers of archaeological expeditions. Many of the larger manuscript collections have been microfilmed and are available for interlibrary loan. Primary manuscript collections include:











  • material culture of Wabanaki Indians
  • A panel discussion and lecture at Bates College on Feb. 11 will focus on the material culture of the Wabanaki people, the Native Americans that include Maine’s Penobscot, Passamaquoddy, Micmac and Maliseet tribes.
  • The panel presentation Artistic Lives — Living Art: Wabanaki Basketmakers begins at 4:15 p.m. in the Keck Classroom (G52), Pettengill Hall, 4 Andrews Road (Alumni Walk). A Basket Is a Song Made Visible, a keynote talk by Native American scholar Clara Sue Kidwell, follows at 7 p.m. in the Edmund S. Muskie Archives, 70 Campus Ave.
  • These events are made possible by a Colby-Bates-Bowdoin Mellon Collaborative Faculty Enhancement grant. For more information, please call 207-753-6933.
  • As a program titled Learning and Teaching with Wabanaki Culture, these events will examine Wabanaki material culture as a means for integrating aspects of indigenous thought and practice into a curriculum.
  • The program is part of a larger effort to increase awareness of Native American and Wabanaki issues at Bates, and to promote collaboration between the campus and Wabanaki communities.
  • With panelists including basketmakers Jeremy Frey, a member of the Passamaquoddy tribe, and Richard Silliboy of the Micmacs, the afternoon discussion will explore what material culture means to the Wabanakis and the roles that material culture can play in intercultural education.
  • Kidwell, director of the American Indian Center at the University of North Carolina, will address Native American knowledge systems, and scientific thought and practice.
  • She is an enrolled member of the White Earth Chippewa tribe and is also of Choctaw descent. Prior to coming to North Carolina she was director of the Native American studies program and professor of history at the University of Oklahoma in Norman.
  • Her publications include A Native American Theology (Orbis Books, 2001), co-authored with Homer Noley and George Tinker; Native American Studies (University of Edinburgh Press, 2005) co-authored with Alan Velie; and The Choctaws in Oklahoma: From Tribe to Nation, 1855-1970 (University of Oklahoma Press, 2007).
  • She received a bachelor’s degree in letters and a master’s and doctorate in the history of science from the University of Oklahoma. Before joining the faculty there in 1995, she served as assistant director of cultural resources at the National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution.
  • Kidwell previously taught at the University of California at Berkeley, Dartmouth College and the University of Minnesota, among other institutions


Other Resources for American Indian Studies:


JOB: The American Indian Program (AIP) at Cornell University seeks a Residence Hall Director (RHD)

by Ononda’geh Ongwawenna on Tuesday, November 22, 2011 at 9:54am ·

Res Hall Assoc I-16400 



American Indian Program

Residence Hall Associate I

Term Appointment

Band E – Exempt



The American Indian Program at Cornell University in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences (CALS) provides a unique combination of educational, social and cultural opportunities to Native students studying at the University.  Our first commitment is to facilitate student’s academic success and address their cultural needs. 

Edward S. Curtis. “Chaíwa. Tewa, Profile,”
from The North American Indian, Vol. XII,
The Hopi, 1922. Photogravure.

The American Indian Program (AIP) at Cornell University seeks a Residence Hall Director (RHD) as a team-oriented staff member for its residential program house, Akwe:kon. Akwe:kon  is unique in that it is the only residential program house that is formally part of an academic program, the AIP.  The RHD position is key in helping the AIP Director and Associate Director ensure achievement of AIP’s Mission and Goals.


The RHD will:

·         carry out administrative, counseling, and programmatic responsibilities for the 35-student residential unit and the American Indian community at Cornell;

·         facilitate student involvement & supervise student staff;

·         administer and implement services and activities, and enhance community and individual development among residents;

·         work to involve faculty in the lives of students, provide personal counseling and work with campus units to provide a safe and attractive learning environment for students in the house.

·         The RHD will work closely with the AIP Associate Director and Director in developing and implementing other components of the Program with regard to student recruitment and development, academic programs, outreach initiatives, and in developing year-round programming in Akwe:kon that fully uses its resources and builds and enhances the AIP as a whole.

·         Work with Campus Life/Community Development staff to develop services and programs, select and train student staff, and contribute to university-wide activities as appropriate through participation on committees, etc.  

·         May act as an advisor to a registered Cornell University student organization. 


The AIP carries out the majority of the shared supervision of the RHD: the position reports to the AIP via the Associate Director (65% appointment) and to the Dean of Students office via the Assistant Director for Residential Programs (35% appointment). 



Required Qualifications:

·         Bachelor’s degree required, with 1-2 years’ experience or equivalent combination, and coursework in American Indian studies.

·         Substantial professional experience working with students in higher education in residential, counseling, and administrative functions.

·         Direct experience with and knowledge of Native American students, communities, and issues is essential, along with the ability for meaningful and appropriate interaction with people from a wide range of ethnic, social, and cultural backgrounds.

·         Due to the nature of the position, you will be required to work some nights and weekends and reside at the community Akwe:kon house.

·         Experience with events planning and development of programs. Must exercise sound judgment and respect highly confidential information.


Preferred Qualifications:

·         Master’s degree in counseling, cultural/ethnic studies, education, student development, social work, community development, or a related field with two to five years of experience in residential life or some other aspect of student development is preferred.

·         Prior budgeting experience helpful.


This position is a full-time, 12 month, live-in appointment.  Appointment term is for 3 years, renewable annually. 


Background check is required. 


Cornell University, located in Ithaca, New York, is an inclusive, dynamic, and innovative Ivy League University and New York’s land-grant institution.  Its staff, faculty, and students impart an uncommon sense of larger purpose and contribute creative ideas and best practices to further the university’s mission of teaching, research, and outreach.



American Indian Studies

See Also: Central New York: Native Americans | Electronic Texts | History | Images | Latin American Resources | Southwest | Yurts and Tipis

Aboriginal Canada Portal– “Links to the following sites in an organized manner: National Aboriginal Organizations, 12 Federal Government departments with Aboriginal mandates, all Provincial Governments and organizations with Aboriginal responsibilities, as well as all related Aboriginal community information.”Aboriginal Peoples Television Network– First network of its kind in the world, the APTN began broadcasting in Canada in September 1999.Resources for Aboriginal Studies – University of Saskatchewan Libraries and the University of Saskatchewan Archives. Consists of databases for photographs, Archival Material, Native Law Cases (with List of Cases), Northwest Resistance and several others. You can actually access the photographs in the collection and, although the images are relatively small, there are some gems: “Kooyook “a young Inuit woman from the Eastern Arctic, mixes dough for bannock in her tent at Lake Harbour, Northwest Territories. Her child is [in an armaut] on her back (1951)”, “Mrs. Andela Solomon (Patuanak), then 75 years old, working on a birch bark basket: an art she learned from her mother (1961),” Prosper John (ca 1938) and Yankine Whitecap and Wife (ca 1915.Administration for Native Americans – U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. See also the Office of Community Services Division of Tribal Servicespage.


AIROS: American Indian Radio on Satellite – “National distribution system for Native programming to Tribal communities and to general audiences through Native American and other public radio stations as well as the Internet.” With programming via Real Audio 24 hours a day. You can Listen Live. There are Native Producer Profile Podcastson:Michelle Danforth (Oneida)Gary RobinsonPatricia LoewJulianna BrannumDustinn CraigTerry JonesKimberley LymanSuree TowfighniaCourtney HermannGeorge BurdeauBeverly MorrisBennie Klain


Akwesasne Mohawk Cultural Center– Hogansburg, New York.


Akwesasne Notes Magazine– Kahniakehaka Nation ,Akwesasne Mohawk Territory, Rooseveltown, New York. (518-358-3326)Dating the Iroquois Confederacy by Bruce E. Johansen, Akwesasne Notes, Fall, October/November/December, 1995, Volume 1, #3 & 4, pp. 62-63. See also Johansen’s Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution (1982)



Alaska Digital Archive– Provides access to over 5,000 historical phhotographs and objects. Among them:Dance-House, Koutznahoo [Kootznahoo], Alaska (ca. 1896-1920)by Vincent SoboleffBaby Sleeping in Swing (ca. 1900)– ASL-P87-0180Nepcetaq Mask– UA2002-010-0005Eagle-headed dagger– UA92-001-0001-2Sealskin Belt and Pouch– UA64-021-0137-2Babiche Bag– 0900-0024Beaded Boots– UA97-025-0049ABBeaded Mitten– UA68-005-0001ABBeaded Moccasins– UA2002-007-0007AB


Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles – From the Search Page you can view the full-text of a number of periodicals including Outingfrom 1883 to 1899. A sampling of articles from Outing and more recent sources:Lacrosseby Ross Mackenzie, Outing, October, 1892, Vol. XXI, No. 1, p. 76-80.Lacrosse in the United Statesby J. A. Hodge, Outing, March, 1886, Vol. VII, No. 6, p. 665-676.Père Lacombe, A Wilderness Apostle of the Northby Agnes C. Laut, Outing, April, 1905, Vol. XLVI, No. 1, p. 1-15.The Indian Festival at Taosby James A. LeRoy, Outing, December, 1903, Vol. XLIII, No. 3, p. 282-288.Medicinal Games – Rites of the Iroquoian Linguistic Familyby Michael A. Salter, North American Society For Sport History. Proceedings And Newsletter, 1973, p. 30-31.Playing for the Creator: Iroquois Nationalism and Cultural Sovereignty Through Lacrosseby Donald M. Fisher, North American Society For Sport History. Proceedings And Newsletter, 1997, p. 49.American Indian and Alaska Native Areas 1990 Census– U.S. Census BureauAmerican Indian College Fund – Denver. With information on colleges.American Indian Environmental Office– EPAAmerican Indian Ethnobotany Database– Subtitled “Foods, Drugs, Dyes, and Fibers of Native North American Peoples”; Dan Moerman, Professor of Anthropology, University of MichiganAmerican Indian Heritage FoundationAmerican Indian Higher Education Consortium (AIHEC) – Provides links to Tribal Colleges.American Indian Library AssociationAmerican Indian Movement Grand Govering CouncilAmerican Indian Observed: Sketches and Documents From the Collections of the Archives of American Art – Artists include George Catlin, Charles Henry Humphriss, Olive Rush, Allen Tupper True, Dorothy Newkirk Stewart, W. (Wilfred) Langdon Kihn and Edwin Willard Deming. Among the online exhibitions at the Archives of American Art are Selections from the George Catlin Papers. There are oral history interviews witb artists who talk about their interest in Indian subject matter: Donal Hord, Oscar Collier, Fritz Scholder, and Louise Nevelson.American Indian Resources – Subtitled A Library of Native American literature, culture, education, history, issues and language, and part of the larger Multicultural Resourcessite, these links have been organized and annotated by Will Karkavelas of Osaka University.American Indian Studies Research Institute– Indiana University, Bloomington.American Indian Law Review– University of Oklahoma College of Law. (Index only.)American Indian Research Project – South Dakota Oral History Center. “Contains over 1,900 taped interviews, 70 percent of which were gathered in the field between 1967 and 1973.” Except for one sample, the interviews are not online, but there is a partial indexand you can order transcripts.American Indian Studies: A Bibliographic Guide (1995) – By Phillip M. White. Parts of this book are available in Google Books.American Indian Tribal Directory – Provided by the American Indian Heritage Foundation.American Indian Tribal Portal– U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, American Indian Environmental Office.EPA RegionsAmerican Indians: A Select Catalog of NARA Microfilm Publications– National Archives microfilm publications “that relate directly to American Indians, to the formation of federal Indian policy, and to the personnel who created or enforced that policy. The catalog is divided into civilian agency records and military establishment records. In each section, the publications containing the most information about Indians are listed first” followed by a roll-by-roll listing of the contents. Includes information on how to order the microfilm.”American Indians of the Pacific Northwest – “This digital collection integrates over 2,300 photographs and 7,700 pages of text relating to the American Indians in two cultural areas of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Coast and Plateau. These resources illustrate many aspects of life and work, including housing, clothing, crafts, transportation, education, and employment. The materials are drawn from the extensive collections of the University of Washington Libraries, the Cheney Cowles Museum/Eastern Washington State Historical Society in Spokane, and the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle.” Also accessible via the Library of Congress.


American Journeys: Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement– This is a valuable resource for schools and universities. Funded by the U.S. Institute of Museum & Library Services and by private donors, American Journeys is a collaborative project of the Wisconsin Historical Society and National History Day. Examples of texts include:Voyage Made by M. John Hawkins Esquire, 1565Catlin’s North American Indian PortfolioWabanip’s Speech to Assembled Iroquois Chiefs, April 30, 1798Joseph Brant’s Speech to British Government Concerning Indian Land Claims, Niagara, October 22, 1796Moravian Journals Relating to Central New York, 1745-66Trial of the Indians of Acoma, 1598Account of Florida, 1566-1568


American Museum of Natural History – New York. The Library provides access to Online Catalog. The Collections Database provides access to over 50,000 images and catalog descriptions from the North American Ethnographic Collection. You can search by culture, material, object name, catalog no., locale or donor name. A search for Catalog item E/ 2334 will retrieve the images of two Tlingit baskets. A search for ornament (object name) will retrieve over 800 images and a search for Plains (culture) and bead (material) will retrieve over 700 including a buffalo robe (50 / 5860). An object name search for kachinaretrieves 239 items. There are some lovely Navaho blankets (50.2/ 6840, 50.2/ 6841, 50.2/ 6842, 50 / 2091) and bracelets (50.2/ 4168, 50.2/ 4169, 50.2/ 4171, 50 / 6356 A, 50.2/ 2394). Searching by donor is particularly rewarding: try Auchincloss, Morgan, Wissler, Spinden, Boas, Harvey, Mead, Jesup, Peabody (baskets), or Emmons. Search for object name: amulet, apron, armlet, bag, ball, basket, beadwork, belt, bowl, brooch, canoe, carving, charm, club, coat, comb, cradle board (baby board), cup, dance, dice, doll, feather, fetish, fish, gambling, game, hat, headband, headdress, jacket, jar, knife, labret, lance, leggings, mask, medicine bundle, mittens, model, moccasin, necklace, paddle, parfleche, pipe, pottery, pouch, prayer stick, purse, rattle, robe, saddle, sheath, snowshoes (snow shoe), spear, spoon, tomahawk, totem pole, toy, tray, wampum.American Native Press Archives – The mission of the Sequoyah National Research Centeris “to acquire and preserve the writings and ideas of Native North Americans.”


American Philosophical Society – Founded by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1743. The Library houses over 180,000 volumes and bound periodicals, six million manuscripts, and thousands of maps and prints. You can search MOLE, the Manuscripts Online Guide and VOLE, the Vaughan Online Catalog, and there are Finding Aids and Subject Guides. Collections of note include:William N. Fenton Papers– “Yale-educated ethnographer, William Fenton has devoted most of his career to study of the Iroquois Indians of New York State and Canada.”Franz Boas Papers – Founder of modern American anthropology. See also Images of Franz Boas.Ely Samuel Parker Papers – Seneca Indian and Civil War adjutant to Ulysses Grant.
Other resources include:Native American Sound Recordings – Recording #3 features an August 12, 1950 recording of Lucenda George speaking in the Onondaga language about locusts, Clifford’s garden, winter and the dam built on the Onondaga reservation.David Van Keuren’s “The Proper Study of Mankind”: An Annotated Bibliography of Manuscript sources on Anthropology and Archeology in the Library of the American Philosophical Society (c1986)American Indian Manuscripts in the American Philosophical Society (c1999)– By John Freeman, Murphy D. Smith, Daythal Kendall, and R.S. Cox.Anercan Philosophical Society Proceedings – with recent issues available online. The March 2000 issue contains the full-text of Christian B. Keller’s Philanthropy Betrayed: Thomas Jefferson, the Louisiana Purchase, and the Origins of Federal Indian Removal Policy in pdf format. Other articles of interest include Retrospecting the Origins of the League of the Iroquois by William A. Starna, APS Proceedings, Vol. 152, 3 (September 2008); Illegal Alien? The Immigration Case of Mohawk Ironworker Paul K. DiaboBy Gerald F. Reid, APS Proceedings, Vol. 151, 1 (March 2007).Native American Images – See also Abbot-Charnay Photograph Collection


The American Revolution and Its Era: Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies, 1750-1789– Library of CongressAn American Time Capsule: Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera – More than 7,000 digitized primary source items dating from the seventeenth century to the present and encompassing key events and eras in American history. A search for Indianretrieves over 50 results, among which is an 1805 speech by Sagu-ua-what-hath (Red Jacket), a Seneca chiefAmon Olorin Flutes – Contemporary Native American Flutes by Ken Light, and flute workshops with R. Carlos Nakai, Native American flutist nominated for 2 Grammys. (You can also listen to clips from Earth Spirit, Changes: Native American Flute Music, Big Medicine or Feather, Stone & Light at Heritage Center– Dolores, ColoradoAncient Cultures of the Southwest – Online exhibition of pottery at the Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Wisconsin. There is a pottery catalog index.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS): Partnerships Across NationsAnnual Review of Anthropology – Article abstracts (full-text available to subscribers only) from 1984 to the present. A search for American Indian(words in title or abstract), for example, retrieves 14 results.Anthropological Index of the Royal Anthropological Institute– “Anthropological Index Online is based on the journal holdings of The Anthropology Library at the The British Museum (Museum of Mankind) which receives periodicals in all branches of anthropology, from academic institutions and publishers around the world.”Anthropology Outreach Office – Smithsonian’s Department of Anthropology. Provides archives of AnthroNotes and Anthropolog. See Native Americans: General Topics.AnthroSource– Interactive repository of research and communications tools for anthropologists.Antique Tribal Art Dealers Association (ATADA)Theft AlertAntiquities of Wisconsin – Electronic text of the book by Increase A. Lapham, published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1855, includes 92 pages of text, illustrated with 61 wood engravings, and 55 lithographed plates.Archeological Research Institute – Arizona State University, Tempe. Host of Archnet. There is an online exhibition of Prehistoric Pottery of Arizona. Other resources include Pottery and Pigments in Arizona: Salado Polychrome and Roosevelt Platform Mound Study.Archives Canada France – A search in the database for Iroqouisretrieves over 900 documents.Archives nationales de France – A search for Iroquois in the Collections retrieves 26 results. See also Centre des archives d’outre-mer à Aix-en-Provence (CAOM)whose mission is the “conservation des archives de l’expansion coloniale française.”Archives of the Association on American Indian Affairs– Princeton University Library.Archives of Maryland Online – “The first 72 volumes of this series were published between 1883 and 1972 by the Maryland Historical Society. They contain many of the official records of Maryland from 1634 to 1820. We have also added 30 additional volumes to this series in the past year. The website contains images of the originals as well as fully searchable text.” Consider spelling variants as you search (Sasquehannah). The archives contains some interesting early records. Volume 6 of the series is a transcription of the Correspondence of Governor Horatio Sharpe, Volume 1,1753-1757 which includes some material about Indian Affairs. Starting on page 436 of this volume is a lengthy account from Fort George in New York on 4th June 1756, in which the author writes about Sir William Johnson, the Mohawks, and the Onondago. Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1732:1753, concerns the 1844 treaty council held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Members of the Six Nations, including Onondaga chief Canasatego (Cannasatego), met with representatives from Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Conrad Weiser (Conrade) was present as interpreter.ArchNet: Ethnoarchaeology and EthnohistoryArctic Circle– Peoples and environment of the Arctic and Subarctic regionArctic Studies Center – Smithsonian Institution. Has a number of online exhibitions including Yupik Masks, Ekven Burial Chamber and Northern Clans, Northern Traces.Arizona Memory Project– “Established by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records, is an online repository for digital collections from archives, libraries, museums, historical societies and other Arizona cultural institutions.” Collections of interest include:Medallion Papersa “series of 39 publications issued between 1928-1950 by the Gila Pueblo Archaeological Foundation. Gila Pueblo, as it later became known, was one of the earliest Arizona institutions doing archaeological surveying and research in the Southwest. It was founded by Winifred and Harold S. Gladwin as a private foundation and employed professional archaeologists whose research was published in the Medallion Papers. Their work was instrumental in defining the Hohokam, Mogollon, San Simon and Cochise cultures and in describing early pottery types including Hohokam red-on-buff, Salado polychrome, Casas Grandes and others.”Sharlot Hall Museum American Indians Image Collection– “This collection of still images is related to the American Indians of Arizona and the Southwest (1865-1970). Tribes include Navajo, Apache, Yavapai, Hualapai, Papago, Hopi, Mohave, Paiute, Yaqui, Havasupai, Pima and Maricopa.Also included in the collection are images of prehistoric ruins, pueblos, and rock art.”


Arizona State Museum – University of Arizona, Tucson. Established in 1893, this is the oldest and largest anthropology museum in the Southwest with the largest whole vessel collection of Southwest Indian pottery in the world. They offer Travel Tours and information on the Southwest Indian Art Fair. One of the Fair’s Award Winners for 2009 was Kachina Mana by Aaron Honanie, Hopi. The Libraryhas an online catalogue. Among the online resources are:PodcastsArizona Archaeological Site and Survey DatabasePottery Project 2,000 Years – 20,000 VesselsNampeyo Pottery Showcase – Includes a Black-on-red shallow bowlcollected 1926.With an Eye on Culture: The Photography of Helga TeiwesThe Trincheras Culture, Vignettes in Time


Arizona’s First People: The culture and lives of Arizona’s Native American tribes – Part of the Cultures AZ site. In Voices, Nan Telahongva recounts her experiences as a young Hopi girl new to Anglo schools and Betty Reid, a Native Navajo and a reporter for the Arizona Republic, talks about the transition from reservation life to city life.Arkansas Archeological Survey – University of Arkansas site provides Report Abstracts by county, Archeology Links, Educational Resources for Teachers and First Encounters: The Contact Period in the Mississippi Valley.Arnold Research Cave – Missouri. Contained 7500 years of prehistoric footwear.Michael J. Fuller– Provides photographs of footwear from the cave.ArtNet – A rich resource for art and antiques. (See their Site Index.) There is an Artist Index. The weekly ArtNet Magazine offers news & reviews, and features with archives back to 1996. The Galleriesdatabase is searchable by gallery name, artist name, gallery specialty, location, and furniture or design.As Long as the Waters Flow: Native Americans in the South and East – Photographs by Carolyn DeMeritt exhibited at the Light Factoryin Charlotte, North Carolina.Assembly of First Nations– National representative/lobby organization of the First Nations in Canada.Association for the Study of American Indian Literatures – Robert Nelson’s Guide to Native American Studies Programs in the United States and Canada provides a “comprehensive survey of U.S. and Canadian Native American Studies programs being offered as majors, minors, and certifications at the baccalaureate level or above.” The Association’s newsletter, SAIL, is searchableand is available in full-text from 1977-1987.Association of American Indian PhysiciansAssociation of American University Presses – With a search form for Native American Studies. (Try searching by year.)Avalon Project at Yale Law School – Collection of documents in law, history and diplomacy has texts of Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans, Statutes of the United States Concerning Native Americans and Relations Between the United States and Native Americans.Benedicte Wrensted: An Idaho Photographer in Focus– “Portraits of Indians from Southeastern Idaho Reservations, 1897.”Bethlehem Digital History Project – “Digitization and web publication of specific primary source materials relating to the early history of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania….selected to increase accessibility to sources that illuminate key elements of the Bethlehem community from its founding in 1741 through 1844.” Among the resources are Joseph Spangenberg’s Report on the Nanticokes’ and Shawnee’s Bethlehem visit in March 1753 and The Comprehensive Report on the Brethren’s Negotiations in Bethlehem and Gnadenhütten with the Nanticokes and Shawnee Nations from April 1752. (Moravian College and Theological Seminary)Betty Mae Jumper: a Seminole Legend – Maintained by the Seminole Tribe of Florida.Bibliographies of New England History– Volume 9 contains 4,231 citations to books, dissertations, pamphlets, and magazine and journal articles, most of which were published between 1989 and 1994.Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de CervantesBibliothèque Nationale de France – Although much of the site is in French you can locate many full texts in English and there are a number of outstanding visual resources as well. Gallica, a text and image digitization project comparable to the Library of Congress’s American Memory project, is a rich resource for material on American Indian history and anthropology. For example the Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins are available from 1881 to 1933. To find them, do a click on recherche and search for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). Among the images are 192 portraits of American Indians [Indiens des Etats-Unis] taken by the photographer Pinart between 1860-1876. The simplest way to search (recherche) this site is by keyword search (recherche libre). Try specific tribe names (Shawnee, Delaware, Huron) or use such terms as Indiens, indienne. To limit your search to images check the box for Lots d’images (under Types de documents). Bureau of American Ethnology List of Publicationshas an index to titles and authors for Bulletins and Annual Reports.A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibolaby Victor MindeleffBibliothèque nationale du Québec – Their Banque images et sons is a rich source for images and texts. Look for Indiens d’Amérique Iroquois (Indiens), or Algonquiens for example, in the Index des sujets. Some of the titles which you will find in full-text are Histoire des Abénakis depuis 1605 jusqu’à nos jours (1866), Bref récit et succincte narration de la navigation faite en MDXXXV et MDXXXVI / par le capitaine Jacques Cartier aux îles de Canada, Hochelaga, Saguenay et autres (1863) and Vie de Catherine Tekakwitha, vierge iroquoise (1894). There are also maps (cartes géographiques) and 7,000 images of Québec from 1870 to 1907 in Revue d’un autre siècle.Bringing Indian Affairs: Laws and Treaties to the World Wide Web– Suzanne L. Holcombe, Oklahoma State University Library. Presentation at the Proceedings of the 9th Annual Federal Depository Library Conference, October 22 – 25, 2000.British Columbia Archives – A keyword search for Haida in Visual Records, (checking the option Only match items with associated objects “AND LINK” e.g. images or finding aids) retrieves 54 images, a search for Indian People retrieves 858 images, a search for Dossetterretrieves 45 images.British Museum: North America – Their Compass database provides images of over 5,000 objects in the museum collection which includes a large collection of Native Arts. (Search for drawings of John White, Christy Collection, Sloane Collection, Canada, Algonquian, Ohio, pipe etc.)Buffalo Bill Historical Center – Cody, Wyoming library and museum provides access to their online catalog.


Built in America: Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER) – Library of Congress collection of measured drawings, large-format photographs, and written histories for more than 35,000 historic structures and sites dating from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. Search by keyword or browse by subject (Indians of North America) or place. Here you’ll find photographs of:Indian Castle Church– State Route 55, Town of Danube, Herkimer County (Fort Hendrick), taken by photographer Nelson E. Baldwin on May 5, 1936. “Indian Castle Church was built in 1769 by Captain Samuel Clyde for Sir William Johnson, who presented it to the Canajoharies (Mohawks of the Upper or Canajoharie Mohawks Castle), in 1770. It is the only Colonial Indian Mission Chursch standing in New York State and the only surviving Colonial building of the Mohawks or Iroquois Castles. The Church was built on land owned by Joseh Brandt [Brant], the famous Mohawk Chieftain, who was noted for his pity [piety?] and who translated the gospel of St. Mark into the Mohawk language. During the Revolution, the Mohawk Indian raiders, formerly residents here, attempted to steal the bell of this old church. They, however, neglected to fasten its clapper and its ringing awakened the parish settlers who armed themselves, sallied out and recovered the old church bell.” (Data Page 2).View (Southwest) down into Kiva– Pueblo Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (June 1966)Kalispel Indian Log Cabin– Usk, Pend Oreille County, Washington (1936)Rock Eagle Mound– Rock Eagle State Park, Putnam County, Georgia by Kenneth Kay (1980)Shoshone Indian Cemetery– Wind River Indian Reservation, Fort Washakie, Fremont County, Wyoming. “This cemetery supposedly contains the grave of Sacajawea, Indian guide of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Located in cemetery is the oldest chapel built for the Indians in Wyoming.” (Data page 2). Photograph by Jack E. Boucher (1974).Aztec Ruins – Detailed View of Through Passage– Aztec Ruins, West Ruin, New Mexico 44 near junction of U.S. 550, Aztec vicinity, San Juan County, New Mexico.Jeffers Petroglyphs– Image of turtle and man, looking East. Photograph by Jet Lowe, 12 April, 1990. Delton Township, Cottonwood County, Minnesota.


BuntingVisual Resources Library – University of New Mexico College of Fine Arts. Resources include Native American Arts Classification Manual and Visual Resources Catalog of Native American Artists (VIRCONA)Bureau of American Ethnology – Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Series Electronic Editions – Consists of Hair Pipes in Plains Indian Adornment: A Study in Indian and White Ingenuity by John C. Ewers. (See also the List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology with with index to authors and titles.) Also available is The Horse in the Blackfoot Indian Culture, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, vol. 159. This series is also available in Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France. Do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). There are over 13,000 Glass Negatives of Indians, collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology from the 1850s-1930s in the National Anthropological Archives. You can browse images in the drawings, sketches and paintings from National Anthropological Archives or search the Archival, Manuscript and Photograph Collections Catalog in SIRIS, the research information system of the Smithsonian.Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions– Marquette University


Bureau of Indian Affairs– U.S. Department of the InteriorBureau of Indian EducationIndian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB)Press ReleasesTribal Leaders DirectoryLibrary: Subject Guides to the Internet – Native AmericansFederally Recognized Tribes



C-SPAN Digital Library – You can use search, advanced searchor search by tag.Oregon Indians– “Stephen Beckham talked about the book he edited Oregon Indians: Voices from Two Centuries.” 9/3/2009 [6:00]Native America, Discovered and Conquered – Robert J. Miller, Professor, Lewis and Clark College Law School, 9/03/2009 [06:00]– Daniel Usner, Professor of History, Vanderbilt University, 6/13/2009 [57:00] “I Am a Man”– Joe Starita talked about his book “I Am a Man”: Chief Standing Bear’s Journey for Justice…In 1879, Ponca Chief Standing Bear challenged decades of Indian policy when he stood in a federal courthouse in Omaha, Nebraska, and demanded to be recognized as a person by the U.S. government. The eventual results were that all Native American peoples were given the full rights of American citizenship.” 06/07/2009, [46:00]The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian– “Sherman Alexie talked about his young adult novel The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, published by Little, Brown Young Readers. It is a semi-autobiographical chronicle of growing up on a Washington State Indian reservation and transfering from the reservation school to the rich, white school. In a frequently humorous presentation he talked about his life and the differences from the book.” 11/03/2007 [44:00]Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site – Located near Collinsville, Illinois, the historic site holds the archaeological remnants of a sophisticated prehistoric civilization inhabited by the Mississippians from about A.D. 700 to 1400. A UNESCO World Heritage Site: “Cahokia Mounds, some 13 km north-east of St Louis, Missouri, is the largest pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico. It was occupied primarily during the Mississippian period (800–1400), when it covered nearly 1,600 ha and included some 120 mounds. It is a striking example of a complex chiefdom society, with many satellite mound centres and numerous outlying hamlets and villages. This agricultural society may have had a population of 10–20,000 at its peak between 1050 and 1150. Primary features at the site include Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthwork in the Americas, covering over 5 ha and standing 30 m high.” See also Cahokia and Surrounding Mound Groupsby D. I. Bushnell, Jr., Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. III, No. 1, May, 1904, pp. 1-84.


CBC Archives– Canadian Broadcasting Corporation archived interviews include:Rethinking Riel– Métis leader Louis RielGeorges Erasmus: Native Rights CrusaderThe Life and Legend of Bill Reid– Haida artistPhil Fontaine: Native Diplomat and DealmakerEeyou Istchee: Land of the CreeAn Inuit Education: Honouring a Past, Creating a FutureJames Bay Project and the CreeThe Oka CrisisThe Battle for Aboriginal Treaty RightsCreation of NunavutMercury Rising: The Poisoning of Grassy NarrowsA Lost Heritage: Canada’s Residential SchoolsLacrosse: A History of Canada’s GameDavis Inlet: Innu community in crisisLosing native languagesMétamorphose de l’Indien


California Heritage Digital Image Access Project – Online archive of over 28,000 images illustrating California’s history and culture consisting of photographs, pictures, and manuscripts from the collections of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. You can Browse the Collection. (Select “container listing” to access the images.) For example, the Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs, ca. 1890-1938, contains 1,447 digitized photographs of members of Californian tribes. See also California Cultures: Native Americans.California Digital LibraryCamping with the Sioux: Fieldwork diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher – National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. Includes Folktales and a Photo Gallery.Canada’s Digital Collections – Rich resource for information on Canada’s First Peoples.Canada’s Native Peoples – Volume II in the Canada Heirloom Series of Canada’s Digital Collection.Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: News – Offers coverage of First Nations issues. INDEPTH: Aboriginal Canadians: From the Gift of the Iroquois to the Creation of Nunavut, by Martin O’Malley, July 2000 and After the Salmon Run: The Road to Nowhere by Peter McCluskey which offers video reports, archived stories and links.Canadian Encyclopedia Online– Full-text, multimedia encylopedia. The subject index shows 38 pages of entries for Native People. (Provided by Historica, a foundation whose mandate is to provide Canadians with a deeper understanding of their history.)Canadian Museum of Civilization – Toronto. Site provides a variety of information on indigenous cultures, archaeology, folk art and Canadian history. Virtual Collection Storage provides images of items on the museum, including some very handsome mittens and belts in the Ethnology Collection. Also provided is a collection of links to Online Resources for Canadian Heritage which has Ethnology and Archaeologysections.Canadian Medical Association – The site is searchable and provides tables of contents and selected articles from a number of its publications. A search for Cree, for example, retrieves 46 results, most of them abstracts of articles from the Canadian Medical Association Journal.Carlisle Indian Industrial School – Barbara Landis and Genevieve Bell. (See also Carlisle Studentsadapted from Charles Maclay’s index of “The Indian Industrial School” by Linda Witmer.)Carnegie Institution for Science– Washington, D.C.Casas Grandes and the Ceramic Art of the Ancient Southwest – Published by the Art Institute of Chicago in association with Yale University Press for the exhibition at the Art Institue of Chicago from April 22 to August 13, 2006. This is a beautiful book with 141 color photographs of pre-Columbian pottery, primarily from private collections. It’s $28.35 at (the list price is $45.00). See UNESCO’s World Heritage List – Archeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes.Catholic Encyclopedia – With over 11,602 articles, this encyclopedia is a good resource for researching the Jesuit presence in North America. For example there are articles on Catholic Indian Missions of the United States, Santa Fe (New Mexico), Huron, Sioux, Chippewa, Algonquins and Iroquois.Center for Agricultural Bioinformatics: Botanical Databases – The Medicinal Plants of North America Database (MPNADB)is “based on a two-volume book of the same name published in 1986 by the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan. The database – which contains 17,634 items representing the medicinal uses of 2,147 species from 760 genera and 142 families by 123 different native American groups – was built over a period of about 10 years with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, and the University of Michigan-Dearborn.” The Food Plant Database, based on Food Plants of the North American Indians by Elias Yanovsky, c1936, reviewed approximately 80 years of literature, back to around 1850, listing 1,112 species in 444 genera of plants among 120 families, used for food by the North American Indians.Center for Southwest Research – University of New Mexico. Part of the larger Online Archive of New Mexico. Among their collections are the Robert E. Robideau American Indian Movement Papers, 1975-1994and the Kay Cole Papers.Center For World Indigenous Studies – Their Fourth World Documentation Projectis “an online library of texts which record and preserve our peoples’ struggles to regain their rightful place in the international community.”


A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1873 – “Consists of a linked set of published congressional records of the United States of America from the Continental Congress through the 43rd Congress, 1774-1875. Congressional bills and resolutions for selected sessions beginning with the 6th Congress (1799) in the House of Representatives and the 16th Congress (1819) in the Senate. A select number of documents and reports from the monumental U.S. Congressional Serial Set are available as well. This online collection houses the records of the U.S. Congress up to 1875, which includes the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, published by the Government Printing Office. To access the contemporary Congressional Record go to THOMAS, the Library of Congress’s legislative information Web site.” It includes:Journals of the Continental Congress (1774-89)Letters of Delegates to Congress (1774-89)Farrand’s Records: Records of the Federal Convention of 1787Elliot’s Debates: Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution (1787-88)Journals of the House of Representatives (1789-1875) and the Senate (1789-1875),Maclay’s Journal: Journal of William Maclay, United States Senator from Pennsylvania, 1789-1791The Annals of Congress – Formally known as The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States, the Amma;s “cover the 1st Congress through the first session of the 18th Congress, from 1789 to 1824. The Annals were not published contemporaneously, but were compiled between 1834 and 1856, using the best records available, primarily newspaper accounts. Speeches are paraphrased rather than presented verbatim, but the record of debate is nonetheless fuller than that available from the House and Senate Journals. The Annals were immediately succeeded by the Register of Debates, and subsequently by the Congressional Globe and Congressional Record.”Register of Debates (1824-37) – Consists of 14 volumesCongressional Globe (1833-73)Congressional Record (1873-75)House JournalSenate Journal– “The Journal should be seen as the minutes of floor action. It notes the matters considered by the Senate and the votes and other actions taken. It does not record the actual debates, which can be consulted through the “Link to date-related documents” in the full text transcription of the Journal.”Senate Executive Journal (1789-1875)– “Record of its executive proceedings that relate to its functions of confirming presidential nominees and consenting to the making of treaties. The Senate Executive Journal was not made public until 1828, when the Senate decided to print and publish the proceedings for all the previous Congresses and thereafter to publish the journal for each session at its close.”Bills and ResolutionsStatutes at Large (1789-1875)– “The eighteen volumes presented in this online collection cover the laws of the first forty-three Congresses, 1789-1875.”American State Papers (1789-1838)– “Thirty-eight physical volumes, contain the legislative and executive documents of Congress during the period 1789 to 1838.”U.S. Serial Set – “Began publication with the 15th Congress, 1st Session (1817). Documents before 1817 may be found in the American State Papers (1789-1838).” Of particular interest isIndian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894 compiled by Charles C. Royce. (U.S. Serial Set Number 4015 contains the second part of the two-part Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-97 by J.W. Powell, Director.) The report is browsable by Tribe, State/Territory and Date and includes treaties and 67 maps. You can search the entire site or browse individual titles. The 23rd Congress, 1833-1835 has Correspondence on the emigration of Indians, 1831-33. Use the find option (Indian) to locate material on Indian issues in the Register of Debates Browse List. Another important resource is Volume VII of the United States Statutes at Large, entitled Treaties between the United States and Indian Tribes. Published in 1845, this is a 604 page volume of treaties which has a chronological list of the treatiesstarting on p. iii.


Chaco Digital Initiative– Digitization of thousands of photographs from Neil Judd and Frank H.H. Roberts’ archaeological excavations in Chaco Canyon.Chaco Culture National Historical Park– National Park Service


Cherokee Field Office Records, 1968 – 1983 – Photographs in the National Archives and Records Administration, Record Group 435: Records of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, 1929 – 1988.Burden Basket or Storage Basket Made of River Cane (ARC Identifier: 281597)Booger” Dance Mask with a Coiled Snake on Top (ARC Identifier: 281600)Hand Carved Pottery Designed Paddles (ARC Identifier: 281617)Seminole Coiled Sweet Grass Button Basket (ARC Identifier: 281626)Shell Tempered Duck Effigy Bowl Recovered from Williams Island Site, Hamilton County, Tennessee (ARC Identifier: 281637)Cherokee Craftsman, Jessie Saunlooke, Carving a Bear (ARC Identifier: 281633)Shell Tempered Double Wedding Vessel with a Human Effigy Recovered from the Cox Mound, Jackson County, Tennessee (ARC Identifier: 281639)Old Cherokee White Oak Basket (ARC Identifier: 281622)Single Weave River Cane Basket Owned by the Southern Hills Handicraft Guild (ARC Identifier: 281629)


Cherokee Nation – Official Site of the Cherokee Nation based in Tahlequah Oklahoma. They publish the Cherokee Phoenix and Indian Advocate, the the official newspaper of the Cherokee Nation, published monthly. The Fall 2000 issue has several articles on Diabetes.Code of Federal Regulations – National Archives and Records Administration. Title 25 deals with Indian issues. Other related titles include Native American Housing (Title 24, Part 1000), Indian Health (Title 42, Part 36), and Requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations on Indian Lands (Title 30, Part 75). You can also browse and search your choice of CFR titles and/or volumes; Title 25: Indians is available from 1997.CodeTalk– Federal interagency information network managed by native Americans at HUD’s Office of Native American Programs.Collector’s Guide to the Art of New Mexico – A rich resource for the collector. With sections on Indian Fetishes, milagros, Heishi, Antique Indian Silver Jewelry, Indian Pottery and Baskets.College & Research Library News – A publication of the Association of College & Research Libraries, they offer monthly columns on Internet Resources, one of which is Indigenous nations: Sites of interest, C&RL News, January 2004, Vol. 65, No. 1.Colonial Connecticut Records: the Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut 1636-1776 – The University of Connecticut, with the assistance of the Mashantucket Pequot Museum & Research Center, has digitized microfilm copies of Connecticut (Colony). The Public Records of the Colony of Connecticut, from April 1636 to October 1776 … transcribed and published, (in accordance with a resolution of the General assembly). Hartford: Brown & Parsons. 1850-1890. 15 vols. Although not yet searchable by keyword, each volume is carefully indexed.Common Ground Online – Publication of the National Park Service Archeology and Ethnography Program. Online Archives go from the Summer 1994 to the present. Issues of interest include Earliest Americans (Spring/Summer 2000), Preservation on the Reservation (Fall 1999) and Speaking Nation to Nation(Summer/Fall 1997).Community Learning Network – “CLN is designed to help K-12 teachers integrate technology into their classrooms. We have over 265 menu pages with more than 5,800 annotated links to free resources on educational WWW sites — all organized within an intuitive structure.” There is a Theme Index and a section on First Nations History.Congressional Record – Via GPO Access for 1995 thru 2001 (Volumes 141 thru 147). Portions of the Congressional Record in pdf format are available for 2001, 2000 and 1999. You can also retrieve a specific page.Cornell American Indian ProgramCornell Powwow and Smokedance– Held annually in the SpringCouncil for Museum Anthropology – Offers links to Anthropology Museums on the Web.Cradleboard Teaching Project – Project begun by teacher and songwriter Buffy Sainte-Marie to help children through cross-cultural communication. Provides links to other resources and to other Tribal Websites.Creek Indian Bibliography: Sources for History, Biography and Genealogy; Print and Internet Links– Anne E. Gometz.A Critical Bibliography of North American Indians, For K-12 – Compiled in September 1996, this excellent resource for teachers and librarians describes over 800 books. There are sections organized by culture area and tribe and further divided into non-fiction and fiction, biographies, and traditional stories. From the Department of Anthropology at the Smithsonian Institution’s Museum of Natural History. There are sections for the Northeast, Southwest, Northwest Coast, California, Plateau, Arctic, Plains, Great Basin, Subarctic and the Southeast.Cross Cultural Symposium on Blacks and Native Americans – April 20-22, 2000, El Hajj Malik El Shabazz Center at Dartmouth College. To “explore the complex histories and experiences shared by Blacks and Indians.” Provides Speaker Biographies and links to related resources.Cultural Readings: Colonization and Print in the Americas – “Exhibition from the collections of the Jay I. Kislak Foundation and the Rosenbach Museum & Library, sponsored by the University of Pennsylvania Library.” Includes a section on Print and Native Cultures.Cultural Resource Management – Searchable and with Index of Past Issues. See Beyond Compliance: Tribes of the Southwest(Volume 23, No. 9, (2000).Dakota Conflict Trials (1862) – From Doug Linder’s Famous Trialspage.

Delgamuukw / Gisday’wa National Process– Resources relating to the Delgamuukw decision, in which the Canadian Supreme Court recognized the validity of Aboriginal title.Denver Public Library Photography Collection – Western History Department/Genealogy Department. Online collection contains 100,000 images including many of Native Americans. Try searching for the following: Indians of North America, Wounded Knee, Dakota, Sioux, Ute, Pueblo, David Barry, George Beam, C. G. Morledge, Horace Poley, Edward Boos, Sitting Bull or Red Cloud. A search for Wounded Knee Massacre, for example, retrieves 85 photographs, each carefully catalogued and annotated and with a url which can be bookmarked (the url for Indian Chiefs and U.S. officials, NS-163, goes to the enlarged image only, without identification.) Other highlights include Sitting Bull of the Custer Massacre (X-31384), Standing Holy, daughter of Sitting Bull, wearing jewelry (B-144), and Red Tomahawk, who killed Sitting Bull (X-31680). A search for Ben Wittick (1845-1903) retrieves 68 images by the photographer including the following examples from the 1880s: Approach to Pueblo Acoma, View in Pueblo Acoma, N.M., View in Apache camp, San Carlos River, Arizona, View in Pueblo Acoma, New Mexico, View in Pueblo Laguna, N.M., View in Pueblo Laguna, N.M., View in Pueblo Santo Domingo N. M., View in the aristocratic quarter of Oraibi Moqui, Woman of Zuni & water olla and Zuni maiden, daughter of Pa-lo-wa-ti-wa. See also the Collaborative Digitization Programwhich provides descriptions and links to other Digital Collections.Digital Library of Appalachia – Search for Cherokee.Digital Library of Canada – National Library of Canada. Relevant resources include Indian Affairs Annual Reports 1864-1990, Jesuit Relations and the History of New France, Early Canadiana OnlineDigital Library of Georgia – Among the collections is Southeastern Native American Documents, 1730-1842which “contains over 1,000 documents and images relating to the Native American population of the Southeastern United States from the collections of the University of Georgia Libraries, the University of Tennessee at Knoxville Library, the Frank H. McClung Museum, and the Tennessee State Library and Archives. The documents are comprised of letters, legal proceedings, military orders, financial papers, and archaeological images relating to Native Americans in the Southeast.” Georgia Historic Books “contains full-text, fully searchable books related to Georgia’s history and culture. Most are from the 19th to early 20th century and focus on Georgia history, biography, and literature.”Directory of Aboriginal Exporters– This directory, compiled by the Aboriginal Business Development (AIBD) Committee in 2002, lists 470 Canadian firms.Documenting the American South – Collection from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill of full-text primary sources on Southern history, literature and culture from the colonial period through the first decades of the 20th century. On July 27, 2001 there were 960 books and manuscripts in the collection. Includes, for example, the full-text of The Missionary Pioneer, or A Brief Memoir of the Life, Labours, and Death of John Stewart, (Man of Colour,) Founder, under God of the Mission among the Wyandotts at Upper Sandusky, Ohio (1827) by Joseph Mitchell. The collection is searchable and has a subject, author and titleindex.Documents Relating to the Negotiation of Ratified and Unratified Treaties With Various Indian Tribes, 1801-1869– “Collection has been created from the microfilm of record group 75, records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, specifically RG 75, Microcopy T494. These ten reels include instructions to treaty commissioners, reports, letters, and in some cases copies of the treaties.”Duke Collection of American Indian Oral History – “Provides access to typescripts of interviews (1967 -1972) conducted with hundreds of Indians in Oklahoma regarding the histories and cultures of their respective nations and tribes.”Early Americas Digital Archive (EADA) – “Collection of electronic texts originally written in or about the Americas from 1492 to approximately 1820… Published and supported by the Maryland Institute for Technology in the Humanities (MITH)at the University of Maryland.”


Early Canadiana Online – “Full text online collection of more than 3,000 books and pamphlets documenting Canadian history from the first European contact to the late 19th century. The collection is particularly strong in native studies, travel and exploration, and the history of French Canada.” (Note: a password is not required – leave username and password blank.) A search for Iroquoian Indians, for example, retrieves 12 documents including:William M. Beauchamp’s The Iroquois Trail, or, Footprints of the Six Nations: in Customs, Traditions and History(1892)Lewis Henry Morgan’s Houses and house-life of the American aborigines (1881)George Catlin’s Adventures of the Ojibbeway and Ioway Indians in England, France, and Belgium: being notes of eight years’ travels and residence in Europe with his North American Indian collection (1852)James Constantine Pilling’s Bibliography of the Iroquoian Languages(1888)Horatio Hale and Edward B. Tyler’s Four Huron Wampum Records: a Study of Aboriginal American History and Mnemonic Symbols(?1897).

A full-text search for Oswego retrieves 845 matching pages in 279 matching titles. A search for Sachems is also productive. Other items of interest include:

Collection de manuscrits contenant lettres, memoires, et autres documents historiques relatifs a la Nouvelle-France: recueillis aux Archives de la province de Quebec ou copies à l’etranger; mis en ordre et edites sous les auspices de la Legislature de Quebec, avec table, etc. by Jean Blanchet. A rich source for the years 1663-1713, with many letters from Frontenac to the French Minister (in French only). Contents include Lettre des Sauvages Abenaquis au Rois(page 433)


Sketch of the Life of Captain Joseph Brant, Thaydneanegea (1872)Ten years of Upper Canada in Peace and War, 1805-1815 being the Ridout letters (1890)Lives of Celebrated American Indians (1849)Life and Times of Kateri Tekakwitha, the Lily of the Mohawks, 1656-1680 (1891)– by Ellen Hardin WalworthLife of Tecumseh, and of his brother the prophet with a historical sketch of the Shawanoe Indians(1841)by Benjamin Drake


Eccles Centre for American Studies– British Library.United States Government Policies Toward Native Americans, 1787-1990: A Guide to Materials in the Gritish Libraryby David J.l Whittaker, Eccles Centre for American Studies 1996, 91pp. “This bibliographical guide to material in the British Library has been assembled to assist in locating the more important works on this significant topic. It is not comprehensive, but does call attention to the major studies and sources on American Indian policy history. Almost all of the books cited have their own bibliographies which will lead the serious researcher to additional material. A few items are listed which are not in the British Library.”British Travellers Report on the White Conquest of the Trans-Mississippi West, 1865-1905by R. A Burchell, First Annual Douglas W. Bryant Lecture, July 1993.


Educational Resources Information Center – There is a clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools with information on American Indian and Alaska Native Education. There is a searchable Native Education Directory which “includes organizations, governmental agencies, and schools that are involved in the education of Native students and serve a statewide, multistate, or national audience.” There are Expert Search Strategies for Programs for American Indian, Alaska Native, and Canada Native youth and Native students (American Indians, Canada Natives, Alaska Natives) and higher education.Edward S. Curtis’s The North American Indian – “One of the most significant and controversial representations of traditional American Indian culture ever produced. Issued in a limited edition from 1907-1930, the publication continues to exert a major influence on the image of Indians in popular culture…Featured here are all of the published photogravure images including over 1500 illustrations bound in the text volumes, along with over 700 portfolio plates.” (Library of Congress.) See also Edward S. Curtis’s The North American IndianEiteljorg Museum of American Indians and Western Art– IndianapolisElkus Indian Papers – “California Academy of Sciences houses a collection of over 2,000 documents related to Indian affairs over the period 1922-1963. These papers came from the estate of Charles de Young Elkus, a San Francisco attorney…” The database is searchableand browsable by name of correspondant.Emory Women Writers Resource Project – Among the full-text Native-American related titles are Nowita, the Sweet Singer. A Romantic Tradition of Spavinaw, Indian Territory (1900) by Mabel Washbourne Anderson, Memoir Of Elizabeth Jones, a Little Indian Girl, Who Lived at the River-Credit Mission, Upper Canada by Anonymous, The Sick Child (1899), An Autobiography (1911), My People [Winnebagoes](1897) and Gray Wolf’s Daughter (1899) all by Angel De Cora (Hinook-Mahiwi-Kilinaka), An Indian Woman’s Letter (1879), Bright Eyes (1881), Omaha Legends and Tent-Stories (1883), The Indian Question (1880) all by Susette La Flesche (Bright Eyes), and Great Work of an Indian (1906)by Ora Eddleman Reed.Encyclopedia Mythica: Native American Mythology– With over 350 entries on Native American mythology.Encyclopedia Smithsonian: Native American History and Culture– Selected links to sites hosted by Smithsonian Institution museums and organizations.FBI Art Theft Program – With a section on stolen Native American Art and recovered art (Navajo Ceremonial Artifacts, Geronimo’s Headress, Washoe Indian Baskets).FBI Freedom of Information Act Electronic Reading Room – FBI documents scanned from paper copies as released to FOIPA requesters. There is a file on the Osage Indian Murders.Falmouth Institute – Training and consulting organization to American Indian and Alaska Native communities. With list of publications and links to Indian Tribes and Tribal Organizations. They monitor legislative activities on Capitol Hill, some of which can be read online in the American Indian Report’s Fedwatch.FedLaw: Native Americans– LawsFederally Recognized Tribes – “This notice publishes the current list of 561 tribal entities recognized and eligible for funding and services from the Bureau of Indian Affairs by virtue of their status as Indian tribes. The list is updated from the notice published on November 25, 2005 (70 FR 71194).” Published in the Federal Register.


Fenimore Art Museum – Cooperstown. The Eugene and Clare Thaw Collection of American Indian Art is described by Steven M. L. Aronson: “…The 800 arrestingly beautiful objects…are incontestably the best of their kind – milestones of American Indian inventiveness.” (Native Beauties: Eugene V. Thaw on His Extraordinary Compilation of North American Indian Works, Architectural Digest, June, 2008.) In the Virtual Museum you can view catalog records and images of the 825 itemsin the collection including:Seneca Bag– Circa 1830-1860Eastern Ojibwa Birch Bark Domed Box– Circa 1847-1853Teton Sioux (Lakota) Painted Hide War Record– Circa 1880Teton Sioux (Lakota) Storage Bags– Circa 1880-1889Huron Moosehair Embroidered Black-dyed Moccasins– Circa 1838-1853Tlingit Berry Basket– Circa 1910 – Free online article-search service allows you to search for (and read) articles published over the last 1 to 2 years in more than 300 reputable magazines and journals. You can view publications by subject or by name.First American West The Ohio River Valley, 1750-1820– American Memory, Library of Congress.First Nations Collection – Part of the Southern Oregon Digital Archives (SODA), the First Nations Collection has “documents, books, and articles relating to the indigenous peoples of this bioregion.” Particularly interesting are three books by the anthropologist Edward Sapir (1884-1939. These books are rich sources of creation stories in which Coyote plays a major role. Yana Texts (235 pages) were collected in 1907 from two locations in Shasta County California: near Redding and between Round Mountain and Montgomery Creek. In also incorporates material collected by Roland. B. Dixon in 1900 from Sam Bat’wi and Round Mountain Jack. Takelma Texts (267 pages ) were collected Sapir in the summer of 1906 in Siletz Resertaion in western Oregon. Frances Johnson (Gwisgwashan) was the “sole informant”. Wishram texts, Volume II, Together with Wasco Tales and Myths(333 pages). The Wishram texts were obtained, for the most part, in Yakima Reservation, in southern Washington, in the summer of 1905. Much of the Wishram material was gathered by an interpreter, Pete McGuff from Louis Simpson (Menait). Jeremiah Curtin collected the Wasco texts.First Nations Site Index – Jordan S. Dill. Has a section on First Nation Histories.First Nations Periodical Index – Searchable index of 20 Aboriginal newspapers, journals, and magazines, of mainly Canadian Native content, covering the years 1981 to 1997. With a Journal List. (An advanced keyword search for Residential schoolsreturned 49 citations.) A joint project of the Saskatchewan Indian Federated College, Saskatoon Campus, the Saskatchewan Indian Cultural Centre and the Library Services for Saskatchewan Aboriginal Peoples committee.First PeoplesFirst Perspective– News of Indigenous Peoples of Canada.FirstGov– Official website for searching the U.S. Government.Florida State Archives Photographic Collection– The Peithmann Collection consists of 573 photographs, taken by Irvin M. Peithmann in the 1950s, documenting the daily lives of the Seminoles on Brighton and Big Cypress Reservations in south Florida. (Go to the bottom of the search page for information and access to the collection.)FLITE Supreme Court Decisions 1937-1975 – FedWorld site contains 7,407 full-text decisions issued from volumes 300 through 422 of US Reports, searchable by keyword or case name. (Other resources include Cornell’s Legal Information Institute’s Supreme Court Decisions, GPO Supreme Court Decisions (1937-1975), Landmark Supreme Court Cases, Supreme Court of the United States, Oyez Project: U.S. Supreme Court Media and FindLaw’s U.S..Foundation for the Advancement of Mesoamerican Studies (FAMSI) – Highlights include a collection of online Books and the Bibliografía Mesoamericana.Founders’ Constitution – Anthology of writings on American constitutional history edited by Philip B. Kurland and Ralph Lerner. A joint venture of the University of Chicago Press and the Liberty Fund, the book was published in 1986. (It is not clear from the explanatory matter just how much of the print version appears online.) “The documents included range from the early seventeenth century to the 1830s, from the reflections of philosophers to popular pamphlets, from public debates in ratifying conventions to the private correspondence of the leading political actors of the day.” The site is searchable, contains a Table of Contents and an Index which includes Short Titles Used, Authors and Documents, Cases and Constitutional Provision. Pages dealing with Indian law: Article 1, Section 8, Clause 3 (Indians), Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (5 Pet. 1 1831), United States v. Bailey (24 Fed. Cas. 937, no. 14,495 C.C.D.Tenn. 1834). United States v. Cisna (25 Fed. Cas. 422, no. 14,795 C.C.D.Ohio 1835) and Johnson & Graham v. M’Intosh (8 Wheat. 543 1823).The Four Indian Kings– Virtual Vault, Library & Archives, Canada. “The four Indian kings first travelled to London in 1710 to meet Queen Anne as delegates of the Iroquoian Confederacy in an effort to cement an alliance with the British. Queen Anne was so impressed by her visitors that she commissioned their portraits by court painter John Verelst. The portraits are believed to be some of the earliest surviving oil portraits of Aboriginal peoples taken from life.”Friends Committee on National Legislation – Quaker lobby in the public interest. Provides Native American Legislative Updatesfor U.S. legislation.Fund of the Four Directions– “National Native-run charitable foundation dedicated to empowering Indigenous communities in North America to implement solutions that revitalize and are consistent with Indigenous ways and concepts.”Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France – Digitization project, currently available in French only. “Au 1er janvier 2004, Gallica offrait sur la Toile : 70 000 volumes imprimés en mode image, 1200 volumes imprimés en mode texte, 500 documents sonores, 80 000 images fixes.” A catalogue search (recherche) for Crèvecoeur locates the text (in pdf format) and illustrations for Voyage dans la Haute Pennsylvanie et dans l’état de New-York depuis l’année 1785 jusqu’en 1798. The search results also include illustrations (Mosaique) from the work: there are images of Késkétomah, ancien Sachem de la Nation Onondaga and Koohassen, guerrier de la Nation Onéida. You can also browse many volumes of the Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution. Do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology. From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules). This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931). For example, the Twenty-First Annual Report, published in 1903, and which covers the years 1899-1900, has articles on Hopi katcinas, drawn by native artists, by Jesse Walter Fewkes (Pp. 3-126, pls. II-LXIII) and Iroquoian cosmology, by J. N. B. Hewitt (Pp. 127-339, pls. LXIV-LXIX). (To locate contents of these Annual Reports, consult the Smithsonian’s List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology which provides article titles, authors and page numbers.) A title search for Bureau of American ethnology retrieves 64 results, which include the full texts of Bibliography of the Iroquoian languages by James Constantine Pilling, The Problem of the Ohio mounds by Cyrus Thomas and Siouan tribes of the east by James Mooney. (Use AltaVista’s Babel Fish to help with translation.)Gallup Inter-Tribal Indian Ceremonial– August 9-13, 2000Ganondagan State Historic Site – Major seventeenth-century Seneca town and its palisaded granary, located in Victor, New York. With links to Haudenosaunee and Other Native American Sites.Garacontié- Daniel Garacontié was a 17th century Onondaga chief (Sagochiendagehté) known for his diplomacy and peace-keeping efforts.Gathering of Nations– Billed as the largest powwow in North America, it brings in indigenous people from 500 tribes and cultures in the U.S., Canada, Mexico and Polynesia.George Catlin and His Indian Gallery– Smithsonian American Art Museum.George Eastman House – Located in Rochester, New York, the museum’s Schankman Image Server offers access to a portion of its extensive still photography collection. See, for example, New Mexico Views by Bennett & Brown, Frederick Monsen (1865-1929), Timothy O’Sullivan (1840-1882), and C. W. Carter (1832-1918).George Washington Papers – Library of Congress American Memory Project to digitize approximately 65,000 documents is a rich resource for locating primary source material relating to Indian affairs. For example, if you are researching the Sullivan Campaign of 1779in New York, a keyword search for Sullivan locates many letters written by Sullivan and Washington between May and September of 1779, when the campaign occurred. A search for James Clinton,and Tioga will also retrieve letters of interest.Geronimo: His Own Story – Part of the From Revolution to Reconstruction site which also has a section on Civilizations under Siege: the European Conquest of the Americas.Gila Cliff Dwellings National Monument– National Park Service. Consists of two sites: the Gila Cliff Dwellings and the Heart-Bar Site or TJ Ruin.Gilcrease Museum– Tulsa, OklahomaGood Minds– Educational Resources for Aboriginal Studies, First Nations Studies, Indigenous Studies, and Native American Studies.


G̦ttinger Digitalisierungszentrums РDigital Library at the Lower Saxony State and University Library, G̦ttingen, includes a collection of over 2,000 volumes of early travel books. A title search for Onondaga, for example, retrieves the following titles:Dictionnaire de la Langue Huronne (1632)by Gabriel Sagard Th̩odatJournals of the Military Expedition of Major General John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 (1887) by Frederick Cook [alternative url for this title.History of the Five Indian Nations of Canada (1747) by Cadwallader Colden [alternative url for this title]Memoirs of Lieut. Henry Timberlake, (Who accompanied the Three Cherokee Indians to England in the Year 1762)Travels in New-England and New-York (1821)by Timothy Dwight


Government Information Locator ServiceGPO Access Multi-Database Search – Will search Congressional Record, Federal Register, Congressional Bills, Public Laws, U.S. Code. For example, a search for Hopi, in the Federal Register, Volume 66 (2001), retrieves 20 results, one of which is a proposed rule change entitled “Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System; Religious Ceremonial Collection of Golden Eaglets From Wupatki National Monument”. There is also a Database List. A subject search for Indian in the General Accounting Office (GAO) Reports (on 4 June 2001) database retrieves 33 results including Money Laundering: Rapid Growth of Casinos Makes Them Vulnerable(01/04/96, GAO/GGD-96-28), Indian Programs: BIA Should Streamline Its Processes for Estimating Land Rental Values (06/30/1999, GAO/RCED-99-165) and Indian Trust Funds: Improvements Made in Acquisition of New Asset and Accounting System But Significant Risks Remain (09/15/2000, GAO/AIMD-00-259).Haida: Spirits of the Sea– Subjects include art, canoes, culture and ocean, food, First Totem, fishing, and Gwaii Haanas.GOVBOT– Searchable database of Federal Government web sites.Government of Canada Web Archive– “At the time of its launch in Fall 2007, approximately 100 million digital objects (over 4 terabytes) of archived Federal Government website data was made accessible.”Guide to Anthropological Fieldnotes and Manuscripts in Archival Repositories– Compiled by Robert Leopold, National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution.Guide to Law Online: Native Americans– Law Library of CongressGuide to Native American Studies Programs in the United States and Canada– Robert M. Nelson, EditorHandbook of Texas Online – 23,000 articles on people, places, events, historical themes, institutions, and a host of other topic categories. (A search for Indians retrieved over 1,000 articles.) A joint project of the General Libraries at the University of Texas at Austin and the Texas State Historical Association.Harvard Project on American Indian Economic Development – John F. Kennedy School of Government. Offers a number of publications including American Indians on Reservations: A Databook of Socioeconomic Change Between the 1990 and 2000 Censuses is a 59 page pdf document. The is a list of all publications.Harvard Views of Readers, Readership, and Reading History – Harvard Open Collections Program. “Online exploration of the intellectual, cultural, and political history of reading as reflected in the historical holdings of the Harvard Libraries. For Internet users worldwide, Reading provides unparalleled digital access to a significant selection of unique source materials – more than 250,000 pages from 1,200 individual items, including 800 published books and 400 manuscript selections.” There is a section on Missions to Native North AmericansHarvard University Library Open Collections Program – “Provides access to digitized historical, manuscript, and image resources selected from Harvard’s library and museum collections.” In January 2006, the Women Working collection consisted of “7,500 pages of manuscripts 3,500 books and pamphlets 1,200 photographs.” You can browse by subject and genre, search by keyword, author, title and subject and search the full text. One of the items in the collection is Choup-nit-ki, with the Nez Perce (1909)by E. Jane Gay (1830-1919) is from the Schlesinger Library on the History of Women in America, Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study. It is described as “a two-volume collection of hand-colored photographs, illustrations, and letters providing a first-hand account of the implementation of the federal government’s allotment policy toward the American Indians, as well as commentary on missionary work, westward expansion, racial conflict, and women’s issues.” The work is “illustrated from photographs by the author with deorations by Emma J. Gay.” The author, in a prefatory note, states the following: “It was from the Nez Perce reservation, in the their territory of Idaho, that these letters were written by an unoffical member of her [Alice C. Fletcher] party. They were addressed to personal friends from whom they have been gathered by the compiler.” There is a list of photographs on pp. 22-25 and a list of drawings on p. 27. The first of the letters, on p. 35, was written in May 30, 1889 from Lewiston, Idaho.Haudenosaunee: People Building a Long House– Official source of news and information from the Haudenosaunee (Hodenosaunee), comprised of the traditional leadership of the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Tuscarora Nations.Heard Museum – Phoenix, Arizona museum has a “world-class collection of Native American art, which includes the Fred Harvey Company collection of 19th and 20th century ceramics, baskets, jewelry and textiles as well as the 420-piece Goldwater Kachina Doll collection” as well as Documentary Research Collections. The online exhibition Inventing the Southwest: the Fred Harvey Company and Native American Art “interprets how Native American art in the Southwest was shaped in the first half of this century by the marketing and collecting activities of the Fred Harvey Company.” Other resources include a Documentary Research Collections Guide and The Native American Fine Art Movement: A Resource Guide and Watchful Eyes: Native American Women Artists.Hinds’ Precedents of the House of Representatives (1907) – Asher C. Hinds,Clerk at the Speaker’s Table, 1895 to 1910. With Search Page.Hisatsinom and the Hohokam – Links to resources on the Hohokam people of Central Arizona, the ancestors of the Pima and Tohono O’odham Indians, and the Hisatsinom of the Four Corners, the ancestors of the Hopi, Zuni, and Pueblo Indians compiled by librarian Joel Rane.History Cooperative – Project of the American Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, the University of Illinois Press and the National Academy Press. You can search the Journal of American History and the American Historical Review. A search for Mohawkretrieves 15 results. Contents (full-text):American Historical Review– from December, 1999Journal of American History– from June 1999Law and History Review– from Spring 1999William and Mary Quarterly– from January 2001History Matters – “Designed for high school and college teachers of U.S. History survey courses, this site serves as a gateway to Web resources and offers unique teaching materials, first-person primary documents and threaded discussions on teaching U.S. history.” Many Pasts “contains primary documents in text, image, and audio about the experiences of “ordinary” Americans throughout U.S. history.” (Examples: “The Moment That The Snows Are Melted The Indian Women Begin Their Work”: Iroquois Women Work the Fields by Joseph-François Lafitau; “Your People Live Only Upon Cod”: An Algonquian Response to European Claims of Cultural Superiority by Chrestien LeClerq; The Dutch Arrive: A Native Perspective by John Heckewelder.) WWW.Historyis an annotated guide to the most useful Web sites for teaching U.S. history and social studies.History of Biomedicine – Indigenous Cultures– Collection of links from the Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.History of Museums and Ethnographic Collections – Pitt Rivers Museum, School of Anthropology and Museum Ethnography, University of Oxford. See site map.History of the American West, 1860-1920 – Created by the Denver Public Library (see above) and now part of the National Digital Library Program at the Library of Congress, this collection “contains “over 30,000 photographs, drawn from the holdings of the Western History and Genealogy Department at Denver Public Library, illuminate many aspects of the history of the American West. Most of the photographs were taken between 1860 and 1920. They illustrate Colorado towns and landscape, document the place of mining in the history of Colorado and the West, and show the lives of Native Americans from more than forty tribes living west of the Mississippi River. Also included are World War II photographs of the 10th Mountain Division, ski troops based in Colorado who saw action in Italy.” Keyword searchable and indexed by subject and by name. Try searching for the following: Indians of North America, Wounded Knee, Dakota, Sioux, Ute, Pueblo, David Barry, George Beam, C. G. Morledge, Horace Poley, Edward Boos, Sitting Bull or Red Cloud. A search for Wounded Knee Massacre, for example, retrieves 85 photographs, each carefully catalogued and annotated and with a url which can be bookmarked. A search for Ben Wittick (1845-1903) retrieves 68 images of Zuni, Apache, Hopi and Navajo scenes.History of the Indian Tribes of North America – By Thomas L. McKenney and James Hall. This was a three volume work published between 1837 and 1844 and is notable for the hand-colored lithographs by Henry Inman, based on portraits of Native Americans by Charles Bird King. See A Gathering of Nations: Images from McKenney & Hall’s History of the Indian Tribes of North America and McKenney & Hall’s History of the Indian Tribes of North America: A Selected Bibliography(pdf) by Alice M. Cornell.History of the Northwest Coast– Bruce HallmanHudson’s Bay Company Archives – Held by the Provincial Archives of Manitoba. See the CBC Interviews.Huntington Free Library’s Native American Collection – Cornell University collection, received June 15, 2004, is “comprised of more than 40,000 volumes on the archaeology, ethnology and history of the native peoples of the Americas from the colonial period to the present. Genres represented in great depth include books of voyage and exploration, missionary reports, ethnography, travel writing, native language dictionaries, captivity narratives, and children’s books.” The Fidelia Fielding Diaries consist of five volumes by Fidelia Hoscott Fielding (1827-1908), considered to be the last speaker and preserver of the Mohegan Pequot language. For additional information on the collection see p. 4 of the Cornell University Library Update for Spring 2005. The collection is valued at more than $8 million dollars and includes an album of original drawings by George Catlin. The collection was previously held by the Huntington Free Library, a public library in the Bronx, and, prior to that (1930), the Museum of the American Indian, then located in New York City. Following a lengthy legal battle over ownership between the Huntington Free Library and the Smithsonian Institution, which had absorbed the Museum of the American Indian in 1990, the collection was transferred to Cornell in June 2004. There are “plans to digitize a significant portion of its manuscript holdings and rare books. An exhibition drawn from the collection will go on view in the Hirshland Gallery in Kroch Library in October, 2005.” See ‘Vanished Worlds, Enduring People’ — Cornell’s Native American Collection goes on display in the Cornell Chronicle, October 19, 2005 and Vanished Worlds, Enduring People: Cornell University Library’s Native American Collection, the online exhibition.“If you knew the conditions…”: Health Care to Native Americans– Online version of an exhibit held at the National Library of Medicine in 1994.


[There are many variations in search terms and spelling. When searching, particularly in older literature, look for Moki, Moqui, Moquis, Orayvi, Orabai, Oreibas, Tusayan, Sikyatki, Awatobi, Thomas Keam, Keams Canyon, Antelope Mesa, Jeddito…]




  1. I like this blog … it nice … Sorry, but it may be rather regularly designs

  2. Pingback: Renting a Plane

  3. Your current article provides confirmed useful to myself.
    It’s quite educational and you’re clearly quite educated in this region. You have got exposed my own sight in order to varying views on this topic together with intriquing, notable and reliable content.

  4. Hey there! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any issues with
    hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing
    a few months of hard work due to no data backup.
    Do you have any methods to stop hackers?

    • hallo bolajo
      untuk menghindari hijack internet
      anda harus melindungi komputer anda dengan program-program perlindungan khususang setiap tahun harus diperbaharui
      dan mmbuka web liwat badan yang terkenal seperti sata
      adalah dari google
      dan sangat aman karena serangan hackers sangat banyak
      kemudian jangan berkomunikasi liwat internet pada seseorang yang anda tidka mengenalnya,untuk itu ia harus mengupload kopi KTP nya terlebih dahulu
      I hopeyou understand Indonesian languague

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )


Connecting to %s