American Indian History Collections

Part four

The Unites States Indian part two

Apache  Indians


Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited private E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

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The American Apache Indian


Apache Indian man

I walked with my Father

I walked with my Son

I walked with my Grandson

Now I walk in the shadows


kiowa apache





Dohosan ( Little Bluff)

( Tribe : Kiowa )

( Painting by GEORGE CATLIN )

c.1805-1866. Noted for his courage and defiance in the face of threats from the U.S. government, Dohosan is considered by many to be the greatest of a hereditary line of chiefs of the Kiowas. In 1833, he became principal chief of all Kiowas after the Osages decimated a band of Kiowas and took their Sun Dance gods. As a result, his predecessor, Dohate or “Bluff”, was deposed. Although he signed several treaties (notably the Fort Atkinson Treaty of July 27, 1852, and the Little Arkansas River Treaty of October 18, 1865), Dohosan had little regard for the white man and his agreements. He believed that Indians should fight to retain their lands and rights as free people. However, he identified with and respected the Mexicans, who thought and fought much as he died. When Kid Carson started with more than 300 soldiers a winter campaign against the restive nation of the Kiowas on November 24, 1864, Kid Carson attacked a camp of Kiowas at Adobe Walls at the Canadien River. Dohosan, who was only a visitor in this camp, succeded in repulse this attack with great bravery. When Dohosan died in 1866 at the hands of a Dakota man, his name was bestowed upon his son, also a distinguished warrior.

The Kiowa – Apache are also known as the Prairie Apache. The name Apache was applied to them many years ago, because they were thought to be the same as the Apache people of Arizona. They have not had a connection with the Arizona Apache, other than belonging to the same language group. They came from the north, as a part of the Kiowa. Recent authorities now think the Apache divided somewhere in Montana, one group migrating down the west side of the Rockies into the Southwest, and a smaller group staying with the Kiowa. Whichever theory is correct, The Kiowa – Apache have a distinct language, and call themselves Nadi-ish-dena. The Pawnee and early French explorers and settlers called them Ga ta’ka, which is the name they appear as in their first treaty with the United States.

The Kiowa – Apache were associated with the Kiowa before they left the Rocky Mountains. In 1682, La Salle referred to them as “Gattacka, saying they had horses, which they sold to the Pawnee. La Harpe in 1719, after being in the now Oklahoma area, mentioned the tribe as “Quataquios” living on the Arkansas River as neighbors of the Tawakoni. Lewis and Clark found them in 1805 in the Black Hills where the Kiowa were.

In 1837, the Kiowa – Apache signed their first treaty with the United States at Fort Gibson. Since then they have identified with the Kiowa, and for the most part, share a common history.

In 1865, at their request, the Kiowa-Apache were officialy attached to the Cheyenne as a result of the Treaty of the Little Arkansas, but in the Medicine Lodge Treaty, two years later, were reunited with the Kiowa.

Their principal chief, Pacer, was friendly with the white people and used his influence to promote peace among the tribes on the Kiowa – Comanche Reservation until his death in 1875. That year, A. J. Standing, a Quaker, schoolteacher, had established the first school among the Kiowa – Apache at their request.

The group had settled peaceably on the reservation and were highly commended by the authorities for their industry and their efforts to make their own living. In 1894, Apache John (Gonkon, “Stays in tipi”) a concientious leader, represented them in the delegation to Washington with A’piatan, in protesting the agreement of 1892. Most of the Kiowa -Apache were living in the vicinity of present day Apache, in Caddo County, OK, under the leadership of their chief, Tsayaditl-ti (“White Man”), just before allotments and the opening of the reservation lands in 1901.

The present location of the Kiowa – Apache is the vicinity of Fort Cobb and Apache in Caddo County. There are approximately 400 now. Official reports list their numbers as about 300, when Lewis and Clark found them, 378 in 1871, 344 in 1875, 349 in 1889, 208 in 1896, and only 194 in 1924.


The above information is contained in the book, “A Guide to the Indian Tribes of Oklahoma” by Muriel H. Wright, published by University of Oklahoma Press, 1971.


Satanta (Set-Tainte)

1830-1878. Born on the Northern Plains, Satanta (“White Bear Person”) was the son of Red Tepee, who was the keeper of the Tai-me, the Kiowa medicine bundles. During his boyhood, he was known as Guaton-bain or “Big Ribs”. He was a young man when a prominent warrior, Black Horse, presented him with a war shiled that he used while raiding in Texas and Mexico. During the early days of the Civil War, he conducted many raids along the Santa Fe Trail. He would later become a principal chief in the Kiowa Wars of the 1860s-1870s and was known as “The Orator of the Plains.” When Little Mountain died in 1866, Satanta became the leader of the war faction of the Kiowas. His rival was KICKING BIRD of the peace faction. As a result of his rivalry, Lone Wolf became the compromise choice for the position of principal chief. Meanwhile, Satanta and his warriors continued raiding in Texas. Famed for his eloquence, Satanta spoke at the Medicine Lodge Treaty of 1867 where the Kiowas ceded their lands in the valleys of the Canadian and Arkansas Rivers and agreed to settle on a reservation within Indian Territory. However, some of the Kiowas were slow to move onto their lands in Indian Territory. When Satanta came under a flag of truce to tell the U.S. Army that he had not been with Black Kettle at the Battle of the Washita, General Philip H. Sheridan held him and several other leaders as hostages until their bands had relocated to Indian Terretory. In May 1871, Satanta was in a war party that attacked the Warren wagon train with SATANK, BIG TREE and MAMANTI. Later, Big Tree, Satank, and Satanta were seized for trial after bragging openly about their exploits. Satank tried to escape on the road to Texas; he was fatally shot. Big Tree and Satanta went to trial and were sentenced to death. Indian rights groups objected to the harsh penalties, however. The Bureau of Indian Affairs even contended that they should be released because their actions were associated with war and not murder. In 1873, they were paroled on a pledge of good behavior for themselves and the entire Kiowa tribe. However, Kiowa, Comanche, Cheyenne, and Arapaho war parties renewed their raids on white settlers under the Comanche leader Quanah Parker. These actions started the Red River War of 1874-1875. Satanta tried to prove to army officials that he was not a party to the raids. In September 1874, Big Tree appeared to THE Cheyenne Agency at Darlington to state that Satanta wished to surrender peacefully. True to his word, Satanta surrendered the next month. Although it appears that he had not violated the terms of his parole, Satanta was taken into custody and then imprisoned at Huntsville, Texas. On October 11, 1878, sick, tired, and despairing that he would ever be released, Satanta jumped off the upper floor of the prison hospital and committed suicide. The proud and dignified warrior was buried in Texas. His grandson, James Auchiah, received permission in 1963 to bring Satanta’s remains to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, so that he could be interred with other Kiowa chiefs.



(?-1892). White Horse (Tsen-tainte), a Kiowa chief during the second half of the nineteenth century, was noted among the tribe for his daring. Even in his teens he showed remarkable adeptness as an apprentice warrior. Due to his unusual strength, he became an outstanding horseman, able to snatch up a child while at a gallop. In the summer of 1867 White Horse joined a large party of Comanches and Kiowas on a revenge raid against the Navajos, who were then living in exile on the reservation near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. On the Canadian River near the Texas-New Mexico line, White Horse and some of his followers killed and scalped a Navajo warrior. Shortly afterward, the war party attacked a Navajo village on the Pecos River. Although White Horse participated in the council at Medicine Lodge Creek in Kansas, he soon cast his lot with the war faction and gained considerable notoriety during the early 1870s for his raids on Texas settlements. He and his followers made a raid on Fort Sill on June 12, 1870, following the annual tribal Sun Dance, and stole seventy-three mules from the post quartermaster. On June 22 they attacked a party of cattle drovers on the trail a few miles south of the fort. White Horse killed and scalped two men before a detachment of troops came to the Texans’ relief. Whites considered him the “most dangerous man” among the Kiowas. Shortly thereafter, White Horse led his band into Texas, killed Gottlieb Koozer, and took his wife and six children captive. Subsequently, on August 7 the Quaker Indian agent, Lawrie Tatum, reprimanded the guilty party and withheld the weekly rations until all captives and stolen stock were returned; the Koozers were ransomed for $100 each, and raids in the vicinity of Fort Sill were curtailed, but White Horse defiantly continued his attacks south of the Red River. On September 30 he ambushed a stagecoach en route to Fort Concho near Mount Margaret (also known as the Mound) and killed Martin Wurmser, a trooper who was serving as an escort. White Horse also participated in the Warren Wagontrain Raid on May 18, 1871, and helped carry the fatally wounded brave, Hau-tau, to safety during the fight; afterward he escaped arrest. While the imprisonment of chiefs Satanta and Big Tree momentarily curbed his raiding, he and Big Bow engineered another attack on a wagon train in what is now Crockett County on April 20, 1872, which resulted in the death of seventeen Mexican teamsters. On the way back from that foray, White Horse was wounded in the arm during a skirmish with Capt. N. Cooney’s Ninth Cavalry troops. On May 19 White Horse’s younger brother, Kim-pai-te, was killed in a fight with L. H. Luckett’s surveying crew near Round Timbers, twenty-five miles south of Fort Belknap. That event prompted White Horse to organize a revenge raid, and on June 9, with the help of Big Bow, he attacked the homestead of Abel Lee on the Clear Fork of the Brazos, about sixteen miles from Fort Griffin. Lee and his fourteen-year-old daughter Frances were fatally shot, his wife scalped and murdered, and the remaining three children carried into captivity. Soldiers trailed them, but the Kiowas escaped back to the reservation and held a scalp dance that went on for several nights. The Lee children remained captives for a few months before they were ransomed. After the 1872 councils and the release of Satanta and Big Tree from prison on parole, White Horse was peaceful for a time but remained with the war faction. He accompanied the intertribal war party to the second battle of Adobe Walls in June 1874 and was encamped in Palo Duro Canyon when Col. Ranald S. Mackenzie’s troops attacked on September 27. As a result, White Horse and his followers surrendered at Fort Sill on April 19, 1875. Because of the atrocities he had committed, he was among those singled out by Kicking Bird for incarceration at St. Augustine, Florida. In 1878 he was returned with the others to the reservation near Fort Sill, where he spent his remaining years peacefully with his family. White Horse died of a stomach ailment in 1892 and was buried on the reservation.




Lone Wolf ( Guipago )

Kiowa Chief . c.1820-1879




gioyathiary apache


The Kiowa Tribe


The Kiowa Tribe consisted of about 220 members and had 22 representatives attending the congress. They came from a reservation in southwestern Oklahoma, adjoining the Wichita. They called themselves Nadiishan-Dina, and are also mentioned under their Pawnee name of Gataka. Until being assigned to a reservation in 1869, the Kiowa were well known for their raiding wars. Since this time,they have been a typical plains tribe, without agriculture, pottery, or basketry, depending entirely on the buffalo for subsistence, and shifting their skin tipis from place to place as whim or necessity guided.

They hunted and fought on horseback, carrying the bow, the lance, and the shield (and more recently the rifle), and participated in the great annual ceremony of the sun dance.

Physically they are tall and well made, with bold, alert expression. Every man and woman of the delegation came dressed in full buckskin, beautifully fringed and beaded. They set up their canvas tipis adjoining the Wichita, enclosing one of them with a circular windbreak of leafy willow branches after the manner of the winter camps of the plains Indians. Suspended from a tripod in front of the same tipi was a genuine, old-time ‘buffalo shield’, the last shielding remaining in the tribe. It is now the property of the National Museum.

The name tipi, ‘house’, is from the Sioux language and has now almost entirely superseded the former term, lodge. The tipi is a conical structure, formerly of dressed buffalo hides, but now of cow-skins or canvas, sewn together with sinew, over a framework of poles of cedar or other wood, tied together near their tops and spread out at the ground to form a circle of about twenty feet diameter.

An average tipi would house a family of about six persons. Three strong poles form the main support of the tipi. One of these is at one side of the doorway, which always faces the east; another, to which is usually tied the ‘medicine-bag’ of the owner of the dwelling, is nearly opposite the doorway, while the third is on the north side. These three poles are first tied together about two feet from their upper ends with one end of a long rope, and are then raised in place by the women and firmly planted in the earth. The other poles are next sorted out according to length and leaned against them in such a way that when set up the tipi’s longest slope will be toward the front.

The covering is lifted onto this framework and the ends are fastened with a row of wooden pins. Grass and wild sage are used to fill in any spaces which might let in cold air.

The fire is built in a shallow hole dug in the center of the tipi. Behind and on each side of the fire are low platforms, set close against the wall of the tipi, which serve as seats by day and beds by night. The frames are of small poles, supporting mats of willow rods, usually looped at one end in hammock fashion, and covered with skins or blankets. Above the beds are canopies set so as to catch the raindrops which may come in through the smoke-hole during rainstorms.

The clear space of ground near the fireplace, where the women cook, is sometimes separated from the bed space by a border of interwoven twigs. The tipi is painted on the outside with heraldic designs and decorated with buffalo tails, streamers from the poles, or similar adornments. In summer it is set up on the open prairie to escape the mosquitoes. In winter it is removed to the shelter of the timber along the river bottom, and surrounded with a high fence or windbreak of willow branches.

Of the Kiowa Apache delegation the most prominent member was the hereditary chief, White-man, (pictured left). In spite of years he sits his horse as firmly and bears his lance as steadily as the youngest of his warriors. In former days he was one of the two war leaders deemed worthy to carry the beaver-skin staff which pledged them never to avoid a danger or turn aside from the enemy.

Another notable man is the captive, Big-whip, whose proper name is Pablino Diez, and who jokingly claims kinship with the distinguished president of the sister republic. He is one of a considerable number of captives still living among these southern tribes. Unlike most of these unfortunates, Pablino retains the knowledge of his name and his Spanish language, and remembers vividly how he was taken, when about eight years of age, in a sudden dash by the Apache upon the town of Parral in Chihuahua.

To see more images from the Indian Congress, visit the Indian Congress Photo Gallery. This collection includes over 500 photographs of Native Americans, including portraits of individuals, group photos of families and photographs of various activities.

The library also has the original “Secretary’s Report” from the TransMississippi Exposition. This document includes a section on the The Indian Congress by Mr. W. V. Cox, Secretary of the Government Exhibit Board. It also contains the Report of Captain Mercer, manager of the Indian Congress

apache jndian girl


apache Indian scouty


nuchez cichanhua apache

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Conquering Bear ( Oglala Sioux )

Curley Bear ( Blackfoot )

Medicine Crow – Perits Shinakpas ( Crow ) 1848-….

Plenty Coups – Adhantsi ahush ( Crow ) 1848-1932

Scabby Bull – Kakuyanaka ( Arapaho )

Dull Knife ( Northern Cheyenne ) 1810-1883

Geronimo – Goyathlay ( Apache )  1829-1909

Naiche (Chiricahua Apache) 1857-1921 [Geronimo allied]

Low Dog – Xunka Kuciyedan ( Oglala Sioux )

Man Packs The Eagle – Whoe A Ke ( Cuthead Sioux )

Chato (Mescalero Apache) [Cochise Captain]

Red Arrow – Wanduta ( Lakota Sioux )

Crow King – Kangi Yatapi ( Hunkpapa Sioux )

Rain In The Face – Itomagaju (Hunkpapa Sioux) 1835-1905

Red Cloud – Mahpiya Luta (Oglala Sioux) 1822-1909

Red Cloud (old) – Mahpiya Luta (Oglala Sioux) 1822-1909

Red Fish ( Dakota Sioux )

Red Horse – Tasunke Luta – ( Sioux )

Chief Joseph – Hin mah too yah lat kekt  ( Nez Perce )

Two Hatchet ( Kiowa )

Sitting Bull – Tatanka Yotanka (Hunkpapa Sioux) 1831-1890

Sitting Bull – Tatanka Yotanka (Hunkpapa Sioux) 1831-1890

Gall – Pizi ( Hunkpapa Sioux ) 1838-1894

White Belly ( Sioux )

Two Strikes – Nomkahpa ( Brulé Sioux )

Yellow Dog ( Crow )

Little Big Man ( Oglala Sioux )

Red Armed Panther ( Cheyenne ) 



Apache Indian bow arrow


Apache Indian girl


Apache Indian altar


Apache Indian man




Chincahua apache princess

Portrait of an Indian maiden holding a finely-crafted, coiled basket. Like Indian men, women would also wear leggings above their moccasins.




Apache Geronimo head dress

Creation of the Apache Honor Society





Back in 1945 and 1946, Mr. Andy Reed, the Director of Camp Fuller By The Sea YMCA Camp for Boys, was very interested in Indian lore and had Princess Redwing of the Narragansett Indian Tribe of Rhode Island, and Tarzan Brown (the marathon runner) come to camp and present the customs of the local New England tribes. Mr. Reed found out that I had an Indian heritage. My father’s great-grandmother married a member of the Mohawk Tribe in New Hampshire. Needless to say, back in the old days an interracial marriage was not common and that is why the maiden name of my father’s great-grandmother was used (Hanscomb) I had a background in Indian crafts, Indian dancing and etc., prior to being hired as a Counselor at Camp Fuller while I was a student at Cranston High School (since renamed Cranston High School East).

In the picture above, taken around 1946,  on the left, dressed as Chief Little Beaver, Chief of the Camp Fuller Apaches. Beside him is Mr. Andy Reed, who served as the Director of Camp Fuller from 1933 – 1947.

The man in the dark suit is the Honorable John O. Pastore, the then Governor of Rhode Island, a position he held from 1945 – 1950, after which time he was elected to the Senate from Rhode Island, serving from 1950 – 1976. The gentleman on the right of the picture in the white suit is Mr. Fred Bank, Insurance Executor and President of the Cranston Branch and the Rotary Club that donated the United Nations flagpoles (which are located between the Administration building and the Council Ring). (Click on the picture to see a larger version.)

Mr. Reed wanted an Honor Society at Fuller to match the one at the Boy Scout Camp. He asked him to adapt some of the admirable qualities of the Indians, along with the spirit, mind, and body symbol of the YMCA. Knowing the nostalgia in dealing with the Indians’ story of the Custer Fight and the folklore tales about Geronimo, he decided that the name of the Honor Society would be “Apache”. He wanted to show admiration and the highest esteem for Geronimo and Chief Apache John, who combined dealing with being brave, never running away from the challenges of manhood and showing the incredible quality of being at peace with mankind.


The very name APACHE means enemy and stands on the pages of all Indian History as a synonym of terror. The Apaches were hostile in many conflicts, and were favored with rare and gifted leadership. Due to Geronimo’s leadership, it took and required the skill, strategy and profoundest generalship of two of the greatest generals of the Civil War to subdue and capture the daring and reckless Geronimo.



Following Geronimo was Chief Apache John who surrendered to civilization (as Peace Maker) and attended the Great Indian Council in 1909. He participated with eminent Indian Chiefs from nearly every Indian Reservation in the United States. Books have been written about the stories of their lives as told through their own words. From these stories, the foundation and guidelines for the Camp Fuller Apache Honor Society were formulated.





Apache kid center with two other Indian Scout

 Said to have been the fiercest Apache next to Geronimo, as well as a notorious outlaw of the late 19th century, was the Apache Kid.Born in the 1860’s on the San Carlos Reservation in Arizona, the “Kid” was most likely of the White Mountain Apache. Named Haskay-bay-nay-natyl, “the tall man destined to come to a mysterious end,” the pronunciation was too much for the citizens of Globe, who simply called him “Kid.” Learning English at an early age, he worked at odd jobs in Globe and was soon befriended by the famous scout, Al Sieber. At that time, early settlers of the Southwest faced numerous raiding bands of Apaches and General George Crook had come up with the idea to use Apaches to fight other Apaches. Enlisting Apache Indians from San Carlos and other reservations, the enlisted scouts could locate the trails that the hunted Apaches traveled.  In 1881, the Kid enlisted in the Indian Scouts and was so good at the job that he was promoted to sergeant in July, 1882. The following year he accompanied General George Crook on the expedition of the Sierra Madre.
Geronimo Campaign of 1885-1886 found the Kid in Mexico early in 1885 with Sieber, and when the Chief of Scouts was recalled in the fall, Kid rode with him back to San Carlos. He re-enlisted with Lieutenant Crawford’s call for one hundred scouts for Mexican duty, and again went south in late 1885. In the Mexican town of Huasabas, on the Bavispe River, the Kid nearly lost his life in a drunken riot in which he had been a participant. Rather than see the Apache Kid shot by a Mexican firing squad, the judge fined him twenty dollars, and the Army sent him back to San Carlos. 


Apache Kid

In May, 1887 the Apache Kid was left in charge of the Indian Scouts and guardhouse at San Carlos when Captain Pierce and Al Sieber, an anglo scout, were both gone on business. Though the brewing of tiswin, a beverage made of fermented fruit or corn, was illegal on the reservation, with the white officers gone, the Indian Scouts decided to have a party. As the liquor flowed freely, a man named Gon-Zizzie killed the Apache Kid’s father, Togo-de-Chuz. Kid’s friends, in turn, killed Gon-Zizzie. However, the killing of Gon-Zizzie was not enough for the Apache Kid, who then went to the home of Gon-Zizzie’s brother, Rip, and killed him.  


Apache Kid (middle) with two other Indian Scouts.


When the Apache Kid and the four other scouts returned to San Carlos on June 1, 1857, both Captain Pierce and Al Sieber were there ahead of him. Captain Pierce ordered the scouts to disarm themselves and the Kid was the first to comply. As Pierce ordered them to the guardhouse to be locked up, a shot was fired from the crowd who had gathered to watch the display of events. In no time, the shots became widespread and Al Seiber was hit in the ankle, which ended up crippling him for life. During the melee that followed, the Apache Kid and several other Apaches fled. Though it was never determined who fired that shot that struck Sieber, it was for sure not the Kid nor the other four scouts ordered to the guardhouse as they had all been disarmed.

The Army, reacting swiftly, soon sent two troops of the Fourth Cavalry to find the Apache Kid and the others who had escaped. For two weeks the cavalry followed the fugitives along the banks of the San Carlos River, when finally, with the aid of more Indian Scouts, they located the Kid and his band in the Rincon Mountains.

The soldiers seized upon the Apaches‘ horses and equipment while the Indians fled by foot into the rocky canyons. In negotiations with the soldiers, Kid relayed a message to General Miles stating that if the Army would recall the cavalry he and his band would surrender.   When Miles complied, the Apache Kid and seven members of his band surrendered on June 25th.

The Kid and four others were court-martialed and found guilty of mutiny and desertion and sentenced to death by firing squad. However, General Miles was upset over the verdict and ordered the court to reconsider the sentence. When the court reconvened on August 3, they were re-sentenced to life in prison. Miles was still not satisfied and reduced the sentence to ten years. Beginning their sentence in the San Carlos guardhouse, they were later sent to Alcatraz.

However, their conviction was soon overturned on October 13, 1888, due to prejudice among the officers of the court-martial trial, and the Indians were returned to San Carlos as free men. Causing an outrage among the citizens of the area, a new warrant was issued in October, 1889 in Gila County for the re-arrest of the freed Apaches for assault to commit murder in the wounding of Al Sieber.

At the trial on October 25, 1889, four Apaches including the Apache Kid were found guilty and sentenced to seven years in the Territorial Prison at Yuma.  While being transported to the prison the Apache Kid, along with several others escaped. During the fighting that took place during the escape, the three guards, Glenn Reynolds, Eugene Middleton and W. A. Holmes, were overpowered. Glen Reynolds was killed, Middleton was wounded and Holmes apparently died of a heart attack. Middleton later recovered, saying the Kid had prevented another of the Apaches from “finishing” him by bashing his head with a rock.

The Kid and the others fled, their tracks obliterated by a snowstorm. It would be the last “official” sighting of Apache Kid, though unconfirmed reports of his whereabouts would continue to filter in for years.




Over the next few years the Apache Kid was accused of various crimes and said to have led a small band of renegade Apache followers, raiding ranches and freight lines throughout New Mexico, Arizona and Northern Mexico as he hid out in the Mexican Sierra Madre Mountains. Others insist that he became a lone wolf who was despised by his own people and was terribly feared by the Anglo settlers. Some accounts have the Apache Kid kidnapping an Apache woman until he tired of her, then killing her, before kidnapping yet another. Reportedly, the Kid preyed on lone ranchers, cowboys, and prospectors, killing them for their food, guns, and horses. Before long, a price of $5,000 was placed on his head by the Arizona Territorial Legislature, dead or alive, but no one ever claimed the reward. It is impossible to determine how many of the crimes he is blamed for that he actually committed. During an 1890 shootout between Sonoran Rurales (a branch of the army) and Apaches, a slain warrior was found to have Reynolds’ pistol and watch, but he was too old to have been the Kid.  After 1894, reports of his crimes came to an end. Some sources claimed he died at this time while others argue that he crossed into Mexico and retired to his mountain hideout.In 1899, Colonel Emilio Kosterlitzky, head of the Rurales, reported him alive and living with other Apaches in the Sierra Madre. In the interim, there were several unconfirmed reports of his death – by gunshot or by tuberculosis. However, southern Arizona ranchers continued to report Apache stock raids into the 1920s.There are so many different variations of the crimes committed by the Apache Kid, all with the purpose of exacting revenge for the treacherous way in which the Apache scouts had been treated by the army, that even historians cannot agree on exactly what he was responsible for, nor when he died. Seemingly, his namesake “the tall man destined to come to a mysterious end” was a prophecy. Though the questions are many regarding the death of the Apache Kid, a gravesite memorial can be found high in the San Mateo Mountains of the Cibola National Forest in New Mexico. Here is yet another place that the Apache Kid was said to have been killed, after having been hunted down by local ranchers angered by his relentless raids. Reportedly, to mark the site of the of the Kid’s undoing, the vengeful posse blazed a tree, the hacked remains of which you can see to this day. The grave is one mile northwest of Apache Kid Peak at Cyclone Saddle.


The Apache Kid as a prisoner in Globe, Arizona in 1889, courtesy Arizona Historical Society



apache Indian mask








Indian Mask of Tsunukwalah

Here for your browsing pleasure is an imposing photo of Tsunukwalahl. It was made in 1914 by Edward S. Curtis.

The illustration documents Person wearing Mask of Tsunukwalahl, a mythical being, used during the Winter Dance.

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Face of Sun God Kachina Mandala
Cynthia Whitehawk – Apache


This mini gourd Kachina Mandala is hand-painted hand-crafted Native American Ceremonial Healing Art.

The Sun God Kachina has a beautiful feather headdress.


8″ diameter hoop wrapped in soft deer skin;
22″ overall length from top of dreamcatcher hoop to tips of fringe.


Cynthia Whitehawk, Apache


The Kachina Mask is hand painted with acrylics & enamels for rich vibrant colors, genuine, unique, entirely hand crafted, signed and dated by the artist. Comes with a Certificate of Authenticity.


Shields & Masks

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Cynthia Whitehawk – Apache
Face of Sun God
Kachina Mask Mandala

$225 plus s/h

Shields & Masks


Paula says –

“This mandala is a unique and collectible piece of Native American art. Cynthia Whitehawk’s work is stellar. Her pieces are entirely hand crafted, made in ceremony, with attention to detail & durability.”


The cascading golden deerskin fringe is tipped with traditional nickel jingle cones, red and golden horn beads and brass, copper and nickel beads.


There is a Sterling Silver and Turquoise medallion at the base of the mandala.

Words from Apache artist Cynthia Whitehawk:


The techniques used in the creation of this one of a kind art are the most difficult to master. Miniature pyrography (carving with fire) takes the utmost of patience, a precise clear vision, as well as an extremely delicate hand. Not only is miniature work the most difficult, but the most time consuming, add to that working on a slick rounded surface which requires the highest of skill. This art is extremely rare and only practiced by the most gifted of people.


is a leader of ceremonies and represents Bringer of Warmth, shelter for the old, a bright future, and playfulness of the young. Sunface Kachina is essential to all life and growth, in nature as well as Spiritual.


Dreamcatchers originated in the Ojibwa Nation and were later adopted by Native Americans of a number of different Nations. The dreamcatcher was based on a willow hoop on which was woven a net or web of sinew. It was then decorated with personal and sacred items such as feathers and beads. Some consider the dreamcatcher a symbol of unity among the various Indian Nations, and a general symbol of identification with Native American or First Nations cultures. Others believe that dreamcatchers protect sleepers from nightmares – the web allows only good dreams to pass through while holding bad dreams to perish in the light of day.


She is the creator and weaver of life, the great teacher, protector and Mother of all creation. She manifests as Sacred Guardian, overseeing the welfare of all those in need. In her aspect as Creator and Mother, Spider Woman affirms that women are essential and central to the life process. She reminds us that people of all races were created from the same source, with equal rights and responsibilities.


Shields are ancient ceremonial tools, providing protection from that which would harm or divert one from the good path, bringing strength and healing through ones power totems, Spirit Animals and Beings, and Mother Earths elements.


A design symbolic of the universe that is used in Hinduism and Buddhism as an aid to meditation. A Native American mandala is a hoop similar to a dreamcatcher but instead of a web the hoop is filled with yarn, feathers, fur and usually has feathers hanging from the bottom. A mandala is something you use in ceremony or hang for prosperity and good fortune on a door or wall inside your office, home, hogan, or tipi.




Our time ended long ago

 Be still and listen

Hear our messages in the wind

Today we are a whisper

Tomorrow we thunder

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 Apache Cowboy  Apache Indian  Apache Man
 Indian War Dance  Apache Reaper   Apache Still Life 
 Apache Girl  Indian Boy  Apache Indian
 Apache Girl  Apache Indian Man  Indian Mask 
 Medicine Cap   Apache Girl   Apache Maiden 
 Indian Baby 

Medicine Man

Medicine Man

 War Party   Brule War Party  Going Home 


Indian Camp

 Indian Woman  Old Indian
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Title : Apache Hunter; C.1880
Title : Apache Men & White Man; Camp Apache, Arizona, C.1890
Title : Twenty-Four Noted Indian Chiefs; C.1890



Title : Aged Apache Woman; 1906
Title : Apache Children & Adults & Captured White Boy; 1886
Title : Twenty-Four Noted Indian Chiefs; C.1890


Title : Apache Bird Hunter & Bag; C.1900
Title : Apache at Cook Jewelry Store; Prescott, Arizona, C.1910
Title : Apache (?) Indian woman working in cornfield S.L., N.D.

Title : Apache Woman Weaving Basket; 1900
Title : Twenty-Four Noted Indian Chiefs; C.1890

Title : Apache Woman & Baby; C.1900

Title : Apache Indian Women Delivering Hay to Quartermaster; San-Carlos, Arizona, 1887
Title : Apache Indian Wickiup; N.D.
Title : Indian Camp; 1886

Title : Homes of Scouts, San Carlos, Arizona, c. 1880s
Title : Apache Indian Woman Weaving; N.D.
Title : Group of Apache Indian-Scouts; C.1880

Title : Apache Indian Farms San-Carlos, Arizona; C.1880
Title : Apache Indian Camp Before Surrender to U.S. Cavalry; 1886
Title : Group of Apache Indian-Scouts; C.1880

Title : Apache Indian Men & Women; San-Carlos, Arizona; N.D.
Title : Council to Arrange Surrender of Apache-Indians; 1886


Title : Apache Man with War Bow & Arrows, c. 1880s


Title : Mescalero Apache Chief; C.1880
Title : Apache woman with baby in cradleboard, Prescott, Arizona, C.1890
Title : Apache man with Springfield Musket, Prescott, Arizona, C.1875

Title : Apache Indian Women at Anglo Gathering; C.1900
Title : Apache Scouts scattered on hillside, Canon de los Embudos, Arizona, C.1880
Title : Apache men with Winchester Rifle and headdress, Prescott, Arizona, C.1880

Title : Four portraits; Apache men, Cocopah man, Navajo Man; S.L., N.D.
Title : Apache medicine woman, S.L., C.1890
Title : Apache men with Winchester Rifle and headdress, Prescott, Arizona, C.1880

Title : Apache woman with baby in cradleboard, Prescott, Arizona, C.1890

Title : Apache man with Springfield Musket, Prescott, Arizona, C.1875
Title : Apache men, one playing Apache violin, San Carlos Reservation, Arizona, C.1880

Title : Apache woman weaving a burden basket, S.L., C. 1900
Title : Groups of Apache men with weapons, S.L., C.1880
Title : Apache Women, S.L., C.1900


Title : Apache women, S.L., C.1900
Title : Groups of Apache men with weapons, S.L., C.1880


Title : White Mountain Apache Chief, S.L., C.1880

Title : Apache women, S.L., C.1900
Title : Apache men and women hauling wood, S.L., C.1890
Title : Apache men, women, and children, S.L., C.1900

Title : Groups of Apache men with weapons, S.L., C.1880
Title : Apache children underneath a ramada, S.L., C. 1880
Title : Apache twin babies in cradleboards, S.L., C.1900

Title : Apache twin babies in cradleboards, S.L., C.1900
Title : Apache men and Anglos at tent camp, S.L., C.1890


Title : Apache family: man wears gun, gun belt, and chaps, S.L., C.1880


Title : Apache Family, S.L., C.1890
Title : Apache baby girl, “Apache May.” Captured by John Slaughter, S.L., C.1890

Title : Six Apache men: two carry Springfield Muskets; one man in uniform, S.L., C.1880


Title : Apache man in leg irons, with two women, S.L., C.1890
Title : Apache baby girl, “Apache May.” Captured by John Slaughter, S.L., C.1890

Title : Apache youth wearing unusual bead and bone necklace, S.L., C.1880

Title : Apache Indians at Roosevelt Lake, Arizona, C.1890
Title : Apache woman, “Cittie Mittie,” holding basket and awl canes, S.L., C.1890

Title : Apache women, S.L., C.1900

Title : Eight Apache Scouts with bolt action rifles, S. L., C.1885
Title : Apache scouts and soliders trailing “The Apache Kid”, S.L., C.1870

Title : Apache Scout, S.L., C.1880

Title : Apache Scout with Springfield musket, S.L., C. 1880
Title : Apache Scouts at Fort Apache, Arizona, C.1870

Title : Apache Scout, S.L., C.1880


Title : Apache Scouts, S.L., C.1880
Title : Apache Scouts at Fort Apache, Arizona, C.1870

Title : Apache women and children, S.L., C.1880


Title : Portrait of an Apache Scout, S.L. C.1890
Title : Apache Scouts with interpreter, Mariojolvido Grehalva, and Lt. Clark, S.L., 1882
Title : Apaches with W. H. Williscraft, near Grant, Arizona, C.1880

Title : Apache Scout, Camp Verde, Arizona, C.1880

Title : Nana, Apache Chief, S.L.


Title : Apache Chief Bonito; C.1870


Title : Three Apache Scouts, including “The Apache Kid,” Tombstone, Arizona, 1886 


Title : Mickey Free, S. L., C.1870

Title : Geronimo in council with General George Crook and others, S.L., 1886

Title : “The Apache Kid,” S.L., N.D.
Title : Chiricahua Apache Chief, Chatto, S.L., C.1870
Title : Geronimo in council with General George Crook and others, S.L., 1886


Title : “The Apache Kid,” S.L., N.D.

Title : Apache Outlaws: C.1870

Title : Apache Chief Geronimo; 1886


Title : Apache Chief Geronimo; 1886
Title : Apache Chief Natches, c. 1876



Camp Verde, Arizona, occasionally present public performances of the Mountain Spirit Dance. Oklahoma Apaches sometimes perform the Fire Dance at the annual American Indian Exposition in Anadarko, Oklahoma; and the San Carlos Apache, San Carlos, Arizona, and the White Mountain Apache, Whiteriver, Arizona, perform the Sunrise Dance and Mountain Spirit Dance throughout the summer, but their traditional dances are most easily observed at the San Carlos Tribal Fair and the White Mountain Tribal Fair.


Apaches celebrate a number of holidays each year with events that are open to the public. The San Carlos Apache Tribal Fair is celebrated annually over Veterans Day weekend at San Carlos, Arizona. The Tonto Apache and Yavapai-Apache perform public dances each year at the Coconino Center for the Arts, Flagstaff, Arizona, on the Fourth of July. The White Mountain Apache host The Apache Tribal Fair, which usually occurs on Labor Day weekend, at Whiteriver, Arizona. The Jicarilla Apache host the Little Beaver Rodeo and Powwow, usually in late July, and the Gojiiya Feast Day on September 14-15 each year, at Dulce, New Mexico. The Mescalero Apache Gahan Ceremonial occurs each year on July 1-4 at Mescalero, New Mexico. Apaches in Oklahoma participate in the huge, week-long American Indian Exposition in Anadarko, Oklahoma, each August.


Apaches have suffered devastating health problems from the last decades of the nineteenth century and throughout most of the twentieth century. Many of these problems are associated with malnutrition, poverty, and despair. They have suffered incredibly high rates of contagious diseases such as tuberculosis. Once tuberculosis was introduced among the Jicarilla, it spread at an alarming rate. The establishment of schools, beginning in 1903, only gave the tuberculosis bacteria a means of spreading rapidly throughout the entire tribe. By 1914, 90 percent of the Jicarillas suffered from tuberculosis. Between 1900 and 1920, one-quarter of the people died. One of the reservation schools had to be converted into a tuberculosis sanitarium in an attempt to address the crisis. The sanitarium was not closed until 1940.

Among nearly all Native peoples of North America, alcohol has been an insidious, destructive force, and the Apache are no exception. A recent study found that on both the Fort Apache Reservation and the San Carlos Reservation, alcohol was a factor in more than 85 percent of the major crimes. Alcohol, though long known to the Apache, has not always been a destructive force. Sharing the traditional telapi (fermented corn sprouts), in the words of one elder, “made people feel good about each other and what they were doing together.” Alcohol as a destructive force in Apache culture is a phenomenon that dates from colonization, and it has been a byproduct of demoralization and despair. Tribal leaders have attempted to address the underlying health problems by trying to create tribal enterprise, by fostering and encouraging bilingual and bicultural educational opportunities, and by trying to make it possible for Apaches to gain more control over their lives.


The Athapascan language family has four branches: Northern Athapascan, Southwestern Athapascan, Pacific Coast Athapascan, and Eyak, a southeast Alaska isolate. The Athapascan language family is one of three families within the Na-Dene language phylum; the other two, the Tlingit family and the Haida family, are language isolates in the far north, Tlingit in southeast Alaska, and Haida in British Columbia. Na-Dene is one of the most widely distributed language phyla in North America. The Southwestern Athapascan language, sometimes called Apachean, has seven dialects: Navajo, Western Apache, Chiricahua, Mescalero, Jicarilla, Lipan, and Kiowa-Apache.

Family and Community Dynamics

For the Apaches, the family is the primary unit of political and cultural life. Apaches have never been a unified nation politically, and individual Apache tribes, until very recently, have never had a centralized government, traditional or otherwise. Extended family groups acted entirely independently of one another. At intervals during the year a number of these family groups, related by dialect, custom, inter-marriage, and geographical proximity, might come together, as conditions and circumstances might warrant. In the aggregate, these groups might be identifiable as a tribal division, but they almost never acted together as a tribal division or as a nation—not even when faced with the overwhelming threat of the Comanche migration into their Southern Plains territory. The existence of these many different, independent, extended family groups of Apaches made it impossible for the Spanish, the Mexicans, or the Americans to treat with the Apache Nation as a whole. Each individual group had to be treated with separately, an undertaking that proved difficult for each colonizer who attempted to establish authority within the Apache homeland.

Apache culture is matrilineal. Once married, the man goes with the wife’s extended family, where she is surrounded by her relatives. Spouse abuse is practically unknown in such a system. Should the marriage not endure, child custody quarrels are also unknown: the children remain with the wife’s extended family. Marital harmony is encouraged by a custom forbidding the wife’s mother to speak to, or even be in the presence of, her son-in-law. No such stricture applies to the wife’s grandmother, who frequently is a powerful presence in family life. Apache women are chaste, and children are deeply loved.

Employment and Economic Traditions

Apaches can be found pursuing careers in all the professions, though most of them must leave their communities to do so. Some are college faculty; others, such as Allan Houser, grand-nephew of Geronimo, have achieved international reputations in the arts. Farming and ranching continue to provide employment for many Apaches, and Apaches have distinguished themselves as some of the finest professional rodeo performers.

By 1925, the Bureau of Indian Affairs had leased nearly all of the San Carlos Reservation to non-Indian cattlemen, who demonstrated no concern about overgrazing. Most of the best San Carlos farmland was flooded when Coolidge Dam was completed in 1930. Recreational concessions around the lake benefit mostly non-Natives. By the end of the 1930s, the tribe regained control of its rangeland and most San Carlos Apaches became stockmen. Today, the San Carlos Apache cattle operation generates more than $1 million in sales annually. Cattle, timber, and mining leases provide additional revenue. There is some individual mining activity for the semiprecious peridot gemstones. A chronic high level of unemployment is the norm on most reservations in the United States. More than 50 percent of the tribe is unemployed. The unemployment rate on the reservation itself is about 20 percent. U.S. Census Bureau figures show the median family income for Apaches was $19,690, which is $16,000 less than for the general population. Also, 37.5 percent of Apaches had incomes at or below the poverty level as of 1989.

A number of tribal economic enterprises offer some employment opportunities. The Fort Apache Timber Company in Whiteriver, Arizona, owned and operated by the White Mountain Apache, employs about 400 Apache workers. It has a gross annual income of approximately $30 million, producing 100 million board feet of lumber annually (approximately 720,000 acres of the reservation is timberland). The tribe also owns and operates the Sunrise Park Ski Area and summer resort, three miles south of McNary, Arizona. It is open year-round, and contributes both jobs and tourist dollars to the local economy. The ski area has seven lifts and generates $9 million in revenue per year. Another tribally owned enterprise is the White Mountain Apache Motel and Restaurant. The White Mountain Apache Tribal Fair is another important event economically.

The Jicarilla Apache also operate a ski enterprise, offering equipment rentals and trails for a cross-country ski program during the winter months. The gift shop at the Jicarilla museum provides an outlet for the sale of locally crafted Jicarilla traditional items, including basketry, beadwork, feather work, and finely tanned buckskin leather.

Many members of the Mescalero Apache find employment at their ski resort, Ski Apache. Others work at the tribal museum and visitor center in Mescalero, Arizona. A 440-room Mescalero resort, the Inn of the Mountain Gods, has a gift shop, several restaurants, and an 18-hole golf course, and offers casino gambling, horseback riding, skeet and trap shooting, and tennis. The tribe also has a 7,000-head cattle ranch, a sawmill, and a metal fabrication plant. In 1995, the Mescaleros signed a controversial $2 billion deal with 21 nuclear power plant operators to store nuclear waste on a remote corner of the reservation. The facility is scheduled to open in 2002, barring any legal challenges.

For the Yavapai-Apache, whose small reservation has fewer than 300 acres of land suitable for agriculture, the tourist complex at the Montezuma Castle National Monument—where the tribe owns the 75 acres of land surrounding the monument—is an important source of employment and revenue.

Tourism, especially for events such as tribal fairs and for hunting and fishing, provides jobs and brings money into the local economies at a number of reservations. Deer and elk hunting are especially popular on the Jicarilla reservation. The Jicarilla also maintain five campgrounds where camping is available for a fee. Other campgrounds are maintained by the Mescalero Apache (3), the San Carlos Apache (4), and the White Mountain Apache (18).

Politics and Government

The Apache tribes are federally recognized tribes. They have established tribal governments under the Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 (25 U.S.C. 461-279), also known as the Wheeler-Howard Act, and they successfully withstood attempts by the U.S. government to implement its policy during the 1950s of terminating Indian tribes. The Wheeler-Howard Act, however, while allowing some measure of self-determination in their affairs, has caused problems for virtually every Indian nation in the United States, and the Apaches are no exception. The act subverts traditional Native forms of government and imposes upon Native people an alien system, which is something of a mix of American corporate and governmental structures. Invariably, the most traditional people in each tribe have had little to say about their own affairs, as the most heavily acculturated and educated mixed-blood factions have dominated tribal affairs in these foreign imposed systems. Frequently these tribal governments have been little more than convenient shams to facilitate access to tribal mineral and timber resources in arrangements that benefit everyone but the Native people, whose resources are exploited. The situations and experiences differ markedly from tribe to tribe in this regard, but it is a problem that is, in some measure, shared by all.


Apaches were granted U.S. citizenship under the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924. They did not legally acquire the right to practice their Native religion until the passage of the American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 1996). Other important rights, and some attributes of sovereignty, have been restored to them by such legislation as the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1966 (25 U.S.C. 1301), the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act of 1975 (25 U.S.C. 451a), and the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (25 U.S.C. 1901). Under the Indian Claims Commission Act of 1946, the Jicarillas have been awarded nearly $10 million in compensation for land unjustly taken from them, but the United States refuses to negotiate the return of any of this land. In Merrion v. Jicarilla Apache Tribe, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in favor of the Jicarillas in an important case concerning issues of tribal sovereignty, holding that the Jicarillas have the right to impose tribal taxes upon minerals extracted from their lands.

Individual and Group Contributions


Apaches are making important contributions to Native American literature and the arts. Lorenzo Baca, of Mescalero Apache and Isleta Pueblo heritage, is not only a writer, but also a performing and visual artist who does fine art, sculpture, video, storytelling and acting. His poetry has been anthologized in The Shadows of Light: Poetry and Photography of the Motherlode and Sierras (Jelm Mountain Publications), in Joint Effort II: Escape (Sierra Conservation Center), and in Neon Powwow: New Native American Voices of the Southwest (Northland Publishing). His audio recording, Songs, Poems and Lies, was produced by Mr. Coyote Man Productions. An innovative writer, his circle stories entitled “Ten Rounds” in Neon Powwow illustrate his imagination and capacity to create new forms of poetic expression. Jicarilla Apache creative writers Stacey Velarde and Carlson Vicenti present portraits of Native people in the modern world in their stories in the Neon Powwow anthology. Velarde, who has been around horses all her life and has competed in professional rodeos since the age of 13, applies this background and knowledge in her story “Carnival Lights,” while Vicenti, in “Hitching” and “Oh Saint Michael,” shows how Native people incorporate traditional ways into modern life.

White Mountain Apache poet Roman C. Adrian has published poetry in Sun Tracks, The New Times, Do Not Go Gentle, and The Remembered Earth. The late Chiricahua Apache poet Blossom Haozous, of Fort Sill, Oklahoma, was a leader in the bilingual presentation of Apache traditional stories, both orally and in publication. One of the stories, “Quarrel Between Thunder and Wind” was published bilingually in the Chronicles of Oklahoma, the quarterly scholarly journal of the Oklahoma Historical Society.

Jose L. Garza, Coahuilateca and Apache, is not only a leading Native American poet but a leading Native American educator as well. His poetry has appeared in such publications as Akwe:kon Journal, of the American Indian Program at Cornell University, The Native Sun, New Rain Anthology, The Wayne Review, Triage, and The Wooster Review. Garza is a professor at Edinboro University in Pennsylvania and is a regional coordinator of Wordcraft Circle of Native American Mentor and Apprentice Writers. In Wordcraft Circle, he organizes and helps conduct intensive writing workshops in which young Native writers from all tribes have an opportunity to hone their creative skills and learn how they can publish their work.

Other Apache writers include Lou Cuevas, author of Apache Legends: Songs of the Wild Dancer and In the Valley of the Ancients: A Book of Native American Legends (both Naturegraph); Jicarilla Apache scholar Veronica E. Velarde Tiller, the author of The Jicarilla Apache Tribe (University of Nebraska Press); and Michael Lacapa, of Apache, Hopi, and Pueblo heritage, the author of The Flute Player, Antelope Woman: An Apache Folktale, and The Mouse Couple (all Northland). Throughout the Apache tribes, the traditional literature and knowledge of the people is handed down from generation to generation by storytellers who transmit their knowledge orally.


Chiricahua Apache sculptor Allan Houser has been acclaimed throughout the world for his six decades of work in wood, marble, stone, and bronze. Houser was born June 30, 1914, near Apache, Oklahoma. He died on August 22, 1994, in Santa Fe, New Mexico. His Apache surname was Haozous, which means “Pulling Roots.”

In the 1960s, Houser was a charter faculty member at the Institute of American Indian Arts in Santa Fe, where he began to cast statues in bronze. He taught until 1975. After retirement from teaching, he devoted himself full-time to his work, creating sculptures in bronze, wood, and stone. In April 1994, he presented an 11-foot bronze sculpture to first lady Hillary Rodham Clinton in Washington, D.C., as a gift from the American Indians to all people.

Houser was known primarily for his large sculptures. Many of these could be seen in a sculpture garden, arranged among pinon and juniper trees, near his studio. His work is included in the British Royal Collection, at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, the Heard Museum in Phoenix, Arizona, the Denver Art Museum, Denver, Colorado, the Museum of Northern Arizona at Flagstaff, Arizona, the Linden Museum in Stuttgart, Germany, the Fine Arts Museum of the Museum of New Mexico in Santa Fe, New Mexico, the Apache Tribal Cultural Center in Apache, Oklahoma, the Gilcrease Museum in Tulsa, Oklahoma, and the University Center in Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Houser’s work has won many awards, including the Prix de West Award in 1993 for a bronze sculpture titled “Smoke Signals” at the annual National Academy of Western Art show at the National Cowboy Hall of Fame in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. “Smoke Signals” is now a part of the permanent collection of the National Cowboy Hall of Fame.

One of his best known works, a bronze statue of an Indian woman, titled “As Long as the Waters Flow,” stands in front of the state capitol of Oklahoma in Oklahoma City. At the University of Oklahoma, in Norman, two large Houser sculptures were on loan to the university and on display on the grounds of the campus at the time of his death. At the Fred Jones Jr. Museum on campus several Houser pieces from private Oklahoma collections were on view. Upon his death, the University of Oklahoma Student Association announced the creation of the Allan Houser Memorial Sculpture Fund. The fund will be used to purchase a major Houser sculpture for permanent display on the University of Oklahoma campus.

Jordan Torres (1964– ) is a Mescalero Apache sculptor from the tribe’s reservation near Ruidoso, New Mexico. His work illustrates the Apache way of life. It includes “Forever,” an alabaster sculpture of an Apache warrior carrying a shield and blanket; and a white buffalo entitled “On the Edge.”


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