The American Indian Geronimo History Collections

American Indian History Collections

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Geronimo  Indians

 

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The American Geronimo Indian

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Title : Apache Chiefs Geronimo & Natches; Fort Bowie, Arizona, C.1890

 
Title : Apache Chief Geronimo at Negotiations with

 

 Gen. Crook; 1886

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From its founding in 1870 until Geronimo’s capture in 1886, this fort was regularly involved in the Indian Wars of the area. It was first called Camp Ord, in honor of General O.C. Ord, Commander of Arizonawhen it was built in the spring; however, just a few months later, the name was changed to Camp Mogollon in August, then Camp Thomas in September.The post was finally designated as Camp Apache on February 2, 1871 as a token of friendship to the very Indians the fort soldiers would soon spend so many years at war with. The fort’s initial purpose was to guard the nearby White Mountain Reservation and Indianagency.

Camp Apache, 1873, photo by Timothy H. O’ Sullivan

Though its wild frontier days were over, Fort Apache continued as an active post until 1924. The Apache Scouts that had been employed by General Crook were transferred to Fort Huachuca in southern Arizona, where they continued to serve. The last three ApacheScouts retired in 1947.When the fort closed its buildings were turned over to the Bureau of IndianAffairs. Today, several buildings continue to stand on the White Mountain Reservation.The Fort Apache post office occupies the adobe adjutant’s building. A log building, one of the oldest structures and reputedly the residence of General Crook, as well as the stone officers’ quarters, are today the residences of teachers and other Bureau of Indian Affairs employees. The sutler’s store and commissary building, cavalry barns, and guard house have not been significantly altered. One of the original four barracks, an adobe building in bad disrepair, houses the farm shop for the Indian school. The parade ground provides a recreational area. The cemetery no longer contains soldier dead, but does contain the bodies of Indianscouts

Situated at the end of a military road on the White Mountain Reservation, which adjoined the San Carlos Reservation, the fort guarded the White Mountain Agency, while Fort Thomas watched over the San Carlos Agency. However, both reservations would become the focus of Apache unrest, especially after troops moved the troublesome Chiricahuas in 1876 from Fort Bowieto the White Mountain Reservation.In constant turmoil, the reservations were noted for their unhealthful location, overcrowded conditions, and dissatisfied inhabitants. Sparking the discontent were inefficient and corrupt agents, friction between civil and military authorities, feeble attempts to make farmers of the nomadic Indians, and encroachment on the reservations by settlers and miners. As a result, many of the Indiansleft the reservations to resume their hunting, gathering and raiding lifestyle, creating a public outcry from the settlers.In 1871, General George Crook, who had established his reputation as an Indian fighter in the Snake War in Idaho and Oregon was named commander of the Department of Arizona. By August of that year, he recognized that his soldiers were no match for the fierce Apache he was sent to subdue and made his first trip to Fort Apache. At the reservation, he recruited about fifty men to serve as Apache Scouts, who would play a key role in the success of the Army in the ApacheWars which ensued for the next 15 years.After recruiting the scouts, Crook organized his Tonto Basin campaign and moved on to Camp Verde to implement his tactical operations. During the winter of 1872-73, a number of mobile detachments, using Apache scouts, crisscrossed the Tonto Basin and the surrounding tablelands in constant pursuit of renegade Tonto Apaches and their Yavapai allies. After forcing as many as 20 skirmishes, in which some 200 Indianswere killed, they finally began to wear down their quarry.On April 5, 1879, Camp Apache had gained enough significance that it was renamed Fort Apache.

The battles with the Apache continued as the soldiers fought various renegade bands that included such famous warriors as as Geronimo, Natchez, Chato, and Chihuahua. It was only after Geronimo was captured for the the last time in 1886, that the Apache Wars finally came to an end.

The Apache War —Indian scouts on Geronio

 The fort is located at the Fort Apache IndianReservation headquarters, adjacent to the town of Fort Apache. From Globe, take US 60 northeast 66 miles; turn east on State 73 and drive about 27 miles to Fort Apache.Fort Apache Historic ParkPrimary source: National Park Service

The first Commanding Officer’s quarters was constructed in the spring of 1871

The old Fort Apache Adjutant’s Office now serves as the post office, courtesy White Mountain Online

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Part Five

The United States  Indians History Collections

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OTHER INDIAN TRIBES

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Yavapai Indian

, Hualapai indian

, Papago indian

, Hopi indian

, Mohave Indian

, Paiute indian

, Yaqui indian

, Havasupai indian’

, Pima indian

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Maricopa indian

 

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Apache is a collective name given to several culturally related tribes that speak variations of the Athapascan language and are of the Southwest cultural area. The Apache separated from the Athapascan in western Canada centuries ago, migrating to the southwestern United States. Although there is some evidence Southern Athapascanpeoples may have visited the Southwest as early as the 13th century AD, most scientists believe they arrived permanently only a few decades before the Spanish.The Zuni, a Pueblo people, gave them the name Apachu, meaning “enemy.” In their dialects, the Apache call themselves Tinneh, Tinde, Dini, or one of several other variations, all meaning “the people.”Early Apache were a nomadic people, ranging over a wide area of the United States, with the MescaleroApache roaming as far south as Mexico. They were primarily hunter-gatherers, with some bands hunting buffalo and some practicing limited farming. 

 

 

Apache Before the Storm.

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Men participated in hunting and raiding activities, while women gathered food, wood, and water. Western Apache tribes were matrilineal, tracing descent through the mother; other groups traced their descent through both parents. Polygamy was practiced when economic circumstances permitted and marriage could be terminated easily by either party. Their dwellings were shelters of brush called wickiups, which were easily erected by the women and were well adapted to their arid environment and constant shifting of the tribes. Some families lived in buffalo-hide teepees, especially among the Kiowa-Apache and Jicarilla. The Apache made little pottery, and were known instead for their fine basketwork. In traditional Apache culture, each band was made up of extended families with a headman chosen for leadership abilities and exploits in war.  For centuries they were fierce warriors, adept in wilderness survival, who carried out raids on those who encroached on their territory.Religion was a fundamental part of Apache life. Their pantheon of supernatural beings included Ussen (or Yusn), the Giver of Life, and the ga’ns, or mountain spirits, who were represented in religious rites such as healing and puberty ceremonies. Men dressed elaborately to impersonate the ga’ns, wearing kilts, black masks, tall wooden-slat headdresses, and body paint, and carrying wooden swords.Trade was established between the long established Pueblo peoples and the Southern Athabaskans by the mid 16th century, exchanging maize and woven goods for bison meat, hides and material for stone tools.The Apache and the Pueblos managed to maintain generally peaceful relations; however this changed with the appearance of the Spaniards. Arriving in the mid 1500s, the first Spanish intruders drove northward into Apache territory disrupting the Apache trade connections with neighboring tribes.In April 1541, while traveling on the plains east of the Pueblo region, Francisco Coronado wrote:After seventeen days of travel, I came upon a rancheria of the Indianswho follow these cattle [bison.] These natives are called Querechos. They do not cultivate the land, but eat raw meat and drink the blood of the cattle they kill. They dress in the skins of the cattle, with which all the people in this land clothe themselves, and they have very well-constructed tents, made with tanned and greased cowhides, in which they live and which they take along as they follow the cattle. They have dogs which they load to carry their tents, poles, and belongings. 

 

When New Mexico became a Spanish colony in 1598, hostilities increased between Spaniards and Apache. One source of the friction with the Spaniards was with the slave traders, who hunted down captives to serve as labor in the silver mines of Chihuahua in northern Mexico. The Apache, in turn, raided Spanish settlements to seize cattle, horses, firearms, and captives of their own.  Before long, the prowess of the Apache in battle became legend. The Apache were not so numerous at the beginning of the 17th century; however, their numbers were increased by captives from other tribes, particularly the Pueblo, Pima, Papago, and other peaceful Indians, as well as white and Spanish peoples. Extending their depredations as far southward as Jalisco, Mexico, the Apache quickly became known for their warlike disposition.Continued Next Page 

 

Apache women have long been noted for their beautiful woven baskets, 1908.

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Apache Ceremony

An influx of Comanche into traditional Apache territory in the early 1700s forced the Lipan and other Apache to move south of their main food source, the buffalo. These displaced Apache then increased their raiding on the Pueblo Indians and non-Indian settlers for food and livestock.

 

Apache raids on settlers and migrants crossing their lands continued into the period of American westward expansion and the United States acquisition of New Mexico in 1848. Some Apache bands and the United States military authorities engaged in fierce wars until the Apache were pacified and moved to reservations.

 

The Mescalero were subdued by 1868 and and a reservation

was established for them in 1873. The Western Apache and their Yavapai allies were subdued in the U.S. military’s Tonto Basin Campaign of 1872-1873.

 

 

 

Apache Dancers, 1906

 

The Chiricahua Chief Cochise signed a treaty with the U.S. government in 1872 and moved with his band to an Apache reservation in Arizona. But Apacheresistance continued under the Mimbreno Chief Victorio from 1877 to 1880.

 

Geronimo was one of the fiercest Apache Chiefs

that ever  lived.

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The last band of Apache raiders, active in ensuing years under the Chiricahua Warrior Geronimo, was hunted down in 1886 and sent first to Florida, then to Alabama, and finally to the Oklahoma Territory, where they settled among the Kiowa-Apache.The major Apache groups, each speaking a different dialect, include the Jicarilla and Mescalero of New Mexico, the Chiricahua of the ArizonaNew Mexico border area, and the Western Apache of Arizona. The Yavapai-Apache Nation Reservation is southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. Other groups were the Lipan Apache of south-western Texas and the Plains Apache of Oklahoma

The White Mountain Apache Tribe is located in the east central region of Arizona, 194 miles northeast of Phoenix. This group manages the popular Sunrise Park Ski Resort and Fort Apache Timber Company. The Tonto Apache Reservation was created in 1972 near Payson in eastern Arizona. Within the Tonto National Forest, northeast of Phoenix, the reservation consists of 85 acres, serves about 100 tribal members, and operates a casino.

Noted leaders have included Cochise, Mangas Coloradas, Chief Victorio and Geronimo, who the U.S. Army found to be fierce warriors and skillful strategists.

In 2000 U.S. census about 57,000 people identified themselves as Apache only; an additional 40,000 people reported being part Apache. Many Apache live on reservations in Arizona and New Mexico. Farming, cattle herding, and tourist-related businesses are important economic activities. The modern Apache way of life is a mixture of traditional beliefs and rituals, such as mountain spirit dances, and contemporary American culture.

 

 
 © Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated January, 2011. 

 

Apache Teepees in Arizona, 1907.

 
  During the days of westward expansion in the United States, the white settlers often encountered the American Indians. Though many of these meetings were peaceful, the cultures more often clashed, resulting in hundreds of battles and skirmishes, between the Indians and pioneers encroaching upon their lands, as well as conflicts between the tribes and the U.S. Army. Though confrontations with the Indians virtually occurred since the first European explorers and settlers set foot on American soil, the “Indian War period” is primarily referred to as occurring between 1866 and 1890. These many conflicts are often overshadowed by other periods of U.S. history.A number of the places at which these battles occurred have been designated as National Historic Sitesand state parks. Others, are simply designated with a historical marker.

 

Brule War Party.

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Military Campaigns:Old Northwest War – 1790-1795 Tippecanoe – 1811Creek – 1813-1814, 1836Seminole – 1817-1818, 1835, 1842, 1855, 1858Black Hawk – 1832Comanche – 1867-1875Modoc – 1872-1873 Apache – 1873, 1885-1886Little Big Horn – 1876-1877Nez Perce – 1877Bannock – 1878Cheyenne 1878-1879Ute – 1879-1880Pine Ridge – 1890-1891   Indian War TimelineConflicts by State:Arizona California ColoradoIdahoKansasMontanaNebraskaNevadaNorth DakotaOklahomaSouth DakotaTexasUtahWashingtonWyoming   
 
 

No loopholes now are framing
Lean faces, grim and brown;
No more keen eyes are aiming
To bring the redskin down.

The plough team’s trappings jingle
Across the furrowed field,
And sounds domestic mingle
Where valor hung its shield.

But every wind careering
Seems here to breathe a song—
A song of brave frontiering—
A saga of the strong.

 

— Arthur Chapman

 

Battle of Miami, Miami County, Ohio, artist Alonzo Chappel, 1859.

 
     
  One of the most famous Apache leaders to resist westward expansion by white settlers was Cochise of the Chiricahua Apache. Cochise was known to his people as A-da-tli-chi, meaning hardwood, and lived in the area that is now the northern Mexican region of Sonora, as well as New Mexico and Arizona. These lands had long been home to the Apachesuntil the Europeans arrived.However, when the early Spaniards began to encroach upon the Apache, tensions began between the two conflicting cultures. Later, when the Mexicans took over the lands, the Mexican government at first issued food rations to the Apachein order to placate them.Unfortunately, the Apaches became increasingly dependent upon these supplies, which abruptly ceased in 1831. The Chiricahua bands then began to raid to acquire food and the Mexican government retaliated with a series of military operations to attempt to capture or neutralize the Chiricahua.However, they met stiff resistance from Cochise and the other Apache. The Mexican troops then began to kill Apachecivilians, including Cochise’s father, which hardened Cochise’s resolve against the Mexicans. In 1848, Cochise was captured by the Mexican troops but was exchanged for nearly a dozen Mexican hostages. 

 

Apache Before the Storm.

This image available for photographic prints and  downloads HERE!

 
 
Cochise, who was described as a large man (for the time), with a muscular frame, classical Roman features, and long black hair had married Dos-Teh-Seh, the daughter of Mangas Coloradas, in the 1830s. The pair would have two children — Taza, born in 1842, and Naiche, born in 1856.In 1850, New Mexico and Arizonawere annexed by the United States, which ushered in a brief period of relative peace. For more than a decade, Cochise worked with the new settlers and even helped the new settlers by teaching them how to live on the dry, arid land.In 1856 Cochise became the principal war leader of the Chokonen band after the death of its chief, Miguel Narbona and the peace between the Apacheand the United States continued.When the Apache Pass Stage Station was built in 1858, he even worked for a time as a woodcutter for the Butterfield Overland line, and also helped protect the stagecoaches from attack.However, the tenuous peace would not last as more and more white settlers began to encroach upon Apache lands, and formally ended in 1861, when an Apache raiding party drove away a local rancher’s cattle and kidnapped his eleven-year-old step-son. The rancher, John Ward, believed Cochise was responsible for the raid and demanded that the military confront the Apacheleader to recover the boy and livestock.Before long, on February 3, 1861, 2nd Lieutenant George Bascom, a young graduate of West Point, brought a detachment of 54 men to Apache Pass to confront Cochise regarding the kidnapping of the boy and livestock. When Bascom asked for return of the captive and the stolen cattle, Cochise said Coyotero Apacheshad committed the crime and volunteered to negotiate for the return of the boy. Evidently unbelieving, Bascom then had Cochise, his brother, two nephews, a woman, and two children arrested until the boy and the livestock were returned.However, Cochise was able to escape and to ensure the safety of those he had left behind, captured three Americans before sending Bascom this message: “Treat my people well, and I will do the same for yours, of whom I have three.”  The inexperienced Bascom, decided instead to flex his muscle, hanged the Apache hostages, and began to make preparations for war against Cochise. In retaliation for their deaths, Cochise killed the three Americans he had taken hostage and joined forces with Mangas Coloradas, his father-in-law, and the leader of another Chiricahuaband. The two leaders, along with their warriors then set on a series of retaliatory skirmishes and raids of the white settlements.On July 15 and 16, 1862, General James H. Carleton, leading a Federal army eastward to head off the Confederate invasion of New Mexico, encountered Cochise and Mangas Coloradasat Apache Pass fighting for control the nearby Apache Springs.The two leaders, along with 500 warriors held their ground against the force of California volunteers until the U.S. Army employed a howitzer against the Indian forces. Though it was the first time that they had faced artillery fire, they continued to fight stubbornly for several hours before fleeing.General James Carlton subsequently took over as commander of the territory. In January, 1863, General Joseph Rodman West, under orders from General Carleton, was able to capture Mangas Coloradas by meeting with him under a flag of truce. Though allegedly a peaceful conference, the U.S. Army took Mangas Coloradasprisoner and later executed him. This, of course, very much angered Cochise, who retaliated in all out war against the white settlers, which continued for the next nine years. At the same time, Geronimo was also fighting against white encroachment and the two leaders often paired in their retaliation. 

 

 
 

 

Apache at the ford.

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The U.S. Army captured Cochise in 1871 and prepared to transfer the Chiricahua to a reservation hundreds of miles away in New Mexico, but he escaped and renewed the resistance campaign.Finally, in 1872, President Ulysses S. Grantsent General Oliver O. Howard, a peace emissary, to meet with army scout and Indian Agent, Thomas Jeffords and Cochise. Cochise agreed to peace as long as his band was allowed to stay on the current reservation with Jeffords as their agent. General Howard agreed. Cochise made Thomas Jeffords his blood brother and a full member of the tribe. Afterwards, he quietly retired on the reservation, where he stayed until his death two years later on June 8, 1874.Before he died, Cochise had requested that he be buried in an unmarked grave so that the white man would not find his body. One account says that he was buried along with his favorite horse and dog in a deep rock crevice in Stronghold Canyon. Another version tells that he was buried several miles east of the Stronghold, and that his warriors then galloped their horses over the grave so it could not be identified. In any event, the location of his burial remains a mystery today.Chief Cochise was succeeded as chief by his son, Naichealso known as Natchez.   
  In the meantime, some of Cochise’s younger warriors did not agree with the peace that he had made with the U.S. Government and broke away to join Geronimo’s continued fighting efforts against the U.S. Army and white encroachment. The fighting continued until Geronimo’ssurrender in 1886.Afterwards, the remnants of the Chiricahua were shipped off to reservations in the east where most of them died. Today, there are only a few descendants of the Chiricahua Apache living in Oklahoma and New Mexico, and there are none at all on their original land.© Kathy Weiser/Legends of America, updated April, 2012.   
                 

 

 Geronimo the last apache

Geronimo was born of the Bedonkohe Apache tribe in No-doyohn Canon, Arizona, June, 1829, near present day Clifton, Arizona. The fourth in a family of four boys and four girls, he was called Goyathlay (One Who Yawns.) In 1846, when he was seventeen, he was admitted to the Council of the Warriors, which allowed him to marry. Soon, he received permission; married a woman named Alope, and the couple had three children.In the mid 1850s, the tribe, who was at peace with the Mexican towns and neighboring Indiantribes, traveled into Old Mexico where they could trade. Camping outside a Mexican town they called Kas-ki-yeh, they stayed for several days. Leaving a few warriors to guard the camp, the rest of the men went into town to trade. When they were returning from town, they were met by several women and children who told them that Mexican troops had attacked their camp.They returned to camp to find their guard warriors killed, and their horses, supplies and arms, gone. Even worse, many of the women and children had been killed as well. Of those that lay dead were Goyathlay’s wife, mother, and three children and as a result, he hated all Mexicans for the rest of his life. 

 

 

Geronimo in 1887, photo by Ben Wittck.

This image available for photographic prints and  downloads HERE!

It was the slaughter of his family that turned him from a peaceful Indian into a bold warrior. Soon, he joined a fierce band of Apache known as Chiricahua and with them, took part in numerous raids in northern Mexico and across the border into U.S. territory which are now known as the states of New Mexico and Arizona. It was those Mexican adversaries that gave him the nickname of “Geronimo“, the Spanish version of the name “Jerome”.

In ever increasing numbers, Geronimo fought against both Mexicans and  white settlers as they began to colonize much of the Apache homelands. However, by the early 1870s, Lieutenant Colonel George F. Crook, commander of the Department of Arizona, had succeeded in establishing relative peace in the territory. The management of his successors, however, was disastrous.

In 1876 the U.S. government attempted to move the Chiricahua from their traditional home to the San Carlos Reservation, a barren wasteland in east-central Arizona, described as “Hell’s Forty Acres.” Deprived of traditional tribal rights, short on rations and homesick, they revolted.

Spurred by Geronimo, hundreds of Apaches left the reservation and fled to Mexico, soon resuming their war against the whites. Geronimo and his followers began ten years of intermittent raids against white settlements, alternating with periods of peaceful farming on the San Carlos reservation.

In 1882, General George Crook was recalled to Arizona to conduct a campaign against the Apache. Geronimo surrendered in January 1884, but, spurred by rumors of impending trials and hangings, took flight from the San Carlos Reservation on May 17, 1885, accompanied by 35 warriors, and 109 other men, women and children.

During this final campaign, at least 5,000 white soldiers and 500 Indian auxiliaries were employed at various times in the capture of Geronimo’s small band. Five months and 1,645 miles later, Geronimo was tracked to his camp in Mexico’s Sonora Mountains.

Exhausted, and hopelessly out numbered, Geronimo surrendered on March 27, 1886 at Cañon de Los Embudos in Sonora, Mexico. His band consisted of a handful of warriors, women, and children. Also found was a young white boy named Jimmy “Santiago” McKinn, that the Indians had kidnapped some six months earlier in September. The “rescued” boy had become so assimilated to the Apache lifestyle, he cried when he was forced to return to his parents.

 

 

 

 

 

Jimmy “Santiago” McKinn in Geronimo’s Camp, with group

 of Chiricahua Apache boys, 1886, photo by C.S. Fly

 This image available for photographic prints and

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Also traveling with General Crook was the photographer, C.S. Fly of Tombstone fame. After the bands capture, he was able to take some of the most famous photographs in U.S. history.The soldiers gathered the group and began the trek to Fort Bowie, Arizona. However, near the border, Geronimo, fearing that they would be murdered once they crossed into U.S. territory, bolted with Chief Naiche, 11 warriors, and a few women and boys, who were able to escape back into the Sierra Madra. As a result, Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles replaced Crookas commander on April 2, 1886.At a conference on September 3, 1886, at Skeleton Canyon in Arizona, General Miles induced Geronimo to surrender once again, promising him that, after an indefinite exile in Florida, he and his followers would be permitted to return to Arizona
The promise was never kept. Geronimoand his fellow prisoners were shipped by box-car to Florida for imprisonment and put to hard labor.It was May 1887 before he saw his family. Several years later, in 1894, he was moved to Fort Sill in OklahomaTerritory where he attempted to “fit in.” He farmed and joined the Dutch Reformed Church, which expelled him because of his inability to resist gambling.As years passed, stories of Geronimo’s warrior ferocity made him into a legend that fascinated non-Indians and Indians alike. As a result, he appeared at numerous fairs, selling souvenirs and photographs of himself. In 1905 he was quite the sensation when he appeared in President Theodore Roosevelt’s inaugural parade. Geronimo dictated his memoirs, published in 1906 as Geronimo’s Story of His Life. 

 

Band of Apache Indian prisoners at rest stop beside Southern Pacific Railway, near Nueces River, Texas, September 10, 1886. Among those on their way to exile in Florida are Natchez (center front) and, to the right, Geronimo and his son. Photo courtesy National Archives.

 

Never having seen his homeland of Arizona again, Geronimo died of pneumonia on February 17, 1909 and was buried in the Apache cemetery at Fort Sill, Oklahoma

 

Manhunting History — January 10, 1886: Battle on the Devil’s Backbone

The unsuccessful summer campaign and subsequent raid by Josannie led to increasing political pressure on General Crook to produce results. The Commander of the United States Army, Lieutenant General Philip Sheridan, traveled all the way from Washington, D.C. to Fort Bowie to review the situation. He wanted Geronimo’s band destroyed, and on November 29 told Crook to go on the offensive.

Crook’s response was to take his previous innovations, already considered radical by many in the U.S. Army, to their logical conclusion. Although regular troops were supposed to provide rallying points for the scouts and protection for the pack trains, they also severely inhibited the scouts’ mobility. Crook was willing to forego the advantages offered by white soldiers and created a force comprised of 100 Indian scouts, a pack train, and only three officers. The model for this flying column had been suggested to him back in 1883 in the Sierra Madres campaign, when his scouts had begged to be allowed to go ahead of the main expedition.

The critical decision, therefore, was which American officer would lead this experimental unit. But in reality, the choice was obvious from the start. Captain Emmet Crawford had commanded the scouts in Crook’s 1883 expedition into Mexico, and upon the successful completion of that campaign was placed in charge of the San Carlos reservation where he oversaw the renegades now on the warpath until just two months prior to the outbreak. Six-foot-one, with gray eyes, a fellow officer described Crawford, saying: “Mentally, morally, and physically he would have been an ideal knight of King Arthur’s Court.” The Apaches alternately called him “Tall Chief” because of his height, and “Captain Coffee” because of his apparent addiction to the beverage. When reenlisting scouts in October and November for the expedition, Crawford chose only White Mountain and friendly Chiricahua Apaches – mountain Indians whom he knew were ideally suited for the arduous task of trailing Geronimo in the difficult Sierra Madres. These Indians joined the expedition not only because they hated the renegades, but also because they trusted Crawford, who was known for his concern for the scouts serving under him.

 

CPT Emmet Crawford, leader of General Crook’s elite Apache scouts

On November 29, Crook ordered Crawford’s company to the Dragoon Mountains to intercept Josannie’s band should they cross into Arizona from New Mexico, and then into Mexico, crossing the border once more on December 11. They moved steadily south in Sonora for three weeks, finding nothing.

Crawford set up a base camp in Nacori, on the western edge of the Sierra Madres, and from there deployed his scouting parties. Finally, in early January, one of these parties came across a Chiricahua trail near the Aros River. The scouts reported that it led to Geronimo’s band, holed up in a range known to the Mexicans as “Espina del Diablo,” or “Backbone of the Devil.” Upon the discovery of this fresh “sign” on January 8, 1886, Crawford pushed his men 48 hours without sleep in a desperate attempt to find and attack the hostile village. His party was now more than 150 miles south of the border, farther south in Mexico than any U.S. command had ever chased Apaches.

Just before daylight on the 10th, Crawford’s scouts drew near the high, rocky point where Geronimo’s camp was suspected to be. Crawford divided his force, hoping to surround the Rancheria. Slowly, carefully, the scouts crept forward, “scarcely breathing as we moved.”

Suddenly, the braying of the hostiles’ burros shook the stillness of the cold, mountain dawn, and alerted Geronimo to the scouts’ presence. Geronimo jumped up on a rock and yelled: “Look out for the horses!”

Chiricahua warriors ran out and tried to secure their mounts, but the scouts opened fire, shrieking cries of defiance from the surrounding rocks. Geronimo’s men took cover and returned fire from a nearby cluster of rocks that formed a stronghold.

After a minute, Geronimo’s voice was heard once again: “Let the horses go and break toward the river on foot! Scatter and go as you can!”

Although a rush into the camp would have ensured the capture of at least the women and children, the scouts remained pinned down by the hostiles’ fusillade, deaf to the appeals of their officers to advance. The hostiles escaped into the darkness, and daylight revealed they had once again left behind all their stock, provisions, and blankets. The scouts, exhausted by the forced march that made the skirmish possible, collapsed on any level ground they could find to sleep upon, unable to exploit their victory.

While the scouts’ bullets did not find their marks, the capture of Geronimo’s supplies was a terrible blow in the harsh winter conditions of the Sierra Madres. Toward the middle of the afternoon, as Crawford and his men were still recuperating, a squaw came into the camp. She said that Geronimo and his followers were camped a few miles away and wished to talk to Crawford about surrendering. Crawford agreed to meet with Geronimo, Chihuahua, and Naiche the next day, and a place for the conference was arranged. Crawford was overjoyed as the squaw departed, as the message seemed tantamount to an offer of surrender, and everyone in the American camp seemed to collectively exhale, believing the Geronimo campaign was about to end.

WHITE MOUNTAIN APACHE

 
The White Mountain Apache are one of several Western Apache tribes, each of which has a different language, history, and culture despite being related. They are related to members of the Yavapai Apache Nation, which also has ties to the Grand Canyon. Historically the White Mountain Apaches were nomadic farmers, growing corn, beans, squash, and other foods for part of the year while supplementing their crops with hunting and gathering of native animals and plants. They had the largest range of any Western Apache tribe and traveled widely throughout what is today east-central Arizona, trading and raiding.  As anthropologist Keith Basso pointed out in Wisdom Sits in Places, the land is essential to Western Apache language and culture. It connects the people to their history and ancestors, while serving as a moral compass.The first significant meeting between the tribe and Euro Americans occurred in 1848 following the Mexican-American war, when Mexico ceded land to the United States that included White Mountain Apache homelands.
Some examples of the intricate arts and crafts of the White Mountain Apache, including pottery, beadwork, textiles and basketry, are displayed in front of a traditional dwelling, or wickiup.Credit: NAU Cline Library, Tad Nichols Collection, NAU.PH.99.3.5.10.10

Nalte and Gud-i-zz-ah were just two of the many White Mountain Apache who served as scouts for General Crook’s army.Credit: Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library.
The White Mountain Apache were more geographically isolated than other Western Apache tribes, though they were aware of the violence and devastation happening as Euro Americans came into contact with other Native Americans.In the late 1860s the U.S. Army came into their land with orders to capture or kill any Apaches that refused to be confined to a reservation.  The White Mountain Apache acted so peaceably and hospitably that the soldiers followed suit. The White Mountain Apache allowed construction of Camp Ord, later known as Fort Apache, on their lands in 1868 and agreed to live on a reservation there.In 1871 General George Crook enlisted the help of 50 White Mountain Apache to serve as scouts for his army during the course of the fifteen-year Apache Wars, which ended with the surrender of Geronimo in 1886. The Fort Apache Indian Reservation, now known as the White Mountain Apache Reservation, was established in late 1891. Many White Mountain Apaches believe that it was because of their service to Crook that their tribe was able to maintain such a large part of their homeland within their reservation.In 1936, the White Mountain Apaches wrote their own constitution and established a tribal council to oversee governance and all tribally owned property and businesses. In the 1950s, White Mountain Apaches turned to tourism to support their tribal economy, constructing artificial lakes and dams and developing hunting, camping, fishing, and skiing facilities.
Today most of the approximately 15,000 members of the White Mountain Apache tribe live on their reservation of 1.67 million acres in east-central Arizona, about 200 miles southeast of the Grand Canyon. Their reservation contains rich wildlife habitat with more than 400 miles of streams. The White Mountain Apache have developed several tribal enterprises based on outdoor recreation to economically support tribal members, including a popular ski resort. They also operate the Hon-Dah resort-casino.For more information on the White Mountain Apache,
The seal of the White Mountain Apache nation contains a number of images meaningful to the tribe, symbolizing peace, natural resources, ancient crafts, sacred colors and prayers, endurance, and the beauty of life.Credit: White Mountain Apache tribal council.

 

Call Number : ina159pb
Title : Apache Chief Natches, 1886
Call Number : ina163p
Title : Apache Chief Ka-T-Te-Nay; C.1880

Call Number : ina158pb
Title : Apache Chief Geronimo, Son, & Warriors; 1886
Call Number : ina160pa
Title : Apache Chief Natches & Wife; ca. 1883
Call Number : ina164pb
Title : Go-Shono, Mescalero Apache Medicine Man, charcoal drawing c.1890s

Call Number : ina158pc
Title : Apache Chief Geronimo and Apache Warriers, c. 1886
Call Number : ina161pa
Title : Apache Chief Sanches; C.1880
Call Number : ina165p
Title : Apache Scout Al-Che-Say; C.1880

Call Number : ina166p
Title : Apache Medicine Man Chief Jump Off; N.D.
Call Number : ina169pb
Title : Apache Encampment; C.1900
Call Number : ina171pa
Title : Apache Scouts.

Call Number : ina167p
Title : Apache Man, Fort McDowell.
Call Number : ina169pc
Title : Apache Encampment; C.1900
Call Number : ina171pc
Title : Apache & White Men, 1880

Call Number : ina168p
Title : Apache Encampment, C.1900
Call Number : ina169pd
Title : Apache Encampment; C.1900
Call Number : ina171pd
Title : Apache Scouts; C.1880

Call Number : ina169pa
Title : Apache Encampment; C.1900
Call Number : ina170p
Title : Apache & Negro in Guard House; San-Carlos, Arizona, C.1880
Call Number : ina173pb
Title : Apache Woman Weaving Basket; C.1900

 

Call Number : ina190p
Title : Apache Man & Baby; C.1910
Call Number : ina198p
Title : Indians Watering Horses at Spring; N.D.

Call Number : ina191p
Title : Indian Scouts, S.L., C.1910
Call Number : ina200p
Title : Two Apache Women from east fork of Clear Creek, Arizona, C.1900

Call Number : ina194p
Title : Apache on Horseback; Camp-Verde, Arizona, C.1910
Call Number : ina201p
Title : Tonto Apache Woman, “Annie” Carrying Bale of Hay at Wilbanks Ranch in Gisela, Arizona.

Call Number : ina197pa
Title : Indian man eating, S.L., C.1910

 

Native American Tribes Overview:

Their Culture and History
Photos Courtesy of Denver Museum Digital Archive & Library of Congress.
The Hopi Indian:
They live in Northeastern Arizona and New Mexico.
According to legend, the ancestors of the Hopi Indian migrated from
various locations and settled near the Grand Canyon. Legend also
portrays a peaceful people, willing to cooperate with others to
improve their life.  Classified as Pueblo Indians they most likely
descended from the Anasazi. The Hopi were the only Pueblo Indians
that spoke a dialect of the Uto-Aztecan language family called
Shoshone.  At right:  A Hopi Native American woman in 1900.

More on the Development of Hopi Indian Jewelry

The word “Hopi” means good, peaceful, or wise. They come from a
group of Southwestern people called Pueblo, but their language is
different.  They live in northeast Arizona, mostly on the mesa tops in villages called pueblos.  Their  
homes are usually many stories high, as shown in the photo below.

Hopi men wore a straight sleeved or sleeveless shirt of undyed,
native cotton, worn like a poncho; knitted cotton leggings reaching
half way up the thighs; cotton loin cloth; and moccasins of deerskin.
Women wore an undyed cotton robe, which passed under the left
arm and was fastened above the right shoulder and an embroidered belt.

Interesting Information on Hopi Indian Rituals and Customs

The Hopi Indian’s religious ceremonies are held underground in rooms called “kiva’s.”
They famous for their Kachina dolls, which tourists buy for their children. However, Hopi children
cannot play with Kachinas. They are used to teach Hopi Indian children about spirit powers.
                                                             

Native American Artifact Reproductions
American Indian Hand Made Wall Decor
Bow And Arrows, Cross Arrows, Medicine Wheels

TRIBAL IMPRESSIONS
AMERICAN INDIAN
Inside Tribal Impressions!

HA 162 Cross Arrow Medicine Wheel
Crossed Arrow Size : width – Dia:22,arrow57 cm Material : Iron,wood,leather,feather $58.00
HA 089 Medicine Wheel
Medicine wheel with cross arrow
Size : width – dia-28 cm Material : Iron – Wood – Feather – Leather $68.00
HA 163 Fancy Cross Arrow
Crossed Arrow Size : width – Dia:22,arrow:57 cm Material : Iron,wood,leather,feather,bone. $78.00

Hand Wrapped And Embellished Spears
Our hand made spears are hand wrapped with leather, embellished with fur, breading and feathers and have strong hand carved
bone points. These sharp looking hand made items look great on walls.

Hand Wrapped And Embellished Spears $78.00

Gallery Showcase Masterpiece ItemBuckskin Plains Indian BOW & QUIVER!!  

QA 003 Quiver Bow And Arrow Artifact
This is a really nice Quiver, Bow And Arrow Artifact Reproduction. Hand made out of leather and beads with bottom fringe.
Will look great on any wall hundreds of dollars less than what most so-called artifact reproduction dealers sell them for! Only $78.00

Native American Collector’s PhotoNavajo Indian Strings Bow Print, 1913 8 X 10This photo os one of the most popular early photos of a Navajo Indian.
it was taken in 1914 by Ronald Reed and is a great addition to your Native American Collection. Black And White on quality photo paper.Navajo Indian Strings Bow Print, 1913 8 X 10: $12.99 
 

Really Nice Bow And Cross Arrow Set With Dream catcher

HA 092 Mandella
Size : width – dia-33 cm
Material : Feather – Leather –
QA 003 Quivers
Size : 88 x 52 cm
QA 004 Quiver
$48.00
QA 002: Quiver $48.00
AA 007 Arrow Wall Hanging
Wrapped leather bow and crossed arrow
Size : width – Bow:143,arrow84 cm Material : Bamboo, wood, leather, beads, bones, feather. $129.00
AA 006 Arrow Set Wall Hanging
Beaded Bow Size : width – 143 cm
Material : Bamboo, Leather, Beads.
$129.00
AA 005 Arrow Set Wall Hanging
Arrow and bow Size : 150 x 62 cm
Material : Bamboo, leather, feather, beads
$129.00

PA 012: Handmade Peace Pipe With Hand Painting And Medicine Bag

This hand made piece pipe is a great work of art that will look exceptional on your wall. It’s 27.6 inches long
and features hand beading, a hand painted Indian Chief on leather, leather fringe with breading, a hanging medicine bag and
all the other advanced works. Materials used to hand make this pipe include wood, horse Hair, Feathers, Bone And Beads.
Really sharp looking. Exceptional value! Only $78.00

PA 015 Antler Piece Pipe
Size : width – 59 cm
Material : Wood, Leather,Antler, Horse Hair,Rabbit Fur, Bones, Beads $65.00
PA 009 Horn Piece pipe
Size : width – 50 cm, Horn, Wood, Leather, bones, feather
$45.00
PA 025 Antler Piece Pipe
Size : 77 x 35 cm Material : Antler Wood, leather, beads. $65.00
WA 022 Spear bone
Size : height – 99 cm
Material : Bone – Leather – Hairy leather – Bead. $45.00
DC 011 Dream Catcher With Arrows
Size : width – 16 cm
Material : Suede,turkey feather,beads,bones. $29.95
WA 011 Tomahawk Stone Wrap
Stone,wood,leather,feather,rabbit fur,bones.
$ 45.00

Mohawk

Akwesasne Mohawk Cultural Center– Hogansburg, New York.

Akwesasne Notes Magazine

– Kahniakehaka Nation ,Akwesasne Mohawk Territory, Rooseveltown, New York. (518-358-3326)

Indian Castle Church

– State Route 55, Town of Danube, Herkimer County (Fort Hendrick),

taken by photographer Nelson E. Baldwin on May 5, 1936.

 “Indian Castle Church was built in 1769 by Captain Samuel Clyde for Sir William Johnson, who presented it to the Canajoharies (Mohawks of the Upper or Canajoharie Mohawks Castle), in 1770.

It is the only Colonial Indian Mission Chursch standing in New York State and the only surviving Colonial building of the Mohawks or Iroquois Castles. The Church was built on land owned by Joseh Brandt [Brant], the famous Mohawk Chieftain, who was noted for his pity [piety?] and who translated the gospel of St. Mark into the Mohawk language.

During the Revolution, the Mohawk Indian raiders, formerly residents here, attempted to steal the bell of this old church.

They, however, neglected to fasten its clapper and its ringing awakened the parish settlers who armed themselves, sallied out and recovered the old church bell.” (Data Page 2).

American Indian Studies Research Institute– Indiana University, Bloomington.

American Indian Law Review

– University of Oklahoma College of Law. (Index only.)

American Indian Research Project

 – South Dakota Oral History Center. “Contains over 1,900 taped interviews, 70 percent of which were gathered in the field between 1967 and 1973.” Except for one sample, the interviews are not online, but there is a partial indexand you can order transcripts.American Indian Studies: A Bibliographic Guide (1995) – By Phillip M. White. Parts of this book are available in Google Books.

American Indian Tribal Directory – Provided by the American Indian Heritage Foundation.

American Indian Tribal Portal

– U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, American Indian Environmental Office.

EPA RegionsAmerican Indians: A Select Catalog of NARA Microfilm Publications

– National Archives microfilm publications “that relate directly to American Indians, to the formation of federal Indian policy, and to the personnel who created or enforced that policy.

The catalog is divided into civilian agency records and military establishment records. In each section, the publications containing the most information about Indians are listed first” followed by a roll-by-roll listing of the contents. Includes information on how to order the microfilm.”

American Indians of the Pacific Northwest

 – “This digital collection integrates over 2,300 photographs and 7,700 pages of text relating to the American Indians in two cultural areas of the Pacific Northwest, the Northwest Coast and Plateau. These resources illustrate many aspects of life and work, including housing, clothing, crafts, transportation, education, and employment.

Volume VII of the United States Statutes at Large, entitled

Treaties between the United States and Indian Tribes

. Published in 1845, this is a 604 page volume of treaties which has a chronological list of the treatiesstarting on p. iii.

Chaco Digital Initiative

– Digitization of thousands of photographs from Neil Judd and Frank H.H. Roberts’ archaeological excavations in Chaco Canyon.

Chaco Culture National Historical Park

– National Park Service

Cherokee Field Office Records, 1968 – 1983

– Photographs in the National Archives and Records Administration

, Record Group 435:

Records of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, 1929 – 1988.

Burden Basket or Storage Basket Made of River Cane (ARC Identifier: 281597)

Booger” Dance Mask with a Coiled Snake on Top (ARC Identifier: 281600)

Hand Carved Pottery Designed Paddles (ARC Identifier: 281617)

Seminole Coiled Sweet Grass Button Basket (ARC Identifier: 281626)

Shell Tempered Duck Effigy Bowl Recovered from Williams Island Site, Hamilton County, Tennessee (ARC Identifier: 281637)

Cherokee Craftsman, Jessie Saunlooke, Carving a Bear (ARC Identifier: 281633)

Shell Tempered Double Wedding Vessel with a Human Effigy Recovered from the Cox Mound, Jackson County, Tennessee (ARC Identifier: 281639)Old Cherokee White Oak Basket (ARC Identifier: 281622)

Single Weave River Cane Basket Owned by the Southern Hills Handicraft Guild (ARC Identifier: 281629)

Cherokee Nation

 – Official Site of the Cherokee Nation based in Tahlequah Oklahoma. 

They publish

 the Cherokee Phoenix and Indian Advocate

, the the official newspaper of the Cherokee Nation, published monthly.

Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles

 – From the Search Page you can view the full-text of a number of periodicals including Outingfrom 1883 to 1899.

 Forgotten Founders: Benjamin Franklin, the Iroquois and the Rationale for the American Revolution (1982)

Lacrosse in the United States

 A sampling of articles from Outing and more recent sources:

Lacrosseby Ross Mackenzie, Outing, October, 1892, Vol. XXI, No. 1, p. 76-80.

Lacrosse in the United Statesby J. A. Hodge, Outing, March, 1886, Vol. VII, No. 6, p. 665-676.

Père Lacombe, A Wilderness Apostle of the Northby Agnes C. Laut, Outing, April, 1905, Vol. XLVI, No. 1, p. 1-15.

The Indian Festival at Taosby James A. LeRoy, Outing, December, 1903, Vol. XLIII, No. 3, p. 282-288.

The materials are drawn from the extensive collections of the University of Washington Libraries, the Cheney Cowles Museum/Eastern Washington State Historical Society in Spokane, and the Museum of History and Industry in Seattle.” Also accessible via the Library of Congress.

American Museum of Natural History – New York.

The Library provides access to Online Catalog. The Collections Database provides access to over 50,000 images and catalog descriptions from the North American Ethnographic Collection.

 You can search by culture, material, object name, catalog no., locale or donor name. A search for Catalog item E/ 2334 will retrieve the images of two Tlingit baskets.

A search for ornament (object name) will retrieve over 800 images and a search for Plains (culture) and bead (material) will retrieve over 700 including a buffalo robe (50 / 5860). An object name search for kachinaretrieves 239 items. There are some lovely Navaho blankets (50.2/ 6840, 50.2/ 6841, 50.2/ 6842, 50 / 2091) and bracelets (50.2/ 4168, 50.2/ 4169, 50.2/ 4171, 50 / 6356 A, 50.2/ 2394).

Searching by donor is particularly rewarding:

 try Auchincloss, Morgan, Wissler, Spinden, Boas, Harvey, Mead, Jesup, Peabody (baskets), or Emmons.

Search for object name:

 amulet, apron, armlet, bag, ball, basket, beadwork, belt, bowl, brooch, canoe, carving, charm, club, coat, comb, cradle board (baby board), cup, dance, dice, doll, feather, fetish, fish, gambling, game, hat, headband, headdress, jacket, jar, knife, labret, lance, leggings, mask, medicine bundle, mittens, model, moccasin, necklace, paddle, parfleche, pipe, pottery, pouch, prayer stick, purse, rattle, robe, saddle, sheath, snowshoes (snow shoe), spear, spoon, tomahawk, totem pole, toy, tray, wampum.

American Native Press Archives

The mission of the

Sequoyah National Research Center

is “to acquire and preserve the writings and ideas of Native North Americans.”

American Philosophical Society

– Founded by Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia in 1743.

The Library houses over 180,000 volumes and bound periodicals, six million manuscripts, and thousands of maps and prints.

You can search MOLE, the Manuscripts Online Guide and VOLE, the Vaughan Online Catalog, and there are Finding Aids and Subject Guides. Collections of note include:William N. Fenton Papers– “Yale-educated ethnographer, William Fenton has devoted most of his career to study of the Iroquois Indians of New York State and Canada.”

Franz Boas Papers – Founder of modern American anthropology.

See also Images of Franz Boas.

Ely Samuel Parker Papers – Seneca Indian and Civil War adjutant to Ulysses Grant.

Other resources include:

Native American Sound Recordings – Recording #3 features an August 12, 1950 recording of Lucenda George speaking in the Onondaga language about locusts, Clifford’s garden, winter and the dam built on the Onondaga reservation.

David Van Keuren’s

“The Proper Study of Mankind”: An Annotated Bibliography of Manuscript sources on Anthropology and Archeology in the Library of the American Philosophical Society (c1986)

American Indian Manuscripts in the American Philosophical Society (c1999)

– By John Freeman, Murphy D. Smith, Daythal Kendall, and R.S. Cox.Anercan Philosophical Society Proceedings – with recent issues available online

. The March 2000 issue contains the full-text of Christian B. Keller’s Philanthropy Betrayed: Thomas Jefferson, the Louisiana Purchase, and the Origins of Federal Indian Removal Policy in pdf format. Other articles of interest include

Retrospecting the Origins of the League of the Iroquois by William A. Starna, APS Proceedings, Vol. 152, 3 (September 2008);

Illegal Alien? The Immigration Case of Mohawk Ironworker Paul K. DiaboBy Gerald F. Reid, APS Proceedings, Vol. 151, 1 (March 2007).

Native American Images

 – See also Abbot-Charnay Photograph Collection

The American Revolution and Its Era: Maps and Charts of North America and the West Indies, 1750-1789

– Library of Congress

An American Time Capsule:

Three Centuries of Broadsides and Other Printed Ephemera

 – More than 7,000 digitized primary source items dating from the seventeenth century to the present and encompassing key events and eras in American history.

A search for Indianretrieves over 50 results, among which is

 an 1805 speech by Sagu-ua-what-hath (Red Jacket),

a Seneca chiefAmon Olorin Flutes

 – Contemporary Native American Flutes by Ken Light, and flute workshops with R. Carlos Nakai,

Native American flutist nominated for 2 Grammys.

(You can also listen to clips from Earth Spirit, Changes:

Native American Flute Music, Big Medicine or Feather, Stone & Light at Amazon.com.)

Anasazi Heritage Center

– Dolores, Colorado

Ancient Cultures of the Southwest

– Online exhibition of pottery at

the Logan Museum of Anthropology, Beloit College, Wisconsin.

 There is a pottery catalog index.Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS): Partnerships Across NationsAnnual Review of Anthropology

 – Article abstracts (full-text available to subscribers only) from 1984 to the present. A search for American Indian(words in title or abstract), for example, retrieves 14 results.

Anthropological Index of the Royal Anthropological Institute

– “Anthropological Index Online is based on the journal holdings of The Anthropology Library at the The British Museum (Museum of Mankind) which receives periodicals in all branches of anthropology, from academic institutions and publishers around the world.”

Anthropology Outreach Office

– Smithsonian’s Department of Anthropology.

Provides archives of

AnthroNotes and Anthropolog

. See

Native Americans: General Topics.

AnthroSource

– Interactive repository of research and communications tools for anthropologists.

Antique Tribal Art Dealers Association (ATADA)Theft AlertAntiquities of Wisconsin

– Electronic text of the book by

Increase A. Lapham

, published by the Smithsonian Institution in 1855, includes 92 pages of text, illustrated with 61 wood engravings, and 55 lithographed plates.

Archeological Research Institute

– Arizona State University, Tempe.

Host of Archnet

. There is an online exhibition of

Prehistoric Pottery of Arizona

. Other resources include

Pottery and Pigments in Arizona:

Salado Polychrome and Roosevelt Platform Mound Study.

Archives Canada France

 – A search in the database for Iroqouisretrieves over 900 documents.

Archives nationales de France

– A search for Iroquois in the Collections retrieves 26 results.

See also

Centre des archives d’outre-mer à Aix-en-Provence (CAOM)

whose mission is the “conservation des archives de l’expansion coloniale française.”

Archives of the Association on American Indian Affairs– Princeton University Library.

Archives of Maryland Online

 – “The first 72 volumes of this series were published between 1883 and 1972 by the Maryland Historical Society.

They contain many of the official records of Maryland from 1634 to 1820. We have also added 30 additional volumes to this series in the past year.

The website contains images of the originals as well as fully searchable text.” Consider spelling variants as you search (Sasquehannah).

The archives contains some interesting early records. Volume 6 of the series is a transcription of the Correspondence of Governor Horatio Sharpe, Volume 1,1753-1757

which includes some material about Indian Affairs. Starting on page 436 of this volume is a lengthy account from Fort George in New York on 4th June 1756, in which the author writes about Sir William Johnson, the Mohawks, and the Onondago.

Proceedings of the Council of Maryland, 1732:1753

, concerns the 1844 treaty council held in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. Members of the Six Nations, including Onondaga chief Canasatego (Cannasatego), met with representatives from Maryland, Pennsylvania and Virginia. Conrad Weiser (Conrade) was present as interpreter.

ArchNet: Ethnoarchaeology and EthnohistoryArctic Circle

– Peoples and environment of the Arctic and Subarctic region

Arctic Studies Center – Smithsonian Institution.

Has a number of online exhibitions including

Yupik Masks,

Ekven Burial Chamber

and Northern Clans, Northern Traces.

Arizona Memory Project

– “Established by the Arizona State Library, Archives and Public Records, is an online repository for digital collections from archives, libraries, museums, historical societies and other Arizona cultural institutions.”

Collections of interest include:

Medallion Papers

a “series of 39 publications issued between 1928-1950 by the Gila Pueblo Archaeological Foundation. Gila Pueblo, as it later became known, was one of the earliest Arizona institutions doing archaeological surveying and research in the Southwest.

It was founded by Winifred and Harold S. Gladwin as a private foundation and employed professional archaeologists whose research was published in the Medallion Papers.

Their work was instrumental in defining the Hohokam, Mogollon, San Simon and Cochise cultures and in describing early pottery types including Hohokam red-on-buff, Salado polychrome, Casas Grandes and others.”

Sharlot Hall Museum American Indians Image Collection

– “This collection of still images is related to the American Indians of Arizona and the Southwest (1865-1970).

Tribes include Navajo, Apache, Yavapai, Hualapai, Papago, Hopi, Mohave, Paiute, Yaqui, Havasupai, Pima and Maricopa.

Also included in the collection are images of prehistoric ruins, pueblos, and rock art.”

Portraits of Indians from Southeastern Idaho Reservations, 1897.”

192 portraits of American Indians  by  Pinart  1860-1876

Arizona State Museum

– University of Arizona, Tucson.

Established in 1893, this is the oldest and largest anthropology museum in the Southwest with the largest whole vessel collection of Southwest Indian pottery in the world.

They offer Travel Tours and information on the Southwest Indian Art Fair.

One of the Fair’s Award Winners for 2009 was Kachina Mana by Aaron Honanie, Hopi.

The Libraryhas an online catalogue.

Among the online resources are:

PodcastsArizona Archaeological Site and Survey DatabasePottery Project 2,000 Years – 20,000 VesselsNampeyo Pottery Showcase

 – Includes a Black-on-red shallow bowlcollected 1926.

With an Eye on Culture: The Photography of Helga TeiwesThe Trincheras Culture, Vignettes in Time

Arizona’s First People:

The culture and lives of Arizona’s Native American tribes

– Part of the Cultures AZ site.

In Voices, Nan Telahongva recounts her experiences as a young Hopi girl new to Anglo schools and Betty Reid, a Native Navajo and a reporter for the Arizona Republic, talks about the transition from reservation life to city life.

Arkansas Archeological Survey

– University of Arkansas site provides Report Abstracts by county, Archeology Links, Educational Resources for Teachers and First Encounters:

The Contact Period in the Mississippi Valley

.Arnold Research Cave – Missouri.

Contained 7500 years of prehistoric footwear.

Michael J. Fuller

– Provides photographs of footwear from the cave.

ArtNet

 – A rich resource for art and antiques. (See their Site Index.)

There is an Artist Index

. The weekly ArtNet Magazine

 offers news & reviews, and features with archives back to 1996.

 The Galleriesdatabase is searchable by gallery name, artist name, gallery specialty, location, and furniture or design.

As Long as the Waters Flow: Native Americans in the South and East

 – Photographs by Carolyn DeMeritt exhibited at the Light Factoryin Charlotte, North Carolina.

Assembly of First Nations– National representative/lobby organization of the First Nations in Canada.

Association for the Study of American Indian Literatures

 – Robert Nelson’s Guide to Native American Studies Programs in the United States and Canada provides a “comprehensive survey of U.S. and Canadian Native American Studies programs being offered as majors, minors, and certifications at the baccalaureate level or above.”

The Association’s newsletter, SAIL

, is searchableand is available in full-text from 1977-1987.

Association of American Indian PhysiciansAssociation of American University Presses

 – With a search form for

Native American Studies. (Try searching by year.)

Avalon Project at Yale Law School

 – Collection of documents in law, history and diplomacy has texts of

Treaties Between the United States and Native Americans,

Statutes of the United States Concerning Native Americans

 and

Relations Between the United States and Native Americans.

Benedicte Wrensted: An Idaho Photographer in Focus

– “Portraits of Indians from Southeastern Idaho Reservations, 1897.”

192 portraits of American Indians  by  Pinart  1860-1876

Bethlehem Digital History Project

 – “Digitization and web publication of specific primary source materials relating to the early history of Bethlehem, Pennsylvania….selected to increase accessibility to sources that illuminate key elements of the Bethlehem community from its founding in 1741 through 1844.”

Among the resources are Joseph Spangenberg’s Report on the Nanticokes’ and Shawnee’s Bethlehem visit in March 1753

 and

The Comprehensive Report on the Brethren’s Negotiations in Bethlehem and Gnadenhütten with the Nanticokes and Shawnee Nations from April 1752. (Moravian College and Theological Seminary)

Betty Mae Jumper: a Seminole Legend – Maintained by the Seminole Tribe of Florida.

Bibliographies of New England History

– Volume 9 contains 4,231 citations to books, dissertations, pamphlets, and magazine and journal articles, most of which were published between 1989 and 1994.

Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de CervantesBibliothèque Nationale de France

 – Although much of the site is in French you can locate many full texts in English and there are a number of outstanding visual resources as well.

Gallica

, a text and image digitization project comparable to the Library of Congress’s American Memory project, is a rich resource for material on American Indian history and anthropology.

For example the Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletins are available from 1881 to 1933.

To find them, do a click on recherche and search for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology.

From your results, select Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules).

This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931).

Among the images are

192 portraits of American Indians  by  Pinart  1860-1876

 [Indiens des Etats-Unis] taken by the photographer Pinart between 1860-1876.

The simplest way to search (recherche) this site is by keyword search (recherche libre).

Try specific tribe names

(Shawnee, Delaware, Huron) or use such terms as Indiens, indienne.

To limit your search to images check the box for Lots d’images (under Types de documents).

Bureau of American Ethnology List of Publications

has an index to titles and authors for Bulletins and Annual Reports.

A Study of Pueblo Architecture: Tusayan and Cibolaby Victor Mindeleff

.

Bringing Indian Affairs:

 Laws and Treaties to the World Wide Web

– Suzanne L. Holcombe, Oklahoma State University Library. Presentation at the Proceedings of the 9th Annual Federal Depository Library Conference, October 22 – 25, 2000.

Buffalo Bill Historical Center

 – Cody, Wyoming library and museum provides access to their online catalog.

Built in America:

Historic American Buildings Survey (HABS) and the Historic American Engineering Record (HAER)

 – Library of Congress collection of measured drawings, large-format photographs, and written histories for more than 35,000 historic structures and sites dating from the seventeenth to the twentieth century.

Search by keyword or browse by subject (Indians of North America) or place.

 Here you’ll find photographs of:

Indian Castle Church

– State Route 55, Town of Danube, Herkimer County (Fort Hendrick),

taken by photographer Nelson E. Baldwin on May 5, 1936.

 “Indian Castle Church was built in 1769 by Captain Samuel Clyde for Sir William Johnson, who presented it to the Canajoharies (Mohawks of the Upper or Canajoharie Mohawks Castle), in 1770.

It is the only Colonial Indian Mission Chursch standing in New York State and the only surviving Colonial building of the Mohawks or Iroquois Castles. The Church was built on land owned by Joseh Brandt [Brant], the famous Mohawk Chieftain, who was noted for his pity [piety?] and who translated the gospel of St. Mark into the Mohawk language.

During the Revolution, the Mohawk Indian raiders, formerly residents here, attempted to steal the bell of this old church.

They, however, neglected to fasten its clapper and its ringing awakened the parish settlers who armed themselves, sallied out and recovered the old church bell.” (Data Page 2).

View (Southwest) down into Kiva

– Pueblo Arroyo, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico (June 1966)

Kalispel Indian Log Cabin

– Usk, Pend Oreille County, Washington (1936)

Rock Eagle Mound

– Rock Eagle State Park, Putnam County, Georgia by Kenneth Kay (1980)

Shoshone Indian Cemetery

– Wind River Indian Reservation, Fort Washakie, Fremont County, Wyoming. “This cemetery supposedly contains the grave of Sacajawea, Indian guide of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. Located in cemetery is the oldest chapel built for the Indians in Wyoming.” (Data page 2). Photograph by Jack E. Boucher (1974).

Aztec Ruins – Detailed View of Through Passage

– Aztec Ruins, West Ruin, New Mexico 44 near junction of U.S. 550, Aztec vicinity, San Juan County, New Mexico.

Jeffers Petroglyphs

– Image of turtle and man, looking East. Photograph by Jet Lowe, 12 April, 1990. Delton Township, Cottonwood County, Minnesota.

BuntingVisual Resources Library

 – University of New Mexico College of Fine Arts. Resources include

Native American Arts Classification Manual and Visual Resources Catalog of Native American Artists (VIRCONA)

Bureau of American Ethnology –

Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin Series Electronic Editions

 – Consists of

Hair Pipes in Plains Indian Adornment: A Study in Indian and White Ingenuity by John C. Ewers.

 (See also the List of Publications of the Bureau of American Ethnology with with index to authors and titles.)

 Also available is

The Horse in the Blackfoot Indian Culture, Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin, vol. 159.

This series is also available in

Gallica, bibliothèque numérique de la Bibliothèque nationale de France

. Do a search (recherche) for the title (Mots du titre) bureau of american ethnology.

From your results, select

Annual report of the Bureau of American ethnology: to the Secretary of the Smithsonian institution (Voir la liste des fascicules).

This will bring up a list of all the titles they own, from 1881 (N 01 / 1879-1880) to 1933 (N 048 / 1930-1931).

There are over 13,000 Glass Negatives of Indians, collected by the Bureau of American Ethnology from the 1850s-1930s in the National Anthropological Archives.

You can browse images in the

drawings, sketches and paintings from National Anthropological Archives

 or search the Archival, Manuscript and Photograph Collections Catalog in SIRIS, the research information system of the Smithsonian.

Bureau of Catholic Indian Missions

– Marquette University

Bureau of Indian Affairs

– U.S. Department of the InteriorBureau of Indian EducationIndian Arts and Crafts Board (IACB)Press ReleasesTribal Leaders   

 DirectoryLibrary:

 Subject Guides to the Internet – 

 Native AmericansFederally Recognized Tribes

C-SPAN Digital Library

 – You can use search, advanced searchor search by tag.

Oregon Indians

– “Stephen Beckham

talked about the book he edited Oregon Indians: Voices from Two Centuries.” 9/3/2009 [6:00]

Native America, Discovered and Conquered

Robert J. Miller, Professor, Lewis and Clark College Law School,

“I Am a Man”

The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian– “Sherman Alexie

 talked about his young adult novel The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, published by Little, Brown Young Readers.

 It is a semi-autobiographical chronicle of growing up on a Washington State Indian reservation and transfering from the reservation school to the rich, white school. 

In a frequently humorous presentation he talked about his life and the differences from the book.” 

Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site

 – Located near Collinsville, Illinois,  

the historic site holds the archaeological remnants of a sophisticated prehistoric civilization inhabited by the Mississippians from about A.D. 700 to 1400. 

A UNESCO World Heritage Site: “Cahokia Mounds, some 13 km north-east of St Louis, Missouri, is the largest pre-Columbian settlement north of Mexico. 

 It was occupied primarily during the Mississippian period (800–1400), when it covered nearly 1,600 ha and included some 120 mounds.  

It is a striking example of a complex chiefdom society, with many satellite mound centres and numerous outlying hamlets and villages. 

This agricultural society may have had a population of 10–20,000 at its peak between 1050 and 1150. 

 Primary features at the site include Monks Mound, the largest prehistoric earthwork in the Americas, covering over 5 ha and standing 30 m high.” 

See also Cahokia and Surrounding Mound Groupsby D. I. Bushnell, Jr., Papers of the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, Vol. III, No. 1, May, 1904, pp. 1-84.

CBC Archives– Canadian Broadcasting Corporation archived interviews include:

Rethinking RielРM̩tis leader Louis RielGeorges Erasmus:

 Native Rights Crusader

The Life and Legend of Bill Reid

 Haida artistPhil Fontaine: Native Diplomat and DealmakerEeyou Istchee: 

 Land of the Cree 

An Inuit Education: 

Honouring a Past, Creating a Future 

James Bay Project 

and 

the CreeThe Oka Crisis 

The Battle for Aboriginal Treaty Rights 

Creation of Nunavut   

Mercury Rising: The Poisoning of Grassy NarrowsA Lost Heritage: Canada’s Residential SchoolsLacrosse: A History of Canada’s GameDavis Inlet: Innu community in crisisLosing native languagesMétamorphose de l’Indien

California Heritage Digital Image Access Project

 – Online archive of over 28,000 images illustrating California’s history and culture consisting of photographs, pictures, and manuscripts from the collections of the Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley. You can Browse the Collection

(Select “container listing” to access the images.) For example, 

the Merriam Collection of Native American Photographs, ca. 1890-1938, 

contains 1,447 digitized photographs of members of Californian tribes.

 See also  

California Cultures: Native Americans. 

California Digital Library

Camping with the Sioux: Fieldwork diary of Alice Cunningham Fletcher – National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution. 

Includes Folktales and a Photo Gallery.Canada’s Digital Collections – Rich resource for information on Canada’s First Peoples.Canada’s Native Peoples – Volume II in the Canada Heirloom Series of Canada’s Digital Collection.

Canadian Broadcasting Corporation: News – Offers coverage of First Nations issues.  

INDEPTH: 

Aboriginal Canadians: 

From the Gift of the Iroquois to the Creation of Nunavut, by Martin O’Malley, July 2000

 and  

After the Salmon Run:  

The Road to Nowhere by Peter McCluskey 

which offers video reports, archived stories and links. 

Canadian Encyclopedia Online– Full-text, multimedia encylopedia.  

The subject index shows

 38 pages of entries for Native People.

 (Provided by Historica, a foundation whose mandate is to provide Canadians with a deeper understanding of their history.)   

Canadian Museum of Civilization – Toronto. 

Site provides a variety of information on indigenous cultures, archaeology, folk art and Canadian history.   

Virtual Collection Storage provides images of items on the museum,    

 including some very handsome mittens and belts in the Ethnology Collection.   

Also provided is a collection of links to 

 Online Resources for Canadian Heritage  

which has Ethnology and Archaeologysections. 

Canadian Medical Association – 

The site is searchable and provides tables of contents and selected articles from a number of its publications.  

A search for Cree,

 for example,

 retrieves 46 results, most of them abstracts of articles from the Canadian Medical Association Journal. 

Carlisle Indian Industrial School

 Barbara Landis and Genevieve Bell.  

(See also Carlisle Studentsadapted from Charles Maclay’s index of “The Indian Industrial School” by Linda Witmer.)   

Carnegie Institution for Science– Washington, D.C.  

Casas Grandes and the Ceramic Art of the Ancient Southwest – 

Published by the Art Institute of Chicago in association with Yale University Press for the exhibition at the Art Institue of Chicago from April 22 to August 13, 2006.  

This is a beautiful book with 141 color photographs of pre-Columbian pottery, primarily from private collections. It’s $28.35 at Amazon.com (the list price is $45.00).  

See UNESCO’s World Heritage List –

 Archeological Zone of Paquimé, Casas Grandes. 

Catholic Encyclopedia

 With over 11,602 articles, this encyclopedia is a good resource for researching 

the Jesuit presence in North America. 

For example there are articles on Catholic Indian Missions of the United States, Santa Fe (New Mexico),

 Huron, Sioux, Chippewa, Algonquins and Iroquois.   

Center for Agricultural Bioinformatics: Botanical Databases –   

The Medicinal Plants of North America Database (MPNADB)

is “based on a two-volume book of the same name published in 1986 by the Museum of Anthropology of the University of Michigan. 

The database – which contains 17,634 items representing the medicinal uses of 2,147 species from 760 genera and 142 families by 123 different native American groups – 

was built over a period of about 10 years with support from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the National Science Foundation, and the University of Michigan-Dearborn.”

 The Food Plant Database,

 based on Food Plants of the North American Indians by Elias Yanovsky, c1936, reviewed approximately 80 years of literature, back to around 1850, listing 1,112 species in 444 genera of plants among 120 families, used for food by the North American Indians.

Center for Southwest Research

 – University of New Mexico.

 Part of the larger Online Archive of New Mexico.

Among their collections are

 the Robert E. Robideau American Indian Movement Papers, 1975-1994

and 

the Kay Cole Papers.

Center For World Indigenous Studies

 – Their Fourth World Documentation Project

is “an online library of texts which record and preserve our peoples’ struggles to regain their rightful place in the international community.”

A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation:

U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1873

 – “Consists of a linked set of published congressional records of the United States of America from the Continental Congress through the 43rd Congress, 1774-1875.

 Congressional bills and resolutions for selected sessions beginning with the 6th Congress (1799) in the House of Representatives and the 16th Congress (1819) in the Senate. 

A select number of documents and reports from the monumental U.S. Congressional Serial Set are available as well. 

This online collection houses the records of the U.S. Congress up to 1875, which includes 

the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, published by the Government Printing Office. 

To access the contemporary Congressional Record go to

 THOMAS, the Library of Congress’s legislative information Web site.”

It includes:

Journals of the Continental Congress (1774-89)Letters of Delegates to Congress (1774-89)Farrand’s Records:    

Records of the Federal Convention of 1787Elliot’s Debates: Debates in the Several State Conventions on the Adoption of the Federal Constitution (1787-88)   

Journals of the House of Representatives (1789-1875) and the Senate (1789-1875), 

Maclay’s Journal: Journal of William Maclay, United States Senator from Pennsylvania, 1789-1791The Annals of Congress 

 – Formally known as The Debates and Proceedings in the Congress of the United States, the Amma;   

s “cover the 1st Congress through the first session of the 18th Congress, from 1789 to 1824. 

The Annals were not published contemporaneously, but were compiled between 1834 and 1856, using the best records available, primarily newspaper accounts.  

Speeches are paraphrased rather than presented verbatim, but the record of debate is nonetheless fuller than that available from the House and Senate Journals. 

 The Annals were immediately succeeded by the Register of Debates, and subsequently by the Congressional Globe and Congressional Record.”Register of Debates (1824-37)

 – Consists of 14 volumesCongressional Globe (1833-73)Congressional Record (1873-75)House JournalSenate Journal

– “The Journal should be seen as the minutes of floor action. 

It notes the matters considered by the Senate and the votes and other actions taken. 

It does not record the actual debates, which can be consulted through the “Link to date-related documents” in the full text transcription of the Journal.”

Senate Executive Journal (1789-1875)

– “Record of its executive proceedings that relate to its functions of confirming presidential nominees and consenting to the making of treaties. 

The Senate Executive Journal was not made public until 1828, when the Senate decided to print and publish the proceedings for all the previous Congresses and thereafter to publish the journal for each session at its close.”

Bills and ResolutionsStatutes at Large (1789-1875)

– “The eighteen volumes presented in this online collection cover the laws of the first forty-three Congresses, 1789-1875.”

American State Papers (1789-1838)

– “Thirty-eight physical volumes, contain the legislative and executive documents of Congress during the period 1789 to 1838.”

U.S. Serial Set

 – “Began publication with the 15th Congress, 1st Session (1817). 

Documents before 1817 may be found in the

American State Papers (1789-1838)

.” Of particular interest is

Indian Land Cessions in the United States, 1784-1894

compiled by Charles C. Royce.

(U.S. Serial Set Number 4015

contains the second part of the two-part Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-97 by J.W. Powell, Director.) 

The report is browsable by 

Tribe, State/Territory and Date

 and 

includes treaties and 67 maps. 

You can search the entire site or browse individual titles. 

The 23rd Congress, 1833-1835

 has Correspondence on the emigration of Indians, 1831-33. 

Use the find option (Indian) to locate material on Indian issues in the 

Register of Debates Browse List

. Another important resource is 

The Fall 2000 issue has several articles on Diabetes.Code of Federal Regulations

 – National Archives and Records Administration. Title 25 deals with Indian issues.

Other related titles include Native American Housing (Title 24, Part 1000), Indian Health (Title 42, Part 36), and Requirements for surface coal mining and reclamation operations on Indian Lands (Title 30, Part 75).

You can also browse and search your choice of CFR titles and/or volumes

; Title 25: Indians is available

from 1997.CodeTalk

– Federal interagency information network managed by native Americans at HUD’s Office of Native American Programs.

The end @ copyright 2012

After look this collections, you better to look the history of American Indian tribe below

 

the end @ copyright 2012

 

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