KOLEKSI SEJARAH PENDUDUKAN DAI NIPPON DI FILIPINA

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THE DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION PHILLIPINE HISTORY COLLECTIONS

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The Dai Nippon  Occupation Phillipine

History Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHAS

Limited E-BOOK in CD_ROM edition

Special for specialist collectors

Copyright@ 2012

Desember, 13th.1941

Filipina:

Operasi terkonsentrasi di sekitar kepulauan Filipina. Aktivitas angkatan laut Intens ditunjukkan oleh Amerika di selat antara Taiwan dan Luzon. Konvoi Jepang membawa pasukan dan peralatan. Setengah lusin kapal selam Amerika mencoba untuk mencegat tanpa keberhasilan.

Masing-masing konvoi proporsi tinggi pendamping. Meskipun deteksi dasar dari Jepang tidak bisa efektif submersible Grenader kehadiran pendamping yang cukup untuk menghindari torpedo yang penting untuk saat ini.

Mendarat dengan selamat di Aparri markas besar Angkatan Darat ke-14, yang memiliki operasi langsung dan markas dari Armada Udara 11. Brigade ke-65 sedang mempersiapkan untuk melanjutkan Tuguegarao diambil tanpa garda depan melawan.
Divisi ke-21 tiba dari China saat mendarat dan dua resimen tank. Sepuluh unit rekayasa bekerja keras untuk memperluas lereng Aparri lapangan terbang.
Kemampuan hanya pergi ke 3. Dengan markas Armada 11 4 skuadron Zero dari Formosa dapat diinstal di Aparri dengan jaminan layanan yang tepat dari perawatan pesawat. Membawa ini skuadron daripada harus menggunakan tank drop yang membatasi manuver mereka dan mengurangi kelelahan percontohan. Tugas mereka adalah untuk menghilangkan lima puluh pejuang Sekutu masih di Manila.

Sebuah operasi pengalihan sedang berlangsung di selatan Luzon dengan mengambil Legaspi dan naik ke utara dari kekuatan kecil yang terdiri dari dua resimen infanteri dan batalyon elit. Jepang berharap bahwa kekuatan muka untuk membagi menjadi dua kekuatan untuk bertahan sekitar Manila.
Sebuah operasi pendaratan yang direncanakan di pulau Mindanao pada 14 Desember dengan dua konvoi. Operasi akan ditutupi oleh skuadron tempur disertai tiga pramuka cruiser Chiyoda dan skuadron ringan dengan tujuh kapal perusak dan kapal penjelajah ringan. (121)

Desember, 14th.1941

Selatan pantai Filipina:
Orang Jepang disita tanpa perlawanan Naga dan terus muka mereka kembali ke Manila. (121)

Desember, 17th.1941
Orang Jepang telah bekerja keras untuk memperluas basis Aparri dan Tugueragao Filipina utara.

Mulai 17 Desember

 Zero dan Sallys pembom dapat mempersingkat perjalanan mereka untuk memulai serangan mereka di Manila.
18/12, membawa skuadron mereka di tempat kerja beristirahat dan ofensif udara di Manila lagi.

Gelombang 1 dari Zero kehilangan perangkat, tapi dua warna P40. Gelombang 2 kehilangan Zero dan membunuh P40 a. Gelombang ke-3 adalah kesalahan dan menghancurkan 2 P40 tanpa kehilangan apapun.

Gelombang berikutnya dari pembom menghancurkan terdiri pangkalan udara di Manila menghancurkan trek, fasilitas dan persediaan bensin

Desember, 20th.1941

Di pagi hari tempat pesawat amfibi konvoi yang mungkin untuk membongkar tentara dievakuasi dari Filipina ke Makassar

Gagal berburu di Filipina:

Skuadron kapal penjelajah cahaya ditempatkan di Filipina sekali lagi mencoba untuk membasmi bintang meluncurkan torpedo menimbulkan ancaman terus pasukan pendaratan. Sekali lagi pertempuran yang berlangsung off dari Iba sampai 1000 meter jauhnya. Meskipun keunggulan yang luar biasa dari Jepang CI mereka yang tidak mampu untuk menempatkan shell tunggal. PT-32 menjatuhkan torpedo pada CL Tama yang baru saja terhindar. Untuk ledakan dari PT kirim, Jepang 3 bukan dari kaliber yang sama, itu benar. Pertempuran berakhir dengan tanpa kehilangan kedua belah pihak.
(Pertempuran dengan PT telah berubah di alam AE dalam arti lebih realistis)
Di daerah yang sama USS Salmon longgar empat torpedo pada kapal perusak tapi Nokaze kurangnya. Para perusak Jepang, namun model terbaru, tidak dapat menemukan kapal selam.
(The AE Submarines sangat sulit mengusir, tapi sebagai imbalannya mereka tidak efektif dengan adanya pengawalan yang sesuai)

(121)

 

Desember, 20th.1941

pagi hari 20/12.

Penggerebekan di Manila dilanjutkan dengan penghancuran dua pesawat tempur Sekutu.
Ucapan Terima Kasih menunjukkan bahwa Sekutu terkonsentrasi di Manila 51 unit meninggalkan sisa pulau.
(121)

Desember, 21th.1941

Penggerebekan di Manila

Pada pagi hari Manila, 3 upaya Warhawk untuk menghadapi Zero muncul di pangkalan. Terjun 29.000 kaki, Amerika mencoba untuk mengejutkan Zero Jepang tetapi menghindar. Salah satunya ditemukan di belakang buta dan P40B. Orang lain menyerah. Kemudian ikuti sepanjang hari serangkaian serangan untuk menghancurkan pangkalan udara berhasil. Namun Filipina buruh
Malaysia serangan Sally Lilly dan terkejut kereta api sarat dengan tentara bepergian di Singapura. 284 korban Brigade India 6 dan resimen artileri 155, sebagian besar terdengar terluka, tersebar di sepanjang mobil terbakar. (121)
Di 22d, Desember 1941

 

Let.Gen.Brett, yang baru saja menerima perintah untuk pergi ke Australia dan mengambil komando pasukan Angkatan Darat AS di sana, tiba dengan Wavell dan percakapan dengan Cina mulai dengan sungguh-sungguh. Petunjuk Brett dari Washington untuk bergabung dengan orang lain dalam mencari cara untuk mengambil keuntungan dari “ekstensi over-saat ini” Jepang – tesis MacArthur – dan untuk meyakinkan Cina bahwa Amerika Serikat tidak meninggalkan Filipina atau mitranya di Asia.

 Setelah diskusi yang cukup, rencana yang menempatkan kontrol di Washington dan menyerukan hanya beroperasi secara terbatas di Asia telah berkembang dengan delegasi dan dikirim ke Washington.

Generalissimo pikir itu tidak memuaskan dan dikirim sendiri. Baik berisi saran konkret pada perintah atau logistik, dua masalah yang akan wabah Sekutu di China selama tiga tahun ke depan. Konferensi berakhir pada 23d, setelah diproduksi, salah satu perencana menulis, “sangat sedikit di jalan hasil nyata.”

18-20 Desember th 1.942

The Singapore Konferensi (18-20 Desember),

 meskipun tidak menghasilkan rencana untuk menghentikan drive Jepang, lebih berbuah, karena dari itu datang usulan konkret pertama untuk

 

perintah Sekutu di Pasifik Barat Daya.

 

 Petunjuk Kolonel Brink ini adalah untuk menyampaikan pandangan MacArthur pada strategi Timur Jauh, yang diringkas Jenderal Marshall baginya sebagai berikut:

Amerika, Australia, dan Belanda udara dan angkatan laut harus bekerja sama untuk menjaga jalur komunikasi terbuka dari Australia ke Filipina.

 Pertahanan berhasil Filipina dianggap penting untuk pemeliharaan struktur Sekutu defensif di Pasifik Barat.

Rencana untuk penguatan Filipina langsung pasti tergantung untuk sukses pada pembentukan lalu lintas udara antara Filipina dan basis selatan. Setiap upaya harus dilakukan untuk membantu pasokan udara dengan pembentukan kembali komunikasi laut terbatas antara Australia dan Filipina.

Pandangan-pandangan ini, Marshall menambahkan “umumnya sepakat dalam oleh Presiden.” Pada saat yang sama ia memberitahu MacArthur dari pertemuan mendatang dan instruksi kepada delegasi Amerika, menambahkan anggapan bahwa ia berhubungan langsung dengan mereka 7 “jika praktis dari sudut pandang kerahasiaan.”

Dengan petunjuk ini dan dengan pernyataan tambahan dari MacArthur dan Hart, dikemas dalam bahasa MacArthurian, bahwa “wilayah Timur Jauh sekarang lokus dominan perang,

“Brink Kolonel disampaikan kepada peserta konferensi Singapura 1.941

 pandangan Amerika tentang pentingnya Filipina dan kebutuhan untuk tetap membuka jalur komunikasi. Tapi lihat Inggris pentingnya Singapura didominasi.

Laporan dari konferensi itu, oleh karena itu, sementara itu meminta balabantuan besar untuk Pasifik Barat Daya dan mengadopsi semua saran MacArthur untuk perlindungan dari jalur udara dan laut antara Malaya dan Filipina, memberi tempat kedua pertahanan Filipina.

Jepang menaklukkan Singapura, konferensi itu berpikir, akan menjadi bencana dari urutan pertama. Tidak hanya akan memastikan hilangnya Hindia Belanda dengan sumber daya yang besar dalam minyak dan karet, tetapi juga akan menempatkan musuh dalam posisi untuk mengisolasi Australia dan Selandia Baru dan untuk memisahkan armada Inggris dan Amerika di Timur Jauh.

Pentingnya Filipina terbatas, dalam laporan Konferensi Singapura, penggunaannya 8 “sebagai dasar maju dan mengapit aksi serangan terhadap jalur komunikasi Jepang.”

Hasil yang paling penting dari pertemuan Singapura adalah proposal yang dibuat oleh Brink untuk perintah terpadu.

Konferensi, katanya kepada Kepala Staf, “mahal mengindikasikan perlunya satu kepala tertinggi atas staf gabungan sekutu” untuk mengkoordinasikan upaya, pasukan Amerika Inggris, Australia, dan Belanda di daerah dan membuat rencana untuk masa depan. The “pendapat tidak resmi” dari konferensi itu, ia menambahkan, menunjukkan bahwa penunjukan familiar Amerika dengan wilayah Pasifik untuk posting ini “tidak hanya akan diterima tetapi diinginkan.”

 Jika seperti janji dibuat dan kantor pusat yang didirikan, Brink menyarankan bahwa itu terletak di Jawa. Tapi dia tidak gagal untuk menunjukkan bahwa mayoritas delegasi percaya basis utama operasi Sekutu di Pasifik Barat Daya harus di Australia, dengan basis di muka Indies.9

Saran Brink ini dengan cepat dijemput di Washington. Dalam Divisi Perang Angkatan Darat Rencana, di mana ia pergi pertama untuk komentar, gagasan perintah terpadu di Timur Jauh digambarkan sebagai “penting mutlak bagi keberhasilan penuntutan upaya perang di teater ini,” dan masalah yang seharusnya didiskusikan dengan Inggris. Aksi di divisi berakhir dengan catatan, “Hal ini sedang dipertimbangkan oleh Kepala Staf Telah dibahas di Gedung Putih..” 10

Desember, 22th.1941

Di pagi hari serangan udara terus di Manila.

Amerika masih menyelaraskan Warkawks 5. 2 dihancurkan terhadap suatu Nol. Kemudian lulus pembom ditumbuk dasar. Lubang pertama dari hari di lereng tidak bisa benar-benar disegel kembali. (121)

Pada saat laporan dari Konferensi Singapura dan Chungking mencapai Departemen Perang, Churchill dan Kepala Stafnya telah tiba di Washington untuk pertama konferensi perang banyak yang menandai aliansi militer yang paling sukses dalam sejarah peperangan.

Pertemuan ini, yang berlangsung dari 22 Desember 1941-14 Januari 1942 dan dikenal dengan nama kode ARCADIA,

 dalam banyak hal yang paling penting dari konferensi yang diselenggarakan selama perang. Ini mendirikan sebuah organisasi untuk melakukan perang koalisi yang selamat semua ketegangan dan tekanan dari kepentingan nasional bertentangan, menegaskan kembali keputusan dasar untuk membuat upaya besar di Eropa pada saat rakyat Amerika belum pulih dari shock Pearl Harbor dan ketika bencana mengancam di Pasifik dan Asia, mendirikan perintah Sekutu pertama perang, dan meletakkan program yang luas untuk masa depan serta rencana untuk segera action.11

Perbedaan antara pandangan Inggris dan Amerika, yang telah jelas jelas pada pertemuan ABC awal tahun 1941, lagi-lagi terlihat pada konferensi ARCADIA. Orang-orang Amerika percaya bahwa kepentingan nasional terbaik mereka akan dilayani dan keamanan Amerika Serikat yang terbaik dijamin oleh kekalahan awal Jerman dan Jepang. Tujuan ini mereka menempatkan di depan semua orang lain dan membuat tolok ukur untuk setiap masalah di hadapan mereka. Inggris, juga meminta kekalahan awal musuh, tetapi mereka berbeda dengan orang Amerika tentang cara untuk melakukannya. Selanjutnya, kepentingan nasional mereka mencakup keamanan dan masa depan dari sebuah kekaisaran yang berjauhan dengan garis panjang komunikasi.

Tugas mereka adalah lebih kompleks dibandingkan dengan Amerika dan jalan mereka untuk kemenangan yang lebih berbelit-belit. Bagi mereka, Timur Tengah, Singapura, Malaya, Australia, India – semua mengadakan pentingnya Amerika tidak bisa memberikan alasan yang murni militer. Inggris mendesak keras agar alokasi sumber daya Sekutu untuk membela posisi ini, tidak hanya di ARCADIA tetapi pada konferensi yang diikuti, sementara Amerika mendorong mindedly tunggal bagi operasi yang akan membawa kekalahan musuh. Tapi tekad untuk setuju dan niat baik pada kedua belah pihak mengatasi semua perbedaan.

Tentang satu hal, tujuan utama dari strategi Sekutu, ada ketidaksepakatan ada. Para pelaku berlangganan pernyataan dasar tujuan perang yang berfungsi sebagai tujuan strategis untuk tahun 1942 dan dasar pembagian sumber daya dari kedua negara. “Banyak hal telah terjadi sejak Februari lalu,” kata konferensi itu, “tetapi meskipun masuknya Jepang ke Perang, pandangan kami tetap bahwa Jerman masih merupakan musuh utama dan kekalahan adalah kunci kemenangan..

Setelah Jerman dikalahkan runtuhnya Italia dan kekalahan Jepang harus mengikuti. “12 Disepakati Oleh karena itu, sebagai” prinsip kardinal “dari Amerika dan strategi Inggris,” bahwa hanya minimum kekuatan yang diperlukan untuk melindungi kepentingan vital dalam teater lain harus dialihkan dari operasi melawan Jerman. “

Dalam hal situasi yang ada, ini “prinsip kardinal” berarti bahwa produksi persenjataan harus ditingkatkan, bahwa posisi penting harus dipertahankan, bahwa jalur komunikasi yang vital harus diadakan, dan bahwa, dengan kombinasi pemboman, blokade propaganda, dan, perlawanan Jerman harus dikurangi sehingga Sekutu bisa mendarat di Benua tahun 1943.

Tapi prinsip kekuatan minimal di Pasifik adalah salah satu yang dapat ditafsirkan dengan berbagai cara dan biasanya adalah, tergantung pada situasi. Selalu ada orang-orang yang dapat membenarkan pasukan tambahan untuk Pasifik atas dasar bahwa mereka diminta untuk menjaga kepentingan vital di sana. Ini adalah posisi Angkatan Laut, dengan kuat berpendapat dan konsisten oleh Laksamana Raja.

Di Timur Jauh dan Pasifik, Amerika dan Inggris Kepala Staf setuju, maka akan diperlukan untuk menjaga keamanan Australia, Selandia Baru, dan India, untuk mendukung Cina, dan untuk mendapatkan “poin dari pandang” dari mana serangan melawan Jepang bisa “akhirnya dikembangkan.”

Ini adalah tujuan jangka panjang, yang “objek langsung” adalah untuk menahan Hawaii, Alaska, Singapura, Barrier Melayu, Filipina, Rangoon, dan rute ke China.

Sebagai pernyataan umum strategi, tujuan yang digariskan oleh AS dan Inggris Kepala Staf memiliki sedikit relevansi dengan darurat di Timur Jauh di mana Jepang maju dengan cepat di depan setiap.

 Apa yang dibutuhkan adalah kesepakatan tentang pembagian sumber daya dari kedua negara untuk daerah itu, dan, khususnya, jumlah yang akan diberikan setiap posisi penting masih di tangan Sekutu namun dipertahankan oleh berbagai kekuatan nasional dan komandan independen.

 

Kedua belah pihak tampaknya enggan untuk masuk ke dalam diskusi rinci tentang hal ini, tetapi mereka sepakat bahwa perencana harus mempelajari pertanyaan tentang disposisi pasukan dalam dan dalam perjalanan ke Pasifik Barat Daya.

Penelitian ini, Kepala ditetapkan, harus didasarkan pada tiga asumsi alternatif, pertama, bahwa Sekutu akan memegang kedua Filipina dan Singapura, kedua, bahwa mereka akan terus Singapura dan Hindia Belanda, tapi kehilangan Filipina, dan ketiga, bahwa mereka akan kehilangan Singapura dan Filipina.

Para perencana pergi untuk bekerja pada masalah segera dan cepat menghasilkan laporan Kepala disetujui pada hari terakhir tahun ini. Menyadari bahwa kekuatan itu di daerah tidak bisa memegang posisi yang ditentukan dan bahwa bala bantuan segera harus diberikan, para perencana dibingkai pernyataan berikut dari tujuan Sekutu:

1. Pegang Barrier Melayu, yaitu Semenanjung Malaysia, Sumatera, Jawa, dan pulau-pulau yang membentang ke arah timur ke barat laut Australia, “sebagai posisi defensif dasar”; “. Sebagai posisi pendukung penting” dan Burma dan Australia
2. Membangun kembali komunikasi dengan Filipina dan mendukung garnisun di sana, sementara menjaga komunikasi ke Burma dan Australia dan di wilayah Timur Jauh.
 

Ditambahkan ke laporan adalah daftar pasukan sudah di teater dan dijadwalkan tiba dengan 1 Februari

1941

December,13th.1941

Philippines:

Operations are concentrated around the Philippine archipelago. Intense naval activity is indicated by the Americans in the straits between Taiwan and Luzon. Japanese convoys carry troops and equipment. Half a dozen American submarine attempting to intercept without success.

Each convoy includes a high proportion of escorts. Although rudimentary detection of Japanese can not effectively submersible Grenader the presence of sufficient escorts to avoid torpedo which is essential for the moment.

Landed safely at Aparri the headquarters of the 14th Army, which has direct operations and the headquarters of the 11th Air Fleet. The 65th Brigade is preparing to move on Tuguegarao taken without a fight vanguard.
The 21st Division arriving from China during landing and two tank regiments. Ten engineering units are working hard to expand the slopes of Aparri airfield.
Ability just go to 3. With the headquarters of the 11th Fleet 4 squadrons of Zeros from Formosa can be installed in Aparri with the assurance of proper service of aircraft maintenance. Bringing these squadrons rather than having to use drop tanks that limit their maneuverability and reduce pilot fatigue. Their task is to eliminate fifty Allied fighters still in Manila.

A diversion operation is underway in southern Luzon with taking Legaspi and rise to the north of a small force consisting of two regiments of infantry and a battalion of elite. Japanese hope that this advance force to split into two forces to defend the vicinity of Manila.
A landing operation is planned on the island of Mindanao on December 14 with two convoys. The operation will be covered by a squadron of three battleships accompanied scout cruiser Chiyoda and a light squadron with seven destroyers and a light cruiser.(121)

December,14th.1941

Southern coast of the Philippines:
The Japanese seized without a fight Naga and continue their advance back to Manila.
(121)

December,17th.1941
The Japanese have worked hard to expand the bases of Aparri and Tugueragao the northern Philippines.

Beginning December 17

 the Zeros and bombers Sallys can shorten their journey to launch their attack on Manila.
18/12, brought their squadrons at work rested and air offensive on Manila again.

The 1st wave of Zeros loses a device, but two shades P40. The 2nd wave loses Zero and kills a P40. The 3rd wave is the fault and destroyed 2 P40 without any loss.

Subsequent waves of bombers devastate composed airbase in Manila destroying tracks, facilities and gasoline inventories

December,20th.1941

In the morning the seaplane spot a convoy being likely to unload troops evacuated from the Philippines to Macassar

Unsuccessful hunting in the Philippines:

The squadron of light cruisers stationed in the Philippines once again trying to eradicate stars launches torpedoes pose a continuing threat to the landing forces. Once again a skirmish takes place off of Iba to 1000 yards away. Despite the overwhelming superiority of Japanese çi those unable to place a single shell. The PT-32 dropped a torpedo on CL Tama who just avoided. For a burst of the Japanese send PT 3, not of the same caliber, it is true. The battle ends with no loss of both sides.
(Fighting with PT have changed in nature to AE in a more realistic sense)
In the same area the USS Salmon loose four torpedoes at the destroyer but the lack Nokaze. The Japanese destroyers, yet a recent model, are unable to locate the submarine.
(The Submarines AE are very difficult to cast, but in return they are ineffective in the presence of suitable escorts)

(121)

 

December,20th.1941

the morning of 20/12.

Raids on Manila continued with the destruction of two Allied fighters.
Acknowledgments indicate that the Allies concentrated in Manila 51 units leaving the rest of the island.
(121)

December,21th.1941

Raids on Manila

On the morning of Manila, 3 Warhawk attempt to confront the Zeros appearing on the base. Plunging 29,000 feet, the Americans tried to surprise the Japanese Zeros but dodge. One of them is found behind a blind and P40B. Others give up. Then follow throughout the day a series of raids to destroy the airbase succeed. But the Filipino laborers
Malaysia raid Sally Lilly and surprised a train loaded with troops traveling on Singapore. 284 victims of the 6th Indian Brigade and the artillery regiment 155, mostly sounded wounded, spread along the cars on fire.(121)
On the 22d,December,1941

 

Let.Gen.Brett, who had just received orders to go to Australia and take command of U.S. Army forces there, arrived with Wavell and the conversations with the Chinese began in earnest. Brett’s instructions from Washington were to join with the others in seeking ways to take advantage of Japan’s “present over-extension” — MacArthur’s thesis — and to reassure the Chinese that the United States was not abandoning the Philippines or its partners in Asia.

 After considerable discussion, a plan that placed control in Washington and called for only limited operations in Asia was evolved by the delegates and sent to Washington.

The Generalissimo thought it unsatisfactory and sent his own. Neither contained any concrete suggestions on command or logistics, two problems that would plague the Allies in China for the next three years. The conference ended on the 23d, having produced, one of the planners wrote, “very little in the way of concrete results.”

December 18-20 th 1942

The Singapore Conference (18-20 December),

 though it produced no plan to halt the Japanese drive, was more fruitful, for from it came the first concrete proposal for

 

an Allied command in the Southwest Pacific.

 

 Colonel Brink’s instructions were to present MacArthur’s views on Far East strategy, which General Marshall summarized for him as follows:

American, Australian, and Dutch air and naval forces should cooperate to keep open line of communications from Australia to Philippines.

 Successful defense of Philippines considered essential to maintenance of Allied defensive structure in the Western Pacific.

Plans for immediate Philippine reinforcement definitely dependent for success upon establishment of air traffic between Philippines and bases south. Every effort should be made to supplement air supply by re-establishment of limited sea communications between Australia and Philippines.

These views, Marshall added “are generally concurred in by the President.” At the same time he informed MacArthur of the forthcoming meetings and of his instructions to the American delegates, adding the suggestion that he correspond directly with them “if practicable from the viewpoint of secrecy.”7

With these instructions and with the additional statement from MacArthur and Hart, couched in MacArthurian language, that “the Far East area is now the dominant locus of the war,

” Colonel Brink presented to the Singapore conferees 1941

 the American view of the importance of the Philippines and the necessity for keeping open the lines of communication. But the British view of the importance of Singapore predominated.

The report of the conferees, therefore, while it called for large reinforcements to the Southwest Pacific and adopted all of MacArthur’s suggestions for the protection of the air and sea lanes between Malaya and the Philippines, gave second place to the defense of the Philippines.

Japanese conquest of Singapore, the conferees thought, would be a disaster of the first order. Not only would it make certain the loss of the Netherlands Indies with is vast resources in oil and rubber, but it would also place the enemy in position to isolate Australia and New Zealand and to separate the British and American fleets in the Far East.

The importance of the Philippines was limited, in the report of the Singapore Conference, to its use “as an advanced and flanking base for offensive action against Japanese lines of communication.”8

The most important result of the Singapore meeting was the proposal made by Brink for a unified command.

The conference, he told the Chief of Staff, “dearly indicated the need for one supreme head over a combined allied staff” to co-ordinate the efforts of the American, British, Australian, and Dutch forces in the area and to make plans for the future. The “unofficial opinions” of the conferees, he added, indicated that the appointment of an American familiar with the Pacific area to this post “would not only be acceptable but desirable.”

 If such an appointment were made and a headquarters established, Brink suggested that it be located in Java. But he did not fail to point out that the majority of the delegates believed the major base of Allied operations in the Southwest Pacific should be in Australia, with an advance base in the Indies.9

Brink’s suggestion was quickly picked up in Washington. In the Army War Plans Division, where it went first for comment, the idea of a unified command in the Far East was described as “an absolute essential for the successful prosecution of the war effort in this theater,” and a matter that ought to be discussed with the British. Action in the division ended with the note, “This matter is being considered by the Chief of Staff. It has been discussed at the White House.”10

Indonesian Version

Desember, 25th.1941

Invasi Luzon memulai hari yang sama. Dalam kedua Malaya dan Filipina, tangguh Jepang, tentara terlatih luar biasa cepat mengatasi maju pertahanan dan menyapu selatan menuju Singapura dan Manila. Hong Kong menyerah pada Hari Natal.

(121).

 

 

Pada tanggal 25 Desember,

 Markas, Amerika Serikat Pasukan di Timur Jauh, didirikan pada Corregidor. Manila ditetapkan sebagai kota terbuka pada hari berikutnya dan sisa-sisa dari pangkalan angkatan laut di Cavite diledakkan untuk mencegah pasokan dari jatuh ke tangan musuh.

 

 

TANK HAMBATAN DAN KAWAT berduri halus untuk menunda muka musuh di Bataan (atas), anggota perusahaan antitank di posisi di Bataan (bawah).

Sebagai canggih Jepang,

kekuatan membela diri menuju Semenanjung Bataan. The medan kasar, panggul dilindungi, dan ruang manuver terbatas pada Bataan terbatas kemampuan musuh untuk mempekerjakan sejumlah besar pasukan. Persiapan untuk pertahanan semenanjung diintensifkan dan stok persediaan meningkat.

 

pada 22 Desember 1941

Jenderal Homma menempatkan sebagian besar Angkatan Darat ke-14 di darat Lingayen Teluk, utara Manila.

 

japamese perwira militer Letnan Jenderal Kyoji Tominaga berjabat tangan dengan perampok dari Kaoru Khusus Serangan Korps sebelum meninggalkan misi terhadap strip arahan USAAF pada Leyte (Oktober 1944)

 

Letnan Jenderal Kyoji Tominaga memberikan anggur demi untuk prajurit dari Kaoru Khusus Serangan Korps sebelum meninggalkan misi terhadap strip arahan USAAF pada Leyte (Oktober 1944)

Sisanya mendarat dua hari kemudian di Lamon Bay, selatan ibukota, untuk membentuk lengan selatan gerakan menjepit raksasa berkumpul di Manila.

 Tapi Homma cepat menemukan ia berurusan dengan musuh ditentukan dan mampu.

MacArthur tidak, karena Homma dan Imperial Markas Umum diharapkan, tetap berkelahi habis-habisan di dataran tengah Luzon.

 Sebaliknya ia diberlakukan rencana lama JERUK dan menarik pasukannya ke Semenanjung Bataan dalam gerakan terampil dan berbahaya retrograde ganda, dibuat dalam dua minggu dalam keadaan yang paling sulit dan tekanan konstan.

Pada saat yang sama ia menyatakan Manila kota terbuka dan ditransfer ke markas Corregidor. Dengan demikian, ketika Homma

Desember, 26th.1941

Pada 26 Desember

penangkapan Jepang Cotabato selatan Manila, Setelah dasar ditempati oleh jenius penerbangan dan pemburu ..

Batalyon 1 dari pasukan RI mengusir 124th di Zamboanga Filipina (121)

Desember, 29th.1941

Filipina:

Pasukan kekaisaran menangkap Batangas, kota terakhir sebelum Manila selatan di mana 51 unit diidentifikasi. Batalyon Sebuah alamat Clark pesawat Lapangan kosong. Lapangan udara besar yang bertempat B17n’est yang dipertahankan oleh unit artileri pesisir menjaga Subic Bay. 48 senjata dan 850 orang ditangkap.
Jelas Rominet MacArthur memutuskan untuk mengunci di Manila dan untuk memperpanjang kursi tanpa perlawanan meninggalkan sisa pulau.
Di Mindanao resimen 103 mencoba untuk mendapatkan kembali Butuan Filipina tapi keras ditolak oleh resimen 1 dari serangan, satuan elit dari para Japanese Army: Filipina kehilangan 460 orang dari 600 yang terlibat dalam operasi (121).

1.942

Januari 1942

Kesalahan dlm tulisan yg diperbaiki:
Dinas intelijen Angkatan Laut mengembalikan urutan pertempuran perang Oklahoma sekutu mereka telah keliru kapal perang yang tenggelam Maryland (121)

 

JEPANG TAHANAN,

ditangkap di Bataan, yang dipimpin ditutup matanya ke markas untuk diinterogasi.

Pada 1 Januari 1942

 Jepang memasuki Manila dan AS, pasukan mundur ke arah Bataan. Perlengkapan militer entah pindah ke Bataan dan Corregidor atau dihancurkan.

Sisa pasukan di Bataan,

termasuk sekitar 15.000 tentara AS, mencapai sekitar 80.000 orang. Masalah pangan, perumahan, dan sanitasi yang sangat meningkat dengan kehadiran lebih dari 20.000 pengungsi sipil. Semua tentara ditempatkan pada setengah-ransum.

 

Manila:

yang tak henti-hentinya pemboman di ibukota Filipina. 2 pesawat hancur setidaknya di lereng. (121)

Januari, 2nd.1942

Pada 2 Januari 1942

 

, Ibukota Filipina Manila diduduki oleh Jepang

Januari, 4th.1942

Filipina:

Sebuah avant-garde dari selatan Luzon pergi terlalu cepat untuk berinvestasi Manila. Ini menembus beberapa jam sebelum kedatangan menjepit utara. Serangan Filipina-Amerika melawan dan menolak selatan Jepang. 4000 Jepang tersingkir di 1500 melawan tentara Sekutu.
Ini topeng bergerak di Manila manuver di semenanjung Bataan bahwa Jepang ingin mengurangi sebelum benar-benar menyerang Manila di mana lebih dari 40 unit sekutu yang tertutup.
Serangan udara tertunda sukses di Manila tapi kuat DCA mengurangi efektivitas mereka. (121)

Januari, 6th.1942

Luzon:

Orang Jepang memimpin operasi berisiko dengan harapan bahwa Amerika menemukan apa yang terjadi terlambat dan hanya bereaksi terhadap waktu.
2 layar pasukan, mungkin terlalu terang, menyembunyikan pasukan sekutu besar terkunci di Manila menjelang brigade ke-65, tiga resimen tank dan resimen artileri di semenanjung Bataan menutup Teluk Manila.
Serangan pertama pembela Bataan menyerah. 14.000 orang itu dibawa tahanan, 340 senjata hancur. Jepang segera berbalik untuk bergabung mengepung Manila.
57.000 sekutu terkunci. Seberang DI 21th dengan resimen lapis baja ke-21, 2 resimen infanteri, resimen empat mortir, 17.000 adalah laki-laki, perisai.
Amerika dengan bantuan besar dari Jepang tidak memulai penyerangan dan hanya bom:. 230 korban, sementara pemboman Jepang tidak efektif (121)

Januari, 9th.1942

Filipina:

berburu sekutu berusaha untuk menantang supremasi Jepang lebih Manila berharap untuk mencegat pembom mereka. Nyaris hilang: 5 Warhawk tempur pada 8 terlibat hancur. Pertempuran berlangsung di ketinggian 31.000 kaki, di mana Warhawks jelas tidak nyaman.
Filipina-Amerika menyadari bahwa mereka memiliki keuntungan numerik ke Manila: 44.000 terhadap
20 000. Mengusir serangan Jepang di pinggiran ibukota sebelum tentara ditarik dari Bataan terjadi. 4400 tentara Hirohito bubar, 800 warga Filipina yang hilang. (121)

Januari, 11th.1942

sebagian besar tentara Amerika di Filipina itu tertahan di Semenanjung Bataan

 

Januari, 20th.1942

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maret 1942

 

WORLD WAR II Bataan KEMATIAN MARET –

“Hal ini tanpa sifat malu-malu sedikit dan sangsi bahwa saya mendekati deskripsi saya fakta-fakta dan peristiwa di Bataan Death Maret. Untuk memberikan gambaran yang akurat dari perbuatan-perbuatan tersebut pasukan Jepang, akan diperlukan bagi saya untuk menggambarkan tindakan yang plum kedalaman yang sangat kejatuhan manusia dan degradasi. Keynote dari seluruh kejahatan ini dapat dicontohkan oleh dua

 

kata-terkatakan horor. Horror telanjang dan telanjang menembus setiap sudut dan sudut kasus ini dari awal sampai akhir, tanpa bantuan atau paliatif. Aku telah mencari, saya telah mencari tekun di antara massa besar bukti untuk menemukan beberapa fitur penebusan, beberapa faktor yang meringankan dalam pelaksanaan orang-orang yang akan mengangkat cerita dari tingkat horor murni dan kebinatangan dan memuliakan uponplane it.at paling tragedi. Saya akui saya telah gagal ‘

Keynote dari seluruh kejahatan ini dapat dicontohkan oleh dua kata yang tak terkatakan-horor. Horror telanjang dan telanjang menembus setiap sudut dan sudut kasus ini dari awal sampai akhir, tanpa bantuan atau paliatif. Aku telah mencari, saya telah mencari tekun di antara massa besar bukti untuk menemukan beberapa fitur penebusan, beberapa faktor yang meringankan dalam pelaksanaan orang-orang yang akan mengangkat cerita dari tingkat

Maret sampai Mati

The Bataan Death March adalah salah satu kejahatan yang paling brutal yang dilakukan oleh Jepang dengan tawanan perang selama Perang Dunia kedua. The Bataan Death march (alias The March of Death Bataan) adalah kejahatan perang yang melibatkan pemindahan paksa terhadap tawanan perang, dengan luas penyalahgunaan dan kematian yang tinggi, oleh pasukan Jepang di Filipina pada tahun 1942. Pawai terjadi setelah Pertempuran tiga bulan Bataan, bagian dari Pertempuran Filipina (1941-42), selama Perang Dunia II. Dalam bahasa Jepang, itu dikenal sebagai BATAN Shi Koshin tidak ada (バターン 死 の 行進, BATAN Shi no Koshin?), Dengan arti yang sama. Ada ribuan orang Filipina dan Amerika tewas dari kebrutalan Jepang selama pawai dan mereka yang selamat menderita kelaparan dan lagi kematian akibat turture.

ukuran

 

 

Kisah Kekejaman oleh Japs pada Narapidana malang dilepaskan oleh AS; Kelaparan disengaja, Penyiksaan, Kematian

courtesy of Bataan Corregidor Memorial Foundation of New Mexico, Inc

WASHINGTON, DC (AP) – Jan. 28, 1944 – Sebuah cerita terpendam dari kekejaman yang dilakukan oleh tentara Jepang pada pahlawan ditangkap dari Bataan dan Corregidor dirilis oleh pemerintah Amerika Serikat saat ini secara rinci memuakkan.

Sebuah laporan bersama oleh Angkatan Darat dan Angkatan Laut pecah akhirnya sensor kaku dikelola oleh komando tinggi pada laporan hampir tidak bisa dipercaya yang keluar dari Pasifik, untuk memberitahu apa yang terjadi pada laki-laki yang keberanian memperlambat gelombang penaklukan Jepang.

Sebuah Kisah Penyiksaan

Disusun dari laporan bebuyutan petugas yang selamat dari kelaparan dan penyiksaan dan melarikan diri, maka katalog tersebut penghujatan dari musuh brutal, dan menulis dalam hal mengejutkan kode prajurit Jepang – untuk subjek 36.000 prajurit gagah kelaparan yang disengaja, untuk menembak dalam dingin darah haus yang mencari air, untuk menonton menggeliat sakit laki-laki dan menolak mereka obat-obatan, untuk cambuk kuda mereka yang membantu rekan-rekan mereka jatuh, mengalahkan pria dengan dua-by-merangkak, untuk memenggal kepala orang-orang yang mencoba melarikan diri, dan mengubur hidup-hidup pria disiksa .

Tiga yang tinggal untuk kembali dan menceritakan penderitaan yang mereka alami adalah Komandan Melvyn H. McCoy, USN, dari Indianapolis, Letnan Kolonel SM Mellnik, Pantai Korps Artileri dari Dunmore, Pa, dan Letnan Kolonel William E. Dyess , Air Corps, dari Albany, Tex Dyess sudah mati-tewas dalam kecelakaan pesawat tempur di Burbank, California, baru-baru sambil mempersiapkan untuk kembali ke tugas di Pasifik. Mellnik adalah dengan Jenderal Douglas MacArthur di Pasifik Barat Daya, McCoy bertugas di Amerika Serikat.

Laporan Verified

“Pernyataan mereka bersumpah tidak memasukkan apapun desas-desus, tetapi fakta yang hanya petugas terkait dari pengalaman pribadi dan pengamatan mereka,” kata laporan resmi.

Laporan telah diverifikasi dari sumber lain.

Tiga perwira menyatakan bahwa beberapa kali sebagai tahanan Amerika banyak perang telah meninggal, sebagian besar karena kelaparan, kerja paksa keras, dan kebrutalan umum, karena Jepang pernah dilaporkan.

Pada satu kamp penjara, Camp O’Donnell, sekitar 2.200 tahanan Amerika tewas pada bulan April dan Mei 1942. Di kamp di Cabanatuan, sekitar 3.000 orang Amerika meninggal sampai dengan akhir Oktober 1942. Mortalitas masih lebih berat terjadi di antara para tahanan perang Filipina di Camp O’Donnell.

The March of Death

Kampanye dihitung kebrutalan dimulai segera setelah tentara Amerika dan Filipina kelelahan di Bataan runtuh di bawah beban besar dari serangan musuh. Apa yang ada di toko untuk mereka adalah untuk memulai dengan “barisan kematian” – dan Dyess melaporkan bahwa, dipukuli dan putus asa karena mereka, mereka tidak akan pernah menyerah jika mereka menebak apa yang ada di depan.

Ribuan tahanan digiring bersama-sama di lapangan udara Mariveles pada siang hari 10 April dalam pendengaran senjata masih menantang Corregidor. Beberapa memiliki makanan, tetapi tidak diizinkan untuk makan. Semua digeledah, barang-barang pribadi mereka disita. Mereka dengan uang Jepang atau token dipenggal kepalanya.

Kemudian, dalam kelompok 500 sampai 1.000 mereka mulai enam-hari yang mengerikan pawai, di sepanjang jalan nasional dari Bataan menuju San Fernando Pampanga di provinsi, “march kematian” begitu mengerikan bahwa hal itu akan membuat lubang hitam suara Calcutta seperti surga berlindung.

Seorang tentara Jepang mengambil kantin Dyess ‘, memberikan air untuk kuda, melemparkan kantin pergi. Dalam matahari panas sekali, para tahanan digiring melalui awan debu. Pria baru tewas tergeletak di sepanjang jalan, tubuh mereka diratakan oleh truk Jepang. Pasien dibom keluar dari rumah sakit lapangan didorong ke dalam kolom berbaris. Pada tengah malam seluruh kelompok itu ditulis di sebuah kandang terlalu sempit untuk memungkinkan salah satu dari mereka untuk berbaring. Mereka telah tidak ada air – seorang perwira Jepang akhirnya mengizinkan mereka untuk minum pada kerbau berkubang kotor.

Sebelum siang hari berikutnya Maret dilanjutkan. Masih ada makanan untuk salah satu dari mereka. – Air pada siang hari dari aliran pinggir jalan kotor. Lain bullpen di malam hari. Ketika pria kelelahan jatuh mengerang, tak seorang pun diizinkan untuk membantu – mereka yang masih berbaris tembakan terdengar di belakang mereka.

Pengobatan Sun

Pada hari ketiga “kami diperkenalkan kepada suatu bentuk penyiksaan yang kemudian dikenal sebagai pengobatan matahari. Kami dibuat untuk duduk di matahari mendidih sepanjang hari tanpa penutup. Kami memiliki sangat sedikit air, dahaga itu intens. Banyak dari kita pergi gila dan beberapa meninggal.

“Tiga Filipina dan tiga tentara Amerika dikubur saat masih hidup.”

Kematian untuk Air

“Sepanjang jalan di provinsi Pampanga terdapat banyak sumur. Setengah-gila dengan rasa haus, enam tentara Filipina membuat lari untuk salah satu sumur. Semua enam orang tewas. Ketika kami melewati Lubao kami berbaris oleh seorang tentara Filipina patah hati dan tergantung di atas pagar kawat berduri.

“Sebelum siang hari pada tanggal 15 April kami berjalan keluar dan 115 dari kita yang dikemas ke dalam mobil sempit-gauge kotak kecil. Pintu ditutup dan dikunci. Gerakan itu tidak mungkin. Banyak dari para tahanan yang menderita diare dan disentri. Panas dan bau yang tak tertahankan.

“Pada Capas Tarlac kami dibawa keluar dan diberi pengobatan matahari selama tiga jam. Kemudian kami berbaris ke Camp O’Donnell.

“Aku membuat itu march sekitar 85 mil dalam waktu enam hari pada satu kit berantakan beras. Amerika lainnya dibuat ‘march kematian’ dalam 12 hari tanpa makanan apa. “

Para tahanan diambil di Corregidor tidak mengalami itu Maret, namun 7.000 orang Amerika dan 5.000 warga Filipina yang dikemas selama seminggu dengan tidak ada makanan pada perkerasan beton 100 meter persegi. Ada satu keran air untuk 12.000 – menunggu rata-rata untuk mengisi kantin adalah 12 jam. Mereka mendapat makanan pertama mereka – kit berantakan beras dan sekaleng sarden – setelah tujuh hari.

6 sampai 10 Jam untuk Air

Di Camp O’Donnell hampir tidak ada fasilitas air. Tahanan berdiri di baris 6 sampai 10 jam untuk minum. Busana pergi berubah sebulan setengah. Makanan utama adalah beras, bervariasi dua kali dalam dua bulan dengan daging cukup untuk memberikan seperempat dari pria sepotong suatu inci persegi. Beberapa kali ada comotes, jenis ubi jalar, tapi banyak yang busuk dan tahanan sendiri harus mengirim penjaga untuk menjaga rekan-rekan mereka dari kelaparan melahap sayuran busuk. Ada setetes sesekali lemak babi kelapa, sedikit tepung, kacang sebuah mangga beberapa. Tapi ada pasar gelap – orang-orang yang punya uang bisa membeli dari orang Jepang kaleng kecil ikan sebesar $ 5.

Ada rumah sakit – sebuah bangunan bobrok dengan tidak ada fasilitas, tidak ada obat. Ratusan berbaring di lantai telanjang tanpa penutup. Para dokter bahkan tidak memiliki air untuk mencuci kotoran manusia dari pasien mereka. Setelah satu minggu, tingkat kematian adalah 20 orang Amerika hari, 150 warga Filipina, setelah dua minggu, 50 dan 500 masing-masing. Orang sakit serta hanya kelaparan dipaksa geng kerja, dan bekerja sampai mereka terjatuh dan mati.

Air Disini

Sekitar bulan Juni 1, Amerika telah dihapus dari Camp O’Donnell ke Cabanatuan, di mana Dyess bergabung Mellnik dan McCoy, yang datang dari Corregidor. Kondisi ada sedikit lebih baik. Ada air minum yang memadai, hal itu mungkin untuk mandi di air berlumpur, tetapi diet tidak membaik. Dan kebrutalan terus – pria dipukuli dengan sekop dan klub golf, “laki-laki secara harfiah bekerja sampai mati.”

Tiga petugas yang mencoba melarikan diri ditangkap, bertelanjang celana mereka, tangan terikat di belakang mereka dan ditarik oleh tali diikat di atas kepala, dan disimpan dalam posisi ini di terik matahari selama dua hari, berkala tentara Jepang mengalahkan mereka dengan dua-oleh -empat, akhirnya salah satu dipenggal dan yang lainnya ditembak. Dengan 26 Oktober, ketika Dyess, McCoy dan Mellnik meninggalkan Cabanatuan, 3.000 dari tahanan Amerika telah meninggal.

Palang Merah Keselamatan

Ketiga pejabat itu diambil dengan 966 tahanan lainnya, ke kamp pidana di Davao, Mindanao, dan dihukum kerja paksa. Makanan sedikit lebih baik di sana, tapi “keselamatan para tahanan perang Amerika,” melaporkan Dyess, adalah persediaan Palang Merah Amerika dan Inggris, baik pakaian dan makanan, yang akhirnya mulai berdatangan bulan terlambat. Pemukulan, pembunuhan, penganiayaan dan penghinaan terus dipelajari. Pada April 1943, ada 1.100 dari 2.000 tahanan di Davao masih mampu bekerja.

Ini adalah kehidupan dari yang McCoy, Dyess dan Mellnik lolos April 4, 1943. Akun tersebut hanya didasarkan pada laporan resmi mereka, namun Angkatan Darat dan Angkatan Laut mengatakan sedikitnya empat orang lainnya diketahui telah melarikan diri dari Filipina – Majors Michiel Dobervitch, Ironton, Minn, Austin C. Shoffner, Shelbyville, Tenn, Jack Hawkins , Roxton, Tex, dan Corp Reid Carlos Chamberlain, El Cajone, California, semua Korps Marinir.

Worldwar II Koleksi dan Artefak

 

Jepang Mass Pemerkosaan dan perbudakan seksual Perempuan dan Girls dari 1932-1945: The “Comfort Women” Sistem

courtesy of: http://www.cmht.com/cases_cwcomfort2.php

“Belum ada kejahatan massa yang lebih besar yang saya tahu … yang telah dilakukan terhadap wanita modern, modern-hari perempuan, pada abad ke-20.”-Pernyataan Brig. Jenderal Vorley M. Rexroad (Purn), 17 Januari 2001.

Pengantar

Dimulai pada tahun 1931 atau 1932 dan berlanjut sepanjang durasi Asia / Pasifik perang, Pemerintah Jepang menerapkan sistem perbudakan seksual di seluruh wilayah yang didudukinya. Selama waktu itu, wanita direkrut secara paksa, pemaksaan, atau penipuan dalam perbudakan seksual bagi militer Jepang. Para wanita Jugun Ianfu disebut sebagai “wanita penghibur” oleh Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang. Meskipun sejarawan sering tidak setuju tentang jumlah “wanita penghibur,” sosok yang paling banyak digunakan diperkirakan 200.000. Mayoritas (sekitar 80%) berasal dari Korea, kemudian koloni Jepang, dan lain sebagian besar berasal dari Jepang diduduki China. Lain diambil dari, antara negara-negara lainnya, Filipina, Burma, dan Indonesia. Selain itu, beberapa wanita yang subyek Belanda dimasukkan dalam Roundup besar. Para wanita diambil terutama dari orang-orang Jepang dianggap ras inferior dan perawan secara aktif dicari.

Nasib “perempuan penghibur” tetap belum terselesaikan walaupun sejarawan telah membuat dokumen publik resmi yang menunjukkan bahwa sistem tersebut memang ada dan dipertahankan oleh, dan untuk, Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang. Seorang sejarawan Jepang kunci, Yoshimi Yoshiaki, menyatakan bahwa bukti-bukti kunci lainnya tetap terkunci di dalam file rahasia Jepang dan harus dibuat publik. Meskipun anggota pemerintah Jepang baru-baru ini mengeluarkan pernyataan mengakui keterlibatan Jepang, belum ada permintaan maaf resmi oleh pemerintah Jepang. Selain itu ada banyak penolakan oleh berbagai kelompok politik yang berpengaruh dan dewan redaksi. Seperti baru-baru Mei 2001, Jepang dihilangkan penyebutan sistem perbudakan seksual dalam buku pelajaran sejarah yang digunakan untuk mengajar mahasiswa Jepang. Pemerintah Jepang secara resmi tetap diam tentang masalah ini dan itu adalah waktu yang mereka mengakui tanggung jawab mereka.

Perempuan Harian Ujian

“Ketika orang berbicara tentang neraka, ini adalah apa yang mereka maksud.”

Pada akhir Perang Dunia II, penggunaan “perempuan penghibur” adalah fenomena yang luas dan teratur seluruh Jepang-Asia Timur dikendalikan. Para wanita yang diselenggarakan di perbudakan seksual diperkosa berulang kali – oleh beberapa account sebesar 30 atau 40 orang setiap hari – hari demi hari. Penyiksaan dan pemukulan yang umum. Para wanita ada dalam kondisi menyedihkan, hidup di bilik kecil, dan sering dengan makanan yang tidak memadai dan perawatan medis. Untuk beberapa, perbudakan yang berlangsung selama delapan tahun.

Mereka yang berusaha untuk melawan, dan beberapa yang tidak, dipukuli, disiksa, atau dimutilasi, kadang-kadang mereka dibunuh. Perlakuan “perempuan penghibur” adalah konsisten dengan pandangan Jepang tentang inferioritas ras dari populasi dari mana perempuan ditarik. Pada beberapa “stasiun kenyamanan,” perempuan diberi nama Jepang dan diminta untuk berbicara bahasa Jepang dan menghibur orang-orang dengan lagu-lagu Jepang. Wanita penghibur Korea yang disebut sebagai chosenppi (“vagina Korea”) atau istilah Jepang untuk menghina Korea.

Pada akhir perang, banyak “wanita penghibur” dibunuh oleh tentara mundur atau hanya ditinggalkan. Misalnya, dalam satu kasus di Mikronesia, tentara Jepang membunuh 70 “wanita penghibur” dalam satu malam sebelum kedatangan pasukan Amerika. Yang lainnya ditinggalkan, kadang-kadang dalam hutan lebat, ketika penculik Jepang mereka melarikan diri. Banyak dari mereka yang meninggal karena kelaparan dan penyakit. Lainnya tidak tahu di mana mereka berada, ratusan mil dari rumah mereka, tidak punya uang, dan tidak berarti untuk kembali.

Korban yang berhasil pulang kembali ke apa yang sering kehidupan isolasi dan penolakan sosial, diperparah oleh perasaan mendalam menanamkan rasa bersalah dan malu. Banyak yang dikucilkan, dipukuli atau bahkan dibunuh. Sebagian besar dari mereka hidup masih sangat miskin dan menderita masalah fisik dan psikologis yang parah. Banyak yang tidak bisa menikah. Sebagai akibat dari kekerasan fisik dan kekerasan seksual, penyakit menular seksual dan kecanduan obat yang timbul dari pengalaman waktu mereka perang, banyak perempuan menderita efek kesehatan yang serius, termasuk kerusakan permanen pada organ reproduksi mereka dan saluran kemih. Banyak wanita juga menemukan diri mereka tidak mampu menanggung anak-anak sebagai akibat dari penganiayaan mereka. Gangguan tidur, mimpi buruk seperti insomnia dan takut, yang umum. Mereka menderita menyedihkan sampai hari ini.

Keterlibatan Militer

The “kenyamanan perempuan” program perbudakan seksual adalah sebuah sistem yang sistematis dan hati-hati direncanakan dan dieksekusi diperintahkan oleh Pemerintah Jepang. Menurut sebuah laporan dari Pelapor Khusus PBB tentang Kekerasan terhadap perempuan, sebab dan akibatnya, Ms Radhika Coomaraswamy:

Stasiun kenyamanan pertama di bawah kendali Jepang langsung adalah mereka di Shanghai pada tahun 1932, dan ada bukti langsung keterlibatan pejabat dalam pendirian mereka. Salah satu komandan kampanye Shanghai, Letnan Jenderal Okamura Yasuji, mengaku dalam memoarnya telah menjadi pendukung asli stasiun kenyamanan bagi militer … sejumlah perempuan Korea dari komunitas Korea di Jepang dikirim ke provinsi oleh Gubernur Nagasaki Prefecture. Fakta bahwa mereka dikirim dari Jepang berimplikasi tidak hanya militer tetapi juga Kementerian Dalam Negeri, yang menguasai gubernur dan polisi yang kemudian memainkan peran penting dalam bekerja sama dengan tentara dalam merekrut perempuan.

Pemerintah Jepang dikirim gadis dan perempuan seperti perlengkapan militer di seluruh wilayah luas di Asia dan Pasifik bahwa pasukan Jepang dikendalikan, dari perbatasan Siberia ke khatulistiwa, termasuk: China (termasuk Guangdong dan Manchuria), Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Amoi, Indocina Perancis, Filipina, Guam, Malaya, Singapura, Inggris Borneo, Hindia Belanda, Burma, Thailand, Timur Nugini, New Britain, Trobriand, Okinawa, dan Sakhalin, serta pulau-pulau Kyushu Jepang, Honshu dan Hokkaido. Pemerintah Jepang dibangun, dioperasikan, dan ratusan terkendali “rumah kenyamanan” di daerah-daerah.

Penipuan dan pemaksaan yang umum dalam perekrutan “perempuan penghibur” – yang sebagian besar diambil dari keluarga miskin – dan banyak yang hanya diculik oleh force.Tomas brute Salinog dari Filipina terbangun satu malam pada tahun 1942 oleh tentara Jepang membobol nya rumah. Setelah para prajurit dipenggal ayahnya, Salinog diseret dari rumahnya oleh tentara dan dibawa ke sebuah garnisun di dekatnya. Ms Salinog, yang berusia tiga belas tahun pada waktu itu, kemudian diperkosa oleh dua tentara dan sadar dipukuli. Dia kemudian dipaksa untuk melayani sebagai “wanita penghibur” di garnisun yang sama.

Gadis-gadis muda menjadi sasaran karena mereka tidak mungkin terinfeksi dengan penyakit kelamin. Gadis-gadis dan perempuan yang diambil adalah semuda sebelas tahun dan kadang-kadang diambil dari sekolah dasar mereka. Para wanita sering dipindahkan ke tempat-tempat terpencil di mana mereka tidak memiliki hubungan linguistik atau budaya sehingga mereka bisa lebih mudah diisolasi dari setiap prospek simpati atau bantuan.

Di Korea, selain perekrutan secara paksa dan penipuan, “wanita penghibur” direkrut dalam konsep kerja resmi, dilembagakan untuk memperkuat upaya perang Jepang. (Itu disebut kunro (“kerja”) atau Yeoja (“perempuan”) Jungshindae (dalam bahasa Jepang, Teishintai), berarti ini adalah ungkapan yang diciptakan oleh Jepang yang menunjukkan mengabdikan dari keseluruhan seseorang “Tubuh Sukarela Melakukan Korps Tenaga Kerja.” yang untuk penyebab Kaisar) Banyak perempuan muda direkrut atau terpikat untuk bekerja di pabrik-pabrik, yang dialihkan oleh Jepang menjadi perbudakan seksual.. Hal yang sama terjadi pada banyak perempuan awalnya dirancang untuk bekerja di pabrik-pabrik.

Hanya tentara Jepang diizinkan untuk sering “stasiun kenyamanan” dan biasanya dikenakan harga tetap. Harga bervariasi oleh pangkat nationality.The perempuan prajurit yang menetapkan jangka waktu yang diperbolehkan untuk kunjungan, harga yang harus dibayar, dan jam di mana prajurit itu berhak untuk mengunjungi stasiun kenyamanan. Setidaknya sebagian dari pendapatan itu diambil oleh militer. Menurut kesaksian seorang survivor dikutip dalam laporan Pelapor Khusus PBB, dari 3 sampai 7 sore setiap hari ia harus melayani sersan, sedangkan malam hari yang disediakan untuk letnan.

Tentara Jepang juga diatur kondisi di “stasiun kenyamanan,” menerbitkan aturan tentang jam kerja, kebersihan, kontrasepsi, dan larangan pada alkohol dan senjata. “Jugun Ianfu” direkam pada daftar pasokan militer Jepang di bawah judul “amunisi” serta di bawah “Fasilitas.” Dokter tentara melakukan pemeriksaan kesehatan pada “wanita penghibur,” terutama untuk mencegah penyebaran penyakit kelamin. The “Jugun Ianfu” sistem yang diperlukan penyebaran infrastruktur yang luas dan sumber daya yang berada di pembuangan pemerintah, termasuk tentara dan personil dukungan, senjata, semua bentuk transportasi darat dan laut, dan kru rekayasa dan konstruksi dan material.

 

December,22th.1941

In the morning the air raids continued on Manila.

Americans still align Warkawks 5. 2 are destroyed against a Zero. Then pass the bombers pounded the base. First holes of the day on the slopes could not be completely resealed.(121)

By the time the reports of the Singapore and Chungking Conferences reached the War Department, Churchill and his Chiefs of Staff had arrived in Washington for the first of the many wartime conferences which marked the most successful military alliance in the history of warfare.

This meeting, which lasted from 22 December 1941 to 14 January 1942 and is known by the code name ARCADIA,

 was in many respects the most important of the conferences held during the war. It established an organization for the conduct of coalition warfare that survived all the stresses and strains of conflicting national interests; reaffirmed the basic decision to make the major effort in Europe at a time when the American people had not yet recovered from the shock of Pearl Harbor and when disaster threatened in the Pacific and Asia; established the first Allied command of the war; and laid down a broad program for the future as well as a plan for immediate action.11

The divergence between British and American views, which had been plainly evident at the ABC meetings early in 1941, was again apparent at the ARCADIA conference. The Americans believed that their national interests would best be served and the security of the United States best assured by the early defeat of Germany and Japan. This objective they put ahead of all others and made the measuring rod for every problem put before them. The British, too, sought the early defeat of the enemy, but they differed with the Americans on how to do it. Further, their national interests encompassed the security and future of a far-flung empire with its long lines of communication.

Their task was more complex than that of the Americans and their path to victory more circuitous. For them, the Middle East, Singapore, Malaya, Australia, India — all held an importance the Americans could not grant on purely military grounds. The British pressed hard for the allocation of Allied resources to the defense of these positions, not only at ARCADIA but at the conferences that followed, while the Americans pushed single-mindedly for those operations that would bring about the defeat of the enemy. But determination to agree and good will on both sides overcame all differences.

About one thing, the major objective of Allied strategy, there was no disagreement. The principals subscribed to a basic statement of war aims that served as the strategic objective for the year 1942 and the basis for the division of the resources of the two nations. “Much has happened since February last,” the conferees noted, “but notwithstanding the entry of Japan into the War, our view remains that Germany is still the prime enemy. and her defeat is the key to victory.

Once Germany is defeated the collapse of Italy and the defeat of Japan must follow.”12 It was agreed therefore, as “a cardinal principle” of American and British strategy, “that only the minimum of force necessary for the safeguarding of vital interests in other theater should be diverted from operations against Germany.”

In terms of the existing situation, this “cardinal principle” meant that the production of armaments would have to be stepped up; that essential positions would have to be defended; that the vital lines of communication would have to be held; and that, by a combination of bombing, blockade, and propaganda, German resistance would have to be reduced so that the Allies could land on the Continent in 1943.

But the principle of minimum force in the Pacific was one that could be interpreted variously and usually was, depending on the situation. There were always those who could justify additional forces for the Pacific on the ground that they were required to safeguard vital interests there. This was the Navy’s position, argued forcefully and consistently by Admiral King.

In the Pacific and Far East, the Americans and the British Chiefs of Staff agreed, it would be necessary to maintain the security of Australia, New Zealand, and India; to support China; and to gain “points of vantage” from which an offensive against Japan could “eventually be developed.”

These were long-range objectives; the “immediate object” was to hold Hawaii, Alaska, Singapore, the Malay Barrier, the Philippines, Rangoon, and the route to China.

As a general statement of strategy, the objectives outlined by the U.S. and British Chiefs of Staff had little relevance to the immediate emergency in the Far East where the Japanese were advancing rapidly on every front.

 What was needed was agreement on the apportionment of the resources of both nations to that area, and, specifically, the amount to be assigned each of the vital positions still in Allied hands but defended by a variety of national forces and independent commanders.

 

Both sides were apparently reluctant to enter into detailed discussions of this subject, but they agreed that the planners should study the question of the disposition of the forces in and en route to the Southwest Pacific.

This study, the Chiefs stipulated, should be based on three alternative assumptions; first, that the Allies would hold both the Philippines and Singapore; second, that they would hold Singapore and the Netherlands Indies but lose the Philippines; and third, that they would lose Singapore and the Philippines.

The planners went to work on the problem immediately and quickly produced a report the Chiefs approved on the last day of the year. Recognizing that the forces then in the area could not hold the positions prescribed and that immediate reinforcements would have to be provided, the planners framed the following statement of Allied aims:

  1. 1.       Hold the Malay Barrier, that is the Malay Peninsula, Sumatra, Java, and the islands stretching eastward to northwest Australia, “as the basic defensive position”; and Burma and Australia “as essential supporting positions.”
  2. 2.       Re-establish communications with the Philippines and support the garrison there, while maintaining communications to Burma and Australia and within the Far East area.

 

Appended to the report were lists of the forces already in the theater and scheduled to arrive by 1 February.

These the planners

recommended be deployed “as now arranged,” if the Philippines and Singapore held, If they did not, the reinforcements should be used to defend the Malay Barrier, Burma, and Australia, with American troops being used on the east side of the barrier (Australia), British and Commonwealth forces on the west (Burma and India).

Should the Philippines alone fall to the Japanese — an admission the Americans were not yet willing to make to the British who firmly believed that Singapore would hold — then U.S. reinforcements would be employed along the barrier and the lines of communication to the east.13

By the time this study was approved, the Chiefs of Staff had already decided to set up a unified American command in the Far East. The dangers and disadvantages of command by co-operation had been made abundantly clear by the disaster at Pearl Harbor, and Marshall felt very strongly that unity of command was perhaps even more important than the allocation of resources or the assignment of troops. On the 25th, after he had Brink’s report on the Singapore Conference, he raised the problem with his American and British colleagues. “The matters being settled here,” he told them, “are mere details which will continuously reoccur unless settled in a broader way. . . . I am convinced that there must be one man in command of the entire theater. . . . If we make a plan for unified command now, it will solve nine-tenths of our troubles.”

 

 Without minimizing the difficulties of establishing such a command over the forces of four nations, Marshall believed that it could be done and was willing “to go the limit” to achieve it. “A man with good judgment and unity of command,” he said, “has a distinct advantage over a man with brilliant judgment who must rely on cooperation.” But the consensus of the meeting was not in Marshall’s favor and the subject was dropped after polite comment.14

The next day Mr. Roosevelt, apparently after discussion with Marshall and King, raised the question of a unified command in the Far East at a White House meeting with Churchill and others.

The Prime Minister, like his military advisers, did not favor the idea and there the matter rested for the moment. But neither the President nor General Marshall abandoned their fight and both privately did their utmost to change Churchill’s mind.15

In this they were successful so far as the principle of unified command was concerned but agreement on the officer who would exercise such a command and the limits of his authority was not so easily reached. Oddly enough, the British wanted an American and the Americans favored a British officer

 

motorcyclists of the snlf on guard duty (hong kong 1941)

December,25th.1941

The invasion of Luzon commenced the same day. In both Malaya and the Philippines, Japan’s tough, superbly trained armies quickly overcame forward defenses and swept south towards Singapore and Manila. Hong Kong surrendered on Christmas Day.

.(121)

 

 

On 25 December,

 Headquarters, United States Army Forces in the Far East, was established on Corregidor. Manila was declared an open city on the following day and the remains of the naval base at Cavite were blown up to prevent its supplies from falling into enemy hands.

 

 

 

TANK OBSTACLES AND BARBED WIRE strung to delay the enemy advance on Bataan (top); members of an antitank company in position on Bataan (bottom).

As the Japanese advanced,

the defending forces withdrew toward the Bataan Peninsula. The rugged terrain, protected flanks, and restricted maneuvering room on Bataan limited the enemy’s ability to employ large numbers of troops. Preparations for the defense of the peninsula were intensified and the stocks of supplies were increased.

 

on 22 December, 1941

General Homma put the bulk of his 14th Army ashore at Lingayen Gulf, north of Manila.

 

japamese army officer Lieutenant General Kyoji Tominaga shaking hands with raiders of the Kaoru Special Attack Corps before leaving to a mission against a USAAF landing strip on Leyte (oct 1944)

 

Lieutenant General Kyoji Tominaga giving sake wine to soldier of the Kaoru Special Attack Corps before leaving to a mission against a USAAF landing strip on Leyte (oct 1944)

The remainder landed two days later at Lamon Bay, south of the capital, to form the southern arm of a giant pincer movement converging on Manila.

 But Homma quickly discovered he was dealing with a determined and able foe.

MacArthur did not, as Homma and Imperial General Headquarters expected, stay to fight it out on the central plain of Luzon.

 Instead he put into effect the long-standing ORANGE plan and withdrew his forces to the Bataan Peninsula in a skillful and dangerous double retrograde movement, made in two weeks under the most difficult circumstances and constant pressure.

At the same time he proclaimed Manila an open city and transferred his headquarters to Corregidor. Thus, when Homma

December,26th.1941

In December 26

the Japanese capture Cotabato south of Manila, Once the base is occupied by the genius of aviation and hunters..

The 1st Battalion of the 124th RI expels troops in Zamboanga Philippines (121)

December,29th.1941

Philippines:

Imperial troops capture Batangas, the last town before the southern Manila where 51 units were identified. A battalion addresses Clark Field empty aircraft. The huge airfield which housed the B17n’est defended by coastal artillery unit keeping Subic Bay. 48 guns and 850 men were captured.
Obviously Rominet MacArthur decided to lock in Manila and to prolong the seat without a fight leaving the rest of the island.
In Mindanao the 103rd regiment tries to regain Philippine Butuan but was violently repelled by the 1st regiment of raid, an elite unit of para Japanese Army: Filipinos lost 460 men out of 600 engaged in the operation.(121)

1942

January 1942

Corrigendum:
The intelligence services of the Navy reinstate the order of battle battleship Oklahoma ally they had mistaken the battleship which sank Maryland(121)

 

 

JAPANESE PRISONERS,

captured on Bataan, being led blindfolded to headquarters for questioning.

On 1 January 1942

 the Japanese entered Manila and the U.S, troops withdrew toward Bataan.  Army supplies were either moved to Bataan and Corregidor or destroyed.

The remaining forces on Bataan,

including some 15,000 U.S. troops, totaled about 80,000 men. The food, housing, and sanitation problems were greatly increased by the presence of over 20,000 civilian refugees. All troops were placed on half-rations.

 

Manila:

the incessant bombings in the capital of the Philippines. 2 planes destroyed at least on the slopes.(121)

January,2nd.1942

On January 2th, 1942

 

, the Philippine capital of Manila was occupied by the japanese

January,4th.1942

Philippines:

An avant-garde from southern Luzon went too fast to invest Manila. It penetrated a few hours before the arrival of the northern pincer. The Filipino-American attack against and reject the Japanese south. 4000 Japanese were knocked out in 1500 against Allied soldiers.
This move mask on Manila maneuver on the peninsula of Bataan that the Japanese want to reduce before really attacking Manila where more than 40 allied units are enclosed.
Pending airstrikes succeed in Manila but strong DCA reduces their effectiveness.(121)

January,6th.1942

Of Luzon:

The Japanese lead a risky operation in the hope that Americans discover what happens too late and only react against time.
2 screens of troops, probably too light, hide the big allied forces locked in Manila ahead of the 65th brigade, three regiments of tanks and an artillery regiment on the Bataan peninsula closing the bay Manila.
The first assault the defenders of Bataan surrendered. 14,000 men were taken prisoners, 340 guns destroyed. Japanese are immediately turned around to join forces besieging Manila.
57,000 allies are locked. Opposite the 21th DI with the 21st armored regiment, 2 regiments of infantry, four regiments of mortars, 17,000 are men, shield.
Americans to the great relief of the Japanese do not launch assault and simply bomb: 230 casualties while the Japanese bombing is ineffective.(121)

January,9th.1942

Philippines:

hunting ally seeks to challenge the supremacy of the Japanese over Manila hoping to intercept their bombers. Barely lost: 5 Warhawk fighter on the 8 involved are destroyed. The fighting takes place at an altitude of 31,000 feet, where the Warhawks obviously are not comfortable.
Filipino-Americans realize they have the numerical advantage to Manila: 44,000 against
20 000. Dislodge the Japanese attack on the outskirts of the capital before the troops recalled from Bataan to occur. 4400 soldiers Hirohito disband, 800 Filipinos are lost.(121)

January,11th.1942

the bulk of the American army in the Philippines was bottled up on the Bataan Peninsula

 

January,20th.1942

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1942

 

WORLD WAR II BATAAN DEATH MARCH –

‘It is with no little diffidence and misgiving that I approach my description of the facts and events in the Bataan Death March. To give an accurate description of the misdeeds of these Japanese troops, it would be necessary for me to describe actions which plum the very depths of human depravity and degradation. The keynote of the whole of this crime can be epitomized by two

 

words- unspeakable horror. Horror stark and naked permeates every corner and angle of this case from beginning to end, devoid of relief or palliation. I have searched, I have searched diligently amongst a vast mass of evidence to discover some redeeming feature, some mitigating factor in the conduct of these men which would elevate the story from the level of pure horror and bestiality and ennoble it.at least uponplane of tragedy. I confess I have failed’

The keynote of the whole of this crime can be epitomized by two words- unspeakable horror. Horror stark and naked permeates every corner and angle of this case from beginning to end, devoid of relief or palliation. I have searched, I have searched diligently amongst a vast mass of evidence to discover some redeeming feature, some mitigating factor in the conduct of these men which would elevate the story from the level of

The March to Death

The Bataan Death March was one of the most brutal atrocities done by the Japanese to the POWs during the second World War. The Bataan Death march (aka The Death March of Bataan) was a war crime involving the forcible transfer of prisoners of war, with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities, by Japanese forces in the Philippines in 1942. The march occurred after the three-month Battle of Bataan, part of the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), during World War II. In Japanese, it is known as Batān Shi no Kōshin (バターン死の行進 ,Batān Shi no Kōshin?), with the same meaning. There were thousands of Filipinos and Americans killed from Japanese brutality during the march and those who survived suffered hunger and again death from turture.

size

 

 

Story of Atrocities by Japs on Hapless Prisoners is released by the U.S.; Deliberate Starvation, Torture, Death

courtesy of Bataan Corregidor Memorial Foundation of New Mexico, Inc

WASHINGTON, D.C. (AP) — JAN. 28, 1944 — A pent-up story of atrocities perpetrated by the Japanese army on the captured heroes of Bataan and Corregidor was released by the United States government today in sickening detail.

A joint report by the Army and Navy broke at last the rigid censorship maintained by the high command on the almost unbelievable reports that came out of the Pacific, to tell what happened to the men whose valor slowed the tide of Japanese conquest.

A Tale of Torture

Compiled from the sworn statements of officers who survived the starvation and torture and escaped, it catalogued the infamy of a brutal enemy, and wrote in shocking terms the code of the Japanese warrior — to subject 36,000 gallant soldiers to deliberate starvation, to shoot in cold blood the thirsty who seek water, to watch sick men writhe and deny them medicine, to horsewhip those who help their fallen comrades, to beat men with two-by-fours, to behead those who try to escape, and to bury tortured men alive.

The three who lived to return and tell of the agony they endured were Commander Melvyn H. McCoy, USN, of Indianapolis, Lt. Col. S. M. Mellnik, Coast Artillery Corps of Dunmore, Pa., and Lt. Col. William E. Dyess, Air Corps, of Albany, Tex. Dyess is dead—killed in a fighter plane crash at Burbank, Calif., recently while preparing to return to duty in the Pacific. Mellnik is with Gen. Douglas MacArthur in the Southwest Pacific, McCoy on duty in the United States.

Statements Verified

“Their sworn statements included no hearsay whatever, but only facts which the officers related from their own personal experience and observations,” said the official report.

The statements have been verified from other sources.

The three officers stated that several times as many American prisoners of war have died, mostly of starvation, forced hard labor, and general brutality, as the Japanese have ever reported.

At one prison camp, Camp O’Donnell, about 2,200 American prisoners died in April and May 1942. In the camp at Cabanatuan, about 3,000 Americans had died up to the end of October 1942. Still heavier mortality occurred among the Filipino prisoners of war at Camp O’Donnell.

The March of Death

The calculated campaign of brutality began as soon as the exhausted American and Filipino soldiers on Bataan collapsed under the overwhelming weight of the enemy assault. What was in store for them was to begin with “the march of death” — and Dyess reported that, beaten and hopeless as they were, they never would have surrendered if they had guessed what lay ahead.

Thousands of prisoners were herded together on the Mariveles airfield at daylight April 10, within earshot of the still defiant guns of Corregidor. Some had food, but were not permitted to eat. All were searched, their personal belongings seized. Those with Japanese money or tokens were beheaded.

Then, in groups of 500 to 1,000 they began the terrible six-day march, along the national road of Bataan toward San Fernando in Pampanga province, the “march of death” so hideous that it would make the black hole of Calcutta sound like a haven of refuge.

A Japanese soldier took Dyess’ canteen, gave the water to a horse, threw the canteen away. In a broiling sun, the prisoners were herded through clouds of dust. Men recently killed lay along the road, their bodies flattened by Japanese trucks. Patients bombed out of a field hospital were pushed into the marching column. At midnight the entire group was penned in an enclosure too narrow to allow any of them to lie down. They had no water — a Japanese officer finally permitted them to drink at a dirty carabao wallow.

Before daylight the next day the March was resumed. Still no food for any of them. — water at noon from a dirty roadside stream. Another bullpen at night. When exhausted men fell out moaning, no one was allowed to help — those who still marched heard shots behind them.

The Sun Treatment

On the third day “we were introduced to a form of torture which came to be known as the sun treatment. We were made to sit in the boiling sun all day without cover. We had very little water; our thirst was intense. Many of us went crazy and several died.

“Three Filipino and three American soldiers were buried while still alive.”

Death for Water

“Along the road in the province of Pampanga there are many wells. Half-crazed with thirst, six Filipino soldiers made a dash for one of the wells. All six were killed. As we passed Lubao we marched by a Filipino soldier gutted and hanging over a barbed-wire fence.

“Before daylight on April 15 we marched out and 115 of us were packed into a small narrow-gauge box car. The doors were closed and locked. Movement was impossible. Many of the prisoners were suffering from diarrhea and dysentery. The heat and stench were unbearable.

“At Capas Tarlac we were taken out and given the sun treatment for three hours. Then we were marched to Camp O’Donnell.

“I made that march of about 85 miles in six days on one mess kit of rice. Other Americans made ‘the march of death’ in 12 days without any food whatever.”

The prisoners taken at Corregidor did not experience that march, but 7,000 Americans and 5,000 Filipinos were packed for a week with no food on a concrete pavement 100 yards square. There was one water spigot for the 12,000 — the average wait to fill a canteen was 12 hours. They got their first food — a mess kit of rice and a can of sardines — after seven days.

6 to 10 Hours for Water

At Camp O’Donnell there were virtually no water facilities. Prisoners stood in line 6 to 10 hours to get a drink. Clothing went unchanged a month and a half. The principal food was rice, varied twice in two months with enough meat to give one-fourth of the men a piece an inch square. A few times there were comotes, a type of sweet potato, but many were rotten and the prisoners themselves had to post a guard to keep their starving comrades from devouring the rotten vegetables. There was an occasional dab of coconut lard, a little flour, a few mango beans. But there was a black market — those who had money could buy from the Japanese a small can of fish for $5.

There was a hospital — a dilapidated building with no facilities, no medicine. Hundreds lay on the bare floor without cover. The doctors did not even have water to wash the human filth from their patients. After one week, the death rate was 20 Americans a day, 150 Filipinos; after two weeks, 50 and 500 respectively. The sick as well as the merely starving were forced into work gangs, and worked until they dropped dead.

Water Here

About June 1, the Americans were removed from Camp O’Donnell to Cabanatuan, where Dyess joined Mellnik and McCoy, who had come in from Corregidor. Conditions there were a little better. There was adequate drinking water, it was possible to bathe in muddy water; but the diet did not improve. And the brutality continued — men were beaten with shovels and golf clubs, “men were literally worked to death.”

Three officers who tried to escape were caught, stripped to their shorts, their hands tied behind them and pulled up by ropes fastened overhead, and kept in this position in the blazing sun for two days; periodically the Japs beat them with a two-by-four; finally one was beheaded and the others shot. By Oct. 26, when Dyess, McCoy and Mellnik left Cabanatuan, 3,000 of the American prisoners had died.

Red Cross Salvation

The three officers were taken with 966 other prisoners, to a penal camp at Davao, Mindanao and put to hard labor. Food was slightly better there, but “the salvation of the American prisoners of war,” Dyess reported, was the American and British Red Cross supplies, both clothing and food, that finally began to arrive months late. The beatings, the murder, the studied mistreatment and humiliation continued. By April 1943, there were 1,100 of the 2,000 prisoners at Davao still able to work.

This was the life from which McCoy, Dyess and Mellnik escaped April 4, 1943. The account is based solely on their official reports, but the Army and Navy said at least four others were known to have escaped from the Philippines — Majors Michiel Dobervitch, Ironton, Minn., Austin C. Shoffner, Shelbyville, Tenn., Jack Hawkins, Roxton, Tex., and Corp. Reid Carlos Chamberlain, El Cajone, Calif., all of the Marine Corps.

Worldwar II Collections and Artifacts

 

Japan’s Mass Rape and Sexual Enslavement of Women and Girls from 1932-1945: The “Comfort Women” System

courtesy of: http://www.cmht.com/cases_cwcomfort2.php

“There has been no greater mass crime that I know of . . . that has been committed against modern women, modern-day women, in the 20th century.”-Statement of Brig. Gen. Vorley M. Rexroad (Ret.), January 17, 2001.

Introduction

Beginning in 1931 or 1932 and continuing throughout the duration of the Asian/Pacific wars, the Japanese Government instituted a system of sexual slavery throughout the territories it occupied. During that time, women were recruited by force, coercion, or deception into sexual slavery for the Japanese military. These women were euphemistically referred to as “comfort women” by the Japanese Imperial Army. Although historians often disagree about the number of “comfort women,” the most widely used figure is estimated at 200,000. The majority (approximately 80%) came from Korea, then a Japanese colony, and another large percentage came from Japanese-occupied China. Others were taken from, among other countries, the Philippines, Burma, and Indonesia. In addition, some women who were Netherlands’ subjects were included in the immense roundup. The women were drawn primarily from those the Japanese considered racially inferior and virgins were actively sought.

The plight of the “comfort women” remains unresolved despite the fact historians have made public many official documents indicating that the system in question did exist and was maintained by, and for, the Japanese Imperial Army. One key Japanese historian, Yoshimi Yoshiaki, maintains that other key evidence remains locked inside Japanese confidential files and should be made public. Although members of the Japanese government have recently issued statements acknowledging Japanese involvement, there have been no formal apologies by the Japanese government. In addition there have been many denials by various influential political groups and editorial boards. As recently as May 2001, Japan omitted any mention of the system of sexual slavery in the history textbooks used to teach Japanese students. The government of Japan officially remains silent on this issue and it is time that they acknowledge their responsibility.

The Women’s Daily Ordeal

“When people talk about a living hell, this is exactly what they mean.”

By the end of World War II, the use of “comfort women” was a widespread and regular phenomenon throughout Japan-controlled East Asia. The women held in sexual slavery were raped repeatedly — by some accounts by 30 or 40 men each day — day after day. Torture and beatings were common. The women existed under miserable conditions, living in tiny cubicles, and often with inadequate food and medical care. For some, the servitude lasted as long as eight years.

Those who attempted to resist, and some who did not, were beaten, tortured, or mutilated; sometimes they were murdered. The treatment of “comfort women” was consistent with Japan’s view of the racial inferiority of the populations from which the women were drawn. At some “comfort stations,” the women were given Japanese names and required to speak Japanese and entertain the men with Japanese songs. Korean comfort women were referred to as chosenppi (“Korean vagina”) or other derogatory Japanese terms for Koreans.

At the end of the war, many “comfort women” were killed by retreating troops or simply abandoned. For example, in one case in Micronesia, the Japanese Army killed 70 “comfort women” in one night just before the arrival of American troops. Others were abandoned, sometimes in dense jungles, when their Japanese captors fled. Many of those died of starvation and disease. Others did not know where they were, were hundreds of miles from their homes, had no money, and no means to return.

Survivors who made it home returned to what were often lives of isolation and societal rejection, compounded by deeply instilled feelings of guilt and shame. Many were ostracized, beaten or even killed. Most of those still living are extremely poor and suffer from severe physical and psychological problems. Many could not marry. As a result of violent physical and sexual abuse, sexually transmitted diseases and drug addictions arising from their war time experiences, many women suffer serious health effects, including permanent damage to their reproductive organs and urinary tracts. Many women also found themselves unable to bear children as a result of their mistreatment. Sleep disorders, like insomnia and fearful nightmares, are common. They suffer grievously to this day.

Military Involvement

The “comfort woman” program of sexual slavery was a systematic and carefully planned system ordered and executed by the Japanese Government. According to a report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence against women, its causes and consequences, Ms Radhika Coomaraswamy:

The first comfort stations under direct Japanese control were those in Shanghai in 1932, and there is firsthand evidence of official involvement in their establishment. One of the commanders of the Shanghai campaign, Lieutenant General Okamura Yasuji, confessed in his memoirs to have been the original proponent of comfort stations for the military … a number of Korean women from a Korean community in Japan were sent to the province by the Governor of Nagasaki Prefecture. The fact that they were sent from Japan implicates not only the military but also the Home Ministry, which controlled the governors and the police who were later to play a significant role in collaborating with the army in forcibly recruiting women.

The government of Japan shipped girls and women like military supplies throughout the vast area of Asia and the Pacific that Japanese troops controlled, from the Siberian border to the equator, including: China (including Guangdong and Manchuria), Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Amoi, French Indochina, the Philippines, Guam, Malaya, Singapore, British Borneo, the Dutch East Indies, Burma, Thailand, East New Guinea, New Britain, Trobriand, Okinawa, and Sakhalin, as well as the Japanese islands of Kyushu, Honshu and Hokkaido. The Japanese government built, operated, and controlled hundreds of “comfort houses” in these areas.

Deception and coercion were common in the recruitment of “comfort women” – who were mostly taken from poverty-stricken families – and many were simply abducted by brute force.Tomas Salinog of the Philippines was awakened one night in 1942 by Japanese soldiers breaking into her home. After the soldiers decapitated her father, Salinog was dragged from her house by the soldiers and taken to a nearby garrison. Ms. Salinog, who was thirteen years old at the time, was then raped by two soldiers and beaten unconscious. She was thereafter forced to serve as a “comfort woman” in the same garrison.

Young girls were targeted as they were unlikely to be infected with venereal diseases. The girls and women taken were as young as eleven years old and were sometimes taken from their elementary schools. The women were often removed to remote places where they had no linguistic or cultural ties so that they could more easily be isolated from any prospect of sympathy or help.

In Korea, in addition to recruitment by force and deception, “comfort women” were recruited under the official labor draft, instituted to strengthen the Japanese war effort. (It was called kunro (“labor”) or Yeoja (“woman”) Jungshindae (in Japanese, Teishintai), meaning “Voluntarily Committing Body Corps for Labor.” This is a phrase coined by the Japanese that denotes the devoting of one’s entire being to the cause of the Emperor.) Many young women recruited or lured to work in the factories, were diverted by Japan into sexual slavery. The same occurred to many women originally drafted to work in factories.

Only Japanese soldiers were allowed to frequent the “comfort stations” and were normally charged a fixed price. The prices varied by the women’s nationality.The rank of the soldier determined the length of time allowed for a visit, the price paid, and the hours at which the soldier was entitled to visit the comfort station. At least a portion of the revenue was taken by the military. According to the testimony of a survivor quoted in the report of the United Nations Special Rapporteur, from 3 to 7 pm each day she had to serve sergeants, whereas the evenings were reserved for lieutenants.

The Japanese Army also regulated conditions at the “comfort stations,” issuing rules on working hours, hygiene, contraception, and prohibitions on alcohol and weapons. “Comfort women” were recorded on Japanese military supply lists under the heading of “ammunition” as well as under “Amenities.” Army doctors carried out health checks on the “comfort women,” primarily to prevent the spread of venereal disease. The “comfort women” system required the deployment of the vast infrastructure and resources that were at the government’s disposal, including soldiers and support personnel, weapons, all forms of land and sea transportation, and engineering and construction crews and matériel.

Worldwar II Collections and Artifacts

Filipino and American soldiers surrendering to the Japanese

 

The death march

 

The proud Philippine Scouts before the Japanese Invasion

 

Japanese and Filipino Soldiers killed in Action

 

Japanese in premises

 

This is How manila looks like after the Bombing and scorching the city

 

Filipinos are always Marines best friend

 

The proud Filipino Guerrillas

 

Filipinos helping Americans

 

Captured Japanese

 

Surrendering Japanese

 

This is how Philippines suffered by the War

 

Destruction everywhere

 

American Marines entering Zamboanga

 

 

 

Philippines is a paradise to the World and to its people, the second world war brought darkness, death and destruction to the Filipinos. It is the Philippines worst nightmare and something that they do not want to remember. What you see are pictures that holds wonderful memories of Filipino heroism and courage. Filipinos have the undying love for freedom and Peace and they are willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of it. May this Photo article will give help you out in any way.

the complete Articles of World War II:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Worldwar II Collections and Artifact

 

 

War came to the Philippines like a lightning strike. Japan came in with a surprise attack on December 8, 1941, They came just ten hours after the bloody surprise attacked in Pearl Harbor. Japanese troop’s advancement hits every top island in the country. Aerial bombardment was successful that Filipino and American soldiers failed to counter. The defending  Filipino and American  troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of the invading enemies, the defending forces about 80,000 troops withdrew to the BataanPeninsula and to the island of Corregidor with no aerial support and proper equipments.    The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces in the BataanPeninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May. Most of the 80,000 POW were forced to undertake the bloody Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 km to the north

were killed and died, it is estimated that as many as 10,000 men died before reaching their destination.

Lt. Henry G. Lee of the Philipine Division wrote the poem, “Fighting On.”

I see no gleam of victory alluring
No chance of splendid booty or of gain.
If I endure–I must go on enduring
And my reward for bearing pain–is pain
Yet, though the thrill, the zest, the hope are gone
Something within me keep me
fighting on.

A soldier-poet expressed the mood of the men when he wrote:

MacArthur‘s promise in every mind.
“The time is secret but I can say
That swift relief ships are on the way
Thousands of men and hundreds of planes–
Back in Manila before the rains!
With decorations and honors, too.”
MacArthur said it, it must be true

 

 

See all 28 photos

 

War came to the Philippines like a lightning strike. Japan came in with a surprise attack on December 8, 1941, They came just ten hours after the bloody surprise attacked in Pearl Harbor. Japanese troop’s advancement hits every top island in the country. Aerial bombardment was successful that Filipino and American soldiers failed to counter. The defending  Filipino and American  troops were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of the invading enemies, the defending forces about 80,000 troops withdrew to the BataanPeninsula and to the island of Corregidor with no aerial support and proper equipments.    The Philippine defense continued until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces in the BataanPeninsula in April 1942 and on Corregidor in May. Most of the 80,000 POW were forced to undertake the bloody Bataan Death March to a prison camp 105 km to the north.  Many men were killed and died, it is estimated that as many as 10,000 men died before reaching their destination.

Lt. Henry G. Lee of the Philipine Division wrote the poem, “Fighting On.”

I see no gleam of victory alluring
No chance of splendid booty or of gain.
If I endure–I must go on enduring
And my reward for bearing pain–is pain
Yet, though the thrill, the zest, the hope are gone
Something within me keep me
fighting on.

A soldier-poet expressed the mood of the men when he wrote:

MacArthur‘s promise in every mind.
“The time is secret but I can say
That swift relief ships are on the way
Thousands of men and hundreds of planes–
Back in Manila before the rains!
With decorations and honors, too.”
MacArthur said it, it must be true.

 

See all 28 photos

 

Americans and Filipinos with no proper equipment to defend the country

The Philippine Scouts Cavalry in a formation for the preparation of Japanese Attacks

The scouts are mobilizing to face Japs invading in Bataan

Japanese are now mobilizing and securing all railways and roads

Dead Filipino soldiers

Filipino Casualties of War

MacArthur makes Manila an Open City to avoid more destruction on Japanese arrival in Manila

The courageous Filipino Scouts ready to defend the motherland

Filipinos are setting up mortars for the advancing Japanese army

Filipino having a drill before the Japanese invasion

Filipino soldiers about to be beheaded by the Japanese

Filipino and American soldiers surrendering to the Japanese

The death march

The proud Philippine Scouts before the Japanese Invasion

Japanese and Filipino Soldiers killed in Action

Japanese in premises

This is How manila looks like after the Bombing and scorching the city

Filipinos are always Marines best friend

The proud Filipino Guerrillas

Filipinos helping Americans

Captured Japanese

Surrendering Japanese

This is how Philippines suffered by the War

Destruction everywhere

American Marines entering Zamboanga

Philippines is a paradise to the World and to its people, the second world war brought darkness, death and destruction to the Filipinos. It is the Philippines worst nightmare and something that they do not want to remember. What you see are pictures that holds wonderful memories of Filipino heroism and courage. Filipinos have the undying love for freedom and Peace and they are willing to sacrifice their lives for the sake of it. May this Photo article will give help you out in any way.

the complete Articles of World War II:

Manila under World War II

Pacific and Europe under World War

33

An American soldier stands tense in his foxhole on Bataan peninsula, in the Philippines, waiting to hurl a flaming bottle bomb at an oncoming Japanese tank, in April of 1942. (AP Photo) #

 

34

A big coastal gun is fired from fortified American positions on Corregidor Island, at the entrance to Manila Bay on the Philippines, on May 6, 1942. (AP Photo) #

 

35

Japanese forces use flame-throwers while attacking a fortified emplacement on Corregidor Island, in the Philippines in May of 1942. (NARA) #

 

36

Billows of smoke from burning buildings pour over the wall which encloses Manila’s Intramuros district, sometime in 1942. (AP Photo) #

 

37

American soldiers line up as they surrender their arms to the Japanese at the naval base of Mariveles on Bataan Peninsula in the Philippines in April of 1942. (AP Photo) #

 

 

Japanese soldiers stand guard over American war prisoners just before the start of the “Bataan Death March” in 1942. This photograph was stolen from the Japanese during Japan’s three-year occupation. (AP Photo/U.S. Marine Corps)

 

39

American and Filipino prisoners of war captured by the Japanese are shown at the start of the Death March after the surrender of Bataan on April 9, 1942, near Mariveles in the Philippines. Starting from Mariveles on April 10, some 75,000 American and Filipino prisoners of war were force-marched to Camp O’Donnell, a new prison camp 65 miles away. The prisoners, weakened after a three-month siege, were harassed by Japanese troops for days as they marched, the slow or sick killed with bayonets or swords. (AP Photo) #

 

40

American prisoners of war carry their wounded and sick during the Bataan Death March in April of 1942. This photo was taken from the Japanese during their three year occupation of the Philippines. (AP Photo/U.S. Army) #

 

May 1942:

After defending the island for nearly a month, American and Filipino soldiers surrender to Japanese invasion troops on Corregidor island, Philippines. This photograph was captured from the Japanese during Japan’s three-year occupation. (AP Photo)

The Bataan Death March was a war crime involving the forcible transfer of prisoners of war, with wide-ranging abuse and high fatalities, by Japanese forces in the Philippines, in 1942, after the three-month Battle of Bataan, which was part of the Battle of the Philippines (1941-42), during World War II. In Japanese, it is known as Bataan Shi no Koshin, with the same meaning.

The Fall of Bataan

On April 9, 1942, approximately 75,000 Filipino and United States soldiers, commanded by Major General Edward “Ned” P. King, Jr., were formally surrendered to a Japanese army of 50,000 men under Lt. General Masaharu Homma. This required Japan to accept emaciated captives who vastly outnumbered them. The Japanese, having expected the fighting to continue longer, had only expected 25,000 prisoners of war and did not have the facilities to properly care for them

 

Logistics planning to move the prisoners of war from Mariveles to Camp O’Donnell, a prison camp in the province of Tarlac, was handed down to transportation officer Major General Yoshitake Kawane ten days prior to the final Japanese assault. The first phase of the operation, which was to bring all of the prisoners to Balanga, consisted of a nineteen mile march that was expected to take one day. Upon reaching Balanga, Kawane was then to take personal command of executing the second phase, which consisted of transporting the men to the prison camp. 200 trucks were to be utilized to take the prisoners 33 miles north to the rail center at San Fernando, where freight trains, which would move them another 30 miles to the village of Capas, awaited them. Upon reaching Capas, the prisoners were then to march an additional 8 miles on foot to Camp O’Donnell. Field hospitals were to be established at Balanga and San Fernando while various aid stations and resting places were to be set up every few miles.


PRISONERS ON MARCH FROM BATAAN TO THE PRISON CAMP, MAY 1942 – NATIONAL ARCHIVES

THE DEATH MARCH

Although General Homma and Kawane had expected only 25,000 prisoners of war, they were greeted by more than 75,000 (11,796 Americans and 66,000 Filipinos) starving and malaria-stricken captives at Bataan. During the battle, only 27,000 of these men were listed as “combat effective”. Even then, three fourths of this number were still affected by malaria. As a result, the Japanese army met great difficulties in transporting these prisoners from the beginning. Equally, distributing food was almost impossible so many were fed nothing. 4,000 sick or wounded captives had to stay behind to be treated by the Japanese at Bataan. A shortage of manpower and supplies on the part of the Japanese, who were now laying siege to Corregidor, raised confusion and irritation amongst the guards as many prisoners escaped. At most, only 4 Japanese soldiers could accompany each group of 300 prisoners. The march to Balanga, which was to take only one day, lasted as long as three days for some soldiers.

After reaching Balanga, it became obvious to General Kawane that his trucks could not carry more than half of the prisoners to the rail center at San Fernando. Since most of the other vehicles the Japanese had brought to the Philippines were either in repair or being used for the Battle of Corregidor, those who could not get a ride were forced to continue marching for more than 30 miles on completely unshaded roads that were sometimes made of asphalt. The thick dust swirling in the air would make it difficult for the prisoners to see and breathe while those who were walking barefoot had their feet burned on the molten asphalt. Men who refused to abandon their belongings were the first to fall. The last nine miles of the march from the town of Lubao to San Fernando were among the hardest the men would ever walk.

Those who were able to reach San Fernando alive were then locked into makeshift prisons where they were finally able to receive some level of proper and adequate medical care, food, and rest. Soon after this, however, the prisoners were jammed into freight trains that took them to Capas. Vomiting was frequent during the ride as some were even crammed or suffocated to death. After the three hour trip, which included very few stops, the prisoners then marched the 8 mile road to Camp O’Donnell.

Through the duration of nine days, a majority of the disease and grief stricken American and Filipino prisoners were forced to march as much as two-thirds of the 90 miles that separated Bataan from Camp O’Donnell. Those few who were lucky enough to travel to San Fernando on trucks still had to endure more than 25 miles of marching. Prisoners were beaten randomly and were often denied the food and water they were promised. Those who fell behind were usually executed or left to die; the sides of the roads became littered with dead bodies and those begging for help. A number of prisoners were further diminished by malaria, heat, dehydration, and dysentery. It should be noted, however, that many of the soldiers who accompanied the prisoners of war were not only Japanese, but Korean. Since they were not trusted by the Japanese to fight on the battlefield, most Koreans in the Japanese army were forbidden to participate in combat roles and delegated to such service duties as guarding prisoners. As one prisoner noted, “The Korean guards were the most abusive… the Koreans were anxious to get blood on their bayonets; and then they thought they were veterans.”

After the Bataan Death March, approximately 54,000 of the 72,000 prisoners reached their destination. The death toll of the march is difficult to assess as thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards. In some instances, prisoners were even released by their Japanese counterparts. Out of fear that the prisoners would be mistreated, Colonel Takeo Imai made the humanitarian decision of releasing more than 1,000 of his prisoners into the jungle. These acts of kindness, however, were especially rare. All told, approximately 600-650 American and 5,000-10,000 Filipino prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O’Donnell.

Camps O’Donnell and Cabanatuan

On June 6, 1942 the Filipino soldiers were granted amnesty by the Japanese military and released while the American prisoners were moved from Camp O’Donnell to Cabanatuan. Many of the survivors were later sent to prison camps in Japan, Korea, and Manchuria in prisoner transports known as “Hell Ships.” The 500 POWs who still resided at the Cabanatuan Prison Camp were freed in January 1945 in The Great Raid.

War Crimes Trial

News of this atrocity sparked outrage in the US, as shown by this propaganda poster. The newspaper clipping shown refers to the Bataan Death March.After the surrender of Japan in 1945, an Allied commission convicted General Homma of war crimes, including the atrocities of the death march out of Bataan, and the atrocities at Camp O’Donnell and Cabanatuan that followed. The general, who had been so absorbed in his efforts to capture Corregidor after the fall of Bataan, remained ignorant of the high death toll until two months after the event. His neglect would cost him his life as General Homma was executed on April 3, 1946 outside Manila.

The war came to the Philippines the same day it came to Hawaii and in the same manner – a surprise air attack. In the case of the Philippines, however, this initial strike was followed by a full-scale invasion of the main island of Luzon three days later. By early January, the American and Filipino defenders were forced to retreat to a slim defensive position on the island’s western Bataan Peninsula

 

American prisoners, some with their hands
behind their backs, get a brief respite
during the march.

The American and Filipino forces fought from an untenable position until formally surrendering to the Japanese on April 9. The Japanese immediately began to march some 76,000 prisoners (12,000 Americans, the remainder Filipinos) northward into captivity along a route of death. When three American officers escaped a year later, the world learned of the unspeakable atrocities suffered along the 60-mile journey that became known as the Bataan Death March.

Japanese butchery, disease, exposure to the blazing sun, lack of food, and lack of water took the lives of approximately 5,200 Americans along the way. Many prisoners were bayoneted, shot, beheaded or just left to die on the side of the road. “A Japanese soldier took my canteen, gave the water to a horse, and threw the canteen away,” reported one escapee. “The stronger were not permitted to help the weaker. We then would hear shots behind us.” The Japanese forced the prisoners to sit for hours in the hot sun without water. “Many of us went crazy and several died.”

The ordeal lasted five days for some and up to twelve days for others. Although the Japanese were unprepared for the large number of prisoners in their care, the root of the brutality lay in the Japanese attitude that a soldier should die before surrender. A warrior’s surrender meant the forfeiture of all rights to treatment as a human being.

After the war, the finger of blame pointed to General Masaharu Homma, commander of the Japanese troops in the Philippines. Tried for war crimes, he was convicted and executed by a firing squad on April 3, 1946.

“This was the First Murder”

Captain William Dyess was a fighter pilot stationed on Luzon when the Japanese invaded. Captured when the American forces on Bataan surrendered, he joined the Death March and was interned by the Japanese. In April 1943, Captain Dyess was one of three prisoners able to escape from their captors. Captain Dyess eventually made his way back to America where his story was published.

We join his story as he encounters his first atrocity of the March:

“The victim, an air force captain, was being searched by a three-star private. Standing by was a Jap commissioned officer, hand on sword hilt. These men were nothing like the toothy, bespectacled runts whose photographs are familiar to most newspaper readers. They were cruel of face, stalwart, and tall.

‘The private a little squirt, was going through the captain’s pockets. All at once he stopped and sucked in his breath with .a hissing sound. He had found some Jap yen.’

‘He held these out, ducking his head and sucking in his breath to attract notice. The big Jap looked at the money. Without a word he grabbed the captain by the shoulder and shoved him down to his knees. He pulled the sword out of the scabbard and raised it high over his head, holding it with both hands. The private skipped to one side.’

‘Before we could grasp what was happening, the black-faced giant had swung his sword. I remember how the sun flashed on it. There was a swish and a kind of chopping thud, like a cleaver going through beef’.

‘The captain’s head seemed to jump off his ‘shoulders. It hit the ground in front of him and went rolling crazily from side to side between the lines of prisoners.’

‘The body fell forward. I have seen wounds, but never such a gush of. blood as this. The heart continued to pump for a few seconds and at each beat there was another great spurt of blood. The white dust around our feet was turned into crimson mud. I saw the hands were opening and closing spasmodically. Then I looked away.’

‘When I looked again the big Jap had put up his sword and was strolling off. The runt who had found the yen was putting them into his pocket. He helped himself to the captain’s possessions.’

This was the first murder. . .”

Oriental Sun Treatment

As the prisoners were herded north they collided with advancing Japanese troops moving to the south, forcing a brief halt to the march:

“Eventually the road became so crowded we were marched into a clearing. Here, for two hours, we had our first taste of the oriental sun treatment, which drains the stamina and weakens the spirit.

The Japs seated us on the scorching ground, exposed to the full glare of the sun. Many of the Americans and Filipinos had no covering to protect their heads. I was beside a small bush but it cast no shade because the sun was almost directly above us. Many of the men around me were ill.

When I thought I could stand the penetrating heat no longer. I was determined to have a sip of the tepid water in my canteen. I had no more than unscrewed the top when the aluminum flask was snatched from my hands. The Jap who had crept up behind me poured the water into a horse’s nose-bag, then threw down the canteen. He walked on among the prisoners, taking away their water and pouring it into the bag. When he had enough he gave it to his horse.”

Drop-outs

The parade of death continues its journey as its members inevitably succumb to the heat, the lack of food and the lack of water:

“The hours dragged by and, as we knew they must. The drop-outs began. It seemed that a great many of the prisoners reached the end of their endurance at about the same time. They went down by twos and threes. Usually, they made an effort to rise. I never can forget their groans and strangled breathing as they tried to get up. Some succeeded. Others lay lifelessly where they had fallen.

 

American prisoners carry their comrades who are unable to walk

I observed that the Jap guards paid no attention to these. I wondered why. The explanation wasn’t long in coming. There was a sharp crackle of pistol and rifle fire behind us.

Skulking along, a hundred yards behind our contingent, came a ‘clean-up squad’ of murdering Jap buzzards. Their helpless victims, sprawled darkly against the white, of the road, were easy targets.

As members of the murder squad stooped over each huddled form, there would be an orange ‘flash in the darkness and a sharp report. The bodies were left where they lay, that other prisoners coming behind us might see them.

Our Japanese guards enjoyed the spectacle in silence for a time. Eventually, one of them who spoke English felt he should add a little spice to the entertainment.

‘Sleepee?’ he asked. ‘You want sleep? Just lie down on road. You get good long sleep!’

On through the night we were followed by orange flashes and thudding sounds.”

Arrival at San Fernando

Finally, after five days without food and limited water, the dwindling column arrives at its destination:

“The sun still was high in the sky when we straggled into San Fernando, a city of 36,000 population, and were put in a barbed wire compound similar to the one at Orani. We were seated in rows for a continuation of the sun treatment. Conditions here were the worst yet.

The prison pen was jammed with sick, dying, and dead American and Filipino soldiers. They were sprawled amid the filth and maggots that covered the ground. Practically all had dysentery. Malaria and dengue fever appeared to be running unchecked. There were symptoms of other tropical diseases I didn’t even recognize.

Jap guards had shoved the worst cases beneath the rotted flooring of some dilapidated building. Many of these prisoners already had died. The others looked as though they couldn’t survive until morning.

There obviously had been no burials for many hours.

After sunset Jap soldiers entered and inspected our rows.

Then the gate was opened again and kitchen corpsmen entered with cans of rice. We held our mess kits and again passed lids to those who had none. Our spirits rose. We watched as the Japs ladled out generous helpings to the men nearest the gate.

Then, without explanation, the cans were dragged away and the gate was closed. It was a repetition of the ghastly farce at Balanga. The fraud was much more cruel this time because our need. was vastly greater. In our bewildered state it took some time for the truth to sink in. When it did we were too discouraged even to swear.”

2

 

by Murray Montgomery

There’s an old saying I’ve heard all my life and it is just as true today as it was years ago. It states simply, “Freedom is not free!”
And should some be foolish enough to think our liberty comes without a heavy price — then I invite you to consider the sacrifices made by Russell A. Grokett, Sr. during World War II.
Grokett was part of what has been called the, “Greatest Generation.” He was raised in Kansas and lived through the Great Depression. When he was in his twenties, he joined the army and served in one of the last cavalry units in Texas. He experienced the horrors of war while involved in the Battle of the Philippines — he was imprisoned and survived the terror of the Bataan Death March.
After the war, Mr. Grokett got married and had a family. He loved to travel throughout the United States; camping and fishing in the country he helped defend.
Russell A. Grokett Sr. died of a heart attack at the age of 69.
His story has been told in the book, The Circle Is Never Broken, by Estelle Grokett. His son, Russell Grokett Jr., maintains a site on the Internet about his dad. Preserving the memory of this veteran is a family affair, as his grandson Michael A. Knox is also involved in the project.
When United States and Filipino troops surrendered to the Japanese on April 9, 1942, Grokett became a prisoner of war — he would spend the next three and a half years living in hell.
There were approximately 76,000 men involved in the surrender of the Philippines. Some 12,000 being United States troops along with 64,000 Filipinos. Nine thousand of them died as a result of the Bataan Death March.
Grokett’s description of the march is a vivid account of something so horrible, it’s hard for civilized people to even imagine. He said the prisoners, military and civilian, were made to go 24 hours without food or water in the searing heat and humidity. If a man dropped out from heat exhaustion, the Japanese guards promptly bayoneted him.
Japanese planes kept an eye on the march. Flying back and forth up and down the line. As they walked, the prisoners passed by corpse after corpse along the road. According to Grokett, “The bodies were stiff and beginning to blacken in the intense heat, already covered with flies as carrion birds tore at the flesh.”
Grokett told of a game played by the Japanese guards. He said they would amuse themselves by pushing prisoners over the cliff – the screams could be heard until they crashed upon the jagged rocks below. Grokett recalled how the Filipinos had the worst of it. “Young girls were pulled out of the ranks and raped repeatedly. Frightened mothers would rub human dung on their daughters’ faces to make them unattractive to the guards,” said Grokett.
Later on, the Japanese made the prisoners trot along at double time up a steep slope. Men were dropping everywhere and were bayoneted on the spot. As they passed along a fresh-water stream, many of the thirsty prisoners made a run for the cooling water. Those who did were shot.
Many of the prisoners contacted malaria from mosquitoes and went insane. Grokett also remembered that there was still a battle on-going at Corregidor. He said, “Big tractors pulling 250 millimeter guns toward the bay…rolled over the bodies of the dead and dying along the road.”
After the ordeal of the death march, Grokett and the others went on to spend time in prisoner-of-war (POW) camps. Later they were forced into boats to begin a voyage aboard what would later become known as, “The Hell Ships.” They were packed like sardines on these vessels for some 33 days. During that time, Dutch submarines attacked the ships — the Dutch didn’t know American prisoners were onboard.
While the ships were being attacked, Grokett remembered that the men begin screaming and pounding against the sides of the ship. “Even an animal can’t be this confined for this long without going mad,” he said.
Of the eleven ships carrying prisoners, only five survived the attack and thousands of POWs died. Before the ships finally arrived at Pusan Harbor in Korea, many of the men went insane. Some committed suicide. There were reports that several men cut their buddy’s wrist to drank the blood for lack of water.
Russell A. Grokett, Sr. and the other survivors were finally liberated on August 15, 1945.
From the very beginning, the United States has been defended by some very remarkable men and women. Throughout the years we have been allowed to enjoy our freedom because of their dedication to duty. Whenever you see an American flag, remember folks like Russell A. Grokett Sr., and all those who have died defending this great country.
And most of all remember: “Freedom is not free!”

Much as been made of Hitler’s European holocaust or the millions killed during Stalin’s purges against his own people, but was this an Asian holocaust? Approximately 15 million Chinese, Indo-Chinese, Burmese, Indonesian, Filipino, Malay, Pacific Islanders and allied prisoners of war were killed or died of neglect. During the European conflict with Nazi Germany, the death rate of Allied soldiers in captivity was 9,348 or about 4% of the total captured or surrendered. The death rate in Japanese captivity was 27%. Once the war had ended, the victorious Allies set up war crimes trials to prosecute those responsible for the atrocities that took place throughout all the Japanese held territories. It was impossible to bring every single individual who committed a crime to justice, but among the 135 Japanese war criminals hanged at Changi prison were the main high ranking officers responsible for the Sook Chingmassacre except one.
The one above all others that should have been the first to feel the hangman place the noose firmly around his neck was Lt-Col Masanobe Tsuji. It was he who had master-minded the notorious death march from Bataan and Corregidor, the slaughter of the patients and medical staff at Singapore’s Alexandra hospital, and the
Sook Ching massacre among other things. He was the most insidious, calculating, coldly brutal and singularly successful mass murderer of all the Japanese war criminals. There were many evil Japanese but he was the worst and the most wanted but he never faced trial. After a period of hiding after the war to avoid prosecution, Tsuji returned to Japan. On 1 January, 1950 the United States officially lifted Tsuji’s criminal status and now, free from possible prosecution, he became a popular author with his account of the Malayan campaign and other stories and even entered politics becoming a member of the Japanese Parliament. Due to his wartime atrocities being made public both in Japan and world wide by a fellow countryman, he prudently decided to quit Parliament and do a six-week tour of South East Asia. He was last seen on 10 June 1961 and from there on he mysteriously disappears from history. One can only hope he suffered a horrible fate.

Whilst the crimes committed against humanity by the Japanese military during the period 1931-45 in the name of the Emperor will forever stain the history of Japan, so must the victorious Allied Governments also take responsibility for a moral crime against humanity. Initially, the war crimes trials were allowed to be conducted with zeal and by dedicated people who believed in justice and or retribution for those who paid the ultimate sacrifice. It was the least their countries could do.

Pearl Harbor
On Sunday, December 7th, 1941 the Japanese launched a surprise attack against the U.S. Forces stationed at Pearl Harbor , Hawaii By planning his attack on a Sunday, the Japanese commander Admiral Nagumo, hoped to catch the entire fleet in port. As luck would have it, the Aircraft Carriers and one of the Battleships were not in port. (The USS Enterprise was returning from Wake Island , where it had just delivered some aircraft. The USS Lexington was ferrying aircraft to Midway, and the USS Saratoga and USS Colorado were undergoing repairs in the United States .)
In spite of the latest intelligence reports about the missing aircraft carriers (his most important targets), Admiral Nagumo decided to continue the attack with his force of six carriers and 423 aircraft. At a range of 230 miles north of Oahu , he launched the first wave of a two-wave attack. Beginning at 0600 hours his first wave consisted of 183 fighters and torpedo bombers which st ruck at the fleet in Pearl Harbor and the airfields in Hickam, Kaneohe and Ewa. The second strike, launched at 0715 hours, consisted of 167 aircraft, which again struck at the same targets.

At 075 3 hours the first wave consisting of 40 Nakajima B5N2 ‘Kate’ torpedo bombers, 51 Aichi D3A1 ‘Val’ dive bombers, 50 high altitude bombers and 43 Zeros struck airfields and Pearl Harbor Within the next hour, the second wave arrived and continued the attack.
When it was over, the U.S. Losses were:

Casualties

US Army: 218 KIA, 364 WIA.
US Navy: 2,008 KIA, 710 WIA.
US MarineCorp: 109 KIA, 69 WIA.
Civilians: 68 KIA, 35 WIA.
TOTAL: 2,403 KIA, 1,178 WIA.

 

Surrender of American troops at Corregidor Philippine Islands, May 1942

 

News of the Bataan Death March sparked outrage in the US, as reflected in this poster.

After the surrender of Japan in 1945, an Allied commission convicted Masaharu Homma of war crimes, including the atrocities of the death march out of Bataan, and the following atrocities at Camp O’Donnell and Cabanatuan. The general, who had been absorbed in his efforts to capture Corregidor after the fall of Bataan, claimed in his defense that he remained ignorant of the high death toll of the death march until two months after the event. He was executed on April 3, 1946 outside Manila. For unknown reasons, the Allies did not attempt to prosecute Masanobu Tsuji for war crimes. Also in Japan, Generals Hideki Tōjō (later Prime Minister), Kenji Doihara, Seishirō Itagaki, Heitarō Kimura, Iwane Matsui and Akira Muto, and Baron Kōki Hirota were found guilty in responsible to the brutal maltreatment of American and Filipino POW‘s, and were executed by hanging at Sugamo Prison in Ikebukuro on December 23, 1948. Several others were sentenced to imprisonment of between 7, 20 and 22 years

the end @ copyright 2012

 

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