The Story Behind The nice Cover Collections:Airgraph Microfilm Letters

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The Airgraph Microfilm

WW II Postal History

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Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

The Microfilming Of Mail During WW II  Collections Exhibition

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Frame One:

Introductions

1.The microfilming of Mail introduced in the France,Prussian war ,and also in another countries like British  & USA, was revived in Worl War II.

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2.History of microfiolming mail

Microfilm first saw military use during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. During the Siege of Paris, the only way for the provincial government in Tours to communicate with Paris was by pigeon post. As the pigeons could not carry paper dispatches, the Tours government turned to microfilm. Using a microphotography unit evacuated from Paris before the siege, clerks in Tours photographed paper dispatches and compressed them to microfilm, which were carried by homing pigeons into Paris and projected by magic lantern while clerks copied the dispatches onto paper.[9]

Additionally, the US Victory Mail(V-Mail)

, and the British “Airgraph” system it was based on

, were used for delivering mail between those at home and troops serving overseas during World War II. The systems worked by photographing large amounts of censored mail reduced to thumb-nail size onto reels of microfilm, which weighed much less than the originals would have. The film reels were shipped by priority air freight to and from the home fronts, sent to their prescribed destinations for enlarging at receiving stations near the recipients, and printed out on lightweight photo paper. These facsimiles of the letter-sheets were reproduced about one-quarter the original size and the miniature mails were then delivered to the addressee. Use of these microfilm systems saved significant volumes of cargo capacity needed for vital war supplies. An additional benefit was that the small, light weight reels of microfilm were almost always transported by air, and as such were much quicker than any surface mail services.

, it was sent from England during WWII, I  included the letter reflecting a note that the address must not be typewritten, odd!

No stamp required either, wonder why?

I have not seen any others like this on this or similar sites, are they uncommon, I have quite a few.

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3. The Photostat made from the microfilm

and the spesific window enveloped(Airgraph) envelope in which the message was formarded to the adress ,it was sent from IBOD government or military field  headquater to the field commander,soldier or to their family.

4. Type of Microfilming Mail

Microfilm Models: Precursors of V-Mail

V-Mail microfilm technology was a product of years of discovery and experimentation. Soon after the advent of photography in the mid 1830s, John Benjamin (J.B.) Dancer pioneered the first microphotographs by mounting images on microscope slides. The process, refined through the years with the advancement of technology and microphotography, was capable of shrinking regular documents down to a smaller size which allowed for easy transportation and cataloging. Tiny microfilmed messages were lightweight, and were processed quickly. Because of these characteristics, microphotography became a good candidate for a partnership with wartime mail as early as the 1870s.

The French Pigeon Post

In July 1870 the longtime border disputes between France and its rival Prussia erupted into the Franco-Prussian War. In September of 1871 the conflict escalated and the Prussian army’s siege of the capital effectively cut off the mail between Paris and its surrounding cities. Under these strained conditions, members of the pigeon fanciers’ society L’Esperance (“Hope”) volunteered carrier pigeons to deliver the mail. Initially, government and postal officials were skeptical of the small birds. Nevertheless, as the siege dragged on, it was apparent that a way to get the mail through the blockade was through the air.

The tiny avian messengers did not fly into Paris directly but rather were carried to the city limits by hot air balloon. Balloons seen over Paris were vulnerable to Prussian gunfire and it was safer to launch the balloons with their winged passengers outside of the city boundaries.

Several stations were set up throughout the surrounding French countryside to house the birds and their handlers. These sites also served as relay stations to help the balloons maintain communication with each other. Once a balloon was within safe range of the city, the handler would release the pigeon and the balloon would fly back to safety.

The birds had the difficult task of maneuvering around the perils of the war-torn city. The winged messengers carried the microphotographed letters inside small, quill containers. The successfully delivered microfilm was enlarged for transcription and reading.

The British Airgraph Service

In January 1941 Great Britain partnered with the Eastman Kodak Company to launch the Airgraph service. The Airgraph was created to provide a faster mail service to British forces in the Middle East and Africa. Before the Airgraph was inaugurated, ordinary letters had to be transported by ship. For a letter to travel from Cairo, Egypt to the United Kingdom took an estimated time of 24 to 30 days. The Airgraph reduced that traveling time in half because the microfilmed letters could travel by air instead of by sea. Approximately 4,500 negatives of microfilmed letters weighed just one pound, which left more room for shipping ammunition, blood plasma, and clothing.

 

Although V-Mail was modeled after Airgraph service with U.S. adaptations to the British format. The size of the Airgraph letter sheet stationery was expanded from 8 x 11 inches to 8 1/2” x 11” and the photographic-print facsimile was also enlarged from 4” x 5” to 4 1/2” x 5 1/2”. Even though these changes were seemingly small, these few extra inches gave the writer more space and helped make the tiny letters easier to read. See the 3rd and 4th images for examples of an Airgraph and a V-mail blank, respectively.

V-Mail forms also had a different address section which made for a speedier delivery. Airgraphs provided a panel for the recipient’s address and the sender was instructed to include his contact information just above the body of his letter. V-Mail stationery had two distinct boxes that separated the sender’s information from the receiver’s. This change not only cut back on misaddressed mail but also made letters easier to trace back to the original sender

5.If the collectors had the same collections please show us to made this exhibition more complete,thanks very much for show us your unusual aeroragraph microfilm of mail collections.

5. During WWII ,in 1943 starting difficult to sent airmails, and the airmail sent by ship with postmark NO AIRMAILS and we could look some pictures of the war situation in 1943 ,many areas were under Germany Hitler occupations, all mail were sencored with Nazi censored stamped, please look some of my collections from this time ,from Germany Occupations Franch area, British Prisoner of War in Germany Camp,and also other POW camps letters. and at least only microfilming mails exist until 1944 when the Allied Armed Forces starting to liberating Euro Area from Germany Hitler Occupations,

6.J have just found new informations that airgraph microfilm letter also issued for civilian in India,New Zealand ,South Afric and other counties.

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7May be some one can told us how to sent the microfiolming mails, I have heard from  senior collectors that the microfilm sent by pigeon bird(burung merpati),please comment from senior collectors .

Jakarta September 2012

the blog founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Frame Two:

No Airmail During WW II in 1943 (Dr Iwan Private Collections)

 Frame Three:

The Microfilming Of Mail (AIRGRAPH)During WWII In 1943(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame Four: The Airgraph Microfilm from several Countries(new Info)

Back in 1999,

the Late Keith Griffiths published the “New Zealand Airgraph service 1942-1945”.

In it he lists the airgraph rates and I have taken from that the following that I have on one of my exhibit pages

New Zealand. [ Important dates]
1942
October. New Zealand personnel Canada to New Zealand, via USA
Mid-November N.Z. service personnel in MEF To NZ via UK to USA

The above were despatched on 27 November and 12 December 1942, limited to 2 Airgraphs per service member. 1ts films arrived from Melbourne on 7 January 1943.

1943
January NZ forces and Civilians NZ to UK and Canada – 5d
April NZ forces and Civilians Civilian – 10d; Forces 5d
May NZ forces and Civilians Civilian – 8d; Forces 5d
June NZ forces and Civilians Civilian – 10d; Forces 5d
1944
May 1st Issue – 1½d Centennial Stamp surcharged tenpence for use on Airgraphs [see below]
August Civilian Rate reduced to 5d – all Airgraphs


It appears that a proper 8d. [civilian] rate from May 1943 would be a very rare usage, due to its short duration

 

1944

 

 

Registered cover from New Zealand in 1944 to USA

The abundant 1940 1 1/2d was overprinted with 10d in 1944 to meet the rate for airgraphs

(microfilmed letters, originally to servicemen)

 

they were an interesting little sideline of WW2.

Clause 4 of the India rules above outline the deal.

During World War II, the Airgraph was developed to enable soldiers in the field to communicate more quickly and reliably with their family and friends at home.

The sender would write their message on the message side of the form and submit it for processing. The form would be processed and a microfilm image created. A film strip with up to 10,000 airgraphs would then be sent via air to its destination.

In the event the strip were lost, another would be copied from the original. Once received, reduced size (about half-size) prints would be made and these sent to their destination in cover envelopes.

Sometimes the service would be unavailable and the original forms would be sent to the addressee. Such mailed forms are thus a form of aerogramme or airletter.

I sometimes receive the photo airgraphs in Estates as Mum’s always kept these kind of things

 

 

3 out of 4 is not bad, but the South Africa is wrong and you missed the easy one…..

Really .. this South African one below must be unique then.

(You can see the words Greetings From South Africa on the reverse side of it if you peer long enough!)

I had a feeling NZ … and Canada also did them, along with the free troop aerograms

 

The 5th one I had in mind was the 3d UK ones.

As far as I know Canada did not

The other side of the pre-paid 3d South Africa is below:

 

There was at least another Indian KGVI overprinted one, out of interest:

there were 4 India types [to my knowledge – I need to add]
The 8 annas
The 4 on 8 annas [ glen’s scan ]
The 3 annas plus 1 anna
The 3 anna alone

 

 

 

The Ceylon one was printed in one operation and has the value in same ink as the writing.

 

 

 

New Zealand airgraphs do have a story all of there own.

Because of the shortage of paper, they were concerned with the number of stamps being used on airgraphs, the civilian rate being 10d, as there was no single 10d value the PO was using either 2 x 5d or 1x 2d + 1x 8d.
They examined there stock od stamps and realised they had heeps of 1 1/2d centennial stamps, thus they overprinted them and issued 1st May 1944.

 

 

 

why the 10d NZ overprint stamp was issued!

The Ceylon seems to have suffered from rapid inflation too by the look of this one — FIVE stamp impressions!

Yours is 20c concession for Military .. this is 50c for civilians.

 

 

 

This one is pretty exotic

The KUT ones are even different again. These ones had a meter mark applied by PO prior to sale. They are known in 25c, 30c and 40c.

 

 

finish the set of 6 countries that had this postal stationery is an example of the UK one

 

 

 

Just a bit more info to fill in the story.

The airgraphs with postage already applied are generally harder to obtain because the form had to be purchased for sending. They were not saved as much as the free forms. Especially the UK ones.

My personnal opinion is that once airletters became available in mid 1944, the use of airgraphs declined and some of the purchased forms were not used as an airletter allowed for privacy.

As Glen has indicated the forms were photographed, the film sent by air, [Melbourne was the photograph centre in Australia] and averaged 10 -12 days to say get to London. In London it was processed. If all was ok then a message was sent back to Melbourne for the forms to be destroyed. This was much to do with re-cycling paper as any other reason.

there were 313,746,227 airgraphs photos and delivered under the Empire contract between 1941 and 1945.
That is a lot of recycled paper……………..

Melbourne printed 5,786,955 inwards airgraphs, of which 4,577,259 came from the London office. The smallest number was 23,888 from Colombo, Ceylon

 

The various Airgraphs look similar in function to our “V-mails” used during the war. This image shows the blank form (in red) on the right; the sides are already folded in, like an aerogramme. On the left is the photostat of a message (on photographic paper) and the small envelope it was sent in, from the US to foreign countries.

The photostat was made from whatever the sender wrote on the blank form. You could buy boxes of blank forms very cheaply, I think 25 for 50 cents.

To my knowledge, none of the various V-mails ever had imprinted postage; it was always added with stamps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

A British Air Ministry Photo which on the back reads,

 

Smiling happily at the news from home, this airman reads his airgraph letter, one of the first to arrive in the middle east, 3/10/1941

 

 

 

 

 

Ladies sorting the airgraph forms into destinations

 

 

 

 

 

Processing the film on paper rolls

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Seeing its getting near to Xmas time, this one below I beleive was mailed rather than get processed

it might be an idea to re-name this thread World War 2 Air graphs – be handy for folks searching on the web down the track

Happy for it to be renamed.

I might add if anyone has any airgraphs, especially forms etc, drop me an email.
Since the items seem to be spelled both ways, Airgraph and Air Graph, recommend that the thread title contain both forms, for easy searching down the line

There is only one way to spell it. Airgraph.
I have yet to see one form or official printed document issued by any post office that has the word split.

 

Undoubtedly you are right, but entering “air graph” into SB search gives 155 hits. I didn’t look at them for context.
a further Ceylon sample. This forces one I picked up at a European Auction is ble rather than my Grey example shown earlier.

 

 sorry the illustrations not upload,!!!!!!!!!

please look at the complete CD-ROM.please subscribed as the premium member via comment

(Dr Iwan Note)

the KGVI embossing gives us a time line.

The quarto size means either a large form like a newspaper wrapper .. or possibly a pre-paid form for telegram transmission.

Or war time ‘air-graph’ transmission or the like?

 

, India was one of only 5 countries [colonies] to actually issue

 Airgraph Postal Stationery.

All the rest inclulding Australia issued forms but the sender had to apply the postage.

Can anyone name the other 4 countries [colonies] that issued the actual forms as postal stationery ?

Some others that come to mind via random guess are Palestine, Ceylon, Kenya/East Africa, and South Africa

they were an interesting little sideline of WW2.  Clause 4 of the India rules above outline the deal. During World War II, the Airgraph was developed to enable soldiers in the field to communicate more quickly and reliably with their family and friends at home.
The sender would write their message on the message side of the form and submit it for processing. The form would be processed and a microfilm image created. A film strip with up to 10,000 airgraphs would then be sent via air to its destination.
In the event the strip were lost, another would be copied from the original. Once received, reduced size (about half-size) prints would be made and these sent to their destination in cover envelopes.

Sometimes the service would be unavailable and the original forms would be sent to the addressee. Such mailed forms are thus a form of aerogramme or airletter.

I sometimes receive the photo airgraphs in Estates as Mum’s always kept these kind of things.

 

3 out of 4 is not bad, but the South Africa is wrong and you missed the easy one…..


Really .. this South African one below must be unique then.

(You can see the words Greetings From South Africa on the reverse side of it if you peer long enough!)

I had a feeling NZ … and Canada also did them, along with the free troop aerograms.

The 5th one I had in mind was the 3d UK ones.

As far as I know Canada did not

Frame Five:The microform (Microfilming Mail) Historic collections

Digital scanning of microfilm (see Digital conversion below).

Microforms are any form, either films or paper, containing microreproductions[1] of documents for transmission, storage, reading, and printing. Microform images are commonly reduced about 25 times from the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used.

All microform images may be provided as positives or negatives, more often the latter.

Three formats are common: microfilm (reels), aperture cards and microfiche (flat sheets). Microcards, a format no longer produced, were similar to microfiche, but printed on cardboard rather than photographic film.

Contents

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History

Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce micro-photographs, in 1839. He achieved a reduction ratio of 160:1. Dancer perfected his reduction procedures with Frederick Scott Archer’s wet collodion process, developed in 1850–51, but he dismissed his decades-long work on micro-photographs as a personal hobby, and did not document his procedures. The idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, which called the process “somewhat trifling and childish.”[2]

Microphotography was first suggested as a document preservation method in 1851 by James Glaisher, an astronomer, and in 1853 by John Herschel. Both men attended the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, where the exhibit on photography greatly influenced Glaisher. He called it “the most remarkable discovery of modern times,” and argued in his official report for using microphotography to preserve documents.[3]

The developments in microphotography continued through the next decades, but it was not until the turn of the century that its potential for practical usage was seized by a wider audience. In 1896, Canadian engineer Reginald A. Fessenden suggested microforms were a compact solution to engineers’ unwieldy but frequently consulted materials. He proposed that up to 150,000,000 words could be made to fit in a square inch, and that a one foot cube could contain 1.5 million volumes.[4]

In 1906, Paul Otlet and Robert Goldschmidt proposed the livre microphotographique as a way to alleviate the cost and space limitations imposed by the codex format.[5] Otlet’s overarching goal was to create a World Center Library of Juridical, Social and Cultural Documentation, and he saw microfiche as way to offer a stable and durable format that was inexpensive, easy to use, easy to reproduce, and extremely compact. In 1925, the team spoke of a massive library where each volume existed as master negatives and positives, and where items were printed on demand for interested patrons.[6]

In the decade of the 1920s microfilm began to be used in a commercial setting. New York City banker George McCarthy was issued a patent in 1925 for his “Checkograph” machine, designed to make micrographic copies of cancelled checks for permanent storage by financial institutions. In 1928, the Eastman Kodak Company bought McCarthy’s invention and began marketing check microfilming devices under its “Recordak” division.[7]

Between 1927 and 1935, the Library of Congress microfilmed more than three million pages of books and manuscripts in the British Library;[8] in 1929 the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies joined to create a Joint Committee on Materials Research, which looked closely at microform’s potential to serve small print runs of academic or technical materials; in 1933, Charles C. Peters developed a method to microformat dissertations; in 1934 the United States National Agriculture Library implemented the first microform print-on-demand service, which was quickly followed by a similar commercial concern, Science Service.[4]

In 1935, Kodak’s Recordak division began filming and publishing The New York Times on reels of 35 millimeter microfilm, ushering in the era of newspaper preservation on film.[7] This method of information storage received the sanction of the American Library Association at it annual meeting in 1936, when it officially endorsed microforms.

Harvard University Library was the first major institution to realize the potential of microfilm to preserved broadsheets printed on high-acid newsprint and it launched its “Foreign Newspaper Project” to preserve such ephemeral publications in 1938.[7] Roll microfilm proved far more satisfactory as a storage medium than earlier methods of film information storage, such as the Photoscope, the Film-O-Graph, the Fiske-O-Scope, and filmslides.

The year 1938 also saw another major event in the history of microfilm when University Microfilms International (UMI) was established by Eugene Power.[7] For the next half century, UMI would dominate the field, filming and distributing microfilm editions of current and past publications and academic dissertations. After another short-lived name change, UMI was made a part of ProQuest Information and Learning in 2001.

 Uses

Systems that mount microfilm images in punched cards have been widely used for archival storage of engineering information.

For example, when airlines demand archival engineering drawings to support purchased equipment (in case the vendor goes out of business, for example), they normally specified punch-card-mounted microfilm with an industry-standard indexing system punched into the card. This permits automated reproduction, as well as permitting mechanical card-sorting equipment to sort and select microfilm drawings.

Aperture card mounted microfilm is roughly 3% of the size and space of conventional paper or vellum engineering drawings. Some military contracts around 1980 began to specify digital storage of engineering and maintenance data because the expenses were even lower than microfilm, but these programs are now finding it difficult to purchase new readers for the old formats.

Microfilm first saw military use during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. During the Siege of Paris, the only way for the provincial government in Tours to communicate with Paris was by pigeon post. As the pigeons could not carry paper dispatches, the Tours government turned to microfilm. Using a microphotography unit evacuated from Paris before the siege, clerks in Tours photographed paper dispatches and compressed them to microfilm, which were carried by homing pigeons into Paris and projected by magic lantern while clerks copied the dispatches onto paper.[9]

Additionally, the US Victory Mail, and the British “Airgraph” system it was based on, were used for delivering mail between those at home and troops serving overseas during World War II. The systems worked by photographing large amounts of censored mail reduced to thumb-nail size onto reels of microfilm, which weighed much less than the originals would have. The film reels were shipped by priority air freight to and from the home fronts, sent to their prescribed destinations for enlarging at receiving stations near the recipients, and printed out on lightweight photo paper. These facsimiles of the letter-sheets were reproduced about one-quarter the original size and the miniature mails were then delivered to the addressee. Use of these microfilm systems saved significant volumes of cargo capacity needed for vital war supplies. An additional benefit was that the small, light weight reels of microfilm were almost always transported by air, and as such were much quicker than any surface mail services.Please look the collections I have found uring google explorations below:

World War II – Prisoners of War – Stalag Luft I 

A collection of stories, photos, art and information on Stalag Luft I

 

 

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V-MailOctober 24, 1944Dearest Son,        As no mail seems to be coming through to us from you (your last letter we received two weeks ago), I’m sure you must be having some trouble so I’m going to try V-Mail.  Martha hasn’t heard from Emory in over ten days but today a V-Mail letter to Lola came in – as slow as this type letter is, it must be better than airmail, until this condition gets better what ever the condition, I don’t know.        Daddy has written you every day for 4 straight weeks now.  I write once a week, as I told you in my last letter, I can’t think of a thing to write because he writes it all.  Every thing I hear I tell him so he can have something to say.  He is proud of his record of letters to you.  Be sure to brag on him, etc.        Lewis Mitchell is here and looks great in his uniform.  I heard some one go in the other door and whistle your whistle – boy my heart did flip-flops.  I rushed over and there stood “Brer”.  No one’s here for him to play around with so it’s going to be pretty lonesome.        Jeannie and Mr. White haven’t heard from Hugh in over a month.  I feel so sorry for them.  They have asked the Red Cross to get in touch with him and find out what’s the matter.        Sister and Ben may come home to live.  Will write more later.                                         Love,                                                MotherP.S.  Am praying for your safe return each night.Here’s Brer Mitchell:Hello Dick,Hold everything down until my gang and I get over there.  Best of luck too.   Brer
 
Scan of the V-mail letter 

What is V- Mail?
During the latter years of World War II,  V-Mail became a popular way to correspond with a loved one serving overseas. V-mail consisted of miniaturized messages reproduced by microphotography from 16mm film. The system of microfilming letters was based on the use of special V-mail letter-sheets, which were a combination of letter and envelope. The letter-sheets were constructed and gummed so as to fold into a uniform and distinctively marked envelope.  The user wrote the message in the limited space provided, added the name and address of the recipient, folded the form, affixed postage, if necessary, and mailed the letter. The V-mail correspondence was then reduced to thumb-nail size on microfilm.  The rolls of film were flown across the world and then developed at destinations closest to the recipient’s position.  Finally, individual facsimiles of the V-mail letter-sheets, which were about one-quarter the original size, were then mailed and delivered to the addressee.The development of the V-Mail system reduced the time it took a soldier to receive a letter by a month – from six weeks by boat to twelve days or less by air.  However, the main advantage of V-Mail was its compact nature. Reduction in the size and weight of the letters translated into more space for crucial military supplies on cargo planes.  One roll of film weighing about 7 ounces could hold over 1,500 letters.  Putting that another way, two pounds of microfilm replaced 100 pounds of letters!  Over a billion letters (556,513,795 pieces of V-mail were sent from the U.S. to military post offices and over 510 million pieces were received from military personnel abroad) were sent via V-mail between 1942 and 1945.  Think of it as the earliest form of e-mail. Americans on the home-front were encouraged by the government and private businesses to use V-Mail. Letters from home were compared to “a five minute furlough,” and advertisements that instructed how, when, and what to write in a V-Mail reached a peak in 1944. Letters were to be cheerful, short, and frequent. V-Mail made it possible for servicemen halfway across the world to hear news from home on a weekly basis.
     

A package of V-Mail letters
 
 
Outside of the letter
 

Inside of the letter
 
     
 
Instructions for sending V-Mail
 
 
   

Example of V-mail letter on sending side

Example of V-mail letter on receiving side

Libraries began using microfilm in the mid-20th century as a preservation strategy for deteriorating newspaper collections. Books and newspapers that were deemed in danger of decay could be preserved on film and thus access and use could be increased. Microfilming was also a space-saving measure. In his 1945 book, “The Scholar and the Future of the Research Library,” Fremont Rider calculated that research libraries were doubling in space every sixteen years. His suggested solution was microfilming, specifically with his invention, the microcard. Once items were put onto film, they could be removed from circulation and additional shelf space would be made available for rapidly expanding collections. The microcard was superseded by microfiche. By the 1960s, microfilming had become standard policy.

Visa and National City use microfilm to store bank statements, and produce microfilm, from digital records, that is placed into storage.

 Advantages

The medium has numerous advantages:

  • It enables libraries to greatly expand access to collections without putting rare, fragile, or valuable items at risk of theft or damage.
  • It is compact, with far smaller storage costs than paper documents. Normally 98 document size pages fit on one fiche, reducing to about 0.25% original material. When compared to filing paper, microforms can reduce space storage requirements by up to 95%.[10]
  • It is cheaper to distribute than paper copy. Most microfiche services get a bulk discount on reproduction rights, and have lower reproduction and carriage costs than a comparable amount of printed paper.
  • It is a stable archival form when properly processed and stored. Preservation standard microfilms use the silver halide process, creating silver images in hard gelatin emulsion on a polyester base. With appropriate storage conditions, this film has a life expectancy of 500 years.[11] Unfortunately, in tropical climates with high humidity, fungus eats the gelatin used to bind the silver halide. Thus, diazo-based systems with lower archival lives (20 years) which have polyester or epoxysurfaces are used.
  • Since it is analog (an actual image of the original data), it is easy to view. Unlike digitalmedia, the format requires no software to decode the data stored thereon. It is instantly comprehensible to persons literate in the language; the only equipment that is needed is a simple magnifying glass. This eliminates the problem of software obsolescence.
  • It is virtually impossible to mutilate. Users cannot tear pages from or deface microforms.
  • It has low intrinsic value and does not attract thieves. Few heavily-used microform collections suffer any losses due to theft.
  • Prints from microfilm are accepted in legal proceedings as substitutes for original documents.

Disadvantages

  • The principal disadvantage of microforms is that the image is (usually) too small to read with the naked eye. Libraries must use either special readers that project full-size images on a ground-glass or frosted acrylic screen or a modern Viewer/Scanner which converts the image from analog to digital -see section below on Digital Conversion.
  • Reader machines used to view microfilm are often difficult to use, requiring users to carefully wind and rewind until they have arrived at the point where the data they are looking for is stored.
  • Photographic illustrations reproduce poorly in microform format, with loss of clarity and halftones. However the latest electronic digital viewer/scanners have the ability to scan in gray shade which greatly increases the quality of photographs, but they still can not duplicate the nuances of true gray shade photographs -due to the inherent bi-tonal nature of microfilm.
  • Reader-printers are not always available, limiting the user’s ability to make copies for their own purposes. Conventional photocopy machines cannot be used.[12]
  • Color microform is extremely expensive, thus discouraging most libraries supplying color films. Color photographic dyes also tend to degrade over the long term. This results in the loss of information, as color materials are usually photographed using black and white film.[12]
  • When stored in the highest-density drawers, it is easy to misfile a fiche, which is thereafter unavailable. As a result, some libraries store microfiche in a restricted area and retrieve it on demand. Some fiche services use lower-density drawers with labeled pockets for each card.
  • Like all analog media formats, microfiche is lacking in features enjoyed by users of digital media. Analog copies degrade with each generation, while digital copies have much higher copying fidelity. Digital data can also be indexed and searched easily.
  • Reading microfilms on a machine for some time may cause headache and/or eyestrain.

 Readers and printers

Desktop readers are boxes with a translucent screen at the front on to which is projected an image from a microform. They have suitable fittings for whatever microform is in use. They may offer a choice of magnifications. They usually have motors to advance and rewind film. When coding blips are recorded on the film a reader is used that can read the blips to find any required image.

Portable readers are plastic devices that fold for carrying; when open they project an image from microfiche on to a reflective screen. For example, with M. de Saint Rat, Atherton Seidell developed a simple, inexpensive ($2.00 in 1950), monocular microfilm viewing device, known as the “Seidell viewer,” that was sold during the 1940s and 1950s.[13]

A microfilm printer contains a xerographic copying process, like a photocopier. The image to be printed is projected with synchronised movement on to the drum. These devices offer either small image preview for the operator or full size image preview, when it is called a reader printer. Microform printers can accept positive or negative films and positive or negative images on paper. New machines allow the user to scan a microform image and save it as a digital file -see the section below on Digital conversion.

Media

Microfilm roll

Aperture card with hollerith info

A duped jacket fiche

Flat film 
105 x 148 mm flat film is used for micro images of very large engineering drawings. These may carry a title photographed or written along one edge. Typical reduction is about 20, representing a drawing that is 2.00 x 2.80 metres, that is 79 x 110 in. These films are stored as microfiche.
Microfilm 
16 mm or 35 mm film to motion picture standard is used, usually unperforated. Roll microfilm is stored on open reels or put into cassettes. The standard lengths for using roll film is 30.48 m (100 ft)for 35mm rolls, and 100 ft, 130 ft and 215 feet for 16mm rolls. One roll of 35 mm film may carry 600 images of large engineering drawings or 800 images of broadsheet newspaper pages. 16 mm film may carry 2,400 images of letter sized images as a single stream of micro images along the film set so that lines of text are parallel to the sides of the film or 10,000 small documents, perhaps cheques or betting slips, with both sides of the originals set side by side on the film.
Aperture cards 
Aperture cards are Hollerith cards into which a hole has been cut. A 35 mm microfilm chip is mounted in the hole inside of a clear plastic sleeve, or secured over the aperture by an adhesive tape. They are used for engineering drawings, for all engineering disciplines. There are libraries of these containing over 3 million cards. Aperture cards may be stored in drawers or in freestanding rotary units.
Microfiche 
A microfiche is a flat film 105 x 148 mm in size, that is ISO A6. It carries a matrix of micro images. All microfiche are read with text parallel to the long side of the fiche. Frames may be landscape or portrait. Along the top of the fiche a title may be recorded for visual identification. The most commonly used format is a portrait image of about 10 x 14 mm. Office size papers or magazine pages require a reduction of 24 or 25. Microfiche are stored in open top envelopes which are put in drawers or boxes as file cards, or fitted into pockets in purpose made books.
Ultrafiche 
(also ‘ultramicrofiche’) is an exceptionally compact version of a microfiche or microfilm, storing analog data at much higher densities. Ultrafiche can be created directly from computers using appropriate peripherals. They are typically used for storing data gathered from extremely data-intensive operations such as remote sensing.

 Image creation

To create microform media, a planetary camera is mounted with the vertical axis above a copy that is stationary during exposure. High volume output is possible with a rotary camera which moves the copy smoothly through the camera to expose film which moves with the reduced image. Alternatively, it may be produced by computers, i.e. COM (computer output microfilm).

Film

Normally microfilming uses high resolution panchromatic monochrome stock. Positive color film giving good reproduction and high resolution can also be used. Roll film is provided 16, 35 and 105 mm wide in lengths of 30 metres (100 ft) and longer, and is usually unperforated. Roll film is developed, fixed and washed by continuous processors.

Sheet film is supplied in ISO A6 size. This is either processed by hand or using a dental X-ray processor. Camera film is supplied ready mounted in aperture cards. Aperture cards are developed, fixed and washed immediately after exposure by equipment fitted to the camera.

Early cut sheet microforms and microfilms (to the 1930s) were printed on nitrate film, which poses high risks to their holding institutions, as nitrate film is explosive and flammable. From the late 1930s to the 1980s, microfilms were usually printed on a cellulose acetate base, which is prone to tears, vinegar syndrome, and redox blemishes. Vinegar syndrome is the result of chemical decay and produces “buckling and shrinking, embrittlement, and bubbling”.[14] Redox blemishes are yellow, orange or red spots 15–150 micrometres in diameter created by oxidative attacks on the film, and are largely due to poor storage conditions.[15]

 Cameras

Flat film

The simplest microfilm camera that is still in use is a rail mounted structure at the top of which is a bellows camera for 105 x 148 mm film. A frame or copy board holds the original drawing vertical. The camera has a horizontal axis which passes through the centre of the copy. The structure may be moved horizontally on rails.

In a darkroom a single film may be inserted into a dark slide or the camera may be fitted with a roll film holder which after an exposure advances the film into a box and cuts the frame off the roll for processing as a single film.

Roll film

For engineering drawings a freestanding open steel structure is often provided. A camera may be moved vertically on a track. Drawings are placed on a large table for filming, with centres under the lens. Fixed lights illuminate the copy. These cameras are often over 3 metres (10 feet) high. These cameras accept roll film stock of 35 or 16 mm.

For office documents a similar design may be used but bench standing. This is a smaller version of the camera described above. These are provided either with the choice of 16 or 35 mm film or accepting 16 mm film only. Non adjustable versions of the office camera are provided. These have a rigid frame or an enveloping box that holds a camera at a fixed position over a copy board. If this is to work at more than one reduction ratio there are a choice of lenses.

Some cameras expose a pattern of light, referred to as blips, to digitally identify each adjacent frame. This pattern is copied whenever the film is copied for searching.

Flow roll film cameras

A camera is built into a box. In some versions this is for bench top use, other versions are portable. The operator maintains a stack of material to be filmed in a tray, the camera automatically takes one document after another for advancement through the machine. The camera lens sees the documents as they pass a slot. Film behind the lens advances exactly with the image.

Special purpose flow cameras film both sides of documents, putting both images side by side on 16 mm film. These cameras are used to record cheques and betting slips.

Microfiche camera

All microfiche cameras are planetary with a step and repeat mechanism to advance the film after each exposure. The simpler versions use a dark slide loaded by the operator in a dark room; after exposure the film is individually processed, which may be by hand or using a dental X-ray processor. Cameras for high output are loaded with a roll of 105 mm film. The exposed film is developed as a roll; this is sometimes cut to individual fiche after processing or kept in roll form for duplication.

Computer Output Microfilm
Computer Output Microfilm card

Equipment is available that accepts a data stream from a mainframe computer. This exposes film to produce images as if the stream had been sent to a line printer and the listing had been microfilmed. Because of the source one run may represent many thousands of pages.

Within the equipment character images are made by a light source; this is the negative of text on paper. COM is sometimes processed normally. Other applications require that image appears as a conventional negative; the film is then reversal processed. This outputs either 16 mm film or fiche pages on a 105 mm roll.

Because listing characters are a simple design, a reduction ratio of 50 gives good quality and puts about 300 pages on a microfiche. A microfilm plotter, sometimes called an aperture card plotter, accepts a stream that might be sent to a computer pen plotter. It produces corresponding frames of microfilm. These produce microfilm as 35 or 16 mm film or aperture cards.

Duplication

All regular microfilm copying involves contact exposure under pressure. Then the film is processed to provide a permanent image. Hand copying of a single fiche or aperture card involves exposure over a light box and then individually processing the film. Roll films are contact exposed via motor, either round a glass cylinder or through a vacuum, under a controlled light source. Processing may be in the same machine or separately.

Silver halide film is a slow version of camera film with a robust top coat. It is suitable for prints or for use as an intermediate from which further prints may be produced. The result is a negative copy. Preservation standards require a master negative, a duplicate negative, and a service copy (positive). Master negatives are kept in deep storage, and duplicate negatives are used to create service copies, which are the copies available to researchers. This multi-generational structure ensures the preservation of the master negative.

Diazo-sensitised film for dye coupling in ammonia gives blue or black dye positive copies. The black image film can be used for further copying.

Vesicular film is sensitised with a diazo dye, which after exposure is developed by heat. Where light has come to the film remains clear, in the areas under the dark image the diazo compound is destroyed quickly, releasing millions of minute bubbles of nitrogen into the film. This produces an image that diffuses light. It produces a good black appearance in a reader, but it cannot be used for further copying.

Modern microfilming standards require that a master set of films be produced and set aside for safe storage, used only to make service copies. When service copies get lost or damaged, another set can be produced from the masters, thus reducing the image degradation that results from making copies of copies.

 Format conversion

These conversions may be applied to camera output or to release copies. Single microfiche are cut from rolls of 105 mm film. A bench top device is available that enables an operator to cut exposed frames of roll film and fit these into ready made aperture cards.

Transparent jackets are made A5 size each with 6 pockets into which strips of 16 mm film may be inserted (or fewer pockets for 35 mm strips), so creating microfiche jackets or jacketed microfiche. Equipment allows an operator to insert strips from a roll of film. This is particularly useful as frames may be added to a fiche at any time. The pockets are made using a thin film so that duplicates may be made from the assembled fiche.

 Digital conversion

Another type of conversion is microform to digital. This is done using an optical scanner that projects the film onto a CCD array and captures it in a raw digital format. Until recently, since the different types of microform are dissimilar in shape and size, the scanners were usually able to handle only one type of microform at a time. There are some scanners that have the possibility of swapping modules for the different microform types and the latest viewer/scanner can accept any microform (roll, fiche, opaque cards, fiche,and/or aperture cards). Software (normally on the scanner itself, but more recently in an attached PC) is then used to convert the raw capture into a standard image format for archival.

The physical condition of microfilm greatly impacts the quality of the digitized copy. Microfilm with a cellulose acetate base (popular through the 1970s) is frequently subject to vinegar syndrome, redox blemishes, and tears, and even preservation standard silver halide film on a polyester base can be subject to silvering and degradation of the emulsion—all issues which affect the quality of the scanned image.

Digitizing microfilm can be inexpensive when automated scanners are employed. The Utah Digital Newspapers Program has found that, with automated equipment, scanning can be performed at $0.15 per page.[16] Recent additions to the digital scanner field have brought the cost of scanning down substantially so that when large projects are scanned (millions of pages) the price per scan can be pennies.

Modern microform scanners utilize 8 bit gray shade scanning arrays and are thus able to provide quite high quality scans in a wealth of different digital formats (CCITT Group IV which is compressed black & white -bitonal, JPG or JPEG which is gray or color compression, bitmaps which are not compressed, or a number of other (some proprietary) formats such as PDF, LZW, GIF, etc.). These modern scanners are also able to scan at “Archival” resolution up to 600 dpi.

For the resulting files to be useful, they must be organized in some way. This can be accomplished in a variety of different ways, dependent on the source media and the desired usage. In this regard, aperture cards with Hollerith information are probably the easiest since image data can be extracted from the card itself if the scanner supports it. Some types of microfilm will contain a counter next to the images, these can be referenced to an already existing database. Other microfilm reels will have a ‘blip’ system: small marks next to the images of varying lengths used to indicate document hierarchy (longest: root, long: branch, short: leaf). If the scanner is able to capture and process these then the image files can be arranged in the same manner. Optical character recognition (OCR) is also frequently employed to provide automated full-text searchable files. Common issues that affect the accuracy of OCR applied to scanned images of microfilm include unusual fonts, faded printing, shaded backgrounds, fragmented letters, skewed text, curved lines and bleed through on the originals.[16] For film types with no distinguishing marks, or when OCR is impossible (handwriting, layout issues, degraded text), the data must be entered in manually; a very time consuming process.

the end @ copyright dr iwan suwandy 2010

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2 Responses to The Microfilming Of Mail During World War II Exhibition

  1. I do agree with all of the ideas you’ve presented in your post. They’re very convincing and will certainly work. Still, the posts are too short for novices. Could you please extend them a little from next time? Thanks for the post.

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