The Euro World War II Prologue

this is the sample  of Dr Iwan E-Book In Cd-Rom limited edition without illustrations, the complete info with illustrations and editing exist but only for Premiuum member,please subcribed via comment

 

The Euro world War II

Prologue 1933-1938

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors Copyright@2012

Praface

I have found the Postal history Postally Used cover Euro World War II Included Mediterianian,Africa and Middle East World War II from Mr Suwito Haesono at jakarta in 1994 which he bought from Euro Auctions, and he did not collected this topic, from this collection I started to research the related informations and collected other kind of picture and document collections,

In 2007 I found another best euro world war II collections from Stampdom trader at Kota Kinibalu(before Jesseltown) Sabah Malaysia(before Norrh Borneo),

after that I am starting to write and seeking more related collections until this day. Now The reaseach are finish and I editing the informations in E-Book In CD-Rom Special for senior collector.

I know that this informations still not complete, that is why comment,corrections and ore info still need.

I hope this informations will given more new info for the senior collectors and special to the family of the Soldiers who joined this war and given a sweet remembrance for them

Jakarta December,14th.2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA PROLOG .

The WRAF Women in the Blue

Approximately 500 women served abroad after 1919, service which set a new precedent for the world. The time the women abroad gave the Allied forces a favourable impression of

the WRAF.

They served on ten units in France and Germany, all without a complaint or any of the problems most feared by those who thought that mixing male and female service personnel was a mistake.

Once back in England, however it was not long before the demob procedures were started and the WRAF finally disbanded

on 1st April 1920,

only two years after it had been formed. Post-war, there were many indicators that society’s view of women was fast changing.

During the 1920

‘s women could first obtain the contraceptive pill, and as a result of the women’s war effort, fashion changed as trousers and shorter skirts became acceptable.

Women had begun to win their battle of the sexes, at least in some areas. Another change occurred during the 1930’s when the tobacco companies deemed it acceptable for women to smoke! During the slump and general depression of the 1920’s/30’s,

women found it necessary to obtain work as and when they could to better support the family.

This set many new precedents, as for the first time it was openly accepted that there was a role for women in the workplace, as well as for more traditional roles.

Things started to change on a huge scale. Oddly, it was sometimes easier for some women than men to obtain work, as the slump made it necessary to cut hours and work shorter days.

Many women found they could still bring up their children at the same time as working, because they could work around school hours

The Polish Airforce 1918 — 1939

The modern history of Poland is reflected in its pioneering spirit towards aviation in the inter-war years’.

While the Twenty Years of Independence (Niepodelosc) marked the re-emergence of Poland at the Treaty of Versailles, no other re-emerging nation received such gratuitous abuse and derision (Davies, 1981) from diplomats and politicians across Europe.

While Poland re-emerged from the vacuum left in central European politics through the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, its very existence was to be repeatedly challenged through to the latter part of this century.

As a divided nation Poles had fought for and against the major armies of Europe. Within three years of its re-emergence, Poland had fought forces from Germany, Lithuania, the Ukraine and Russia over the sovereignty of land.

While Polish politicians like Dmowski wanted frontiers based upon ethnic boundaries, many Poles sought the former glory of the Polish —

Lithuanian Commonwealth which had existed at the end of the eighteenth century. The ‘Polish Question’ had dogged politicians both during war and at the Treaty of Versailles.

Friction caused by complex ethnic boundaries and contested cities, ultimately led to the outbreak of war.

The first operational flight of the Polish Airforce took place on 5th November 1918

from Lewandówka airfield against Ukrainian nationalistic forces attacking Lwów (Zamoyski, 1995). Janusz de Beaurain and Stefan Bastyr piloted a plane cannibalised from parts of other aircraft that was assembled while mechanics and the airfield was under attack. Painted in the Polish colours of white and red, it made its first sortie and the emergence of a new fighting arm.

Many Poles on returning ‘home’ after the Great War brought new skills in aviation whether they were pilots, mechanics or engineers.

Contemporary historians tend to forget or minimize Polish achievement throughout history.

It was a Pole who built the first helicopter in Russia in 1903.

Prince Stanislaw Lubomirski had set up a flying school and aircraft works at Mokotów, just outside Warsaw and built the first Polish designed plane in 1910.

Also, in the same year Grzegorz Piotrowski had flown a record 23 miles over water from St. Petersburg to Kronstadt. In 1914 Jan Nagórski made the first Arctic flight.

While Flight had captured the hearts and minds of many young men, key members of the military were a little more ambivalent towards the role and effectiveness of an airforce.

Numerous Poles were introduced to the delights of flight either through pleasure trips or from ‘joining-up’

as this was cheaper than private lessons. Not all introductions to flying or flight were in this manner as the following story in Tygodnik Podhalanski reported.

Zenon Krzeptowski and a group of friends were playing in the lush meadows around Zakopane at the foot of the Tatry mountains’.

A gentleman flying an early bi-plane found himself ‘shot-down’ by a group of schoolboys and their catapults. Most of the culprits fled, leaving Zenon to face the wrath of his father, Jan and forfeiture of his pocket money. PZL 11, 2â?

Reg. As a fledgling state, Poland was fortunate in that large amounts of war material and ordnance which had been abandoned by the various retreating forces, particularly the Germans who left disassembled aircraft in hangars at Poznan (Koniarek, 1994).

While Marshall Jozef Pilsudski amalgamated and remodelled a new army through the use of French military advisors, the Polish Airforce (Lotnictwo Wojskowe) began to take shape. French military advisers also played an important role and so did a number of key individuals. Lieutenant Stefan Stec flew a ‘liberated’

Fokker D.V to Warsaw in November 1918 decorated in his personal colours of the red and white chequerboard with a border of complimentary colours which became adopted as the national insignia (Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995).

Two Americans, Major Cederic E. Fauntleroy and Captain Merian C. Cooper volunteered to fight and help train airmen after observing the Allies (which included Polish units) marching up the Champs-Elysées

on 14th July 1919

after hearing the Soviets were threatening Poland. No. 7 Squadron largely consisted of American volunteers, some fifteen in all (Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) who fought with distinction during the 1920-1930

Strategy During the 1920s and 1930s

British and French strategic concepts had stagnated. The generals expected to fight a future war in which defence rather than attack would dominate.

They believed that set-piece battles would develop slowly and be dominated by infantry and artillery. They put their faith in the Maginot Line, France’s fortified border with Germany.

Ignoring the lessons learnt during the battles of 1918, tanks and aircraft were largely cast in a supporting role Polish-Bolshevik War 1919 — 1921.

The Squadron was named after Tadeusz Kosiuszko, the Polish general who fought in the United States during the Revolutionary War.

Lieutenant Elliot Chess designed the famous squadron insignia.

The thirteen blue stars and stripes represent the original American colonies. In the centre, crossed scythes reforged as lances and a four-cornered hat represents Poland’s insurrection against Russia in the 19th Century (Koniarek, 1994). (No. 7 Kosciuszko Squadron flew with distinction as part of the famous 303 Squadron in the Second World War). Plage and Laskiewicz (Lublin) R.XVIIID As a fledgling state,

Poland could not match the inter-war arms race between Germany, Britain, France, Italy or Soviet Russia.

The early years of Lotnictwo Wojskowe saw the development of Europe’s second largest airforce under the direction of General Wlodzimierz Zagorski and later General Ludomil Rayski who may be regarded as the driving force behind Poland’s military aviation industry.

By 1929

the PZL (Panstwowe Zaklady Lotnicze) P.1 had flown. This all metal, gull winged aircraft was an advanced fighting machine and largely went for export to countries like Rumania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece.

By 1936

15 Squadrons were equipped and then General Ludomil Rayski shifted the production of aircraft towards bomber production at the expense of fighter development and up-grading.

In 1934 work had begun on the PZL P.37 Los bomber which began to enter service

in In 1932, German President Paul von Hindenburg, old, tired, and a bit senile, had won re-election as president, but had lost a considerable portion of his right/conservative support to the Nazi Party.

Those close to the president wanted a cozier relationship to Hitler and the Nazis.

Hindenburg had contempt for the Nazis’ lawlessness, but ultimately agreed to oust his chancellor, Heinrich Bruning, for Franz von Papen, who was willing to appease the Nazis by lifting the ban on Hitler’s Brown Shirts and unilaterally canceling Germany’s reparation payments, imposed by the Treaty of Versailles at the close of World War I . 1933

But Hitler was not appeased.

He wanted the chancellorship for himself. Papen’s policies failed on another front:

His authoritarian rule alienated his supporters, and he too was forced to resign. He then made common cause with Hitler, persuading President Hindenburg to appoint Hitler chancellor and himself vice-chancellor.

He promised the president that he would restrain Hitler’s worst tendencies and that a majority of the Cabinet would go to non-Nazis. As Hindenburg’s current chancellor could no longer gain a majority in the Reichstag, and Hitler could bring together a larger swath of the masses and a unified right/conservative/nationalist coalition, the president gave in.

In January 1933,

Hitler was named chancellor of Germany. But that was not enough for Hitler either.

In February 1933,

Hitler blamed a devastating Reichstag fire on the communists (its true cause remains a mystery) and convinced President Hindenburg to sign a decree suspending individual and civil liberties,

Hitler rearms

When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 he promised to reverse the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and reassert Germany’s dominance of Europe. Rearmament began almost immediately and the German army, navy and air force expanded.

1934

a decree Hitler used to silence his political enemies with false arrests.

Upon the death of Hindenburg in 1934, Hitler proceeded to purge the Brown Shirts (his storm troopers), the head of which, Ernst Roem, had began voicing opposition to the Nazi Party’s terror tactics.

Hitler had Roem executed without trial, which encouraged the army and other reactionary forces within the country to urge Hitler to further consolidate his power by merging the presidency and the chancellorship.

This would make Hitler commander of the army as well.

A plebiscite vote was held on August 19. Intimidation, and fear of the communists, brought Hitler a 90 percent majority.

He was now, for all intents and purposes, dictator August 19, 1934,

Adolf Hitler, already chancellor, is also elected president of Germany in an unprecedented consolidation of power in the short history of the republic in 1936 Seeking to reverse the territorial losses after the First World War,

his troops re-occupied the Rhineland in 1936 1937 1937,

Romania had come under control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany’s, including similar anti-Jewish laws.

Romania’s king, Carol II,

dissolved the government a year later, but was unable to suppress the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization.

In June 1940,

the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. 1938 01.

Hitler rearms When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 he promised to reverse the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and reassert Germany’s dominance of Europe.

Rearmament

began almost immediately and the German army, navy and air force expanded.

Seeking to reverse the territorial losses after the First World War, his troops re-occupied the Rhineland in 1936.

January,14th.1936

Postally Used Picture Postcard send from  J.Beur CDS Riga  Latvia  14.1.35 to Mr Kwie Swi Yauw Hoof(Chinese overseas Captain?)  destination CDS Wonosobo Middle Java Indonesia 7.2.36

June.9th.1936

Postally Used German Hindenberg green 5 cen postal stationer Card send from CDS Middleberg 9,7,36 special rolling Vurgess Nicht Strasse  und  hausnumer Anzugeben to  Nagdenberg.postmark

August,8th.1936

 International Olympicen Games  XL Berlin

Sonderbriefmarken  de Cuetreichpost

Fur die XL OlympyschenSpielen 1936

Berlin

Maximum card  with complete set of Olympic Berlin 1936 stamps with special postmark  Berlin OlympischeGDR with Bell logo  Nazi postmark 8.8.36

THE First day Cover Of

Germany Berlin 1935

 1-16 August  

Olympic Games

Jigoro Kano

represented Japan as an IOC Official at the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. 

You can see him in the photograph standing behind the Olympic Champion Jesse Owens (Gold Medal winner) with Lutz Long and Naoto Tajiia.  Copyright remains with: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, NYWT&S Collection, [reproduction number, LC-USZ62-115933)

In March 1938

German troops entered Austria to carry out the Anschluss (unification) of the two German-speaking countries.

The French and British governments did nothing to stop these actions.

Hitler and Mussolini at German air manoeuvres,

1937. 1938.

The relatively small defence budget was no match for the European arms race and by the late 1930s Poland had slipped behind Russia, Britain, France and Germany (Zaloga and Madej, 1991).

C ontemporary historians like Liddell-Hart portrayed Poland as ill-prepared and weak without taking into account that large-scale industrialization had not started in Poland until the mid-1920s.

Between 1936 — 1939

military capital expenditure accounted for 70% of all domestic capital investment and represented a Defense Budget of 800 million Zloty (Zaloga and Madej, 1991).

T he small oil reserves in Galicia near Boryslaw were strategically significant to both the German and Soviet military high-command, but production was limited.

For such a young country much had been achieved within this fledgling democracy despite political turmoil and numerous border disputes in the early 1920s.

Following Pilsudski’s death in 1935,

the military junta led by General Rydz-Smigly did not have extensive popular support. PZL 23B Karas, 42â? Esc.

In March 1938

German troops entered Austria to carry out the Anschluss (unification) of the two German-speaking countries.

The French and British governments did nothing to stop these actions. would rather argue that he was, for all intents and purposes,

dictator after the Reichstag had passed the Gesetz zur Behebung der Not von Volk und Reich (Enabling Act), on 23 March 1933.

It had been passed with 441 deputies voting in its favour, and 94 Social Democrats being opposed.

It was this Act which gave Hitler the power to erode the Weimar Constitution and create a totalitarian state.

The following is the text of the Act: “The Reichstag has resolved the following law, which is, with the approval of the Reichsrat, herewith promulgated, after it has been established that the requirements have been satisfied for legislation altering the Constitution.

SECTION 1.

Reich laws can be enacted by the Reich Cabinet as well as in accordance with the Procedure established in the Constitution.

This applies also to the laws referred to in article 85, paragraph 2, and in article 87 of the Constitution.

SECTION 2.

The national laws enacted by the Reich Cabinet may deviate from the Constitution so far as they do not affect the position of the Reichstag and the Reichsrat. The powers of the President remain undisturbed. SECTION 3.

The national laws enacted by the Reich Cabinet are prepared by the Chancellor and published in the Reichsgesetzblatt.

They come into effect, unless otherwise specified, upon the day following their publication. Articles 68 to 77 of the Constitution do not apply to the laws enacted by the Reich Cabinet.

SECTION 4.

Treaties of the Reich with foreign states which concern matters of national legislation do not require the consent of the bodies participating in legislation. The Reich Cabinet is empowered to issue the necessary provisions for the execution of these treaties.

SECTION 5.

This law becomes effective on the day of its publication.

It becomes invalid on April 1, 1937; it further becomes invalid when the present Reich Cabinet is replaced by another.

” The Nazis in turn had been successful in getting the Enabling Act passed by the Reichstag by taking advantage of Hindenburg’s Presidential decree of 28 February 1933,

suspending constitutional guarantees of freedom. Goering and other Nazi conspirators had immediately caused a large number of Communists, including party officials and Reichstag deputies, and a smaller number of Social Democratic officials and deputies to be placed in “protective custody”, therefore making it possible for a majority in the Reichstag to pass the bill.

Having already achieved the necessary power, the Nazis were then able to combine the offices of President and Reichs Chancellor.

The merger of the two offices was accomplished by the law of 1 August 1934, signed by the entire cabinet.

The official Nazi statement concerning the effect of this statute contained this observation: “Through this law, the conduct of Party and State has been combined in one hand…

He is responsible only to his own conscience and to the German nation.” Peace at Munich?

In 1938,

Hitler demanded that the German-speaking part of Czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland, be annexed to Germany.

Fearful of a war for which they were unprepared, Britain and France adopted a policy of ‘Appeasement’.

They agreed to a deal with Germany at Munich in September 1938, brokered by the Italian dictator Mussolini.

The Sudetenland was occupied by Germany, and shortly afterwards the whole of Czechoslovakia was seized.

Flexible tactics German strategic thinking contrasted greatly with that of the Allies.

The Germans emphasised speed of decision-making, speed of manoeuvre and decentralised action by armoured units with motorised infantry and air support.

They went to war with fewer tanks than the Allies, but concentrated them in powerful armoured formations rather than dispersing them.

Although there were Allied officers who realised that a new form of warfare was possible, no sustained effort had been made to apply these doctrines in a similar way to that of the German High Command.

A Mark II Panzer during Germany Army manoeuvres, 1938.

ATS

The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) also protected the Home Front.

Formed in 1938,

the ATS recruited women to work as telephonists, drivers, mess orderlies, postal workers, ammunition inspectors, radar operators, gun crew and military police.

Austria:

On March 13, 1938,

Germany took over Austria (termed the Anschluss) – a contingeny specifically disallowed in the Versailles Treaty.

Czechoslovakia:

The French and the British handed Germany a large portion of Czechoslovakia at the Munich Conference in September 1938.

Hitler had then taken the rest of Czechoslovakia by March 1939.

Why was Germany allowed to take over both Austria and Czechoslovakia without a fight?

The simple reason is that Great Britain and France did not want to repeat the bloodshed of World War I. They believed, wrongly as it turned out, they could avoid another world war by appeasing Hitler with a few concessions (such as Austria and Czechoslovakia).

Great Britain and France

had not clearly understood that Hitler’s goal of land acquisition was much, much larger than any one country

March,16th.1838

Fragment Cover from Austria with special post mark FUHRER IN WIEN 1936 WITH SWASTIKA NAZI EMBLEM  cds 8wien g 5, 16.iii.1938 on Austria Definitive 24 sent stamp 

On September 30, 1938,

Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edouard Daladier, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the Munich Pact, which sealed the fate of Czechoslovakia, virtually handing it over to Germany in the name of peace.

Although the agreement was to give into Hitler’s hands only the Sudentenland,

that part of Czechoslovakia where 3 million ethnic Germans lived, it also handed over to the Nazi war machine 66 percent of Czechoslovakia’s coal, 70 percent of its iron and steel, and 70 percent of its electrical power.

Without those resources, the Czech nation was left vulnerable to complete German domination.

No matter what concessions the Czech government attempted to make to appease Hitler, whether dissolving the Communist Party or suspending all Jewish teachers in ethnic-German majority schools, rumors continued to circulate about “the incorporation of Czechoslovakia into the Reich.”

In fact, as early as October 1938,. On November 7, 1938 in Paris,

a 17-year-old German Jewish refugee, Herschel Grynszpan, shot and killed the third secretary of the German embassy, Ernst vom Rath.

Grynszpan had intended to avenge the deportation of his father to Poland and the ongoing persecution of Jews in Germany by killing the German ambassador.

Instead, the secretary was sent out to see what the angry young man wanted and was killed.

The irony is that Rath was not an anti-Semite;

in fact, he was an anti-Nazi. As revenge for this shooting, Joseph Goebbels, Nazi minister of propaganda, and Reinhard Heydrich, second in command of the SS after Heinrich Himmler,

ordered

“spontaneous demonstrations” of protest against the Jewish citizens of Munich.

The order, in the form of a teletyped message to all SS headquarters and state police stations, laid out the blueprint for the destruction of Jewish homes and businesses.

The local police were not to interfere with the rioting storm troopers, and as many Jews as possible were to be arrested with an eye toward deporting them to concentration camps.

In Heydrich’s report to Hermann Goering after Kristallnacht, the damage was assessed: “…815 shops destroyed, 171 dwelling houses set on fire or destroyed…119 synagogues were set on fire, and another 76 completely destroyed…20,000 Jews were arrested, 36 deaths were reported and those seriously injured were also numbered at 36….”

The extent of the destruction was actually greater than reported.

Later estimates were that as many as 7,500 Jewish shops were looted, and there were several incidents of rape.

This, in the twisted ideology of Nazism, was worse than murder, because the racial laws forbade intercourse between Jews and gentiles.

The rapists were expelled from the Nazi Party and handed over to the police for prosecution.

And those who killed Jews? They “cannot be punished,” according to authorities, because they were merely following orders.

To add insult to massive injury, those Jews who survived the monstrous pogrom were forced to pay for the damage inflicted upon them. Insurance firms teetered on the verge of bankruptcy because of the claims.

Hermann Goering came up with a solution: Insurance money due the victims was to be confiscated by the state, and part of the money would revert back to the insurance companies to keep them afloat.

The reaction around the world was one of revulsion at the barbarism into which Germany was sinking. A

s far as Hitler was concerned, this only proved the extent of the “Jewish world conspiracy.”

November,9th.1938 1938

saw the organized destruction of Jewish businesses and homes in Munich, as well as the beating and murder of Jewish men, women, and children. It was an exercise in terror that would be called “Kristallnacht,” or “the Night of Broken Glass,” because of the cost of broken glass in looted Jewish shops–$5 million marks ($1,250,000).

the end

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2 responses to “The Euro World War II Prologue

  1. Good post. I learn something new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon every day.
    It’s always helpful to read through content from other authors and use a little something from other sites.

    • hallo Lesley,
      thanks for visit and comment,to create a new style in histoy info very important to complete the really what happen that day, the complete info exist,if you want the complete CD-rom please subscribed via comment

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