The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia (continiu)

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

3)Motif Holy Mother Kwan Yin(im)

 

Yuan Kwan Yin(im) figure Statue

Kui Xing the god of scientice

 

Kui Xing

 
 

Rubbing of Kui Xing stele (with the 鰲 ao turtle and a 斗 ladle) at Stele Forest Museum in Xi’an.

Kui Xing (Chinese: 魁星; pinyin: kuí xīng; Wade–Giles: K’uei Hsing), originally called 奎星 (also kuí xīng), also known as 大魁夫子 “Great Master Kui” or 大魁星君 “Great Kui the Star Prince”, is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.

The name ‘Kui Xing’ literally means “Chief Star(s)”, and anciently referred to the ‘spoon’ of the Big Dipper. The Chun Qiu Yun Dou Shu defines the ‘Kui Xing’ as “The four stars in the first section of the dipper”. The ‘handle’ was referred to as the 杓 shao, or ladle/spoon. Kui Xing’s original name, 奎星, is the original name of the star in the Big Dipper located furthest from the ‘handle’ – Dubhe.

Contents

 Folk Beliefs

 

Folk Beliefs

 

Kui Xing, holding a ladle and standing on an ao (depicted as a fish), on Xiao Family Temple in Xinwupu, Yangxin County, Hubei

In Daoist tradition, Kui Xing is said to have been “bent and hunchbacked, as if he were an actual calligraphy character”, and came to be viewed as a saint of human fortune, particularly with regard to imperial examinations. Late Ming Dynasty scholar Gu Yan-Wu, often referred to as Gu Ting-Lin, wrote of Kui Xing in his Record of Historical Knowledge: “The date of the beginning of modern people’s veneration of Kui Xing is unknown. Since Kui (奎) was taken to be the master of composition, therefore the people established shrines to venerate him. Being unable to sculpt an image of the star (奎), his name was thus changed to [the homophonous character] 魁. Again being unable to directly construct an image of 魁, the character was split into its constituent radicals [鬼 Gui – Ghost/Spirit and 斗 Dou – Ladle/Gourd] and illustrated as such.” Gu’s statement suggests the name change was a creative measure designed to facilitate Kui Xing’s veneration.

As his form developed, people depicted Kui Xing’s right foot standing on a character 鰲 (ao), a giant turtle, in reference to a traditional saying, 獨佔鰲頭, “to stand lonely on the ao’s head”, meaning coming in first in examinations[1]), his left foot support a ladle, a writing brush in his hand, and his body full of vigor and life. Stylized calligraphy of Confucian adages often compose his torso.

Artists have also depicted the ao on which Kui Xing stands as a giant fish (see the image of a temple in Xinwupu, Hubei), or as a realistic-looking turtle (e.g., the statue near Bijiacheng – the “Brush-rest wall” – in Changde, Hu

KUI-XING

Also known as K’UEI-HSING, KURI-HSING
Picture of KUI-XING

One of WEN-CHANG‘s servants, he’s the starry-eyed God of Official Documents and Paperwork.

KUI-XING was once a mortal in the academic world — a highly-talented student but also extremely ugly. In fact he was a typical nerd. But after having fallen off a cliff, he was rescued from certain death by a dragon and given the job of Literary Affairs Minister.

Now he stands next to WEN-CHANG in the night sky, and oversees official paperwork, publications and Post-It notes. No memo is small enough to escape his scrutiny. We presume by now he is also the God of Fax Machines and Email.

KUI-XING is often depicted standing on the head of a turtle waving a Chinese brush in the air. Never having received a communication from Heaven,

please compare with  Mr NH KOH collections below

compare with

(a) Christy collections

 
MING Dynasty, 1368-1644 (China)
Title : A FIGURE OF KUI XING 

Date :
 
Category : Sculptures
Medium :
: Lacquered and gold painted bronze
 
 
 
MING Dynasty,A FIGURE OF KUI XING,Christie's,London 

MING Dynasty,A FIGURE OF KUI XING,Christie’s,London
 
 
Estimate : 300 GBP – 500 GBP

(b)kui xing ceramic , Lady Lever art Galery Collections

Accession no: LL 61
Object type: Ceramic
Name: Figure of K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing)
Materials: Porcelain with overglaze enamel decoration in famille verte style
Place made: Jingdezhen, China
Date made: Qing Dynasty, Kangxi (1662-1722 AD)
Measurements: H. 32 cm

Description: K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing) is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.
Standing on a fish-dragon’s head, he holds up a writing brush in his right hand. He is said to have been an historical figure, a poor but brilliant student called Zhong Kui who passed the imperial examinations with high honours. However, because he was ugly, he was not allowed to enter government service. In despair, he drowned himself but was carried by a fish-dragon up to heaven where he became a star (‘Xing’ in Chinese) of the Great Bear constellation (known in China as the Palace of Literary Genius).

Provenance
Bought from Frank Partridge, 29 July 1915, gifted to the Lady Lever Art Gallery, 1922. Partridge to A. J. H. Howard, 9 August, 1915, Partridge Papers.

Literature
R. L. Hobson, Chinese Porcelain and Wedgwood Pottery with Other Works of Ceramic Art, London: B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1928, No. 340.

(c)NH KOH collectiona “Kuixing”

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 Kuixing

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 

In below figurine, he is depicted with one foot on the head of  a big turtle.  This is related to the auspicious message on imperial examination success: du zhan ao tou (独占螯头), literally  it can be translated as (du zhan) standing alone, (ao tou) on the head of the turtle. 

In ancient China, the top 3 candidates in the metroplitan examination are given an audience with the emperor.   During the audience, the top candidate would stand alone on one of the steps leading to the throne.  On that step is curved a turtle-like creature.  That is how the phrase “du zhan ao tou” originated.

 

 MOTIF PROTECTION SYMBOL
1) Kuang Kong or Kuan Ti


 Dr Iwan Found The Kuan ti embroidery

(illustration not upload)

4)  Chinese God of Doors

not yet found theis collection

5) Four Heavenly Kings

 

The Four Heavenly Kings are the guardian gods who watch over the four cardinal directions of the world. They are known collectively as “Feng Tiáo Yǔ Shùn” in Chinese, which means “good climate”. Each character in this mnemonic reflects the symbolic object carried by a Heavenly King. “Feng” is homonymous to the Chinese word for “sharp edge”, hence one of the Kings carries a sword. “Tiáo” sounds similar to “tune”, and so another King holds a musical instrument. “Yǔ ” means “rain”, and the corresponding symbol is an umbrella. The word “Shùn” is matched with a crimson dragon. The Four Heavenly Kings are the protectors of the world and fighters of evil. They each command a legion of supernatural creatures to protect the Dharma. Contributions made to the Four Heavenly Kings will protect us from evil and misfortunes. Businesses will run smoothly. For the sick or disadvantaged, the tide will turn for the better.

  Four Heavenly Kings (Deva Kings)

 

  

 

 

.

 
 
 

Four Heavenly Kings are very popular among those who practice feng shui, especially those who reside in Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, even the four most popular singing idols were nicknamed after them to provide powerful protection for the entertainment business in Hong Kong in the nineties.

 Their names alone create incredible aura and auspiciousness to the surrounding. In Buddhism, they are known as guardians against the wicked and evil.

Their main duty is to protect the heaven from havoc and their images are popular in main shrines of all temples. Their presence would powerfully kill off negative chi, harmful evil spirits and bad influences.

 

One can choose to place them two figurines on each side of the living hall or in four cardinal directions to protect you from any danger and harm from any direction. Feng Shui Masters in Hong Kong especially like to recommend their presence in the living hall facing the maindoor to protect against any harmful people, robbery and mishaps.

What Four Heavenly Kings symbolizes and how to place the object?
The Four Heavenly Kings were four Indian brothers and later worshipped as protecting deities of Buddhist sanctuaries. Their presence in your surrouding will cure any wicked energy coming your way. For those who feels there is evil energy in the surroundings, their presence will provide you with relief. All negative forces will stay under control with their presence.

Their supernatural powers are being produced by their four powerful weapons which could change climates and trumble the earth:


North Heavenly King (Mo-Li Shou) guards the north. He has a black face and he carries along an evil eating creature and sometimes a snake to kill devils. He sometimes also carry a pearl on his hand.

Mo Li Shou

 

East Heavenly King (Mo Li Ch’ing) guards the east. He has a white face with ferocious expression. He carries a magic sword. He is able to produce black wind that produces tens of thousands of spears to turn evil spirits into dust.

 Mo Li Ching or chung

campere with

 Photo: Guardian Plate Mo Li Ching  easr king of heaven motif collection Driwan

Dr Iwan found the plate of Mo Li Ching

South Heavenly King (Mo-Li Hung) guards the south. He has a red face and holds a magical umbrella. This umbrella can produce thunderstorms and earthquakes during battle with demons.


Mo Li Hung

 

West Heavenly King (Mo-Li Hai) guards the west. He has a blue face and carries a chinese magical “pi-pah” (musical instrument like a guitar) where the sounds of it could put evil spirits and harmful forces to rest.


Mo Li Hai

They can be placed in different places:
1. They can be placed at their four respective sectors of your living room to promote positive thinking. This would enhance the character and attitude of your family members to help them in their pursuits.
2. They can be placed to face the main entrance (looking outwards) to ward off evil spirits and harmful forces and killing breathe.
3. They can be placed surrounding a Buddha image or in front of the Buddha to activate their potency in bringing the support you need for protection purposes.
4. Their images can also be placed to protect precious items/treasures to ward off burgalary and thefts.
5. If there are killing forces coming your way, place them facing the killing forces such as straight path directly leading towards you, bad energy coming from construction sites, graveyard etc.

 

Source

http://www.fengshuibestbuy.com/HH4001-fourheavenlykings.html

 

 

 

North (Mo Li Shou)

 

, West) Mo Li Hai),

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the East (Mo Ling Ching)

 

the South (Mo Li Hung)

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