The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( Continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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PART III.  

3.1.3

 

TRANSPORTATION AND TRADING TO SOUTH EAST ASIA

(1) Sten Sjostrand added by driwan studies info

The relative ease of transportation on

 

the Chang River

and its tributaries was a key circumstance in the successful development of

 

the porcelain industry in Jingdezhen. 

Look The jingdechen now please click

 http://chinaceramic.info/china-ceramic-news/ceramics/item/317-5a-level-tourist-attraction-with-ceramic-culture-as-the-theme-in-jingdezhen

One Ming official,

Miu Zongzhou,

wrote that

Kilns are arranged along the rivers and boats and ships which carry porcelain come and go everyday”. (31)  

 

Despite Jingdezhen’s location in the remote corner of Jiangxi province,

these boats and ships managed to transport huge volumes of ceramics to domestic markets as far away as Beijing as well as to different seaports for shipping overseas.

 

Directly related to The Wanli shipwreck cargo

 

are porcelain shards collected at the Guanyinge kiln site. 

These are identical to

the delicate, thin-walled underglaze blue and red bowls found in the Wanli shipwreck cargo.

In addition to these samples, shards from thin-walled ‘crow’ bowls were also collected.

In March 2005 the author was also privileged to discover other production sites being uncovered when a bulldozer was completing the excavation for the basement of a new building along the ‘Thirteen Mile Road.’ This site is today known as the Weituoqiao kiln site.

The excavated area, four meters deep, with perfectly cut sides, revealed three independent waste piles of

Song dynasty coarse secondary clay pottery,

 

finer qingpai shards, and

Ming

and

Qing dynasty export ware.

These perfectly cut stratograpic levels were covered by a concrete basement before any recording of the material had taken place.

During the visit and cursory inspections of kiln sites in Jingdezhen, it became evident that wasters from the same site could include a wide array of porcelain.

Bowl motif from "The Western Chamber"

The finest export ware

was often mixed with rather crudely potted bowls with an unglazed biscuit ring in the well.  These bowls have often been called ‘Guangdong wares’

Guandong figurine ware

or more broadly attributed to ‘southern China.’  The array of forms, quality and decorative styles seen at the sites supports the idea of communal kilns that fired many different types of ware, presumably from different potteries. 

The fact that an exhibition of kiln wasters at

the Palace Museum in Beijing in November 2005 displayed shards similar to those seen at Jingdezhen — which were however attributed to various kiln sites in Fujian – demonstrates the difficulties in determining the origin on some of these types of wares.

There is little doubt that further investigation of these private kilns, and others, would be fruitful and much appreciated.  With the continuing demolition of late Qing dynasty buildings, which were constructed on top of old kilns, many more discoveries are due in the near future. 

However, it is sad, to hear that China’s new economic boom does not provide for the resources for a long-term archaeological program despite the fact that much information about Jingdezhen’s most important industry would be better understood. 

Simply to be able to document the varying decorative styles on export wares at different times in history is an important art-historical objective.

If we thought that making ‘fake’ pottery was a new phenomena, it is interesting to see that Perez’ d’ Entrecolle already in his famous letter of 1712 confirmed that the Jingdezhen potters had perfected the “art of imitating old porcelain being passed for being three or four centuries old or at least of the preceding dynasty of Ming”.

 

As enterprising now as then, Jingdezhen potters are still mining kaolin in the same quarries and pulverizing China stone in the same traditional manner.  The potting process, including the application of painted decoration, glazing, and firing in wood-fueled kilns is often identical to old techniques.  Porcelain made in this way today is sometimes also being passed as being centuries old.

 

The Complete informations cand read at t the litertaures studies  in part two.

Informasi lengkap dapat dibaca pada hasil kajian literature pada bab dua.

Read More

Bowl motif from "The Western Chamber"

Qing Finest Ware(not Upload)

3.2

  The findings of ceramic artifacts and art objects in the Indonesian Chinese empire

Temuan artifak keramik dan benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Indonesia oleh peneliti

 

3.2.1

The Finding Of Reseacher 

The findings by researchers relative amounted to quite a lot with various types of design motifs more, not withstanding the findings during a shipwreck there are huge numbers but relatively more limited type of design motive was primarily produced by special royal kiln for the companions of the Emperor of China. 

Temuan oleh peneliti relati berjumlah cukup banyak dengan variasi  tipe disain motif yang lebih banyak,kendatipun demikian  jumlah temuan kapal karam jumlahnya sangat banyak tetapi relative jenis disain motifnya lebih terbatas terutama yang diproduksi oleh kiln kerajaan khusus untuk para sahabat Kaisar Tiongkok.

Untuk lebih jelas  sebagian informasi dari bab dua  ditampilkan dibawah ini hanya dalam bahsa Inggris .

3.2.2 The Finding Of Shipwreck from The Sounth China Sea From Literatur studies

 Shipwrecks,

 maritime archaeology and antique pottery and porcelain from the South China Sea

3.2.2 a

THE TANG TREASURE SHIPWRECK AT BELITUNG ISLAND

SOLD TO SINGAPORE MUSEUM

By Rachel

 

The Gaspar Strait runs between the Indonesian islands of Bangka and Belitung, some 300 miles southeast of Singapore, where I sit today, writing these words. Its calm, blue surface belies the snarl of rocks and reefs beneath, and the so-called Belitung Wreck is just one of many ships that met its demise in these perilous waters. In 1998, a German prospector by the name of Tilman Walterfang dove into the strait and struck gold: or rather, some gold, silver, and lots of pots.

Tang treasure

 Over the year, his prospecting company pulled 60,000 handmade artifacts out of the heavily silted waters in the Gaspar, from the wreck of a large ship that we now know sunk sometime in the ninth century. Its contents, known vaguely as ‘the Tang treasure’, have been said to enlarge forever the boundaries of our knowledge of Chinese Tang dynasty maritime history and of the nature and dimensions of early Asian trade.

 For the next six years or so, the treasure languished in a New Zealand warehouse, while Qatar, Shanghai, Singapore and private collectors all vied vigorously for ownership. In 2005, Singapore bought the lot.

 And this afternoon, I had the good fortune to be taken for a private tour of it.

.

Tang treasure

.

Junks and their junk

The vessel that sunk was likely a dhow of Arab or Indian origin, a conjecture substantiated well by Michael Flecker, an archaeologist who was invited by Tilman Walterfang himself to direct and document the excavation.

Tang treasure

 (Some of Flecker’s academic papers on the topic, as well as a fascinating but brief clip of part of the excavation, can be found here).

According to Flecker, one of the most striking features of the dhow is that it was not held together with nails or dowels, but sewn together, likely with coconut-husk fibers. Its probable destination is also well established. In the world of the ninth century, dominated economically by two imperial giants —

Tang Dynasty China and Abbasid Persia — the ship has been reasonably thought to be sailing from one to the other, probably from Guangzhou to Basra. The vessel is purported to be the first of Middle Eastern origin found in Southeast Asian waters.

Singapore, alas, didn’t acquire the actual ship, so I didn’t get to see it. We saw the Tang treasure instead. At present, most of it is housed in an unassuming basement at the bottom of the Hua Song Museum in Singapore. The place looked to me, as I walked in this evening, a little like a bomb shelter.

Selat Gaspar berjalan antara pulau-pulau Indonesia dari Bangka Belitung dan, sekitar 300 km sebelah tenggara dari Singapura, di mana aku duduk saat ini, menulis kata-kata ini. Yang tenang, permukaan biru memungkiri kekusutan batu dan karang di bawah, dan disebut Belitung Wreck hanyalah salah satu dari banyak kapal yang mengalami kepunahannya di perairan berbahaya. Pada tahun 1998, seorang Jerman pencari dengan nama Tilman Walterfang terjun ke selat dan memukul emas: atau lebih tepatnya, beberapa emas, perak, dan banyak pot.

 Selama tahun ini, perusahaan calon nya menarik 60.000 artefak buatan tangan dari perairan berat tertimbun lumpur di Gaspar, dari bangkai kapal besar yang sekarang kita tahu tenggelam kira pada abad kesembilan. Isinya, samar-samar dikenal sebagai ‘Tang harta karun’, telah dikatakan untuk memperbesar selamanya batas-batas pengetahuan kita tentang sejarah maritim China dinasti Tang dan sifat dan dimensi perdagangan Asia awal.

 Selama enam tahun ke depan atau lebih, harta mendekam di Selandia Baru gudang, sementara Qatar, Shanghai, Singapura dan kolektor pribadi semua bersaing keras untuk kepemilikan. Pada tahun 2005, Singapura membeli banyak.
 Dan sore ini, saya memiliki nasib baik untuk diambil untuk tur pribadi itu.

Jung dan sampah mereka
Kapal yang tenggelam adalah kemungkinan dhow asal Arab atau India, sebuah dugaan didukung dengan baik oleh Michael Flecker, seorang arkeolog yang diundang oleh Tilman Walterfang dirinya untuk mengarahkan dan mendokumentasikan penggalian.
 (Beberapa makalah akademis Flecker pada topik, serta klip menarik namun singkat bagian dari penggalian, dapat ditemukan di sini).

Menurut Flecker, salah satu fitur yang paling mencolok dari dhow adalah bahwa itu tidak direkatkan dengan paku atau pena, tapi dijahit, mungkin dengan serat sabut kelapa. Kemungkinan tujuan juga mapan. Dalam dunia abad kesembilan, didominasi ekonomi oleh dua kekaisaran raksasa – Dinasti Tang China dan Abbasiyah Persia – kapal telah cukup dianggap berlayar dari satu ke yang lain, mungkin dari Guangzhou ke Basra. Kapal ini konon menjadi yang pertama asal Timur Tengah yang ditemukan di perairan Asia Tenggara.

Singapura, sayangnya, tidak mendapatkan kapal yang sebenarnya, jadi saya tidak bisa melihatnya. Kami melihat harta Tang sebagai gantinya. Saat ini, sebagian besar bertempat di sebuah ruang bawah tanah yang sederhana di bagian bawah dari Museum Song Hua di Singapura. Tempat tampak bagi saya, setelah saya berjalan di malam ini, sedikit seperti perlindungan bom

 Tang treasure

What strikes you almost as soon as you walk into the warehouse is the sheer scale of production. It seems that China then, as now, was mass producing and exporting their goods in staggering quantities — several centuries earlier than scholars have previously thought. You might say that in the hold of this sunken ship lurked, for 1200 years, a kind of ancient Ikea.

Apa yang mengejutkan Anda segera setelah Anda berjalan ke gudang adalah skala produksi. Tampaknya bahwa Cina kemudian, seperti sekarang, adalah massa memproduksi dan mengekspor barang-barang mereka dalam jumlah mengejutkan – beberapa abad lebih awal dari sarjana telah diperkirakan sebelumnya. Anda mungkin mengatakan bahwa dalam memegang ini kapal yang tenggelam mengintai, untuk 1200 tahun, semacam Ikea kuno.

 

The serial nature of most of the cargo, and the fact that the ceramics exhibit styles distinct to at least five different kilns from all over China, both seem to suggest that this was an export vessel. Of particular interest is the enormous quantity of mint-condition Changsha pottery, a form of Southern Tang ceramic readily identified by its distinctive brown and straw-coloured glaze.

 

 Tang treasure

Serial sifat sebagian besar kargo, dan fakta bahwa keramik menunjukkan gaya yang berbeda untuk setidaknya lima tanur yang berbeda dari seluruh Cina, kedua tampaknya menunjukkan bahwa ini adalah sebuah kapal ekspor. Yang menarik adalah jumlah besar-kondisi mint Changsha tembikar, bentuk Selatan Tang keramik mudah diidentifikasi oleh khas glasir coklat dan kekuning-kuningan

 

The Changsha specimens found in the Belitung wreck are decorated with an enormous range of motifs. There is something for everyone: lotuses, makara fish and Chinese calligraphy for the Buddhists, invocations of Allah and non-pictorial, geometric patterns for the Muslims, and everything in between. These are not terribly valuable in and of themselves; they are, as Simon Worrall’s droll appraisal in his article in National Geographic goes, “the Tang equivalent of Fiestaware”.

Tang treasure

Changsha spesimen ditemukan di bangkai kapal Belitung dihiasi dengan berbagai motif besar. Ada sesuatu untuk semua orang: teratai, ikan makara dan kaligrafi Cina bagi umat Buddha, doa Allah dan non-bergambar, pola geometris bagi kaum muslim, dan segala sesuatu di antaranya. Ini tidak sangat berharga dalam dan dari diri mereka sendiri, mereka, sebagai penilai lucu Simon Worrall dalam artikelnya di National Geographic pergi, “setara Tang dari Fiestaware”


This photo by Tony Law,
National Geographic

But there were a few big fish amidst these plebeian offerings: articles so valuable that they are kept elsewhere, under armed guard. These were artifacts found in the stern of the ship: a small clutch of exquisite, royal-grade items, valuable not only in dollar terms, or for their exquisite craftsmanship, but in terms of their historical import. They include a fine octagonal-shaped gold cup — the largest Tang dynasty gold cup ever found, featuring Persian-looking men and women embossed on each face — and three incredibly rare, perfectly preserved specimens of pre-Yuan blue and white porcelain.

 

 

 

Tapi ada beberapa ikan besar di tengah penawaran ini kampungan: artikel begitu berharga sehingga mereka tetap di tempat lain, di bawah pengawalan bersenjata. Ini adalah artefak yang ditemukan di buritan kapal: kopling kecil indah, item kerajaan-grade, berharga tidak hanya dalam dolar, atau keahlian indah mereka, tetapi dalam hal impor sejarah mereka. Mereka termasuk secangkir emas murni berbentuk segi delapan – yang terbesar dinasti Tang emas cangkir yang pernah ditemukan, menampilkan pria Persia tampan dan perempuan timbul pada wajah masing-masing – dan tiga sangat langka, sempurna diawetkan spesimen pra-Yuan biru dan porselen putih.


These photos by Tony Law,
National Geographic

The latter is a particularly interesting testament to the cross-cultural fertilization that characterizes Silk Road histories. Cobalt oxide was almost certainly brought to China by Arab traders; the ore from which it is made can only be found in West Asia, and particularly in Persia. When Arab traders brought cobalt oxide into Guangzhou and began commissioning blue and white ceramics from China, they set into motion the process by which China began to create porcelain that would, over the course of the next five centuries, become so iconic that they came forever to bear China’s name. The story of cobalt oxide is quite well known amongst scholars, but the Jingdezhen blue-and-whites only really began to take off in the late Yuan period. These three small plates, from a ship wrecked in the ninth century, disclose a longer, deeper history.

My personal favourites, however, were the most plebeian offerings of all: those artifacts encrusted with barnacles and corals. In the whole collection, they stood out to me like elegant anomalies, mute witnesses of a millennia of submergence, and utterly beautiful.

Yang terakhir adalah bukti yang sangat menarik untuk fertilisasi silang-budaya yang mencirikan sejarah Silk Road. Kobalt oksida hampir pasti dibawa ke China oleh pedagang Arab, bijih dari yang dibuat hanya dapat ditemukan di Asia Barat, dan khususnya di Persia. Ketika pedagang Arab membawa kobalt oksida ke Guangzhou dan mulai komisioning keramik biru dan putih dari Cina, mereka diatur ke dalam gerak proses dimana China mulai membuat porselen yang akan, selama lima abad berikutnya, menjadi begitu ikonik bahwa mereka datang selamanya untuk menanggung nama China. Kisah oksida kobalt cukup terkenal di kalangan ulama, tetapi Jingdezhen biru-putih hanya benar-benar mulai lepas landas pada periode Yuan terlambat. Ketiga piring-piring kecil, dari sebuah kapal karam pada abad kesembilan, mengungkapkan lebih lama, sejarah yang lebih dalam.
Favorit pribadi saya, bagaimanapun, adalah persembahan yang paling kampungan dari semua: mereka artefak bertatahkan teritip dan karang. Di seluruh koleksi, mereka berdiri keluar bagi saya seperti anomali elegan, saksi bisu dari ribuan dari rendaman, dan benar-benar indah.

 

Undercurrents

Just like the waters of the Gaspar Strait, there too are hidden currents to the Belitung Wreck. For one thing, it came to Singaporean hands amidst a maelstrom of legal wrangling. In 2004, Tilman Walterfang became entangled in a court case when his own marketing agent, Baron Nicolai von Uexkull, took him to court for defaulting on the payment of his (the Baron’s) salary and commission, for the work of negotiating the sale of the treasure. In 2005, not long after the treasure was finally sold to Singapore’s Sentosa Leisure Group following months of negotiation, it emerged that the good Baron had, in his earlier negotiations with Singapore, allegedly disclosed price-sensitive information to the buyers. Walterfang then sued Von Uexkull in 2006 for breach of confidentiality.

 

As if that weren’t enough: in the course of the sale, Walterfang also became embroiled in a controversy with the Indonesian government, who accused him of failing to pay them the fair share of the proceeds from the treasure. 53,000 pieces of the Tang treasure were sold to Singapore for some US$32 million.

( sold by Indonesian government-Dr Iwan Note)

Under Indonesian conservation law, the state government is entitled to half of this, but it appears that only US$2.5 million or so ever made it into Indonesian coffers. The Indonesians are, naturally, highly displeased, and it seems unclear how Walterfang managed to get away with this. There have been, unsurprisingly, allegations of bribery.

tersembunyi
Sama seperti perairan Selat Gaspar, ada juga adalah arus tersembunyi untuk Belitung Wreck. Untuk satu hal, itu datang ke Singapura tangan di tengah-tengah pusaran perselisihan hukum. Pada tahun 2004, Tilman Walterfang menjadi terjerat dalam kasus pengadilan ketika agen pemasaran sendiri, Baron Nicolai von Uexkull, membawanya ke pengadilan untuk default pada pembayaran nya (Baron) gaji dan komisi, untuk pekerjaan negosiasi penjualan harta karun. Pada tahun 2005, tidak lama setelah harta karun itu akhirnya dijual ke Sentosa Leisure Group Singapura setelah berbulan-bulan negosiasi, terungkap bahwa Baron baik memiliki, dalam negosiasi sebelumnya dengan Singapura, diduga diungkapkan sensitif terhadap harga informasi kepada pembeli. Walterfang kemudian digugat Von Uexkull pada tahun 2006 untuk pelanggaran kerahasiaan.
Seolah-olah itu belum cukup: dalam perjalanan penjualan, Walterfang juga menjadi terlibat dalam kontroversi dengan pemerintah Indonesia, yang menuduhnya gagal untuk membayar mereka adil dari hasil harta itu. 53.000 buah harta Tang dijual ke Singapura untuk beberapa US $ 32 juta.
(Dijual oleh pemerintah Indonesia Dr Iwan Catatan)
Menurut hukum konservasi di Indonesia, pemerintah negara berhak atas setengah dari ini, tapi tampaknya hanya US $ 2,5 juta atau pernah jadi berhasil masuk ke pundi-pundi Indonesia. Orang-orang Indonesia adalah, alami, sangat senang, dan tampaknya jelas bagaimana Walterfang berhasil lolos dengan ini. Ada, tidak mengejutkan, dugaan suap.

 

 

But the most interesting hidden current, for me, is the way in which a find like this slowly gets shaped into history. Curators and creative minds at the Singapore Maritime Heritage Foundation,

 which was brought into existence for the purpose of administering the treasure, are right now groping for a Grand Story, a narrative into which the Tang treasure can fit. In particular, there’s talk of a great Maritime Silk Route Museum to be built in Singapore to house and exhibit these wares.

Its story will no doubt vaunt Singapore’s central place at the elbow of a great oceanic route that ran parallel to the overland Silk Road. Its objectives will no doubt be to inscribe Singapore into a wider and more ancient world history, and to give historical credence to a position that is crucial to Singapore’s self-image today: as a global, maritime entrepot, and the lodestone on which Southeast Asia turns.

Counterfactual thinking here might be illuminating. What if Qatar, or Shanghai, had been successful in the bid?

What if, amidst all that legal wrangling, Singapore had been jostled out of the buy, or if the Indonesian government had somehow got their act together, claimed the wreck and written it into a narrative demonstrating the magnificence and global reach of the great Srivijaya Empire, instead? What stories would be spun then, out of these fragments we shore up against our ruins? When you visit Singapore one day in not-too-distant years to come, and your Lonely Planet guidebook exhorts you to visit the brand new Maritime History Museum of Singapore, it will be beautifully done, stimulatingly presented. But remember this: none of it was set in stone. We sculpt our own stones, and we call that process history.

Tapi saat tersembunyi yang paling menarik, bagi saya, adalah cara di mana menemukan seperti ini perlahan-lahan akan dibentuk menjadi sejarah. Kurator dan pikiran kreatif di Heritage Foundation Maritim Singapura,
  yang dibawa ke dalam keberadaan untuk kepentingan pengelolaan harta, yang sekarang mencari-cari Grand Story, sebuah narasi ke mana harta Tang dapat ditampung. Secara khusus, ada pembicaraan tentang Silk Route Maritime Museum yang besar akan dibangun di Singapura ke rumah dan menunjukkan barang-barang tersebut.
Ceritanya tidak akan ragu tempat sentral memuji Singapura pada siku dari laut rute besar yang berlari sejajar dengan darat Silk Road. Tujuannya tidak diragukan lagi akan untuk menuliskan Singapura menjadi lebih luas dan lebih kuno sejarah dunia, dan memberikan kepercayaan sejarah ke posisi yang sangat penting untuk Singapura citra diri hari ini: sebagai, entrepot maritim global, dan lodestone di mana Asia Tenggara ternyata.
Kontrafaktual Pemikiran di sini mungkin mencerahkan. Bagaimana jika Qatar, atau Shanghai, telah berhasil tawaran?
Bagaimana jika, di tengah semua perselisihan hukum, Singapura telah berdesakan keluar dari membeli, atau jika pemerintah Indonesia telah entah bagaimana punya bertindak bersama-sama, mengklaim kecelakaan dan ditulis ke dalam narasi menunjukkan keindahan dan jangkauan global dari Sriwijaya Kekaisaran besar , bukan? Apa cerita akan berputar kemudian, dari fragmen ini kita menopang terhadap reruntuhan kita? Ketika Anda mengunjungi Singapura satu hari di tahun tidak terlalu jauh untuk datang, dan Anda buku panduan Lonely Planet mendesak Anda untuk mengunjungi baru Maritime History Museum of Singapore, akan indah dilakukan, stimulatingly disajikan. Tapi ingat ini: tidak ada itu diatur dalam batu. Kami memahat batu kita sendiri, dan kita sebut bahwa sejarah proses.

 

3.2.2.b

Shipwreck Cargo Report

By Sten Sjostrand

 

Sten has spent more than forty years in Southeast Asia designing and engineering various marine structures. His interest in Asia’s pottery and porcelain eventually lead to his search and excavation of numbers of ancient shipwrecks.

As a championship sailor Sten has extensive knowledge and interest in ancient maritime trade, ships designs and construction. It is these interests and gained knowledge that is the base for all his books and extensive lecturing.

 

Sten’s company; Nanhai Marine Archaeology Sdn. Bhd. works with Malaysia’s Department of Museums and Antiquities and can therefore offer legally excavated artifacts from these shipwrecks.

 

In addition to working with recovering artifacts, Sten has located number of ancient kiln sites in Thailand and in China were his shipwreck ceramics was made centuries ago. He is therefore able to offer absolute provenance on all ceramics sold via Nanhai Marine Archaeology Sdn. Bhd. and, with good conscience sign every Certificate of Authenticity supplied with the artifacts.

The maritime archaeology of Sten Sjostrand has led to major advances in the study of Asian trade and trade ceramics in Southeast Asia. 

His meticulous documentation of a series of nine shipwrecks from the 11th to 19th centuries reveals the early dominance of Chinese trade ceramics, a subsequent loss of the Chinese monopoly in the late 14th century when Southeast Asian ceramics entered the market, the basic parameters of the Ming gap shortages of the 14th-15th centuries, and a resurgence of Chinese wares in the 16th and 17th centuries.

  Just as important, Sjostrand freely shares the information from his discoveries.

  Researchers are welcome at his headquarters where he documents his finds and patiently answers the queries of others. 

A lifetime’s experience with the sea and sailing allows Sjostrand to bring new understanding to ancient ship construction, and his voluminous reading allows him to set the ships and their cargoes in historical perspective.

 

 

 

During the excavation phase of the Wanli shipwreck, about 7,000 pieces of porcelain pieces was registered.

Only those pieces which retained more than 50% of its original form was registered

while all other pieces was considered “shards”. 

 From the 7,000 registered pieces, there were less than 2,000 totally intact pieces with many of them showing glaze deterioration and other defects.

In addition to registered artifacts  9,083 kilo “shards” were recovered.

This weight was represented by less than 50% intact pieces (to avoid double registration), broken, fragmented and pulverized pieces. These “shards” was then separated into respective types, weighted and compared with the weight of an intact counterpart to find the total number of porcelains originally loaded onboard the ship. 

 It was thus calculated that the total cargo originally consisted of more than 37,000 pieces. 

Most of the damage to the cargo  is believed to have been caused by an fire followed by an explosion which is likely to have been caused by an attacking Dutch force.

The fire could also have been set by the Portuguese crew trying to avoid a Dutch capture.

 

Many of the broken plates with intact center medallions, have since been  trimmed and are now available for sale on this page.

Each one of these center medallions has been registered and now displaying its respective serial number on a sticker:

Historical shipwrecks with cargoes of porcelain and pottery are perfect time capsules if properly excavated and researched.

Frozen in time, shipwrecks provide an accurate insight into ancient maritime trade and the goods traded at the time when the ship was lost.

From the ten shipwreck excavated and researched by Nanhai Marine Archaeology, we have learned a lot about this trade and been able to assign estimated dates to these ten shipwrecks and thereby date the artefacts we recover.

 We have learned about different shipbuilding designs, construction methods and been able to map shipbuilding sites and learned how they changed over time, due to political events

European vessel loaded with Chinese kraak porcelain

From the shipwrecks presented here, and the archeology made, we have established how

the early Chinese monopoly on ceramic export was challenged in the 14th – 16th century

 

by two rivaling Thai kiln complexes, each making different types of traditional Chinese pottery.

 

 It also becomes clear that the Chinese regained its monopoly in the 17th century when the Europeans entered into the  Asian trade network

  

3.2.2. c

A seafarers tale – an archaeological elucidation of a shipwreck

(By Sten Sjostrand)

Dreary weather and intermittent rain has led to a dramatic drop in temperature over the last few days and then, just as the rain finally stopped, a cold wind began to blow from the north.

It whipped up high waves and enormous swells that broke repeatedly against the side of the ship giving the deck, and everyone on it, a good showering.  It was unbearably cold, wet and miserable.

 

Captain Heng Tai dexterously managed to avoid getting any salt water in his face as he crouched and turned with every hit. He was an experienced captain who had sailed this route many times before, but never so late in the season. 

The best time for the voyage was December when the northeast monsoon winds guaranteed a fair and safe passage all the way down the South China Sea. 

 

But now, late in February, the winds were forceful, occasionally violent and sometimes frightening. 

The swell generated by these waves was higher than any Heng Tai could remember.

As well as being cold and wet, Heng Tai was now starting to get a very uncomfortable feeling in the pit of his stomach.

The junk he commanded was old and hadn’t been reinforced against the hungry attacks of the Teredo woodworms, which feasted on vessels like this.

The owner had recently lost a ship near the Malaysian islands and didn’t have sufficient reserves to pay for the sacrificial planks that would protect the hull from the woodworms’ greedy onslaught. 

 

 It was this cost-cutting that now worried Heng Tai and he bitterly regretted the time he’d had to spend waiting to load the cargo

in Ayutthaya. 

Without that delay he would have been at sea much earlier and none of this would be happening.

Ever since the ‘‘Ming ban’’

 when emperor Hongwu imposed restrictions on private overseas trade,

potters at the Thai kiln sites had been working flat out to meet the growth in demand from the Southeast Asian market.

Thuriang Kiln at Si Satchanalai ,Sukothai

Read more

Thuriang Kiln at Si Satchanali . Sukothai

(not Upload)

They were now supplying more than half of the total ceramics for the whole region and the increase in orders meant the kilns were swamped and finding it increasingly hard to meet delivery deadlines.  Merchants and captains, like Heng Tai, were seriously concerned about these delays; after all, the monsoon waits for no man. 

( This info prooff  and related to the very hard to found the Middle Ming artwork In Indonesia from dynasti Yung Lo, Hung Wu,Hsuan de Cenghua and Ceng De in Indonesia, If found this only  the present from the Chinese emperor to the Indonesian Sultan or King only not  trading this wares and the sukothai from ayuthada sincanalai  artwork came to Indonesia  to fill the demand  -Dr Iwan note)

 

Heng Tai had docked in Ayutthaya in December and had waited patiently for two months before his main cargo finally arrived from the ceramic kilns up north. 

 He’d already loaded more than 20 tonnes of iron ore and

 

ingots and was worried about the uneven distribution of his cargo, so he was greatly relieved when, at last, the celadon ware was loaded and the junk was well balanced again.  

 

The last water containers were filled and the chickens and ducks, which would feed the crew during the voyage, were secured. 

Heng Tai was finally able to head downriver into

the Bay of Siam,

where he set his sails and laid a course for

the bay of Terengganu.

In those days this part of the Malaysian east coast was under the suzerainty of

the Kingdom of Ayutthaya,

so the waters off Terengganu were safe and familiar and Heng Tai could proceed without danger.

  When Heng Tai sighted the islands off Terengganu he set a new course for

Tioman Island further down the coast.

Tioman was a regular stopover point for sailors from all over Asia as it provided good navigational references and had a plentiful supply of fresh water.  For many centuries seafarers had stopped there to offer prayers for a safe voyage and trade for some local fruit before continuing their arduous journey.

Here Heng Tai would replenish his fresh water supply before setting sail for

Java, his

Kingdom Majapahit

final destination.

Kingdom of Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site, It’s time you stir the imagination of the life of a fictional kingdom in Indonesia a more than 700 years ago.

Yes, this is the site Trowulan Mojokerto, roomates is the site of a future century Majapahit Empire XIII – XV AD. Located in Trowulan, Mojokerto, East Java as a place where you can no longer remember his greatness and assume that we only know from history books or lessons at school first.

Trowulan is the only site in the Indonesian cities of the covering 11 x 9 km 99 km ² and save Hundreds of Thousands of archaeological remains, both discovered and is still buried. Traveled to this place is not just a vacation, but you can also climb the great history of an empire that inspired the Indonesian nation about “Unity Archipelago”. Additionally you will find out how the level of civilization in Trowulan in the Majapahit period, starting from the system of government, trade, foreign affairs, technology, architecture, agriculture, crafts to art.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site

Majapahit kingdom established after the fall of the kingdom in 1293 AD Singosari. Founded by Raden Wijaya, initially centered in the forest area there are many attractions that Maja tree that has fruit with bitter, hence the Majapahit. Raden Wijaya himself is the son of King Singosari Kertanegara lineage Ken Arok, founder of the Kingdom Singosari. He Became the first king of Majapahit until 1309 AD

Greatness Majapahit golden peak during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada Mahapatih Palapa Oath pledged to unite the archipelago. Majapahit managed to assemble networks of local and regional trade with commodities and rice crops in exchange for spices, ceramics, and textiles. The currency used is money and money ma gobog of gold or silver, the unique currency of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Song, Ming, and Qing applies also in Majapahit. Pooling Occurs in religious life with the Buddhist religion of Shiva, in addition to developing Karesian religion and Islam. This shows Majapahit as a multicultural country and its people to live in peace with the various Faiths in harmony. Majapahit have ups and downs due to the seizure of the throne in the royal family until finally experiencing collapse XV century AD.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 2

Majapahit palace building is estimated as terraced houses with roofs of thin wood, walls of brick, the floor of the wicker or rattan mats. While the general population of a thatched roof. Sites in Trowulan restored to preserve its beauty. Trowulan site is crowded, especially on Saturday and Sunday and school holidays. Every day an average of 50-person on weekdays and on average 170′s of people on holidays and school holidays.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 3

Trowulan own site first Appeared in the literature Entitled “History of Java I” written Sir Stamford Raffles in 1817. Raffles said that the name came from Trang Wulan Trowulan or Light of the Moon. When found throughout the site covered a fairly dense teak forests, so she was not seen as a classic city.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 4

Classic city town site Trowulan divided Showed some segments that its role in the past. Built with a pattern of alleged water canal has to do with the concept of the mandala is used as a reference and basic Cosmological distribution of this city. Swimming Segaran proves this is like like a lake in the city center. By sketch reconstruction City Majapahit and aerial photographs showing the old city has a system of irrigation canals for drainage and water supply were made in a straight line extending the northwest-the southeast and the northeast-southwest.

Normally the stretch between Terengganu and Tioman was an opportunity for the captain and navigator to relax for a while.

There was a straight deepwater trench all the way so it was usually plain sailing. 

 This was a well-used shipping lane and he was hoping to come across a Chinese junk, sailing in spite of the ‘‘Ming ban’’, which he could hail for the latest news from China. But on this cold February afternoon, the strong winds and towering waves had ruled out any possibility of such communication and as Heng Tai fought to keep control of his ship his thoughts wandered homewards.

 

Heng Tai’s father had been an experienced sea captain who had left China fifty years before, shortly after the ‘‘Ming ban’’ came into force.  With their livelihoods at stake many seafarers like Heng Tai’s father, as well as merchants and artisans, had fled to Thailand where they were able to continue their trade.  It was these people who had made the celadon ware he was now carrying.

The Javanese kingdom of Majapahit, towards which he was heading, was flourishing and attracted many foreign merchants from all over Asia and the Middle East who paid top price for celadon ware as they believed it had magical protective powers. 

This era Chinese celadon were ban and only

sukothai celadon exist

Celadon plate, Sukhothai era

Compare the differences of the quality between Sukothai and Chinese celadon (  info not upload0

Read more about

Sukothai (Sangkhalok)celadon ware

(info not upload) 

Heng Tai was a good trader and knew the buyers well he also knew this year’s celadon was the best quality to ever come out of the Sisatchanalai kilns in northern Siam so he was sure of making a handsome profit.  Hopefully then his ship could be reinforced.

(This  info  told us the fact that many Celadon wares found in Indonesia not from Ming dynasty era but from  sisatchanalai  Nothern Siam  sent  export to Indonesia  from Atuthaya,

That is way we called Ayuthaya Siam celadon with the low  color and motif  celadon, but some Lungquan Chinese best celadon still found but very limited because this were not for trading ony as the present to the Chinese emperor friend in Indonesia-Dr Iwan Note)

Sejak” Larangan Ming ”

Ketika Kaisar Hongwu memberlakukan pembatasan perdagangan luar negeri swasta, tembikar di situs kiln Thailand telah bekerja keluar flat untuk memenuhi pertumbuhan permintaan dari pasar Asia Tenggara.

 Mereka sekarang menyediakan lebih dari setengah dari total keramik untuk seluruh wilayah dan peningkatan pesanan berarti kiln yang sibuk dan menemukan itu semakin sulit untuk memenuhi tenggat waktu pengiriman. Pedagang dan kapten, seperti Heng Tai, yang sangat prihatin penundaan ini, setelah semua, musim hujan tidak menunggu manusia.

(Info ini sebagai bukti  dan terkait dengan sangat sulitnya  untuk menemukan karya seni Ming pertengahan  Di Indonesia dari Dynasti Yung Lo, Hung Wu, Hsuan de Cenghua dan Ceng De di Indonesia,

Jika menemukan Kraya seni ini hanya ada sebagai  dari kaisar Cina kepada Sultan Indonesia atau Raja dan  tidak untuk perdagangan .Barang seni  dari  sukothai  sincanalai  dari ayuthada karya seni dikirim  ke Indonesia untuk mengisi kebutuhan  – catatan  Dr  Iwan )

Heng Tai telah berlabuh di Ayutthaya pada bulan Desember dan telah menunggu dengan sabar selama dua bulan sebelum kargo utamanya akhirnya tiba dari kiln keramik ke utara.
 Dia sudah dimuat lebih dari 20 ton bijih besi dan ingot dan khawatir tentang tidak meratanya distribusi kargo, jadi dia sangat lega ketika, akhirnya, para celadon ware dimuat dan sampah baik seimbang lagi.

Wadah air lalu diisi dan ayam dan bebek, yang akan memberi makan kru selama pelayaran, diamankan.
Heng Tai akhirnya bisa kepala hilir ke Teluk Siam, di mana ia mengatur layar dan meletakkan kursus untuk Terengganu.
Pada masa ini bagian dari pantai timur Malaysia berada di bawah kekuasaan raja dari Kerajaan Ayutthaya, sehingga perairan Terengganu yang aman dan akrab dan Heng Tai bisa dilanjutkan tanpa bahaya.
  Ketika Heng Tai terlihat pulau-pulau Terengganu ia menetapkan arah baru untuk Pulau Tioman lanjut ke pantai.
Tioman adalah titik perhentian reguler untuk pelaut dari seluruh Asia karena memberikan referensi navigasi yang baik dan memiliki pasokan air tawar. Selama berabad-abad para pelaut telah berhenti di sana untuk menawarkan doa untuk perjalanan yang aman dan perdagangan untuk beberapa buah lokal sebelum melanjutkan perjalanan yang sulit mereka.
Berikut Heng Tai akan mengisi pasokan air tawar sebelum berlayar ke Jawa, tujuan akhirnya.
Biasanya peregangan antara Terengganu dan Tioman adalah kesempatan bagi kapten dan navigator untuk bersantai untuk sementara waktu.
Ada Air yang dalam di diparit lurus sepanjang jalan jadi itu biasanya berlayar polos.
 Ini adalah jalur pelayaran baik digunakan dan ia berharap untuk menemukan kapal China, berlayar terlepas dari” Ming larangan”, yang dia bisa hujan es untuk berita terbaru dari Cina.

Tetapi pada sore dingin Februari, angin kencang dan ombak menjulang telah mengesampingkan kemungkinan komunikasi tersebut dan sampai Heng Tai berjuang untuk tetap mengontrol kapalnya pikirannya mengembara pulang.

Ayah Heng Tai pernah menjadi kapten kapal yang berpengalaman yang telah meninggalkan China lima puluh tahun sebelumnya, tak lama setelah” Ming larangan” diberlakukan.

Dengan mata pencaharian mereka dipertaruhkan banyak pelaut seperti ayah Heng Tai, serta pedagang dan pengrajin, telah melarikan diri ke Thailand di mana mereka mampu untuk melanjutkan perdagangan mereka. Itu orang-orang yang telah membuat ware celadon sekarang dia membawa.
Kerajaan Jawa Majapahit, ke arah mana ia menuju, sedang berkembang dan menarik banyak pedagang asing dari seluruh Asia dan Timur Tengah yang membayar harga tertinggi untuk celadon ware mereka percaya itu memiliki kekuatan magis pelindung.
Heng Tai adalah seorang pedagang yang baik dan tahu pembeli baik ia juga tahu celadon tahun ini adalah kualitas terbaik yang pernah keluar dari kiln Sisatchanalai di Siam Utara sehingga ia yakin untuk membuat keuntungan tampan. Semoga maka kapalnya bisa diperkuat.

 
(Info ini memberi tahu k
ita fakta bahwa banyak Celadon barang yang ditemukan di Indonesia bukan dari era dinasti Ming tapi dari sisatchanalai Nothern Siam mengirim ekspor ke Indonesia dari Atuthaya,
Itulah cara kita disebut Ayuthaya Siam celadon dengan warna rendah dan motif celadon, tetapi beberapa Lungquan Cina seladon terbaik masih ditemukan tetapi sangat terbatas karena ini bukan karena ony perdagangan sebagai hadir untuk
sahabat  kaisar Tiongkok di Indonesia- catatan Dr Iwan )

Heng Tai’s attention was suddenly drawn away from thoughts of future profit and ship maintenance as the wind continued to increase. 

Sea conditions were getting worse by the minute putting untold strain on the vessel and his nerves as he worried about the safety of his ship, crew and the precious cargo. 

 However, Heng Tai’s anxiety was nothing compared to how one of the passengers, a young man called Phra Dharmaraja, was feeling.

Dharmaraja was the king of Siam’s envoy who had boarded the ship in Ayutthaya.

King U-Thong Of Ayuthaya Sukhotai siam Kingdom

Everyone could tell just by looking at him that he wasn’t a sailor.  

 As a child he’d been traumatised by a crossing of

 

the Chao Phraya River

and had kept away from boats ever since. 

 Now, here he was being tossed about in middle of the South China Sea living out his worst nightmare. 

 He was the proud and only son of the first ‘Phra Khlang’ – the minister in charge of Ayutthaya’s treasure. 

His father’s position had allowed him to pull enough strings to secure a well-paid job in the revenue department and a recent promotion had further increased his confidence and status. 

It was a rare thing for a civil servant to be summoned by the king, so he’d been surprised and honoured when he was called to the palace.

The king appointed Dharmaraja as his personal envoy and commanded he accompany Heng Tai to Java to deliver some gifts to

the king of Majapahit

Read More Info

Driwan CD-Rom The Majapahit History Collections

in reciprocation for the tributes the Majapahit ruler had earlier sent to Ayutthaya.

Now as he clung to the handrail for dear life he wondered, between bouts of nausea and waves of terror, whether he’d be able to complete the mission he had been entrusted to undertake.

Every wave was forcing the ship into a near broach; even a small shift in the heavy cargo could prove disastrous. 

 The crew had managed to lower some of the sails to reduce the strain on the hull and rigging and were now struggling to take down the remaining sails, which were glued, by the force of the wind, to the mast, yarn and rigging.  Heng Tai and his crew knew that if the sails remained aloft they would eventually overpower the vessel but there was nothing more they could do.

With his proud character reduced to a mere memory and, in spite of being seriously concerned about his own safety and comfort, Dharmaraja had not forgotten the importance of his mission. 

 

 He knew that if he failed to deliver the gifts to the Majapahit ruler, it might cause some diplomatic tension and it would certainly embarrass his father.

The most important of all the gifts he was bearing was a royal seal, which reaffirmed Ayutthaya’s friendship and military alliance. 

 

 He kept it in a silk pouch tied around his waist, which he checked from time to time to make sure that it was still secure.  Arriving without the seal would mean landing without any purpose.  He resolved that, no matter how sick and frightened he was, he would not let this happen.

 

Suddenly, the crates containing the chickens and ducks were picked up by a huge wave and thrown onto the deck with such force that they smashed to pieces flinging the traumatised animals all over the place. 

As he listened to their terrified honks and screeches a premonition of impending doom sent an icy chill down Dharmaraja’s spine.

 

The tiller and rudder were under enormous and constant pressure as Heng Tai battled

 

the raging storm to keep the ship on course. 

Then, just as night fell, the strain finally took its toll and the tiller broke. 

 There was nothing more to be done.  Without the ability to steer her, the ship remained parallel to the waves and the sails dragged the vessel down sideways. 

 In a last effort to save the ship, the crew tried to slash the sails but it was too late. Capsizing was imminent as water came crashing over the decks from all directions.  Heng Tai’s last effort of beaching the ship on the shores of Tioman Island had proved impossible. The struggle to stay afloat was over.

 

Dharmaraja tried to save himself by clinging to the main mast in the hope of climbing to safety from the water that now engulfed him. 

 Being more experienced in this kind of situation, Heng Tai and his crew scoured the sea for some floating debris to cling to and slowly drifted away from the rattling sails, away from the creaks and groans of the straining hull, away from Dharmaraja’s screams.  The ship was swallowed up, leaving nothing but darkness and silence in its wake.

Read more

The south east china  Shipwreck archeology

(info not upload)

Perhatian Heng Tai tiba-tiba ditarik dari pikiran keuntungan masa depan dan pemeliharaan kapal sebagai angin terus meningkat.
Kondisi laut yang semakin parah oleh menit meletakkan ketegangan yang tak terhitung di kapal dan saraf saat ia khawatir tentang keselamatan kapal, awak dan barang berharga.
 Namun, kecemasan Heng Tai apa-apa dibandingkan dengan bagaimana salah seorang penumpang, seorang pria muda bernama Phra Dharmaraja, adalah perasaan.
Dharmaraja adalah raja utusan Siam yang telah naik ke kapal di Ayutthaya.
Semua orang bisa tahu hanya dengan melihat bahwa dia bukan seorang pelaut.

 Sebagai seorang anak ia sudah trauma oleh persimpangan dari Sungai Chao Phraya dan telah dijauhkan dari kapal sejak itu.
 Sekarang, di sini dia sedang terombang-ambing di tengah Laut Cina Selatan hidup dari mimpi terburuknya.
 Dia adalah anak bangga dan hanya yang pertama ‘Phra Khlang’ – menteri yang bertanggung jawab atas harta Ayutthaya.
Posisi ayahnya telah memungkinkan dia untuk menarik string cukup untuk mengamankan pekerjaan bergaji di departemen pendapatan dan promosi terbaru telah lebih lanjut meningkatkan kepercayaan diri dan statusnya. Itu adalah hal yang langka bagi seorang PNS untuk dipanggil oleh raja, sehingga ia terkejut dan merasa terhormat ketika ia dipanggil ke istana.
Raja mengangkat Dharmaraja sebagai utusan pribadinya dan memerintahkan dia menemani Heng Tai ke Jawa untuk memberikan beberapa hadiah kepada raja Majapahit di balasan untuk upeti penguasa Majapahit sebelumnya dikirim ke Ayutthaya.
Sekarang saat ia menempel pegangan erat-erat ia bertanya-tanya, antara mual dan gelombang teror, apakah dia akan bisa menyelesaikan misi yang telah dipercayakan untuk melakukan.
Setiap gelombang yang memaksa kapal ke dekat bros, bahkan pergeseran kecil di kargo berat bisa membuktikan bencana.
 Para kru berhasil menurunkan beberapa layar untuk mengurangi ketegangan pada lambung dan tali-temali dan sekarang berjuang untuk mencatat layar yang tersisa, yang terpaku, dengan kekuatan angin, tiang, benang dan tali-temali. Heng Tai dan krunya tahu bahwa jika layar tetap tinggi-tinggi mereka akhirnya akan mengalahkan kapal tapi tak ada lagi yang bisa mereka lakukan.
Dengan karakter bangga nya dikurangi menjadi memori belaka dan, meskipun secara serius prihatin tentang keamanan dan kenyamanan sendiri, Dharmaraja tidak melupakan pentingnya misinya.

 Dia tahu bahwa jika ia gagal untuk memberikan hadiah kepada penguasa Majapahit, mungkin menyebabkan beberapa ketegangan diplomatik dan tentu saja akan mempermalukan ayahnya.
Yang paling penting dari semua karunia ia bantalan adalah stempel kerajaan, yang menegaskan kembali persahabatan Ayutthaya dan aliansi militer.

 Dia menyimpannya di kantong sutra diikatkan di pinggangnya, yang ia diperiksa dari waktu ke waktu untuk memastikan bahwa itu masih aman. Sesampainya tanpa segel berarti mendarat tanpa tujuan apapun. Dia memutuskan bahwa, tak peduli betapa sakit dan takut dia, dia tidak akan membiarkan ini terjadi.

Tiba-tiba, peti yang berisi ayam dan bebek dijemput oleh gelombang besar dan dilemparkan ke geladak dengan kekuatan sehingga mereka hancur berkeping-keping melemparkan hewan trauma seluruh tempat.
Saat ia mendengarkan klakson mereka ketakutan dan pekikan firasat akan terjadinya kiamat mengirim dingin dingin ke tulang belakang Dharmaraja itu.

Penggarap dan kemudi berada di bawah tekanan besar dan konstan seperti Heng Tai memerangi amukan badai untuk menjaga kapal di jalur.
Kemudian, saat malam tiba, ketegangan akhirnya mengambil korban dan anakan pecah.
 Tak ada lagi yang harus dilakukan. Tanpa kemampuan untuk mengarahkan dia, kapal tetap sejajar dengan gelombang dan layar menyeret kapal turun menyamping.
 Dalam upaya terakhir untuk menyelamatkan kapal, kru mencoba untuk memangkas layar tapi itu terlalu terlambat. Terbalik sudah dekat seperti air datang menerjang atas deck dari segala arah. Upaya terakhir Heng Tai dari beaching kapal di tepi Pulau Tioman telah terbukti mustahil. Perjuangan untuk tetap bertahan usai.

Dharmaraja mencoba menyelamatkan diri dengan berpegangan pada tiang utama dengan harapan memanjat ke tempat yang aman dari air yang kini melingkupinya.
 Menjadi lebih berpengalaman dalam situasi seperti ini, Heng Tai dan krunya menjelajahi laut untuk beberapa puing-puing mengambang untuk melekat dan perlahan-lahan bergeser dari layar berderak, jauh dari pelan dan erangan dari lambung tegang, jauh dari jeritan Dharmaraja itu. Kapal itu ditelan, meninggalkan apa-apa kecuali kegelapan dan keheningan di belakangnya.

 

 

Epilogue

Almost 600 years later, a lone Swedish diver, monitored by an advanced ROV (remote operated vehicle) descended on the very spot where the vessel sank 

The only visible remains of the once proud ship was a mound of broken and overgrown ceramics. There was no sign of any ship’s timber above the seabed, the Teredo woodworms had taken care of that long ago.

The mound still points towards Tioman Island but the distance is too far for Heng Tai and his crew to have reached it safely in those sea conditions.  Dharmaraja would not have survived by clinging to the mast top either as the water was too deep, but the relationship between Ayutthaya and Majapahit did survive, even without the royal gifts.

Although fictitious, everything in Heng Tai’s story is based on evidence uncovered during the excavation of the Royal Nanhai shipwreck.  A seal was found next to the mast step but no remains of Dharmaraja could be found.

 

3,2,2 d

Brief historical background to Asia’s Maritime trade

(By Sten Sjostrand)

bagian terakhir dr suatu karya sastra
Hampir 600 tahun kemudian, tunggal Swedia penyelam, dipantau oleh ROV maju (dioperasikan kendaraan jarak jauh) turun di titik di mana kapal tenggelam
Satu-satunya sisa terlihat dari kapal sekali bangga adalah gundukan rusak dan ditumbuhi keramik. Tidak ada tanda-tanda kayu setiap kapal di atas dasar laut, para woodworms Teredo telah diambil dari perawatan yang lama.
Gundukan masih menunjuk pada Pulau Tioman namun jaraknya terlalu jauh untuk Heng Tai dan krunya telah mencapai dengan aman pada mereka kondisi laut. Dharmaraja tidak akan bertahan dengan berpegangan pada tiang atas baik sebagai air terlalu dalam, tetapi hubungan antara Ayutthaya dan Majapahit bisa bertahan, bahkan tanpa hadiah kerajaan.
Meskipun fiktif, segala sesuatu dalam cerita Heng Tai didasarkan pada bukti ditemukan selama penggalian dari Royal Nanhai kapal karam. Sebuah segel ditemukan di sebelah langkah tiang tetapi tidak ada sisa-sisa Dharmaraja dapat ditemukan.
Latar belakang singkat historis untuk perdagangan Maritim Asia
(By Sten Sjostrand)

 

Early Arab and Indian explorers opened the earliest maritime trade route between China, India and the Middle East.  By the 8th century Chinese merchants joined the trade and it wasn’t long before the South China Sea became a bustling marine highway.

 

Ships laden with Chinese pottery, textiles and iron stopped and trade all along the route, returning with cargoes of exotic indigenous products regarded as luxury items in China.  By the 13th century, green glazed celadon ware was in big demand as its colour resembled jade. It also had a reputation for having magical powers; Marco Polo was once told that celadon emitted a ringing tone when danger approached its owner. It was also reputed to change colour if poisoned food was placed on it. No wonder everyone wanted this ware, it was the only kind of life assurance available in those days. But whether celadon was really magical, or its “special powers” were nothing more than an innovative marketing strategy, the reality was that sales soared.  As a result Chinese ware enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the ceramics trade until the late 14th century.

 

As maritime trade increased, the Yuan dynasty slipped deeper into decline and eventually fell in 1368 to Zhu Yuan Zhang, a Chinese peasant who had led a successful rebellion against the Mongols.  He set up court in Nanjing where he established the Ming dynasty and named himself Hongwu, the ‘Son of Heaven’. Hongwu was eager to restore Chinese culture and so he reintroduced Confucian ideology that ranked chivalry higher than profit. Confucian scholars were given key positions at court but had little interest in seeing China develop into a great maritime trading power. Instead they concentrated on developing internal trade by rebuilding the network of canals that had been destroyed during the Mongol dynasty.  Hongwu felt threatened by the wealthy merchants and forcefully moved many of them inland. He then ordered their ships to be destroyed and prohibited all private overseas trade and the building of ocean going vessels.  This ‘‘Ming ban’’ on overseas private trade was introduced in 1371 and was often heavily enforced.  Anyone caught smuggling paid with his life.

 

By the beginning of the15th century however, a new ruler, the Yongle emperor (1403-1324) sent admiral Zheng He (also known as Cheng Ho) on a series of famous ocean voyages to promote tributary trade. This kind of trade emphasised the giving and receiving of tribute, which was in harmony with Confucian principles and meant trade could continue in the name of the emperor.  The expeditions visited Java, India, Mogadishu on the coast of Africa, Hormuz on the Persian Gulf, and sailed up the Red Sea to Jeddah. Gifts were exchanged, and rare spices, plants and animals, including a giraffe, were sent back to China.

 

The ‘‘Ming ban’’ caused China to loose its monopoly of the ceramic trade forcing many Chinese potters to migrate.  During the 14th century, ceramic production in Thailand and Vietnam increased and the Thai ceramic industry became internationally famous. The main developments seem to have been at the Thai kilns of Sukhothai and Sisatchanalai, which flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. The kilns at Sukhothai produced underglaze black ware, which was very similar in design and decoration to pots that had been made in the northern Chinese kilns of Cizhou centuries earlier. The kilns at Sisatchanalai made celadon, which began appearing in overseas marketplaces from the last quarter of the 14th century

 

Evidence from 14th to 16th century South China Sea shipwrecks supports the idea that the Chinese shipbuilders also moved to S.E. Asia.  Traditionally, Chinese ships were made from a temperate climate species of wood and constructed around transverse bulkheads that were held together by square iron nails.  In contrast, Southeast Asian vessels were made from tropical hardwood and built around a framework joined by wooden dowels; a technique still used by boat builders in Terengganu today.  Almost all the shipwrecks from this period had transverse bulkheads attached to a framework, joined by wooden dowels and built from tropical hardwood. These hybrids are commonly referred to as South China Sea vessels and provide evidence that Chinese shipbuilders migrated southwards.

 

The ‘‘Ming ban’’ was officially abolished in 1567 and this allowed the Portuguese to openly trade with China.  By now Chinese potters were crafting exquisite blue and white porcelain ware that was as translucent as jade and almost as precious.  It captivated an ever-increasing group of European buyers and by the beginning of the 17th century blue and white porcelain was being exported to Portugal, Holland and England. From the beginning of the 18th century, more and more European merchant vessels were crossing the South China Sea with thousands of pieces of blue and white porcelain onboard. Many private European traders settled in Asia, using locally built ships to join in this lucrative commerce.

 

The ten historical South China Sea shipwrecks presented in this web page span these centuries of change.  Before the discovery of these wrecks, most of the information available to ceramic collectors came from pots that had been found at various archaeological excavations on land. These became a sort of benchmark for art historians who tended to date all types of similar ceramic pieces according to the dates of these sites.  Finding the ten shipwrecks not only resolved many of the questions I had about dating my own collection, it also provided important evidence for past maritime trade, ceramic development and shipbuilding techniques during a time when Asia was the leading technological hub and a dominant force in global trade.

 

 

Awal Penjelajah Arab dan India  membuka awal rute perdagangan maritim antara Cina, India dan Timur Tengah.

Pada abad ke-8 pedagang Cina bergabung perdagangan dan itu tidak lama sebelum Laut Cina Selatan menjadi jalan laut yang ramai.

Kapal sarat dengan tembikar Cina, tekstil dan besi berhenti dan perdagangan sepanjang rute, kembali dengan kargo produk asli eksotis dianggap sebagai barang mewah di Cina.

 Pada abad ke-13, hijau mengkilap celadon gudang adalah permintaan besar karena warnanya menyerupai batu giok. Ini juga memiliki reputasi karena memiliki kekuatan magis, Marco Polo pernah diberitahu bahwa celadon dipancarkan nada dering ketika bahaya mendekati pemiliknya.

Hal ini juga terkenal untuk mengubah warna jika makanan beracun ditempatkan di atasnya. Tak heran semua orang ingin gudang ini, itu adalah satu-satunya jenis asuransi jiwa yang tersedia pada masa itu. Tapi apakah itu benar-benar ajaib celadon, atau “kekuatan khusus” yang tidak lebih dari strategi pemasaran yang inovatif, kenyataannya adalah bahwa penjualan melonjak. Akibatnya gudang Cina menikmati monopoli virtual dalam perdagangan keramik sampai akhir abad ke-14.

Sebagai perdagangan maritim meningkat, dinasti Yuan tergelincir lebih dalam ke penurunan dan akhirnya jatuh pada tahun 1368 ke Zhu Yuan Zhang, seorang petani Cina yang telah memimpin pemberontakan berhasil melawan Mongol. Ia mendirikan pengadilan di Nanjing mana ia mendirikan dinasti Ming dan menamai dirinya Hongwu, ‘Anak Langit’. Hongwu sangat ingin untuk mengembalikan budaya Cina dan jadi dia diperkenalkan kembali ideologi Konghucu yang peringkat ksatria tinggi daripada keuntungan.

Konfusianisme ulama diberi posisi penting di pengadilan, tetapi memiliki sedikit minat dalam melihat Cina berkembang menjadi kekuatan perdagangan besar maritim. Sebaliknya mereka berkonsentrasi pada pengembangan perdagangan internal dengan membangun kembali jaringan kanal yang telah hancur selama dinasti Mongol.

 Hongwu merasa terancam oleh pedagang kaya dan tegas pindah banyak dari mereka pedalaman. Dia kemudian memerintahkan kapal mereka harus dihancurkan dan melarang semua perdagangan luar negeri swasta dan pembangunan kapal akan laut. Ini”” Ming larangan perdagangan luar negeri swasta diperkenalkan pada 1371 dan sering ditegakkan. Siapa pun yang tertangkap menyelundupkan dibayar dengan nyawanya.

Pada awal abad the15th Namun, penguasa baru, Yongle kaisar (1403-1324) mengirim Laksamana Zheng He (juga dikenal sebagai Cheng Ho) pada serangkaian perjalanan laut yang terkenal untuk mempromosikan perdagangan anak sungai.

 Ini jenis perdagangan menekankan memberi dan menerima upeti, yang selaras dengan prinsip Konfusian dan berarti perdagangan bisa berlanjut dalam nama kaisar.

 Ekspedisi mengunjungi Jawa, India, Mogadishu di pantai Afrika, Hormuz di Teluk Persia, dan berlayar ke Laut Merah ke Jeddah. Hadiah ditukar, dan rempah-rempah langka, tumbuhan dan hewan, termasuk jerapah, dikirim kembali ke China.

The” Ming larangan” menyebabkan China kehilangan monopoli dari perdagangan keramik memaksa banyak tembikar Cina untuk bermigrasi. Selama abad ke-14, produksi keramik di Thailand dan Vietnam meningkat dan industri keramik Thailand menjadi terkenal secara internasional.

Perkembangan utama tampaknya telah di kiln Thailand Sukhothai dan Sisatchanalai, yang berkembang antara abad 14 dan 16. Kiln di Sukhothai diproduksi underglaze hitam ware, yang sangat mirip dalam desain dan dekorasi untuk pot yang telah dibuat di tanur Cina utara Cizhou abad sebelumnya. Kiln di Sisatchanalai membuat celadon, yang mulai muncul di pasar luar negeri dari kuartal terakhir abad ke-14

Bukti dari 14 sampai 16 abad Laut Cina Selatan kapal karam mendukung gagasan bahwa pembuat kapal China juga pindah ke SE Asia. Secara tradisional, kapal Cina dibuat dari spesies iklim dari kayu dan dibangun di sekitar bulkheads melintang yang dilekatkan dengan paku besi persegi. Sebaliknya, kapal Asia Tenggara yang terbuat dari kayu keras tropis dan dibangun dengan kerangka bergabung dengan pena kayu, teknik masih digunakan oleh pembangun kapal di Terengganu hari ini.

Hampir semua bangkai kapal dari periode ini memiliki bulkheads melintang melekat pada kerangka, bergabung dengan pena kayu dan dibangun dari kayu keras tropis. Ini hibrida sering disebut sebagai Laut Cina Selatan dan kapal memberikan bukti bahwa pembuat kapal Cina bermigrasi ke selatan.

The”” Ming larangan secara resmi dihapuskan pada tahun 1567 dan ini membuat Portugis untuk secara terbuka perdagangan dengan China. Sekarang tembikar China kerajinan biru dan putih porselen indah yang seperti tembus seperti batu giok dan hampir sama berharganya. Ini terpikat kelompok yang terus meningkat dari pembeli Eropa dan pada awal abad porselen biru dan putih-17 telah diekspor ke Portugal, Belanda dan Inggris. Dari awal abad ke-18, lebih dan lebih Eropa kapal pedagang yang menyeberangi Laut Cina Selatan dengan ribuan keping porselen biru dan putih onboard.

Banyak pedagang swasta Eropa menetap di Asia, menggunakan kapal lokal dibangun untuk bergabung dalam perdagangan ini menguntungkan.

Kesepuluh sejarah Laut Cina Selatan bangkai kapal yang disajikan dalam halaman web rentang ini berabad-abad perubahan. Sebelum penemuan bangkai kapal ini,

sebagian besar informasi yang tersedia bagi kolektor keramik berasal dari pot yang telah ditemukan di berbagai penggalian arkeologi di darat. Ini menjadi semacam acuan bagi para sejarawan seni yang cenderung saat ini semua jenis potongan keramik yang sama sesuai dengan tanggal dari situs ini.

Menemukan sepuluh bangkai kapal tidak hanya diselesaikan banyak pertanyaan saya tentang kencan koleksi saya sendiri, juga memberikan bukti penting untuk perdagangan, pengembangan keramik masa lalu maritim dan teknik pembuatan kapal selama waktu ketika Asia adalah hub teknologi terkemuka dan kekuatan yang dominan di dunia perdagangan

 

Time capsules

(By Sten Sjostrand)

 

Diving on any shipwreck is an exciting experience full of mystique, but diving on an historical shipwreck is even more thrilling and definitely more challenging. 

These shipwrecks are fragile time capsules containing important information about a bygone era and the information they contain can be easily destroyed by careless excavation.  Some divers only value the cargo but the real treasure is the whole ship: its structure, cargo and the historical context.

 

Studying each shipwreck from this perspective means that everything onboard is valuable in determining the date and origin of the vessel.  The remains of perishable items onboard at the time of sinking, as well as the vessel’s design and construction method, are just as crucial as the cargo when it comes to fully understanding the importance of the wreck site.

 

By applying the same fastidious methods of excavation to each of the ten shipwrecks found in the South China Sea, I have been able to plot a proposed chronology for the development of ceramics. This wouldn’t have been as clear or comprehensive, if ten different people using different research criteria and techniques had undertaken the excavations.

 

Examining each ship’s cargo provided a lot of information. Most ships were loaded with items from different countries of origin, which not only sheds light on the trading routes, but also provides important information about the range of contemporaneous forms and styles of trade goods that were available along the route. 

Recording where each artefact was located often helps to unravel the true circumstances surrounding the item.  For example, on one occasion we found a few pieces of pottery that were older than the rest of the cargo, which possibly indicates the existence of a small trade in antiques at that particular time.  However as these pieces were discovered in a different location from the main cargo, it’s more likely to assume they were intended as gifts or were part of the personal effects of someone onboard.

 

By examining the remains of the ship it’s possible to determine its design, construction method and the type of timber used.  This information can tell much about the spread of shipbuilding techniques throughout the region.

A further examination of the ship’s loading arrangement and other objects found onboard provide a rather good picture of the historical events preceding the ship’s sinking.  It’s only when we combine all these factors that we can fully understand a shipwreck site.

 

Excavating historical shipwrecks is a daunting and painstaking business requiring enormous patience and stamina. I couldn’t wait to get started.

 

Kapsul waktu
(By Sten Sjostrand)

Diving pada setiap kapal karam adalah pengalaman yang menarik penuh mistik, tapi menyelam pada kapal karam sejarah bahkan lebih mendebarkan dan pasti lebih menantang. Ini adalah bangkai kapal kapsul waktu yang berisi rapuh informasi penting tentang zaman dulu dan informasi yang dikandungnya dapat dengan mudah dihancurkan oleh penggalian ceroboh. Beberapa penyelam hanya menghargai kargo tapi harta yang sesungguhnya adalah seluruh kapal: struktur, kargo dan konteks historis.

Mempelajari setiap kapal karam dari perspektif ini berarti bahwa segala sesuatu onboard berharga dalam menentukan tanggal dan asal kapal. Sisa-sisa barang tahan lama atas kapal pada saat tenggelam, serta desain kapal dan metode konstruksi, yang sama pentingnya dengan kargo ketika datang untuk sepenuhnya memahami pentingnya situs kecelakaan.

Dengan menerapkan metode rewel sama penggalian untuk masing-masing dari sepuluh bangkai kapal yang ditemukan di Laut Cina Selatan, saya telah mampu merencanakan sebuah kronologi diusulkan untuk pengembangan keramik. Ini tidak akan sejelas atau komprehensif, jika sepuluh orang yang berbeda menggunakan kriteria penelitian yang berbeda dan teknik telah dilakukan penggalian.

Memeriksa kargo setiap kapal memberikan banyak informasi. Kebanyakan kapal yang sarat dengan barang-barang dari berbagai negara asal, yang tidak hanya menyoroti rute perdagangan, tetapi juga menyediakan informasi penting tentang berbagai bentuk kontemporer dan gaya barang perdagangan yang tersedia di sepanjang rute. Rekaman di mana setiap artefak terletak sering membantu untuk mengungkap keadaan yang sebenarnya sekitar item. Misalnya, pada satu kesempatan kami menemukan beberapa potong tembikar yang lebih tua dari sisa kargo, yang mungkin menunjukkan adanya perdagangan barang-barang antik kecil pada waktu tertentu. Namun sebagai potongan ini ditemukan di lokasi yang berbeda dari kargo utama, itu lebih mungkin untuk menganggap mereka itu dimaksudkan sebagai hadiah atau merupakan bagian dari efek pribadi seseorang onboard.

Dengan memeriksa sisa-sisa kapal itu mungkin untuk menentukan desain, metode konstruksi dan jenis kayu yang digunakan. Informasi ini dapat memberitahu banyak tentang penyebaran teknik perkapalan di seluruh wilayah. Pemeriksaan lebih lanjut dari pengaturan pemuatan kapal dan benda-benda lain yang ditemukan onboard, memberikan gambaran yang lebih baik dari peristiwa sejarah sebelum tenggelamnya kapal. Hanya ketika kita menggabungkan semua faktor ini bahwa kita dapat sepenuhnya memahami situs kapal karam.

Menggali bangkai kapal sejarah adalah bisnis yang menakutkan dan melelahkan yang membutuhkan kesabaran yang sangat besar dan stamina. Aku tidak bisa menunggu untuk memulai.

 

Why Shipwrecked?

(By Sten Sjostrand)

 

Even though today’s ships are strongly built, carry good navigational equipment and charts and are manned by highly trained officers, an average of two ships per day still end up on the seabed – a staggering statistic!

 

Without any of this modern equipment and knowledge to rely on, ancient ships sailed virtually blind.  Some, like Heng Tai’s ship, were also weakened through lack of proper maintenance and some were in the hands of inexperienced officers, who were not always aware of all the navigational hazards they needed to avoid.  On top of this, these old ships were often terribly over crowded.

 

A common rule of trade was that individual merchants had to live above the compartment they had hired for their cargo. Consequently, there were a lot of passengers onboard and decks were often so crowded that people had to lie down to sleep in shifts.  Water jars, and other smaller items of cargo, were stored on deck too, which made it almost impossible for the crew to respond quickly in an emergency.  Presumably this would have been one of the reasons why Heng Tai’s crew couldn’t get their sails down fast enough to save the ship.  Another negative effect of this overcrowding was the fire risk created by the numerous cooking fires on deck.  Some of these old ships carried saltpetre and gunpowder so any fire onboard was potentially explosive.

 

The South China Sea offered plenty of hiding places for pirates and over the years these brigands became familiar with the course and destination of various trading ships and would lie in ambush along the route.  Normally the pirates stripped the ship of its precious cargo, firearms, cannons and anchors before killing everyone onboard and setting the ship ablaze. Destroying all evidence of the ship meant they could avoid detection. Surprisingly, the ship’s iron fittings were amongst the most valuable items onboard. Iron was very scarce in Southeast Asia, during this period, which is presumably why their shipbuilders didn’t use iron nails.

 

The European era adversely affected the safety of shipping in the South China Sea as the Portuguese, Dutch, English, and Spanish tried their best to minimize competition by inflicting as much damage as possible on each other’s vessels as well as any other Asian ship they encountered. Numerous reports exist about Portuguese captains beaching their own ships and setting them on fire rather than letting the Dutch capture them. Yet other reports describe how the Dutch immobilised ‘unfriendly’ ships by shooting down their masts. Then the cargo, anchors and bronze cannons were looted before the ship was set ablaze. Many later blew up ‘like thunder’ after the fire had spread to the powder store.

 

The Chinese and hybrid Southeast Asian vessels were better at surviving storms and reefs than any other local type of ship.  Their transverse bulkheads divided the ship into watertight compartments that could stay afloat if one or two of them became flooded. They would simply jettison the cargo from the damaged compartments, repair the broken structure from inside and then continue sailing.  All Chinese ships had bulkheads that went all the way to the deck and were quite watertight.  Watertight transverse bulkheads are still employed by ship designers today, which shows how innovative these early Chinese craftsmen had been. The Titanic sank because her watertight bulkheads didn’t go all the way to the upper deck and water was able to flow from one compartment to the other.

 

When a ship did sink it would have been almost inevitable that everyone onboard perished.  The chance of survival depended on how far the ship was from shore when it sank.  Of the ten historic wrecks excavated in the South China Sea, there’s only three (the Desaru, Tanjung Simpang and Wanli) that were close enough to shore for survival to have been possible. Sadly, most people onboard would have died and there would be no record of them. The human cost this early trade exacted is something I’m always respectfully mindful of when we work on a site.  Thankfully it’s very rare to find human remains on these sites.  Most of the passengers and crew would have jumped overboard before the ship sank and would have been swept away on the current.

Mengapa terdampar?
(By Sten Sjostrand)

Meskipun kapal hari ini yang kuat dibangun, membawa peralatan navigasi yang baik dan grafik dan diawaki oleh petugas terlatih, rata-rata dua kapal per hari masih berakhir di dasar laut – statistik mengejutkan!

Tanpa semua ini peralatan modern dan pengetahuan untuk mengandalkan, kapal kuno berlayar hampir buta. Beberapa, seperti kapal Heng Tai, juga melemah karena kurangnya perawatan yang tepat dan ada yang di tangan petugas berpengalaman, yang tidak selalu menyadari semua bahaya navigasi yang mereka butuhkan untuk menghindari. Di atas ini, kapal-kapal tua sering sangat lebih ramai.

Aturan umum dari perdagangan adalah bahwa pedagang individu harus hidup di atas kompartemen mereka telah menyewa untuk kargo mereka. Akibatnya, ada banyak penumpang onboard dan deck sering begitu ramai bahwa orang harus berbaring untuk tidur dalam shift. Tempayan, dan barang-barang kecil lainnya kargo, disimpan di geladak juga, yang membuat hampir tidak mungkin bagi kru untuk merespon dengan cepat dalam keadaan darurat. Agaknya ini akan menjadi salah satu alasan mengapa awak Heng Tai tidak bisa mendapatkan layar mereka turun cukup cepat untuk menyelamatkan kapal. Efek negatif lain dari kepadatan penduduk adalah resiko kebakaran yang diciptakan oleh berbagai kebakaran memasak di dek. Beberapa kapal tua dilakukan sendawa dan mesiu sehingga setiap kebakaran onboard, itu berpotensi meledak.

Laut Cina Selatan menawarkan banyak tempat persembunyian untuk bajak laut dan selama bertahun-tahun perampok ini menjadi akrab dengan program dan tujuan berbagai kapal dagang dan akan selalu menghalangi sepanjang rute. Biasanya para perompak dilucuti kapal kargo yang berharga, senjata api, meriam dan jangkar sebelum membunuh semua orang di pesawat dan pengaturan kapal terbakar. Menghancurkan semua bukti kapal berarti mereka bisa menghindari deteksi. Anehnya, fitting besi kapal berada di antara barang-barang yang paling berharga atas kapal. Besi sangat langka di Asia Tenggara, selama periode ini, yang mungkin mengapa pembuat kapal mereka tidak menggunakan paku besi.

Era Eropa berdampak buruk terhadap keselamatan pelayaran di Laut Cina Selatan sebagai Portugis, Belanda, Inggris, dan Spanyol mencoba terbaik mereka untuk meminimalkan persaingan dengan menimbulkan kerusakan sebanyak mungkin di kapal masing-masing serta setiap kapal Asia lainnya yang mereka temui . Sejumlah laporan ada tentang kapten Portugis beaching kapal mereka sendiri dan menetapkan mereka terbakar daripada membiarkan Belanda menangkap mereka. Namun laporan lain menggambarkan bagaimana Belanda amobil kapal ‘tidak ramah’ dengan menembak jatuh tiang-tiang mereka. Kemudian kargo, jangkar dan meriam perunggu dijarah sebelum kapal itu dibakar. Banyak kemudian meledak ‘seperti guntur’ setelah api telah menyebar ke toko bubuk.

Kapal Tenggara Cina dan hibrida Asia lebih baik dalam bertahan badai dan terumbu daripada jenis lokal lainnya kapal. Bulkheads melintang mereka dibagi kapal ke kompartemen kedap air yang bisa tetap bertahan jika salah satu atau dua dari mereka menjadi banjir. Mereka hanya akan membuang kargo dari kompartemen yang rusak, memperbaiki rusak struktur dari dalam dan kemudian melanjutkan berlayar. Semua kapal Cina memiliki bulkheads yang pergi semua jalan ke geladak dan cukup kedap. Kedap melintang bulkheads masih digunakan oleh desainer kapal saat ini, yang menunjukkan bagaimana inovatif ini pengrajin Cina awal telah. Titanic tenggelam karena dia bulkheads kedap air tidak pergi semua jalan ke atas dek dan air bisa mengalir dari satu kompartemen ke yang lain.

Ketika kapal itu tenggelam itu akan menjadi hampir tak terelakkan bahwa setiap orang atas kapal tewas. Kesempatan untuk bertahan hidup tergantung pada seberapa jauh kapal itu dari pantai ketika tenggelam. Dari sepuluh bangkai kapal bersejarah digali di Laut Cina Selatan, hanya ada tiga (di Desaru, Tanjung Simpang dan Wanli) yang cukup dekat dengan pantai untuk kelangsungan hidup telah menjadi mungkin. Sayangnya, kebanyakan orang atas kapal akan mati dan tidak akan ada catatan dari mereka. Biaya manusia perdagangan awal ini dituntut adalah sesuatu yang saya selalu hormat sadar ketika kita bekerja di situs. Untungnya sangat jarang untuk menemukan sisa-sisa manusia di situs tersebut. Sebagian besar penumpang dan awak akan melompat ke laut sebelum kapal tenggelam dan akan telah hanyut pada saat ini.

Early Laws of the Sea

(By Sten Sjostrand)

I was intrigued to discover that there were several Thai laws that related specifically to sailors even though there are no records of a strong maritime tradition.  

One law from 1350 prohibits the wife of a shipwrecked sailor from remarrying for seven years after his departure. 

This seems to have been quite a sensible law when you consider how long it might take for a shipwrecked survivor to eventually make his way back home. 

 

In 1690 a German traveller boarded a Dutch ship in Batavia that was heading first to Thailand and then onto Japan. 

Onboard he met a Japanese passenger who was finally going home after being shipwrecked in the South China Sea 10 years earlier. He and a few other survivors had been washed onto on a small sandbank in the middle of the South China Sea where they lived for a few years before being spotted and rescued.  The sandbank offered little in terms of quality of life being only fifty-three paces long and twenty-four paces wide!   When he finally returned to Japan, he found his wife had remarried and produced a son.

 

thai palace in bangkok

The same law states that a sailor has the right to give evidence in court in the furtherance of settling disputes involving other sailors. The fact that these laws had already been formulated by 1350 indicates that there was already a thriving Chinese seafaring community in Thailand before the ‘Ming ban’ of 1371. It also adds weight to my theory that part of the Chinese migration of Cizhou potters started as early as 1280 when the Mongols invaded China and established the Yuan dynasty.

These early immigrants most likely started the production of underglaze painted ceramics at Sukhothai, almost a hundred years before celadon production got underway at the Sisatchanalai kilns.  This theory is supported by evidence gathered from the Cizhou kiln sites and the Turiang shipwreck. This shipwreck cargo also reversed the earlier belief that Sisatchanalai was the first Thai kiln in export production.

 

The 15th century Melaka Maritime Code specifies rules pertaining to merchants and provides a general guide for ships as well as trading procedures. In this, the earliest known maritime code, it states that neither the merchant or the captain are liable to the owner for any lost goods if the cargo had to be jettisoned (a common practice if the ship hit a reef and needed repairs) or was totally lost by shipwrecking.  One can only assume that ships must have been lost quite frequently otherwise there would be no need for such a law.

Hukum  Laut Awal
(By Sten Sjostrand)
Saya tertarik untuk menemukan bahwa ada beberapa undang-undang Thailand yang khusus berkaitan dengan pelaut meskipun tidak ada catatan dari tradisi maritim yang kuat. Satu hukum dari 1350 melarang istri pelaut terdampar untuk menikah kembali selama tujuh tahun setelah kepergiannya. Hal ini tampaknya telah cukup masuk akal hukum ketika Anda mempertimbangkan berapa lama waktu yang diperlukan untuk korban terdampar akhirnya membuat jalan kembali ke rumah. Pada 1690 seorang musafir Jerman menumpang kapal Belanda di Batavia yang menuju pertama ke Thailand dan kemudian ke Jepang. Onboard ia bertemu seorang penumpang Jepang yang akhirnya akan pulang setelah terdampar di Laut Cina Selatan 10 tahun sebelumnya. Dia dan beberapa korban lainnya telah dicuci ke pada gosong pasir kecil di tengah Laut Cina Selatan dimana mereka tinggal selama beberapa tahun sebelum melihat dan diselamatkan. Gosong pasir ditawarkan sedikit dalam hal kualitas hidup yang hanya lima puluh tiga langkah panjang dan dua puluh empat langkah lebar! Ketika dia akhirnya kembali ke Jepang, ia menemukan istrinya sudah menikah lagi dan menghasilkan seorang putra.

Sama hukum menyatakan bahwa pelaut berhak untuk memberikan bukti di pengadilan dalam kelanjutan penyelesaian sengketa yang melibatkan pelaut lainnya. Fakta bahwa hukum-hukum ini sudah dirumuskan oleh 1350 menunjukkan bahwa sudah ada komunitas pelaut berkembang Cina di Thailand sebelum ‘Ming larangan’ dari 1371. Ia juga menambahkan bobot teori saya bagian dari migrasi Cina Cizhou tembikar dimulai sedini 1280 ketika Mongol menyerbu Cina dan mendirikan dinasti Yuan. Imigran awal ini kemungkinan besar mulai produksi keramik dicat underglaze di Sukhothai, hampir seratus tahun sebelum produksi celadon mendapat berlangsung di kiln Sisatchanalai. Teori ini didukung oleh bukti yang dikumpulkan dari situs kiln Cizhou dan Turiang kapal karam. Ini kapal karam kargo juga membalik keyakinan sebelumnya bahwa Sisatchanalai adalah kiln Thailand lebih dulu dalam produksi ekspor.

Abad ke-15 Melaka Maritime Kode menetapkan aturan-aturan yang berkaitan dengan pedagang dan menyediakan panduan umum untuk kapal serta prosedur perdagangan. Dalam hal ini, kode maritim dikenal paling awal, ia menyatakan bahwa baik pedagang atau kapten bertanggung jawab kepada pemilik untuk setiap barang yang hilang jika kargo harus dibuang (praktek umum jika kapal menabrak karang dan perbaikan diperlukan) ataukah benar-benar hilang dengan shipwrecking. Kita hanya bisa berasumsi bahwa kapal harus telah kehilangan cukup sering jika tidak, tidak akan ada kebutuhan untuk undang-undang tersebut.

 

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