THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA
PART III. STUDIES RESULTS
Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA
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Based on a literature study in chapter Two can be found Information as follows
Berdasarkan hasil studi literature dalam bab Dua dapat ditemukan informasi sebagai berikut
a.The Chinese Royal Kingdom art collection in Indonesia by researchers which collected from 1973 to 2013 (forty years) in Sumatra,Java.Kalmantan and South Celebes and Ambon as follows
koleksi benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Indonesia oleh peneliti yang dikumpulkan dari tahun 1973 sampai 2013 (empat puluh Tahun) di Sumatra,Jawa,Kalimantan,Sulawesi selatan dan Ambon sebagai berikut
3.1 HISTORY BACKGROUND
LATAR BELAKANG SEJARAH
.The Background history of ceramic trade and royal art objects from China to Indonesia have started in the early centuries AD at the end of the Han Dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty by the merchants of the kingdom of China, the Middle East, and very crowded in the Tang dynasty, Sung, Ming reduced initial in the mid Ming Ming and crowded again at the end of the transitional period and reduced to the Qing Ming and Qing dynasties crowded again at the end.
This information is obtained from te research, discovery of ceramic art and Chinese empire at several sites in Indonesia by the National Arkelologis Center and a review of the findings of a shipwreck in Southeast Asia as some footage below
. Latar belakang sejarah perdagangan keramik dan benda seni dari kerajaan Tiongkok ke Indonesia sudah dimulai pada awal abad masehi pada dinasti Han akhir sampai akhir dinasti Qing oleh pedagang-pedagang dari kerajaan Tiongkok,Timur Tengah, dan sangat ramai pada dinasti Tang, Sung, awal Ming berkurang pada Ming pertengahan dan ramai lagi pada Ming akhir dan berkurang pada masa peralihan Ming ke Qing serta ramai lagi pada dinasti Qing Akhir.
Informasi ini diperoleh dari penelitian te,muan benda seni dan keramik kerajaan Tiongkok di beberapa situs di Indonesia oleh Pusat Arkelologis Nasional dan hasil kajian temuan kapal karam di di Asia Tengara seperti beberapa cuplikan dibawah ini
Report of research findings on Sirus Indonesia by Indonesian National Archaeology Center
Laporan Hasil penelitian Temuan di Sirus Indonesia oleh Pusat Arkeologi Nasioanl Indonesia
(1) The Report Of Situs Banten Girang
Laporan Situan Banten Girang
(2) The Report Of Situs Banten Lama Laporan Situs banten Lama
This report not upload
(3) The Report Of Indonesian Shipwreck treasure Finding
The ceramic Of Cargo from shipswreck , almost always found in relatively large quantities.
Bambang Budi Utomo of the Center Arkenas who edited the book Shipwrecks Century 10 in North Java Sea, Cirebon said the shipwreck that the artifact has been removed from commercial ships, most of his wares, even nearly 90 percent in the form of ceramics.
The rest is pottery and glass items
Porcelain and stoneware very Clearly not locally made. So far as the items have been found at various sites in Indonesia, and are known from various countries,
such as China, Southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia), the Middle East, Japan, and Europe (such as the Netherlands and Germany).
According Widiati, researcher and expert of ancient ceramics, Ceramic frequently found in Indonesia comes from China (2-20 century AD), Thailand (Century 13-18 CE), Vietnam (century-8-18 M), Europe (17 century AD -20), Japan (17-20 century CE), and the Middle East (7-14 century AD).
On the findings of ceramics in the waters north of Cirebon, based on the identification and Typology of the ceramic objects, a 10th-century ceramics from the AD Five Dynasties period.
Of course, through the identification of these tiles, there are many additional bits of the data to compose a past history of Indonesian culture.
(Kompas, Thursday, May 20, 2010)
Muatan Dari kapal-kapal tenggelam, hampir selalu keramik ditemukan dalam jumlah relatif besar.
Bambang Budi Utomo dari Puslitbang Arkenas yang menjadi editor buku Kapal Karam Abad ke-10 di Laut Jawa Utara Cirebon mengatakan, kapal tenggelam yang artefaknya telah diangkat berasal dari kapal niaga, barang dagangannya sebagian besar, bahkan hampir 90 persen berupa keramik. Selebihnya adalah tembikar dan barang-barang kaca
Porselin dan bahan batuan sangat jelas bukan buatan lokal.
Selama ini barang-barang seperti itu telah ditemukan di berbagai situs di Indonesia, dan diketahui berasal dari berbagai negara, seperti Tiongkok, Asia Tenggara (Thailand, Vietnam, dan Kamboja), Timur Tengah, Jepang, dan Eropa (seperti Belanda dan Jerman).
Menurut Widiati, peneliti dan ahli keramik kuno, Keramik yang sering ditemukan di Indonesia berasal dari China (abad ke-2–20 Masehi), Thailand (abad ke-13–18 M), Vietnam (abad ke-8–18 M), Eropa (abad ke-17–20 M), Jepang (abad ke-17–20 M), dan Timur Tengah (abad ke-7–14 M).
Tentang temuan keramik di perairan utara Cirebon, berdasarkan identifikasi dan tipologi benda-benda keramik itu, merupakan keramik abad ke-10 Masehi dari masa Dinasti Lima.
Sudah tentu, melalui hasil identifikasi keramik ini, ada sedikit-banyaknya tambahan data untuk merangkai sejarah kebudayaan masa lampau Indonesia.
(Kompas, Kamis, 20 Mei 2010)
(b) Shipwreck Ceribon
Described, in May 2004 the Chinese fishermen Indramayu find ceramics, such as jars, strands of gold, silver, agate, roomates Reaches Hundreds of species roomates According to research is a relic of the Ming Dynasty Chinese or fifth dynasty, 10th century
Indonesian government through the national committee appointment and utilization of valuable objects that sink a boatload of origin (Pannas BMKT) will conduct the auction results on the sinking ship that 10th century in northern waters of Cirebon
However, in terms of age, Rini estimates kono objects is not older than a discovery in waters Similar Karangsong, Indramayu In 2004, the the firm is a relic of the Ming Dynasty around the 10th century
Dijelaskan, pada Mei 2004 nelayan Indramayu menemukan keramik Tiongkok, berupa guci, untaian emas, perak, batu akik, yang jenisnya mencapai ratusan yang menurut hasil penelitian merupakan peninggalan Dinasti Ming atau dinasti kelima Cina, abad ke 10
Pemerintah Indonesia melalui panitia nasional pengangkatan dan pemanfaatan benda berharga asal muatan kapal yang tenggelam (Pannas BMKT) akan melakukan pelelangan hasil temuan kapal yang tenggelam pada abad ke-10 di perairan utara Cirebon
Namun, dari sisi usia, Rini memperkirakan benda-benda kono ini tidak lebih tua dari penemuan serupa di perairan Karangsong, Indramayu Pada tahun 2004 yang dipastikan merupakan peninggalan Dinasti Ming sekitar abad ke-10.
Gambar 7: Form atribut ukuran (sumber & modifikasi: Irdiansyah, 2011).
Gambar 8: Form atribut bentuk (sumber & modifikasi: Irdiansyah, 2011).
© Krawang Shipwreck report
Database Systems for Data Recording Archaeology: A Recommendation Based Database Systems Shipwrecks findings Falkirk
Sistem Basis Data untuk Perekaman Data Arkeologi: Suatu Rekomendasi Berdasarkan Sistem Basis Data Temuan-temuan Kapal Karam Karawang
22 April 2012
Arkeolog, Karyawan Swasta/
One category of findings that can be explained Shipwreck Falkirk sequence and category attributes is closed (closed). In the handling of these findings Shipwreck Karawang, closed category (closed) is defined as the diameter of the hole all the artifacts it is smaller than the diameter of the largest part of his body, and does not have a neck and / or beak.
Attributes recorded in the measurement process is the size and shape (in this system form later called). The forms are designed in such a way that the filler can run the measurement process easily and efficiently.
When the closed category (Figure 6) is clicked (click) it will display the form (form) fields that are used to find corresponding barcode measured artifacts and start timing measurements. The information entered is the barcodes, the name of filler, and the date (automatically recorded when the name charger included).
Furthermore, after the “ok” button is clicked will show up forms for measurement. Ranging from high (height), the largest diameter (body broadest diameter), the diameter of the hole (top opening diameter), high foot (bottom rim height), the diameter of the foot (bottom diameter), thick frame leg (bottom rim width), median diameter foot (bottom center diameter), up to the foot diameter (inside bottom rim diameter
Salah satu kategori temuan Karawang Shipwreck yang dapat dijelaskan urutan dan atributnya adalah kategori closed (tertutup). Pada penanganan temuan Karawang Shipwreck ini, kategori closed (tertutup) didefinisikan sebagai seluruh artefak yang diameter lubang atasnya lebih kecil dari diameter terbesar bagian badannya, serta tidak memiliki leher dan/atau cucuk. Atribut yang direkam pada proses pengukuran ini adalah ukuran dan bentuk (dalam sistem ini kemudian disebut form). Form-form itu dirancang sedemikan rupa agar pengisinya dapat menjalankan proses pengukuran dengan mudah dan efisien.
Ketika tombol kategori closed (gambar 6) diklik (click) maka akan muncul form (formulir) isian yang berfungsi untuk mencari barcode sesuai artefak yang diukur dan memulai penghitungan waktu pengukuran. Informasi yang dimasukkan adalah barcode, nama pengisi, dan tanggal (terekam secara otomatis ketika nama pengisi dimasukkan).
Selanjutnya setelah tombol “ok” diklik akan muncul form-form untuk pengukuran. Mulai dari tinggi (height), diameter terbesar (body broadest diameter), diameter lubang atas (top opening diameter), tinggi kaki (bottom rim height), diameter kaki (bottom diameter), tebal bingkai kaki (bottom rim width), diameter tengah kaki (bottom centre diameter), hingga diameter dalam kaki (inside bottom rim diameter)
Pameran “Jejak-jejak KAPAL Karam”
Koleksi-koleksi yang berasal dari kapal karam (Foto: Djulianto Susantio)
EXHIBITION “SHIPWRECK TRAILS”
History of the archipelago as real-fact is the history of the sea. Since the beginning of residential archipelago by the Austronesian language speakers, the sea has played a role in the event of a large-scale migration of the ancestors of Formosa (Taiwan) to the various regions in Southeast Asia, around 6,500 BC. The role of the ocean can not dinafikkan anyway when the archipelago became a haven of spice on Trade Ages, the 16th century until the mid-20th century AD, which then led to colonialism.
Thus, most of the territorial waters of the archipelago is also a historic site. In essence saved a lot of historical evidence. Traces of shipwreck. Remains, historical remains such as sunken ships, with cargo, when they first crossed the Indonesian waters. According to the documentation, there are around 400 points shipwreck in Indonesian waters. This is possible because of the archipelago, except indeed the spice-producing areas of high quality, also the crossing area that connects the western hemisphere and the eastern.
Objects cargo ship sank (BMKT), which comes from the past, obviously very important for the history of the archipelago disclosure. At least can give an overview of the various aspects of social life, political, economic, or cultural contiguity contiguity-that occurred in the past. And for that, of course, should be preserved for its utilization for the benefit of mankind
Pameran “Jejak-jejak KAPAL Karam”
Sejarah Nusantara senyata-nyatanya adalah sejarah tentang laut. Sejak awal penghunian Nusantara oleh para penutur Bahasa Austronesia, laut telah memainkan peranannya ketika terjadi migrasi besar-besaran para leluhur tersebut dari Formosa (Taiwan) ke berbagai wilayah di Asia Tenggara, sekitar 6.500 SM. Peran laut tak dapat dinafikkan pula ketika Nusantara menjadi surga rempah-rempah pada Abad Perdagangan, abad ke-16 sampai pertengahan abad ke-20 Masehi, yang lantas bermuara pada kolonialisme.
Maka, sebagian wilayah perairan Nusantara adalah juga situs bersejarah. Di dasarnya banyak sekali tersimpan bukti-bukti sejarah. Jejak-jejak karam. Tinggalan-tinggalan historis berupa kapal-kapal yang karam, bersama muatannya, saat mereka dulu melintasi wilayah perairan Indonesia. Menurut pendataan, ada sekitar 400-an titik-titik kapal karam di perairan Indonesia. Ini sangat dimungkinkan karena Nusantara, selain memang wilayah penghasil rempah-rempah berkualitas tinggi, juga merupakan wilayah perlintasan yang menghubungkan belahan bumi bagian barat dan timur.
Benda-benda muatan kapal tenggelam (BMKT), yang berasal dari masa lalu, jelas sangat penting artinya bagi pengungkapan sejarah Nusantara. Paling tidak dapat memberikan berbagai gambaran tentang aspek-aspek kehidupan sosial, politik, ekonomi, atau persentuhan-persentuhan budaya yang terjadi di masa lalu. Dan untuk itu, tentu saja, harus dilestarikan demi pemanfaatannya bagi kepentingan umat manusia
THE HISTORY OF INDONESIAN MARITIME
Centuries ago, before the colonization of the peoples of Europe, the waters of the archipelago has been an important commercial shipping lines from around the world.
Some important port in the archipelago that already exist such as Pasai in Aceh, Palembang Chinese City, Banten, Batavia (now Jakarta), Semarang, Demak, Jepara, Makassar, Gowa, Tallo, Sangihe, Talaud, Seram, and Ternate.
Foreign trade with the archipelago initially suspected to
trade in spices from the Moluccas by Arab and Indian traders. Transport early this archipelago spice trade through sea route to India, and then passed through a land trade routes to the Middle East, and ended up in Europe.
When the Roman Emperor Vespasion prohibit the export of gold from Rome in the first century,
Indian traders also turned to the archipelago-particularly Sumatra and Java as an alternative to gold imports.
In addition to Indian and Arab traders, Malay traders also have played an important role in the pilot boat to the east (China, Japan) and to the west (India, Middle East and Africa).
Since the 9th century the Chinese also contributed to the growth of sea trade through the export of ceramics.
Therefore from various records and historical documents from the 7th century until the 19th AD, hundreds or even thousands of ships alleged to have suffered shipwreck or drowning in the archipelago.
Ships were derived from Chinese merchant ships (of various dynasties), ship kingdoms in the archipelago, ships Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Japanese.
Cause of the sinking ships, among others, by storms and bad weather, navigational knowledge geographic cruise ship hit a reef less so, or for other reasons such as being the target and battle pirates.
Number of lost ships and sunken over the centuries in the waters of the archipelago does not count.
In 2001 National Geographic has reported seven ancient ship that sank in the western part of the archipelago waters (Strait of Malacca) in the XVII-XX centuries AD. Such vessels are Diana (UK),
Treasure from Tek Sing
The Tek Sing (True Star) set sail from China, bound for Java, in 1822. She was heavily laden with Chinese porcelain, 1,600 passengers (mostly living outside on deck) and 200 crew. After 24 days she struck a reef, and quickly sank, taking more lives than even the Titanic disaster 90 years later. In 1999, salvage diver Captain Mike Hatcher found the wreck and recovered her porcelain cargo – the largest ever discovery of its kind, and in remarkably good condition
read more info (not upload)
Chinese Ceramics From the Shipwreck Turiang 14th Century
nd Geldermalsen (Netherlands),
€ 24 millions. Discovery, in Indonesia, of the Dutch VOC vessel wreck ‘Geldermalsen’ sunk in 1752.
Salvage of a cargo made of 160,000 pieces of porcelain and 127 stamped Chinese gold ingots
Don Duarte de Guerra (Portuguese),
related Information(not upload)
Marine archeologists say that the ancient wreckage of a ship discovered in the seabed off the coast of Nagasaki, Japan, belongs to the ancient “lost fleet” of ships belonging to China’s 13th century Mongol ruler Kublai Khan, CNN reports.
Explorers found the 20-meter-long shipwreck by using ultra-sound equipment some 25 meters off the coast of Nagasaki. The team of researchers buried the ultra-sound sensors about a meter deep in the sandy earth beneath the sea. Archeologists believe the ship dates back to 1281, and was part of a 4,400-vessel fleet that China’s Mongol rulers during the Yuan Dynasty had employed as an invasion force.
The discovery of the ship’s well preserved and mostly intact 12-meter-long keel “could go a long way to helping researchers identify all the characteristics of the 20-meter warship,” CNN reported, citing the head of the research team that made the discovery.
“This discovery was of major importance for our research,” Yoshifumi Ikeda, of Okinawa’s University of the Ryukyus, said at a recent press conference in Nagasaki, according to the CNN report. “We are planning to expand search efforts and find further information that can help us restore the whole ship.”
According to Japanese legend, two typhoons–known as the Kamikaze–that occurred seven years apart in the 13th century twice saved Japan from Mongol invasion by “destroy[ing] two separate Mongol invasions fleets so large they were not eclipsed until the D-Day landings of World War II,” CNN reported. China was not so spared, however, and was ruled by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty from 1271-1368.
“According to a contemporary account cited in the book Khubilai Khan’s Lost fleet: In Search of a Legendary Armada,” by maritime archaeologist James P. Delgado, the typhoon’s destruction of the over 4,000-vessel Yuan Dynasty invasion fleet created such a vast quantity of material wreckage “that ‘a person could walk across from one point of land to another on a mass of wreckage,’” CNN reported.
The wooden-planked ship, originally believed to have been painted light gray, is among “more than 4,000 artifacts, including ceramic shards, bricks used for ballast, cannonballs and stone anchors [that] have been found in the vicinity of the wreck, linking it to the Yuan Dynasty invasion fleet,” CNN reported
Chinese sailing ship that has sailed the waters of Asia-including the archipelago for centuries-even many that are not reported back. Moreover, since 1650, from about 800 Portuguese ships that sailed from Lisbon, nearly 150 ships were never heard from again. Disappeared without a trace.
Between the years 1600 to 1800, the EIC informed has lost more than 7,000 ships. Generally the ship sank to the bottom of the sea declared carried away with its cargo.
Shipwrecks and the East India Company’s ‘Immaterial’ Material Culture(illustration not upload)
As the fate of both the Valentine and the Abergavenny attests, shipwreck was a frequent occurrence in the history of the EIC in the Georgian era.
Of the 980 EIC voyages between 1747-88, and discounting those ships which were to remain abroad, less than 94% returned home: 39 were wrecked or ‘lost’, 7 were burnt and 12 were captured.
By far the worst year was 1779/80 when six ships were captured and two were lost out of 26 which sailed. It was for this reason that ships were owned by a number of investors, and it seems Raymond had a group of associates who worked together in partnership. Cargos from shipwrecked vessels provide historians with a ghostly counterfoil to pristine collections of Asian luxuries assembled in many surviving stately homes in Britain, offering a unique, ‘immaterial’ perspective on the Company’s domestic material culture.
Diver Richard Keen preparing to dive near Guernsey. Image courtesy of Georgina Green.
When divers investigated the wreck of the Griffin East Indiaman, which sank in 1761 on her way home from China, they estimated she carried 125,800 pieces of chinaware.Fragments such as the Griffin’s porcelain shards have rarely featured in analyses of the Company’s material legacies, but they offer historians a wealth of material for understanding the EIC’s contribution to consumer culture. As they remind us, the Asian items displayed in stately homes and country houses today are only a fraction of what arrived in England in the eighteenth century. Indeed, much of the cargo brought home from India and China was of short term value and use. Tea, spices, fabrics – were all for immediate consumption and almost all are lost to us now. As an example, the cargo carried home from India in 1739 by Captain Charles Raymond on his second voyage of the Wager included cotton materials (callico, seersuckers, chints, ginghams etc) valued at approximately £85,030; raw silk at £9,780; redwood at £112 (this was dunnage: it was packed between cargo to prevent movement and keep it dry); salt petre at £1770; turmerick at £125; and cowries at £1,875. The total value of the cargo was nearly £100,000 which in present day terms would be around £10m. Unlike Raymond’s porcelain plate, books and artwork, these imports have left relatively few traces in domestic interiors. Recovering their histories requires us to step outside the home, and outside the archive, diving instead (quite literally) into the waters in which East Indiamen sailed to trade with Asia.
Nearly 200 years after the Valentine was wrecked, a young Guernsey diver, Richard Keen (see image above), decided to try and find the wreck. Richard was born and brought up in an old farmhouse in Guernsey (Channel Isles) where his father grew roses. It was expected he would join his father when he left school, but his life changed when he tried out the new sport of scuba diving while in his mid-teens. On leaving school he took up a career diving for shellfish. While looking for scallops he found many objects on the sea bed and his enquiring mind led him to an interest in marine archaeology.
Richard has discovered over 30 wrecks on the rocks and reefs in Guernsey waters, some by accident and others while un-snagging crab pots and trawl nets. He started to research these wrecks, and others which had been recorded in old newspapers and diaries but had never been located. His most important archaeological find was that of a Roman wreck, known as ‘Asterix’ which he discovered in the harbour mouth at St Peter Port in 1982.
Some years before this Richard came across a map in the Priaulx Library at St. Peter Port which houses some of the island’s archives. This is dated 1816 and shows a rock off the island of Brecqhou (close to Sark) with the words ‘Le Neste upon which the Valentine Indiaman was wrecked in 1779′. He became fascinated by the idea of finding the wreck but the very high rise and fall of the tide and strong currents, with many rocks in the area, make this a hazardous place in which to dive. However, Richard dived and successfully located the site in 1974. Others attempted to dive on the wreck the following year but their attempt was aborted. Eventually some pieces of lead, red dyewood, agate and pottery were retrieved and were declared to the Receiver of Wrecks.
On 9 January 1976 Richard gave a lecture to everyone interested in the wreck and as a result the ‘Valentines Excavation Group 1976’ was established to undertake a coordinated survey of the wreck site, near a rock called ‘Le Neste’ off the western tip of Brecqhou (to view the 1976 report click here). Dives were made on ten days, starting on 10 April with the last on 12 December. The seabed in the area comprises a mass of rocky gullies with gravel in the bottom, and with kelp growing on the rocks. Work on the site was only possible during neap tides and then only close to slack water, due to the strong currents. However the depth of the remains at diving time is between 10 to 18 metres, so the divers did not have any problems with decompression.
The main cargo of the vessel was salt petre which was much in demand for the manufacture of gun powder, a substance which would have dissolved in the sea. Another significant part of the cargo was red dyewood which was dunnage as well as being of value for dyeing. Large logs of dyewood were found as this is extremely hard wood. The timbers of the ship decomposed long ago although some canons remain to mark the site where the Valentine foundered. One interesting find was a broken anchor (which had been mentioned in the captain’s journal) with a cannon strapped to it. This illustrates the desperate attempts made by the crew to save their ship in 1779.
Richard Keen with richly coloured red dyewood (to left). Even after being in the sea for two-hundred years the red colour is vibrant when the wood is cut and it can still be used to dye fabric.
Since 1976 other dives have been held and a number of local people have retrieved items from the wreck site. Shards of blue and white Chinese porcelain are often found. It was made in China, loaded in Canton and either brought directly to England or taken to India by one of the many EIC ‘country ships’ used by the Company to transport their cargo in Asian waters. Porcelain was often packed in boxes with loose tea or pepper for padding, and best use of space. The Valentine had only visited India on her last voyage, but her cargo consisted of a range of Chinese porcelain from best quality items for the aristocratic tea party to thicker items for general use.
The finer shards illustrated right from a good quality (sugar?) bowl, decorated inside. The blue and white china was a popular design in England.
Many small pieces of agate were discovered (shown left), mostly orange or rust in colour. They were cut and roughly shaped square or rectangular in India to be made into signet rings and broaches in England. Agate is an extremely hard stone and it is remarkable that these pieces were smoothed and bevelled by India craftsmen without modern technology. Their loading was not noted in the captain’s journal so it is likely they were private trade.
Other items retrieved illustrate life on board ship: metal handles from furniture or travelling luggage (shown right), and ground glass stoppers for decanters or medical jars (shown right). They may have been for items used on the voyage – although there was a significant quantity found, which may suggest they were also part of the private trade.
Broken bottles were also found. They may have been loaded in Madeira and would have contained fortified or non-fortified wine. Madeira wine was collected on the outward journey and some of it was required for EIC staff in India. Apparently, the voyage improved the quality, if it wasn’t drunk by officers and passengers before they got back to England! As already stated, quantities of redwood have also been salvaged. Even after being in the sea for 200 years the red colour is vibrant when the wood is cut, and it can still be used to dye fabric.
While in 1808 and 1809, the EIC lost 10 ships that sailed with a cargo valued at over one million sterling. Dutch VOC has also lost 105 ships that sailed between 1602 and 1794. Bad period was between the years 1725-1749, when the VOC ship lost 44 on the way home from the east.
SEJARAH MARITIM INDONESIA
Berabad-abad lampau, sebelum terjadi kolonialisasi bangsa-bangsa Eropa, perairan Nusantara sudah merupakan jalur penting pelayaran niaga dari berbagai belahan dunia. Beberapa pelabuhan penting di Nusantara yang sudah ada antara lain Pasai Aceh, Kota Cina Palembang, Banten, Batavia (Jakarta sekarang), Semarang, Demak, Jepara, Makassar, Gowa, Tallo, Sangihe, Talaud, Seram, serta Ternate. Perdagangan luar negeri Nusantara mulanya ditengarai dengan adanya perdagangan rempah-rempah asal Maluku oleh pedagang Arab dan India. Transportasi awal perdagangan rempah Nusantara ini melalui rute laut ke India, kemudian melewati darat melalui rute perdagangan ke Timur Tengah, dan berakhir di Eropa.
Ketika Roman Emperor Vespasion melarang ekspor emas dari Roma pada sekitar abad pertama, pedagang India pun beralih ke Nusantara –terutama Sumatera dan Jawa– sebagai alternatif impor emas. Selain pedagang India dan Arab, pedagang Melayu pun telah memainkan peran penting dalam rintisan rute kapal ke arah timur (Cina, Jepang) dan ke barat (India, Timur Tengah dan Afrika). Sejak abad ke-9 bangsa Cina juga memberi kontribusi pertumbuhan perdagangan laut melalui ekspor keramik.
Oleh karena itu dari berbagai catatan dan dokumen sejarah sejak abad ke-7 sampai ke-19 Masehi, ratusan bahkan ribuan kapal diduga telah mengalami karam atau tenggelam di Nusantara. Kapal-kapal tersebut berasal dari kapal dagang Cina (dari berbagai dinasti), kapal kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara, kapal-kapal Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), Belanda, Portugis, Spanyol, Inggris, serta Jepang. Penyebab kapal-kapal tersebut karam antara lain oleh badai dan cuaca buruk, pengetahuan navigasi geografis pelayaran yang kurang sehingga kapal menabrak karang, atau sebab lain seperti menjadi sasaran perompak dan peperangan.
Jumlah kapal hilang dan karam selama berabad-abad di perairan Nusantara memang tidak terhitung. Pada tahun 2001 National Geographic pernah melaporkan tujuh kapal kuno yang karam di perairan Nusantara bagian barat (Selat Malaka) pada abad XVII-XX Masehi. Kapal-kapal tersebut adalah Diana (Inggris), Tek Sing dan Turiang (Cina), Nassai dan Geldermalsen (Belanda), Don Duarte de Guerra (Portugis), dan Ashigara (Jepang).
Kapal layar Cina yang telah mengarungi perairan Asia –termasuk Nusantara– selama berabad-abad pun dilaporkan banyak yang tidak kembali. Selain itu, sejak tahun 1650, dari sekitar 800 kapal Portugis yang berlayar dari Lisabon, hampir 150 kapal tidak pernah terdengar lagi kabarnya. Hilang tanpa jejak.
Antara tahun 1600 sampai 1800, EIC menginformasikan telah kehilangan lebih dari 7.000 kapalnya. Umumnya kapal tersebut dinyatakan karam ke dasar laut terbawa bersama muatannya. Sementara pada tahun 1808 dan 1809, EIC kehilangan 10 kapal yang berlayar dengan muatan senilai satu juta sterling lebih. VOC Belanda juga telah kehilangan 105 kapal yang berlayar antara tahun 1602 dan 1794. Periode yang buruk adalah antara tahun 1725-1749, ketika VOC kehilangan 44 kapalnya dalam perjalanan pulang dari timur.
THE CULTURE OF INDONESIAN UNDER WATER MARITIME
Exploration of the Sea and Fisheries Department (now Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries) has an inventory of shipwrecks or sunken ships before World War II. There are at least 463 locations for the period between 1508 until 1878. Generally, the shipwreck was a merchant ship VOC, Portuguese ships, American ships, boats France, Britain, Germany, Belgium, and Asia (China, Japan, the archipelago). Of the 463 new locations 43 locations that have been successfully surveyed. However, only 10 locations payload object has been lifted.
There are about 300,000 objects lifted from the seabed and is now stored in special warehouses Objects Cargo Ship Sink (BMKT) in Cullinan, Bogor.
The ten points that have been raised generally valuable objects from the waters of Java and Sumatra.
Appointment of objects in Java waters is on the site Blanakan, Subang regency, 1998; Karangsong, Cirebon (2004); Karawang, West Java, (2008); China Coral Island,
Thousand Islands, Jakarta, as well as in Jepara, Central Java, in 2008 . In the waters of Sumatra, the longest performed at Crocodile Island, Riau Islands, in 1998. In addition, Diamond Island, in the Strait of Gelasa, Bangka Belitung; Gulf Sumpat in Tanjung Pinang, and Coral Heliputan in Riau Islands, in 2006.
Objects similar findings Heliputan Reef site was also found in the waters of the Thousand Islands, Bangka Belitung, Cirebon, and West Kalimantan.
Lodging Thousand Islands found 11,000 objects made of various metals, such as gold, silver, bronze, and pewter. The findings probably derived from the 10th century AD. From the identification of the majority of the hull, the ship was made in Indonesia which sailed from Capital Sriwijaya, Palembang, to Central Java or East Java.
Mid-2008 in the village Punjulharjo, Apex, Central Java, some residents found relatively intact ancient boat, about 1 km from the beach.
The boat measures 4 m wide and 15.60 m long. Professor Pierre-Yves Manguin, maritime archaeologist from France, who invited Yogyakarta Archaeological Center to examine
the boat said the boat Apex dating back to
the Ancient Mataram Kingdom transitional Srivijaya, the period between the years 670-780 AD.
Tambuktu boat building technology using pegs or spot beam reinforced with rope fibers. On the boat found objects such as shells, pieces of sticks, and the head of the statue of Chinese women dress Java. The boat is a boat suspected of inter-island trade.
In 2010 an ancient boat found another three who also predicted hundreds of years old, at the bottom of the river which is located in the Village District Panjunan Kalitidu and in District Malo.
Early identification stating a boat length up to 30 m with a width of 4 m. The boat is longer than the findings of an ancient boat in 2006 in the village of Padang, District Malo, which is known from Thailand made in 1312.
PENINGGALAN SEJARAH-BUDAYA BAWAH AIR
Departemen Eksplorasi Laut dan Perikanan (kini Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan) telah menginventarisasi kapal karam atau kapal tenggelam sebelum Perang Dunia II. Setidaknya terdapat di 463 lokasi untuk periode antara tahun 1508 sampai 1878. Umumnya kapal karam tersebut adalah kapal dagang VOC, kapal Portugis, kapal Amerika, kapal Prancis, Inggris, Jerman, Belgia, dan Asia (Cina, Jepang, Nusantara). Dari 463 lokasi itu baru 43 lokasi yang telah berhasil disurvei. Namun, hanya 10 lokasi yang benda muatannya telah diangkat. Ada sekitar 300.000 benda yang terangkat dari dasar laut dan kini tersimpan di gudang khusus Benda Muatan Kapal Tenggelam (BMKT) di Cileungsi, Bogor.
Kesepuluh titik yang telah diangkat benda berharganya umumnya dari perairan Jawa dan Sumatera. Pengangkatan benda di perairan Jawa adalah di situs Blanakan, Kabupaten Subang, tahun 1998; Karangsong, Cirebon (2004); Karawang, Jabar, (2008); Pulau Karang Cina, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta; serta di Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah, pada 2008. Di perairan Sumatera, yang terlama dilakukan di Pulau Buaya, Kepulauan Riau, pada 1998. Selain itu, di Pulau Intan, di Selat Gelasa, Bangka Belitung; Teluk Sumpat di Tanjung Pinang; dan Karang Heliputan di Kepulauan Riau, tahun 2006.
Benda temuan serupa situs Karang Heliputan juga ditemukan di perairan Kepulauan Seribu, Bangka Belitung, Cirebon, dan Kalimantan Barat. Khusus di Kepulauan Seribu ditemukan 11.000 benda terbuat dari aneka logam, seperti emas, perak, perunggu, dan timah. Temuan-temuan itu diduga berasal dari abad ke-10 Masehi. Dari identifikasi sebagian badan kapal, kapal itu buatan Indonesia yang berlayar dari Ibu Kota Sriwijaya, Palembang, menuju Jawa Tengah atau Jawa Timur.
Medio 2008 di Desa Punjulharjo, Rembang, Jawa Tengah, sejumlah warga menemukan perahu kuno yang relatif utuh, sekitar 1 km dari pantai. Perahu itu berukuran lebar 4 m dan panjang 15,60 m. Profesor Pierre-Yves Manguin, arkeolog maritim asal Perancis, yang diundang Balai Arkeologi Yogyakarta untuk meneliti perahu tersebut menyatakan, perahu Rembang berasal dari zaman peralihan Kerajaan Mataram Kuno ke Sriwijaya, periode antara tahun 670-780 Masehi. Teknologi pembuatan perahu menggunakan tambuktu atau balok tempat pasak yang diperkuat dengan ikatan tali ijuk. Di perahu itu ditemukan benda seperti tempurung kelapa, potongan tongkat, dan kepala arca perempuan Cina berdandan Jawa. Diduga perahu itu merupakan perahu dagang antar pulau.
Pada tahun 2008, sebuah perahu kuno ditemukan di Bengawan Solo, tepatnya di Desa Banjarsari, Kecamatan Trucuk, Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur. Tahun 2010 ditemukan lagi tiga perahu kuno yang juga diperkirakan berusia ratusan tahun, di dasar sungai yang terletak di Desa Panjunan Kecamatan Kalitidu dan di Kecamatan Malo. Identifikasi awal menyatakan panjang perahu mencapai 30 m dengan lebar 4 m. Perahu tersebut lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan temuan perahu kuno pada 2006 di Desa Padang, Kecamatan Malo, yang diketahui asal Thailand buatan tahun 1312