KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA
Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA
EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS
KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR
Copyright @ 2013
INI ADALAH CUPLIKAN DAN CONTOH BUKU KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA HASIL PENELITIAN Dr IWAN , HANYA DITAMPILKAN SEBAGIAN INFO DAN ILUSTRASI TAK LENGKAP.
BUKU YANG LENGKAP TERSEDIA BAGI YANG BERMINAT HUBUNGGI LIWAT KOMENTAR(COMMENT) DI WEB BLOG INI
sORRY FOR THE UNEDITED ARTICLES BELOW,I DID TO PROTEC T AGAINST THE COPY WITHOUT PERMISSSION
Copyrught @ Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA 2013
Forbidden to copy without written permission by the author
Setelah melakukan penelitian selama kurun waktu empat puluh tahun dari tahun 1973 ampai 2013 akhirnya saat ini telah ditemukan informasi dengan ilustrasinya yang cukup lengkap yang berhubungan dengan sejarah Indonesia .
Saya telah berhasil mengumpulkan sebuah koleksi sejarah Indonesia yang merupakan salah satu koleksi terbaik dan terlengkap didunia,kendatipun sebagian ada yang telah dijual kepada kolektor lain tetapi ilustrasinya dan informasinya ada dalam buku ini
Penelitian ini dapat diselesaikan berrkat bantuan dari beberapa teman seperti keluarga almarhum Soewil, Pak Cong , teman-teman di Sumatera barat yang banyak membantu saya dalam mengumpulkan koleksi dari Sumatera Barta, Herry Hutabarat , Aris siregar , teman di Medan,dan Jakarta yang bnayak memberikan dorongan kepada saya untuk menyelesaikan penelitian ini yang sangat penting bagi generasi mendatang . untuk itu saya ucapkan ribuan terima kasih
Untuk mereka dapat belajar dari sejarah, sehingga tidak mengulangi kesalahan yanm yang sma dan memanfaatkan hal yang benar dalam memecahkan maslah masa kini dan merupakan data awal dalam menyusun rencana masa depan/
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
The Author Profile
.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at 91 years old.
b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.
c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)
2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty
3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police
5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978
b.Anton at Solok city 1978
7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos
During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.
8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.
9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.
11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.
13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum
15. In 2010
I built another web :
In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:
(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc
(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.
(3) The Indonesia Independence War 1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.
(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.
(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc
(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc
(7) The Indonesian History Collections and many other collections
AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)
8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.
5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :
(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.
(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.
(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.
Jakarta October 2013
Greatings from teh founder
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
Indonesia History Collections 1943
The Dai Nippon
Occupation java History Collections In 1943
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
Private limited E-BOOK IN CD-ROM EDITION
Copyright @ 2013
The Dai Nippon Occupation Java
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
Private Limited e-Book In CD-ROM Edition
Copyright @ 2012
1943, stampless cover from Java to Tokyo, Japan, with Military Administration boxed red handstamp at left, red censor’s handstamp below, Wada 18.10.26 postmark, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.
1943, registered cover from Semarang-Bodjong to Djakarta (J.S.C.A. 2J7), large-size, franked with three General Issue 10c, with fancy violet censor’s handstamp at left and Djakarta backstamp. Cover roughly opened at right (one adhesive a bit damaged), otherwise Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000
1943, cover from Djokjakarta to Nagoya, Japan, large-size, franked with unoverprinted Netherlands Indies 1c, 2c, 2½c, 3c and 3½c definitives, all tied by Roman-character Djokjakarta 14.8.03 cds’s, with red Djokjakarta censor’s handstamp below, Djokjakarta vertical straight line Japanese backstamp, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.
Japanese Occupation 3 1/2c Dai Nippon Rice Field Postal Card 1943 Solo to Lawang. Japan in Netherlands Indies Censor. EUROPEAN SIZE (Inv NN430803)
Japanese Occupation 3 1/2c Dai Nippon Rice Field Postal Card c1943 Soerabaja Alamat Sempoerna Dengen Menjesoetkan (menyingkatkan)Nama Djalan Dan Nomor Roemah Slogan to Jakarta. Japan in Netherlands Indies Censor. Crease at right. (Inv NN440420
Though the Navy planners opposed giving to MacArthur strategic
direction of the campaign against Rabaul on the terms proposed by the Army, they were willing to do it if Nimitz was appointed the supreme commander for the entire. Pacific theater.
Nimitz, thus, would be MacArthur’s superior and the guardian of the Navy’s interests in the Pacific. It was an offer to trade, a quid pro quo arrangement by which the naval planners offered the Army command over operations against Rabaul in return for control of the Pacific, or, as they put it, for an arrangement that would guarantee “the strategic flexibility” of the Pacific Fleet.
The Army planners refused to trade on this basis. All that Marshall had proposed, commented General Handy, was a unified command for operations already projected in the Solomons and New Guinea.
That question could be settled quickly by action of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The larger problem of command for the entire Pacific had “political, international, and organizational implications” that would make a solution much more difficult. For this reason alone Handy urged that the Navy accept Marshall’s proposal, which would not only speed up operations against Rabaul but would constitute also “a positive step toward eventual unification.”16 Nor did Handy miss the opportunity to point out that the principle of strategic flexibility applied equally to the Air Forces and that ground troops, too, played a vital role in the Pacific war. “The Fleet,” he observed tartly, “would be as helpless without air and land forces as the latter would be without the Fleet.”
General Handy’s appeal for quick action left the naval planners unmoved. Several times during the next week they prepared rebuttals to the Army argument and restatements of their own case, but never sent them.
Finally, on 6 January 1943 ,
Admiral King took the matter into his own hands and made formal reply to General Marshall. Stressing, as his planners had, the vital role of the Pacific Fleet and Nimitz’ broad responsibilities, Admiral King argued that it was impossible to divorce these from control of the immediate task at hand. “The nature of these Pacific tasks,” he declared, “is so vital and so compelling I feel that they must be given precedence over lesser considerations that may be in conflict.”17
Despite this strong stand, Admiral King showed more disposition to compromise than his planners. What he proposed was a continuation of the command established for Task One, with MacArthur and Halsey each directing operations in his own sphere while coordinating their efforts and supporting each other when required.
Only when Rabaul itself became the objective would a single command be required. At that time, King suggested, MacArthur could be given strategic direction of the operations against Rabaul, provided that, first, Nimitz’ control was extended to include the waters of the Southwest Pacific, and second, that the naval forces involved remained under Nimitz’ “general command” so that he could meet any sudden emergency. Though he thought it “psychologically undesirable,” King suggested also that the boundary line between the South and Southwest Pacific might be moved to solve this troublesome problem of command.
General Marshall apparently thought as little of this last solution as did King and in his rejoinder made no mention of it. Following the line laid down by General Handy the Army Chief of Staff drew a sharp distinction between unified command for the Pacific theater and “the immediate and urgent problem of unified control” of current operations.18
The first, he agreed, was desirable if not imperative but could hardly be attained by merely extending Nimitz’ authority. The “international and organizational implications” Handy had referred to would first have to be carefully considered and the solution finally adopted “based fundamentally more upon the selection of the commander as an individual rather than upon his specific military or naval qualifications.”
The second problem, that of establishing unified control for the operations against Rabaul, could not, in Marshall’s opinion, be left for the future. The Guadalcanal campaign had demonstrated only too clearly the shortcomings of the existing arrangements. To continue them, as King wanted to do, would be foolhardy. But he was willing to accept other features of the admiral’s plan, so he suggested a compromise along the following lines:
- That MacArthur exercise strategic control of the operations against Rabaul from the start.
- That Halsey exercise direct command of the naval forces.
- That Nimitz retain sufficient general control of the Pacific Fleet elements assigned to the operation so that he could withdraw them when necessary for use in another area.
- That the Joint Chiefs themselves exercise control over the strategic movement of air forces.
This latest proposal by
did not differ in any essential respect from his first proposal made more than a month before. Clearly, General Marshall intended to stand firm and King must have recognized that further efforts to persuade him to accept the Navy view would be fruitless.
He therefore dodged the issue by observing that until more was known about how Tasks Two and Three were to be carried out it would be impossible to reach a decision on command. MacArthur should be directed to get in touch with Nimitz and Halsey and then submit his detailed plans to Washington. “I will agree with your likely comment that I should have made the above point months ago,” he observed wryly, “-however, I make it now.”19
Marshall readily acceded to this request as he had to King’s request the day before for MacArthur’s views on the desirability of making the Admiralties rather than Rabaul the main objective.20
copies of which went to
and Halsey, presented virtually the same scheme of operations he and Ghormley had submitted the previous
after their meeting in Melbourne.
His plan then and now was to advance progressively in five successive phases under cover of land-based aircraft through the Solomons and up the northeast coast of New Guinea until his converging forces had isolated Rabaul.
Only then would he make the final assault, which, he thought, would require long preparations and great resources “and might well prove to be the decisive action of the Pacific war.”
King’s suggestion that naval action against the Admiralties be substituted for the assault against Rabaul he found unacceptable because it would have to be undertaken without land-based air support.21
This reply was far from satisfactory. What Marshall and King wanted now were detailed plans based upon a complete exchange of views among the Pacific commanders, not a concept of operations. They therefore pressed MacArthur to get in touch with Nimitz and Halsey and submit something more concrete which the Joint Chiefs could use as the basis for a directive covering such matters as target dates, command, and logistics.22 Before General MacArthur could meet this new request the Joint Chiefs and the President had already left for Casablanca in French Morocco to meet with the British.
let P.Meulenbroek a portrait drawing of himself.
Then he looks a lot better than a year later.
Top of Form
by Humphrey de la Croix
Maudy Angenent-Raemdonck in three episodes of her family story. She has written as a tribute to her parents.
The story is already on paper and published this digital reissue IndischHistorisch.nl may provide for Maudy Angenent-of Raemdonck. We are very grateful to her for this addition to the Indian family histories.
The story about my parents Ben and Tine van Raemdonck-Dumas (1)
An ode to Indian parents when
by Maudy Angenent – Raemdonck
Born as Orang Betawi
Nearly fifty years lie between the past and the present, the past and present. In the year I was born, there was still a respect among the people over there and the Netherlands. Why was it so that the white Dutchman in control had the highest grades held. Batavia, the capital of the island of Java in the former Dutch East Indies, is my hometown. Whoever speaks of Batavia has a past, because now called the same city Jakarta.
Raised in Bandung
I grew up in Bandung, the cool place commuters in Preanger, situated between the mountains Tangkuban Perahu (inverted “canoe”) and Guntur. It was good there but one day we were allowed to leave without us and could take, expelled to the cold flat Netherlands. I was 15 years old. Why we had to leave? After the transfer of sovereignty continued my father as the only Dutchman to work with the Indian Pension in Bandung (even the spelling of the place name was changed!). But Indonesia, the Indonesians and still less of the Indian. On an indigo blue morning we saw our mountains, living and playground fading.
Also we are Dutch, only our skin color brown. Have asked us not to this relocation, but the circumstances and nationality being away from our country. Arrived in the Netherlands, we were captured and sent to a dovecote in Roden we had to acclimatize and assimilate.
My parents Ben and Tine van Raemdonck-Dumas on their verlovingsdag
Het ouderlijk huis Dederoeklaan 19 in Bandoeng
Gezin Van Raemdonck-Dumas, Bandoeng 1943
The trip to Netherlands
When I look back, I see a dark page. This memory is not memory gives gusts of images: a foggy morning during arrival and i
oast on board: Erica studded dress, flanked on the left by Jane (Little Red Riding Hood) and right Wally, with hat with cockade.
All my sisters.
Disembarkation: all children had during the stop in the Suez Canal at Port Said sweatpants (turds catcher) got dressed and went so any of their new future. The buses for the spread over the Netherlands were ready. There was not much to load, just a suitcase of clothes and a bag with paper. We, my parents and five children, an aunt and uncle with two children, were the last to be dropped in the farthest corner of Roon, sounded the least. The sky was then allowed to know where it was! Eventually when we were arriving after this in a school atlas had sought,
we seemed to have arrived in Roden.
Shortly after arriving in the Netherlands …… the turds catchers. I am second from left standing. Photos during our stay in Roden (Drenthe)
Arrived in the Netherlands
The welcome was warm, the inhuman treatment hindsight. Our family had been allotted two bedrooms with three double beds. Uncle and aunt got a room with two double beds.
The living room was for us, all 11 families large and small. Here was eaten, learned and quarrel; short, here played the lives of 11 people wonder. Incomprehensible this whole days indoors,
if you previously always been accustomed to outdoor life and warmth. The food was only good if the control itself had reported. It was for everyone a slice fried liver, potatoes and real vegetables, no mashed mash together.
The coffee was fresh, not dried and used again koffiedrap, the cheese was served in slices and not the grated rinds which we were accustomed. Uncle Bruno, a purebred Dutchman was soon sat on him had a complaint that we eat poorly and we had too many people in a small room were housed and that the children had to sleep all together.
An inspector from the Department of Social Care came pile height take. My uncle and his family moved not long after this visit to Hotel Leegstra (if I remember correctly) to the Brink in Roden. Here they had a boiled egg for breakfast, that’s really all I remember from that move and stories can remember. What about us? My parents said, “Oh never mind ….”
A house but with a debt to the State of the Netherlands
We experienced a real culture shock. But that has, I think, a large part of our integration and habituation contributed. What particularly struck me was that the people here that you came on the market, such as the scavenger, the Gasman and sellers all white people were!
After a six-month contract guesthouse we got a house, a house in a working class neighborhood in Groningen. My parents had everything that was in charge, and was about to take fl 2000.00 capital in 1960!
This amount must be repaid to the State and this is done with great difficulty and sorrow. For this amount was invested in the living room with a worn, gaterig balatum. The gap was too large, there was an old worn rug on. There was no bath room, you had a bath in the kitchen into a basin on the floor. If you are ready and clean you could clean up, mop and … start all over again.
Slowly but surely we were part of our new surroundings. We three oldest girls Raemdonck and the two boys went to Soeterik Seemed like the old school ULO. I can remember that the entrance of the school was formed by a very wide glass door. I recently saw that now an ugly blue wooden door has become.
Slide show: The family where Maudy Angenent-of Raemdonck part went in 1953 ms ‘Orange’ from Indonesia to the Netherlands
Click on a photo to any caption to read
Source Julie indo girl
Top of Form
Friday, October 7, 2011
– the white flag with the red ball
The white flag with the red ball was red, white and blue in the streets replaced. Dutch speaking was strictly forbidden and because the Japanese were aware of the fact the Japanese population still had to learn to read and write was Malay as a second language allowed. Speeches and texts were under strict supervision of the Japanese censorship.
10 years previously cycled almost 13 year old Julie from her foster family has a clean and leafy Bandung to her school or the Catholic Church. Her father had already gone to the Philippines. Her mother had a divorce petition filed and the brother of Julie was housed at the orphanage Pa van der Steur. Julie was estranged from her mother and sought comfort in working diligently at school and devoutly praying in the church. Yet in 1940, her former pastor at Julie said that her marriage to William who is not religious, was not recognized by the Church would be. She would live with a Gentile and Julie were thus become an apostate.
Inwardly furious she had left the church and promised herself never to return. Now in 1943 she had to learn a new language (Japanese) and Julie could no longer speak Dutch but had to follow orders from Japanese and Indonesians. Julie considered it a consolation that her appearance as ‘Indian’ was making them less fell. Inwardly she felt like as in 1933. Julie felt lonely, abandoned, hunted down without any perspective and especially without a social but hopeless position in the new Indonesia. Like many Julie had no idea how long the situation that would last.
The Japanese wanted to delay the Indonesians into a resilient force against the advancing west but also use them as a working part of the food, fuel and ordnance production. The hungry Japanese army had to be supplied daily. Java was also reorganized the Japanese model. It can be seen as a kind of pyramid with the top Japanese military leadership and underneath each organizational levels where more and more Indonesians voluntarily or were not involved.
The Japanese Tonari Gumi (neighborliness) system was linked to similar traditional Javanese Gotong royong or mutual aid. The Japanese military training programs, including martial arts, simulated battles with wooden rifles and marching properly catered to the needs of the Indonesians. Such exercises were during the Dutch government since been banned for fear of uprisings.
The Fujinkai was the most important women in Java. It was also the only and primarily intended to native men to support organizations in defense activities against foreign enemies. As a woman you had a very good excuse if you did not want to do this ‘voluntary’ movement.
The women stood as with the Heiho, romusha, Seinandan and Keibodan movements under strict supervision of the Japanese invaders. Younger women could join the Srikandi Brigade. There they get first aid classes, self defense and preparing meals for the volunteer army.
Behind the Kawat either in the camps where more than 100,000 Dutch imprisoned they had no idea what is outside the bamboo walls and barbed wire played out. The rumors machines ran at full speed while and were supplemented with news brought by new residents who voluntarily or had not reported to the camp leadership. Hunger in the camps was partly caused by severe food shortages outside the camps.
The “freedom” of the Indo-Europeans who lived outside the camps was very great restrictions. They had constant fear of betrayal, false accusations and false to the Indonesian ideal of freedom or the erratic behavior of the Japanese. The number of deceased ‘inner campers’ including cause of death has been well studied (1 to 8). The majority is deceased by malnutrition and disease. The Japanese had no extermination plan (final solution) as the Germans had. Little is known about the numbers of Indo-Europeans (adults and children) by betrayal, torture and starvation outside the camps were killed. This number could be many times greater than can the death rates in the camps. The number of victims outside the camps because of the great famine in Java is estimated at more than 4 million people.
This great famine is entirely due to the inability of the Dutch government and its army, and then to the Japanese military regime. The disastrous famine from 1943 to 1945 is rarely mentioned in the stories of the internment camps or during commemorations. Adults and children who have lived in the internment camps, collective and individual experiences that sometimes match, sometimes very different while the camp is about the same (read the books about Camp Tjideng).
The many camp stories that “came loose” could have been a great help in processing.
For contestants outside, this in a much lesser extent. There are much fewer witnesses who can confirm that the outdoor campers often just as difficult to get food and shelter.
The circumstances under which the contestants outside the occupation may have passed largely different. They stayed in the cities or else hidden on farmlands and villages. But the Japanese were everywhere.
Prolonged periods of hunger and fear are major stressors and the breeding ground for acts where years later no knowledge of it. I
f there are memories they will prefer not to think back (denial). The old pain than other wells often evokes memories about their own behavior or the behavior of others (individual & collective shame shame). The moments that you did not want to share your food or that of another pecked.
Or that you eat crude was taken by others who were stronger (injustice and anger). You want to forget and forgive as possible. If these feelings years later come back then were often dismissed with comments like: Oh everyone was still hard and bad.
Or: there were people who had it worse. Like so many Dutch who the upcoming ‘returnees’ immediately before they were (in the Netherlands) it anyhow have had much worse than the inside and outside of contestants from the Dutch East Indies.
Japanese soldier with flag
Julie wrote in 1999 to her brother Boy (Gerard Eduard van der Steur)
The letters can be seen that they had never deeply about their war experiences have spoken. Their experiences are very different. After receiving the Boy wrote letters back but was telephoned by them.
The Imperial flag is hoisted where once the KNIL proudly paraded
Julie has over 15 beheadings are obliged to respect. The Japanese considered beheadings as an “educational measure” where the stragglers could learn from
Still Soon Japanese domination ‘DVD compiled by the NIOD
Heiho recruitment poster
Call in the magazine “Pandji Puss Taka” against the Americans and British to fight
“Destroy America and Nritish”
streetscape from 1943 in the Dutch East Indies(Indonesia)
Funjinkai the women as support troops for the men
Hoe zuur is het dan, om zo anti-Japans als hij is, na de capitulatie van Nederlands-Indië bevrijd te worden door “de Jap”. Net als de Nederlanders denken de Japanners op grond van zijn achternaam dat ze met een onderdaan van de ‘Asmogendheid’ Duitsland te maken hebben, en daarom wordt hij niet geïnterneerd. Pas in 1943, als het bewind grimmiger wordt, krijgt ook hij een oproep voor internering.
Deze keer redt zijn moeder Maria hem en zijn gezin van het interneringskamp. Op zijn doopacte staat zij beschreven als de Javaans Christelijke Mulattin Maria; het landsarchief, dat het asal oesoel opstelt, weet ook haar afkomst. Zij is Marie Dassauba, dochter van Soemerodjo en Bok Soemerodjo, geboren in 1863 op Madoera, overleden op 7 april 1914 in Ngoro.
Dat betekent dat zij geen ‘Europeaan’ was, maar ‘Inlandse Christen’. Net als voor de Nederlanders is dat voor de Japanners genoeg om haar afstammelingen anders te behandelen dan de Hollanders. Fredrik en zijn gezin blijven de gehele Japanse tijd buiten het kamp. Dat is niet alleen maar plezierig. Vooral zijn struise blonde vrouw loopt gevaar als het Indonesisch nationalisme steeds manifester wordt.
Operations in the Solomons
were given first priority and for this purpose Imamura assigned his main strength to the Guadalcanal operation, which would begin about
the middle of January 1943
. With these orders went a message
– By the start of 1943,
the Japanese were defeated on the island and withdrew their troops. In Burma, Commonwealth forces mounted two operations.
The first, an offensive into the Arakan region in late 1942,
went disastrously, forcing a retreat back to India by May 1943. The second was the insertion of irregular forces behind Japanese front-lines in February which, by the end of April, had achieved dubious results.
. Guadalcanal (August 7, 1942 – February 9, 1943)
US Marine-led forces win a drawn-out battle of attrition against the Japanese over this small island.
Thailand POW Camp 1943 without date
592 × 403 – regel 1 1943 (datum niet ingevuld), overgebracht naar Thailand VI
Place capture Soekaboemi
Nippon berperang oentoek kepentingan Asia seloeroehi (…)Oemmat…
Landscape Ambarawa Painted by Soediono 17-8-45
Ambarawa 21 feb 1945 by Soediono
Dai NipponDefinitive Java Stamp issued in 1943
1 January 1943
Soekaboemi POW Camp
600 × 469 – In Soekaboemi the Japanese were preparing a large internment camp.
THE STORY OF JAPANESE POW CAMPS
1 Jan 1943–
POW CAMP MUKAIJIMA Branch Camp
Two officers of the company have died, one is ill, and the other is at the front.
There is no one to be my rival as company commander.
I went to see the company’s sergeant major and senior sergeant and had a long talk. I learned many things which I would not ordinarily have learned, such as the deficiency of ordinary training in recruits, deficiency of training in interior guard duties, and lack of education.
As company commander, there is much of this that I can put to use.
Dai Nippon Commander Officer:
Gave 3 banzai [cheers] for the Emperor
sang the dai Nippon national anthem.
We toasted with whiskey. We are fortunate to drink whiskey on this island. A number of shells burst around the position at about 1400. It is surprising how many shells the enemy has.
Dismantled field guns and other heavy equipment had to be hauled up the hills. Each downpour left a gooey muck that pulled shoes from the infantry soldiers’ feet and left them exhausted and needing rest every few hundred yards. Gun after gun had to be abandoned, as well as many of the sick. The infantry were hungry, tired, and dispirited. Most of the light artillery and mortars littered the trail to the rear.
Unknown soldier: During the 3 days as New Year’s [approached] on Guadalcanal Island, we have lived on one piece of hardtack, and this morning finally got one “GO” of rice.
In the evening, one compressed ration was divided between two [soldiers]. Now we are eating rice gruel twice a day, and sleeping in the trenches as we are unable to walk. New Year’s to us was just in name, for the day was spent suffering from bombardment and hunger.
2 January 1943
Okajima: I am waiting for the battalion commander, Major Nojiri, and I am anxious to see what kind of person he is.
NCO: I was reprimanded by the company commander for wandering along the coast. I’ll have to be more careful from now on. I was only doing it for the sake of the company.
Unknown soldier: The enemy has finally become very active, and the front lines are dangerous. I wonder if that relief will come about the middle of the month. It seems that friendly planes will be coming over after the 15th. Sergeant Sato, Kame, died of illness.
3 January 1943
Okajima: As I was ill, I stayed at battalion headquarters . . . The total of those who have died is now 31.
NCO: I went to the battalion headquarters at 7 o’clock, but the company commander was not there as he was looking for a new company position. I apologized about yesterday’s misconduct to his messenger. I am waiting every day for our planes to fly over, but I have not seen one yet.
Unknown soldier: The enemy is getting extremely active.
4 January 1943
POWs boarding a transport in Tanjong Priok, Java (January 1943)
Hell Ship to Singapore (January 1943)
The Japanese shipped the Dutch POWs west by rail across Java, from Malang to Batavia. For a brief time they were confined in the former barracks of the KNIL 10th Infantry Battalion, called Bicycle Camp by the British and Australian prisoners. From this transit camp they were taken to the nearby port of Tanjong Priok, where they boarded the Singapore-bound vessel Harugiku Maru.  Felix Bakker recounts their journey:
The first week of January 1943,
a thousand men from our camp, [Samethini] among them, were transported to Batavia (Jakarta) in a boarded-up train.
One week later we were crammed, 1,100 men, into an old Japanese freighter, not knowing where the Japs were going to bring us. We were packed deep inside the ship, like herrings in a tin can. The hatches above us were open day and night, so we suffered the intense heat of the sun during the day.
When it rained hard, the Japanese sailors put a tarp over the open hatch. We got very little food and drink, and pretty soon it got suffocating down there.
Conditions in the hold of a hellship bound for Singapore (January, 1943)
Note the open hatches above, matching Bakker’s description.Illustration by Dutch POW W.F. BrinksSource: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon
Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon
The so-called toilets were small, wooden spaces along ship’s railing. To get there, we had to climb a very steep and long steel ladder. Once there, we often had to wait in line for a long time. If there were too many in line, according to the guard, he would use the butt of his rifle to beat them back down the ladder.
On top of that, many prisoners came down with dysentery. Those patients were unable to climb the ladder, and did everything where they were. We had to clean the mess because the illness is contagious. Many could not sleep for fear the ship would be torpedoed by the Allies during the night.
Many of us felt mentally and physically broken soon, especially those with families left behind. In a word, it was misery.
Then, one evening (I will never forget this as long as I live), something incredibly beautiful happened.
The sea was calm, the evening was clear, and we could even see some stars from our dark hellhole. Suddenly we heard the wonderful sounds of beautiful music played on an accordion.
We knew right away it was Han Samethini. He sat on top of the hatch with the Dutch transport commander next to him, and some Japanese a bit further away.
We heard later that the Japanese captain had given permission for him to play. That night Han Samethini played the stars down from the sky. Strauss, Mozart, Brahms. It was overwhelming.
The ship, crammed with over a thousand prisoners of war, was totally silent. Even the sick stopped moaning. But around me I could hear strong men weeping, and to be honest, I shed some tears as well. Listening to this heavenly music from another time and world, we turned all our thoughts to our loved ones, who were being separated farther and farther from us with each turn of the ship’s screws.
Han Samethini must have thought of his family too, as he played with such intense feeling. I don’t know how long he played. It was not long enough for us.
We applauded, not only because of admiration but even more so out of gratitude. In this midst of this horrible situation, Han Samethini used his blessed musical talent that unforgettable night, to not only forget the misery for a few moments, but to give us strength to face the very perilous future. 
 The Harugiku Maru (ex-KPM Van Waerwijck) departed Tanjong Priok on January 15 and arrived in Singapore on the 18th.
The POWs in this transport were designated Java Party 9. Ship’s identity established by the Java Party 9 roll, which lists Samethini’s name, cross referenced with the Dutch source above. The latter states that most of these POWs came from Kampong Makassar, a prison camp about 6 km south of Batavia. Felix Bakker comments, “Han Samethini and Joop Postma were [with us] all the way from Malang [to] Batavia (barracks of the KNIL 10th Infantry Battalion)….We were never in Kampong Makassar. I am sure of it. I knew Batavia my whole boyhood.” Bakker, personal e-mail to author (April 25, 2012).
Frank Samethini also transited through Bicycle Camp, arriving there several months earlier (October 1942) with a group of POWs from Surabaya. He recounts his experiences in Chapter 6 of his memoir.
 Bakker, personal e-mail to Margie Samethini-Bellamy (September 2006). Translated by Margie.
Okajima: Supplies are gradually improving, and we only have to endure this for 10 days more.
NCO: Various rumors are heard, but their truth cannot be determined. Those are given to us only to revive our spirits. Two rations were given to every three men tonight. Many had the covers torn off because they were transported by air.
Unknown soldier: The enemy is getting extremely active, and I wonder whether it will be today or
5 January 1943
Okajima: In the evening, the main force of the battalion arrived. Although it is called the main force, it consists of only 59 men. The battalion must have taken a serious beating.
NCO: Sergeant Takeya is missing. It is not possible for an active NCO to desert.
6 January 1943
NCO: A report came that rations for 10 days were landed and that 25 enemy planes were shot down.
Unknown soldier: Takayoshi, Jinya, died. He is a friend who has been with me every day in this platoon since we were called to the colors. He worked hard until he died of the usual sickness. Five men were killed in one squad.
7 January 1943
Okajima: 36 more men departed for a battalion of the OKA unit.
NCO: This was the day for an enemy attack, but all is quiet. I drank some whiskey which First Lieutenant Miyoshi had. It was really good. This company is probably the only one that had whiskey at New Year’s. New Year’s without alcohol would be empty, but because of First Lieutenant Miyoshi’s efforts, we were able to get some.
Changi (January 1943)
Selarang Barracks, Changi POW Camp
Source: New Zealand Electronic Text Centre
After three days of misery in the hellship’s hold, Han and his comrades emerged into the light and marched down the gangplank. The following day they boarded trucks that took them to their next transit camp. Felix Bakker continues:
It turned out our destination was Singapore. We disembarked there and were housed in the Changi camp, where we joined most of the 70,000 British, Australian, and Indian troops captured at the fall of Singapore. 
Frank Samethini too had been transferred to Changi. His group of Dutch POWs had arrived in November 1942, being sent to the AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) section. Shortly after Han’s contingent arrived, Frank got word that his brother was in the vicinity. He went at once to find him:
My brother Han is reported seen in the hospital area of Changi. On my way there, good care is taken to salute the Sikh guards in the correct manner. Calling themselves “Free Indians”, they have gone over to the enemy. A mean lot they are, worse than the Japs when it comes to finding an excuse for bashing us up.
A chapel stands further down the road, its door open. Inside, an Aussie on a stepladder, repairing the stained-glass window, says, “Howdie” without looking up from his work. On an impulse, I take a seat before the small altar and bend my head. But words will not come.
Do I still believe? Then it all wells up, gushing forth into violent prayer. A moment later I am outside again, feeling much relieved. Han is not in the hospital and, thanks to the Lord, also not in the ever growing plot of mounds of freshly dug soil. Back in my camp, Han runs to meet me at the gate, and all is well. 
“The ever growing plot of mounds of freshly dug soil”
Funeral of RAMC captain in Changi camp cemetery (October 1942)
British POWs at Changi
Men of the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment (October 1942)
Briefly reunited, the Samethinis set off on an unusual quest:
Han, the wizard on the accordion, as he is known, is craving to try his hand again on the keyboard of a piano. Hasn’t touched one in donkey years. We find the officer in charge of entertainment, sporting a fierce martial moustache, supervising a Shakespearean play performed in the open air theatre. First an attempt is made to ignore us, but we plant ourselves right in front of him.
“Yes?” with contempt in his eyes for the two foreigners who dare to interrupt his listening. We tell him.
“Yes, of course, that’s a piano there on the stage. But not for amateurs, thank you. However, there’s another one in the church which could be made available at some time or other. But mind, none of this swing music. We do not permit jazz in church.” 
The British officer’s lofty admonition not only only failed to deter Han, it provoked him into stealing the show:
Not wishing to waste another word on the empire builder, we return to our section, which happens to border on the entertainment grounds.
Han takes the old “squeeze box” from the hook, accepting a tailor-made cigarette from one of the boys who anticipates what is coming. “Bonnie Banks of Loch Lomond” is followed by “When Irish Eyes Are Smiling” and “Beautiful Dreamer.” When he gets to “Tipperary,” everyone in the open air theatre has walked out on the Bard to join us in the great sing-song, led by the amateur. 
Okajima: Hearing of conditions in each company from the NCOs, it seems that supplies are not coming, [and] characteristics are revealed which are not known under ordinary circumstances, such as the true nature of human beings. In a certain company, it is said that the NCOs ate twice as much and the officers three times as much as the men. A certain battalion commander received 100 cigarettes to divide among his subordinates, but he only gave 1 or 2 to his company commanders, and he lost all his usual prestige.
Japanese soldiers landing on 9 October reported that many of the men who unloaded the large store of rice made off with the food in as complete a breakdown of discipline as Japanese soldiers could exhibit.
Okajima: Thanks to the actions of equality like an ordinary soldier, the NCOs of the company thanked me, and as supplies started to come in smoothly, they brought me various extra things. There was good feeling all around. From this morning, there was a concentration of artillery fire at the depression near our company. It was most disagreeable to have the shrapnel flying around. We certainly would have been in bad shape if we had been hit by this shrapnel. Fukazawa Noboru died of illness. Because he usually does office work, he was not physically strong. This makes 39, and as a company commander I am deeply struck.
10 January 1943
Okajima: Major Nishimura again drew men from the reserve unit. This afternoon, although I am commander of the main force of the company, there are only 19 men in all. It is really terrible to see electric lights go on at an enemy airfield.
The Japanese had begun constructing the airfield at its two ends. After capturing it, the U.S. engineers at the airfield had to move 100,000 cubic feet of earth by hand to cover the depression in the middle of the airfield. Captured Japanese equipment was kept working and repaired by the ingenious mechanics. Fill dirt in already-measured quantities was kept on the edges of the airfield to be dumped and packed in craters caused by Japanese bombing. Night landings were done by flashlight at first, until a jury-rigged system of captured lamps was put together. The engineers used incredible improvisation to overcome monumental difficulties.
Unknown soldier: Enemy bombardment becomes increasingly intense. We can hold out for one more week. My body is in such condition that I can barely walk. Food is 5 shaku [one-half go] of rice and some compressed rations. This makes 1 month that we have been eating just rice gruel.
11 January 1943
Okajima: By artillery fire, 3 more were killed and four wounded. It is too much to receive naval bombardment also.
This was the last diary entry for Okajima.
12 January 1943
NCO: I ran out of ink, so I shall have to write in pencil from now on. I reconnoitered the enemy situation in front of the 3d Battalion.
13 January 1943
NCO: Enemy artillery is shelling as usual. I went out of the fox hole for some fresh air and heard an argument about food going on in the leading squad—principally between Sergeant Inoue and Sergeant Major Mori. I was surprised to find out they were such NCOs. Morale among NCOs should be better. At 10 o’clock, Sergeant Inoue came to apologize.
Unknown soldier: About 5:30 this morning, we received artillery fire. First Lieutenant Oyama, Superior Private Abe, and Lance Corporal Senobi were killed. Lance Corporal Watsbe was wounded. Kato and I were the only ones left . . . . Won’t relief for this unit come quickly?
This was the last entry for the unknown Japanese soldier. The remainder of the entries are those of the NCO.
14 January 1943
Men are dying one after another, and now the company roster has 20 men, besides the company commander. The enemy keeps firing from distance, so we shall have to be careful of stray bullets. The enemy does not come close enough that we can kill them and get their rations. I am very hungry. I wonder if this is how it is when a man is starving. Rice cakes and candies appear in my dreams. I must train myself to suppress these desires.
Another Japanese recorded a typical advance: The march was too much for many of the injured; scores of wounded Japanese were left by the wayside with scores of dead. They had neither food nor medical supplies. By the fifth day, NCOs were beating their flagging charges with switches, cursing them onward.
Five destroyed Japanese tanks on the beach at Guadalcanal
16 January 1943
I heard one of the enemy talking busily in Japanese over a loud speaker. He was probably telling us to come out. What fools the enemy are! The Japanese Army will stick it out to the end. This position must be defended with our lives. There was no artillery shelling because of the broadcast. The enemy is broadcasting something vigorously at a distance. It will probably have no effect at all.
17 January 1943
According to the enemy broadcast, today they are going to attack our position. However, we have no fear. I went to the battalion headquarters in the morning and saw enemy propaganda sheets which were found in First Lieutenant Kasahara’s area. The writing was very poor. The enemy artillery barrage became fiercer and fiercer, and the company area was riddled with craters like a bee’s nest. The enemy artillery stopped at 1500, and then we suffered from the rain leaking into the fox hole.
BIVOUAC NEAR FRONT LINE, 15 January 1943.
Note the use of steel helmets as cooking vessels. Fighting during the first part of the month had been bitter; the enemy had taken advantage of the numerous north-south ridges and streams to establish a strong defensive position. On the 15th a loud speaker was set up on this hill and the Japanese were told to send an officer to arrange for a surrender. There was no response to the order.
FIELD TELEPHONE, still in working order after being hit by a shell fragment when a Japanese “knee-mortar” shell landed six feet away. In the absence of reliable radio communications, wire communications were heavily relied upon. The EE-8 field telephone and the sound-powered telephone were used for long and short distances, respectively.
MOVING SUPPLIES FORWARD.
Native carriers bringing supplies through the jungles into the hills (top); boat filled with radio equipment being pushed through a narrow, shallow portion of the Matanikau River. The boat line established on this river was called the “Pusha Maru” (bottom). The supplies first had to be brought by boat up the shallow river and then carried over the trails which were passable only for men on foot. During January the enemy situation became hopeless and some senior Japanese commanders began deserting their troops.
EVACUATING CASUALTIES FROM THE FRONT LINES. The jeep, converted into an ambulance used to transport patients to the rear areas, could carry three litters and one sitting patient (top). Casualties being unloaded near new bridge construction. The first part of their trip was in flat bottom boats pulled through shallow rapids; the latter part was made in outboard motor boats (bottom). The procedure for moving supplies forward for the most part was reversed for the evacuation of the wounded.
18 January 1943
18/1/1943, 3 1/2 C blue postal stationeries Kt. From Watampone (Celebes) to Makassar, on face censorship postmark, used. Rare
1943, 3 1/2 C GA-Kt.
To a civil Interned in the stock Werfstraat (tempat Perlindungan) in Soerabaia, according to custom 1x folded. On face. 1x normal Japan. Postal service censorship, 1x special Japan. General Police Soerabia -censorship.
Buitenzorg (Bogor) December.27th,1945,
5. 9. GA-Kt. To a civil Interned as roll over document there by then Japan. Surrender, arrival notation 27. 12. 45
About 7 o’clock,
a messenger came from the Nachi Company and said that there would be a meeting of unit leaders.
I should like to make a suggestion, but the battalion commander would probably not make use of it. Sergeant Major Mori gave his opinion on some communication matters.
I became angry and told him to just do his own duties. In the evening, the battalion commander came to inspect the company, so I expressed the opinions of all of us to him at that time. He told us not to worry because everything would be all right.
19 January 1943
The Java Lines section at Changi
Prisoners transiting from Java to the Burma Railway were assembled here.
Illustration by British POW Charles Thrale
Source: FEPOW Monthly Review
Frank was to remain at Changi until April 1943, but Han and his group were sent north at the beginning of February.  Bakker relates:
We did not stay very long, as ten days later we were on our way to Thailand by train. Han Samethini was among the Dutch POWs in this transport. 
Riding the Singapore-Bangkok rail line up the length of the Malay Peninsula, they approached the southernmost base camps of the Burma Railway, outliers of a domain of hardship and savagery that were to surpass anything the Japanese had inflicted on them so far.
Singapore and the southern portion of the Burma Railway
(Click map to enlarge)
 Felix Bakker, personal e-mail to Margie Samethini-Bellamy (September 2006)
 The Sky Looked Down, Chapter 6: Destination Railroad
 According to records kept at the Thailand-Burma Railway Centre (see images below), Samethini arrived in Changi on January 19 and departed on February 2. Andrew Snow, a researcher at the TBRC, comments: “On page 55 Java Party 9 Roll it shows Samethini H S/N 49816 with a red dash after his name. The red dash in the Java Party 9 code shows that 625 men left Singapore for Thailand on 02/02/1943. The Java Party 9 arrival date is shown as
Personal e-mail to author (April 23, 2012).
Images courtesy of Andrew Snow
Thailand-Burma Railway Centre
Dai Nippon habdcoped and machinal overprint Malaya 1943 stamped used at Medan CDS Medan 18/1/43 from Perdaganagansinger Machine company to the cenral agency Singer Machine company Medan with sencored handchoped
(I think this is the CTO fake Cover,because the cover must open by sencored)
POW Cover sent from Australia to Pte Brebeney”C”company 2/3nd Machine gun battalion A.I.F Australian Prisoner of War Java camp
in 19.January 1943
via Red Cross Australia and society Tokyo Japan
m #c922. WW2: Tasmania to Australian POW in Java, Fwd to Thailand POW Camp, 1943, Dual Censored. May 1943 stampless printed POW cover to Australian at POW camp in Java, Australian violet censor handstamp and Japanese magenta censor handstamp. Manuscript “ovl 19/1/43” indicating internment in Thailand. Manuscript “received 22 Oct 44” and “written 7 May 43” on reverse. Scarce dated inward usage to Thailand.very long journey cover almost one years.
[The contents of] Ant nests
are good to eat when one is starving. I received some meat from battalion headquarters.
My orderly is sick, so I had to cook it myself.
Enemy artillery began to fire about 1100, and there was an enemy attack in front of the 8th Company about 1300. We fired on them with light machinegun, and I believe they got a surprise.
Approximately 37,000 Japanese ground troops died on Guadalcanal;
9,000 of these casualties were noncombat deaths caused by malaria, dengue fever, and starvation. The victory was in logistics: The Japanese could not compete with American logistics. For example, both sides lost 26 warships with nearly equal tonnage.
The Japanese would never be able to replace their losses, while the productive arsenals of America were providing ateriel for the allies while at the same time supplying their own armed forces.
What is fascinating in these journals is reading how the Japanese infantrymen on Guadalcanal were affected on all levels by poor logistics, in everything from their ability to patrol to strains in relationships between ranks.
19 January 1943
I felt very dazed and only semiconscious because of my empty stomach. At 1330, I prepared my equipment to put it in my haversack so that it can be packed on a moment’s notice. It will be so heavy that I don’t know whether I’ll be able to carry it or not, because of my run-down condition . . . Only my spirit keeps me going.
This was the NCO’s final entry. The Japanese began evacuating Guadalcanal on 31 January and completed their withdrawal by 7 February.
Master Sergeant John Blair, USAR, is the NCO in charge of the Corps Liaison Team (Forward), Readiness Operations Division, 55th Materiel Management Center, at Fort Belvoir, Virginia
Surat Tanda Bukti Penyitaan(beslag) oleh atas nama Paduka tuan Sijo Soeson VTJ Sowa
P. Meulenbroek (1901-?)
Hij is kok, dus ook in Interneeringskamp L.O.G. Bandoeng. Wat zou dat voor apparaat zijn, vlak achter hem, op een soort verhoging Het lijkt een verrijdbaar fornuis, met wielen zo groot als van een tractor. Er kringelt rook op boven het ding, dus het werkt. Op hout waarschijnlijk: evoor op de grond ligt een stapeltje houtblokken. P. Meulenbroek staat er tussenin, driekwart frontaal getekend, in een soort kokskleding, misschien een jasschort met twee opgenaaide zakken. Zijn blote voeten zijn gestoken in houten klompen. Een hand hangt langszij, het andere staat op de heup. Daardoor heeft zijn houding iets martiaals. Maar zijn blik niet. Die is zacht en peinzend. Treurig ook. Het is kerstmis 1942. En de vooruitzichten voor 1943 zijn niet goed.(P.Molenbroek)
on 22 January 1943.
FIRE RESULTING FROM ENEMY BOMBS which fell into a bivouac area near a U.S. division headquarters
on 22 January 1943.
On 27 January 1943
Ibid friar Bernulfus Bosman from Broeders van Huijbergen
the Japanese occupy Singkawang (about 100 km north of Pontianak).
Two days later it’s Pontianak turn.
The friars get house arrest and barbed wire prikkeldraad straight next to the house. We can’t even get into the garden.
All the time about four men are on guard. The friars house in Pontianak becomes more and more crowded, because all arrested inland civil servants are brought here.
After a couple of months there are over 100 occupants in a friars house that used to be too small to accomodate 15 men.”
1942 to 1943
Dr Iwan suwandy.MHA
a railroad from Bangkok right through the jungle of Thailand to Moulmein in Burma. As work-slaves no After everyone is shaven we fall in for roll-call.
It is then that we finally hear what our lot is to be: transport to Singapore, then to Thailand to work on the construction of doubt
The Death Railway (January 1943)
“We were crammed, thirty-five men, in steel compartments”
Illustration by Charles Thrale
Source: Fepow Monthly Review
The journey from Singapore to the southern end of the Burma Railway took nearly a week. Felix Bakker again takes up the narrative:
We were crammed, thirty-five men, in steel compartments. The doors were kept ajar, with a rope stretched between them, so that we could hold on to the rope when “going to the toilet.” After a few days, dysentery erupted again with all its misery.
Those patients had to be held tightly or they would fall out of the train due to their weakness. During the day it was boiling hot in those steel wagons, and at night we froze.
Under those circumstances it was almost impossible to sleep; we had to try that sitting down and pulling our knees up. For the tall guys among us this was even worse than for those who were shorter and more supple. I was not among the latter.
Ban Pong railway station, Thailand
Source: Australian War Memorial (P00761.029)
Twice during daylight the train would stop, and from each wagon two men were allowed to get a small barrel of water and another one of rice gruel. That was all we got for food and water per day.
If one of the sick men tried to leave the wagons to void, the Japs would beat him back into the train with their rifle butts. As on the ship, conditions inside the train became almost intolerable.
This train trip took five days and five nights, until we arrived at Ban Pong, Thailand. There we were crammed into trucks so we could not fall out, even though we could barely stand for lack of sleep.
We had to walk from Kanchanaburi to Chungkai camp. It was really more like sleepwalking, but the rifle butts of our guards made sure we kept staggering on.
In the camp were already a few thousand British POWs, who had built bamboo barracks and who had started working on the railroad. After roll call, which lasted longer than an hour while the Japanese kept counting us over and over, we could finally go to our barracks, where most of us simply collapsed from lack of sleep.
After a few days in Chungkai, our group of 500 Dutch POWs had to move up country to our first labor camp, but not before we had to listen to a speech by the Jap camp commander. I, and most of us, don’t remember much about his nonsense other than:
“You should be honored and feel privileged that you are helping to undertake such a great project under Japanese leadership, and therefore you shall have to work hard to earn this honor.”
Well, we learned the truth of that last statement. We walked, a long line of men, on a small sandy road which soon became a jungle trail. The walk took three days.
Many fell ill with dysentery, malaria, and injured feet. In the late afternoon of the third day, we halted in a clearing in the forest along the River Kwai.
On one side, near the river,
were three large, new tents for the Japanese camp commander and the Korean guards.
On the other side, near the edge of the forest, stood an old, threadbare, grubby tent which was the hospital tent for the gravely ill. Everybody else had to find a spot near the bushes or under the trees at the edges of the camp.
The Thaiâ “Burma Railway. 1942 to 1943.
- The Thai–Burma Railway
1942 to 1943
The project resulted in a huge loss of life of the Allied Prisoners of War (POWs) and Asian forced labourers that were used to construct it.
An estimated 13,000 POWs and 80,000 Asian labourers died of disease, sickness, starvation and brutality at the hands of the Japanese Army
Building the Burma-Thailand railway, 1943
Read more about building railway at Thailand by POW
Interviewee: John Allen, born 1917
Interviewer: Frank Heimans,
for The Hills Shire Council
Date of Interview: 22 June, 2010
Transcription: Glenys Murray, July 2010
It was a well known fact in those days that if you could answer, it didn’t matter what the question, a Japanese asked you. If you could answer straight away it was OK but if you hesitated it was a lie. That was the way they summed things up. They sent for the Australian looking after the ducks they wanted to see him. The Japanese colonel asked him what had happened to the ducks. He wasn’t getting the eggs that he was used to. He said “I don’t know I’ll go and ask the ducks” He said “all right go on”.
Japanese Rail Trucks, Burma-Thailand Railway, 1945
Oh well we did all sorts of funny things there.
I was promoted to corporal the day the war started and I was sorted out with about thirty blokes. Our job was to go down to where the bridges had been washed away or blown away to ferry the stuff from one side to the other across the creek. That’s where I spent six months. We weren’t living too bad there. We were thieving everything we could get our hands on. Nearly all food was moving. When the war finished, we woke up one morning. We knew there was something going wrong. It wasn’t right because the locals kept telling us that the Americans were there. We never saw one but they claimed the Americans were there. The guards were making gun emplacements round our little camp there. We wondered what was going on here.
They lined us up and put us on a railway truck and away we went. It was a cattle truck we were in. We stopped three or four times.
We had no idea where we were going. They finally came to a stop and I was in the last carriage if you like but it was just a cattle float thing. One of the chaps got down to relieve himself and as he did a Japanese guard walked round the corner and saw him. He was just about to knock him over with a rifle butt and an American walked round and saw it and he flattened the Jap. That’s when we found out the war was over.
They announced then that the war was finished. We had a camp there where we stayed till we were alright.
It was a funny sort of a finish up. I was there for a while. I was doing the cooking in those days. They had an airstrip I suppose about a kilometre away from the camp.
They had little aeroplanes come. You couldn’t land a big one. They were five passenger aeroplanes and they came in and picked up the chaps who were sick to take them out.
They had me out there with some sort of homemade kitchen. To give them a cup of tea. Sometimes they’d be out there at nine o’clock in the morning and they wouldn’t get picked up till three o’clock in the afternoon. That’s where I spent the last two days.
Finally a train took us down to Port Swettenham and put us on a boat to come home.
Burma-Thailand POW Mess Parade, 1943
How did the Japanese treat the Australians though?
Well the Japanese themselves they weren’t too bad. But the Japanese army they had the one star general, they had the two stars and then they had the three stars.
Well the three stars could knock hell out of the two stars if he wanted to. He was superior. We found that the Japanese soldiers they were more or less robots.
They did what they were told. What we did have were Korean guards and they were absolute dogs. Their greatest pleasure was to see how much pain they could cause. We had two of them guarding our camp a lot of the time. They were christened the BB and the BBC, the boy bastard and the boy bastard’s cobber that’s what it referred to. They caused a lot of pain and suffering along the line.
When we got to this base camp after the line was finished. One of the chaps in the unit he had a bit of experience on dental work before he went. They had some medical supplies that had been delivered there by the Red Cross. He started up a little bit of a dental project because no one had seen a dentist for three years.
He turned up and no sooner started up than in came one of the boy bastards came in. He had to get his teeth fixed up. He refused to do it and finished up getting a hiding for not doing it. He said “all right that’d he’d do it”. So he went over to the dysentery latrines and filled a syringe up out of that. That’s what injected into his mouth when he went to do the work. We never saw him again. I would say without a doubt he had dysentery in no uncertain terms.
What were you fed all that time?
We were fed rice and the only thing that we had with rice was chilies. We had the little red dried chilies. We had plenty of them and rice and tapioca flour.
The ration was a mug of rice three times a day. In the morning it was boiled up like a porridge. The other two meals it was cooked in a grain form. We’d boil the chilies up and pour a little bit of chili juice over it.
For years that was our meal three pannikins full of rice a day most of the time cold.
I can tell you it wasn’t very appetizing. I don’t eat rice today.
Trestle bridge, Thailand 1945
Now tell me about your work in building the Thai-Burma Railway what did you actually participate in?
Well all we had was a pick and shovel. That was our tools.
Our job was to cut through the hills to make… fairly hilly country over there.
We’d cut through the hills or fill up down below where we had to build the railway bridges.
They were built out of the local trees. They cut the trees down. They had an apparatus that they used to put them in piles and drive them down with the pile driver and put a cap on top of them.
Sometimes they had to go another storey it was that steep, that high.
Most of the time we were doing the bridges, they were a bit of a joke really because they had no way of compound ing the approaches.
They had to fill up where the bridge started six or eight foot deep. They could only fill it up with the dirt we dug out of another spot. They’d fill them up and when they put them where the railway started they’d already sunk a bit. The approach to the bridges would be this much below the bridge itself. They got there.
We pulled a fast trick on the Japanese. They didn’t know that we were doing it. To build these bridges we had to have scaffolding of course you realise.
Then after those were finished we had to pull the scaffolding down. All the scaffolding was thrown on the top side of the bridge. You get a lot of rainy seasons over there, the monsoons.
When the monsoons come it forms a dam. The pressure behind it washed the dam bridges away. They let go the stuff we had in there let go, it couldn’t hold the water back. It would build up and away she’d go bridge and all. That’s what happened to a lot of the bridges we built.
Where was that actually located in Burma or Thailand? Where were you?
It went from a place called Thanbyuzayat up into Thailand. I can’t think of the place where it finished. It would have been a couple of hundred kilometres long at least.
Were you mainly in the one area or did you move around a lot?
We started off in the twenty kilometre base at Thanbyuzayat and we finished off at the 105 camp. That was half way up. The other teams were further along.
Building the Burma-Thailand railway, 1943
What would your typical day have been like as a prisoner of war under the Japanese?
It was the same every day. When we first went there we used to get every tenth day off to do what we wanted to do.
It wasn’t long before that was cut out. We had that many sick that we worked seven days a week, period finish stop. Sometimes we’d leave before daylight to go out to the job and arrive home at ten or eleven o’clock at night.
We had to walk so damn far to get to the work. It was the same thing every day. Day after day doing the bridges or doing the cuttings which ever we had to do.
How long was the walk to the actual work site from where you were living?
You may have to walk twenty kilometres. If you were working near your camp you had a close one. The camp we had to go both ways. The start of it would be only a couple of hundred yards. By the time you were ready to move it you’d done twenty or twenty five kilometres each side.
Now which other Australian prisoners of war that we might have heard about did you meet there?
None of any great note, I know a few odd ones. There was a few in the district here a long time ago. They’re all dead now. Walter Johnson was here, Roy Shepherd was here, Gordon McKnight was here, Norm Malone who was here.
Weary Dunlop in 1945
So Weary Dunlop (Sir Earnest Edward Dunlop) was your doctor in your unit?
Yeah, well he didn’t have much to worry about with me. I got pretty crook at one stage but most of the time I was able to get about.
I didn’t have near as much sickness as a lot of them because I was younger and fit as a bull when I joined up. There were others survived just as good as me. I did have a little bit of an advantage.
I was one selected to take the team down to ferry the stuff across the gutters when the bridge was blown away. We thieved enough stuff there.
We were living pretty well. These sort of things helped without a doubt.
So how many men in your unit survived the war?
I don’t know. There were four hundred and ninety five from memory originally. I would say if half of them survived it would be a maximum. I don’t know, had no way of knowing.
So how long were you actually a prisoner of war?
Three and a half years.
My wife… I was listed as missing believed killed. She didn’t know I was alive for three and a half years. She was notified when the war started that I was missing believed killed.
POWs and “natives” working on the Burma-Thailand railway
Now tell me that day that you met your family again when you came back from the war? What was that like for you?
When we came home we got out of the boat and they took us by bus up to Moorebank to be joined with our families.
The chap that lived up the road he took my wife and kiddies down to meet me down there. When the bus pulled up, they’d have a list of who was on it.
There was a chap used to stand at the back of the bus and call out the names with a microphone of who was the next one getting off the bus. There were quite a lot of families there as you realise. The chap who was getting out before me, Ernie Noble, he was a lot older than me and pretty feeble. They called his name out but he had a lot of trouble getting off the bus.
They called my name out before he was off the bus. When he got out my wife thought that was me getting off. She had a bit of a surprise when I followed.
She did recognise you did she?
Well I was recognizable when I got off. He just called the name and all she could see was this little old bloke getting out of the bus. She had no idea what I’d look like.
That’s a good story. So was it difficult for you to adjust to normal life again in Australia?
Not really, no not really. I don’t think I had any great problems. We spent months going backwards and forwards to the damned hospital.
I was in Yarralla Hospital for quite a while. I had all my teeth removed and I had my tonsils taken out while I was there.
I went to work driving a truck for a chap there for a while. Then one night I had a knock on the door at home and a group of farmers there. They asked me would I put a truck on the road to cart their fruit to market and they’d guarantee to give me their work if I’d do so. Which I did, that was in 1948.
I’d been used to giving the service I had to give before the war. That was the only service I knew. It was the way that I worked. But the service that they got during the war, it wasn’t service at all. If the carrier was tired one night, he’d leave the fruit there till tomorrow night. He didn’t care.
Map of the Burma Railway
(Click to Enlarge)
Luckily the dry monsoon was still there for a few more months. Roll call had everybody out next morning before daylight. For breakfast we got a small bowl of rice gruel. Our doctor had kept some sick men away from the labor groups.
This was not appreciated by the Japs, who kicked a number of these men towards the labor details. When the doctor protested vehemently, four guards went at him with sticks until he fell unconscious to the ground.
After a few hours the guards threw water on his face and allowed him to be dragged off to his “hospital tent.” This way the Japs made it clear how they would run things.
The railroad to be worked on was about 6 kilometers from camp. One detail cut a wide swath through the forest by sawing down trees and hacking away the brush.
Other groups started the initial foundation work for the railroad. The work was done by hand, with picks and shovels. Woven baskets were used to dump the soil where it was needed.
Each man had to move one cubic meter of soil. This was measured very precisely by the Japs at the end of the day by the finished section of railroad.
Only when the measurement was correct could the labor details return to camp. If not, we had to keep working by torch light. This happened more and more, as increasing numbers of men fell ill. It was very heavy labor under the broiling sun.
The water in our canteens was soon gone, and water for tea was brought by two men once a day, from the river 6 kilometers away. Those men also brought the rice gruel for lunch.
We got ten minutes to eat gruel and drink tea, and then it was back to work. If things did not go fast enough, or if we did not work hard enough, according to the Japs, we would get beaten with bamboo sticks, shovels, or rifle butts.
For the first time in my life, I learned what thirst really meant: mouth and throat dry as a cork, swollen lips, visions of faucets giving cool, clear water, as much as you wished.
Illustration by Francess Richardson
Image courtesy of former British POW Len Baynes
Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon
Due to the merciless slave labor conditions, not enough food (three bowls of gruel, and at night sometimes pumpkin soup), and lack of sleep on account of mosquitoes and diarrhea, the number of seriously ill rose daily.
There was dysentery, malaria, and feet badly injured by tropical ulcers because many of us did not have shoes anymore and worked with bare feet. Now every day people were dying. Nobody escaped contagious illnesses like dysentery. I also suffered my first painful bout with that.
The nights were worst when the cramps forced you to crawl in pitch darkness to the latrines at the edge of the forest.
The latrines were ditches up to three meters deep with bamboo trunks laid across. Among familiar faces, I saw your father [Samethini] at a roll call of dysentery patients. In spite of his pleading, our doctor did not receive any medications.
The Thai name for the camp site was Nombredai, which we immediately changed to “Nonparadise.” It was hell more than anything else. And yet it would get much worse later, in the labor camps upstream in the rocky jungle mountains, in the rainy season.
We got a few days rest after finishing our part of the railroad, and then we marched to the next labor camp. I don’t know the name of that next labor camp. We did not stay there long, but went on again, working on the route of the railroad, moving earth and building embankments.
At the next camp, called Wampo, we worked on the rocky parts of the railway bridges. This was a huge project, as the two-part bridge was to be built underneath and against the rocks hanging over the river.
As far as I remember, we were a labor force of 2,000 Allied POWs: about 600 Australians, 700 British, and 450 Dutch. There were also about 100 Thai workers, whose elephants dragged the felled trees, to be used in the bridges, from the forest to the river. The three POW labor camps were situated on sand banks in the river bend. The rainy monsoon had not arrived yet. For the first time we had tents for bivouacs.
Really not enough of them, as we had to lie down very close together. But because we worked in shifts, there was barely enough room for everyone.
The British and Australians were detailed to build the bridges, and we Dutch and a few hundred Brits got the task of hacking away the huge rock, so the railroad could proceed towards the bridges. The bridge builders worked all day during daylight. But we rock cutters worked in three shifts, day and night.
The first shift, by twos, had to make holes 1.2 meters deep manually, using chisel and hammer. The goal was for each pair to make two holes, so one hole per man.
Dynamite was then exploded in those holes. The second shift had to clear away the debris – chunks of rock, stones, and gravel – pushing it down the mountainside with shovels, or using steel jacks for the large rocks.
As soon as they were finished, the third shift showed up to makes holes with hammer and chisel. And so it went, day and night. After dark, we worked by torch lights called hellfires. During the day it was searingly hot on those rocks. The thirst was very bad, especially when we saw the river streaming below.
Southern approach to the railway viaduct at Wampo South.
Note the massive cutting in the bluff above the bridge.
Source: Australian War Memorial (AWM122325)
Sketch of Wampo South by Dutch POW A.G. Muller
View from the north
Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon
A section of the Wampo viaduct today
Here also, we were harassed and beaten for any reason, or no reason. We got a little more rice than in the previous camps, and there were fewer gravely ill POWs. But the night-and-day work schedule was a killer, and the sharp stone fragments tore up our feet because most of us had no shoes left to wear.
We had to keep working on those sore and cut-up feet. After a while, you lost count of hours, days, nights. No more thoughts, only work, eat, sleep, work, eat, sleep.
The lack of sleep brought most of us to utter exhaustion. Because of this, malaria and dysentery came back in force, and the foot injuries got worse and worse. It took about four weeks to cut that rock of 15 meters height and 100 meters long to pieces. Afterwards we had to hoist tree trunks, meant for the final sections of the bridges, from the river to the rocks.
When the bridges were finally completed, and the wooden cross ties and the rails could be laid down, we were marched to the next camp without a break.
Only the gravely ill stayed behind. Many of them had seriously injured feet. They were transported to the base/hospital camp Chungkai. Henri Samethini must have been among them, as he was ill, with injured feet, and because I saw him much later in Chungkai. 
1) DUTCH SOLDIER AT MOULMEIN CAMP SENT THE DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW CAR VIA COURIER TO HIS WIFE TO HIS WIFE VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)
He told that he was in god health and asking about his children. His wife stayed at Soerabaja, During Dai Nippon Occupation the Indonesian citizen who merried expatriat didnot put in the POW camp.
Look at two very rare collections :
(1) Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Card sent to Batavia(Jakarta)
(2) His wife Dai Nippon Java ID issued by Dai Nippon Military government at Soerabia.
Moulmein POW Camp
Moulmein POW Card
Front of POW card
DAI NIPPON DUTCH POW MOULMEIN
The writter had found some rare postal history, box memorabilia and memorabilia document related with the bridge on the river kwai and POW of Dai Nippon camp at Moulmein Burma(now Myamar) which the POW work to built that famous bridge
Penulis telah menemukan beberapa koleksi memorabilia yang terkait dengan tawanan perang di Moulmein Burma yang dipaksa bekerja membangun jembatan river Kwai,
Ada juga tawanan yang berhasil pulang ke Indonesia ,masih menyimpan kotak tembakau yang dibawanya ke Kamp Tawanan di moulmein ,inofrmasi perjalannya ke Burma dari Tjimahi ditoreh pada kotak kaleng tembakau tersebut dengan tempat singgah dalam perjalan dari dan kembali ke camp tersebut.
tahun 1942 berangkat dari POW Tjimahi ke batavai(Jakarta), selanjutnya ke Penang–>Rangoon (Yangoon saat ini) Burma (Myamar)—->Moulmein POW Camp Burma dan lengkap tangalnya ,bernama Coegen, meupakan penemuan luar biasa karena sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut kembali dlam keadaan hidup ke Indonesia masih menyimpan kotak tembakau yang dibawanya ke Kamp Tawanan di moulmein
Biside that found the iD of theDai Nippon ‘s Moulmein POW ID before he had caught and sent to the POW camp,he work at Gas oil exploration at Plaju,South Sumatra, Also found his letter from moulmein camp to Batavia for his wife,and his wife Dai nippon ID Card.
Selain itu juga ditemui kartu ID Mr Romeijn pegawai perminyakan Belanda BPM Plaju yang ditawan Dai nippon
, dan di bawa ke Kamp tawanan perang Dai Nippon Di Burma ,lihatlah surat yang dikirmnya dari Camp tersebut dari Burma kepadza isterinya di surabaya liwat batavia(Jakarta) surat POW Card dari camp Moulmein Burma kepada Isterinya di Indonesia
*Dai Nippon Moulmein (now myanmar) Card sent to his wife via Batavia(now jakarta)
serta KTP pendudukan Jepang atas nama isterinya,,
Beside the postal history and ID, The author also found one memorable tobacco box with Incised scrip the route from Indonesia,via penang to ranggon (now Yangoon ata least he came to The Dai Nippon moulmein prisenor of war camp at Burma (now Myanmar) he move from tasikmalaya west java camp,to Batavia in 1942, to Penang and at least to Burma (now myanmar) in 1942, the name of prisoner of war Coghen (Dutch east indie army)
Ditemukan juga kotak tembakau milik tawanan perang bangsa belanda Coghen , yang menoreh kotak kaleng tembakau tersebut dengan tempat singgah dalam perjalan dari dan kembali ke camp tersebut.tahun 1942 berangkat dari POW Tjimahi ke batavai(Jakarta), selanjutnya ke Penang–>Rangoon (Yangoon saat ini) Burma (Myamar)—->Moulmein POW Camp Burma dan lengkap tangalnya ,bernama Coegen, merupakan penemuan luar biasa karena sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut kembali dlam keadaan hidup ke Indonesia.
1.THE MR H.COEGEN ‘S TOBACCO BOX WHO SURVIVE FROM THE DAI NIPPON POW CAMP AT MOLMEIN BURMA, WITH HIS SCRTECH INFO TEH DESTINATION AND DATE. hE BRING BY THE DAI NIPPON WITH HIS FRIEND FROM TJIMAHI (MILITARY CAMP,NEAR BANDUNG,MILITARY TRANING SCHOOL) TO
the to Penang-3-11-42
—> Rangoon(now Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42—>
Moulmein Camp , where he and his friend work to build yhe brige on the river Kwai 1n 1942. May be he met the other prosioner of war from Plaju Mr Romein, his POW card wassend in 1943 to Batavia(Jakrta) for his wife in Surahaya.
THIS THE ONLY MEMORABLE COLLECTIONS HAD EVER REPORT , please donnot copy, this illustration belong to Dr Iwan suwandy private collctions@copyright 2010.
Backside of Mr Coegen POW Moulmein Dai nippon camp Burma tobaccobox@copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2010
SHOWCASE :THE RARE DN BURMA POW CAMP CARD
(1) MR ROMEYN ,DUTCH PLAJU BPM OFFICER ID ,WHO WAS CAPTURE BAY DAIN NIPPON AND SENT AS PRISONER OF WAR AT DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN CAMP BURMA
(2) DUTCH BPM PLAJU OFICER AT MOULMEIN CAMP SENT THE DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW CAR VIA COURIER TO HIS WIFE TO HIS WIFE VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)
He told that he was in god health and asking about his children. His wife stayed at Soerabaja, During Dai Nippon Occupation the Indonesian citizen who merried expatriat didnot put in the POW camp
Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Card sent to Batavia(Jakarta)
(2) His wife Dai Nippon Java ID issued by Dai Nippon Military government at Soerabia.
DaiNippon Burma POW’s wife ID
This postcard, 1943, during World War II,
Japanese troops occupied Burma (Myanmar) …
This is during World War II, for the construction of the Taimentetsudo, prisoner of war internment facilities proffered addressed to women from Medan Sumatra-POWs of the Japanese camp had been placed on (Morumen) Mawlamyaing of Burma is a postcard of the post. To save the trouble of censorship, in advance, because it is printed wording major, try to translate its contents below.
**** (Hereinafter, translation)
I am currently in the POW camp in Burma-Mawlamyaing. The number of prisoners is 20,000, but Australian, Dutch, British, and American. There are several camps to accommodate prisoners 2/3000 to do the work every day, was decided.
We are housed in a modest shack. Weather is good. In terms of food, medicines, clothes, life is more comfortable than before. Commander of the Japanese military is committed in good faith in order to treat prisoners respectfully.
Salary of the officer is based on the salary of the officer of the same class of the Japanese military. To make a prisoner of war and labor, depending on the class and its work, has been paid to 45 cents (lowest) to 25 cents a day.
There is canteen, where you can also buy non-food and tobacco distribution. Special consideration by us of the Japanese military commander, was also done concerts in the camp, some who are watching a movie about once a month.
**** (End translation)
In the camp of Mawlamyaing, and introduce things are also used different wording of the postcard has been printed this time, for there, you may be also introduced in the previous post.
Tae-Hull area by mail of prisoners of war during World War II, they have different types of postcards are used (for example, or like it or like it), you can enjoy rustic simplicity have collected. However, the majority of materials are currently left in the camps and from the Thai side of things, the less be a thing of the arrival and departure Gunto and the Burmese side. Just glad to introduce our material, in the things that the Burmese side, and it was pressed clean mark in Australia of the earth censorship mark censorship and the destination of this time in the camp.
2009-05-27 Wed 19:12
Thousands of men were forced to work in Birma/Siam (‘River Kwai’) to build the railways through the jungle. 3,000 Dutch lost their lives during this forced labour at the Birmese railway
Images of the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. Personal testimonies and public conceptualizing in Indonesia, Japan and the Netherlands. Editor: Remco Raben Waanders-NIOD 1999.
Information Broeders van Huijbergen, prior friar Eduard Quint
ground force units attacked Mount Austen, the southern anchor of the enemy’s position. While some Army units pushed through the jungle in an enveloping maneuver designed to cut off the enemy at Kokumbona, other Marine and Army units advanced along the coastal road.
ROAD LEADING TO FRONT LINE FROM BIVOUAC AREA (top).
Supply dump which was set up on Kokumbona beach after pushing the enemy back; note shell and bomb craters which were used as foxholes by the troops (bottom). The enveloping movement trapped several enemy units at Kokumbona which were then quickly destroyed. By the end of the month U.S. troops had reached the Bonegi River.
Info from Java
Jungle and Indian Ocean
Soon it was the New Year. We had no more Japanese visitors. There were not many Dutch or other Europeans outside of camps. In Malang there was already a camp for men called Marine Camp. And another camp, we were told, called De Wijk, prepared to house women and children. Taking a long, last walk through the rubber plantations and jungle, my father and I beheld the Indian Ocean. My father looked at me and said, “I have to ask you something, you are almost 16 so you are old enough. I want you to look after Mama and your sisters when I have to leave Sumber Sewa. Will you promise me that?” I remonstrated, but he insisted and I agreed.
(ibid Elizabeth Van Kampen)
Anna and Margie in occupied Surabaya, circa early 1943
Margie holds a portrait of her “Pappie”
Photo by Nikola Drakulic
Han Samethini Collection
B-24 Liberators of the U.S. 5th Air Force, 380th Bomb Group
This unit flew missions against Surabaya, 1943-1944
The sound of their engines is one of Margie’s earliest memories
Margie paid keen attention to the city’s air raid sirens. On June 23 she remarked, as they began to wail, “Naughty noise, Mommy, watch out.” Java lay deep within the Japanese Empire, but not so deep that it was beyond the reach of Allied warplanes. Flying some 1,170 miles from their base in Northern Australia, American B-24 Liberators bombed Surabaya’s harbor docks, the railway yards, and the BPM oil refinery. It was the first of three missions flown against the city that year. These targets were safely distant from Brantasstraat, and the raid must have inspired cautious hopes that the end of the war might be near. But it was not near enough. On September 25, Elisabeth received a summons from the Japanese. Anna writes:
A bad day. We got the news that Lies [Elisabeth], M.E., and Ida have to go into the camps on the 30th. I’ve bawled like a baby. We will miss them so very much. The children won’t know each other anymore. We hope the good Lord will bring us together again, with our boys and men. 
The parting came sooner than expected, on the 28th.
A dreadful day. Lies, M.E., and Ida have to go into the camps immediately, only allowed two suitcases with belongings. We are so upset, as we had counted on the 30th. The farewell was horrible. Mom [Emma] shrieked with anguish, also because she believes M.E. cannot do without her…..Oh well, this is behind us now. What else can befall us? 
Elisabeth Samethini’s Japanese ID certificate
Anna’s name and signature appears in the “Orang Saksi” (witness) section,
beneath that of Elisabeth’s mother, Maria Boerman
Frank Samethini Collection
This is a stamp from February until May 1943,
during World War II, was used in Lombok under Japanese occupation, to stamp (the Dutch East Indies) “Dai Nippon,” the former Dutch East Indies mark and the sun was designed for the letter “Lombok” and has been pressed, is what is called “solar surcharge Lombok”.
As you can see and enjoy looking at the picture,
mark the “surcharge” is larger than the stamp, because it was pressed only on a stamp is affixed to, such as postal, stamp on this is something that unused does not exist.
What has been introduced here, in the fragment but is affixed to the deed postal, postmark of Anpenan has been pressed. Surcharge stamp of the sun, but it is also quite tough to collect a decent one in the son of a gun, this guy is just happy that it has been affixed two good economy.
Lombok is located next to the middle east Indonesia, Bali, or he has been called “a beautiful beach in Indonesia” is Ann Tanjung beach in the south. Once in a while, but will not do I have dropped the plaque of a leisurely went to such real world, a veritable Binbosho Hey is not good because I have it has been foggy. Also go to the land of his, I just like to come back and walk under the old looking for a stamp will be useless.
Philatelic Museum of Mejiro, Tokyo,
according to the publication of the “key 漫郵 Hong Kong history,
the “key 漫郵 Hong Kong Stamp Exhibition history.
1)at the beginning of February 1942,
my father received a phone call ordering him to leave our home in Sumber Sewu within six days and report to the Marine Camp in Malang. This would be a fateful separation. By now, most Dutch men were internees.(ibid Elizabeth Van Kampen)
Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)
.February.12th.03(1943),Toemenggoeng Official Military red Handchopped(unidentified)
.Military Postcard send via military courier from Magelang to Djatinegara.Read the translate .
Pembangunan jalur Kereta api Saketi bayah dimulai pada Februari 1943,
setelah pemerintahan militer Jepang resmi memerintahkan pembangunannya. Namun, dalam perjalanannya pembangunan jalur ini menghadapi beberapa kendala misalnya seperti daerah yang ditutupi dengan hutan lebat, rawa, dan pegunungan penuh dengan hewan buas seperti harimau, buaya, ular berbisa, kalajengking dan juga penuh dengan berbagai macam penyakit. Untuk pembangunan jalur rel dan membuka hutan, banyak digunakan rakyat dari berbagai daerah di Pulau Jawa, khususnya Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, dan dari daerah Banten sendiri.
Tidak ada data yang pasti berapa jumlah romusha yang dipakai untuk membangun jalur ini, namun dalam buku War, Nationalism, and Peasants: Java Under The Japanese Occupation 1942-1945, karya Shigeru Sato, disebutkan bahwa dipekerjakan tidak kurang 25.000 sampai 55.000 buruh romusha harian. Dalam sebulan hampir 500 orang romusha tewas dalam proses pembangunan jalur ini. Pada umunya para romusha tewas karena kelaparan, kurangnya obat-obatan, pekerjaan yang berat diluar batas kemampuan para romusha, dan penyakit seperti Malaria dan Disentri. Romusha yang tewas kemudian dikuburkan dengan cara dikumpulkan dalam satu lubang, di satu lubang kuburan itu terdapat lebih dari sepuluh mayat romusha. Untuk mengganti romusha yang tewas, Jepang kemudian merekrut jumlah romusha yang lebih banyak pada tiap harinya.
Cara yang dilakukan Jepang untuk merekrut pekerja baru adalah melakukan propoganda, yaitu Jepang mengundang para pemuda untuk ikut ambil bagian dalam proyek pembangunan jalur kereta api Saketi-Bayah, dan yang ikut akan mendapatkan bayaran 40 sen gulden dan 250 gram beras. Tidak hanya itu Jepang juga bekerja sama dengan kepala desa untuk merekrut tenaga kerja. Seperti contoh yang dimuat dalam buku yang sama karya Shigeru Sato halaman 181 “Salah satu artikel dalam Jawashinbun yang melaporkan pembukaan jalur kereta api ini, memuji kepala Desa Cilankahan, Bayah Raden Kartahujaya untuk kerjasama positif nya dari tahap awal dalam tugas yang sulit, yaitu perekrutan tenaga kerja”. Cara paksaan pun juga digunakan untuk merekrut tenaga kerja, seperti yang dialami oleh Ahmad Parino salah seorang romusha yang masih selamat asal Purworejo kelahiran tahun 1924. “Waktu itu selepas pulang Sekolah Rakyat (SR), saya ditangkap tentara Jepang untuk dikirim menjadi Romusha di wilayah Banten. Saat itu saya masih duduk di bangku kelas 3,” katanya. Tidak hanya seorang Ahmad Parino, beberapa temannya pun ikut dibawa oleh tentara Jepang ke Banten untuk dipekerjakan sebagai romusha.
Selama bekerja membangun jalur kereta api Saketi-Bayah, para romusha tidak jarang juga mendapat penyiksaan dari tentara Jepang. Para romusha itu dipaksa terus bekerja, baik itu membuka hutan atau memasang jalur rel untuk jalannya kereta.
Setiap harinya maksimum 300 ton batu bara muda dibawa ke Saketi. Selain batu bara, ada pula kereta api penumpang, namun karena daerah ini berpenduduk jarang, sebagian besar penumpang adalah pekerja kereta api atau pekerja tambang. Setiap harinya 800 penumpang bepergian, yang diangkut dengan 15 kereta kelas 3. Jalur ini dibangun relatif lebih kokoh daripada jalur Pekanbaru, dengan 20 jembatan, semuanya dengan ujung-ujung dari batu.
Jumlah romusha yang meninggal dalam pembangunan jalur kereta maut Saketi-Bayah belum diketahui jumlah pastinya. Namun, asal kata Saketi dalam bahasa Sunda berarti 100 ribu banyak yang menganalogikan bahwa 100 ribu itu adalah jumlah romusha yang tewas dalam proyek pembangunan jalur kereta api maut ini. Tan Malaka menyebut dalam memoarnya, sampai akhir masa kependudukan Jepang luas kuburan tempat pemakaman romusha adalah 38 hektar. Untuk mengenang para romusha yang tewas, pemerintah membangun sebuah tugu di sebelah kantor Kecamatan Bayah, namun kondisinya sekarang kurang terawat.
Sekarang kuburan ribuan korban romusha di Pantai Pulo Manuk sudah tidak terlihat. Bekas jalur-jalur rel kereta dan stasiun mungkin sudah lama hilang oleh tangan-tangan perusak yang tidak menghargai sejarah. Goa-goa bekas tambang pun sudah sulit dilacak. Namun deburan ombak pantai Pulo Manuk masih menyisakan eksotisme berpadu dengan matahari senja merona cahaya yang tak akan pernah sirna
Maret 1944 jalur ini selesai dibangun, dan mulai digunakan pada 1 April 1944
8 February 1943.
JAPANESE PRISONERS RAISING VEGETABLES for their own table.
The Guadalcanal Campaign drew to a close shortly after two U.S. forces converged on Cape Esperance where the Japanese were effecting their evacuation
on 8 February 1943.
The enemy had committed at least 36,700 men on Guadalcanal. Of these, some 14,800 were killed or drowned while attempting to land; 9,000 died of sickness, starvation, or wounds; 1,000 were captured; and about 13,000 were evacuated.
SHIPS LOADING at the harbor, Noumea, New Caledonia. During the tactical offensive of the U.S. forces throughout 1943, New Caledonia remained a steppingstone in the supply line to the forces fighting up the Solomon-New Guinea ladder.
Sent from CDS Temangoeng east Java 15.2.03 on six dEI one cent Karbou def.stamps withour DN Overprint with special postmark in red color
Read more about Temangung city history
Desember 1949, Letkol Achmad Yani ( Jend. Achmad Yani ) saat berkunjung ke Temanggung, menemui para pejuang di pertigaan Jl S. Parman – Jl R. Suprapto – Jl Diponegoro ( sekarang )
” Tentara masuk Kota “
Para pejuang berhasil menguasai kota Temanggung, nampak iring-iringan truck dan kendaraan lapis baja di Jl S. Parman ( sekarang ), kendaraan itu mereka rebut dari tangan Belanda tahun 1949
” Tentara masuk Kota “
Para pejuang memasuki kota Parakan, di Jl Diponegoro ( sekarang ) masyarakat menyambut gembira dan mengelu-elukan para pejuang yang kembali medan pertempuran 1949.
” Bung Karno “
Di Alun-alun kota saat membakar semangat perjuangan masyarakat Temanggung tahun 1951
” Bung Karno “
Didampingi Bupati R. Soemarsono Notowidagdo saat mengunjungi Temanggung tahun 1951
” Saksi Sejarah “
Di jembatan kali Progo Kranggan Temanggung ini sekitar 1.600 pejuang dibantai oleh Belanda tahun 1948 – 1950
” Saksi Sejarah “
Ex Gedung IVG di Jl Setiabudi ( sekarang ) Temanggung, di tempat ini para pejuang ditahan sebelum dieksekusi di jembatan Progo, kini gedung ini telah rata dengan tanah
” Saksi Sejarah “
Jembatan Jengkiling yang diruntuhkan dengan bom oleh para pejuang untuk menghambat pergerakan Belanda, sekarang telah digantikan jembatan baru
” Saksi Sejarah “
Stasiun Kereta Api Temanggung tempat para pejuang berangkat dan kembali dari front pertempuran, sekarang menjadi Gedung Juang ’45
Bupati Temanggung dari masa ke masa
1.RADEN TUMENGGUNG ARIO DJOJO NEGORO 1834-1848
2.RADEN ADIPATI ARIO HOLAND SOEMODILOGO 1848-1878
3.RADEN TUMENGGUNG HOLAND SOEMODIRDJO 1878-1882
4.RADEN TUMENGGUNG TJOKROATMODJO 1882-1906
5.RADEN MAS ADIPATI ARIO TJOKROADIKOESOEMO 1906-1923
6.RADEN MAS ADIPATI ARIO TJOKROSOETOMO GSGGSt 1923-1943
7.RADEN TUMENGGUNG SINGGIH HADIPOERO 1943-1945
8.RADEN TUMENGGUNG MAKTAL DIPODIRDJO 1945
9.RADEN SOETIGWO 1945-1949
10.RADEN SOEMARSONO NOTOWIDAGDO 1949-1953
11.MAS KARTONO 1953-1957
12.RADEN SOEDARSO 1957-1960
13.RADEN SAID MANGOENSOEDIRO 1960
14.RADEN NGABEHI SENO PRODJOROEMOKSO 1960-1964
15.MASJCHUN SOFWAN, SH 1964-1978
16.Drs. H. JACUB 1978-1983
17.Drs. H. SRI SOEBAGJO 1983-1993
18.Drs. H. SARDJONO SH. CN 1993-2003
19.Drs. TOTOK ARY PRABOWO 2003-2006
20.Drs. MUHAMMAD IRFAN 2005-2008 (WABUP 2003-2006)
21.Drs. HASYIM AFANDI 2008-2013
Ir. BUDIARTO, MT ( WAKIL BUPATI ) 2008-2013
as lost on 16-Feb-1943 with the loss of 72 officers and men
on 21 February 1943.
RENARD FIELD, as seen from the southeast, on the eastern part of Banika Island in the Russell Island group. Sunlight Field can be seen across Renard Sound. Unopposed landings in the Russell Islands, located about sixty miles northwest of Guadalcanal, were made
on 21 February 1943.
By early evening all elements of the landing force could communicate by telephone, the troops had dug themselves into defensive positions, and outposts and observation posts had been established.
JAPAN OCC. OF NED INDIE / 3½c PS CARD 1943
send from Njonja Janda(widow) M Bases Door good block tempat perlindungan(security places) Ambarawa to Soerabaia with official chopped and agenda 23 Feb 1943
The Japanese Internering Camp book sketch illustration Collections
The front Cover Sketch
The sketch of Dai Nippon Ship Landing at Tandjong Priok
Last Page (the painter profile)
Frame Two: The Kesilir
1)The sketch of Kesilir bridge over Kali baroe
2) The map of Kesilir at East Java
The Dutch Priest bring to the Kesilir Camp east Java by dai Nippon Military from semarang
3)At Kesilir the priest worked as
,Cutting Coconut tree
,made the bread
,made Nasi goreng
Menumbuk Padi (rice paddle)
Witte Donderdaag(Kemis Putih)
Bruder Kloster at Kesilir
Frame Three :
Bandoeng and Tjimahi
Work at the railway built project
Sketch during Internering(POW camp) at Jogya and Bara
The old “sandal”
In the Djogja Fort
Tjimahi and Baros
Rest and Work
This exhibition special for the remam brance of the Catholic priest family which their have been in the interner (prison of War) by the Dai Nippon Military in Java in 1943-1945.Please they send their comment and more infor about them.
THE JAPANESE POW CAMPS
Please look the picture of Japanese Prisoner oF war Below:
Follow the experiences of a group of British, Australian and Dutch women captured in Singapore during 1942. The 1980s captivating drama series portrays the hardship of life in a Japanese Prisoner-of-war camp.
Prisoner of War
An Allied prisoner of war lies weakly on his cot, almost reduced to a bundle
Japanese Prisoner of War Bathing
Featherston prisoner of war camp
Extracts from NO SURRENDER
(Blue beret corps)
Semi-military forces and military and police special task set up by the Japanese beginning in order to meet the shortage of manpower to support the interests of war.
This manpower shortage caused by the defeat of the war since the beginning of 1943 with the Pacific war situation began to change.
Japan’s defeat in this year including the defeat in a naval battle around Midway and ocean reefs, islands of Saipan fall into the hands of the United States, giving rise to social unrest and the loss of Japanese transport ships and the Japanese warship was hit along with their withdrawal from Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and the Marshall Islands.
This defeats the Japanese make a defensife, so the Japanese began to seek more intensive community support Indonesia to educate and train the youth of Indonesia in the field of military or semi military.
Early March 1943
finally formalized the establishment of
Seinendan or Barisan Youth,
Gakutotai or Barisan student, or Barisan Keibodan Bantu police, auxiliary soldiers of Japan (Heiho) and the Voluntary Defenders of the Homeland Army (PETA). All members of the line it got gemblengan patriotism and nationalism, war exercises (Kyoren) and marching. This exercise is very great significance
In the era of Japanese occupation, the Police (Keisatsutai) has a police force with special tasks, which is named after Keisatsu Tai Tokubetsu (Special Police)
( KORPS BARET BIRU )
Pasukan semi militer dan Militer serta polisi tugas khusus awal mulanya dibentuk oleh Jepang dengan tujuan untuk memenuhi kekurangan tenaga manusia untuk mendukung kepentingan perangnya.
Kekurangan tenaga manusia ini diakibatkan karena kekalahan perangnya sejak awal tahun 1943 dengan situasi perang Pasifik yang mulai berubah.
Kekalahan Jepang di tahun ini diantaranya kekalahan dalam pertempuran laut di sekitar Midway dan laut karang, jatuhnya kepulauan Saipan ke tangan Amerika serikat sehingga menimbulkan keresahan masyarakat Jepang serta hilangnya kapal-kapal angkut dan kapal perang Jepang seiring dengan terpukul mundurnya mereka dari Papua Nugini, Kepulauan Salomon dan Kepulauan Marshall.
Kekalahan-kekalahan ini membuat Jepang menjadi defensife, sehingga Jepang mulai lebih intensif mencari dukungan masyarakat Indonesia dengan mendidik dan melatih para pemuda Indonesia di bidang militer atau semi militer.
Awal maret 1943
akhirnya diresmikan berdirinya Seinendan atau Barisan Pemuda, Gakutotai atau Barisan pelajar, Keibodan atau Barisan Bantu Polisi, pembantu prajurit Jepang (Heiho) dan Tentara Sukarela Pembela Tanah Air (PETA). Semua anggota barisan itu mendapat gemblengan patriotisme dan nasionalisme, latihan perang-perangan (Kyoren) dan baris berbaris. Latihan ini sangat besar arti
Pada Jaman pendudukan Jepang, Kepolisian (Keisatsutai) mempunyai pasukan polisi dengan tugas-tugas khusus, yang dinamai Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai (Polisi Istimewa),
1943, newspaper sent from Padang, Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 13S1), the Japanese-language Sumatora Shimbun (“Sumatra Newspaper”) of Wednesday, March 15, 1943, complete and entire, franked with Dai Nippon yubin westcoast over[rint on Netherlands Indies 1c definitive tied (on wrapper and on newspaper) byPadang cds, violet Sumatra censor’s handstamp on the wrapper; Padang vertical 2-line backstamp on the wrapper. Only minor wear and aging, Fine to Very Fine overall.
In New Britain the beachheads established in 1943 were expanded.
On 6 March
another landing took place on Willaumez Peninsula on the north coast. This operation, together with the establishment of airfields in the Admiralties and the occupation of Green and Emirau Islands, completed the encirclement and neutralization of Rabaul, the once powerful Japanese base.
March 9, 1943
founded the movement Seinendan (Youth Front). Conducted 29 April 1943 inauguration, the members of the youth ± 3500.
The goal is to train and educate the youth, in order to preserve and defend the homeland with its own power. Requirements to become Seinendan is: young people aged 14-23 years.
To further enhance your understanding. Refer to Figure 4 above, then consider the following description of the material!
Formation of the Student Front (Gokutai) for elementary school students – high school, such as t erlihat in the image below:
Rows of auxiliary police establishment (Keibodan), provided a lighter than Seinendan, prioritized age ± 23-25 years. For this Keibodan no necessity to every village (me) who has a young age and able-bodied must be Keibodan. Keibodan surveillance system was handed over to Japanese police.
There are several terms Keibodan according to the region or regions such as in Sumatra called Bogodan while in the Navy, especially in Kalimantan Borneo referred to by the number of troops is said Hokokudan ± 28,000 people.
Japanese Soldiers auxiliary line formation (Heiho) April 1943. Heiho members are young people aged ± 18 – 25 years, with the lowest primary school education. They will be placed directly on the Japanese army (AL – AD).
Although the status of auxiliary troops, but they are trained to be able to use weapons and operate air defense guns. Even when the great war fought to the front they are included in the Solomons and elsewhere. This is where our young people have actual military training ground with high ability.
Semi Front military establishment specifically recruited from the Islamic group with a name: Hezbollah (Army of Allah) including figures and Dr. Otto Iskandinata. Buntaran Martoatmojo
Homeland Defense Forces formation (PETA) dated October 3, 1943 by Lt. Kumakici by Osamu Harada Seiri no. 44 which regulates the formation of PETA. The formation of this MAP, the Japanese mirror of the French colonial power in Morocco with Moroccan youths as soldiers take advantage of special Perancis.Secara explanation of PETA, will be further expanded, because the role of a member of PETA is very large in an effort to fight for freedom and defend it. This is where the core of the future military force RI (often termed the embryo of the TNI).
Pada aspek militer ini, Anda akan memahami bahwa badan-badan militer yang dibuat Jepang semata-mata karena kondisi militer Jepang yang semakin terdesak dalam perang Pasifik.
Memasuki tahun kedua pendudukannya (1943), Jepang semakin intensif mendidik dan melatih pemuda-pemuda Indonesia di bidang militer. Hal ini disebabkan karena situasi di medan pertempuran (Asia – Pasifik) semakin menyulitkan Jepang. Mulai dari pukulan Sekutu pada pertempuran laut di Midway (Juni 1942) dan sekitar Laut Karang (Agustus ’42 – Februari 1943). Kondisi tersebut diperparah dengan jatuhnya Guadalacanal yang merupakan basis kekuatan Jepang di Pasifik (Agustus 1943).
Situasi di atas membuat Jepang melakukan konsolidasi kekuatan dengan menghimpun kekuatan dari kalangan pemuda dan pelajar Indonesia sebagai tenaga potensial yang akan diikutsertakan dalam pertempuran menghadapi Sekutu.
Di bawah ini Anda akan mempelajari bentuk-bentuk barisan militer yang dipersiapkan oleh Jepang antara lain:
a. 9 Maret 1943 didirikan gerakan Seinendan (Barisan Pemuda). Pelantikannya dilakukan 29 April 1943, dengan anggota ± 3500 pemuda. Tujuannya untuk melatih dan mendidik para pemuda, agar mampu menjaga dan mempertahankan tanah air dengan kekuatan sendiri. Persyaratan untuk menjadi Seinendan adalah: pemuda berusia 14 – 23 tahun.
Untuk lebih meningkatkan pemahaman Anda. Simaklah gambar 4 diatas, selanjutnya simak uraian materi berikutnya!
b. Pembentukan Barisan Pelajar ( Gokutai) untuk pelajar SD – SLTA, seperti t erlihat pada gambar berikut ini:
c. Pembentukan Barisan bantu Polisi ( Keibodan), dengan syarat yang lebih ringan dari Seinendan, usia yang diprioritaskan ± 23 – 25 tahun.
Untuk Keibodan ini ada keharusan untuk setiap desa (ku) yang memiliki pemuda d
engan usia tersebut dan berbadan sehat wajib menjadi Keibodan. Sistem pengawasan Keibodan ini diserahkan pada Polisi Jepang.
Ada beberapa istilah Keibodan sesuai dengan wilayah atau daerahnya seperti di Sumatera disebut dengan Bogodan sedangkan di daerah Angkatan Laut, khususnya di Kalimantan disebut dengan Borneo Konon Hokokudan dengan jumlah pasukan ± 28.000 orang.
Perajaán Pembangoenan DJAWA BAROE !
Hari Saptoe tanggal 6, 2603 – poekoel 9 pagi, bertempat di Stadion (Malang Si) Atjara a.l.
Menaikkan Bedera Kokki – Toendoek kearah Tokio – Mermeringati Pradjoerit2 Dai Nippon – Njanji – njanian – Kokumin Taiso Dai 1 dan Dai II. Moerid2 dihantarkan oleh Perkoempoelan Kaoem Iboe Indonesia, mempersembahkan boenga-boenga , koewe-koewe, dan lain-lain kepada serdadoe-serdadoe Balatentara jang sakit di Roemah Sakit Militer. Rebo tanggal 10 pagi: Perang-perangan oleh Balatentara
608 × 425 – Place of Capture Soekaboemi (Java)
Gembirakanlah hari pembangoenan. Djawa baroe. Banjak terima…
Emma with Mary-em (seated) and Margie, 1943
Photo by Nikola Drakulic
Han Samethini Collection
A page from Anna’s diary
March 17-22, 1943
Han Samethini Collection
In her diary, Anna wrote mostly about the doings of Margie and her younger cousin, Mary-em. Margie had grown into a precocious toddler by mid-1943, speaking words and short phrases distinctly enough to ask for music:
Margie and M.E. now have the whole studio to themselves. They want music, go to the record player and go at it. You won’t believe Margie’s agility. We could never do such movements. She will be a star someday, Hans! 
Han’s portrait was an object of special importance. The little girl had bonded strongly with her father despite being separated from him at an extremely young age:
If she is naughty she asks for her father’s forgiveness. And she walks around carrying your picture, Hans, and says, “Bagie naughty. Sorry, Pappie, sorry.” At night she wakes up and asks for Pappie’s picture and falls asleep holding it in her arms. She asks while pointing to the phonograph, “Mama, open. Bagie dance.” When she hears the music she says, “Oh, Pappie.” 
Julie, in 1920 from Indo-European parents born in Java.
Julie led from 04.30.1942 to 10.18.1945 at the Japanese occupied Java a nomadic existence as “outside camper” and landed in a prison during the Great Awakening. October 1946 Julie with her two children to the Netherlands and would still twelve children. The search for her past began in 2010 with a folder with notes. Who were her parents, grandparents and ancestors and how was her life in the Netherlands?
on the run
Julie’s decision to Bandung to flee was prompted by major changes not only in Bandung had taken place. In the not yet completely closed areas saw barely free adult Europeans.
Sometimes still terrified-looking young white kids with a shopping bag somewhere to buy food. What was not harmless because the Japanese trade with the Europeans had prohibited.
Where Europeans no longer needed their places were occupied by Indonesians. There were committees for support of women imprisoned KNIL soldiers and poor Indo-Europeans. There were soup kitchens while on the inland markets very high prices for food had to pay.
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There was in the spring of 1943
a new ‘revaluation’ of the Indo been implemented and many Indo-Europeans were still in the camps. Some chose to voluntarily stay on the street because it was too dangerous. Salaries, pensions and any bank accounts were no longer paid. The propaganda machine of the Japanese was aimed at the Indonesians as quickly as possible into the illuminated Imperial thinking. It was the joint struggle against the British and the Americans.
Julie was following her interrogation by the Kempeitai and her short stay in prison in a city which has returned more and more polluted and impoverished.
She was still regarded as suspicious any time and would be arrested again.
There was now a new movement was founded. Pusat Tenaga Rakjat (PUTERA) or the Center for People’s Power. I.a. led by the late President Sukarno.
It was an incentive to voluntarily employ as auxiliary soldier “(Heiho) or to report as” work soldier (romusha).
The enthusiasm among the older population was not very large. The youth was SEINANDAN greater success.
This youth corps was intended for young people aged 14 to 25 years and was with the KEIBODAN or auxiliary police for 25 to 35 year olds up. They were mainly used to the (fast) Japanisering of the society. Precisely these two groups were often very aggressive against the outside of the camps resident Indo-Europeans.
Julie realized that there is a permanent change process had been initiated. The new rulers were the Japanese in close cooperation with the Indonesians.
The often romanticized image before the capitulation in 1942 as the favorable impact of Europeans on the Indonesians would have had was completely gone within a year.
The Indonesians thought to gain their freedom and the Japanese played the game part with it.
The Jawa Hokokai was intended as a comprehensive ‘service’ organization that was not different as a divide, conquer and control vehicle for the Japanese. It was all new Japanese territories in the whole population in which all a propaganda booklet distributed with Japan ‘cooperative’ peoples were portrayed as friends of each other and as united in the fight against the enemy Powers
For the War
voor de oorlog!
after the war!
na de oorlog!
independence and harmony
onafhankelijkheid en harmonie
Our Commander (The Emperor)
Onze Commandant (De Keizer)
New Hope for the World
Nieuwe Hoop voor de Wereld
The sharing of cultures
Het delen van culturen
Side by side, to prosperity!
Naast elkaar, naar voorspoed!
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the white flag with the red ball
The white flag with the red ball was red, white and blue in the streets of replacement. Dutch speaking was strictly forbidden, and because the Japanese were aware of the fact the Japanese population still had to learn to read and write was accepted Malay as a second language. Speeches and texts were under strict supervision of the Japanese censorship.
10 years previously cycled almost 13 year old Julie from her foster family has a clean and leafy Bandung at her school or the Catholic Church. Her father had already gone to the Philippines. Her mother had a divorce petition filed and the brother of Julie was housed at the orphanage Pa van der Steur. Julie was estranged from her mother and sought solace in diligent work in school and the devout pray in church. Also in 1940, her former pastor told Julie that her marriage to William who is not religious, was not recognized by the Church would be. She would live with a heathen and Julie was thus become an apostate.
Inwardly furious she had left the church and promised herself never to return.
Now in 1943
she had to learn a new language (Japanese) and Julie could no longer speak Dutch but had to follow orders from Japanese and Indonesians. Julie considered it a small consolation that her appearance as “Indian” was making them less fell. Inwardly she felt exactly like a 1933. Julie felt lonely, abandoned, hunted down without any perspective, and especially without a social but hopeless position in the new Indonesia. Like many Julie had no idea how long the current situation would last.
The Japanese wanted the Indonesians as quickly as possible into a resilient force against the advancing west, but also use them as a working part of the food, fuel and war material production.
The Japanese army had hungry daily supplies. Java was also reorganized the Japanese model. It can be seen as a kind of pyramid scheme with the top Japanese military leaders in each organization below levels where more and more Indonesians voluntarily or were not involved.
The Japanese Tonari Gumi (mutual aid) system was coupled with the similar traditional Javanese Gotong royong or mutual aid. The Japanese military education programs, including martial arts, simulated battles with wooden rifles and marching were properly meets the needs of the Indonesians. Such exercises were during Dutch rule since been banned for fear of uprisings.
The Fujinkai was the most important women in Java. It was also the only and is principally intended for the indigenous men to support organizations in the defense activities against foreign enemies. As a woman you had a very good excuse if you did not want to do this ‘voluntary’ movement.
The women were just like the Heiho, romusha, Seinandan and Keibodan movements strictly supervised by the Japanese occupiers. Younger women could join the Srikandi Brigade. There they get first aid classes, self defense and preparing meals for the volunteer army.
Behind the Kawat either in the camps where more than 100,000 Dutch people imprisoned had no idea what happens outside the bamboo walls and barbed happening.
The rumors turned true machines at full capacity and were supplemented by news brought by new residents who volunteered or were not reported to the camp leaders. Hunger in the camps was partly caused by severe food shortages outside the camps.
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The ‘freedom’ of the Indo-Europeans
who lived outside the camps was restricted to very large. They had constant fear of betrayal, false accusations and disloyalty to the Indonesian ideal of freedom or the erratic behavior of the Japanese. The number of deceased ‘indoor campers “including cause of death is well studied (1 to 8).
The majority is deceased by malnutrition and disease. The Japanese had no eradication plan (Final Solution) as the Germans had. Little is known about the numbers of Indo-Europeans (adults and children) by treachery, torture and starvation outside the camps were killed.
This number could well be many times greater than the death rates within the camps. The number of victims outside the camps because of the great famine in Java is estimated at more than 4 million people.
This great famine is entirely due to the inability of the Dutch government and its army and then to the Japanese military regime. The disastrous famine from 1943 to 1945 is rarely mentioned in the stories of the internment camps or during anniversaries.
Adults and children in the internment camps have lived collective and individual experiences that sometimes agree, sometimes very different while the camp is about the same (read the books about Camp Tjideng).
The many camp stories that “came loose” can be a great help in processing. For the outside of campers, this to a much lesser extent. There are far fewer witnesses who can confirm that for outdoor campers often just as difficult to get food and shelter.
Also the conditions under which the outside of the occupation of campers have passed to a large extent may be different. They stayed in the cities or otherwise hidden in fields and villages. But the Jap was everywhere.
Prolonged periods of hunger and fear are major stressors and the breeding ground for acts where one years later not know more about it. If there are memories you’d rather not want to think back (denial).
The old pain than other wells often evokes memories about their own behavior or the behavior of others (individual & collective shame shame).
The moments you did not want to share or that you picked up food from another. Whether you eat raw that was taken away by others who were stronger (injustice and anger).
You want to forget and forgive, if possible. If these feelings come back years later than were often dismissed with comments like: Oh everyone was still hard and bad.
Or: there were people who had it worse. Like many Dutch who the next ‘returnees’ immediately before they were (in Netherlands) how it had been a lot worse than the indoor and outdoor campers from the Dutch East Indies.
Japanese soldier with flag
Julie writes in 1999 to her brother Boy (Eduard Gerard van der Steur) The letters would suggest that they had never deeply about their war experiences have spoken. Their experiences are very different. After receiving letters Boy wrote back but was telephoned by them
The Imperial flag is raised where once proudly paraded the KNIL
Julie has more than 15 beheadings are obliged to respect.
The Japanese saw beheadings as an “educational measure” where the laggards could learn from
Still available The Japanese domination ‘DVD compiled by the NIOD
Heiho recruitment poster
Call in the magazine ” Pandji Poestaka ” against the Americans and British to fight
streetscape from 1943
in the Dutch East Indies
the women as support troops for the men
The Japanese had public transportation in Java quickly in order
1943 deel 5 – van Bandoeng naar Cirebon
Begin juni 1943 verliet Julie zo onopvallend mogelijk de wasserij van haar moeder in Bandoeng. Het verblijf in de gevangenis van Bandoeng hadden haar angstig en onzeker gemaakt. Haar moeder en jongste zoon hadden haar regelmatig bezocht en zij had de briefjes of het gevouwen papiergeld uit zijn kinderknuistje altijd snel in haar bloes verstopt om deze later te kunnen lezen. Door bemiddeling van Indonesische vrienden kwam Julie vrij maar het was duidelijk dat zij beter uit het zicht van de Japanners moest blijven. Zij nam de bus naar Cirebon om onder te duiken bij een Indonesische vriendin. Julie had haar haren in een strak Javaans knotje gestoken en viel met haar kleine gestalte nauwelijks op tussen de Indonesische bevolking. In het blog van de Java Post beschrijft Frits J. Suyderhoud op informatieve wijze over de situatie in Bandoeng buiten de kampen. Net zoals Julie zou hij na afloop van de oorlog beticht worden van collaboratie. Voortkomend uit de toenmalige sfeer van frustratie, jaloezie, onderling verraad, geroddel en gebrek aan feitelijke informatie.
Julie zou op de vlucht blijven voor de Kempei Tai tot oktober 1945. Om in leven te blijven handelde zij in sieraden en andere kostbare voorwerpen van mensen die zich niet op straat konden of durfde te begeven. Zij verkocht de sieraden veelal aan Chinese handelaren in de marktwijk van Cirebon. Cirebon leek veilig voor Julie. Het was altijd al een echte stad voor Indonesiërs geweest en had weinig koloniale gebouwen. Er stond wel een relatief nieuwe gevangenis die Boei Lama werd genoemd. Een gedeelte van de verkoopopbrengsten was voor Julie en hiermee kon zij zich zelf in leven houden terwijl zij bij een Indonesische vriendin onderdak had. Toen het na enige maanden te gevaarlijk werd in Cirebon is Julie schielijk naar Batavia getrokken en heeft zich gemeld bij de Indische familie waar zij in de jaren 1938/1939 een kamer huurde toen zij als beambte bij de PTT van Batavia werkte.
Julie woonde in de wijk Meester Cornelis. Alwaar zij na enige maanden oud schoolvriendin Marie ontmoette die samen met haar Indonesische echtgenoot in een Japanse Sakurai-kantoor ofwel Japanse Toko, als bedienden werkten. In deze groothandel werden behalve voedsel ook Indonesische en Japanse luxe producten verkocht. De winkel werd druk bezocht door Japanse militairen en burgers en Julie verrichte hand en spandiensten waardoor het leek dat zij als medewerkster legitiem voor de Japanners werkte. Tijdens deze periode wisselde Julie herhaaldelijk van slaapplaats waardoor de kans op verraad verminderd werd. Op gezette tijden leende Julie het reispasje van Marie waarop een foto was aangebracht die sterk leek op Julie. In combinatie met het kaki kleurige bedrijfsjurkje van Marie voorzien van een geborduurde kersenbloesem durfde Julie het verschillende keren aan om naar Bandoeng te reizen om haar kinderen te bezoeken. Moeder Charlotte had inmiddels jongste zoon Ted afgestaan aan Ukkie Sombeek een kinderloze oud collega van de PTT Bandoeng. Zoontje Billy was bij moeder Charlotte in het grote huis naast de wasserij aan de Merdikaweg achtergebleven.
Terwijl Koningin Wilhelmina op circa 75 kilometer van Londen verbleef op het landgoed Stubbings House en samen met Prins Bernard kantoor hield op Chester square 77, maakte zij zich grote zorgen over o.a. Indië. Wilhelmina had meer dan ooit te brokkelen in de regeringsmelk omdat er geen parlement was wat haar controleerde. Ondertussen werd de echtgenoot van Julie, William opgeleid op de luchtmachtbasis van Jackson in Amerika. Julie had via de gecensureerde post vernomen dat William via Australië naar Amerika was vertrokken. Meer wist zij niet, pas na aankomst in Nederland december 1946 zou Julie vernemen hoe het haar echtgenoot was vergaan.
Midden 1943 was Nederland al weer drie jaar bezet door de Duitsers. Anton Deijmann was al maanden niet meer bij zijn echtgenote en kinderen aan de Marco Polostraat geweest. Zijn moeder woonde een straatblok verder eveneens in de Marco Polostraat. Zijn angst voor razzia’s was zeer gegrond en bracht hem er toe om veel onderduik adressen te hebben. Daar durfde Anton die inmiddels een ‘Ausweis’ had op naam van Ton van Dijk ’s avonds nog wel naar toe om ’s morgens heel vroeg weer te vertrekken. Veelal bracht hij illegaal verkregen etenswaren mee voor zijn moeder en vrouw en kinderen. Als Anton weer weg was dan werd het eten opgehaald door zijn vrouw. Anton leidde een zwervend bestaan tot mei 1945. Julie en Anton zouden elkaar in maart 1947 in een lunchroom aan het Leidseplein ontmoeten. Beiden hadden indertijd een geschiedenis van vluchten, onderduiken, honger, verlies, eenzaamheid, verraad, geweld, verdriet, achter zich. De overeenkomsten zijn de woorden niet de geografische achtergronden. Links Nederland verzette zich hevig tegen de aanstaande Politionele acties in Indië. Julie was in november 1946 in Rotterdam aangekomen met een troepenschip wat op de heenweg Nederlandse militairen naar Java had vervoerd. De oorlog was nog niet afgelopen voor Nederland.
mei 1943 – mei 1944: De oorlogskansen keren
Na hun overwinning bij Stalingrad dringen Russische troepen de Duitsers terug. De Engelsen veroveren de heerschappij in de lucht. Duitse steden ondergaan dag en nacht zware bombardementen.
Goebbels, de Duitse minister van propaganda, zweept de bevolking op om zich in de Totalkrieg tot het uiterste in te spannen. De Duitse mannen trekken massaal naar het Oostfront. Het is voor steeds meer mensen duidelijk dat Duitsland de oorlog gaat verliezen.
In Nederland wordt de bevrijding snel verwacht. De weerstand tegen de Duitse bezetting neemt toe. De Duitsers geven hun pogingen op om Nederland voor zich te winnen. Zij gaan over tot intimidatie en geweld. Nederland wordt economisch leeggeplunderd.
Arbeidskrachten uit de bezette landen moeten de Duitse oorlogsindustrie draaiende houden. Eind april 1943 breken landelijke proteststakingen uit als bekend wordt dat de Nederlandse militairen – die in het begin van de bezetting waren vrijgelaten – zich moeten melden voor krijgsgevangenschap. Deze April/meistakingen worden hard onderdrukt.
Werken in Duitsland
Vanaf mei 1943 moeten alle mannen van 18 tot 35 jaar zich melden voor ‘de arbeidsinzet’; het gedwongen werken in Duitsland. Veel mannen duiken onder. De maatregel levert maar 54.000 arbeidskrachten op, in plaats van de verwachte 170.000. In 1944 wordt de ‘totale arbeidsinzet’ afgekondigd.
Duitse optreden stimuleert het verzet
Direct na de stakingen moet iedereen zijn radio inleveren omdat de Duitsers zich realiseren dat hun propaganda niet werkt en de Nederlanders wel stiekem naar Radio Oranje en de BBC luisteren. Dit stimuleert de illegale pers.
De bezetter sluit de Nederlandse universiteiten en de studenten worden ook opgeroepen voor werk in Duitsland. De studenten duiken massaal onder.
De georganiseerde onderduikhulp komt in 1943 op gang en in het verlengde daarvan het vervalsingwerk en het gewapende verzet. Het verzet verbetert de contacten met Engeland. Nederlanders voeren spionage uit voor de geallieerden. De Duitsers reageren met intimidatie en geweld. Bijna 20.000 Nederlanders komen vanwege hun verzetswerk in Duitse gevangenschap.
1943, newspaper sent from Padang, Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 4S146), the Japanese-language Sumatora Shimbun (“Sumatra Newspaper”) of Tuesday, May 23, 1943, complete and entire, franked with Netherlands Indies 1c definitive with “Greater Japan Postage” black overprint, tied (on wrapper and on newspaper) by Padang cds, violet Sumatra censor’s handstamp on the wrapper on front; Padang vertical 2-line backstamp on the wrapper on back. Only minor wear and aging, Fine to Very Fine overall.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.
1943, newspaper sent from Padang, Sumatra to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 13S1), the Japanese-language Sumatora Shimbun (“Sumatra Newspaper”) of Friday, June 9, 1943, complete and entire, franked with Netherlands Indies 1c definitive tied (on wrapper and on newspaper) by Padang cds, violet Sumatra censor’s handstamp on the wrapper; Padang vertical 2-line backstamp on the wrapper. Only minor wear and aging, the wrapper however has been torn apart during opening, Fine to Very Fine overall.
Estimate $2,000 – 3,000.
FRAME SEVEN :
THE STORY OF JAPANESE POW CAMPS
was lost on 5-Mar-1943 with the loss of 72 officers
March 9, 1943
There were a few new issuesstamps on Java during the occupation. Two were definitive series which were often issued on important dates. The first consisted of four stamps issued on March 9, 1943, one year after the Dutch Indies capitulation.
On March 20, 1943,
there was a special issue commemorating that savings at the Postal Savings Bank had reached f 5,000,000. A second definitive series was started with two stamps issued on April 29, 1943, the Japanese Emperor’s birthday
Dai Nippon Java issued Definitive stamps 31/2 sen,
And 5 sen semeru volcano
“Sketch Map of Tan Toey Prisoners of War Camp, Amboina Island, Former camp of the Australian troops, built by the Netherlanders, now used by the Japanese as a prisoner-of-war camp…” from Allied Geographical Section, Southwest Pacific Area. Area Study of Ambon Island, Terrain Study No. 45, Map 13 dated March 13, 1943. (429K)
(currency) Made by: G Kolff & Company, Djakarta 1943
This circulated in the border area with Malaya and Sarawak, I have found at Pontianak with serial number(more rare)
Printer: Djakarta Insatsu Kodjo Serial Number: ◊ Without Plate Letter(s)
LCT(5) BEACHED FOR LOADING PURPOSES in the Russell Islands.
By 16 March,
15,669 troops of all services had reached the Russells. Beach and antiaircraft defenses, including long-range and fire-control radar, 155-mm. guns, and 90-mm., 40-mm., and other antiaircraft guns, had been established. The Allied base there was ready to support further advances northward
Pembentukan barisan pembantu Prajurit Jepang ( Heiho)April 1943.
Anggota Heiho adalah pemuda berusia ± 18 – 25 tahun, dengan pendidikan terendah SD.
Mereka akan ditempatkan langsung pada angkatan perang Jepang (AL – AD). Walaupun berstatus pembantu prajurit tetapi mereka dilatih untuk mampu menggunakan senjata dan mengoperasikan meriam-meriam pertahanan udara.
Bahkan saat perang semakin hebat mereka diikutsertakan bertempur ke front di Solomon dan tempat lain. Disinilah para pemuda kita mendapat tempat latihan militer yang sesungguhnya dengan kemampuan yang tinggi.
Han Samethini was indeed separated from Bakker’s party at Wampo, but regardless of his condition, the Japanese put him back to work on the railroad. He continued up-country with another group of Dutch POWs. At every camp where they stopped, Han must have asked for news of his brother. When the column reached Kinsayok, in April 1943, Han found Frank lying in a squalid hospital tent. Frank’s group had started from Ban Pong earlier that month, originally a force of 900 men. After a ten day march with only brief halts, little more than 500 of them were still standing. Frank contracted dysentery almost immediately upon arrival at Kinsayok. The doctors had no medicines to combat the disease. There were not even any beds for the patients, just groundsheets laid out on bare earth. He’d been fighting grimly for his life, managing to keep down a little food long enough to be digested, as men died all around him. Frank writes:
At dusk my name is called, and a moment later my brother Han enters, sporting a long, thin beard. Stooping down, he calls my name again and again, and starts to cry, begging me not to die. What does he mean, die! I rave about flies, orderlies, the bad food and the filth. His face lights up while he brushes tears from his cheeks, saying that to hear me carrying on like that means, thank heaven, that he has no reason to worry. Is there anything he can do? Yes, a pair of pants is badly needed; I’ve only got one pair left on my body. He takes a pair of faded khaki pants out of his haversack and hands them over. Good old Han. A minute later and he is gone again, running all the way back to his outfit. He was given ten minutes to see me before marching off to a river camp way up north. 
Frank recovered from the dysentery after some weeks, whereupon the Japanese assigned him to a labor gang clearing bamboo along the planned route of the railroad. In May he was sent to Tamarkan, a base camp near Kanchanaburi. He was moved again in December, to Chungkai. With every transfer, Frank surreptitiously recorded the name of each successive POW camp on the inside cover of his bible.
We know next to nothing of Han’s movements during the remainder of 1943. A Dutch eyewitness recalls seeing him in 100 Kilo Camp (Regue), north of the Thailand-Burma border. Apart from that sighting he figuratively vanishes into the jungle. What he experienced in those eight months he reluctantly revealed to his grandchildren, decades later, in sparse anecdotes: The terror of forced marches, where exhaustion and collapse meant certain death. The screams of men afflicted with dry beriberi, tormented by unbearably itching or tingling feet. The use of pitiful food rations, a mere handful of rice per man, as bait to lure insects which the prisoners devoured hungrily. Beatings and more beatings. Yet through it all, it was still possible for him to look up at the night sky and revel, for a moment or two, in the glory of the moon and the shining stars.
“By the Fire”
Illustration by Dutch POW Kees van Willigen
(Identity of accordionist unknown)
Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon
 Felix Bakker, personal e-mail to Margie Samethini-Bellamy (September 2006)
 The Sky Looked Down, Chapter 8: The River.
 Recollections of Dutch ex-POW J.J. den Outer, edited by G.H. Bartman: “De Vertellers van de Doodenspoorweg” [Tales of the Death Railway], Tong Tong magazine (May 1, 1971), p. 21. I plan to have this article translated into English in the near future. When the translation is finished, a link to it will be posted here.
(Click Image to Enlarge)
Source: Digitale Tijdschriftenarchief – Moesson
(Click Image to Enlarge)
Source: Digitale Tijdschriftenarchief – Moesson
100 Kilo was a bridge building camp in the mountains near Three Pagodas Pass (click on the map above to see its location). There were American POWs in this camp. One of them, Charley L. Pryor, USMC (USS Houston), describes conditions there:
Supply was getting to be a big problem now that the rainy season had set in with fierceness of purpose. From now on we had steady rain. One Hundred Kilo was one of the most unlikely campsites that we had on the road. It was built more or less in a swamp. The whole camp was nothing but a swamp. You’d wade around there in the water and in the mud, and we’d clear right-of-way, make cuts and fills, and make bridges. There was no bottom to all the mud. The Japs had three trucks that moved in the area. All three had been captured from the British, but they were American trucks – a six-wheel drive Studebaker, a four-wheel drive Chevrolet, and I think the other one was a six-wheel drive Reo. They all had front mounted winches. They were sold by the U.S. Army to the English and then captured. They were all that would move, and they just moved essential supplies. So our rations were drastically reduced.
We were just as hungry as we had been in the first few days. We were not able to get near enough to satisfy your wants. At this time fever and dysentery became a common thing for our people, and in the midst of this rainy season we began to get tropical ulcers. Any scratch or cut would get infected and start to spread. We had nothing: no dressings, nor any sort of medicine with any kind of antiseptic power or antibiotic to combat infection. So the ulcers would grow. I know I got one just from a cut. We were making ballast for the roads, trying to improve the service roads so we could get supplies. So I was working on that, and a piece of rock cut my shin.
We never experienced these tropical ulcers until the rainy season came along, and when we talk of the rainy season there, by gosh, it rains every day. I know in one period – I believe in July 1943 – we counted that it rained fourteen days and nights. Of course, we were out in it all the time. Our camp was built in a mudhole. You’re in mud and filth all the time, and in the jungle everything is decaying vegetation. So any scratch you’d get would become infected by nightfall. That was my experience. I got a scratch early in the morning, and by nightfall it was infected, and within a week the ulcer had spread to three or four inches in diameter. It had eaten to the bone in a week.
Building the Death Railway: The Ordeal of American POWs in Burma, 1942-1945, edited by Robert S. La Forte and Ronald E. Marcello (Wilmington, Delaware: SR Books, 1993), pp. 157-158.
Lost in 3 april 1943
15 April 1943
RENARD SOUND, separating the two airfields on Banika. Construction of roads, airfields, and boat bases began in February and
by 15 April 1943
the first of the two airfields was ready for operation. The torpedo boat base at Lingatu (Wern-ham) Cove went into operation on 25 February.
CONVOY OF SHIPS MOVING TOWARD RENDOVA ISLAND from Koli Point, Guadalcanal,
Unusual Japanese Occupation of Netherlands East Indies, 1943 (April 16) registered cover to Sumatra, franked with Japan 30s Showa tied by ‘Galang’ cds.(riauw) Japanese Censor’s red boxed cachet with blue pencil annotation. Dutch Indies style ‘Censuur 32’ backstamp (April 17) and indistinct ‘Pematang-Siantar’ arrival backstamp
TAR BARRELS BURNING after a Japanese bombing raid,
Pada bulan Mei 1943
Abdul Qahhar bersama istri dan anak-anaknya berangkat ke Jawa dan tinggal kembali di Solo dan membuka usaha dagang bersama teman-teman yang kebanyakan dari Palopo sebuah perusahaan dengan nama “Usaha Semangat Muda”.
Berkat keuletannya serta didampingi istri yang cerdik dan penuh semangat, usaha ini berjalan dengan baik.
Tetapi sebagaimana juga yang direncanakan sejak awal kembali dari Sulawesi yaitu untuk meningkatkan perjuangan melawan penjajahan dan juga untuk memperluas usaha dagangnya, Abdul Qahhar bersama keluarga kemudian berangkat ke Jakarta dan Jawa Barat. Di Bandung dan Batavia ia bergabung dengan Haji Idrus membuka usaha pembakaran kapur.
Di Jakarta Abdul Qahhar berhasil mendirikan “Gerakan Pemuda Indonesia Sulawesi (GEPIS)”, akan tetapi ada juga pemuda Sulawesi lainnya yang mendirikan organisasi Angkatan Pemuda Sulawesi (APIS), maka akhirnya kedua organisasi tersebut dilebur menjadi organisasi Kebaktian Rakyat Indonesia Sulawesi (KRIS), yang dilengkapi dengan laskar. Abdul Qahhar diangkat menjadi Sekretaris Umum KRIS dan Komandan Laskar KRIS.
After the enemy had withdrawn from the area of VVau, months of constant fighting followed in the jungle-clad ridges between Wan and Salamaua, during which time the enemy suffered heavy casualties. On 30 June the islands of YVoodlark and Kiriwina, off the northeast coast of Papua, were occupied. This facilitated the movement of troops and supplies by water to that area and gained valuable new airfields for the Allies.
MEN ABOARD AN LST,
6 May 1943,
clean their rifles and prepare machine gun ammunition for the impending attack on Attu in the Aleutian chain which strtetches southwest from Alaska. The attack scheduled for 7 May was delayed until the 11th because of unfavorable weather conditions. The attack on Attu was planned in the hope that Kiska would be made untenable, compelling the enemy to evacuate his forces there.
LANDING BEACH in Holtz Bay area, Attu, as seen from atop the ridge separating Holtz Bay and Chichagof Bay. In the foreground can be seen a crashed Japanese Zero airplane. To the right, men and equipment are unloading from landing craft. It was soon found that the steep jagged crags, kmfelike ridges, and boggy tundra greatly impeded the troops and made impracticable any extensive use of mechanized equipment.
TRACTOR LEAVING LCM(3); note transport and several landing craft on horizon. A heavy fog on D Day caused several postponements of H Hour. The first troops finally moved ashore at 1620
on 11 May.
SUPPLIES BEING LOADED INTO TRAILERS to be taken to a supply dump back of the beach,
12 May or D Day plus 1.
The cloud of smoke in the background is from an enemy shell; the men in the area can be seen running to take cover (top). Men pause in the battle of the tundra to identify approaching aircraft (bottom). Landings were made by forces at both Massacre Bay and Holtz Bay.
105-MM. HOWITZER M2A1 in position inland from the Holtz Bay beachhead, ine gun crews worked in haste to set up their artillery pieces as contact was expected with the enemy at any moment.
CASUALTY BEING HOISTED FROM AN LCV into a transport. A cradle was lowered into the landing craft, the patient and stretcher were placed in it, hoisted aboard ship. Landing craft in background as an LCVP. The more serious casualties were evacuated from Attu in the early stages og the battle.
FIELD HOSPITAL which was set up and operating on the 12th. Two of the tents were used for surgery, the other two for wards. Foxholes were dug in the side of the hill for protection at night (top) – Casualties suffering from exposure were housed in improvised shelters because of overcrowded wards (bottom). There were as many casualties resulting from exposure as from Japanese bullets.
A Japanese visitor
My 16th birthday passed. We missed Father terribly and it didn’t look as if he were coming home any time soon, although he always wrote us optimistic postcards. My mother was much less optimistic; she was very worried about the future.
One morning in May 1943 my mother received a phone call from Mrs. Sloekers, who told her that she just had a Japanese visitor who was very polite and friendly. The visitor had asked her if she could play the piano, she told him that she couldn’t play well but that Mrs. van Kampen (my mother) played wonderfully. The Japanese gentleman was on his way to our house, she told my mother.
My mother was not pleased at all. She was very angry with Mrs. Sloekers. Cora and I tried to calm her down, because it wouldn’t do us any good to be so angry before our Japanese visitor.
A tall Japanese officer stepped out of his car when his driver opened the door. I can still see him walking up the stairs greeting my mother very politely and saying that he liked her beautiful living room.
Luckily my mother wasn’t angry anymore so she asked him what he would like to drink and I remember that he asked for a lemon juice. While he sat down he looked at us all and asked my mother if we were all four her daughters.
“No,” my mother said, “she (pointing at Cora) is my eldest daughter’s friend staying with us for a while. I have three daughters.”
He then asked my mother if she would mind very much playing something for him on her piano. “Yes, I hope that I may keep my piano, I have had this piano since I was 8 years old,” my mother answered. Our visitor just smiled and my mother started to play as beautifully as always.
While my mother played the piano our Japanese visitor closed his eyes now and then. He really seems to like the way my mother played. But he also looked at Henny several times and that started worrying me. After a while my mother stopped playing and our Japanese visitor stood up and applauded her. He said that she really played very well, and thanked her.
Then he wrote down something in Japanese on a piece of paper and gave it to my mother. He said that he advised her to go to the Lavalette Clinic (that was our hospital in Malang) with Henny. My mother could then hand over his note and they would call for him because he was a doctor working at this hospital. He told my mother that he wanted to examine my sister, as he found her abnormally skinny.
My mother asked when she could come and he told her that he would phone her.
He gave my mother his hand, thanked her again for the lovely music she had played for him, stroked Jansje’s hair, waved good-bye to Henny, Cora and me and left us all astonished, just standing there.
Within a week my mother had a phone-call from the Lavelette Clinic. They told her that Henny had to stay two weeks in the hospital, and that the Japanese doctor, our visitor, had arranged that Henny should get artificial sunlight since he had diagnosed my sister as suffering from rickets in an early stage.(ibid Elizabeth Van Kampen)
HOLDING POSITIONS IN THE PASS leading to Holtz Bay
on 19 May;
in right foreground is a strong point overlooking the area, in the background the enemy had gun positions above the fog line (top). Ponton of the wrecked Japanese airplane found at Holtz Bay; the wooden wheel was probably to be used by the enemy to obtain a water supply from a near-by creek (bottom). The enemy put up a bitter fight which was to last for eighteen days.
REST AREA ON ATTU.
Japanese Occupation of Netherlands East Indies, 1943 (May 20) registered Dai Nippon Military stampless cover with ‘Branch #1 FPO #364’ postmarks., writing on reverse indicates the cover’s origin as the Semarang postmaster of the Java Military Government. Various handstamps on front including Censor’s boxed cachet with oval chop (both in red).
After returning from the front lines
on 20 May,
the men busied themselves by doing some much needed laundry and cleaning their weapons. The men needed heavy winter clothing to help protect them from the bitter cold and damp weather.
DUAL-PURPOSE GUN near the beach, left by the Japanese when they departed in haste- The entrance to the right of the gun leads to an underground barracks which connected to the next gun emplacement in the battery (top). American 105-mm. howitzer M2A1 placed on wicker mats to help keep the gun from sinking into the tundra (bottom) – Had the enemy used the guns which were found intact at the time of the invasion, the landing forces would have been greatly impeded.
1943 (May 20)
Semarang Military Postmaster CDS 18.5.20
Japanese Occupation of Netherlands East Indies, 1943 (May 20) registered
Japanese Occupation of Netherlands East Indies,
1943 (May 20) registered stampless cover with ‘Branch #1 FPO #364’ postmarks., writing on reverse indicates the cover’s origin as the Semarang postmaster of the Java Military Government. Various handstamps on front including Censor’s boxed cachet with oval chop (both in red).
Estimate HK$ 1,500 – 2,000.
HEAVY BARGE, loaded with a crane and other heavy machinery, in the Massacre Bay area on 31 May 1943, having been towed to shore by tugs. In order to get the crane off, it was necessary to make a sand ramp leading from the shore to the deck of the barge. Tractor at right is a 7-ton, high-speed tractor M2 (top) -An oil and gas dump; at the left can be seen a motor pool (bottom). The battle for Attu ended
on 30 May
but mopping-up operations continued for several days.
FIRST FIGHTER STRIP ESTABLISHED ON AMCHITKA, located about seventy miles from Japanese-held Kiska. The P-10, on taxiway ready to take off, was used before twin-engined fighter planes were obtained. Often two 500-pound bombs were put on each of these planes, which were used a dive bombers.
THE AIRPORT AND HARBOR OF ADAK ISLAND operating in full swing, August 1943. Truck in right foreground is 2i/2-ton 6×6. Bombers used advanced airfields, set up in August 1942 on Adak and Amchitka Islands, to attack Attu and Kiska, two islands of the Aleutian chain which the enemy had occupied in June 1942 in an effort to limit American air and sea operations in the North Pacific. During the first half of 1943, 1,500 tons of bombs were dropped on enemy positions in the Aleutians
My mother was advised to stay in Malang during these two weeks, and so she did. She also visited my father several times while she was in Malang.
Before Henny left the Lavalette Clinic the doctor spoke one more time with my mother and gave her a small box with all sorts of medicines, such as quinine, aspirin, iodine, and so on.
I didn’t know this of course, but she told me that many years after the war, when I once mentioned that I had found our Japanese visitor that day in May 1943 a nice and friendly man.
This kind Japanese doctor has given my sister a chance to get through the war. By giving her those two weeks of treatment and giving my mother a small box with medicines, he most certainly helped us a little when later the Japanese occupation became a real hell on earth. I have often wondered whether the Japanese visitor know what was coming. Did he know that we were going to suffer terribly and that many Dutch children were going to die?
I don’t know his name, but I would like to say: “Thank you Japanese visitor, thank you very much for your help Japanese doctor.”(ibid Elizabeth Van Kampen)
Anna Victoria Wilhelmina Voorneman,
born Soerabaja 9 Sep 1888, died Maastricht 22 Mar 1976; married Soerabaja 7 Nov 1908 to Desire Huijgens Felix (born Soerabaja 12 May 1888,
died Bandoeng 31 Mar 1943).
Cherry & Veronica Warnars, circa 1943
Veronica Eveline Warnars, born in Batavia 13 Dec 1938, died 1997, married in 1961 to Jacobus Cornelis de Ruiter
Maria Augustine de WATER, born Batavia 1943, married Amsterdam 1963 to Charles Johan REISNER, born 1935
from Harco Leslie Spits-Warnars’
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from Bandung to Cirebon
Starting in June 1943
Julie left as inconspicuously as possible the laundry of her mother in Bandung. The stay in prison in Bandung had made her anxious and insecure. Her mother and youngest son had visited her regularly and she had the notes or the folded paper from his kinderknuistje always quick in her blouse hidden for later reading.
Through Indonesian friends Julie free but it was clear that they are better out of sight of the Japanese to stay.
She took the bus to Cirebon to submerge at an Indonesian friend. Julie had her hair in a tight bun Javanese stabbed and fell with her small stature hardly among the Indonesian population.
The blog of the Java Post describes Frits J. Suyderhoud on informative way about the situation in Bandung outside the camps. Like Julie, he would after the war are accused of collaboration.
Emanating from the former atmosphere of frustration, jealousy, mutual betrayal, gossip and lack of factual information.
Julie would remain on the run for the Tai Kempei to October 1945. To stay alive she acted in jewelry and other valuables from people who are not on the street could not or dared to tread.
She sold the jewelry often to Chinese traders in the market district of Cirebon. Cirebon seemed safe for Julie. It was always a real city for Indonesians and had little colonial buildings. There was a relatively new prison Buoy Lama was called. A portion of sales proceeds was for Julie and thus they could keep themselves alive while she was staying at an Indonesian friend. When after some months became too dangerous in Cirebon Julie is suddenly drawn to Batavia and has been reported in the Indian family where they are in the years 1938/1939 when she rented a room as a clerk at the PTT of Batavia worked.
Julie lived in the district Meester Cornelis. Where after some months old school friend Marie who met with her Indonesian husband in a Japanese office or Japanese Toko Sakurai, worked as servants. In this wholesale except food were also Indonesian and Japanese luxury products sold. The shop was frequented by Japanese soldiers and civilians and Julie performed a helping hand so that it seemed that as legitimate employee worked for the Japanese. During this time Julie exchanged repeatedly sleeping so the risk of betrayal was reduced. Periodically borrowed Julie’s travel card bearing a photograph of Marie was made that was very similar to Julie. In combination with the company khaki dress with an embroidered cherry blossom Marie dared Julie several times to return to Bandung to travel for her children to visit. Mother Charlotte youngest son Ted had been ceded to Ukkie Sombeek a childless old colleague from the PTT Bandung. Son Billy was with mother Charlotte in the big house next to the laundry to the Merdikaweg behind.
While Queen Wilhelmina about 75 miles from London stayed on the estate and Stubbings House with Prince Bernard held office on Chester Square 77, she was very concerned about including India. Wilhelmina had more than ever to crumble in the government milk because there is no parliament was what her checked. Meanwhile, Julie’s husband, William trained at the air base of Jackson in America. Julie had heard through the censored post that William had gone to America via Australia. More she did not, after arrival in the Netherlands in December 1946 Julie would know how her husband had perished.
Middle of 1943 the Netherlands was already three years occupied by the Germans. Anton Deijmann was not many months with his wife and children to the Marco Polo Street was. His mother lived a street block away also in the Marco Polo Street. His fear of raids was well founded and led him to many hiding addresses. There dared Anton who created a “Ausweis’ was the name of Ton van Dijk evening still go to the morning very early to leave. Mostly, he illegally obtained food along for his mother, wife and children. If Anton was gone than the food was picked up by his wife. Anton led a nomadic existence until May 1945. Julie and Anton would meet in March 1947 in a lunchroom at the Leidseplein meet. Both had a history at the time of flight, hiding, hunger, loss, loneliness, betrayal, violence, sadness, behind. The agreements are the words not the geographical backgrounds. Links Netherlands rebelled violently against the impending police actions in India. Julie was in November 1946 in Rotterdam, arrived with a troop ship on the way in which Dutch soldiers had been transported to Java. The war was not over for the Netherlands.
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Julie was arriving in the Netherlands are confronted daily with her origins. Her small stature and her handsome Indian dark skinned with beautiful wavy black hair gave the Dutch the idea that they were several years under the tropical sun can enjoy delicious coconut milk and rice. Julie had according to the then prevailing opinion no right to complain and grief she had but to abide.
Anton also had been full of ‘his war’. He was a charming big man. He was often compared to the then very popular English actor Gary Grant. Anton was the Formosa Restaurant Gary Grant of the then known Tearoom at the Kalverstraat where for years after the Second World War, many former fighters would gather on Saturdays.
Julie sought protection after the anxious years in India in its entirely unknown since the Netherlands where she lived for several months. Julie was just 26 years old and a widow.
Anton had in January 1947 thirty-five fiftieth anniversary of his mother and a divorce pending. The war had Anton and Julie for all known values in a different light charged. Family members were killed. Families’ were torn apart.
Themselves or had any before and during the war or were misbehaving by hunger and misery of personality completely changed. Anton would like to protect Julie and familiarize Amsterdam on his territory. Anton was looking for someone who from the old family ties and his past of poverty and lack of opportunities could deliver. Both wanted their traumas no opportunities for them to rule over a country which is extremely difficult to recover five years of domination by a foreign power. They had each other.
Anton has never been imprisoned and miraculously continuously from the hands of Germans remained.
Julie has told until years later that during the Great Awakening period (October 1945-early 1946) more than 7 months old in very appalling conditions in squalid prison Cirebon spent.
When talking about the war then she Anton word or conduct. Her war, is not really with it! This should not be assumed that no ear for Julie Anton’s past had. He noticed quite close enough that Julie clapped when it was India. She trembled and looked over with averted head often tearful to an empty corner in the room. Julie was silent until 1971.
Julie wandered in Batavia 1944 to spring 1945 from bed to bed. Julie was helpful in arranging food for the people who offered her shelter. She was helped by Marie and her husband who left her groceries on the bike do the customers of the Sakura shop.
Including dropping off messages to the brothels where particularly European, Chinese and Indonesian girls under duress or voluntarily lent their services to the Japanese. Indo-European girls and women generally were not recruited for these brothels because there was great suspicion by the Japanese against Indo girls (Bart Poelgeest 1994).
Japanse winkel in Jogyakarta met filiaal in Batavia
Uit een Japans fotoboek
The Hinomaru Hotel in Solo with a familiar name to Japanese brothel visitors
The Japanese flag is also called Hinomaru
I am inserting some pictures from my mother, from her time in Indonesia. I like to know if somebody outhere would recognize somebody on these pictures.
Have they survived the Japanese Camps?
Klaas van der Wal left, Sietske van der Wal-Sijtsma on right.
Sietske van der Wal third from left. Klaas on the right.
Klaas van der Wal second from left. Who are the others?
Eke Van Driel(my mothers sister) on the left. I think this is in Soerabaja.
Her husband was on the 016 submarine which run on a mine near the coast of Malaya.
My father Klaas van der Wal second from left. Dagofalls Java.
Who are the other soldiers. Cavalry KNIL Java. Indonesia.
Did they survive Japanese Prison Camps?
Sietske van der Wal in front of her house(,far right.)The address Tjikoerailaan 7, Bandoeng, Java. Indonesia before the War.My mother was 5 month’s pregnant from me.
This picture was taken befor they left to Indonesia. This is Leeuwarden. 1939. My father Klaas van der Wal on the left. Like to know if his friend survived.
If anybody recognize somebody, please let me know. You can e-mail me: email@example.com
or leave a message on my blog.
Other stamps of java definitive series were issued in June 1943
“De Wijk,” my first internment camp
In early June 1943 my mother received the bad news that we would have to leave Sumber Sewu on the 11th. Even my mother had hoped that the war would be over before we had to leave our home.
The truck that drove us from Sumber Sewu to Malang stopped in front of Welirang Street 43A, a street I knew very well. Our luggage was put on the pavement and my mother, Henny and I brought everything inside.
We received one room for the four of us. It didn’t look too bad in my eyes. Before the war, the house had belonged to the Hooglands. Mr. Hoogland had been sent to a camp in Bandung. We shared this house with several families, occupying all the rooms of Mrs. Hoogland’s pretty home.
It was nice for my mother because now that she had several women around her she could talk with, she was no longer lonely as on the plantation. A good point was that my father also stayed in Malang, not far away from our camp. He was still writing us but we couldn’t see or visit each other.
As for me, I was quite happy to be back in Malang, I had found some of my friends back, but I missed my father and I missed Sumber Sewu where I had felt so free, so happy.
“De Wijk” camp consisted of many houses with barbed wire all around and some sentry-boxes with Japanese or Indonesian soldiers here and there, to take care that we didn’t try to escape. There were about 7,000 women, children and a few men interned in “De Wijk” from Malang. The Japanese called the camp a protection camp against the local people who saw the Dutch as their “musuh” (enemy). The Japanese used lots of propaganda against the Dutch, British, Australians and Americans. It worked, especially among the local Javanese and Madurese youth in Malang.
De Wijk camp was in hands of Japanese civilians, Japanese “economists” as they were called. That meant that there wasn’t too strict a policy towards the Dutch prisoners. But Malang had a very strict and very cruel Kempeitai management. We all knew that we had to stay out of the hands of the infamous Kempeitai. Sometimes we heard the most horrible stories from some of the Eurasians who were still outside the camps. Even the locals were very scared of the Kempeitai. Malang became completely different from the town I previously had known(ibid Elizabeth Van Kampen)
90-MM. ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN IN ACTION
against enemy aircraft over Rendova. The later need for a dual-purpose weapon which could be fired against both aerial and ground targets led to the development of the 90-mm. gun M2. As soon as the Munda airfield and other strategically important points on New Georgia were taken, preparations were to be made for the capture of Kolombangaia.
Dai Nippon military homeland postcard with added 11/2 sen surcharged postally used send from CDS Solok(west sumatra) 18.6.25(25.5.1943) to Bandoeng
Oleh sebab gampo(gempa) itoe(itu) dan lagi djalan2(jalan-jalan) habis roesak(rusak) .Adik akan datang ke Padang kedua hari Djum’a(juma;at) tanggal 24 dengan si Oepik(upik) tertoempang(tertumpang) salam adinda dan oeni(kakak) nurhani dan lakinya(suaminya) rifai
Simpang Toeah Boeah Koebang
Postally used postal stationer Dai Nippon military card with added 11/2 sen middle Sumatra dai Nippon surcharge Bu 146 post mark Solok 25.6.43 to Bandoeng,
Bung Karno welcome Dau Nippon prime ministry General Toyo at Jkarta in june 1943
Sukarno speak during dinner with The dai Nippon general toyo in 1943
Soekarno ontvangt een Japanse onderscheiding. De onderscheiding wordt hem uitgereikt door een Japanse officier. De foto is gemaakt op Java tijdens de Japanse bezetting.
Soekarno and hatta visit Japan in 1943
Romusha, Neraka Ala Soekarno!
Pada 1942, Jepang menguasai Indonesia. Mereka berhasil mengambil alih kendali dari tangan Belanda. Begitu pula di beberapa negara asia tenggara lainnya, Jepang juga berhasil menguasai dan mengendalikannya.
Demi mempertahankan daerah-daerah kekuasaannya tersebut, Jepang merencanakan pembangunan rel kereta api guna mempercepat pengangkutan logistik dan tentara. Jepang juga merencanakan untuk menambang sumber daya alam Indonesia (emas, batu bara dan lainnya). Untuk mengerjakan semuanya, Jepang membutuhkan banyak pekerja paksa atau dalam bahasa Jepang disebut romusha: pahlawan kerja.
Di Indonesia, romusha dihimpun langsung oleh Presiden Soekarno. Konsekuensi langsung dari kebijakan politik terkait kesepakatan dengan Kaisar Jepang, Tenno Heika, untuk mempercepat dan mendukung proses kemerdekaan Indonesia.
Para pemuda dan orang dewasa -Belanda dan pribumi- dibujuk, ditangkap paksa dan diangkut dengan truk. Mereka kemudian dikirim ke pelbagai lokasi kerja, di Indonesia maupun di negara lain. Jumlah yang terhimpun sekira 4-10 juta orang. Banyak dari mereka yang mati mengenaskan: kelaparan, kedinginan, sakit, disiksa, dibunuh dan sebagian menjadi santapan binatang buas.
Terkait romusha, presiden Soekarno melontarkan beberapa pernyataan:
“Sesungguhnya akulah yang mengirim mereka untuk kerja paksa. Ya, akulah orangnya. Aku menyuruh mereka berlayar menuju kematian. Ya, ya, ya, akulah orangnya. Aku membuat pernyataan untuk menyokong pengerahan romusha. Aku bergambar dekat Bogor dengan topi di kepala dan cangkul di tangan untuk menunjukkan betapa mudah dan enaknya menjadi seorang romusha…”
“…Aku melakukan perjalanan ke Banten untuk menyaksikan tulang-tulang kerangka hidup yang menimbulkan belas, membudak di garis belakang, jauh di dalam tambang batu bara dan emas. Mengerikan. Ini membuat hati di dalam seperti diremuk-remuk.”
“Ada dua jalan untuk bekerja. Pertama dengan tindakan revolusioner, kita belum siap. Kedua adalah bekerja sama dengan Jepang sambil mengonsolidasikan kekuatan dan menantikan sampai tiba saatnya ia jatuh. Saya mengikuti jalan kedua.”
“Dalam setiap perang ada korban. Tugas dari seorang panglima adalah memenangkan perang, sekalipun akan mengalami beberapa kekalahan dalam pertempuran di jalan. Andaikata saya terpaksa mengorbankan ribuan jiwa demimenyelamatkan jutaan orang, saya akan lakukan. Kita berada dalam suatu perjuangan untuk hidup…”
Bayah dan Tan Malaka – Kerani yang Baik Hati
Bayah menjadi tempat berkumpul romusha dan pegawai pertambangan sejak Jepang mengeksploitasi tambang batu bara pada 1 April 1943. Pada awal penambangan, sekitar 20 ribu orang datang dari Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur. Di kawasan pesisir selatan inilah Ibrahim Datuk Tan Malaka singgah dan bekerja sebagai juru tulis.
Bayah dengan luas sekitar 15 ribu hektare menjadi satu-satunya tempat yang mengandung batu bara di Pulau Jawa sebelum Jepang datang. Belanda telah memberikan izin membuka tambang kepada perusahaan swasta sejak 1903, tapi belum mengeksploitasinya.
Sebelum 1942, kebutuhan batu bara di Jawa dipasok dari Sumatera dan Kalimantan. Namun angkutan pelayaran Jepang banyak terpakai oleh kepentingan perang. Jepang ingin Jawa mandiri dalam memenuhi kebutuhan batu bara.
Jepang membuka tambang lewat perusahaan Sumitomo. Mereka membuka jalur kereta api dari Saketi, Pandeglang, menuju Bayah—sekitar 90 kilometer. Dari Bayah, kereta bersambung menuju ke lokasi penambangan seperti Gunung Madur, Tumang, dan Cihara. Kini beberapa lokasi masih ditambang penduduk, sedangkan yang lain terbengkalai begitu saja.
Tan Malaka datang ke Bayah pada Juni 1943. Dia dikenal masyarakat Bayah dengan nama samaran Ilyas Hussein. Parino lamat-lamat mengingat nama Hussein sebagai seorang kerani atau juru tulis. ”Kalau enggak salah, orangnya sangat pintar,” kata Parino.
Tan bekerja di Bayah setelah melamar ke kantor Sosial. Dia butuh penghasilan sekaligus tempat bersembunyi. Waktu itu, perusahaan di Bayah membutuhkan 30 pekerja—bukan romusha. Tan melamar tanpa ijazah. Dia mengaku bersekolah di MULO (setara dengan sekolah menengah pertama) dua tahun dan pernah menjadi juru tulis di Singapura. Tan lulus dengan menyisihkan 50 pelamar.
Tan berangkat dengan kereta api dari Tanah Abang, berakhir di Stasiun Saketi. Saat itu kereta rute Saketi-Bayah belum beroperasi. Dia lalu meneruskan perjalanan dengan truk.
Sesampai di Bayah, Tan indekos di rumah warga, sebelum menghuni gubuk kecil dari bambu. Dia selalu memakai celana pendek, kemeja dengan leher terbuka, kaus panjang, helm tropis, dan tongkat. Dia berbicara dengan bahasa Indonesia, tapi jarang tampil di depan umum.
Tan sering menjelajahi pelosok, termasuk Pulo Manuk, enam kilometer dari Bayah. Tempat itu paling ditakuti, termasuk oleh tentara Jepang, karena penyakit kudis, disentri, dan malaria mewabah di sana. Waktu itu, penyakit dan kelaparan menjadi faktor utama kematian romusha di Bayah.
Suatu saat, Tan pernah diminta mengurusi data pekerja. Dia sering berhubungan dengan romusha dan mencatat jumlah kematian mereka. Dalam memoarnya, Tan mencatat 400-500 romusha meninggal setiap bulan. Hingga akhir pendudukan Jepang, luas tempat pemakaman romusha mencapai 38 hektare.
Keluar-masuk terowongan dan memberikan nasihat pentingnya kesehatan, Tan dikenal sebagai kerani yang baik hati. Dia suka membelikan makanan buat romusha dari upahnya sendiri. ”Kita dapat mempraktekkan rasa tanggung jawab terhadap golongan bangsa Indonesia yang menjadi korban militerisme Jepang,” kata Tan suatu ketika.
Nasib para romusha itu sedikit berubah setelah datangnya Tan Malaka ke Bayah yang bekerja sebagai juru tulis di kantor sosial setempat. Tan Malaka sangat memperhatikan nasib para romusha, ia sering memberikan saran tentang kesehatan dan kesejahteraan para romusha kepada pejabat direktur di tempat ia bekerja Kolonel Tamura, namun tidak berhasil. Tidak hanya hal itu yang ia lakukan, tidak jarang ia juga pernah membelikan para romusha nasi dengan upahnya sendiri. Ia juga meminta bantuan pemuda di sekitar Bayah untuk membangun dapur umum bagi para romusha, membangun rumah sakit di Bayah, dan membuka kebun buah-buahan dan sayur-sayuran di Tegal Lumbu dekat Bayah.
Di dalam perusahaan, dia selalu mengusulkan peningkatan kesejahteraan romusha. Tan termasuk anti-Jepang, tapi tetap bergaul dengan mereka, termasuk penjabat direktur Kolonel Tamura. Dia mencoba berbicara mengenai kesejahteraan pekerja, tapi upayanya sia-sia.
Romusha mendapat upah 0,40 gulden (40 sen) dan 250 gram beras setiap hari. Uang 40 sen hanya cukup buat membeli satu pisang. Dalam salah satu tulisannya, Rencana Ekonomi Berjuang, Tan mengatakan hitung-hitungan upah romusha hanya di atas kertas. Tulisan itu dia buat di Surabaya pada November 1945.
Di situ Tan melukiskan kondisi romusha di Bayah lewat percakapan dua tokoh cerita, si Toke dan si Godam. ”Seratus ton arang itu diperoleh dengan makian bagero saja. Tanah, mesin, dan tenaga romusha pun digedor,” ucap si Godam. Ringkasnya, Jepang sama sekali tidak mengeluarkan bayaran romusha.
Tan mencoba menggalang pemuda untuk memperbaiki nasib romusha. Dia menggagas dapur umum yang menyediakan makanan bagi seribu romusha. Mereka membangun rumah sakit di pinggiran Desa Bayah, Cikaret. Tan juga membuka kebun sayur dan buah-buahan di Tegal Lumbu, 30 kilometer dari Bayah.
Peran Tan semakin besar ketika dia ditunjuk sebagai Ketua Badan Pembantu Keluarga Peta—organisasi sosial yang membantu tentara bentukan Jepang, Pembela Tanah Air (Peta). Di bawah panji Badan Pembantu, Tan lebih leluasa mengadakan kegiatan kemasyarakatan, seperti pertunjukan sandiwara atau sepak bola.
Tim sandiwara dan sepak bola itu bernama Pantai Selatan. Pertunjukan sandiwara banyak bercerita tentang nasib romusha. Mereka pernah memainkan Hikayat Hang Tuah, Diponegoro, dan Puputan Bali.
Tim sepak bola juga pernah tampil dalam kejuaraan di Rangkasbitung. Tan menggagas pembangunan lapangan sepak bola di Bayah—kini menjadi terminal. Ia menjadi pemain sayap. Tapi Tan lebih sering menjadi wasit. Selesai bermain, dia biasanya mentraktir para pemain.
Pada September 1944, Soekarno dan Hatta berkunjung ke Bayah. Tan menjadi anggota panitia penyambutan tamu. Soekarno berpidato bahwa Indonesia bersama Jepang akan mengalahkan Sekutu. Setelah itu, Jepang memberikan kemerdekaan buat Indonesia. Soekarno meminta pekerja tambang membantu berjuang dengan meningkatkan produksi batu bara.
Selesai pidato, moderator Sukarjo Wiryopranoto mempersilakan hadirin bertanya. Saat itu Tan sedang memilih kue dan minuman untuk para tamu. Para penanya rupanya sering mendapat jawaban guyon sinis. Kepada Son-co (Camat) Bayah, misalnya, Sukarjo mengejek supaya ikut kursus ”Pangreh Praja”.
Tan gerah dengan suasana penuh ejekan itu. Dia pun menyimpan talam kue dan minuman di belakang, lalu bertanya: apakah tidak lebih tepat kemerdekaan Indonesialah kelak yang lebih menjamin kemenangan terakhir?
Soekarno menjawab bahwa Indonesia harus menghormati jasa Jepang menyingkirkan tentara Belanda dan Sekutu. Tan membantah. Menurut dia, rakyat akan berjuang dengan semangat lebih besar membela kemerdekaan yang ada daripada yang dijanjikan.
Tan melihat Soekarno jengkel. Menurut dia, Soekarno mungkin tidak pernah didebat ketika berpidato di seluruh Jawa. Apalagi bantahan itu dari Bayah, kota kecil di pesisir yang cuma dikenal karena urusan romusha dan nyamuk malaria. Tan ingin berbicara lebih panjang, tapi keburu dihentikan.
Awal Juni 1945, Tan menerima undangan dari Badan Pembantu Keluarga Peta Rangkasbitung untuk membicarakan kemerdekaan. Pertemuan itu untuk memilih dan mengirimkan wakil Banten ke pertemuan Jakarta. Tan—sebagai Hussein—didaulat menjadi wakil Banten ke konferensi Jakarta.
Pertemuan di Jakarta diadakan buat mempersatukan pemuda Jawa. Konferensi gagal terlaksana karena larangan Jepang. Tan hanya berbicara sebentar dengan kelompok pemuda angkatan baru, seperti Harsono Tjokroaminoto, Chaerul Saleh, Sukarni, dan B.M. Diah.
Kembali ke Bayah, Tan pindah tugas ke kantor pusat dan mencatat data mengenai romusha. Suatu ketika, Jepang mengumumkan rencana pemotongan ransum. Tan lalu mengemukakan keberatannya dengan berorasi di muka umum. Besoknya, Jepang membatalkan pengurangan ransum.
Di Jakarta, pidato Tan itu dikabarkan menjadi biang kerusuhan. Romusha melarikan diri dan mogok di Gunung Madur. Kempetai (polisi militer Jepang) di Bayah mulai mencari identitas Hussein. Tapi penyelidikan terhenti karena posisi Jepang kian genting. Jerman sudah menyerang dan Rusia menyerbu Jepang pada 9 Agustus 1945
Tan melihat aktivitas orang Jepang mulai longgar. Dia memanfaatkan situasi itu untuk minta izin hadir dalam konferensi pemuda di Jakarta pada 14 Agustus. Dia menjadi utusan semua pegawai pertambangan dan mendapatkan surat pengantar untuk Soekarno dan Hatta.
Sesampai di Jakarta, dia hanya bertemu sebentar dengan Sukarni. Dia tidak mengetahui drama penculikan Soekarno dan Hatta ke Rengasdengklok. Setelah merdeka, Tan lebih banyak tinggal di Jakarta. Akhir Agustus, dia pergi ke Bayah mengunjungi pemimpin Peta, Djajaroekmantara.
Tan Malaka ke Bayah juga punya tujuan lain, yakni mengambil naskah Madilog (Materialisme, Dialektika, dan Logika). Poeze mengatakan naskah itu tersimpan rapi tanpa diketahui siapa pun.
Di Bayah, kegiatan penambangan berangsur terhenti sepeninggal Jepang. Penduduk membumihanguskan Bayah saat agresi militer kedua Belanda pada 1948. Pemerintah setempat membuat tugu romusha pada 1950-an. ”Rasanya dulu lebih ramai ketimbang sekarang,” kata Haji Sukaedji, 73 tahun, warga kelahiran Bayah, kepada Tempo.
Stasiun Saketi menjadi tempat persimpangan kereta dari Jakarta menuju Bayah dan Labuan. Tempo—bersama penulis buku Tan Malaka: Pergulatan Menuju Republik 1925-1945 , Harry Albert Poeze—menelusuri rute perjalanan Tan dari Stasiun Saketi. Kini bangunan itu telah menjadi tempat tinggal anak kepala stasiun, Momo Mujaya, 58 tahun. Jalur Saketi-Bayah berhenti beroperasi pada 1950-an, disusul Saketi-Labuan sekitar 1980.
Stasiun Bayah kini menjadi tanah kosong penuh ilalang….
Tugu Tan Malaka
Tugu Tan Malaka di Bayah Selatan, Kecamatan Bayah, Lebak, Banten, sama misteriusnya seperti sang Tokoh, Tan Malaka. Tugu itu dibangun tahun 1940-an untuk memperingati kekejaman Romusha di Desa Bayah, Lebak. Kami menemukan Tugu tanpa perawatan ini secara tak sengaja, ketika sedang melakukan perjalanan silaturahmi untuk menemui Kyai Ahmad Choliq di Desa Bayah dari Pesantren Irsyadul Falah, Lebak, Banten.
Tidak ada nama atau prasasti di Tugu itu membuat banyak orang memberi tafsir akan keberadaannya. Kondisi tugu bercat putih itu kini agak, retak-retak kaki penyangganya, dan rumput/ilalang di sekitar Tugu sudah tinggi.
Keberadaan Tugu itu memberi kebanggaan tersendiri bagi warga Bayah sejak dulu. Saksi hidup yang ada di Bayah yakin sekali bahwa Tugu ini dibuat oleh Tan Malaka, yang di sini dikenal sebagai sebagai Ilyas Husen atau Ibrahim Husen. Presiden RI pertama, Bung Karno, sudah memberi penghargaan gelar kepahlawanan kepada Tan Malaka melalui SK Presiden Nomor 53 tahun 1963 sebagai satu-satunya Pejuang Kemerdekaan Nasional.
Sayangnya, perhatian pemerintah khususnya instansi terkait terhadap pemeliharaan Tugu Tan Malaka sangatlah minim. Saya menghimbau kepada instansi terkait agar memberi perhatian serius kepada keberadaan Tugu Tan Malaka. Bangsa yang besar adalah bangsa yang menghargai jasa-jasa pahlawannya.
AMERICAN AND AUSTRALIAN TROOPS CROSSING A RIVER near salamaua. An advance on Salamaua was initiated by Australian troops with assistance from American units that had landed at Nassau Bay
29 June 1943.
Only a few miles south of Munda Poin m New Georgia, Rendova was first to be occupied in strength to provide positions for 155-mm. guns and a staging area from which the mam thrust against Munda would be made. This operation was covered by fighter planes which shot down more than a hundred Japanese aircraft in a few days.
PARACHUTE, CARRYING FILM OF MUNDA POINT, being dropped by a B-24 bomber to men on Rendova. The landing on Rendova, made
on 30 June,
met with light resistance. Fire from enemy batteries on near-by Munda Point was effectively neutralized by naval bombardment.
on 30 June.
This nve was an attempt to divert enemy strength from Lae, the real objective of the Allies. As a result of this move the Japanese did divert their reinforcements arriving at Lae to Salamaua to strengthen their defenses there, as the Allies moved closer to the town.
In July 1943
the friars from Singkawang and Pontianak (Kalimantan) brung to Kuching camp
In July 1943
the friars from Singkawang and Pontianak (Kalimantan) are housed in a internment camp near Kuching (about 200 km north-east of Singkawang). The camp has almost 3,000 inhabitants, half of them die during the following years.
The camp is devided into 10 sections, one of them a section of about 100 religious (also missionaries).
Camp Kuching (drawing: Broeders van Huijbergen)
The sisters and nuns are, not seperately, housed in the womens section. The camp inhabitants have to work hard: they have to enlarge the airfield and build roads, during which there’s more and more shortage of food. Especially in 1945 many of the prisoners die of exhaustion, dysentery and hunger oedema.
Camp Kuching with waving men just before the liberation (picture: Broeders van Huijbergen)
Men of ten years and older
The heiho flogged with well aimed lashes Ten year old boys behind an army truck.
By incomprehensible decree they were declared a man – and men don’t belong with their mother anymore.
He was in line with in his one hand his teddybear clenched around the one paw left
In the other hand a bag with in it The final bit of sugar and some malaria pills. His mother put it in at last He forced back his tears
After all, he was a man now. His mother prayed and intensily hoped To once see him again.
At his birth she had thought of such a nice name for him. She, she died of malnutrition and malaria
Lacked the pills that saved his life. He ended up in a Dutch contract pension
Cold, wet, uncomfortable and not so nice either The hunger winter was more important in conversations
Than his story of his – cruel – departure. About good and evil he always thought differently
All his relations broke down Booze and drugs sometimes helped, for a moment avoiding reality.
His career failed over and over The only thing he missed was his old, one-armed, soft teddybear.
From: ‘Fragments, memories of a camp boy’, by Govert Huyser (2005). Publication made possible by financial support from the Military Victims of War and Related Purposes Foundation.
General b.d. G.L.J. Huyser stayed during the war in the Japanese internment camps ‘Darmo’ in Surabaya, ‘Karangpanas’ in Semarang and in the boys camp ‘Bangkong’ in Semarang
1943, 31. 7.,
3 1/2 C. reply postal stationery postcard
(Kartoes Pos Balasan sudah dibajar)
from Bogor with censorship to the chief of red cross in Djakarta
Prime Minister of Japan at Kuching airfield on July 7 1943.
14 Jul 1943–
Jurisdictional control transferred to ZENTSUJI POW CAMP
INFANTRY REINFORCEMENTS disembarking from LCI(L) on New Georgia,
22 July 1943.
On 2 July 1943
troops had landed on New Georgia east of Munda Point. It was anticipated that these forces would be sufficient to seize the airfield and other objectives within thirty days, but because of the strong Japanese defenses encountered, reinforcements were ordered to New Georgia in mid-July to supplement the initial landing.
INFANTRYMEN fording a stream along a Munda trail in New Georgja in an advance against the enemy on
10 July 1943.
The first man on the left is armed with a .30-caliber rifle Ml; second man is armed with a .30-cahber rifle M1903. Strong enemy defenses, mud, dense jungle, and inaccurate maps all combined to slow the advance
Untuk itu pada Agustus 1942
pemerintah Jepang yang diwakili biro transportasi melakukan penyelidikan bersama dengan pemandu lokal dan empat orang insinyur asal Belanda. Penyelidikan itu untuk mengetahui cara dan rintangan yang akan dihadapi dalam membuat jalur penghubung Saketi-Bayah. Setelah selesai melakukan penyelidikan, rancangan jalur mulai dibuat
pada bulan Juli tahun 1942.
Tidak hanya rancangan jalur, beberapa hal pendukung persiapan seperti pembangunan barak, gudang, kantor, dan jalan juga berlangsung.
Peta jalur Saketi-Bayah
Di Perang Dunia kedua, Jepang memerlukan bahan bakar yang sangat besar untuk menjalankan mesin-mesin perangnya.
Pada 1942, untuk keperluan kereta api saja, Jepang membutuhkan 900 ribu ton kayu bakar per tahun. Di Jawa saat itu batu bara masih harus dikirim dari Sumatera dan lainnya. Dapat dibayangkan pada saat itu, di sekitaran Bayah ramai sekali. Di pantai-pantainya, puluhan kapal Jepang sibuk mengangkut batu bara untuk dikirim ke daerah peperangan lain. Kereta api hilir mudik, bahkan Jepang perlu membuat jalur kereta khusus batu bara dari Saketi – Bayah – Gunung Mindur.
bekas stasiun Saketi
Sekarang stasiun saketi udah jadi rumah milik ‘mantan’ pegawai. Kondisi stasiun saketi bagus karena dihuni, dan masih ada banyak rel-rel disana, yang sekarang diatasnya dibangun kios-kios dan lapak-lapak dari kayu yang masuk ke dalam wilayah Pasar Saketi.
bekas stasiun bayah
Stasiun Bayah tidaklah besar. Hanya ada 3 jalur KA di emplasemen stasiun Bayah. Pulo Manuk adalah pusat penambangan Batu Bara di daerah Bayah, sehingga Jepang membangun jaringan kereta api hingga daerah Pulo Manuk untuk mempermudah pengangkutan Batu Bara. Untuk menghubungkan antara Pulo Manuk dengan Bayah dengan jaringan rel Kereta api, Jepang harus membangun sebuah jembatan KA panjang. Jembatan yang dibangun adalah jembatan berangka besi yang populer saat itu. Namun, usaha Jepang untuk membangun jaringan KA menuju tempat penambangan Batu Bara tercium oleh sekutu. Jembatan yang saat itu baru selesai dibuat langsung di Bom oleh sekutu. Sebelum selesai diperbaiki, Jepang telah lebih dulu kalah dalam perang dunia ke2. Hingga akhirnya jembatan itu tak diperbaiki lagi. Dan sampai akhirnya, entah karena alasan apa, jalur tersebut tidak dipergunakan lagi.
Jalur ini berawal di stasiun Saketi, dan berakhir di Gunungmandur, letak tambang batu bara yang terjauh. Stasiun Gunungmandur terletak dua kilometer dari stasiun Bayah. Jalur sepur tunggal ini memiliki sembilan stasiun dan lima halte (yaitu Cimangu,Kaduhauk, Jalusang, Pasung, Kerta, Gintung,
001-012 zonder 3 1/2 cent op R-brief Padang met 1e-dagstempel, vrijwel pracht
CDS dai nippon pa=da-n(g) 18.8.1(august,1st.1943) original first day first day cover od Dai nippon sumatra definitive stamps
Made by Mr The Tjeng Jan
Dr Iwan Ever met this in memoriam man at his home Terusan Djawa dalam now Rohama Kudus Street and found one kon 35 cent over print cross dai Nippon from him,his son The Se Ham merried Dr Iwan wife nice in memoriam Tjan sioe Kim.the daughter of his Mother In Law elder Brother. Tjan Tjeng Hay
Dai Nippon Interneering Camp Padang
1943, card from Padang Pandjang to Medan (J.S.C.A. 14SS1. Bulterman 146), a 1½¢ on 2s Horsemen postal card for the West Coast, tied by Boekittingi g 18.8.28 cds, along with red censor chip and partial violet chips, light fold through center, otherwise Very Fine, scarce.
U.S. NAVY DESTROYER IN ACTION
against an enemy destroyer force off Vella Lavella. The next step up the Solomon ladder became Vella Lavella instead of Kolombangara Island which was bypassed. While some units were still fight.ng in New Georgia, others landed on Vella Lavella
on 15 August,
established a defensive perimeter, and began the construction of an airstrip.
A TWO-MAN JAPANESE SUBMARINE
after being raised from the sea, the remains of the Japanese transport Yamazuki Marti in the background (top) ; damaged Japanese landing craft on the beach near Cape Esperance (bottom). The Guadalcanal Campaign was a costly experience for the enemy. In addition to the loss of many warships and hundreds of planes with experienced pilots, the Japanese expended some two and one-half divisions of their best troops.
B-24 OVER SALAMAUA,
on north coast of New Guinea, during an air raid,
13 August 1943.
Smoke from bomb bursts can be seen on Salamaua. While the ground forces were battling with the enemy, aircraft were striking at his bases at Salamaua, Lae, Finschhafen, Madang. and Rabaul as well as at the barges and ships bringing supplies and reinforcements to the enemy in New Guinea.
VIEW OF THE NORTHERN PART OF KISKA HARBOR, LVT(l)’s in foreground were known as Alligators (top). Captured Japanese machine cannon 25-mm. twin mount type 96 in position to guard the harbor (bottom). U.S. naval forces had encountered heavy fire from enemy shore batteries and planes had met with antiaircraft fire through
13 August 1943.
When troops landed on Kiska on 15 and 16 August, prepared for a battle more difficult than that at Attu, the island had been evacuated by the enemy.
SOLDIER DRYING HIS SOCKS. Occupation troops on Kiska, themselves with whatever comfort they devise. With the occupation of Kiska, US troops had reclaimed all of the Aleutians. The islands then became air bases for bombing the northern approaches to Tokyo.
C-47 TRANSPORT TAKING OFF FROM BUNA,
New Guinea (top) ; low-flying North American B-25 Mitchell medium bombers leaving Japanese planes and installations burning on Dagua airfield, one of the enemy’s major air bases in the Wewak area (bottom). Aircraft operating from Port Moresby and from newly won fields in the Buna-Gona area intensified their attacks on the enemy’s bases. A sustained five-day air offensive against Wewak, which began
on 17 August,
destroyed about 250 planes on the ground and in the air at a cost of only 10 U.S. planes.
On 25 August,
twenty days after the airfield was captured, all organized resistance on New Georgia ceased. During this operation Allied planes destroyed an estimated 350 enemy aircraft at a cost of 93 Allied planes.
=The collection of WWII Postcard
from New Guinia in 1943
CT PHOTO ato-339 New Guinea WWII 1943 War and Military World War II Australia
Het onderkomen van Koningin Wilhelmina in 1943 – Stubbing House
Wilhelmina’s speech to Radio Orange
on September 2, 1943
gave birth to surprise and criticism:
“I want you now a few announcements about what is here is prepared for the time of your liberation. A significant number of compatriots is trained for the execution of the previously mentioned by myself state of siege. They will be led by a military charged with the exercise of military authority. This military authority will present the hour of liberation ‘.
Wilhelmina had enough of the hassle of the parliamentary war. The changes announced by Wilhelmina in 1945 were completely different to address what concerns the Dutch East Indies.
A reaction of J.H. Thorn in the illegal Orange newspaper on this speech showed a different tune;
Wilhelmina in conversation with Engelandvaarders 1943
Amsterdam 1943 – a rare photograph of a raid
3 A shop window in Amsterdam 1943
A shop window in Amsterdam with SS propaganda – 1943
Tekisan Kanribu(Dai Nippon Enemy Property Control) Bandung official Postal Used lettersheet homemade ,4.9.03(Sept.4th,1943)
AIRDROP AT NADZAB at its height, with one battalion of parachute troops descending from C—37’s (foreground), while another battalion descends against a smoke screen and lands beyond a hill (left background). White parachutes were used by the troops, colored ones for supplies and ammunition. The men were dropped to seize the airdrome at Nadzab, located some 20 miles northwest ot Lae, on the morning of
5 September 1943
REMAINS OF SALAMAUA,
12 September 1943.
Wrecked buildings and huge bomb craters resulted from earlier aerial attacks on the area. On this date Sala-maua was taken, the final attack having been delayed until the Lae operation was well underway. During the period from 30 June to 16 September, a total of about 10,000 Japanese had been overcome in the Lae-Salamaua area- About 4,100 and 2,200 were reported killed in the vicinity of Salamaua and Lae, respectively. The remainder made their way north as best they could.
DOCKS AND INSTALLATION AT LAE, traffic moving along the road on left. This photograph was taken on
1 September 1944.
After Finschhafen was captured by the Allies, US troops halted to consolidate their gaines. Offensive operations in New guinea during the remainder of 1945 consisted of a slow advance toward Madang to maintain pressure on enemy
MUNDA AIRFIELD ON MUNDA POINT,
8 September 1943.
NORTH AMERICAN B-25 MEDIUM BOMBERS on raid over Bougainville (top) ; Navy torpedo bombers (TBF’s) on strafing mission over Bougainville (bottom) .
During the latter half of September 1943,
before the New Georgia operation had ended, the Air Forces turned its attention to the Bougainville area.
NEW ZEALANDERS LANDING ON VELLA LAVELLA,
to relieve US units on the lsland. Earlier in September Americans had moved north on Vella Lavella driving the small enemy garrison into the northwestern part of the island.
TRUCK, LOADED WITH AMMUNITION for the field artillery, landing on Arundel Island from an LCT(5) (top); additional troops landing on Arundel, Rendova Island on horizon (bottom). The results of executing a landing on Vella Lavella and cutting the enemy’s supply and reinforcement lines to Kolombangara and other lesser islands which were bypassed became apparent when one enemy position after another was abandoned, or easily neutralized by U.S. ground and air forces.
MEN CARRYING MORTAR SHELLS into the dense jungle while others rush back to the beach for another load (top) ; firing a 4.2-inch M2 chemical mortar into an enemy position (bottom). Arundel was one of the lesser islands in the New Georgia group, located between Rendova and Kolombangara.
I55-MM HOWITZER M1918 on carriage M1918A3 in firing position on Arundel.
Without success the Japanese continually attempted to reinforce then- remaining garrisons in the New Georgia group of islands.
MEN RECEIVING ORDERS
for the next attack.
Rifle in right foreground is a .30-caliber Ml. The dense jungle on Arundel afforded the men excellent concealment from Japanese pilots. Before the New Georgia operation came to a close, the next phase of the Solomon campaign had begun.
Ament, Cornelus Carolus.
Born in Paroendjaia, Java, on 29 March 1896. Executed in Batavia-Antjol
on 23 September 1943.
Resistance Star East Asia 1942-1945. Employee of the General Agricultural Syndicate
in September 1942,
had occupied the Gilbert Islands. This group of islands included Makin Atoll and Tarawa Atoll. During the next year the enemy built garrisons on Butaritari Island and on Betio Island in the Tarawa Atoll. Only small enemy forces were placed on other islands in the Gilberts.
In the Occupied Dutch East Indies(Indonesia0…
Admiral Moody commands the British carriers Victorious and Indomitable in an air raid on Padang in the southwest of Sumatra. The battleship HMS Howe is among the escorting ships
Postally used registerd cover send from CDS solok 18.9.27(27.9.1943) to CDS Pariaman 18.9.1943 shift to padang with Sumatra west coast sai nippon cross overprint on DEI Kriesler 40 cent(provenance dr iwan 1985)
Off cover the same Dai Nippon Sumatra west coast cross and dai Nippon Yubin overprint DEI Kriesleler 25cent off cover used
Postally used registerd cover send from CDS solok 18.9.27(27.9.1943) to CDS Pariaman 18.9.1943 shift to padang with Sumatra west coast sai nippon cross overprint on DEI Kriesler 40 cent(provenance dr iwan 1985)
Kreisler 40 cent met opdruk DNY en kruis in zwart op R-brief Solok 18.9.27 naar Priaman 18.9.29 en doorgestuurd naar Padang 18.9.30, rechterzijde zie
Pembentukan Barisan Semi Militer khusus direkrut dari golongan Islam dengan nama : Hizbullah (Tentara Allah) diantaranya tokoh Otto Iskandinata dan Dr. Buntaran Martoatmojo
Pembentukan Pasukan Pembela Tanah Air ( PETA)
tanggal 3 Oktober 1943
dilakukan oleh Letjen Kumakici Harada melalui Osamu Seiri no. 44 yang mengatur tentang pembentukan PETA. Pembentukan PETA ini, Jepang bercermin dari Perancis saat menguasai Maroko dengan memanfaatkan pemuda Maroko sebagai tentara Perancis.Secara khusus penjelasan tentang PETA, akan lebih diperluas, karena peranan anggota PETA ini sangat besar dalam upaya memperjuangkan kemerdekaan dan mempertahankannya. Disinilah inti dari kekuatan militer RI nantinya (sering diistilahkan dengan embrio dari TNI).
DOUGLAS DAUNTLESS DIVE BOMBER (SBD) ready to drop its 1,000-pound bomb on Japancsc-bMd island of Wake,
6 October 1943.
During the planning for the seizure of the Gilberts, concurrent with action on Bougainville and in New Guinea, air attack* were made on Marcus and Wake, and the Tarawa Atoll, to soften Japanese installations and keep the enemy guessing as to where the next full-scale attack would be delivered.
TROOPS ABOARD A TRANSPORT headed for Butaritari Island in the Makin Atoll; landing craft which have been lowered into the water to take troops inland can be seen in the background (top) . Having just landed on one of the beaches, 20 November, the men crouch low awaiting instructions to advance inland; light tank is in the background (bottom) . The Japanese,
the CDS is from Makassar 7.10.18(1943)
The stamp you show here is a postage stamp overprinted for telegraphic money orders.
The postmark tells me it is used in Makasser (South Celebes).
CDS Bandoeng 7. 10.03,
3 1/2 C. reply postal stationery postcardwith written pencil EVac(uation) 8/10-43
from Bandoeng at soldiers in Tjimahi
1943 (Oct. 26)
Unusual registered official free port stampless cover from Tandjong Karang to Singapore, with ‘DINES’ boxed handstamp in blue, registration label tied by ‘Tandjong Karang’ cds. Censor’s cachet in blue with oval chop in orange. Singapore ‘Syonan’ backstamp
Unusual Japanese Occupation of Netherlands East Indies, 1943 (Oct. 26) registered cover from Lampong to Singapore, franked with 10c, 20c Dutch Indies with Dai Nippon ‘Lampong’ bilingual handstamps tied by ‘Tandjong Karang’ cds with additional strike tying registration label. Censor’s cachet in blue with oval chop in orange. Singapore ‘Syonan’ backstamp .
An Australian sergeant from a special
The Battle of Changde (November 2 – December 20, 1943)
The Japanese use biological and chemical weapons including the bubonic plague against the Chinese
MARINES IN CAMOUFLAGE SUITS hit the narrow beach at Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville, on D Day,
1 November 1943.
Prior to the landing on Bougainville, the Treasury Islands were seized and developed as a staging area for landing craft, and diversionary landings were made on Choiseul in preparation for a surprise attack at Bougainville.
COAST GUARDMEN TRYING TO FREE AN LCVP after discharging its load of men and supplies during the initial attacks to secure n beachhead on Buiifjiun-villc. Enemy iction and heavy surf look their toll of many boats at the water edge. Enemy machine gun positions that caused sonic iliSoi-euni/utioii among landing boats were taken before the end of the day.
LST BEACHED AT PURUATA, off Cape Torokina, Empress Augusta Bay. Marines, supplies, and equipment landed from the open bow of the ship to reinforce the men on the beachhead established on 1 November 1943. The troops that landed on the north shore of Empress Augusta Bay encountered only slight initial resistance and losses were considered negligible. Excellent air support for the assault was rendered by both carrier and land-based planes.
TROOPS RECEIVE A STIRRING SEND-OFF as they prepare to embark at Guadalcanal to reinforce the marines at Bougainville (top). LCV taking drums of gasoline to transports headed for Bougainville (bottom). After the enemy had been driven off of Guadalcanal, efforts were directed toward improving the defensive strength of the island and establishing a base that could support further operations in the Solomon chain.
105-MM. HOWITZER AMMUNITION for Bougainville being loaded on an LCV at Guadalcanal. Artillery fire, prior to an attack by the infantry, was effectively used against the Japanese system of defense, usually consisting of well-dug-in, concealed foxholes, equipped with a high percentage of automatic weapons.
INFANTRYMEN CLIMBING DOWN A CARGO NET of the transport President Jackson, 5 November 1943, for the trip to Bougainville to reinforce the marines. Note collapsible rubber raft (LCR) on side of transport. Before the assault on Bougainville, combat troops underwent rigorous training based upon lessons learned in the Guadalcanal Campaign.
105-MM. HOWITZKRS M2A2 BEING FIRED by American forces near Buretoni Mission, 8 November. One of the early objectives on the island was to establish a road block astride the Buretoni Mission-Piva trail, which led inland from one of the beaches. The road block would serve to deny the enemy use of the trail, the main route of access from the east to an Allied position.
MOVING ALONG A MUDDY TRAIL from the beachhead area, 9 November, men pass stalled water tanks and vehicles; note chains used on vehicle in left foreground (top). Amphibian tractor, LVT(l), passing men who have stopped to rest (bottom). The advance on foot progressed at a rate of 100 yards an hour. The Japanese resisted the advance using light machine guns and “knee mortars.” The assault was frontal of necessity since swamps flanked the trail.
4-TON 6X6 STANDARD TRUCK, with closed cab, towing a I55-mm. howitzer off the ramp of an LST (top); beachhead loaded with ammunition, oil drums, and other equipment (bottom). The barrage balloons over the LST’s in the background of bottom picture helped to protect the ships from Japanese dive bombers. Balloons had been let down because of heavy rains. So rapidly were troops and equipment sent in that by the middle of November 34,000 men and 23,000 tons of supplies had been put ashore.
RESULTS OF JAPANESE AIR RAID over Bougainville, 20 November. Fuel-dump fire raging on near-by Puruata Island; note wrecked landing craft in foreground (top). Fire and wreckage can be seen in background of the 90-mm. antiaircraft gun M1A1 which was hit during the night of 19-20 November, killing five men and wounding eight (bottom). Again on 21 November the same area was struck and fires continued all night, this time destroying a trailer loaded with 3,000 rounds of mortar ammunition and artillery propelling charges.
The Battle of Tarawa (November 20 – 23, 1943)
American marines use “Alligator” amphibious tanks against the Japanese to take the island of Tarawa. Though US casualties are high, this is their first victory in the critical Central Pacific region.
Cairo Conference (November 22, 1943)
Roosevelt and Churchill meet Chinese nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek in Cairo to discuss strategy for defeating Japan. The meeting concludes with the Cairo Declaration to beat Japan into an unconditional surrender
DOUGLAS TRANSPORT C-47 dropping supplies and equipment on an uncompleted airstrip, 30 November 1943 (top) ; members of a construction battalion laying pierced planking across a runway in the Cape Torolcina area, 2 December (bottom). By the end of the year three airfields had been put into operation. The mission of the forces on the island at this time was to maintain a defensive perimeter, approximately ten miles long and five miles deep, guarding installations in the Empress Augusta Bay area.
INFANTRYMEN ON GUARD near the Laruma River,
man a ,30-caliber heavy barrel machine gun M1919A4, flexible. This gun was an automatic, recoil-operated, belt-fed, air-cooled machine gun (top). Taking time out to make a batch of fudge, these men are using mess kits as cooking pans. Note treatment of identification tags (dog tags) on center man. Binding the edges of the tags eliminated the noise and made them more comfortable (bottom). Instead of infantrymen slugging it out on the ground, land-based bombers neutralized enemy airfields in the Buka-Bonis Plantation area of northern Bougainville, and American cruisers and destroyers shelled enemy coastal positions.
A PATROL ON THE BEACHHEAD. Patrols came ashore in LVT’s before trie mam body of infantry and tanks. As the amphibians came over the coral reefs, no barbed wire, mines, or other military obstacles impeded them.
INFANTRYMAN with a Browning automatic rifle (BAR) guarding a trail (top); part of the crew ready to fire machine guns of an Alligator (bottom). Some of the men scrambled over the sides of the amphibians to seek cover from enemy riflemen. The tactics for knocking out the fortified emplacements on the island were as follows: The BARman with his assistant would cover the main entrance of an emplacement encountered, and two other men with grenades would make ready on both flanks. They would throw grenades into the pit and then without stopping, run to the other side and blast the entrance with more grenades. Once the grenades exploded, the BARman and assistant would follow up.
MEN SEARCHING FOR SNIPERS as they move inland from the beachhead on D Day, 20 November (top). Rifleman armed with a bazooka crouches behind a log near the front lines (bottom). The rocket launcher 2.36-inch M1AI, known as the bazooka, was tried against enemy defense emplacements but met with little success.
INFANTRYMEN MOVING FORWARD,
the day they took the east tank barrier on the island. Flanking machine gun and rifle fire from the enemy in the battered Japanese sea plane (upper right) harassed our troops on the 21st. This fire was silenced by the 75-mm. guns of medium tanks. Co-ordination between the infantry and tanks was good on the second day.
AMERICAN LIGHT TANKS M3A1 on Butaritari Island on D Day. Tank in foreground had bogged down in a water-filled bomb crater (top). The remains of a Japanese light tank which did not get into battle (bottom). During the morning of the first day American tanks could not make much headway against the combined obstacles of debris, shell holes, and marsh, but by afternoon they were able to render assistance to the infantry. The enemy had only two tanks on the island but they were not used since when they were found wooden plugs were still in the barrels of their guns.
MEDIUM TANKS M3, mounting a 75-mm. gun in the sponson and a 37-mm. gun in the turret, on Butaritari; medical crew waiting beside their jeep for tanks to pass (top). One of the antitank gun pits that ringed the outer defenses of one of the tank traps established by the enemy (bottom). Air observation prior to the operation had revealed most of the defensive construction and led to correct inference of much that lay concealed such as these antitank emplacements.
GUN CREW OF A 37-MM. ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN M1A2 at their station on the island, watching for enemy aircraft. This weapon was fully automatic, air-cooled, and could be employed against both aircraft and tanks (top). War trophies consisting of chickens and ducks captured on the island, were cherished in anticipation of Thanksgiving Day when they could be used to supplement the K ration (bottom). On 22 November it was announced that organized resistance had ended and on the next day forces on Makin were occupied with mopping-up activities. At this time enemy air activity was expected to increase.
MARINES LEAVING A LOG BEACH BARRICADE, face fire-swept open ground on Betio Island in their advance toward the immediate objective, the Japanese airport. Landings were made under enemy fire on Betio Island in the Tarawa Atoll
on 20 November,
concurrent with the invasion of Butantan Island, Makin Atoll. Tarawa, one of the coral atolls which comprise the Gilbert Islands, is roughly triangular in shape; about 18 miles long on east side, 12 miles long on south side, and 12i/2 miles long on northwest side. The Japanese had concentrated their strength on Betio Island.
CASUALTIES BEING EVACUATED IN A RUBBER BOAT. Floated out to the reef, the wounded were then transferred to landing craft and removed further out to transports. The larger enemy force on Betio Island made the operation there very difficult for Allied troops and much more costly than the simultaneous operation on Butaritari Island in the Makin Atoll. By late afternoon of D Day supplies for the forces were getting ashore and reinforcements were on their way.
ASSAULTING THE TOP OF A JAPANESE BOMBPROOF SHELTER. Onre ashore, the marines were pinned down by withering enemy fire lliat came from carefully prepared eniplatcments in almost every direction of advance.
CAPTURED JAPANESE COMMAND POST with enemy tank in foreground Shells and bombs had little effect on this reinloncd concrete structure Mos of the command posts, ammunition dumps, and communications centers found here were made of reinforced concrete and were virtually bombproof. Powerful hand-to-hand infantry assault tactics were necessary to d.slodge the enemy.
ARMORERS place a .50-caliber aircraft Browning machine gun M2AI in the nose of a North American B-25 at the airfield on Betio Island as interested natives look on. This gun was considered one of the most reliable weapons of the war.
1943, card to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 14SS1. Bulterman 146), a 1½¢ on 2s Horseman postal card for the West Coast, cancelled by 18.11.22 cds, violet censor chip, fresh and Very Fine, scarce.
UNITED STATES COLORS FLYING OVER BETIO,
24 November 1943.
The island was declared secure on 23 November; the remaining enemy forces were wiped out by the 28th. Betio, with the only airfield in Tarawa Atoll, together with captured Butaritari in Makin Atoll and other lesser islands, gave the Allies control of the entire Gilbert Islands archipelago. From these new bases an attack against the Marshall Islands was launched in 1944.
The postally used money order send from CDS dai Nippon padan(n) pandjan(g) 18.11.30(novemebr,30th.1943) to Ramlah Koto tanngai soengai batang Manindjau(lake) used Japanese homeland stamp and overprint bigger Dai nippon yubin od DEI def 5 cent
In November 1943, my mother had a visitor. He came by bicycle from the “Marine” camp where my father stayed. He told my mother that he was bringing bad news. He had been sent by the military at the marine camp to tell my mother that my father had been taken by the Kempeitai. It seems that my father had hidden weapons and ammunition at Sumber Sewu. This was a nightmare. Would my father have to stay at the Kempeitai prison Lowok Waryu? Were we ever going back to Sumber Sewu? Sadly enough there were many true rumours about how the Kempeitai treated their prisoners.(ibid Elizabeth Van Kampen)
Welirang Street 43A
Semarang Kezeibu Official CDS Semarang 27.12.03 card to Kudus
PARACHUTE BOMBS dropping from low-flying American planes during a raid over Rabaul. Parachute bombs were used to prevent self-destruction of the attacking low-flying bombers by the blasts of their own bombs. It was claimed that more than 200 enemy aircraft were destroyed or damaged on this raid, in addition to other materiel, ships, and installations.
ABOARD A TROOPSHIP,
14 December 1943,
en route to invade New Britain on Arawe. Infantryman relaxes on a cork life raft (top) while two men check and reassemble a flexible, water-cooled .50-caliber Browning machine gun M2 (bottom). While Army and Navy bombers pounded Rabaul, landings were made on Arawe peninsula on the southern coast of New Britain, 15 December 1943.
U.S. COASTGUARD GUNNERS fighting against a determined Japanese aerial attack during the invasion at Cape Gloucester, New Britain. Bomb splashes can be seen in water, resulting from the enemy’s attempt to hit the LST in foreground. This was the only effective resistance offered by the Japanese at Cape Gloucester. The invasion of New Britain was the climax of the drive up the Solomon-New Guinea ladder; at the eastern end of this island was Rabaul, chief enemy base in the Southwest Pacific.
PHOTOGRAPHER FILMING ACTIVITY ON ARAWE, using a 35-mm. Eyemo movie camera, while the beachhead was being made secure three days after the landings on Arawe (top). Infantryman watching aircraft from his camouflaged foxhole (bottom). Five days after the landings the Americans had cleared the enemy from Arawe peninsula.
ALLIGATOR, mounting a .50-caliber gun on the left and a .30-caliber water-cooled machine gun on the right, coming down a slope to a beach on Arawe for more supplies for the men on the front lines. Armored amphibian tractors proved to be valuable assault vehicles. They could be floated beyond the range of shore batteries, deployed in normal landing boat formations, and driven over the fringing reefs and up the beaches. One of the immediate missions of the forces landing on Arawe was to establish a PT boat base.
1943, registered cover from Padang to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 4SS3. Bulterman 149), a 10¢ on 12½¢ revalued West Coast entire with Sumatra cross and large “Dai Nippon” chop, franked additionally by unoverprinted 20¢ and overprinted 10¢ Netherlands Indies adhesives, all tied by Padang 18.10.12 cds’s. Front also shows red censor chop and partial censor tape along with padang registration label, with reverse showing Singapore receiver, F-VF, a rare and attractive entire.
December ,23th. 1943
Dai Nippon Bold west sumatra Dai nippon Yubin overpint on lettersheet 71/2 cent (restored) cds Padang 23.12.1944.to Simatra sinbun(newspaper) Medan
ADDITIONAL TROOPS ARRIVING ON BOUGAINVILLE,
25 December 1943.
Trucks in foreground are 4-ton 6×6’s (top). 40-mm. automatic antiaircraft gun Ml on carriage M2 in position to protect landing operations; loaded ships in background are LST’s (bottom). Troops continued to land at the base established on Cape Torokina for two months after the invasion.
MARINES WADING THROUGH A THREE-FOOT SURF to reach shore at Cape Gloucester. Note that they carry their rifles high.
On 26 December 1943
marines landed on the western end of New Britain at points east and west of Cape Gloucester. Their immediate objective, the airdrome on the cape, was a desirable link in the chain of bases necessary to permit the air forces to pave the way for further advances.
MARINES LOADED WITH EQUIPMENT go ashore to assemble for the move forward after disembarking from an LST. Craft in the background is an LVT; in the foreground a jeep is being pushed through the surf. Many of the men carry litters for the expected casualties. Troops succeeded in driving the Japanese out of the cape in four days. The lodgments on New Britain severed one of the main enemy supply lines between Rabaul and eastern New Guinea, and as the year drew to a close, Rabaul was rapidly being isolated.
LCT(5)’S AND INITIAL LANDING TROOPS on a stretch of beach along the northwest coast of Kiska. Men can be seen moving along the hillside like ants. At this time it was not known when the enemy would strike since prior to landing no ground reconnaissance had been attempted for fear of informing the enemy of the invasion.
1. This section is based on Japanese Opns in SWPA, 158-90, and the following monographs in the series, Japanese Studies in World War II: Southeast Area Air Opns, 1942-44, No. 38; 17 Army Opns, vols. I and II, Nos. 39 and 40; 18th Army Opns I, No. 41; Southeast Area Naval Opns, Vol. I, No. 48; Southeast Area Opns, pt. IV (rev.); 8th Area Army, No. 110. All in OCMH.
2. Imperial GHQ Navy Directive 159, 18 Nov 42, OCMH.
4. Order is quoted in Southeast Area Opns, pt. IV, 8th Area Army, p. 14.
5. Ibid., p. 17.
7. Southeast Area Opns, pt. IV, 8th Area Army, p. 25.
8. Memo, Marshall for King, 1 Dec 42, sub: Proposed Joint Directive . . . , OPD 381 (SWPA), case 83.
9. Rads, King to Nimitz and Halsey, 1915, 30 Nov 42, cited in Hayes, The War Against Japan, ch. X, p. 32.
10. Rad, Nimitz to King and Halsey, 0235, 2 Dec 42, cited in Hayes, The Against Japan, ch. X. p. 33.
11. Ltr, Nimitz to King, 8 Dec 42, sub: Future Opns in Solomons, OPD Exec Files.
12. Ltr, Harmon to Marshall, 25 Nov 42, copy in OCMH.
13. Rads, Halsey to MacArthur and King, No. 0510, 17 Dec 42; King to Halsey, No. 2159, 18 Dec 42, cited in Hayes, The War Against Japan, ch. XI, p. 11.
14. Memos, Marshall for King, 21 Dec 42, sub: Strategic Direction of Opns in SW; Comdr Victor D. Long to Marshall, Leahy, et al, 15 Dec 42, same sub, with copy of Nimitz’ letter, OPD Exec Files.
15. Draft Memo, King for Marshall, 23 Dec 42, sub: Strategic Direction of Opns in SWPA, OPD Exec Files.
16. Memo, Handy for Capt Richard L. Conolly, USN, 24 Dec 42, no sub, OPD 384 (PTO) case 43.
17. Ltr, King to Marshall, 6 Jan 43, OPD Exec Files.
18. Memo, Marshall for King, 8 Jan 43, sub: Strategic Direction of Opns in SWPA, OPD 384 (PTO) case 43.
19. Ltr, King to Marshall, 8 Jan 43, OPD Exec Files.
20. Rads, Marshall to MacArthur, Nos. 164 and 192, 7 and 8 Jan 43, CM-OUT 2273 and 2833.
21. Rad, MacArthur to Marshall, 10 Jan 43, CM-IN 4574.
22. Rad, Marshall for MacArthur, 11 Jan 43, CM-OUT 3664.
 Ibid., August 7, 1943 entry.
 Ibid., September 25, 1943 entry. Ida Bowyes was a friend of Elisabeth’s mother.
 Ibid., September 28, 1943 entry.