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Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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1730

Uang Real Batu, Kesultanan Sumenep (1730 M)

 

 

Symbol Keraton Sumenep

Kerajaan Sumenep di Madura mengedarkan mata uang yang berasal dari uang-uang asing yang kemudian diberi cap bertulisan Arab berbunyi “SUMANAP” sebagai tanda pengesahan.

Uang kerajaan Sumenep yang berasal dari uang Spanyol disebut juga “Real Batu” karena bentuknya yang tidak beraturan.

Pada masanya Kerajaan ini sebenarnya bernama Kadipaten Sumenep (atau sering dikenal sebagai Kadipaten Madura), adalah sebuah monarki yang pernah menguasai seluruh Pulau Madura dan sebagian daerah tapal kuda. Pusat pemerintahannya berada di Kota Sumenep sekarang.

Pada tahun 1269, dimasa pemerintahan Arya Wiraraja wilayah ini berada dibawah pengawasan langsung Kerajaan Singhasari dan Kerajaan Majapahit. Pada tahun 1559, dimasa pemerintahan Kanjeng Tumenggung Ario Kanduruwan, wilayah yang terletak di Madura Timur ini berada pada kekuasaan penuh Kesultanan Demak dan baru pada pemerintahan Pangeran Lor II yang berkuasa pada tahun 1574, wilayah Kadipaten Sumenep berada dibawah pengawasan langsung Kasultanan Mataram.

Pada tahun 1705, akibat perjanjian Pangeran Puger dengan VOC, wilayah ini berada dalam kekuasaan penuh Pemerintahan Kolonial. Selama Sumenep jatuh kedalam wilayah pemerintahan Hindia-Belanda, wilayah ini tidak pernah diperintah secara langsung, para penguasa Sumenep diberi kebebasan dalam memerintah wilayahnya namun tetap dalam ikatan-ikatan kontrak yang telah ditetapkan oleh Kolonial Kala itu.

Selanjutnya pada tahun 1883, Pemerintah Hindia Belanda mulai menghapus sistem sebelumnya (keswaprajaan), Kerajaan-kerajaan di Madura termasuk di Sumenep dikelola langsung oleh Nederland Indische Regening dengan diangkatnya seorang Bupati. Semenjak itulah, sistem pemerintahan Ke-adipatian di Sumenep berakhir. (wikipedia/ berbagai sumber)

 

 

 

 

Keraton Sumenep

dulunya adalah tempat kediaman resmi para Adipati/Raja-Raja selain sebagai tempat untuk menjalankan roda pemerintahan.

Kerajaan Sumenep sendiri bisa dibilang sifatnya sebagai kerajaan kecil (setingkat Kadipaten) kala itu, sebab sebelum wilayah Sumenep dikusai VOC wilayah Sumenep sendiri masih harus membayar upeti kepada kerajaan-kerajaan besar(Singhasari, Majapahit, dan Kasultanan Mataram).

Keraton Sumenep sejatinya banyak jumlahnya, selain sebagai kediaman resmi adipati/raja yang berkuasa saat itu, karaton juga difungsikan sebagai tempat untuk mengatur segala urusan pemerintahan kerajaan.

Saat ini Bangunan Karaton yang masih tersisa dan utuh adalah bangunan Karaton yang dibangun oleh Gusti Raden Ayu Tirtonegoro R. Rasmana dan Kanjeng Tumenggung Ario Tirtonegoro (Bindara Saod) beserta keturunannya yakni Panembahan Somala Asirudin Pakunataningrat dan Sri Sultan Abdurrahman Pakunataningrat I (Raden Ario Notonegoro).

Sedangkan untuk bangunan karaton-karaton milik Adipati/Raja yang lainnya, seperti Karaton Pangeran Siding Puri di Parsanga, Karaton Tumenggung Kanduruan, Karaton Pangeran Lor dan Pangeran Wetan di Karangduak hanya tinggal sisa puing bangunannya saja yakni hanya berupa pintu gerbang dan umpak pondasi bangunan Keraton.

Istilah penyebutan Karaton apabila dikaitkan dengan sistem pemerintahan di Jawa saat itu, merasa kurang tepat karena karaton Sumenep memeliki strata tingkatan yang lebih kecil dari bangunan keraton yang ada di Jogjakarta dan Surakarta.

 Karaton Sumenep sebenarnya adalah bangunan kediaman keadipatian yang pola penataan bangunannya lebih sederhana dari pada keraton-keraton besar seperti Jogjakarta dan Surakarta. Namun perlu dimaklumi bahwa penggunaan penyebutan istilah karaton sudah berlangsung sejak dulu kala oleh masyarakat Madura, karena kondisi geografis Sumenep yang berada di daerah mancanegara (wilayah pesisir wetan) yang jauh dari Kerajaan Mataram. Begitu juga penyebutan Penguasa Kadipaten yang lebih familiar dikalangan masyarakatnya dengan sebutan “Rato/Raja

Pendiri[sunting | sunting sumber]

Karaton Pajagalan atau lebih dikenal Karaton Songennep dibangun di atas tanah pribadi milik Panembahan Somala penguasa Sumenep XXXI. Dibangun Pada tahun 1781 dengan arsitek pembangunan Karaton oleh Lauw Piango salah seorang warga keturunan Tionghoa yang mengungsi akibat Huru Hara Tionghoa 1740 M di Semarang.

 

Karaton Panembahan Somala dibangun di sebelah timur karaton milik Gusti R. Ayu Rasmana Tirtonegoro dan Kanjeng Tumenggung Ario Tirtonegoro (Bindara Saod) yang tak lain adalah orang tua beliau. Bangunan Kompleks Karaton sendiri terdiri dari banyak massa, tidak dibangun secara bersamaan namun di bangun dan diperluas secara bertahap oleh para keturunannya.

Kompleks Bangunan Karaton[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

Lambang Kadipaten Sumenep Pada tahun 1811 – tahun 1965

Keraton Sumenep berdiri di atas tanah milik pribadi Pangeran Natakusuma I (Panembahan Somala) (sebelah timur keraton lama milik Ratu R. Ayu Rasmana Tirtanegara). Kompleks bangunan Karaton Sumenep lebih sederhana dari kompleks Karaton kerajaan Mataram, bangunannya hanya meliputi Gedong Negeri, Pengadilan Karaton, Paseban, dan beberapa bangunan Pribadi Keluarga Karaton.

Di depan keraton, ke arah selatan berdiri Pendapa Agung dan di depannya berdiri Gedong Negeri (sekarang Kantor Disbudparpora) yang didirikan oleh Pemerintahan Belanda. Konon, Pembangunan Gedong Negeri sendiri dimaksudkan untuk menyaingi kewibawaan keraton Sumenep dan juga untuk mengawasi segala gerak-gerik pemerintahan yang dijalankan oleh keluarga Keraton. Selain itu Gedong Negeri ini juga difungsikan sebagai kantor bendahara dan pembekalan Karaton yang dikelola oleh Patih yang dibantu oleh Wedana Keraton.

Disebelah timur Gedong Negeri tersebut berdiri pintu masuk keraton Sumenep yaitu Labang Mesem. Pintu gerbang ini sangat monumental, pada bangian atasnya terdapat sebuah loteng, digunakan untuk memantau segala aktifitas yang berlangsung dalam lingkungan keraton. Konon jalan masuk ke kompleks keraton ini ada lima pintu yang dulunya disebut ponconiti. Saat ini tinggal dua buah yang masih ada, kesemuanya berada pada bagian depan tapak menghadap ke selatan. Pintu yang sebelah barat merupakan jalan masuk yang amat sederhana. Di bagian pojok disebelah timur bagian selatan Labhang Mesem berdiri Taman Sare (tempat pemandian putera-puteri Adipati) dimana sekelilingnya dikelilingi tembok tembok yang cukup tinggi dan tertutup.

Sedangkan di halaman belakang keraton sebelah timur berdiri dapur, sebelah barat berdiri sisir (tempat tidur para pembantu keraton, emban, dayang-dayang Puteri Adipati), di sebelah barat terdapat sumur. Di depan sumur agak ke arah barat berdiri Keraton Ratu R. Ayu Rasmana Tirtanegara, dan di depannya berdiri pendapa. Namun pada jaman pemerintahan Sultan Abdurahman Pakunataningrat pendapa tersebut dipindahkan ke Asta Tenggi dan disana didirikan Kantor Koneng. Pembangunan Kantor Koneng (kantor kerajaan/adipati) semula mendapat tentangan keras oleh pemerintah Hindia Belanda karena hal tersebut bertentangan dengan peraturan pemerintah saat itu. Namun, untuk menghindari tuduhan tersebut maka Sultan beninisiatif untuk mengubah seluruh cat bangunan tembok berwarna kuning selaras dengan namanya yaitu “kantor koneng” (bahasa belanda :konenglijk=kantor raja/adipati). Pada Masa Pemerintahan Sultan Abdurrahman, kantor Koneng difungsikan sebagai tempat rapat-rapat rahasia para pejabat-pejabat tinggi Karaton. Di sebelah selatan Kantor Koneng, di pojok sebelah barat pintu masuk berdiri pendapa (paseban).

Pada mulanya antara keraton dengan pendopo letaknya terpisah. Namun, pada masa pemerintahan Sultan Abdurrahman Pakunataningrat, kedua bangunan tersebut dijadikan satu deret. Dahulu, Paseban (pendopo ageng) difungsikan sebagai tempat sidang yang dipimpin langsung oleh sang Adipati dan dihadiri oleh seluruh pejabat tinggi karaton yang waktunya dilaksanakan pada hari-hari tertentu. Paseban sendiri diurus oleh mantri besar dan dibantu oleh kebayan.

Di sebelah selatan Taman Sare berdiri Pendapa atau Paseban dan sekarang dijadikan toko souvenir. Di sebelah selatan keraton terbentang jalan menuju Masjid Jamik Sumenep (ke arah barat), sedangkan ke arah timur menuju jalan Kalianget. Di sebelah timur keraton adalah perkampungan,dan di arah timur jalan adalah Kampong Patemon. Artinya tempat pertemuan aliran air taman keraton dan aliran-aliran air taman milik rakyat dan Taman Lake’ (tempat pemandian prajurit keraton). Dari jalan Dr. Sutomo ke arah timur terdapat jalan menurun, sebelum tikungan jalan berdiri pintu gerbang keluar atau Labang Galidigan. Di sebelah barat pintu keluar terdapat jalan menurun, bekas undakan tujuh.

Di sebelah selatan jalan undakan terdapat Sagaran atau laut kecil merupakan tempat bertamasya putera-puteri Adipati. Sekarang Sagaran tersebut ditempati perumahan rakyat dan lapangan tennis. Di sebelah barat lapangan tennis, berdiri kamarrata merupakan tempat kereta kencana, dan dibelakangnya berdiri kandang kuda lengkap dengan dua taman.

Komplek keraton Sumenep justru tidak menghadap ke barat tetapi ke selatan. Hal ini berhubungan dengan legenda laut selatan ( selat Madura ) tempat bersemayamnya Raden Segoro dan analog dengan legenda di Mataram tentang Nyai Roro Kidul yang konon istri dari Sultan Agung yang bersemayam/bertahta di Segoro Kidul ( Lautan Indonesia ). Dari legenda tersebut menimbulkan dogma turun temurun bahwa rumah tinggal yang baik harus menghadap ke selatan. Ditinjau dari tapak ( site planning ) terlihat bahwa kompleks bangunan keraton pada prinsipnya menganut keseimbangan simetri dengan menggunakan as/sumbu yang cukup kuat. Hal ini merupakan usaha perencanaannya untuk memberikan kesan agung dan berwibawa dari kompleks ini.

 

 

Mandiyoso, salah satu ruang didalam kompleks Karaton Sumenep yang menghubungkan Karaton Dhalem dan Pendopo Agung

Struktur Penataan Kota[sunting | sunting sumber]

Konsep dasar perencanaan tata kota Sumenep ditentukan berdasarkan ajaran Islam : hablum minallah wa hablum minannas artinya berhubungan dengan Allah dan berhubungan dengan manusia. Maksudnya alun-alun sebagai pusatnya. Bila menghadap lurus ke barat dimaksudkan kita berhubungan dengan Tuhan ( kiblat di Masjidil haram ) dan kita temukan Masjid jamik. Sebaliknya bila kita menghadap ke timur dimaksudkan berhubungan dengan manusia dan kita dapatkan keraton Sumenep. Hal ini juga dapat dikaitkan dengan ajaran agama Hindu yang mengatakan bahwa timur, arah tempat matahari terbit adalah lambang kehidupan, jadi tempat manusia di alam dunia. Sebaliknya barat tempat matahari terbenam adalah lambang kematian, lambang akherat, dan lambang ketuhanan.

Prasasti Karaton Sumenep[sunting | sunting sumber]

Prasasti keraton Sumenep berisi wasiat Panembahan Somala tentang kompleks bangunan Karaton dan sekitarnya. Prasasti tersebut ditulis pada tahun 1200 H atau tahun ba’ Bulan Muharram dengan huruf arab dan sekarang masih tersimpat di Museum Karaton Sumenep.

Tahun Hijriah Nabi SAW. 1200 (tahun ba’) dibulan Muharram, inilah bangunan-bangunan (tempat tinggal) serta tanah-tanah wakaf Pangeran Natakusuma Adipati Sumenep. Semoga Allah SWT memberi ampun baginya dan kedua orang tuanya. Inilah bangunan serta tanah yang tidak dapat dirusak dan tidak dapat diwaris sebabb bangunan (termasuk tanah tersebut) adalah wakaf yang diperuntukkan untuk kebutuhan orang fair dan orang miskin. Saya memberi perintah kepada sekalian keturunan, atau kalau tidak ada sanggup, kepada lainnya guna memperbaiki mengawasi dan memlihara bangunan-bangunan dan tanah tersebut, bagi keturunan lainnya yang telah memlihara dan mengawasi wakaf itu semoga Allah SWT, mengaruniai keselamatan dunia maupun akherat.

Warisan Budaya[sunting | sunting sumber]

Selain memiliki kemegahan bangunan, Karaton Sumenep juga memiliki suatu warisan budaya yang tak ternilai. antara lain :

         Tari Gambuh,

 

 

Tari Gambu Keraton Sumenep

Pada awalnya tari Gambu lebih dikenal dengan Tari keris, dalam catatan Serat Pararaton tari Gambu disebut dengan Tari Silat Sudukan Dhuwung, yang diciptakan oleh Arya Wiraraja dan diajarkan pada para pengikut Raden Wijaya kala mengungsi di keraton Sumenep. Tarian tersebut pernah ditampilkan di keraton Daha oleh para pengikut Raden Wijaya pada perayaan Wuku Galungan yang dilaksanakan oleh Raja Jayakatong dalam suatu acara pasasraman di Manguntur Keraton Daha yang selalu dilaksanakan setiap akhir tahun pada Wuku Galungan. Para pengikut Raden Wijaya antara lain Lembusora, Ranggalawe dan Nambi diadu dengan para Senopati Daha yakni Kebo Mundarang, Mahesa Rubuh dan Pangelet, dan kemenangan berada pada pengikut Rade Wijaya.

Tari Keris ciptaan Arya Wiraraja ini lama sekali tidak diatraksikan. Pada masa kerajaan Mataram Islam di Jawa yakni pada pemerintahan Raden Mas Rangsang Panembahan AGUNG Prabu Pandita Cakrakusuma Senapati ing Alaga Khalifatullah (Sultan Mataram 1613-1645), seorang Raja yang sangat peduli dengan seni dan budaya. Maka kala itu Sumenep diperintah oleh seorang Adipati kerabat Sultan Agung yang bernama Pangeran Anggadipa tarian tersebut dihidupkan kembali sekiotar tahun 1630, diberi nama “Kambuh” dalam bahasa Jawa berarti “terulang kembali” dan sampai detik ini terus diberi nama Kambuh dan lama kelamaan berubah istilah menjadi tari Gambu (dalam logat Sumenep).

       Tari Moang Sangkal,

Mowang berarti membuang, Sangkal berarti sukerta, dan sukerta artinya gelap (sesuatu yg menjadi santapan sebangsa setan, dedemit, jin rayangan, iblis, menurut ajaran Hindu). Sedangkan sangkal adalah mengadopsi dari bahasa Jawi Kuno yang maksudnya Sengkala (sengkolo). Jadi sangkal yang dimaksudkan pada umumnya di Songennep adalah : bila ada orang tua mempunyai anak gadis lalu dilamar oleh laki-laki, tidak boleh ditolak karena membuat si gadis tersebut akan “sangkal” (tidak laku selamanya).Pada awalnya tari Mowang Sangkal agak keras geraknya yang diiringi dengan gamelan dengan gending ”sampak” lalu mengalir pada gending ”oramba’-orambe’” yang mengisyaratkan para putri keraton menuju ke ”taman sare”. Dan kemudian gerakannya tambah halus, gerakan yg lebih halus inilah mengisyaratkan para putri sedang berjalan di Mandiyoso (korridor keraton keraton menuju Pendopo Agung Keraton). Pada umumnya kostum yang dipakai adalah warna ciri khas Songennep, merah dan kuning, karena perpaduan warna tersebut mengandung filosofi ”kapodhang nyocco’ sare” yang maksudnya ”Rato prapa’na bunga” (raja sedang bahagia). sedangkan paduan warna kostum merah dan hijau atau kuning dan hijau folosofinya ”kapodang nyocco’ daun” maksudnya ”Rato prapa’na bendhu” (Raja sedang marah).

       Odeng rek-kerek, salah satu kostum penutup kepala seorang laki-laki yang diciptakan oleh Sultan Abdurrahman Pakunataningrat yang tak lain dimaksudkan untuk merendahkan martabat pemerintahan Kolonial Belanda ketika menjajah Sumenep kala itu, “rek-kerek” dalam bahasa Madura mempunyai arti anak anjing (patek).

Referensi

       Zulkarnaen, Iskandar. 2003. Sejarah Sumenep. Sumenep: Dinas Pariwisata dan kebudayaan kabupaten Sumenep.

       Adurrahchman, Drs.1971.Sejarah Madura Selajang Pandang. Sumenep

sumber wiki

Buitenzorg Palace (1744)

Buitenzorg/Bogor – Indonesia

The original palace was built in 1744 as a country retreat for the Dutch Governors. This building was substantially damaged by an earthquake in 1834, triggered by the volcanic eruption of Mount Salak. The palace was rebuilt into its present form in 1856 – this time with only one story instead of the original three, as a precaution against further earthquakes. Till 1942, Buitenzorg Palace served as the official residence of the Dutch Governors-General. After the Indonesian independence, the palace was used by President Sukarno, but then largely neglected by Suharto when he came to office. The grounds of the estate contain several buildings – the largest of which is the main palace and its two wings.

The Palace is surrounded by the largest and most famous botanical gardens of South-East Asia. An area of 284,000 square metres (28.4 hectares). The garden was built by Governor-General Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff. The extensive grounds of the presidential palace were later converted into a botanical garden by the German-born Dutch botanist, Professor Casper George Carl Reinwardt. The gardens officially opened in 1817 as ‘s Lands Plantentuin (‘National Botanical Garden’) and were used to research and develop plants and seeds from other parts of the Indonesian archipelago for cultivation during the 19th century. This is a tradition that continues today and contributes to the garden’s reputation as a major center for botanical research.Today the garden contains more than 15,000 species of trees and plants located among streams and lotus ponds. There are 400 types of exceptional palms to be found along the extensive lawns and avenues, helping the gardens create a refuge for more than 50 different varieties of birds and for groups of bats roosting high in the trees.

 

 

….

in 1897

is de loop van de Tjiliwoeng nog min of meer ongewijzigd

Om er voor te zorgen dat Weltevreden een aantrekkelijk gebied zou worden voor de nog in de Benedenstad wonende Europeanen, liet Daendels de later beroemde Societeit De Harmonie bouwen, nummer 29 op onze kaart.
Inderdaad wat moeilijk te vinden :

In het noorden van de kaart, bij de Kleine Boom, loopt de rivier de Tjiliwoeng. Daar waar de Tjiliwoeng naar het Oosten afbuigt, begint een kanaal met Tramway ernaast, het kanaal werd Molenvliet genoemd.
Trambaan en Molenvliet buigen op een gegeven moment naar het Oosten en daar op die hoek lag Societeit De Harmonie. Een klein stukje naar het Noorden aan de Westkant van Molenvliet, links van het woord (wijk) Noordwijk ligt ons nummer 10, Hotel Des Indes. Ten Zuiden van Noordwijk, aan de andere kant van het Molenvliet, lag de wijk Rijswijk met het beroemde Koningsplein en het Waterlooplein, over deze twee pleinen en Societeit De Harmonie zal Aad het ooit ook nog eens gaan hebben…

We ontvingen, samengevat, deze vragen, allemaal verband houdend met de naam Rijswijk, een chique wijk in Batavia, vooral in de 19e eeuw:

  1. 1.      De wijk Rijswijk was oorspronkelijk een gebiedsdeel van het landgoed Rijswijk en is vernoemd naar het fort Rijswijk.
  2. 2.     Wanneer en waarom kreeg dit gebied bij Batavia de naam Rijswijk, heeft het iets te maken met Rijswijk bij Den Haag?
  3. 3.     Was de stichting van de wijk Rijswijk voor of na de afbraak van Fort Rijswijk.
  4. 4.     Hoe dicht was de bewoning toen Daendels er de Harmonie liet bouwen?
  5. 5.     Is bekend hoeveel oppervlak het grondgebied, c.q. de bebouwde wijk Rijswijk besloeg en hoeveel mensen er woonden, in verhouding tot de rest van de bovenstad?
  6. 6.     Wat is het verschil tussen Paleis Rijswijk en Paleis Koningsplein, die met elkaar verbonden waren ??
  7. 7.      Waren beide paleizen, Paleis Rijswijk en Paleis Koningsplein vroeger de residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal en waarom werden ze zo genoemd: Paleis Rijswijk en Paleis Koningsplein?

We kunnen hierover het volgende vertellen, het is inderdaad een beetje ingewikkeld en soms heel verwarrend……:

 

Fort Rijswijk ten zuiden van Batavia

Ten zuiden van Batavia, een maand na de bouw van het Fort Jacatra, werd in augustus 1656 het vierhoekige redoute

Fort Rijswijk

gebouwd. Fort Rijswijk werd aan de oostzijde van de rivier de Krokot gebouwd te midden van de

Rijs

velden, waarbij Rijs een Oud-Hollands woord is voor Rijs

t

Fort Rijswijk werd in 1697 weer ontruimd en in 1729 afgebroken.

Ten oosten van Fort Rijswijk en Fort

Noord

wijk

(gebouwd een jaar na Fort Rijswijk en pas afgebroken in 1809)

verrezen half 18e eeuw de eerste grote, we zouden nu zeggen, Herenhuizen in Weltevreden, een zeer toepasselijke naam !!

Ongeveer op de oude lokatie van Fort Rijswijk zou Daendels Sociëteit de Harmonie laten bouwen, daarbij werden stenen gebruikt van de oude stadswallen van de Benedenstad van Batavia.

Weltevreden lag op een behoorlijke afstand van de steeds onhygiënisch wordende Benedenstad en ook het Gouvernement besloot in Weltevreden een buitenverblijf te bouwen. De eerste die dit deed, was Gouverneur-Generaal Jacob Mossel. Ook zijn opvolgers trokken zich geregeld terug in dit fraaie buitenverblijf.

Gouverneur-Generaal Petrus Albertus van der Parra zou het geheel uiteindelijk zodanig verbouwen dat het paste bij de status van een Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië….

(al werd het toen nog Oost-Indië genoemd)

 

1744

 

1750

Weltevreden

Het buitenverblijf van Gouverneur-Generaal Mossel en zijn opvolgers

1741 – Escaping Chinese from Batavia attack Semarang and Rembang; the VOC leaves Demak. Pakubuwono II changes sides, sends a force to attack VOC at Semarang, and destroys the VOC garrison at Kartasura. Cakraningrat IV of Madura declares allegiance with the VOC, and rejects his ties with Mataram and Pakubuwono II.

 

Forces of Mataram and rebellious Chinese attack many north coast cities of the VOC. Siege of Semarang is unsuccessful. Rival Governor-Generals of the VOC struggle in Batavia: Valckenier arrests Van Imhoff and sends him back to Europe. The Heeren XVII in the Netherlands names Van Imhoff as Governor-General. Valckenier is himself eventually arrested and jailed.

 

1742 – Negotiations begin between the VOC and Pakubuwono II of Mataram as the VOC and Cakraningrat IV of Madura spread their power. An agreement is reached between the VOC and Pakubuwono II. A popular rebellion under Sunan Kuning, a grandson of Amangkurat III, against the VOC and Mataram takes hold in the countryside. Cakraningrat IV retakes Kartasura from the rebels. The VOC is suspicious, and orders Pakubuwono II to be put back on throne. VOC troops defeat the last of the Chinese forces; a general amnesty is declared.

 

1743 – November 11 Pakubuwono II gives VOC Surabaya, Rembang, Jepara and claims to easternmost Java and West Madura. VOC receives a say in court appointments. Mixed-Portuguese locals attack VOC post at Kupang on Timor; VOC solidifies control of western part of Timor. VOC takes Bawean island.

 

1745 –

Cakraningrat IV wages war with the VOC, attacks Surabaya, and retakes much of Madura and East Java. He is defeated by VOC forces and escapes to Banjarmasin, but the Sultan of Banjar captures him and sends him to Batavia. The VOC exiles him to South Africa. Gov-Gen Van Imhoff founds Buitenzorg (today’s Bogor). Malaria epidemic in Batavia.

 

Sentot Alibasyah (Prawiradirja)

in 1745

they went to war against the VOC. The fighting ravaged Madura and much of the north coast, but by the end of the year the Madurese were defeated and West Madura’s status as a VOC vassal was confirmed.

Pakubuwana II’s concessions to the Dutch in 1743 included the right for the VOC to take a narrow strip of land along the entire north coast, as well as along rivers feeding into the Java Sea. The VOC did not take up this option but instead in 1746 pressed the king to lease to the VOC the entire north coastal region. Despite opposition from within the court, the king acquiesced, prompting a further rebellion, led by the capable Pangeran Mangkubumi.

territory of Mataram and the fact that some territories were still held jointly. There was almost constant conflict over land between the three authorities until a more detailed settlement was reached in 1774.

the Dutch in Yogyakarta City of Fort Tatas built in 1709. [30]
 1710: Prince Aji ing chances, Anum Bannerman Martapura Kukar XIII became King until the year 1735

1745:

Hussin Kamaluddin became Sultan of Brunei until the year 1762 for the second time.
 1746:

Ship Dragon and pepper in Banjarmasin Onflow load. [32] [33]
 1747: Dutch Company founded the fort on the island of Tatas (Banjarmasin Central) is the first European settlement in Borneo until 1810 and then abandoned by Marshall Daendels accordance with the agreement with the Sultan of Banjar. [17]
 1747 – VOC decrees that native law (“adat”) will be in force in areas under its control outside of Batavia. VOC establishes a presence at Banjarmasin.

 

1748 –

VOC sends Sultan of Banten into exile, makes his wife Ratu Sarifa regent but take direct control.

 

1749 –

December 11 Pakubuwono II, in very ill health, signs a treaty giving full sovereignty in all Mataram to the VOC. (The treaty is widely ignored.) VOC declares Pakubuwono III as heir to throne of Mataram. Mangkubumi claims the title for himself, and rules from Yogya.

 

By 1749,

the king’s new court at Surakarta

was under threat from the rebels and in desperation he signed over his entire domain to the VOC.

Upon Pakubuwana’s death a few days later,

the VOC installed his son as Pakubuwana III, but Mangkubumi also declared himself king, likewise with the name Pakubuwana.

 

1750 –

Rebellion in Banten against Ratu Sarifa and the VOC.

 

 

1750 – 1761

Gouverneur-Generaal Jacob Mossel

 

DEI Gouvenor’s Old  Batavia palace

 

 

 

Aan het eind van de 18e eeuw was het buitenverblijf van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Weltevreden weer verouderd.

Gouverneur-Generaal Van Imhoff was de eerste die al mocht gaan bouwen in een gebied wat Van Imhoff noemde

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1752

Nama Bogor dapat ditemui pada sebuah dokumen tertanggal 7 April 1752.

Dalam dokumen tersebut tercantum nama Ngabei Raksacandra sebagai “hoofd van de negorij Bogor” (kepala kampung Bogor).

 

Dalam tahun tersebut ibukota Kabupaten Bogor masih berkedudukan di Tanah Baru. Dua tahun kemudian, Bupati Demang Wirnata mengajukan permohonan kepada Gubernur Jacob Mossel agar diizinkan mendirikan rumah tempat tinggal di Sukahati di dekat “Buitenzorg”. Kelak karena di depan rumah Bupati Bogor tersebut terdapat sebuah kolam besar (empang), maka nama “Sukahati” diganti menjadi “Empang”.

Pada tahun 1752 tersebut, di Kota Bogor belum ada orang asing, kecuali Belanda. Kebun Raya sendiri baru didirikan tahun 1817 sehingga teori “arca sapi” tidak dapat diterima sebagai asal-usul nama Bogor. Letak Kampung Bogor yang awal itu di dalam Kebun Raya ada pada lokasi tanaman kaktus. Pasar yang didirikan pada lokasi kampung tersebut oleh penduduk disebut Pasar Bogor (papan nama “Pasar Baru Bogor” sebenarnya agak mengganggu rangkaian historis ini)

 

 

Buitenzorg

, een naam die we in de geschiedenis van Nederlands-Indië nog vaker tegen zullen komen…..

 

 

 

 

1740

 

GG Van Imhoff was de man betrokken bij de beruchte moord
op de Chinese bevolking in en rondom Batavia in 1740:

 

1718

Sumatra, second half of 18th century

The assassination of Sultan Mahmud of Johor led to the disintegration of what remained of Johor’s empire. The Thai state of Ayutthaya invaded Trengganu, most of the east Sumatra coast as well as the Minangkabau settlements west of Melaka threw off Johor’s domination, and in 1718 Johor’s former vassal Siak attacked and occupied its territory. The sultan fled to Trengganu, which enjoyed a brief heyday as the centre of Malay power on the peninsula, though its power never extended beyond the east coast. Johor, meanwhile, came under the control of Bugis adventurers from Sulawesi, who also established the new state of Selangor between Melaka and Perak.

1735

 

 

 

Silver and coins to be used in the East India Trade:

Spanish Eight Reals coins ‘Pieces of Eight’.

To the left a ‘Pillar Dollar’ type and to the right a ‘Cob’ type, and a bar of silver from the VOC, indented to be made into coins

.

 

 

Two sides of a duit, a coin minted in 1735 by the VOC.

 

 

 

1740

The first domino that would eventually precipitate the sheering off of half the kingdom, however, fell in Batavia in 1740, when the inhabitants went on the rampage and slaughtered the entire Chinese population of the VOC capital.

The rebel Chinese band whose arrival had prompted the slaughter, bolstered by the handful of angry survivors, rattled off along the Pasisir, their black pigtails swinging, their sharp knives flashing in the scorching sunlight.

For much of the coming year it looked as though they would overwhelm the Dutch in the VOC outposts all along the coast.  New rebellions blossomed spontaneously in their wake, and they began to bear down on the Mataram capital, drawing in local malcontents along the way.

The ruler of the day was the aging Susuhunan Pakubuwono II (the title of ‘sultan’ had been dropped several generations earlier).

He was one of the more useless scions of the Mataram dynasty, and the Queen of the Southern Ocean was evidently not advising him well, for he now decided to throw his lot in with the rebels.  There had been slowly simmering hostility to the Dutch for decades in Mataram despite the fact that the foreigners had become a near-essential part of the scene.

By the 1740s the VOC was bankrupt and its armies were exhausted from an endless round of mercenary work in Central Java, and for a while it really did look as though the Chinese-led rebellion might be the end of their adventure.

 

Pakubuwono II enthusiastically ordered the annihilation of the little Dutch garrison in the Mataram capital.  When its occupants were captured they were offered the unenviable choice of either conversion to Islam by immediate circumcision, or death by beheading.  Most went for the lesser chop.

The coercive claiming of a few dozen new Muslims was probably Pakubuwono II’s greatest victory however, for the Dutch soon unleashed their secret weapon – another unruly Madurese prince who had stuck with the VOC, and who was soon rampaging with impunity through the outer reaches of Mataram.

Pakubuwono now realised that he had made a horrible mistake: he begged forgiveness of the Dutch.

The Europeans were still not in a position to turn down such an opportunity; they accepted the apology, and as a consequence the rebellion – which by now was more Javanese than Chinese – turned abruptly against the king.  He ended up a wretched vagabond, and his vacant court was sacked twice in five months – first by the rebels, and then by the Madurese warlord.

Eventually the uprising fizzled out; the warlord went back to Madura, and though clearly a broken man, Pakubuwono II regained his throne – having granted control of Mataram’s Pasisir ports to the VOC by way of payment for their assistance.  But, it seems, the very idea of Mataram had been mortally wounded by the whole sorry business.  The Queen of the Southern Ocean had had enough.

 

 

1740

A Fickle Nation

In the middle years of the 18th century a frustrated Dutch administrator declared that the Javanese nation ‘is in itself fickle, and by the multitude of princess very inclined to rebellion; for it cannot in truth be said that since the Company’s first move Java has even for ten years been peaceful and quiet, or cleared of rebels.’  It was not an entirely unreasonable assessment.

The bruised, battered and reconstituted court over which Pakubuwono II ruled in the wake of the Chinese rebellion had lost much of its authority.  A Javanese king would never have real legitimacy – and never achieve real success – without the advice and approval of his courtiers.

In fact, it was often said that the most perfect Javanese king was one who acted as nothing more than a passive receptacle for the sacred energy of the realm, a figurehead who handed the practical matters to his patih – his prime minister – and his circle of advisors.  It was hardly democracy, but it did
rely on a kind of assent.  And in the 1740s Pakubuwono II had clearly lost it

1745

Bugis power drove Siak from the peninsula and the Riau archipelago, re-establishing ‘Johor’ with its capital on Bintan. Siak meanwhile extended its power northward along the Sumatra coast as far as Tamiang. Although Siak was still nominally a vassal of Johor until 1745, when the sultan ceded it to the VOC, in practice it was independent of all outside powers.

The greatest power on the island, however, was Palembang, which grew wealthy from the tin mines on the island of Bangka. Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin (r. 1724–57) kept tight control of the tin trade and delivered reliably to the VOC. Because Bangka and Belitung had been seriously depopulated by the slave-raiding of the previous century, however, the sultan encouraged Chinese miners to settle and work the deposits. By the middle of the century they dominated production

 

 

It was a great war in Java (1740-55),

however, which dealt the death blow to delicate Dutch finances. And once again, through a complex chain of events, it was the Dutch themselves who inadvertently precipitated the conflict. The details of the struggles are too convoluted to follow here, but it began in 1740 with the massacre of the Chinese residents of Batavia, and ended 15 years later, only after many bloody battles broken alliances and kaleidoscopic shifts of fortune had exhausted (or killed) almost everyone on the island. Indeed Java was never the same again, for by the 1755 Treaty of Giyanty, Mataram had been cleft in two, with rival rulers occupying neighboring capitals in Yogyakarta and Surakarta. Nor did the VOC ever recover from this drain on its resources, even though it emerged at this time as the pre-eminent power on Java.

 

.

1746

In the rainy February of 1746, trying to start afresh, he had abandoned the old, oft-sacked capital at Kartasura and had the whole court shunted seven miles east to the village of Solo where a grand kraton with a reversed name was built.

The sacred banyan trees that pinned the Alun-Alun, the Royal Square, were uprooted and transplanted to this new town of Surakarta.

The move apparently was an auspicious one, for this new kraton city would survive into the modern era, but it did little for the fortunes of the man who had organised it.

There were still rebel princes rattling around the borderlands, the most notable of whom was a nephew of the king called Mas Said.  He was, it was said, a very small man, but like Colonel Rollo Gillespie he more than made up for it.

A colonial official reported that ‘fire and vivacity radiate from his eyes’.  He hated the Dutch, despised the decayed corruption of the court, and clothed himself in all the righteousness he could find in both Islamic and Javanese lore.  The Queen of the Southern Ocean, Mas Said claimed, had begun consorting with him…

The hapless Pakubuwono II made an offer to the men of his court: if any man could drive the little rebel out of his stronghold on the northern fringes of Mataram, then he would grant him a little kingdom within the kingdom: the direct rule – and the direct income – of 3000 households.

From the king’s legion of half-brothers a man stepped forward.  His name was Mangkubumi, and he was destined for great things.

Mangkubumi was indeed able to drive Mas Said from his stronghold; Pakubuwono II, however, was not able to keep his promise.  This alone would have been enough to send many other courtiers off into rebellion at once, but though the Dutch later spoke of his ‘well-known hot-tempered constitution’, Mangkubumi was apparently a patient man.  He deferred; he bided his time – but not for much longer.

In 1746 the first Dutch Governor-General to visit Mataram arrived in Surakarta.  He was there to hammer out more beneficial terms for the lease of the Pasisir, and he did not follow courtly etiquette.  He was abrupt in his manner.

He demanded that the Javanese cede these coastal territories entirely in return for the fairly paltry sum of 20,000 Spanish dollars a year.

A stronger king would have said no, but Pakubuwono II was no strongman; he said yes.  Mangkubumi, still smarting from the broken promise, was furious.

For one thing, he felt, the Dutch had set the rent far too low.  But more importantly, the king had violated that Javanese ideal of courtly assent: he had made a unilateral decision.

In the account of the final break between the half-brothers recorded in the courtly chronicles, the exchange is full of soft, restrained, refined rage.

As they stand amongst the columns of the royal pendopo the air in the scented space between the two half-brothers seems almost to crackle; anger makes the words quieter rather than louder, to the point where Mangkubumi’s final, devastating declaration is scarcely audible at all:

His Highness [Pakubuwono II]said softly,
‘Know, Mangkubumi,
That Grandfather General has arrived,
Asking for the lease of the Pasisir.
I, younger brother, have already agreed
To the company’s request,
Because I was intimidated by the discussion.’
The honoured Pangeran [Mangkubumi] spoke softly,
‘My lord, but this is not fitting.’

But this is not fitting…

With those devastatingly understated words Mangkubumi launched a civil war that would last for a decade, and that would not end until Mataram was split down the middle.

A Kingdom Halved

Mangkubumi went into rebellion at once, and joined forces with none other than the little zealot Mas Said.  They thundered through the green heartlands of Java, and within a year had gathered a righteous army of 13,000 men.  All the rebels, all the malcontents and rabble-rousers who had been spawned by the generations of unrest now had a man they could flock to with conviction.  Seeking long forgotten wellsprings Mangkubumi had gone back to the source and set himself up close to the site of Sultan Agung’s original capital on the line between Merapi and the sea – they called this new rebel capital Yogyakarta.  The Queen of the Southern Ocean, whose temper had long been tested by her unruly protégés, seems to have been impressed.

 

Rebel Kingdom: Early Yogyakarta

Back in Surakarta, meanwhile, the hapless Pakubuwono II was almost certainly clinically depressed.

Though he had somehow held on to his throne and founded a fine new capital, his entire reign could only really be judged a disaster.  It is unsurprising therefore that he seems to have decided that it was time to die.

He no longer cared about the kingdom, and when the Dutch Governor of the Pasisir arrived to visit him on his deathbed he made him an offer that his half-brother would most certainly have considered unfitting, that left even the Dutch taken aback: he offered to hand over Mataram to the Governor.

The VOC could have his kingdom if only it would earn him a final moment of peace.The flabbergasted colonial officials hurriedly battered out a treaty to that effect – though they realised that with 13,000 men and a pair of rebel princes just 40 miles down the road it was hardly worth the fine parchment on which it was so lavishly inscribed.

They also realised that with his mind now at ease the old king might relax a little and take his time over dying.  There was no sense in waiting; they needed to get the pliant Crown Prince onto the throne as quickly as possible while the treaty still held.

There was a little initial difficulty over this, for it transpired that the old man had recently attempted to stab his heir with a kris and had banned him from the inner sanctum of the Surakarta Kraton.  It was perhaps forgivable: between interminable rebellion and impending death, he had been under a lot of stress.

The issue was eventually resolved, and on 15 December 1749 Susuhunan Pakubuwono III, the last king of united Mataram, was placed on the Surakarta throne with Dutch patrons in attendance.

The old king died peacefully five days later.  There was only one small problem in all this: at about the same time – quite possibly on the very same day – a wildcat coronation had taken place a day’s ride to the southwest.  Mangkubumi, in a makeshift tented court, had also been declared Susuhunan Pakubuwono Senopati Ingalaga Ngabdurahman Sajidin Panatagama, King of all Mataram.  The civil war was going to get much worse before it ever got better.

As a new decade rumbled on, so did the fighting.  For the best part of a century the Dutch VOC had been entangled in the affairs of Mataram, and though they had always looked to earn cash or the territory for their involvement, their fundamental goal had remained the same – to stabilise the kingdom, to steady the throne when it tottered, and to make sure that the man upon it was someone they could work with.  But by the 1750s they were exhausted – financially, physically, and imaginatively.  This rebellion was worse than any of the others, worse even than the Chinese upheavals of the previous decade.

They could keep Pakubuwono III (who seemed to be every bit as lonely and miserable as his deceased father) safe in his Surakarta Kraton, but even the thought of taking on the ascendant rebels was beyond their capabilities.

Their own empire was dying; they could hardly save someone else’s, so when word leached out of the heartlands that Mangkubumi had split with his half-sized sidekick Mas Said, they snatched at the opportunity with all the joyless enthusiasm of a man who will take anything he can get.

 

1750:

Bugis Sultan Banjar land to borrow to establish settlements in Tanjung Aru (the border area with Paser Land of Spices).

 

After another six years of war, the VOC and Mangkubumi finally reached an agreement,

Older posts

The low country of Central Java, cradle of the Mataram realm, and of the great temple-building Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms before it, opened under a fine, bluish haze to the west.

Here and there trails of wood-smoke rose into the still, damp air, and away to the south, beyond a few low ridges, the land faded towards the angry Southern Ocean.

 

In the distance to the west Gunung Merapi loomed, dark and unassailable against a pearly sky.

It was the height of the wet season in 1755.

The two Javanese royals, sitting a few feet apart at a heavyset table carried into place for the meeting, could hardly look at each other.  They could hardly speak.

A temporary pavilion had been built here at the little village of Jatisari, on the outer ramparts of Mount Lawu, above the court city of Surakarta.

At a respectful distance grooms were minding fine Bima horses with richly inlaid bridles.

Courtiers in full regalia were watching from the side-lines, and a gamelan orchestra was in full flow beneath an awning.  Every effort had been made to make the setting softly suitable, to make the meeting as easy as possible.

But the royals – uncle and nephew, with the older man in the role of young pretender – were overcome with emotion.  This was not the conclusion either had wanted; in fact no one at Jatisari on 15 February 1755 really imagined that it was a conclusion, at least not one that would still be holding good centuries later.

It was left to the host, a Dutchman, to ease things along.  Nicolaas Hartingh, Governor of the VOC’s north coast territories, and point of contact with the Mataram court, spoke in flowing Javanese.

This, he declared, was a special moment; after decades of turmoil there was finally peace in Java.

When he had finished he took the hands of the two men – Susuhunan Pakubuwono III, and his uncle, officially recognised just a few days earlier at a spot higher up the mountain as the first sultan of what was to become Yogyakarta.

Hartingh raised the pair of limp, clammy palms above the table, and called for three glasses of beer.

Finally, falteringly, the Susuhunan and the new Sultan regained their words, and nudged gently onwards by the Dutchman they swore to fight each other no more, and to join forces against a certain rebel prince, somewhere at large in the swathe of green territory below them.  All three men raised their glasses and drank.

As a token of friendship the Susuhunan offered his uncle a sacred kris, an heirloom dagger loaded with energy and power – the very kind of relic that the Sultan of a new court needed.  The kris had a black handle and a slender blade marked with strange whorls.  It had belonged, it was said, to one of the nine semi-mythical holy men who had brought Islam to Java several centuries earlier.

And with that the meeting was over.  There was a moment of embarrassed confusion – such an encounter had never before taken place; there was no protocol over who should leave first.  But at a whispered suggestion the royals turned to European fashion for an exit: they each drank another glass of beer, and then, in the words of Hartingh, they ‘clasped their hands and said farewell by repeatedly putting their hands on one another’s shoulders, thus as it were giving the kiss of unity and brotherly love, which met with the admiration of everyone, for such is something uncommon between such potentates and has never been seen in Java; indeed, the dignitaries on either side stood up staring in amazement and prophesied to them that something good would come of his event.’

The Susuhunan rode away towards Surakarta with Hartingh by his side.  The new Sultan rode back up the slopes to his temporary camp.  Though their courts were barely a day’s journey apart, the two rival royals would never meet face to face again.  After almost 200 turbulent years the mighty realm of Mataram had been cleaved in two.

By the time the Hartingh presided over the signing of the Treaty of Giyanti, the mighty kingdom of Mataram had fallen far from glory.

1754

The VOC’s man on the scene was now Nicolaas Hartingh.  He spoke Javanese; he was well-versed in the lore, the law and the lie of the land, and he opened a creeping correspondence with the rebel king.

Mangkubumi himself was looking for a way out.  Over the hot months of 1754 he and Hartingh – their messages borne by a mysterious Turk who had materialised in Central Java – edged towards a possible solution: they would split the kingdom.

 

 

1755

On 13 February 1755 at Giyanti, a misty, murky spot perched high on the slopes of Mount Lawu, Mangkubumi met with Hartingh to sign a contract.

It gave the rebel half the Mataram realm, and half of the 20,000 dollar rent for the Pasisir too.

Mangkubumi’s party did not yet have the full accoutrements of a court; they were lacking pusaka and life in the field meant the full formalities could not be respected.

But still, they had a certain grandeur, an aura, a charisma.  With the contract signed Hartingh led Mangkubumi to a makeshift throne, and as he climbed up onto it he became the officially recognised Sultan Hamengkubuwono I.

Those amongst the watching Javanese who were well steeped in the ancient texts and the rhythms of the wayang kulit noticed something at once: sitting there on the slopes of Mount Lawu with all Java beneath him,

Mangkubumi, a Muslim prince who had just taken the Islamic title of Sultan, looked for all the world like the Wishnu, the Hindu god who, in the Javanese telling of the tale, is the saviour of mankind in troubled times.

Two day later the whole party rode down the lower slopes to that spot at Jatisari where a gamelan was playing and Pakubuwono III was waiting with tears in his eyes.  From now on what had once been Mataram would have both a Susuhunan and a Sultan.

 

 

The Return of the King

Ask any modern Indonesian high school student who has managed to stay awake during history class about the Treaty of Giyanti, and they will tell you without blinking that it was a classic case of imperialist divide and rule, the horrible Hollanders at their very worst.

Those with a more fertile imagination and a firm grip on Indonesia’s favourite literary clichés will tell you that Nicolaas Hartingh, with his slick language skills and his glib turns of phrase, was the dalang, the puppet-master, in whose hands the Javanese royals had been rendered into the perforated leather shadows of the wayang kulit, held up against the screen of history with a volcano for a back-light.  It’s a nice idea, especially for a nationalist, but it’s not really true.

The idea of splitting the kingdom was as much Javanese as Dutch, and not without precedent.  Other rumpled realms had been divided between warring sons (the mighty11th century ruler Airlangga actually pre-emptively split his realm between his children, for example).

It was always a last resort, but it was never meant to be final.  It would allow breathing space, perhaps for a generation or more, but eventually some all-conquering king would reassert himself.  That was how it had always been, and there is nothing to suggest that, as they rode away from Jatisari in the cool mists of February 1755, either the Javanese kings or the accompanying Dutchman ever supposed that this time things would prove different.

And in any case, even if Nicolaas Hartingh had been planning to create a permanently hobbled native realm in 1755, even if he had been planning to replace one all-powerful state with two petty principalities, the policy would have been a notable failure.  For decades, for whole generations, Mataram had been hopelessly unstable; by the end it had become a joke.  But the partition had an unexpected consequence: after flickering, fading, guttering and all but vanishing, the light, the lustre, the sacred sparkle, was back on in Central Java, and the great courtly realm of Yogyakarta had come into being…

 

 

the 1755 Treaty of Giyanti,

which partitioned Mataram between the two royal contenders. Mangkubumi took the title of Sultan and the regnal name Hamengkubuwana, and established his capital in the town of Yogyakarta, while Pakubuwana III remained as Susuhunan in the older city of Surakarta. Both rulers confirmed the VOC’s lease over the north coast and its ownership of the eastern peninsula.

 

1755

Akhirnya pada tanggal 13 Februari 1755 dilakukan penandatanganan naskah Perjanjian Giyanti yang mengakui Mangkubumi sebagai Sultan Hamengkubuwana I.

Wilayah kerajaan yang dipimpin Pakubuwana III dibelah menjadi dua. Hamengkubuwana I mendapat setengah bagian.

Perjanjian Giyanti ini juga merupakan perjanjian persekutuan baru antara pemberontak kelompok Mangkubumi bergabung dengan Pakubuwono III dan VOC menjadi persekutuan untuk melenyapkan pemberontak kelompok Raden Mas Said.

Bergabungnya Mangkubumi dengan VOC dan Paku Buwono III adalah permulaan menuju kesepakatan pembagian Mataram menjadi Surakarta dan Yogyakarta.

 

Dari persekutuan ini dapat dipertanyakan; Mengapa Mangkubumi bersedia membagi Kerajaan Mataram sedangkan persellisihan dengan menantunya Raden Mas Said berpangkal pada supremasi kedaulatan Mataram yang tunggal dan tidak terbagi?

 

Dari pihak VOC langsung dapat dibaca bahwa dengan pembagian Mataram menjadikan VOC keberadaannya di wilayah Mataram tetap dapat dipertahankan. VOC mendapat keuntungan dengan pembagian Mataram.

Sejak Perjanjian Giyanti wilayah kerajaan Mataram dibagi menjadi dua. Pakubuwana III tetap menjadi raja di Surakarta, Mangkubumi dengan gelar Sultan Hamengkubuwana I menjadi raja di Yogyakarta.Mangkubumi sekarang sudah memiliki kekuasaan dan menjadi Raja maka tinggal kerajaan tempat untuk memerintah belum dimilikinya.Untuk mendirikan Keraton/Istana Mangkubumi kepada VOC mengajukan uang persekot sewa pantai utara Jawa tetapi VOC saat itu belum memiliki yang diminta oleh Mangkubumi.

Pada bulan April 1755

Hamengkubuwana I memutuskan untuk membuka Hutan Pabringan sebagai ibu kota Kerajaan yang menjadi bagian kekuasaannya .

Sebelumnya, di hutan tersebut pernah terdapat pesanggrahan bernama Ngayogya sebagai tempat peristirahatan saat mengantar jenazah dari Surakarta menuju Imogiri. Oleh karena itu, ibu kota baru dari Kerajaan yang menjadi bagiannya tersebut pun diberi nama Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat, atau disingkat Yogyakarta.

 

1755.

Panglima Muda Seti, being considered as the head of the league, came down with twenty thousand followers, and, upon the king’s refusing to admit into the castle his complimentary present (considering it only as the prelude to humiliating negotiation), another war commenced that lasted for two years, and was at length terminated by Muda Seti’s withdrawing from the contest and returning to his province. About five years after this event Juhan shah died, and his son, Pochat-bangta, succeeded him, but not (says this writer, who here concludes his abstract) with the general concurrence of the chiefs, and the country long continued in a disturbed state.

1756

Sejak tanggal 7 Oktober 1756 Hamengkubuwana I pindah dari Kebanaran menuju Yogyakarta.

 

Seiring berjalannya waktu nama Yogyakarta sebagai ibu kota kerajaannya menjadi lebih populer.

Kerajaan yang dipimpin oleh Hamengkubuwana I kemudian lebih terkenal dengan nama Kesultanan Yogyakarta.

 

 

.

Year 1756

VOC trying to get Lawai, Sintang and Sanggau from Banjarmasin. Initial area in Kalimantan, which claimed to belong to VOCs are areas along the coast from Sukadana until Mempawah given by the Sultanate of Banten on March 26, 1778. VOC had established a factory in Sukadana and Mempawah but 14 years later abandoned due to non-productive (Sir Stamford Rafless, The History of Java). Pontianak Sultanate supported establishment of the VOC in the estuary of the river Hedgehogs Hedgehogs originally protested because it is a territory but eventually loosens the pressure of the VOC. On August 13,

1756:

On October 20, 1756 Sultan Banjar Tamjidullah I made a pact with the VOC containing pepper trade ban by the Chinese, English and French will help further VOC reconquer the breakaway region such as: Berau, Kutai, Paser, Sanggau, Sintang and Lawai. Tatas fort was built on the island of Tatas, New York.
1756

Rijder and Buis, 1756

The Rijder, commanded by Captain Jean Gonzal, and the Buis, skippered by Captain Lavienne Lodewijk van Asschens, explored the Gulf of Carpentaria.

 

1759:

Sultan Muhammad Aliuddin Aminullah be Banjar XIII until the year 1761.
 1761: His Majesty Sultan Nata Nature is the Banjar XIV until the year 1801, previously as regent Crown Prince who was a child.

 

 

 

1660

PERNJANJIAN BONGAYA 1660-1667 PEMBUKTIAN SEJARAH DUNIA YANG HILANG

Muhammad Yusuf Tonggi

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1660

SEPERTI APA MEREKA MENGENAL SEJARAH SULTAN HASANUDDIN DAN LATENRI TATTA DAN BENARKAH SEPERTI YANG SEKARANG SEJARAHNYA SULTAN HASANUDDIN

Saya begitu yakin bahwa Potret Sultan Hasanuddin yang ada sekerang merupakan bukan Wajah Sultan Hasanuddin Pelaku Perjanian Bongaya tahun 1660-1667.

Namun untuk Wajah Latenri Tatta Daeng Serang Arung Palakka sudah benar krena memang mirip dengan Lukisan Aslinya, Potrer dibawa ini dapat menjadi kajian.

 

BILA MEREKA TAHU TENTANG PERJANJIAN BONGAYA TAHUN 1660-1667 APAKAH MEREKA TAHU SIAPA NAMA SAH BANDAR POTERE’ YANG TERLIBAT DALAM PERJANJINA BONGAYA

Dalam Sejarah Perjanjian Bongaya yang kita tahu selama ini, kita mengenal salah satu nama pada Riwayat Sulawesi yang kita sebut sebagai Kolonel Poleman yang menjmput Lantenri Tatta Daeng Serang pada tahun 1641, namun kita tidak peranh tahu kalau Kolonel Poleman adalah Sang Bandar Potete’.

Dalam Riwayat Arung Mampu, Sah Bandar Potere’ bernama Laparuisi’ yang namanya kemudian menjadi asal usul nama Tanjung Periuk di Jakarta

Source . Muhammad Yusuf Tonggi (2013)

 

 

 

1714

 

A montage of extremely rare E.I.C. coins struck in 1714 for use in St. Helena is made from black and white illustrations. The heart –shaped bale mark began use when the New or English East India Company was formed in 1698. The London E.I.C. bought a large number of the former’s shares and the two amalgamated in 1708/9 as “The United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East Indies.” This is shortened to the letters V.E.I.C. on the balemark, for United East India Company.

 

1760.

The death of Juhan shah is stated in the Annals to have taken place in August 1760, and the accession of the son, who took the name of Ala-eddin Muhammed shah, not until November of the same year. Other authorities place these events in 1761.

1760

In the final years of the century, the rulers of Pontianak claimed Sanggau, Landak, Matan and Tayan as vassals, but they never ruled those areas directly. North of Pontianak, the states of Sambas and Mempawah were transformed from about 1760 by the arrival of Chinese miners to work the gold fields of the region.

The miners came at first at the invitation of the local rulers, but their commercial organizations, or kongsi, soon developed into small republics virtually independent of the rulers. States of a different kind also emerged in this era in the interior of western Kalimantan, along the Kapuas River and its tributaries. For the most part, the elites of these states were Malays, often with trading interests, who established varying degrees of hegemony over the indigenous Dayaks.

The largest of these states, Sintang, was moderately significant, but the states further upstream were small, sometimes claiming only a few hundred subjects.

1761

 

The great palace of weltevreden(demobilized 1820)

Now RSPAD(Indonesian National Army Hospital)


 1762:

Omar Akamuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until 1793.

In Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddin I to the Sultan of Brunei until 1795.

 

 


 1765:

King Amiril Pengiran Maharajadinda Tidung served until 1782.

1763.

Before he had completed the third year of his reign an insurrection of his subjects obliged him to save himself by flight on board a ship in the road. This happened in 1763 or 1764. The throne was seized by the maharaja (first officer of state) named Sinara, who assumed the title of Beder-eddin Juhan shah, and about the end of 1765 was put to death by the adherents of the fugitive monarch, Muhammed shah, who thereupon returned to the throne.*

(*Footnote. Captain Forrest acquaints us that he visited the court of Mahomed Selim (the latter name is not given to this prince by any other writer) in the year 1764, at which time he appeared to be about forty years of age. It is difficult to reconcile this date with the recorded events of this unfortunate reign, and I have doubts whether it was not the usurper whom the Captain saw.)

He was exposed however to further revolutions. About six years after his restoration the palace was attacked in the night by a desperate band of two hundred men, headed by a man called Raja Udah, and he was once more obliged to make a precipitate retreat. This usurper took the title of sultan Suliman shah, but after a short reign of three months was driven out in his turn and forced to fly for refuge to one of the islands in the eastern sea. The nature of his pretensions, if he had any, have not been stated, but he never gave any further trouble. From this period Muhammed maintained possession of his capital, although it was generally in a state of confusion.

 

1765

 

 

Mohr Obsevatory  (demobilized)

 

 


 1766: Ibrahim Sultan Alam Shah became Sultan of Sand III until 1786.
 October 23, 1771: City of Pontianak was founded by Abdurrahman Sharif Alkadrie who in 1778 sanctioned the Dutch VOC-I as Sultan of Pontianak in power until 1808. Establishment of a new kingdom at the mouth of the river was originally protested by Hedgehogs Hedgehog Kingdom.
 1772: Sayyid Idrus Alaydrus, son of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin I of the Sultanate of Palembang was appointed VOC-Dutch became the first camp Pertuan kingdom, ruled until 1795.
 1773: British occupy Balambangan. [34]
 1775: La Pangewa, was sworn in as lieutenant of the Bugis Pagatan Kapitan title by Sultan of Pulo Sea Tahmidullah II, after pounding the Prince Amir (King Kusan I) are out of the way up to Kuala Biaju.
 1777: Republic of Hakka Lanfang a country in West Kalimantan, founded by Mr. Fang Low until finally destroyed by the VOC, the Dutch in 1884.
 1778: According to the deed dated March 26, 1778 Hedgehog and Sukadana submitted to the Dutch Company by the Sultan of Banten. This is the territory that originally belonged to the VOC.
 1778: Sultan Aji Muhammad Aliyeddin be Kukar XIV until the year 1780.
 1780: Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin be Kukar XV until the year 1816.
 1780: Sultanate Banjarmasin population approaching 9000 people. [35]
 1782: Amiril Pengiran Maharajalila III became King Tidung until 1817.
 28 September 1782: Pemindahkan Kutai Sultanate’s capital of Pemarangan to the Edge of Pandan.
 1785: Prince Amir assisted Whitewater Tarawe Tabaneo attacked by troops Paser 3000 the Bugis-powered boats 60 to demand the throne of the Sultanate of Banjar of Tahmidullah II. [36]
 1786: Queen of the Great became the Sultan of Sand II until 1788.
 May 14, 1787: Prince Amir Dutch Company were arrested, then exiled to Sri Lanka.
 August 13, 1787: Tahmidullah II Sultan of the Sultanate Banjar cede sovereignty to the VOC became the protectorate of the deed of submission in front of the Resident Walbeck, after the VOC, the Dutch managed to get rid of Prince Amir, his rival in the struggle for the throne. Most of Borneo submitted become property of the company VOCs.
 1788: Sultan Anom Dipati Alamsyah became Sultan of Sand III until 1799. Sultan is married to the Queen is the Queen of Diamonds I Tjangtoeng and Batoe Litjin.
 1789: Sultan of Pontianak with Dutch support attacks against Panembahan Mempawah with the objective of winning the region Panembahan Mempawah. Lan Fong partnership then also sent troops to help force the Sultan of Pontianak. Panembahan Mempawah Panembahan Mempawah defeated then King resigned himself to the Authorship and later settled there.
 1790: Abubakar Tajuddin I became Sultan of Sambas until 1814.
 1795: Mohammed Tajuddin became Sultan of Brunei IX until 1807. Ordered Khatib Haji Abdul Latif writes Genealogy of the Kings of Brunei and ordered him to make a home waqf for Brunei pilgrims in Mecca.
 1795: Kingdom of Panembahan Simpang Matan built on the remnants of the Kingdom Sukadana [37]
 1797: Sovereignty of the Sea Island area Paser and VOC handed back to the Sultan of Banjar, Tahmidullah II.
 1799: Sultan Sulaiman Alam II became Sultan of Sand IV until 1811.
Age of British Colonialism

1746 – Pangeran Mangkubumi, disgusted with capitulations to the VOC (and being the target of court intrigues to take away his lands), announces full-scale rebellion. He is joined by Pangeran Mas Said. August 26: First VOC Post Office opened in Jakarta. VOC reestablishes presence in Perak. VOC receives Siak (across the straits from Melaka) from the Sultan of Johore. Bank van Leening founded by VOC to support trade.

 

1767


SULTAN MAHMUD BADARUDDIN II
Lahir : Palembang, 1767
Wafat : Ternate, 26 November 1852

Spoiler for Biografi Singkat

SEMENJAK ditunjuk menjadi Sultan Kerajaan Palembang menggantikan ayahnya Sultan Muhammad Baha’uddin, Mahmud Badaruddin melakukan perlawanan terhadap Inggris dan Belanda.

 

1772

Towards the end of the century, however, Sukadana’s power was increasingly challenged by the new state of Pontianak, founded by an Arab adventurer in 1772.

 

1772.

“In the year 1772,” says Captain Forrest, “Mr. Giles Holloway, resident of Tappanooly, was sent to Achin by the Bencoolen government, with a letter and present, to ask leave from the king to make a settlement there. I carried him from his residency. Not being very well on my arrival, I did not accompany Mr. Holloway (a very sensible and discreet gentleman, and who spoke the Malay tongue very fluently) on shore at his first audience; and finding his commission likely to prove abortive I did not go to the palace at all. There was great anarchy and confusion at this time; and the malcontents came often, as I was informed, near the king’s palace at night.”

 

1775.

The Captain further remarks that when again there in 1775 he could not obtain an audience.

 

 

1778

In 1778, Banten ceded its defunct rights over Sukadana to the VOC,

1786

Banten joined Pontianak in 1786 in an attack which utterly destroyed the city.

The royal family of Sukadana continued to rule the minor state of Matan (Kayung), but Sukadana was abandoned and Pontianak became the main centre of trade on the west coast.

1787,

the Sultanate of Banjar a protectorate, VOCs and vazal vazal Banjarmasin submitted to VOCs include East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, part of South Kalimantan, West Kalimantan and the interior, which reaffirmed the 1826 agreement. Then formed the Dutch East Indies Residency Residency Sambas and Pontianak with the appointment of kings as a regent of the Netherlands Indies colonial administration. Later merged into the Residency Residency Sambas and Pontianak Kalimantan hinterland into Residency West Borneo. Dutch East Indies in 1860 abolished the Sultanate of Banjar, then the last territory to be part of the Residency Afdeeling South and East Borneo.

1753

Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, first half of 18th century

During the second half of the 18th century, VOC power became increasingly decisive in the international politics of the Melaka Strait region. In 1753, the Company gained sovereignty over Banten, giving it a legal claim to Lampung. It was also engaged in a protracted struggle with the Bugis on the peninsula and in the Riau archipelago during which the Bugis occupied Kedah and the Dutch briefly took Selangor and sacked Bintan yet again. Johor, which still had little presence in the Malay Peninsula, came under Dutch influence and was under effective Dutch rule until 1795.

 

The west coast of Sumatra, meanwhile, became the scene of sporadic competition between the colonial powers. The vague understanding which gave the north to the VOC and the south to the British broke down when the British established forts at Poncang Kecil and Natal on the Tapanuli coast in 1752, though these posts never grew into a significant colonial presence. In the south, Bencoolen was briefly occupied by French forces in 1760.

In 1759

the fortifications were improved by the addition of a dry dich which can still be seen. The earth  from the ditch was dug out to a depth of six feet and width of twelve feet. The eaeth from this ditch was placed between the original outer wall of the fort and a new wall which had been contructed thus making the fort virtually impregnable from gun fire.This work gave the fort the resemblance that is seen today, with the enlarged gun platforms and ramparts.Shortly after this improvement, a french napal squadron, under the command of comte Charles-henri ‘Estaing’, arrived Bencoolen.Owing toa lack of ammunition and supplies but to surrender to the French Commander.The town  and fort were handed over the intruders withour conflict. The french used the fort as aprison for the East India company garrison, but affer some decimation of his force by a variety of fevers, the french commander abandoned Bencoolen and handed the town and fort back to the Ease town and fort back to the Ease India company representative althoug they too had been severely reduced in number owing to sickness and fevers.

In 1760  the Ease  india company settlement on the west coast of the sumatra were declared a presidency with Bencoolen becoming a presidential town, The garrison had, unfortunately, capitulated to the french before the new of the raise in  status was received. Following the departure of the french maritime force the senior appointtmen was up-granded to that of Governor and the firs to be  appointed was roger carter.

second half of 18th century

Java

The second major geo-political zone to develop in western Indonesia was in Java. In the interior of the island, a combination of rich volcanic soil and abundant rain made the Kedu plain the richest agricultural region of maritime Southeast Asia. Somewhat isolated from the north coast by mountains, the region was less vulnerable than most to sea-borne attack, and its rulers were able to keep the merchant world of the trading cities at bay, with the result that royal authority became more deeply established than elsewhere.

The early history of Kedu is as shadowy as that of the rest of the archipelago. The region may at first have been under the domination of Ho-ling, but in about 732 a king called Sanjaya, a follower of the Hindu god Siva, established a kingdom there which we generally call Mataram. Sanjaya was probably not an absolute ruler in any sense; he is probably best thought of as a local warlord who managed by a combination of careful alliance and calculated warfare with other warlords to establish himself as the most important power-holder in the plain. Within a few decades, moreover, and for reasons still not at all clear, his lineage was eclipsed by other rulers who were followers of Mahayana Buddhism and who acknowledged the suzerainty of the Sailendra dynasty. The Sailendras apparently sponsored the construction of the Borobudur, a massive Buddhist stupa, on the Kedu plain, as well as a number of other major monuments. This era of temple construction, which is paralleled nowhere else in maritime Southeast Asia, is a powerful measure of the ability of rulers in Central Java to mobilize the labour of their people on a massive scale.

The coastal polity of Ho-ling evidently survived the rise to power of Mataram on the other side of the mountains, for its ruler sent an embassy to China as late as 820, announcing that it had resumed the old name Jawa (‘Shepo’), but there are signs that it sent this embassy from eastern Java, having been displaced there by Mataram.

The disappearance of Ho-ling soon after 820 coincides with the overthrow of the Sailendras by a Hindu descendant of Sanjaya named Pikatan who restored Sivaitic Hinduism as the dominant religion. Pikatan or his successors were responsible for the construction of the Hindu temple complex of Prambanan and the century or so which followed is generally recognized as a time of cultural florescence, in which Java absorbed and re-worked new elements of Indian culture to create a distinctive indigenous variant of Indian civilization.

In the middle of the 10th century, for reasons which are still not clear, the centre of Javanese power moved from the Kedu plain to the valley of the Brantas River in eastern Java. There, with easier access to the sea, Javanese rulers may have become more closely involved in trade. They were also more vulnerable, and in 1016 were badly defeated in battle, probably during an attack from Srivijaya.

Java in turmoil, 1676-1681: the Trunajaya rebellion

.

1792

VOC civil administration in Indonesia, 1792

VOC civil administration in central and east Java, 1792

VOC civil administration in Ambon, 1792

.

1751 – VOC forces des

Private estates close to Batavia, about 1750

The city of Batavia, on the other hand, gradually developed into a significant urban settlement. Built at first in Dutch style, with tall buildings facing on to a grid of narrow canals, the city soon spread beyond its old walls. In the newer southern suburbs of the city, called Weltevreden, Dutch architecture was modified to take more account of the needs of life in the tropics.

As far as possible, the VOC preferred not to take a direct hand in the day-to-day administration of the territories they dominated. Rather, they sought to work with established indigenous elites, believing that these elites possessed a political legitimacy as rulers which the Dutch would never have and that Dutch domination thus could be maintained without unduly offending indigenous sensibilities. On Java, they turned for the most part to the bupati who had been regional lords under Mataram and whom they referred to as regenten (regents).

The Dutch maintained the bupati as symbols of traditional authority and each bupati had responsibility for law and order in his district. In most regions, however, the bupati were also deeply involved in Dutch economic programmes. The most important of these programmes was the Priangan System (Preanger-Stelsel), applied in the so-called Priangan Regencies (Preanger Regentschappen). The people of the region farmed coffee estates for the bupati, who received 10% of the produce for their role. The producers were obliged to deliver the remainder of the crop to the Company, which paid them at half the market rate, in exchange for exempting them from land tax and further feudal services to the bupati. In practice, however, the bupati retained wide powers to tax their subjects on top of the official provisions. This lucrative arrangement remained in force from the early 18th century until 1870.

In the early days of the Company’s settlement at Batavia, Banten (which the Dutch called Bantam) had been a major regional power. Because it possessed only a small agricultural hinterland, it was much more vulnerable than Mataram and its military power was decisively broken in 1677. Thereafter, although the Dutch repeatedly nibbled at the boundary with Banten in order to increase the territory around Batavia, and although they forced the sultan to recognize their suzerainty in 1752, the sultanate was left intact. Only in 1808 did the Dutch annex the coastal regions, a prelude to the incorporation of the rest of the territory in 1813.

troy the Banten rebellion; guerilla attacks continue against VOC plantations around Batavia. VOC extends control over Lampung.

 

1754

– Mangkubumi considers negotiating with VOC, worries about possible disloyalty from Mas Said.

 

1755

– February 13 Treaty of Gijanti: Sultan Hamengkubuwono gets VOC recognition of title and lands. Treaty requires Sultan Hamengkubuwono to ally himself with the VOC against Mas Said. Mas Said, now without allies, attacks VOC forces.

 

Java after the Treaty of Giyanti, 1755

The Javanese territories continued to be divided into mancanegara and negara agung, as in the time of Sultan Agung, but areas such as Banyumas and Pacitan were now included in the negara agung. These boundaries remained intact until the end of the century.

By the second half of the 18th century, the VOC controlled more than half of Java. Only Banten and a severely truncated Mataram remained outside their control, and in fact the rulers of both territories had formally acknowledged Dutch suzerainty, Mataram in 1749 and Banten in 1752.

Because Dutch dominion had grown gradually under widely differing political and economic conditions, the character of Dutch rule varied from region to region. The oldest region of Dutch rule – Batavia and its surrounding territories, known as the Ommelanden – had been purged of its indigenous inhabitants soon after the first Dutch settlement and was inhabited in the 18th century by the descendants of immigrants, some free-born, some slaves, drawn from many parts of the archipelago and beyond. Balinese and Chinese were an especially significant component of the ethnic mix on the outskirts of the city

Until 1755,

VOC policy had been to support whichever ruler of Mataram they believed could be bent to their interests. From 1755, their policy was one of divide and rule. The partition of Mataram was repeated in Surakarta in 1757 with the installation of another former rebel as prince Mangkunegara I with a domain which was beneath Surakarta in status but not quite subordinate in practice. The arrangement was made all the more complex by the fact that Surakarta and Yogyakarta territories were scattered across the whole of the remaining former

1756 – VOC signs treaties with chiefs on Savu and Sumba. October: Bugis begin a siege of VOC at Melaka. VOC sends a special ambassador to Banjarmasin. A trade agreement is reached. VOC makes agreements with local chieftains on Timor.

1757 – February: Reinforcements from Batavia force Bugis to end siege of Melaka. Mas Said agrees to negotiations with the VOC.

 

1758 – January 1: VOC signs treaty with the Bugis. Hostilities between the VOC, Yogya, Surakarta and Pangeran Mas Said end; Mas Said becomes Pangeran Mangkunegara I with his court also at Surakarta. VOC has control of all the north coast provinces.

 

1759 – VOC abandons fort at Linggi, near Melaka.

 

1760

August 1760
The France assault from the sea and captured Fort Marlborough under the command of Admiral Comte Charles d’Estaing.

March 1761
The France left the Bencoolen.

July 1761
The British expedition under the command of Captain Vincent was conflicted by native authority. They refused the British arrival in Bencoolen.

 

 

 

1761

 

1761 – 1775

Gouverneur-Generaal Petrus Albertus van der Parra

1781The British in turn occupied Padang from 1781 to 1784, while the French took the settlement briefly in 1793. In 1795, under an agreement between William of Orange and the British during the Napoleonic occupation of the Netherlands, British forces occupied Padang again, along with Melaka, to exclude the French.

nel

February 1762
The British retake the Fort Marlborough. When the British returned to slip back it to Bengal’s jurisdiction, Bencoolen functioned as separated presidency until 1773

2 responses to “KISI INFO INDONESIA ABAD 18(BERSAMBUNG)

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