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Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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Abad 19

The Indonesia Historic Collections 1800-1900

 

 

Javanese opium-smokers

 

Oleh

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 Private Limited Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

 

Copyright@201

 

 

1800

 

After the VOC was formally liquidated in 1800, the Batavian Republic expanded all of the VOC’s territorial claims into a fully-fledged colony named the Dutch East Indies. From the company’s regional headquarters, Batavia evolved into the capital of the colony. During this era of concurrent urbanisation and industrialisation, Batavia was involved in the inceptive stage of most of the colony’s modernising developments(wiki)

 

1800

 

Dja’s Datoek Batoeah and brother at Tilatang kamang Payakumuh) in 1800

 

1804

Tiga orang ulama yang kembali dari ibadah haji mereka pada tahun 1804, yaitu Haji Miskin, Haji Piobang, dan Haji Sumanik, menjadi penganjur gerakan puritanisme agama Islam di Sumatera Barat.[23]

Mereka menyerang adat dan kebiasaan lama yang meraka anggap tidak sesuai, dan mendesak masyarakat untuk melakukan kewajiban formal agama Islam.[23] Terjadilah perang saudara pada tahun 1803-1838 antara Kaum Padri (kelompok pendukung) dan Kaum Adat (kelompok penentang) gerakan tersebut.[23]

Tuanku Imam Bonjol (1772-1864) adalah ulama dari Bonjol, Pasaman, yang kemudian menjadi salah seorang pemimpin dalam Perang Padri itu.[24]

Ia menjadi pemimpin setelah wafatnya Haji Miskin dan Tuanku Nan Renceh yang memimpin Kaum Padri sebelumnya.[24] Tuanku Imam Bonjol di kemudian hari mendapat gelar Pahlawan Nasional Indonesia oleh Pemerintah Indonesia atas perjuangannya dalam melawan kolonialisme

 

1800

Rantau Pariaman 1800-1850: Perang Paderi, Ekspansi dagang dan konsolidasi politik Belanda di utara Padang.

 

Wilayah rantau Pariaman meliputi dataran rendah sempit coastallowland di sebelah barat dataran tinggi Minangkabau yang membentang antara batang Anai di selatan batas dengan wilayah Padang dan Tiku di utara kota pariaman batas wilayah merantau pasaman dan ke pedalaman hingga tepi barat danau Maninjau. Kota terpenting di rantau pariaman adalah pariaman. Kota ini sudah lama memegang peran penting sebagai enterpot (pelabuhan-gudang), dengan segala fluktuasinya. Di zaman kejayaan perdagangan laut di pantai barat Sumatra sampai akhir abade ke 19, pariaman disinggahi kapal-kapal dari dalam dan luar negeri Kato 1986. Di sini antara lain komoditi dagang dari pedalaman Minangkabau ditumpuk sebelum dikapalkan melalui pelabuhan-pelabuhan lain. Bahkan jauh sebelum VOC secara resmi – melalui perjanjian painan (painansch contract) 1663- memasuki kawasan pantai barat Sumatra, pariaman sudah disinggahi oleh kapal-kapal asing dari Gujarat, arab, cina, dan juga kapal-kapal milik bangsa barat.
Para pedagang bangsa barat itu membeli lada dan emas yang banyak dihasilkan di Minangkabau. Selain itu mereka juga mencari kapur barus styrax benzoin atau camphor atau kamfer (drybalanops aromatica) di pelabuhan pelabuhan sebelah utara, terutama barus yang dikalangan pedagang arab dan India disebut pencur atau pansur – sebutan yang kemudian melekat pada nama ulama terkenal kelahiran daerah ini yaitu hamzah fansuri (lihat brakel 1969:209) – dan oleh sumber sumber klasik cina disebut p’olu (drakard 1988:20;1990;2-4;wolters 1967:baba 12[187-96

 

 

 

Dja’s Datoek Batoeah and brother at Tilatang (kamang Payakumuh) in 1800

1800 1835

Sultan Alam II Bidar of Minangkbau

 

1803 1804

King Tuanku Garang Sumpur Sambahyang III King of the

1803-1821

After experiencing a prolonged conflict, Followed by a devastating civil war between the years 1803-1821, Followed by Minangkabau war between the years 1821 – 1838
  to face the armies of the colonial Dutch East Indies,

 

 

 

 

 

I

In 1804

 

 the Soho mint Birmingham struck another copper issue for Sumatra. The arms of the EIC were used for the obverse and closely resemble the design used for Bombay, being struck at Soho at the same time.

The Sumatra denominations in kepings are 4, 2 and 1. The designs were used again in1823 when the weights were reduced to two thirds using thinner blanks, because copper price had increased. The 1804 date was not altered.

 

In 1805

 Penang had been raised to a separate Presidency and in 1809 “a sound copper coinage” was requested. The contract was placed with the Royal Mint, whose machinery was supplied by Boulton and a rolling mill not yet working was supplied by John Rennie. Soho were requested to supply the blanks, but refused to do so because they thought that they had an unofficial agreement to produce all copper orders. Consequently the order was delayed and the coins were not delivered until 1812. The coins produced are clearly inferior to Soho’s minting.

 

This tin uniface cent, or pice, was struck locally in Penang about 1800 by the authority of Governor Leith, whose initials “G. L.” are in script on the obverse. Tin was available locally, but pure tin is soft, wears easily and is easy to re-melt so few have survived.

A similar issue in 1805 has the initials of Governor Farquhar and others may exist; they must also have been easy to forge, so it is no wonder that “a sound coinage” was requested.

 

 

1805

Tuanku Kaduhid mangkat dari Deli , ia digantikan oleh putranya ketiga Tuanku Amaluddin sebagai Raja deli VI, anak kaduhid lainnya Wan Ka ,Wan kumbang, Wan Ayat,Wan mande 1822 menikah dengan Poecoet Oedin putrid Raja Tuanku Aceh)

1808

 

DEI

In 1808, Daendels decided to quit the by-then dilapidated and unhealthy Old Town—a new town center was subsequently built further to the south, near the estate of Weltevreden. Batavia thereby became a city with two centers: Kota as the hub of business, where the offices and warehouses of shipping and trading companies were located; while Weltevreded became the new home for the government, military, and shops.

 These two centers were connected by the Molenvliet Canal and a road (now Gajah Mada Road) that ran alongside the waterway.[16] This period in the 19th century consisted of numerous technological advancements and city beautification initiatives in Batavia, earning Batavia the nickname, “De Koningin van het Oosten”, or “Queen of the East“.(wiki)

 

1809

Tuanku Raja Amalludin  dari Deli menikah dengan anak Raja Hitam dari langkat,  dari pernikahan ini lahir tuanku Osman  di labuhan.

 

1810 1835

 

Marhum Mangkat of Rantau Baru (posthumous name)

 

1814

 

Sultan Siak mengeluarkan Akte yang mengangkat Tuanku Amalludin menjadi Sultan Panglima Mangendar Alam ,inilah awal gelar sultan diberikan  kepada sultan deli dan sultan Siak.Pada pemrintahannya perdaganagn antar daerah semakin terbuka. Hubungan lain mjulai dirintis karena kedudukan Labuhan deli ini dekat dengan lautan lepas, sehingga perdagangan hasil bumi semakin lancer ,tidak begitu lama dalam gemngaman sultan Siak, kerajan deli ditaklukan oleh Sultan Aceh.

 

1815 1871

Sultan Mustafa

1815

setelah peperangan era Napoleon, pada tahun 1819 Belanda mengklaim kembali  Kota Padang (wiki)

1816
extinction of the state and the colonial government of the Netherlands up Successor states of Pinangawan

 

1810 1835


Marhum died of seacoast New (Posthumous name)

Book ‘lost interest Tuanku Rao’ and Controversies Heroism lord Tambusai
by Suryadi
Compass (Thursday, 10/16/2008) the results of the discussion of the Indonesian version of the second edition (the first in 1992 by the INIS) Christine Dobbin book that is quite classic: Economic turmoil, Islamic Awakening and Padri War (New York: Community Bamboo, 2008) . The book was also discussed again at the Padang on 18 October.

Discussion of the book is a sort of continuation of the polemic about

 

1803-1821

After experiencing a prolonged conflict, followed by a devastating civil war between the years 1803-1821, followed by
Minangkabau war between the years 1821 – 1838
 to face the armies of the colonial Dutch East Indies,

 

 

1810 1835

Marhum Mangkat of Rantau Baru (posthumous name)

 

Buku ‘Greget Tuanku Rao’ dan Kontroversi Kepahlawanan Tuanku Tambusai

Oleh Suryadi

Kompas (Kamis, 16/10/2008) memberitakan hasil diskusi tentang versi Bahasa Indonesia terbitan kedua (yang pertama 1992 oleh INIS) buku Christine Dobbin yang sudah cukup klasik: Gejolak Ekonomi, Kebangkitan Islam dan Perang Padri (Jakarta: Komunitas Bambu, 2008). Buku itu juga didiskusikan lagi di Padang tanggal 18 Oktober ini.

Diskusi buku itu adalah semacam kelanjutan dari polemik tentang

 

 

Padri War

(1803-1837)
which has been ongoing since last year.
One of the initiators polemic is Basyral Hamidi Harahap (BHH), the author lost interest Tuanku Rao (New York: Community Bamboo, September 2007).

In this book the author, among others criticize lord Tambusai (1784-1882), the first national hero of origin Riau based 071/TK/Tahun Presidential Decree No. 1995.

Polemics about sticking Padri War again, with BHH as one of the main propulsion motors, initially triggered by the user republikasi MO Parlindungan, Pongkinangolngolan Sinamabela title Tuanku Rao: Hanbali school of Islamic Terror in Batak, 1816-1833 (New York: LKiS, 2006) the first edition (1964) has criticized Hamka (1974).

 

 

Along with that comes a degree of heroism petitions sued  that Tuanku Imam  Bondjol accused of violating human rights because it forces invaded Padri Batak Land (1816-1833) who killed “millions” of people in the area (see: http://www.petitiononline.com/ knurl / petition.html).

Now it seems to go a step further polemic: the title of the report in Kompas dated October 16, 2008 was quite controversial: “Casualties of War Rectification Request Padri History”.

 

Thus, the explicit claims of the children and grandchildren of war casualties that occurred nearly two hundred years ago it was that history Padri War was in the public has been “not correct” to say nothing untrue.
This brief review BHH in lost interest a little view Tuanku Rao (GTR) on the heroic lord Tambusai, the common thread that can be pulled to the discussion that took place in the field as reported by Reuters that.
Although this book is ‘spread’ here and there, less effective, and weak in terms of theory and methodology, but the content that is full of lost interest is clearly focused on criticism of the cruelty and brutality of The Padri when they invaded the Land of Batak. The invasion has joined the ancestors BHH own torment. In GTR BHH questioned the patriotism and heroism Tambusai my lord and my lord Imam Bonjol (hlm.106-7).

Tuanku Tambusai and irony Padri War
It can not be denied that the war had left the memories of heroic Padri well as traumatic to the people in the three regions: West Sumatra, North Sumatra (Tapanuli and vicinity), and Riau (Rokan and vicinity).
For about the first 20 years of the war (1803-1821) was practically a mutually berbunuhan fellow Minangkabau and his brothers from the Land of Batak.
Starting in April 1821
Company involved in the war as “invited” the Indigenous. Furthermore, it is the resistance war repel invaders Netherlands.
Heroism lord Tambusai more associated with the final episode Padri War. After the fortress fell Bonjol

 

 

Original info

Perang Paderi (1803-1837)

yang telah berlangsung sejak tahun lalu.

Salah seorang penggagas polemik itu adalah Basyral Hamidi Harahap (BHH), penulis buku Greget Tuanku Rao (Jakarta: Komunitas Bambu, September 2007). Dalam buku itu penulisnya antara lain mengeritik Tuanku Tambusai (1784-1882), Pahlawan Nasional pertama asal Riau berdasarkan Keputusan Presiden RI Nomor 071/TK/Tahun 1995.

Polemik mengenai Perang Paderi yang mencuat lagi, dengan BHH sebagai salah seorang motor penggeraknya yang utama, pada awalnya dipicu oleh republikasi buku M.O. Parlindungan, Pongkinangolngolan Sinamabela gelar Tuanku Rao: Teror Agama Islam Mazhab Hambali di Tanah Batak, 1816-1833 (Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2006) yang edisi pertamanya (1964) telah dikritisi Hamka (1974).

Bersamaan dengan itu muncul pula petisi yang menggugat gelar kepahlawanan Tuanku Imam Bonjol yang dituduh melanggar HAM karena pasukan Paderi menginvasi Tanah Batak (1816-1833) yang menewaskan “jutaan” orang di daerah itu (lihat: http://www.petitiononline.com/bonjol/petition.html).

Kini tampaknya polemik itu maju selangkah lagi: judul laporan dalam Kompas tanggal 16 Oktober 2008 itu cukup kontroversial: “Korban Perang Paderi Minta Pelurusan Sejarah”. Dengan demikian, tersurat klaim dari anak cucu korban perang yang terjadi hampir duaratus tahun yang lalu itu bahwa sejarah Perang Paderi yang sudah diketahui umum selama ini “belum lurus” untuk tidak mengatakan tidak benar.

Tulisan singkat ini mengulas sedikit pandangan BHH dalam Greget Tuanku Rao (GTR) mengenai kepahlawanan Tuanku Tambusai, yang dapat ditarik benang merahnya dengan diskusi yang berlangsung di Medan seperti yang diberitakan Kompas itu.

Walaupun isi buku ini ‘menjalar’ ke sana-sini, kurang terarah, dan lemah dari segi teori dan metodologi, tapi isinya yang memang penuh greget itu jelas berfokus kepada kritik terhadap kekejaman dan kebrutalan Kaum Paderi ketika mereka melakukan invasi ke Tanah Batak. Invasi itu telah ikut menyengsarakan nenek moyang BHH sendiri. Dalam GTR BHH mempertanyakan patriotisme dan kepahlawanan Tuanku Tambusai dan Tuanku Imam Bonjol (hlm.106-7).

Tuanku Tambusai dan ironi Perang Paderi

Tak dapat dimungkiri bahwa Perang Paderi telah meninggalkan kenangan heroik sekaligus traumatis kepada masyarakat di tiga daerah: Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Utara (Tapanuli dan sekitarnya), dan Riau (Rokan dan sekitarnya).

Selama sekitar 20 tahun pertama perang itu (1803-1821) praktis yang saling berbunuhan adalah sesama orang Minangkabau dan saudara-saudaranya dari Tanah Batak.

 

1808

 

Hispan 8 real silver coin carolus IIII min PTS Potosi Bolivia very rare mint  found at bukittinggi(provenance Dr Iwan)

1809

 

 

Raja Malewar san Kisah Di Pagaruyung

Oleh: PUTI RENO RAUDHA THAIB

Ketua Umum Bundo Kanduang Sumatera Barat

Chairman of West Sumatra Bundo Kanduang
footage of a king of Minangkabau, among the many kings who were ascending and descending turns.

Tuanku Raja Muning Alamsyah or also called The Sultan Alam Dipertuan Muningsyah

is the natural king Pagaruyung who survived extraordinary tragedy in Koto hands of murder, Tanah Datar in 1809 in Padri War raging in Minangkabau.

Years of this tragedy contested. Christine Dobin recorded in the Islamic Revival In The Changing Peasant Economy, (Inis, Jakarta 1992) the tragedy occurred in 1815, as well as written Rusli Amran in West Sumatra until plaque length, (Sinar Harapan Jakarta 1981).

1810

 

 

Bonjol(perang Padri)

 

1810

Fort suroasso

 

 

1811

 

Biside the Batang arau river picture in  Mesden book the history of sumatra also faound interesting litho illustrations

 

 House in Sumatra

 

NAME OF SUMATRA.

With respect to the name of Sumatra, we perceive that it was unknown both to the Arabian travellers and to Marco Polo, who indeed was not likely to acquire it from the savage natives with whom he had intercourse.

The appellation of Java minor which he gives to the island seems to have been quite arbitrary, and not grounded upon any authority, European or Oriental, unless we can suppose that he had determined it to be the I’azadith nesos of Ptolemy;

but from the other parts of his relation it does not appear that he was acquainted with the work of that great geographer, nor could he have used it with any practical advantage.

At all events it could not have led him to the distinction of a greater and a lesser Java; and we may rather conclude that, having visited (or heard of) the great island properly so called, and not being able to learn the real name of another, which from its situation and size might well be regarded as a sister island, he applied the same to both, with the relative epithets of major and minor. That Ptolemy’s Jaba-dib or dio was intended, however vaguely, for the island of Java, cannot be doubted. It must have been known to the Arabian merchants, and he was indefatigable in his inquiries; but at the same time that they communicated the name they might be ill qualified to describe its geographical position.

In the rude narrative of Odoricus we perceive the first approach to the modern name in the word Sumoltra.

Those who immediately followed him write it with a slight, and often inconsistent, variation in the orthography, Sumotra, Samotra, Zamatra, and Sumatra.

But none of these travellers inform us from whom they learned it; whether from the natives or from persons who had been in the habits of frequenting it from the continent of India;

 

which latter I think the more probable. Reland, an able oriental scholar, who directed his attention to the languages of the islands, says it obtains its appellation from a certain high land called Samadra,

which he supposes to signify in the language of the country a large ant; but in fact there is not any spot so named; and although there is some resemblance between semut, the word for an ant, and the name in question, the etymology is quite fanciful.

 Others have imagined that they find an easy derivation in the word samatra, to be met with in some Spanish or Portuguese dictionaries, as signifying a sudden storm of wind and rain,

and from whence our seamen may have borrowed the expression; but it is evident that the order of derivation is here reversed, and that the phrase is taken from the name of the land in the neighbourhood of which such squalls prevail.

 In a Persian work of the year 1611 the name of Shamatrah occurs as one of those places where the Portuguese had established themselves; and in some very modern Malayan correspondence I find the word Samantara employed (along with another more usual, which will be hereafter mentioned) to designate this island.

PROBABLY DERIVED FROM THE SANSKRIT.

These, it is true, are not entirely free from the suspicion of having found their way to the Persians and Malays through the medium of European intercourse; but to a person who is conversant with the languages of the continent of India it must be obvious that the name,

however written, bears a strong resemblance to words in the Sanskrit language: nor should this appear extraordinary when we consider (what is now fully admitted) that a large proportion of the Malayan is derived from that source,

and that the names of many places in this and the neighbouring countries (such as Indrapura and Indragiri in Sumatra, Singapura at the extremity of the peninsula, and Sukapura and the mountain of Maha-meru in Java) are indisputably of Hindu origin.

It is not my intention however to assign a precise etymology; but in order to show the general analogy to known Sanskrit terms it may be allowed to instance Samuder, the ancient name of the capital of the Carnatik, afterwards called Bider; Samudra-duta, which occurs in the Hetopadesa, as signifying the ambassador of the sea; the compound formed of su, good, and matra, measure; and more especially the word samantara, which implying a boundary, intermediate, or what lies between, might be thought to apply to the peculiar situation of an island intermediate between two oceans and two straits.

NOT ENTIRELY UNKNOWN TO THE NATIVES.

When on a former occasion it was asserted (and with too much confidence) that the name of Sumatra is unknown to the natives, who are ignorant of its being an island, and have no general name for it,

the expression ought to have been confined to those natives with whom I had an opportunity of conversing, in the southern part of the west coast, where much genuineness of manners prevails, with little of the spirit of commercial enterprise or communication with other countries.

But even in situations more favourable for acquiring knowledge I believe it will be found that the inhabitants of very large islands, and especially if surrounded by smaller ones, are accustomed to consider their own as terra firma, and to look to no other geographical distinction than that of the district or nation to which they belong. Accordingly we find that the more general names have commonly been given by foreigners, and, as the Arabians chose to call this island Al-rami or Lameri, so the Hindus appear to have named it Sumatra or Samantara.

MALAYAN NAMES FOR THE ISLAND.

Since that period however, having become much better acquainted with Malayan literature, and perused the writings of various parts of the peninsula and islands where the language is spoken and cultivated, I am enabled to say that Sumatra is well known amongst the eastern people and the better-informed of the natives themselves by the two names of Indalas and Pulo percha (or in the southern dialect Pritcho).

ANDALAS.

Of the meaning or analogies of the former, which seems to have been applied to it chiefly by the neighbouring people of Java,

 I have not any conjecture, and only observe its resemblance (doubtless accidental) to the Arabian denomination of Spain or Andalusia. In one passage I find the Straits of Malacca termed the sea of Indalas, over which, we are gravely told, a bridge was thrown by Alexander the Great.

 

PERCHA.

The latter and more common name is from a Malayan word signifying fragments or tatters, and the application is whimsically explained by the condition of the sails of the vessel in which the island was circumnavigated for the first time;

but it may with more plausibility be supposed to allude to the broken or intersected land for which the eastern coast is so remarkable.

 It will indeed be seen in the map that in the vicinity of what are called Rupat’s Straits there is a particular place of this description named Pulo Percha, or the Broken Islands.

As to the appellation of Pulo Ber-api, or Volcano Island, which has also occurred, it is too indefinite for a proper name in a region of the globe where the phenomenon is by no means rare or peculiar, and should rather be considered as a descriptive epithet.

Source

The history of Sumatra

By

 

William Marsden (1754–1836),

by George Dance, 1794

read the complete info at CD-Rom

The History Of Sumatra

Edited by

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

Dagger

 

Fauna

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flora

 

 

garcinia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

camphor

 

 

 

 

1804

 

In 1795

, a French-backed revolution in Holland expelled the Stadthouder, William of Orange, who fled to Britain, where he issued the so-called ‘Kew Letter’, instructing VOC officials in the Indies to surrender their posts to the British on demand. On this basis, the British occupied Melaka, Padang and Ambon without a struggle, Banda by surprise and Tidore by assault, but were unable to capture Kupang or Ternate. The 1802 Treaty of Amiens restored these territories to the Dutch.

THE BATAVIAN REPUBLIC

1798 -1806

Bali

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Balinese kingdoms, ca 1800

To the east of Bali lies the long chain of islands known as the Lesser Sundas or Nusatenggara (Southeastern Islands). For the most part, these islands were involved only peripherally in the trade and civilization of the western archipelago until the colonial area. Although the Nagarakertagama (Desawarnyana) lists Timor and Sumba as tributaries of 14th -century Majapahit, Javanese culture has left at the most only scattered traces in the region. No significant local inscriptions have been found to attest to the existence of early kingdoms and Chinese records are vague. The region’s economic relations with the outside world seem to have been based on the export of sandalwood, especially from Timor, a trade which may have begun in the 7th century.

Lombok and Sumbawa, ca 1800

Balinese rule on Lombok was turbulent. By the middle of the 18th century,

they had subdued the Sasak aristocracy in the east of the island. A few decades later, however, disunity led them to split into four separate kingdoms, while the Sasak domains in the east regained much of their independence. Even in times of Balinese control, the east of the island was often restive.

Evidence from the earliest European visitors to the Nusatenggara region suggests that the normal state of affairs was one of division into a large number of small polities, which were linked into larger confederacies or empires whose significance was sometimes political and economic but more often symbolic. Timor produced sandalwood, which was valued for trade to China, and management of this trade necessarily meant a relationship between port towns such as Sorbian, Insana and Dili, and the polities of the interior. In the centre and east of the island, the ruler of Wehale (Belu), sometimes based in the port of Dili, sometimes based in the interior, claimed a hegemony over some forty-six liurai or ‘kings’ along the coast and the interior. In the west the confederacy of Sonba’i (Sonnebait), sometimes based in Sorbian, claimed a similar hegemony over sixteen liurai. The port of Kupang seems to have been independent of both of these power centres.

 

(19th Century prints capture some of the adjuncts of colonialism)

 

But the new king was then in no position to fulfill his end of the bargain with the Dutch-his treasury had been looted and his kingdom was in ruin. All he had to offer was territory, and although he ceded much of western Java to the VOC, they still suffered a heavy financial loss.

On December 31, 1799,

Dutch financiers received stunning news-the VOC was bankrupt!.

 

During the 18th Century,

the spice trade had become less profitable, while the military involvement in Java had grown increasingly costly-this at least is the broad outline of events leading to one of the largest commercial collapses in history.

 

 


1799

The establishment of Bandung

When the Bandung regency led by the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II, the powers of the Company on the archipelago ended due to the VOC went bankrupt (December 1799). Power in the archipelago then taken over by the Government of the Netherlands East Indies with the first Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1808-1811).

In line with change of power in the Dutch East Indies, Bandung regency circumstances change. Changes in the first place is to transfer the capital district of the southern region Krapyak in Bandung to Bandung, which was; etak in the middle area of ​​the district.

 

 

Between January 1800 to end December 1807 in the archipelago in general and in Java in particular, occur foreign power vacuum (invaders), because although the Governor-General of the Company is still there, but he had no power. For the regents, during the vacuum power means the loss of the burden of obligations to be fulfilled for the benefit of a foreign ruler (invaders). Thus, they can devote attention to the interests of local governments respectively. This would occur also in Bandung Regency.

According to the script Sadjarah Bandung, Bandung in 1809 Regent Wiranatakusumah II along with a number of people moved from Karapyak to the area north of the land going to the capital. At that time the land would Bandung still forested, but in the north existing settlements, namely Kampung Cikapundung conservative, Kampung Cikalintu, and Villages Bogor. According to the script, the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II moved to the city of Bandung after he settled in temporary shelters for two and a half years.

Originally regents living in Cikalintu (Cipaganti area) and then he moved Balubur Downstream. When Deandels Cikapundung inaugurate the construction of the bridge (bridge at Jl. Asia Africa Building near PLN now), Regent of Bandung was there. Deandels with Regent over the bridge and then they walk eastward to one place (in front of the Office of Public Works Jl. Asia Africa now). In that place deandels plugging rod and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (Try, if I come back here, a city has built! “. Apparently Deandels wants city center was built in the place.

 

 

Peanger Hotel 1910

As a follow-up of his word, Deandels asked Regent Bandung and Parakanmuncang to move the capital of each district to the nearby Jalan Raya Pos. Deandels request was submitted by letter dated May 25, 1810.

beauty of the city of Bandung Regency Bandung in conjunction with the appointment of Raden Suria became Patih Parakanmuncang. Both momentum is confirmed by besluit (decree) dated September 25, 1810. This date is also the date of Decree (besluit), the formal judicial (dejure) designated as the City Anniversary Bandung.

Perhaps the regents began domiciled in Bandung after there in the first district where the building marquee. Certainly the marquee district is the first building constructed for the central government activities Bandung regency.

 

 

 


1805.

In 1805 his son, then aged twenty-one, was on the throne, and had a contention with his paternal uncle, and at the same time his father-in-law, named Tuanku Raja, by whom he had been compelled to fly (but only for a short time) to Pidir, the usual asylum of the Achinese monarchs. Their quarrel appears to have been rather of a family than of a political nature, and to have proceeded from the irregular conduct of the queen-mother. The low state of this young king’s finances, impoverished by a fruitless struggle to enforce, by means of an expensive marine establishment, his right to an exclusive trade, had induced him to make proposals, for mutual accommodation, to the English government of Pulo Pinang.*

(*Footnote. Since the foregoing was printed the following information respecting the manners of the Batta people, obtained by Mr. Charles Holloway from Mr. W.H. Hayes, has reached my hands. “In the month of July 1805 an expedition consisting of Sepoys, Malays, and Battas was sent from Tapanuli against a chief named Punei Manungum, residing at Nega­timbul, about thirty miles inland from Old Tapanuli, in consequence of his having attacked a kampong under the protection of the company, murdered several of the inhabitants, and carried others into captivity. After a siege of three days, terms of accommodation being proposed, a cessation of hostilities took place, when the people of each party having laid aside their arms intermixed with the utmost confidence, and conversed together as if in a state of perfect amity. The terms however not proving satisfactory, each again retired to his arms and renewed the contest with their former inveteracy. On the second day the place was evacuated, and upon our people entering it Mr. Hayes found the bodies of one man and two women, whom the enemy had put to death before their departure (being the last remaining of sixteen prisoners whom they had originally carried off), and from whose legs large pieces had been cut out, evidently for the purpose of being eaten. During the progress of this expedition a small party had been sent to hold in check the chiefs of Labusukum and Singapollum (inland of Sibogah), who were confederates of Punei Manungum. These however proved stronger than was expected, and, making a sally from their kampongs, attacked the sergeant’s party and killed a sepoy, whom he was obliged to abandon. Mr. Hayes, on his way from Negatimbul, was ordered to march to the support of the retreating party; but these having taken a different route he remained ignorant of the particulars of their loss. The village of Singapollam being immediately carried by storm, and the enemy retreating by one gate, as our people entered at the opposite, the accoutrements of the sepoy who had been killed the day before were seen hanging as trophies in the front of the houses, and in the town hall, Mr. Hayes saw the head entirely scalped, and one of the fingers fixed upon a fork or skewer, still warm from the fire. On proceeding to the village of Labusucom, situated little more than two hundred yards from the former, he found a large plantain leaf full of human flesh, mixed with lime-juice and chili-pepper, from which he inferred that they had been surprised in the very act of feasting on the sepoy, whose body had been divided between the two kampongs. Upon differences being settled with the chiefs they acknowledged with perfect sangfroid that such had been the case, saying at the same time, “you know it is our custom; why should we conceal it?”)

 

 

 

 

.

31

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39

 

THE BATAVIAN REPUBLIC

1798 -1806

In the time the possessions of the former VOC were administered by the Batavian Republic it was under the supervision of the Council of the Asiatic Possessions and Establishments (Raad der Asiatische Bezittingen en Etablissementen.)The Batavian Republic introduced the use of the emblem of the sovereign in the colonies and this was continued by the following administrations. First this emblem consisted of an altar charged with an anchor and a dolphin, supported by a lion with the national flag and the Batavian Virgin with spear an hat of Liberty. The legend of these stamps read “raad der asiat(ische): bezitt(ingen): en etabl(issementen) der bataafsche / republiek”. [13]In 1802 the emblem was changed into a lion rampant, armed with a sword and a bundle of arrows.On the stamps for use by the councils the emblem of state was surrounded by the legend “raad der asiat(ische): bezitt(ingen): en etabl(issementen)”.[14]Nevertheless on a florin for circulation in the colonies there appeared the old symbols of the Company and of the States General: a ship sailing to the sinister and the crowned arms with the lion with sword and arrows.  This time the symbols can be considered as the symbols of the territory and of its ruler.

   
 
   
 
   
 

The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:

 

 

Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”

   
 

 

   

 

 
 
 
 

BORNEO CA 1800
 1801: II became Sultan Sulaiman Saidullah Banjar XV until 1825.
 1806: Muhammad Jamalul Alam I to the Sultan of Brunei until 1807.
 1806: August 11, 1806 changed its name from the royal palace Banjar Kencana into Earth Good Earth.
 1807: Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei Kanzul until the year 1829.
 1808: Sharif Kasim became the Sultan of Pontianak Alkadrie II until 1819.
 1809: Dutch Banjarmasin release of its colonies. [38]
 1810: British occupy Banjarmasin. [39]
 1810: Sultan Alimuddin became the first sultan Sambaliung Sultanate, the Sultanate of Berau fractions are divided by two.
 1811: Sultan Ibrahim became Sultan of Sand Alamsyah until 1815.
 1812: Alexander Hare became resident-commissioner for the British government in Yogyakarta. [40]
 1814: Queen Imanuddin move the administrative center of Kotawaringin Old Kingdom Kotawaringin to Pangkalan Bun.
 1814: Muhammad Ali Syafeiuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until the year 1828.
 1815: Sultan Mahmud became the Sultan Han Alamsyah Sand until 1843.
 1816: Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin be Kutai XVI until the year 1845.
[Edit] Age of Dutch East Indies
 1817: On January 1, British Borneo Banjarmasin and handed back to the Dutch, then on the day it was made Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman I of Banjar with the Dutch East Indies represented Boekholzt Resident Aernout van.
 1817: King Tidung Amiril Tadjoeddin served until 1844. In Kotawaringin, Prince Queen Imanuddin ruled until 1855 [41]
 1819: Sharif Osman Sultan of Pontianak III Alkadrie be until the year 1855. He was appointed to lead the Dutch East Indies government Afdeeling Pontianak.
 1820: Zainul Abidin bin Badruddin II (1820-1834) became Sultan Mountain Sow I, the fraction of the Sultanate of Berau. Prince Sultan Sulaiman-law of Moses Banjar Kusan II became King until the year 1830.
 1823: Mr. Muller Dutch East Indies government employees surveyed northwest Borneo. [42])
 1823: 13 September 1823: Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman II of the Dutch East Indies represented Banjar with Mr. Resident. Tobias.
 1825: Adam Alwasikh Billah became Sultan of Banjar XVI until 1857. In Brunei, Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei until 1828.
 1825: In July 1825, Prince Aji Jawi, King of the Land Seasonings establish a contract with the Dutch East Indies.
 1826: After the conquest attack Banjar palace in Yogyakarta in 1826, the Dutch East Indies had been made a rule which areas are still controlled by the Sultanate of Banjar and determine the division of the territories.

Lombok and Sumbawa, ca 1800

Balinese rule on Lombok was turbulent. By the middle of the 18th century, they had subdued the Sasak aristocracy in the east of the island. A few decades later, however, disunity led them to split into four separate kingdoms, while the Sasak domains in the east regained much of their independence. Even in times of Balinese control, the east of the island was often restive.

Evidence from the earliest European visitors to the Nusatenggara region suggests that the normal state of affairs was one of division into a large number of small polities, which were linked into larger confederacies or empires whose significance was sometimes political and economic but more often symbolic. Timor produced sandalwood, which was valued for trade to China, and management of this trade necessarily meant a relationship between port towns such as Sorbian, Insana and Dili, and the polities of the interior. In the centre and east of the island, the ruler of Wehale (Belu), sometimes based in the port of Dili, sometimes based in the interior, claimed a hegemony over some forty-six liurai or ‘kings’ along the coast and the interior. In the west the confederacy of Sonba’i (Sonnebait), sometimes based in Sorbian, claimed a similar hegemony over sixteen liurai. The port of Kupang seems to have been independent of both of these power centres.

1803

 

 

 

 

 

1806

Raid on Batavia

 

 

Part of the Napoleonic Wars


A painting by
Thomas Whitcombe depicting Batavia harbour in 1806.

Date

27 November 1806

Location

Batavia, Java, Dutch East Indies

Result

British victory

Belligerents

United Kingdom

Kingdom of Holland

Commanders and leaders

Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew

Rear-Admiral Hartsink

Strength

Four ships of the line, two frigates and a brig

Frigate Phoenix, eight small warships and support from gun batteries on shore

Casualties and losses

One killed, four wounded

Casualties unknown, Phoenix, seven small warships and 20 merchant ships destroyed. One brig and two merchant ships captured.

 

[

   
 

The Raid on Batavia of 27 November 1806 was an attempt by a large British naval force to destroy the Dutch squadron based on Java in the Dutch East Indies that posed a threat to British shipping in the Straits of Malacca. The British admiral in command of the eastern Indian Ocean, Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, led a force of four ships of the line, two frigates and brig to the capital of Java at Batavia (later renamed Djakarta), in search of the squadron, which was reported to consist of a number of Dutch ships of the line and several smaller vessels. However the largest Dutch ships had already sailed eastwards towards Griessie over a month earlier, and Pellew only discovered the frigate Phoenix and a number of smaller warships in the bay, all of which were driven ashore by their crews rather than engage Pellew’s force. The wrecks were subsequently burnt and Pellew, unaware of the whereabouts of the main Dutch squadron, returned to his base at Madras for the winter.

The raid was the third of series of actions intended to eliminate the threat posed to British trade routes by the Dutch squadron: at the Action of 26 July 1806 and the Action of 18 October 1806, British frigates sent on reconnaissance missions to the region succeeded in attacking and capturing two Dutch frigates and a number of other vessels. The raid reduced the effectiveness of Batavia as a Dutch base, but the continued presence of the main Dutch squadron at Griessie concerned Pellew and he led a second operation the following year to complete his defeat of the Dutch. Three years later, with the French driven out of the western Indian Ocean, British forces in the region were strong enough to prepare an expeditionary force against the Dutch East Indies, which effectively ended the war in the east.

Contents

Background

In early 1806, Pellew was relieved by the news that a large French squadron under Rear-Admiral Charles Linois had sailed out of the Indian Ocean and into the Atlantic. The departure of Linois after three years of operations in eastern waters freed Pellew’s small squadron based at Madras for operations against the Dutch East Indies. Pellew’s particular target was the island of Java, where the principal Dutch squadron and their base at Batavia were located.[1] The Dutch Kingdom of Holland was a French client state under Emperor Napoleon‘s brother Louis Bonaparte and Batavia had been used by Linois in his preparations for the Battle of Pulo Aura, in which a valuable British convoy came under attack, and its position close to the Straits of Malacca threatened British trade with China.[2]

Pellew’s departure for the East Indies was delayed by the Vellore Mutiny in the spring, and instead he sent frigates to reconnoitre the situation of the Dutch forces in the region. In July, HMS Greyhound under Captain Edward Elphinstone cruised in the Molucca Islands and captured a Dutch convoy at the Action of 26 July 1806 off Celebes.[3] Three months later another frigate, HMS Caroline under Captain Peter Rainier, cruised successfully in the Java Sea and managed to capture a Dutch frigate at the Action of 18 October 1806 from the entrance to Batavia harbour.[4] Shortly before Rainier’s engagement, the principal ships of the Dutch squadron, the two ships of the line Pluto and Revolutie, had sailed westwards towards the port of Griessie, Rear-Admiral Hartsink seeking to divide his forces in preparation for the coming British attack to prevent their complete destruction.[5]

Pellew sailed from Madras in the early autumn of 1806, expecting the full Dutch squadron to be present and preparing accordingly with the ship of the line HMS Culloden under Captain Christopher Cole as his flagship, accompanied by HMS Powerful under Captain Robert Plampin, HMS Russell under Captain Thomas Gordon Caulfield and HMS Belliqueux under Captain George Byng. The ships of the line were accompanied by the frigate HMS Terpsichore under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, Admiral Pellew’s son, as well as the brig HMS Seaflower under Lieutenant William Fitzwilliam Owen.[6]

Pellew’s attack

By 23 November, Pellew’s squadron was approaching the Sunda Strait from the southwest when he encountered the British frigate HMS Sir Francis Drake, which he attached to his force. Three days later, the squadron passed the port of Bantam and seized the Dutch East India Company brig Maria Wilhelmina, continuing on to Batavia during the night.[7] At the approaches to the port, the squadron separated, with the frigates and brig passing between Onrust Island and the shore while the ships of the line took a longer route through deeper water. Although Terpsichore was able to surprise and capture the corvette William near Onrust Island, the main body of the squadron was spotted by Dutch lookouts from a distance, who initially mistook the approaching vessels for a French squadron.[8] The Dutch officers, led by Captain Vander Sande on the frigate Phoenix, decided that resistance against such a large British squadron was useless: the only warships remaining in the harbour were the Phoenix and six small armed ships, none of which could contend with the approaching British force. In an effort to dissuade the British from pressing their attack, the Dutch captains all drove their vessels ashore, joined by the 22 merchant vessels that were anchored in the harbour.[6]

Determined to prevent the Dutch from refloating the grounded ships, Admiral Pellew ordered landing parties to assemble in the boats of his squadron alongside Terpsichore. From there, under distant covering fire from the British frigates, Fleetwood Pellew led the boats against Phoenix, coming under fire from the grounded vessels and gun batteries ashore.[7] Passing through the bombardment from the shoreline, Pellew’s men boarded Phoenix to find that the Dutch crew had just abandoned the vessel, scuttling the frigate as they departed. Although now useless as a ship, Phoenix‘s guns were turned on the other beached vessels to cover the British boats as they spread out to board and burn them. This operation was followed by the destruction of 20 grounded merchant ships in the harbour, although two others were successfully refloated and captured.[9] In a final act before withdrawing to the squadron offshore, Captain Pellew set fire to the wreck of Phoenix, burning the ship to the waterline. The entire operation was conducted under heavy fire from the shore, but British casualties were only one Royal Marine killed and three men wounded.[10]

Without sufficient troops to attempt a landing at Batavia itself, Admiral Pellew withdrew from the harbour. Preparing his prizes for the return to Madras, he ordered all prisoners taken from the captured and burnt ships returned to shore under condition of parole.[11] The captured William was found to be in such a poor state of repair that it was not worth keeping the corvette and Admiral Pellew ordered the ship burnt, noting in his official report that Lieutenant Owen, who as senior lieutenant would otherwise have been placed in command, should be recompensed with another command as reward for his services in the engagement. With his preparations complete, Pellew then ordered his squadron to disperse, Culloden sailing to Malacca.[5]

Aftermath

The British raid on Batavia had destroyed 28 vessels. In addition to Phoenix, William and the merchant ships, Pellew’s squadron had burnt the 18-gun brigs Aventurier and Patriot, the 14-gun Zee-Ploeg, the 10-gun Arnistein, the 8-gun Johanna Suzanna and the 6-gun Snelheid. Just three ships were captured: two merchant vessels and Maria Wilhelmina.[11] The elimination of the smaller vessels of the Dutch squadron was an important victory for Pellew, leaving only the larger ships of the line at large. These ships were old and in poor condition, limiting the threat they posed to British trade routes. Nevertheless, Pellew returned to the Java Sea in 1807 in search of the warships, destroying them at the Raid on Griessie in November, a year after the success at Batavia.[5] A lack of resources in the region and the threat posed by the French Indian Ocean island bases delayed larger scale British operations against the East Indies until 1810, when a series of invasions rapidly eliminated the remaining Dutch presence in the Pacific

Daendels and Raffles

It is one of the great ironies of colonial history that to fully exploit that to fully their colony, the Dutch had to first lose their shirts. The domination of Java-achieved at the expense of VOC bankruptcy-profited the Dutch handsomely in the 19th Century.

In the traumatic aftermatch of the VOC bankruptcy, there was a great indecision in Holland as to the course that should be steered in the Indies. In 1800, the Netherlands government assumed control of all former VOC possessions, now renamed Netherlands India, but for many years no one could figure out how to make them profitable. A number of factors, notably the Napoleonic Wars, compounded the confusion.

A new beginning of sorts was finally made under the iron rule of Governor-General Marshall Daendals (1808-11), a follower of Napoleon who wrought numerous administrative reforms, rebuilt Batavia, and constructed a post road the length of Java.

1808

Herman Willem Daendels (1762-1818) Herman William Daendels lived in a very complex period of national history. As unknown as he is now so well known and controversial, he was in the late 18th and early 19th century.

He was son of the town clerk of Hattem. He studied law at Harderwijk and established himself as a lawyer in his hometown.
William Herman, a regent from family, was one of the leaders of the Hattemerbroek bourgeoisie, who sought a greater influence on the appointment of citizens of the city.

Patriots
In 1785 he was recommended for appointment ships placed. Stadtholder William V wished him not to appoint. Daendels now openly joined the Patriots Party.

The Patriots (patriotic) opposed Prince William V, without public participation in the provincial and municipal officials appointed boards.

Uprising in Hattem
In 1786 led the then 23-year-old William Herman Daendels the uprising against William V. Hattem The patriotic citizen companies were supported by patriots from Overijssel. The Prussian troops of the prince, however, drove them to flee occupied and Hattem. Daendels and many other patriots fled to France.
In 1788 the Court sentenced him in absentia of Ontario, with a sword over the head to be punished and to perpetual exile from Ontario;

The Daendelshuis and Daendelspoortje in Hattem recall the famous resident of this city.

He followed with great interest the progress of the French Revolution and took a seat on the Batavian committee, that a revolution in the Northern Netherlands prepared.

When the favorable moment, he seemed to have come in 1792 as a battalion commander of the Batavian Legion in French military service. As such he participated in the conquest of Belgium under Dumouriez. A year after his defeat at Neerwinden, in 1793, followed Daendels’s appointment as brigadier general in the Northern Army under Pichegru (March 1794). In this capacity he took part in the siege include: ‘s-Hertogenbosch and the conquest of the Bommelerwaard.

French Revolution
In December 1794 the armies of Pichegru on the frozen rivers in the Netherlands.

The patriots had formed in France in a Batavian legion, under the command of General Herman Willem Daendels.
The people offered little resistance and Prince William V fled by fishing boat to England. The Patriots took control and called the Batavian Republic.
Daendels played a prominent role in domestic politics in drafting the new constitution.

Coup d’etat
Daendels volgede with scrutiny work to prepare a Constitution for the Batavian Republic. When this did not to his knowledge went, he committed his first coup, January 22, 1798 and continued with his grenadiers all Federalists outside the National Assembly.
On July 12 d.a.v. He grabbed it again and forced illegally elected Executive Directors to resign, which earned him the nickname Second Brutus. In 1798 the Executive Directors appointed him commander of the Batavian Republic of Batavian troops, who would participate in the landing in Ireland, but the expedition was called off.

In the following year he was the head of a Batavian division under the leadership of Chief General Brune, with an impending mandate English-Russian invasion of England to prevent. He could not prevent the successful landing in 1799.

Slander Campaign
Although he is in the further struggle behaved very bravely and enemies to the agreement of Alkmaar were forced to leave the country, was for Daendels’s many adversaries envious and a welcome opportunity to begin a campaign against him. They even accused him of treason. Disappointed took Daendels in 1800 resigned, settled as a farmer in Ontario and kept himself entirely aloof several years of politics.

Kingdom of Holland 1806
After the founding of the Kingdom of Holland, King Louis Napoleon him the country’s service. The appointments and promotions now followed each other in quick succession.

Governor-General of Dutch East Indies (1807 – 1811)
Louis Napoleon in 1807 to Daendels appointed governor-general of Dutch East Indies.

It was a hard task, which Daendels’s shoulders was laid. The remains of the old Company area, Java, Timor, part of the Moluccas and Bandjermasin was the Dutch authorities declined to an alarming manner. Shipment of troops, money and material from the mother country was impossible, since the British ruled the seaways. It was not easy even for Daendels are employed to reach Batavia.

Reorganizations and reforms
His main task was the Dutch colonies against the British. He therefore began a reorganization of the army and filled it with native volunteers. In Weltevreden, a suburb of Batavia, he built a then modern hospital in Surabaya, the capital of Austria, Java, a construction shop, a cadet school in Semarang and Batavia a cannon foundry. The old unhealthy castle at this place he demolished and replaced by a fortified camp at Meester Cornelis. Surabaya became the Fort Louis.
The most popular work of Daendels, the great highway of Carnation to Panaroekan, was primarily a military objective, rapid troop movements. The construction of a military port in the Bay Gulls (Sunda Strait), he had, because of the disastrous climate, obstruction of Bantam, give up.

Administrative and legal Daendels organized in a modern way, and thereby cleared numerous abuses and abuses of time on the Company. However, all these innovations earned him the hatred and opposition of the old party-guests, who many complaints and accusations against him sent to Napoleon.

Complaints
And there were legitimate complaints. The most serious was the manner in which Daendels enriched themselves. Moreover witnessed his performance against the local rulers of little tact and knowledge of their manners and customs. Shortly after the incorporation of the mother Daendels Napoleon called back and instructed the government on May 16, 1811 the emperor appointed by the General Janssens.

Governor-General of Guinea
After the fall of Napoleon asked Daendels King William I, son of his old adversary William V, a new appointment. Understandably trusted the Orange Frost the former revolutionary not too much, but asked him to lock it in October 1815 as Governor General of Guinea (Ghana), on the Gold Coast in West Africa, a very unhealthy and very little meaning area.

William Herman passed away on May 2, 1818 due to yellow fever and was buried in the fort Elmina

 

 

Portrait Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels

Year

1838

Artist

Raden Syarif Bustaman Saleh

Technique

Oil on canvas

Dimensions

119 x 98 cm

 

 

Extra large view of the image

Herman Willem Daendels’s career was very eventful. Political developments in the Netherlands around 1800 were certainly the reason for this. Within a short space of time there were a large number of changes of rulers. Daendels’s career appeared to survive these changes. He was first and foremost a soldier. In 1808 he was appointed Governor General of the Asian colonies. After heavy criticism of his leadership, he was replaced in 1811. He then became an officer in the French army. King William I appointed Daendels Governor General of the Dutch Colonies on the west coast of Africa. There he died of yellow fever in 1818.

 

THE NAPOLEON ARMY OCCUPATIONS INDONESIA COINS”

Posted on July 31, 2010 by iwansuwandy

THE DATA BELOW NOT EDIT , THIS FREE INFO WITHOUT ANALISIS INFO AND CONCLUSION  FOR FREE INFO, THE EDIT AND INFORMATIONS AFTER ANALISYS  WITH THE BEST CONCLUSION OF THE RARE COINS DURING THIS ERA ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER ,THE SENIOR  SERIUS SPECIALIST NUMISMATIC COLLECTOR, THAT IS WHY IG YOU WANT MORE INFO REGISTERED YOUR NAME AS THE PREM,IUM MAMBER VIA COMMENT, THIS Dr IWAN S STUDY REPORT NEVER PUBLISHED. GREETINGS FROM Dr IWAN S.

CHAPTER ONE REPUBLIC INDIA  BATAV IN INDONESIA ARCHIPHELAGO

1. WHEN,  THE BROTHER OF NAPOLEON I, LOUIS NAPOLEON BECAME THE KING OF HOLLAND., HE POINTED DANDELS AS THE GOUVENOR GENERAL IN INDONESIA ARCHIPHLEGO, WITH THE REPUBLIC INDIA BATAV.

THE NAPOLEON ARMY OCCUPATIONS INDONESIA COINS”

Posted on July 31, 2010 by iwansuwandy

THE DATA BELOW NOT EDIT , THIS FREE INFO WITHOUT ANALISIS INFO AND CONCLUSION  FOR FREE INFO, THE EDIT AND INFORMATIONS AFTER ANALISYS  WITH THE BEST CONCLUSION OF THE RARE COINS DURING THIS ERA ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER ,THE SENIOR  SERIUS SPECIALIST NUMISMATIC COLLECTOR, THAT IS WHY IG YOU WANT MORE INFO REGISTERED YOUR NAME AS THE PREM,IUM MAMBER VIA COMMENT, THIS Dr IWAN S STUDY REPORT NEVER PUBLISHED. GREETINGS FROM Dr IWAN S.

CHAPTER ONE REPUBLIC INDIA  BATAV IN INDONESIA ARCHIPHELAGO

1. WHEN,  THE BROTHER OF NAPOLEON I, LOUIS NAPOLEON BECAME THE KING OF HOLLAND., HE POINTED DANDELS AS THE GOUVENOR GENERAL IN INDONESIA ARCHIPHLEGO, WITH THE REPUBLIC INDIA BATAV.

1) THE OLD DESIGN VOC DOEIT WERE USED IN INDONESIA ARCHIPHELAGO.

Half Doeit 1770-special

Half Doeit 1750

1 doeit 1792

1 doeit special design 1793

1 doeit 1805 Dandaels

2) DAANDEAL ISSUED THE LODEWIJK NAPOLEON COPPER COIN

(1) L.N COIN

LN Lodewijk Napoleon 1 doeit

(2) ANTIQUE LN COPPER COINS

antique char.L.Napoleon

1/2 St L.Napoleon

The energetic Herman Willem Daendels, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1808 to 1811, had ordered the construction of Die Groete Postweg, the “great post way,” a highway traversing Java and recalled by this roadside monument. van Holland

 

Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

 

 

Java Great Post Road, commissioned by Daendels.

Louis Bonaparte made Daendels colonel-general in 1806 and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807. After a long voyage, he arrived in the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) on 5 January 1808 and relieved the former Governor General, Albertus Wiese. His primary task was to rid the island of Java of the British Army, which he promptly achieved.[citation needed] He built new hospitals and military barracks, a new arms factories in Surabaya and Semarang, and a new military college in Batavia. He demolished the Castle in Batavia and replaced it with a new fort at Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara), and built Fort Lodewijk in Surabaya. However, his best-known achievement was the construction of the Great Post Road (Indonesian: Jalan Raya Pos) across northern Java. The road now serves as the main road in the island of Java, called Jalur Pantura. The thousand-kilometre road was completed in only one year, during which thousands of Javanese forced labourers died.[2]

He displayed a firm attitude towards the Javanese rulers, with the result that the rulers were willing to work with the British against the Dutch. He also subjected the population of Java to forced labour (Rodi). There were some rebellious actions against this, such as those in Cadas Pangeran, West Java.

There is considerable debate as to whether he increased the efficiency of the local bureaucracy and reduced corruption, although he certainly enriched himself during this period.[citation needed]

General in Napoleon’s Grande Armée

When the Kingdom of Holland was incorporated into France in 1810, Daendels returned to Holland. He was appointed a Divisional General (Major General) and commanded the 26th Division of the Grande Armée in Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast

After the fall of Napoleon, king Willem I and the new Dutch government feared that Daendels could become an influential and powerful opposition leader and effectively banned him from the Netherlands by appointing him Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast (now part of Ghana). In the aftermath of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, Daendels tried to redevelop the rather dilapidated Dutch possessions as an African plantation colony driven by legitimate trade. Drawing on his experience from the East Indies, he came up with some very ambitious infrastructural projects, including a comprehensive road system, with a main road connecting Elmina and Kumasi in Ashanti. The Dutch government gave him a free hand and a substantial budget to implement his plans. At the same time, however, Daendels regarded his governorship as an opportunity to establish a private business monopoly in the Dutch Gold Coast.

Eventually none of the plans came to fruition, as Daendels died of malaria in the castle of St. George d’Elmina, the Dutch seat of government, on 8 May 1818. His body was interred in the central tomb at the Dutch cemetery in Elmina town. He had been in the country less than two years.

In

dit verhaal

hebben we het al eens over het stormachtige leven van Daendels gehad :

Waar uit die buurt (Hattem) ook

Daendels

vandaan kwam, de Nederlandse bevelhebber van het latere Bataafse Legioen, toen

1808

Under French domination during the Napoleonic years in Europe, the Dutch authorities appointed Marshal H. W. Daendels as Governor-General in 1808. He sought both to reform the corrupt administrative practices that had brought down the VOC and to prepare for the defence of Java against an expected British attack. Amongst his measures was to construct a post-road the full length of the island of Java, from Anyer to Panarukan, to improve communications and the movement of troops. Constructed mainly with forced labour working to a tight timetable, the road earned Daendels a reputation for dictatorial cruelty,

Daendels’ postroad on Java

The Great Post Road is the road stretched from west to east at northern part of Java from Anyer to Panarukan along 1,000km. Initaded by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels, this road is passing through Serang, Tangerang, Jakarta, Bogor, Sukabumi, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang, Cirebon, Brebes, Tegal Pemalang, Pekalongan, Kendal, Semarang, Demak, Kudus, Rembang, Tuban, Gresik, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Pasuruan, Probolinggo dan Situbondo.

Daendels was a marshal appointed as governor general of East Indies by Lodewijk Napoleon who ruling Holland at that time. The ultimate aim was handling military preparation in anticipating British Navy attack that had blockaded Java Island. Daendels landed in Anyer in 1808 after routing a long trip from Cadiz in southern Spain, Canary Islands and then departing from New York using American vessel.

Daendels’s most important military project in defending Java from British attack was constructing a highway connecting west and east corner of this island. The road was built by means of obliging indigenous rulers to mobilize people along the route to work it by force. This road had sacrificed thousands life in nearly a year of its building process. Later, the road was renowned as the Great Post Road (De Groote Postweg) since Daendels also set off post and telegraph services at the moment of the making.

1809Since its operation in 1809, the road formerly intended for military purpose had become a main transportaion infrastructure in Java Island. This highway had witnessed traffice of commodities coveyed over it since colonial era till now. The road has play important role as one of crucial veins of Indonesian economy today.

   
   

Here’s the page of full document as shown on this stamp issue. This document is about appointment of Raksa Manggala as a Head of Bengawan Wetan, Cirebon region by Governor General Daendels. The aim of this appointment is to succeed the development of The Great Post Road.

The document’s date is 18 April 1809.
The Document

 

1809

 an extremely rare 1809 handwritten Ambon bank note

 

info source: Rob Huisman

an extremely rare handwritten VOC bank note of 100 rijksdaalders dating from 1809 and issued in Ambon. “This piece of paper is literally of great value. After 1795 no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade, resulting in a severe deficiency in coins and coin materials. The Dutch authorities therefore resorted to issuing paper money. In 1808 Governor General H.W. Daendels decided that an additional three hundred thousand guilders needed to be printed in Ambon. These notes varied in value from 1 to 1,000 silver rijksdaalders. They were widely used in the Moluccas, but could also be exchanged for real money in Batavia. It is conspicuous that this piece of paper mentions the Dutch East India Company, even though the VOC had been nationalized in 1799. The most notable detail however is that only the one hundred rijksdaaldersnote exists as a written currency; the remainder of the issue was printed. An extremely rare piece of paper, which is mentioned in the paper currency catalogue of Mevius, but of which no image has been printed as yet.”

a high resolution scan, which  a great privilege to be able to see this note in great detail and share it through this website. This note has never been published in the past

 

 

 

1811



The English interregnum-a brief period of English rule under Thomas Stamford Raffles (1811-1816)-followed.

Raffless was in many ways an extraordinary man: a brilliant scholar, naturalist, linguist, diplomat and strategist, “discover” of Borobudur and author of the monumental History of Java. In 1811, he planned and led the successful English invasion of Java, and was then placed in charge of its government at the tender age of 32. His active mind and free trade philosophy led him to promulgate reforms almost daily, but the result was bureaucratic anarchy. Essentially, Raffles wanted to replace the old mercantilism system (from which the colonial government derived its income through a monopoly on trade), by one which income was derived from taxes, and trade was unrestrained. This enormous tast was barely begun when the order, came from London, following Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo in 1815, to restore the Indies to the Dutch. Raffles’ legacy lived one, however. Many of his land taxes were eventually levied by the Dutch, and they in fact made possible the horrible exploitation of Java in later years. And his invasion of Yogyakarta in 1812 led ultimately to the cataclysmic Java War of 1825-30.

 

 

(The Dutch Army poses after a victory over Acehnese forces)

 

From Carnage to “Cultivation”

So numerous were the abuses leading to the Java War, and so great were the atrocities commited by the Dutch during it, that the Javanese leader, Pangeran Diponegoro (1785-1855), has been proclaimed a great hero even by Dutch historians. He was indeed a charismatic figure-crown prince, Muslim mystic and man of the people-who led a series of uprisings against the Dutch trick; lured to negotiate, Diponegoro was captured and exiled to Sulawesi. The cost of the conflict in human terms was staggering-200,000 Javanese and 8,000 Europeans lost their lives, many more from starvation and cholera than on the battle-field.

By this time, the Dutch were indeed in desperate economic straits. All efforts at reform had ended in disaster, to put it mildly, and the government debt had reached 30 million guilders!. New ideas were sought, and in 1829, Johannes van den Bosch submitted a proposal to the crown for what he called a culture Stengel or “Cultivation System” of fiscal administration in the colonies. His unoriginal notion was to levy a tax of 20 per cent (later raised to 33 per cent) on all land in Java, but to demand payment not in rice, but in labour or use of the land. This, he pointed out, would permit the Dutch to grow crops that they could sell in Europe.

Van den Bosch soon assumed control of Netherlands India, and in the estimation of many, his Cultivation System was an immediate, unqualified success. In the very first year, 1831, it produced a profit of 3 million guilders and within a decade, more than 22 million guilders were flowing annually into Dutch coffers, largely from the sale of coffee, but also from tea, sugar, indigo, quinine, copra, palm oil and rubber.

With the windfall profits received from the sale of Indonesian products during the rest of the 19th Century, almost a billion guilders in all, the Dutch not only retired their debt, but built new waterways, dikes, roads and a national railway system. Indeed, observes like Englishman J. B. Money whose book Java, or How To Manage A Colony (1861) was received in Holland with a great fanfare, concluded that the system provided a panacea for all colonial woes.

In reality of course, the pernicious effects of the Cultivation System were apparent from the beginning. While in theory the system called for peasants to surrender only a portion of their land and labour, in practice certain lands were worked exclusively for the Dutch by forced labour. The island of Java one earth, was thus transformed into a huge Dutch plantation. As noted by a succession of writers, beginning with Multatuli (nom de plume of a disillusioned Dutch colonial administrator, Douwes Dekker) and his celebrated novel Max Havelaar (1860), the system imposed unimaginable hardships and injustices upon the Javanese.

The long-range effects of the Cultivation System were equally insidious and are still being felt now. The opening up of new lands to cultivation and the ever-increasing Dutch demand for labour resulted in a population explotion on Java. From an estimated total of between 3 and 5 million in 1800 (a figure kept low, it is true, by frequent twas and famines), the population of Java grew to 26 million by 1900. Now the total has topped 110 million (on an island the size of New York State or England!), and the Malthusian time bomb is still ticking.

Another effect is what anthropologist Clifford Geertz has termed the “involution” of Javanese agriculture. Instead of encouraging the growth of an urban economy, as should have occurred under a free market system, Javanese agricultural development only encouraged more agriculture, due to Dutch intervention. This eventually created a twotier colonial economy in which the towns developed apart from the vast majority of rural peasants.

and in 1811

he was dismissed. Three months later, British forces occupied Java.

British troops landed near Batavia in August 1811 and the Dutch forces surrendered to them at Salatiga six weeks later. Thomas Stamford Raffles took over as Lieutenant Governor and began a vigorous programme of reform in the hopes of convincing the British government to retain Java permanently as a colony (as it was to do with the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon). Raffles’ authority was quickly challenged by the sultan of Yogyakarta, but in 1812 British forces attacked, plundered the court of Yogyakarta and sent the sultan into exile, replacing him with his pliable son. To keep the court weak, Raffles also created a new principality within it, the Pakualaman, with a lesser status similar to that of the Mangkunegaran within Surakarta.

1811

The Navy was active off the Javanese coastline before and during the expedition. On 23 May 1811 a party from HMS Sir Francis Drake attacked a flotilla of 14 Dutch gunvessels off Surabaya, capturing nine of them.[2] Marrack, in north-western Java, was attacked and the fort defending the town largely demolished by a party from HMS Minden and HMS Leda on 30 July, while that same day a fleet of six Dutch gunboats flying French colours was attacked by HMS Procris, capturing five and destroying the sixth.[3][4]

Java Expedition

The British force was assembled at bases in India in early 1811, initially overseen by Vice-Admiral William O’Bryen Drury, and then after his death in March, by Commodore William Robert Broughton.[5] The first division of troops, under the command of Colonel Rollo Gillespie, left Madras on 18 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Christopher Cole aboard the 36-gun HMS Caroline. They arrived at Penang on 18 May, and were joined on 21 May by the second division, led by Major-General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, which had left Calcutta on 21 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, aboard the 38-gun HMS Phaeton.[5] The two squadrons sailed together, arriving at Malacca on 1 June, where they made contact with a division of troops from Bengal under Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, and Commodore Broughton aboard the 74-gun HMS Illustrious. Auchmuty and Broughton became the military and naval commanders in chief respectively of the expedition.[5] With the force now assembled Auchmuty had roughly 11,960 men under his command, the previous strength having been reduced by approximately 1,200 by sickness. Those too ill to travel on were landed at Malacca, and on 11 June the fleet sailed onwards. After calling at various points enroute, the force arrived off Indramayu on 30 June.[2]

There the fleet waited for a time for intelligence concerning the strength of the Dutch. Colonel Mackenzie, an officer who had been dispatched to reconnoitre the coast, suggested a landing site at Cilincing, an undefended fishing village 12 miles east of Batavia.[6] The fleet anchored off the Marandi River on 4 August, and began landing troops at 14:00.[4] The defenders were taken by surprise, and nearly six hours passed before Franco-Dutch troops arrived to oppose the landing, by which time 8,000 British troops had been landed.[4][7] A brief skirmish took place between the advance guards, and the Franco-Dutch forces were repulsed.[7]

Fall of Batavia

On learning of the successful British landing, Janssens withdrew from Batavia with his army, which amounted to between 8,000 and 10,090 men, and garrisoned themselves in Fort Cornelis.[7] The British advanced on Batavia, reaching it on 8 August and finding it undefended. The city surrendered to the forces under Colonel Gillespie, after Broughton and Auchmuty had offered promises to respect private property.[7][8] The British were disappointed to find that part of the town had been set on fire, and many warehouses full of goods such as coffee and sugar had been looted or flooded, depriving them of prize money.[9] On 9 August 1811 Rear-Admiral Robert Stopford arrived and superseded Commodore Broughton, who was judged to be too cautious.[9][10] Stopford had orders to supersede Rear-Admiral Albemarle Bertie as commander in chief at the Cape, but on his arrival he learnt of Vice-Admiral Drury’s death, and the planned expedition to Java, and so travelled on.[8]

British advances

General Janssens had always intended to rely on the tropical climate and disease to weaken the British army rather than oppose a landing.[9] The British now advanced on Janssens’s stronghold, reducing enemy positions as they went. The Dutch military and naval station at Weltevreeden fell to the British after an attack on 10 August. British losses did not exceed 100 while the defenders lost over 300.[11] In one skirmish, one of Janssens’s French subordinates, General Alberti, was killed when he mistook some British troops in green uniforms for Dutch troops. Weltevreeden was six miles from Fort Cornelis and on 20 August the British began preparing fortifications of their own, some 600 yards from the Franco-Dutch positions.[10]

Siege of Fort Cornelis

 

 

Diagram of Fort Cornelis, Batavia.

Fort Cornelis measured 1 mile (1,600 m) in length by between 600 yards (550 m) and 800 yards (730 m) in breadth. Two hundred and eighty cannon were mounted on its walls and bastions. Its defenders were a mixed bag of Dutch, French and East Indies troops. Most of the locally raised East Indian troops were of doubtful loyalty and effectiveness, although there were some determined artillerymen from Celebes. The captured station at Weltevreeden proved an ideal base from which the British could lay siege to Fort Cornelis. On 14 August the British completed a trail through the forests and pepper plantations to allow them to bring up heavy guns and munitions, and opened siege works on the north side of the Fort. For several days, there were exchanges of fire between the fort and the British batteries, manned mainly by Royal Marines and sailors from HMS Nisus.[12]

A sortie from the fort early on the morning of 22 August briefly seized three of the British batteries, until they were driven back some of the Bengal Sepoys and the 69th Foot.[11] The two sides then exchanged heavy fire, faltering on 23 August, but resuming on 24 August.[8][13] The Franco-Dutch position worsened when a deserter helped General Rollo Gillespie to capture two of the redoubts by surprise. Gillespie, who was suffering from fever, collapsed, but recovered to storm a third redoubt. The French General Jauffret was taken prisoner. Two Dutch officers, Major Holsman and Major Muller, sacrificed themselves to blow up the redoubt’s magazine.[14]

The three redoubts were nevertheless the key to the defence, and their loss demoralised most of Janssens’s East Indian troops. Many Dutch troops also defected, repudiating their allegiance to the French. The British stormed the fort at midnight on 25 August, capturing it after a bitter fight.[8][13] The siege cost the British 630 casualties. The defenders’ casualties were heavier, but only those among officers were fully recorded. Forty of them were killed, sixty-three wounded and 230 captured, including two French generals.[14] Nearly 5,000 men were captured, including three general officers, 34 field officers, 70 captains and 150 subaltern officers.[13] 1,000 men were found dead in the fort, with more being killed in the subsequent pursuit.[13] Janssens escaped to Buitenzorg with a few survivors from his army, but was forced to abandon the town when the British approached.[13]

Total British losses in the campaign after the fall of Fort Cornelis amounted to 141 killed, 733 wounded and 13 missing from the Army, and 15 killed, 45 wounded and three missing from the Navy; a total of 156 killed, 788 wounded and 16 missing by 27 August.[13]

Later actions

Royal Navy ships continued to patrol off the coast, occasionally making raids on targets of opportunity. On 4 September two French 40-gun frigates, the Méduse and the Nymphe attempted to escape from Surabaya. They were pursued by the 36-gun HMS Bucephalus and the 18-gun HMS Barracouta, until Barracouta lost contact.[15][16] Bucephalus pursued them alone until 12 September, when the French frigates came about and attempted to overhaul her. Bucephalus‘s commander, Captain Charles Pelly, turned about and tried to lead the pursuing French over shoals, but seeing the danger, they hauled off and abandoned the chase, returning to Europe.[17][18]

On 31 August a force from the frigates HMS Hussar, HMS Phaeton and HMS Sir Francis Drake, and the sloop HMS Dasher captured the fort and town of Sumenep, on Madura Island in the face of a large Dutch defending force.[18] The rest of Madura and several surrounding islands placed themselves under the British soon afterwards.[19] Suspecting Janssen to be in Cirebon, a force was landed there from HMS Lion, HMS Nisus, HMS President, HMS Phoebe and HMS Hesper on 4 September, causing the defenders to promptly surrender. General Jamelle, a member of Janssens’s staff, was captured in the fall of the town.[18][19] The town and fort of Taggal surrendered on 12 September after HMS Nisus and HMS Phoebe arrived offshore.[20]

While the navy took control of coastal towns, the army pushed on into the interior of the island. Janssens had been reinforced on 3 September by 1,200 mounted irregulars under Prince Prang Wedono and other Javanese militia. On 16 September Salatiga fell to the British.[20] Janssen attacked a British force under Colonel Samuel Gibbs that day, but was repulsed. Many of the native militia killed their Dutch officers in the ensuing rout.[21] With his effective force reduced to a handful of men, Janssens surrendered two days later, on 18 September.[18][20]

Aftermath

The Dutch-held islands of Amboyna, Harouka, Saparua, Nasso-Laut, Buru, Manipa, Manado, Copang, Amenang, Kemar, Twangwoo and Ternate had surrendered to a force led by Captain Edward Tucker in 1810, while Captain Christopher Cole captured the Banda Islands, completing the conquest of Dutch possessions in the Maluku Islands.[22] Java became the last major colonial possession in the East not under British control, and its fall marked the effective end of the war in these waters.[22][18] Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Java.[23][24] He ended Dutch administrative methods, liberalized the system of land tenure, and extended trade. Britain returned Java and other East Indian possessions to the newly independent United Kingdom of the Netherlands under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1814.

British order of battle

Stopford’s fleet on his arrival on 9 August to assume command of the expedition, consisted of the following ships, dispersed around the Javanese coast:[10]

Rear-Admiral Stopford’s fleet

Ship

Rate

Guns

Navy

Commander

Notes

HMS Scipion

Third rate

74

 

Rear-Admiral Hon. Robert Stopford
Captain
James Johnson

 

HMS Illustrious

Third rate

74

 

Commodore William Robert Broughton
Captain
Robert Festing

 

HMS Minden

Third rate

74

 

Captain Edward Wallis Hoare

 

HMS Lion

Third rate

64

 

Captain Henry Heathcote

 

HMS Akbar

Fifth rate

44

 

Captain Henry Drury

 

HMS Nisus

Fifth rate

38

 

Captain Philip Beaver

 

HMS President

Fifth rate

38

 

Captain Samuel Warren

 

HMS Hussar

Fifth rate

38

 

Captain James Coutts Crawford

 

HMS Phaeton

Fifth rate

38

 

Captain Fleetwood Pellew

 

HMS Leda

Fifth rate

36

 

Captain George Sayer

 

HMS Caroline

Fifth rate

36

 

Captain Christopher Cole

 

HMS Modeste

Fifth rate

36

 

Captain Hon. George Elliot

 

HMS Phoebe

Fifth rate

36

 

Captain James Hillyar

 

HMS Bucephalus

Fifth rate

36

 

Captain Charles Pelly

 

HMS Doris

Fifth rate

36

 

Captain William Jones Lye

 

HMS Cornelia

Fifth rate

32

 

Captain Henry Folkes Edgell

 

HMS Psyche

Fifth rate

32

 

Captain John Edgcumbe

 

HMS Sir Francis Drake

Fifth rate

32

 

Captain George Harris

 

HMS Procris

Sloop

18

 

Captain Robert Maunsell

 

HMS Barracouta

Sloop

18

 

Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen

 

HMS Hesper

Sloop

18

 

Captain Barrington Reynolds

 

HMS Harpy

Sloop

18

 

Captain Henderson Bain

 

HMS Hecate

Sloop

18

 

Captain Henry John Peachey

 

HMS Dasher

Sloop

18

 

Captain Benedictus Marwood Kelly

 

HMS Samarang

Sloop

18

 

Captain Joseph Drury

 

The British Army troops attached to the force included 12,000 soldiers from the 22nd Light Dragoons; 14th Foot; 59th Foot; 69th Foot; 78th Foot; 89th Foot; 102nd Foot. There were also contingents of the Royal Marines, and several regiments of Madras Native Infantry and Bengal Native Infantry, with half of the overall troop strength consisting of Indian troops of the East India Company. General Samuel Auchmuty was the overall commander, but he delegated the field command to Major General Rollo Gillespie.[9]

 

In addition to the official navy forces, the East India Company provided the services of several of their ships, led by the Malabar under Commodore John Hayes. These were the Ariel; Aurora; Mornington; Nautilus; Psyche; Thetis; Vestal. With the transport vessels, and several gunboats captured as the campaign progressed, Stopford commanded nearly a hundred ships.[10]

 

THE FRENCH EMPIRE

1811

After the annexation of the Kingdom of Holland by France in 1811 the imperial symbol appeared in the East Indian Archipelago.

 

Seal of the Governor General of the Dutch Indies dd. 20 II – 18 IX 1811.

French Imperial Eagle. L.: gouverneur generaal van indien.

This seal was only used for a very short time and prints are very rare [16]

 

From 1811 until 1813 the seal of the combined ministries showed the coat of arms of Napoleon Bonaparte.

THE BRITISH

1811-1815

In the time of British rule in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies the Royal British achievement should have been used. No examples of this achievement from Dutch East Indian soil are known however.

The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:

 

 

Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”

THE SECOND KINGDOM

1815 -1940/’49

After the defeat of Napoleon the Sovereign Principalityof the Netherlands prepared the restoration of Dutch rule in the Indies. This meant also the restoration of the old symbols of sovereignty. By royal resolution of 8 November 1815 nr. 39 the introduction of new currency was provided for. The design for a 1 guilder-piece shows the Dutch Virgin on the obverse and the crowned ancient arms of the States General and the Executive on the reverse. From this guilder only one minted coin is known.

 

1810

 

This painting is of an East Indiaman, the “Earl of Abergavenny” is an example of the ships built for the 19th Century China trade. They were twelve to fourteen hundred tons and carried twenty to thirty guns; necessary to fight off pirates. Their Captains were mostly ex-Royal Navy officers and they sailed from China in a fleet under a Commodore. The ships were used for about four voyages before being replaced.

 

When Java was taken by the EIC the Old Dutch mint at Sourabaya was restored and its Dutch mint master, Zwekkart reappointed to strike copper similar to Dutch designs, but using the EIC balemark instead of the Dutch one. The ½ stiver of 1811 is shown, obverse on left, reverse on right. The blanks were cast and issued each year from 1811 to 1815. They have a “z” for the mint master.

 

Java also used lighter copper pieces called “doits” (¼ stivers), minted in 1811 & 1812. Obverse left; reverse right, with “B” above balemark. The blanks were cast, with obvious tangs not removed. The letter “B” is for Batavia or possibly British, as on the balemark. No value is stated, but there were 4 doits to a stiver and 30 stivers to a rupee. Java was returned to the Dutch

 

This coin has been struck with the gold ½ mohur dies, obverse left, reverse right, but it is silver. The gold has Christian dates from 1813 to1816, the mint being closed on 8th July 1815. Apparently Zwekkert was empowered to continue minting gold and silver coins at the request of private individuals. There are no silver half rupees known and it is unlikely we shall ever know why this coin was struck. The gold is very rare and this striking is included as an example of the dies.

 

700,000 St. Helena copper halfpennies dated 1821 were intended for use by the local population, greatly increased by the military garrison, who were guarding Napoleon Bonaparte in exile. By the time the coins arrived, Napoleon had died and most of the garrison had left. The order had gone to Birmingham’s Soho mint, with a request that the arms for the obverse should be those used for the Penang 1810 issue.
That issue had been struck by the Royal Mint however, so new obverse as well as reverse dies had to be made.

 

Penang. Top left Rev ½ cent; Top right obverse1 cent; under is the reverse of the 2 cents.
The “money of account” in Penang was changed in 1826 from the Spanish dollar to the Bengal sicca Rupee. The pice then became a cent, with 48 cents = 1 Rupee. In this same year Penang Singapore and Malacca were united as the Straits Settlements. The Royal Mint struck ½ pice and 1 pice in 1810:

 

1811

A Dog’s Life

The upas tree was actually being thoroughly investigated by serious botanists in the same period that Foersch was writing.  They had approached it in person and found that ‘The fiction which has gone abroad of the very atmosphere of the tree being mortal, is unfounded’; they had collected its resins, sketched its blossoms, and sacrificed dozens of dogs, cats and chickens – and at least one rabbit – during thorough scientific investigations of its lethal properties. A report by a Mr B.C. Brodie of just what upas toxin would do to its victims was read to the fascinated Fellows of the Royal Society in February 1811:

About two grains of this poison were made into a thin paste of water, and inserted into a wound in the thigh of a dog.  Twelve minutes afterwards he became languid; at the end of fifteen minutes, the heart was found to beat very irregularly and with frequent intermissions; after this he had a slight rigor.  At the end of twenty minutes, the heart beat very feebly and irregularly; he was languid; was sick, and vomited; but the respirations were as frequent and as full as under natural circumstances, and he was perfectly sensible.  At the end of twenty minutes he suddenly fell on one side, and was apparently dead.

And such, it seems, is a dog’s life…

Brodie and other serious scientists had long sneered at Foersch as a man who had ‘endeavoured to mislead Europe with a degree of impudence scarcely to be believed or forgiven’.

But whatever the scholars thought, Foersch had the populist touch; his tale was reprinted again and again – sometimes under other names which only added to the confusion – and when Napoleon invaded Holland and made Java fair game for British intervention the myth of the Poison Tree was still current and widely believed.  The Government of Britain was faced with the prospect of conquering a little-known land where the trees were toxic, the concubines were faithless, and the dogs suffered terribly in the name of science

 

 

Ketika Batavia berhasil diduduki Inggris pada tahun 1811, Sultan Mahmud justru berhasil membebaskan Palembang dari cengkeraman Belanda pada tanggal 14 Mei 1811.

Tahun 1812, peperangan dengan Inggris dimulai karena Sultan tidak mau mengakui kekuasaan Inggris di Palembang dan mengangkat Najamuddin menggantikan Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II yang menyingkirkan ke Muara Rawas.

Berdasarkan Konvensi London tahun 1814, kekuasaan Belanda di Indonesia harus dipulihkan, tahun 1818 Inggris mengembalikan kekuasaannya di Palembang kepada Belanda. Selanjutnya Inggris juga kembali mengangkat Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II sebagai Raja Palembang.

Namun, sejak tahun itu pula perang antara Sultan Mahmud badaruddin II dengan Belanda kembali berkobar. Tanggal 1 Juli 1821, Kesultanan Palembang berhasil diduduki Belanda dan Sultan berhasil ditawan. Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II kemudian dibuang ke Ternate, Maluku Utara hingga wafatnya. Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II tercatat sebagai salah satu pejuang Nasional yang melakukan perlawanan terhadap dua penjajah sekaligus yaitu Inggris dan Belanda.

 

1813

 

Minangkabau brass keeping coin in 1813

1813

 

 

Java tin doits, obverse left; reverse right. These doits were only struck in 1813 and 1814 by the Dutch mint master Ekenholm, using the United East India Company balemark. Lead forgeries are known.

 

A separate mint for gold and silver was erected at Sourabaya and silver rupees were struck from 1813 to 1816. The obverse on the left is in Javanese with Zwekkert’s initial below. The reverse on the right is in Arabic script; there is an engraving mistake in the date (mid left side). It reads 1668, instead of 1228; mistakes were common when European engravers reproduced Arabic and other unfamiliar languages.

 

1814

in 1815 after hostilities had ended in Europe, under the Treaty of Vienna, 13th August 1814. The delay was mainly due to the sailing time to the East Indies. Zwekkert continued in office, dying in 1819.

 

Nederlandsch Oost-Indië, 1 gulden, 1815 Æ 31 mm.

At the date of the Royal Resolution the coat of arms of the Sovereign Principality of 14 January 1814 was already substituted by Royal Resolution of 24 August 1815. The new coat of arms, amended in 1816, was used in the Colonies throughout the nineteenth century and was changed again in 1907. [17])

A picture of this coat of arms was in the Audience Hall above the seat of the Governor General in Batavia.

The seal for the Dutch Indies showed this coat of arms with the legend DEPARTEMENT VAN KOLONIËN (until 1848) and MINISTERIE VAN KOLONIËN until 1945.

 

 

The Dutch East Indies never had a coat of arms of its own. The coat of arms of Batavia was often considered as such and it is said that Governor General Van Heutz (1904-‘09) was a strong advocate of the idea. A proposal for a coat of arms was made in 1933 by Dirk Rühl on the frontispeice of his “Nederlandsch Indische Gemeentewapens”. His design shows a parted per pale of the Netherlands and Batavia.However, no specific coat of arms for the Dutch East Indies was ever adopted.

 

THE COMMERCIAL SUCCESSOR OF THE VOC

The commercial successor of the V.O.C. was the Nederlandse Handelmaatschappij (NHM), founded in 1824  (after the Anglo-Dutch treaty). In 1964 this company merged with the Twentsche Bank and changed its name in Nederlandsche Middenstands Bank. In 1990 the NMB merged with the Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank into the ABN AMRO Bank. This bank was split up in 2007. (Fortis, Bank of Scotland en Banco Santander).

The emblems of the Nederlandsche Handelsmaatschappij were deposed in 1866. They consisted of a larger emblem, a medial emblem and a cypher. [18]

 

 

The larger emblem consists of disc charged with a winged anchor between the date 1824, surrounded by the title nederlandsche handel maatschappy. As a crest a three-masted sailing ship and as supporters two lions couchant. Below the central emblem is the cypher NHM. The achievement is surrounded by waves of the sea and decorated with several floral motives.

 

1809

 

Daendels Palace (1809)

Weltevreden/Jakarta, Indonesia

Construction of this architectural gem was commissioned by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels. As a governor general, Daendels stimulated the move southwards of Batavia; the densely populated walled city was unhealthy and many inhabitants suffered from malaria and cholera. The area of Weltevreden, several kilometres south of Batavia, originally a country estate, was developed and would turn into a highly fashionable area. Halfway Batavia and Weltevreden, the new accommodation for the club Harmonie was constructed.

In Weltevreden, on the Paradeplaats, a new Government House was erected; since Daendels did not wish to inhabit the old country estate (known as the Van der Parra estate), officially assigned to the governors general. The Government House is a building constructed in the period 1809-1827 in Batavia, ‘capital’ of the Dutch colony in the East-Indies. Construction was ordered by governor general H.W. Daendels (1808-1811) and completed by governor general L.P.J. du Bus de Ghisignies (1826-1830).

The building has been preserved and is located on present Lapangan Banteng, Jakarta Pusat, which was known in the nineteenth century as Paradeplaats and since 1828 as Waterlooplein. Modelled in the Empire style, the proportionate Witte Huis (White House) measures 160 meters lengthwise. The pillars on the first story are Doric, whereas those on the second level are Ionic in style. In the past, the building hosted many state functions and even served as a post office, a printing office and a high court. Today, it houses the Indonesian Ministry of Finance.


[IMG]www.geheugenvannederland.nl[/IMG]The Supreme Court (left) and the Daendels Palace at the Waterloo Square. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, compl. by J. Tromp, 1809)


Daendels Palace.

 

 


Picture by De Rooij Fotografie

1814

SACRED

to the Memory of

OLIVIA MARIAMNE

Wife of

the Honourable THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES

Lieutenant Governor

OF JAVA

And its Dependancies

Who departed this life

Buitenzorg

The 26th day of November 1814

Raffles went on from Java to found Singapore. Any tiredness I had felt before had instantaneously disappeared. Here it was, right before my eyes, a fragment of our colonial past.

the tomb with renewed vigour, snapping away as we circled the majestic final resting place of Olivia Mariamne Raffles. Thoughts filled up our mind. What if Olivia Raffles did not fall victim to her illness during her stay in Java? What if she had followed Raffles to Singapore? What changes would she have implemented as the First Lady of the founder of Singapore?

 

British possessions in Indonesia,

1810-1817

Javanese territories ceded to the colonial governments of Daendels and Raffles, 1808-1812

Both Daendels and Raffles radically restructured the administration of the island, reducing the power of the bupati, changing the taxation system and turning the village into the basic administrative unit. Raffles in particular emphasized that ‘native welfare’ should be an aim of the colonial government, and he introduced a form of land tax, called land rent, in an effort to develop a money economy on the island.

 

 

EIC Indies lead coin 1814

Raffles’ rule, however, was only brief. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain’s policy was to strengthen the Netherlands as a European counterweight to France, and

1813

1811/ 1813 Raden Demang Anggadipa (1807-1811/1813) dicopot dari kedudukannya oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda karena menolak penanaman paksa nila sebagai pengganti beras. Beliau keberatan dengan kebijakan Belanda itu karena akan mengakibatkan rakyat kelaparan. Akibat pembangkangan itu, Kadipaten Sukapura sementara waktu dihapuskan dan diserahkan pemerintahannya pada Limbangan di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wangsareja (1805-1811).

 

1815 -1871

 

Sultan Mustafa

 

 

 

Pagaruyung King,

Tuanku Raja Muning Alamsyah Surviving Coup
By: Puti RENO RAUDHA Thaib
Chairman Bundo Kanduang West Sumatra
IN THE past two weeks in a row has been submitted on institutional Rajo Alam, Rajo Rajo Indigenous and Worship. Furthermore, we have also seen footage of a king Minangkabau, among many kings ascending and descending turns.
Tuanku Raja Muning Alamsyah or also called The Sultan Alam Muningsyah lordship is king Pagaruyung nature that survived the incredible tragedy of murder in Koto Tangah, Tanah Datar in 1809 in Padri War raged in Minangkabau. Year this tragedy disputed. Christine Dobin recorded in the Islamic Revival In Its Farmers in Changing Economy, (Inis, Jakarta 1992) tragedy occurred in 1815, as well as written Rusli Amran in West Sumatra Plakat As Long, (Sinar Harapan, Jakarta, 1981).

Original info

Oleh: PUTI RENO RAUDHA THAIB
Ketua Umum Bundo Kanduang Sumatera Barat

PADA dua minggu lalu berturut-turut telah disampaikan tentang institusi Rajo Alam, Rajo Adat dan Rajo Ibadat. Selanjutnya kita melihat pula cuplikan tentang seorang raja Minangkabau, di antara banyaknya raja-raja yang turun naik silih berganti.

Tuanku Raja Muning Alamsyah atau juga yang disebut Yang Dipertuan Sultan Alam Muningsyah adalah raja alam Pagaruyung yang secara luar biasa selamat dari tragedi pembunuhan di Koto Tangah, Tanah Datar pada tahun 1809 dalam masa Perang Paderi berkecamuk di Minangkabau. Tahun terjadinya tragedi ini dipertikaikan. Christine Dobin mencatatkan dalam Kebangkitan Islam Dalam Ekonomi Petani Yang Sedang Berubah, (Inis, Jakarta 1992) tragedi tersebut terjadi pada tahun 1815, sebagaimana yang juga ditulis Rusli Amran dalam Sumatera Barat Hingga Plakat Panjang, (Sinar Harapan, Jakarta 1981).

 

1815

Naskah SKSJ mencatat bahwa akhirnya Tuanku Nan Renceh memusuhi Tuanku Nan Tuo yang tetap memegang sikap moderat dalam memperjuangan cita-cita Gerakan Paderi. Tuanku Nan Tuo mengecam cara-cara di luar peri kemanusiaan yang dilakukan oleh Tuanku Nan Renceh dan pengikutnya terhadap penduduk nagari-nagari yang mereka taklukkan. Tuanku Nan Renceh menghina ulama kharismatik yang dituakan di darek itu dengan menyebutnya sebagai “rahib tua” dan Fakih Saghir, sahabat dan bekas teman seperguruannya, digelarinya “Raja Kafir” dan “Raja Yazid” (Kratz & Amir: 41).

Perpecahan di kalangan pemimpin Paderi tak terelakkan: Tuanku Nan Renceh membentuk kelompok sendiri yang terkenal dengan sebutan “Harimau Nan Salapan” yang militan, yaitu Tuanku di Kubu Sanang, Tuanku di Ladang Lawas, Tuanku di Padang Luar, Tuanku di Galuang, Tuanku di Kota Hambalau, Tuanku di Lubuk Aur, Tuanku di Bansa dan Tuanku Nan Renceh sendiri (Kratz & Amir: 39).

 Mereka memisahkan diri dari Tuanku Nan Tuo dan mencari patron (imam besar) yang baru, yaitu Tuanku di Mansiang. Tuanku Nan Renceh dan pengikutnya pun beberapa kali berusaha membunuh Tuanku Nan Tuo. Ia menganggap mantan gurunya itu menghalang-halangi tujuannya dan terus-menerus mengeritik jalan radikal yang ditempuhnya bersama pengikutnya. Namun, seperti diceritakan Fakih Saghir dalam SKSJ, upaya pembunuhan itu gagal.

Seperti diuraikan oleh seorang penulis berinisial v.D.H. dalam artikelnya “Oorsprong der Padaries (Eene secte op de Westkust van Sumatra)” (TNI 1.I, 1838: 113-132), Tuanku Nan Renceh dan pengikutnya yang militan kemudian menjadi lebih terkenal, meredupkan pamor kelompok moderat (Tuanku Nan Tuo dan pengikutnya). Dalam tahun 1820-an, pengikut golongan radikal itu makin banyak di Luhak Nan Tigo. Mereka mewajibkan kaum lelaki memelihara jenggot, yang mencukurnya didenda 2 suku [1 suku = 0,5 Gulden); memotong gigi didenda seekor kerbau; lutut terbuka didenda 2 suku; wanita yang tidak pakai burka didenda 3 suku; memukul anak didenda 2 suku; menjual/mengkonsumsi tembakau didenda 5 suku; memanjangkan kuku, jari dipotong; merentekan uang didenda 5 shilling; meninggalkan shalat pertama kali didenda 5 suku, jika mengulanginya dihukum mati (lihat: B.d., “De Padries op Sumatra”, IM 2e Twaalftal, No. 5&6, 1845 [1827]:167-180, hal.172).

Tuanku Nan Renceh dan pengikutnya menjadi momok besar bagi masyarakat Minang waktu itu, khususnya Kaum Adat. Semakin meluasnya pengaruh faksi radikal Kaum Paderi yang dibidani oleh Tuanku Nan Renceh telah mendorong Kaum Adat minta bantuan kepada Belanda.

 

 Ikut “mengundang” sisa keluarga Dinasti Pagaruyung di bawah pimpinan Sultan Muningsyah yang selamat dari pembunuhan oleh pasukan Paderi yang dipimpin Tuanku Pasaman di Koto Tangah, dekat Batu Sangkar, pada 1815

 

 

in 1816

restored Java to Dutch rule; the outer territories were restored in 1817.

1816

 


SULTAN THAHA SYAIFUDDIN
Lahir : Jambi, 1816
Wafat : Betong, 24 April 1904

1818
Bencoolen has become well -known fort the fact that sin Thomas stamford Raffles was the last lieutenant governor from 1818-1824 when the settlements reverted to the dutch. it was from bengkulu, in 1819, that laffles, despite disapproval of the company in london and madras, sailed off to establish a british settlemen in the singapure. the historical and strategic importance and 20 th centries would hard to assess
Following the example of the dutch it was considered necessary to provide military protection for the settlement, and small fortification was built on a narrow spit of land between the sea and the Bengkulu river (now sungai serut). The original fortification named York for was manned by two companies of infantry soldiers and artisans who had been redruited in london. The site proved to be very unhealthy owing to the close proximity of the  river and mangrove swamps. There were many deaths in the early day among the soldiers sen to garrison the fort as well as the civil servants living there.

.

It was Vastly different to the fort that can be seen today, being just a  rectangle of building wit a roof capable of supporting the artillery pieces required to defend the fort. house of the Deputy Govendor was contructed and the diagram on the original plan.

In 1719,

shortly after completion, the fort was abandoned by the Deputy Govendor and the whole garrison in the face of the major di sagreement with the local rules. It was feared that anttack migh be made on the settlemen. It was not until 1723 that the Ease India company despatched a new Deputy Govendor and staff to reestablish the settlement.Following the return of the traders the military garrison, consisting of two companies of infantry and an artillery detachmen, was established. Repairs  were made to the fort and the depences strengthened. The local people who had been seriously affeced by the sudden departure of the settlers were once again contracted to suply pepper to the company. One of the major problems facing the military garrison was the distance between them and their ‘master’. Requests for stores, gunpowder and such like had to be submitted to the court of Directort in London. These would be despatched by the firt available sailing vessel returning to london, a journey which coul take as long as eigh months : 12-16 months for the ron journey. it is not the garris stores were at acrical level, and it is recorded that some times it became necessary for vital.Stores, such as gunpowder,  to be requesisioned from traiding vessels calling at Bencoolen.

 

The garrison at this time was supplied wit sepoy troops from the madras presidency in India, although frequent use was made of the buginese troops from the celebes Islan. The begal sepoys continued to serve at Bencoolen and the other west coast settlemen, until all of the british trading posts along the west coast of sumatra were handed over to the Dutch Argeement of 1824. the actual handover took place earlt in 1825. Raffles arrived in Bencoolen in 1818 and immediately applied his enligh ened style of government which he had demontrated to great effec during his time as lieutenent Govenor of java from 1811-1816. Towards the end of the Napoleoonic wars, java had been captured from the french in a short, sharp campaign bastion at cornelis, now covered by Manggrai, within present day jakarta. With greatly improved relation with the local rules, Raffles was able to begin the run down og the Bencoolen settlement and to reduce the high cost of maitaining a large garrison force. He was also able to place Fort Marlborough on a lower states of readiness, perceiving that there was little or no thereat from any other Euoropean nation. Following the handover of the settlemen to the Dutch in 1825, records show that the for continued to be manned by Dutch colonial troops, although it was never enlarged or upgraded with the exception of the intruduction, during the mid-19 th century, of four breech loading guns mounted on each of the four bastions.The dutch continued to occupy Fort Marlborough until the scond word war and after the fall of sumatra it was then occupied by the japanese army. Following the surrender of the japanese in 1945 the fort was again briefly occupied by the dutch. After independence For Marlboroug was used by the indonesian army and police force until it was abandonednin the late 1970′s. The fort remains in its present state following a sympathetic restorasion programme which was carrid out in the late out 1980′s.

_____________________________________________

 

THE HISTORY
EAST INDIA COMPANY (EIC)
AND FIRST FLEET INTO BENCOOLEN

 

 

~

 

 

Establishment~

The East India Company (EIC) was the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600. The original object of the group of merchants involved was to break the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade with the East Indies. Therefore, EIC formed for the exploitation of trade with East and Southeast Asia and India.The first trading post, known as a station or factory, was set up at Surat on the Indian’s West Coast (Bombay Presidency) around 1612 and the second at Fort St. George (Madras Presidency) 1640.


British East Indiamen

~First Fleet of East Indiamen on Bencoolen~

The East Indiamen were ships operating under charter or license to any of the East India Companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries. They were designed to carry both passengers and goods and to defend themselves against piracy, and so constituted a special class of ship.The first British East Indiamen anchored in Bencoolen in 1685, lead by Ralph Ord and William Cowley. Under the command of Captain J. Andrew, there were The Caesar, The Resolution, and The Defense. The EIC’s influence spread with Fort York (1685–1719) and continued in Fort Marlborough (1719–1824), both established in Bencoolen, West Coast of Sumatra.Other factories were established in the Prince of Wales Island (Penang), Singapore, Malacca, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Siam (Thailand), Persia (Iran) and the Persian Gulf, Macao and Whampoa (China), and St. Helena.

~Insolvency~

The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the “Great Mutiny” (also known as First War of Indian Independence), brought the consequence that the British government nationalized the EIC indirectly. After this rebellion, the EIC lost all its administrative powers and dissolved on 1st of January 1874.

 

 

THE SOLDIER OF BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY

EIC was indirectly subject to the British government and it ruled India through the three presidencies of Bombay, Madras, and Bengal, each of which maintained forces for internal and external defense.The backbone of the EIC military system was the Indian regular soldier or sepoy (from the Persian sipahi) and for infantry private (a cavalry trooper was a Sowar). They served under mainly British officers and mainly Indian NCOs


The painting above depicts a soldier of the European Company of the West Coast of Sumatra garrison, on duty at Fort Anne, Moco Moco, circa 1764.
Courtesy: Alan Harfie, “A History on the Honourable East India Company’s,
Garrison on the West Coast of Sumatra 1685-1825”

Native Troops, East India Companys Service, A Sergeant and a Private Grenadier Sepoy of the Bengal Army, from Costumes of the Army of the British Empire, according to the last regulations 1812, published by Colnaghi and Co. 1812-15, Charles Hamilton Smith.

British officers, trained at the EIC’s ‘military seminary’ at Addiscombe, held their commissions from the EIC’s court of directors and enjoyed the right of command over British troops.

_____________________________________________

THE FIRST GARRISON:
REMNANTS OF FORT YORK


Me and John Verbeek observed the remnants of Fort York
The thick bushes in right side is ruin of the ramparts


Remnants of Fort York


Left End: Location of Fort York
Edge of Serut River Estuary

Fort York was established in small hill close the estuary of Serut River based on the agreement of 12th of July 1685 that The British EIC was permitted to build a settlement in the area close to the estuary, and built a fort to cover their village regarding the spice trading.The agreement was prepared by EIC representative in Fort St. George in Madras, signed by Deputy Governor Ralph Ord and Young Prince from Sungai Lemau.

 


Gravestone of Richard Watts Esquire (moved from British Cemetery in Fort York)“Richard Watts Esq.
Sometime of Council for the

Right Honourable Company Affairs
In the Fort St. George
And in the year 1699 came
over Deputy Governor of this place
And in … years after
Made by … from
The Company the First President of this Coast
In this Station he departed
This life December 17th 1705 and
In the 44th years of his age”

 

 

 

Situation now in 2013

 

 

.
Gravestone of George Shaw (moved from British Cemetery in Fort York)“George Shaw
Son of
Mr. Thomas Shaw
Of London Merchant;
After he had served the Right Honourable Company
as Factor in Fort St.
George for some time;
Came over in the year 1699
served of this place
In this Station he continued
Until has removed by the death, April 25th 1704
Atatis 28”Explanation:
“Atatis 36”, it stands for “anno aetatis suae 28”,
that means “”in the year of his age 28

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Situation now in 2013

Graveston George shwa not found anymore

 

Other gravestone still found

 

 

Capten James Cuney

 

 

Gravestone Henry Stirling

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coin EIC found from Bencolen related with  Fort Malborough  at West Sumatera in 1985

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Read more info about EIC coin

Source

John Robert Lewis (1999)

 

The East India Company outside India

 

 

 

 

 

The East India Company (E.I.C.) was granted a charter by Elizabeth I in 1600 and in that year these coins were struck in London at the Tower Mint.

 

In 1601 the Company’s first expedition was sent to the Indies, carrying trade goods and silver coin to the value of £28,742. It is not known what proportion of the coins was of the “Portcullis” issue. As trade coins they were too little and too late; the Spanish dollar was the accepted standard for the area, so they were probably used as bullion. The unit is a dollar or 8 testerns with fractions of half, quarter, and eighth.

 

This map shows the locations mentioned in the talk and Bantam in NE Java was the main factory (Trading Post) for the E.I.C.

The enterprise was not successful and the Company withdrew in 1683 or 84 returning in 1687 to establish a factory at Bencoolen on the S.W. coast of Sumatra; this later became a successful settlement.

 

St. Helena was a useful re-supply base on the long journey from Europe to the Indies.

 

It became a Crown Colony in 1651 with the E.I.C. responsible for administration. The Cocos-Keeling Islands were found in 1609 during one of the early voyages when Captain Keeling was blown south, off course, and was making his way back to the Indies.

 

These coins of Sumatra were struck by the E.I.C.’s Bombay mint.
Top left: – silver 3 fanams (1693). Top right: – silver 2 fanams (1695).
Under left: – silver 1 fanam (1693). Under right: – copper 1 cash (1695).


The obverses use the “balemark” of the original London E.I.C. with an orb having a cross over. The letters inside the orb are said to stand for “G(overnor and) C(ompany of the Merchants of London trading to the) E(ast Indies)”. Often a “C” is used for a “G”.

Dr Iwan Also found this  EIC coin in  Bronze

 

These are the reverses of the previous Sumatra coins. The “Malay Arabic” is translated as “English Company”. The monetary system is 24 fanams = 1 Spanish dollar and 20 cash = 1 fanam. Value of a dollar fluctuated in some parts if the East Indies.

 

A montage of extremely rare E.I.C. coins struck in 1714 for use in St. Helena is made from black and white illustrations. The heart –shaped bale mark began use when the New or English East India Company was formed in 1698. The London E.I.C. bought a large number of the former’s shares and the two amalgamated in 1708/9 as “The United Company of Merchants of England trading to the East Indies.” This is shortened to the letters V.E.I.C. on the balemark, for United East India Company.

 

It was 88 years after coins were for struck for Sumatra by the Madras Mint that the next ones were struck for them.

 

This was in 1783 by a private mint in Bengal owned and set up by John Prinsep. The copper pieces of 2 kepings have on the obverse the balemark commonly used in the 19th Century. It has a device like a figure “4” sometimes claimed to be an altered Cross, changed so as not to offend non Christians. However, Madras, for example, was still using the Cross style into the 19th Century, but no other explanation for the “4” seems to exist. The 2 kepings reverse has date and value in Arabic.

 

The Sumatra silver 2 Sookoos were struck by the Calcutta mint dated 1793 and 1794. Fort Marlborough was built in1714, 3 miles south of Fort York. It had a convict settlement attached; whose prisoners worked on the E.I.C. plantations. The reverse inscription in Malay script says “money of the Company”; the designs were approved by Warren Hastings.

 

The next Sumatra copper coinage of one, two, and three kepings was struck by Mathew Boulton, but not at his Soho mint. This was the historic first order for Boulton, who would supply the coining machinery to a makeshift London mint, as Soho had a water-powered rolling mill, but as yet no mint. The first issue was dated 1786 and there were repeat orders in1787 and 1798, the latter struck by Boulton’s steam machinery.

 

A uniface undated copper cent was struck at Calcutta and taken with the founding EIC expedition to Pulu Penang in 1786. The Island had been given to Francis Light by the Rajah of Kedah, whose daughter he had married. Light thought it would make a suitable Naval Station for the EIC and as part of the agreement, the Sultan was offered protection. However Kedah was annexed by Siam in 1821 and the Sultan deposed.

 

The following year, 1787 Calcutta struck copper 1, ½ and ¼ cents for Pulu Penang. The common obverse is a balemark, no value is stated and the reverse inscription translates as “Prince of Wales Island.”

 

Silver followed in 1788 also struck by Calcutta. Again no values stated, the obverse and reverse of the 1/10 dollar is shown. It was overweight being close to 1/8 dollar; the ¼ and ½ dollars were also overweight and it is probable that most of the issue was melted for bullion as the issue is now scarce.

 

A pen and ink drawing, made in the late 20th century is of wooden warehouses on Malacca’s waterfront. Probably it was little different in the time of the East India Company when, during the Napoleonic Wars, the EIC occupied the Dutch settlements, including Malacca, to deny their use to the French.

 

Despite the large orders for Sumatra struck by Boulton, a shortage of coin in 1787 was met by overstriking an emergency half dollar on copper 3 kepings coins. They were struck it is said for the Governor at Fort Marlborough, to pay his troops or possibly the convict workers.

I

In 1804 the Soho mint Birmingham struck another copper issue for Sumatra. The arms of the EIC were used for the obverse and closely resemble the design used for Bombay, being struck at Soho at the same time. The Sumatra denominations in kepings are 4, 2 and 1. The designs were used again in1823 when the weights were reduced to two thirds using thinner blanks, because copper price had increased. The 1804 date was not altered. In 1824 Soho’s mint was being prepared for sale to Bombay, but with one press not yet in a crate, ten more tons of the light 1804 coins were struck for Sumatra.

 

A proof Sumatra 2 kepings obverse shows clearly details of the EIC arms. The cross of St George has the arms of Great Britain in the first quarter. The supporters are Lions rampant, bearing standards with flags carrying the cross of St. George. Above the shield is the crest of a lion rampant, standing on a helm, on a torso, holding between the forepaws an Imperial crown. The whole rests on a scroll whose Latin is translated as “Under the Auspices of the Sovereign and Senate of England.”

 

In 1805 Penang had been raised to a separate Presidency and in 1809 “a sound copper coinage” was requested. The contract was placed with the Royal Mint, whose machinery was supplied by Boulton and a rolling mill not yet working was supplied by John Rennie. Soho were requested to supply the blanks, but refused to do so because they thought that they had an unofficial agreement to produce all copper orders. Consequently the order was delayed and the coins were not delivered until 1812. The coins produced are clearly inferior to Soho’s minting.

 

This tin uniface cent, or pice, was struck locally in Penang about 1800 by the authority of Governor Leith, whose initials “G. L.” are in script on the obverse. Tin was available locally, but pure tin is soft, wears easily and is easy to re-melt so few have survived. A similar issue in 1805 has the initials of Governor Farquhar and others may exist; they must also have been easy to forge, so it is no wonder that “a sound coinage” was requested.

 

This painting is of an East Indiaman, the “Earl of Abergavenny” is an example of the ships built for the 19th Century China trade. They were twelve to fourteen hundred tons and carried twenty to thirty guns; necessary to fight off pirates. Their Captains were mostly ex-Royal Navy officers and they sailed from China in a fleet under a Commodore. The ships were used for about four voyages before being replaced.

 

When Java was taken by the EIC the Old Dutch mint at Sourabaya was restored and its Dutch mint master, Zwekkart reappointed to strike copper similar to Dutch designs, but using the EIC balemark instead of the Dutch one. The ½ stiver of 1811 is shown, obverse on left, reverse on right. The blanks were cast and issued each year from 1811 to 1815. They have a “z” for the mint master.

 

Java also used lighter copper pieces called “doits” (¼ stivers), minted in 1811 & 1812. Obverse left; reverse right, with “B” above balemark. The blanks were cast, with obvious tangs not removed. The letter “B” is for Batavia or possibly British, as on the balemark. No value is stated, but there were 4 doits to a stiver and 30 stivers to a rupee. Java was returned to the Dutch in 1815 after hostilities had ended in Europe, under the Treaty of Vienna, 13th August 1814. The delay was mainly due to the sailing time to the East Indies. Zwekkert continued in office, dying in 1819.

 

Java tin doits, obverse left; reverse right. These doits were only struck in 1813 and 1814 by the Dutch mint master Ekenholm, using the United East India Company balemark. Lead forgeries are known.

 

A separate mint for gold and silver was erected at Sourabaya and silver rupees were struck from 1813 to 1816. The obverse on the left is in Javanese with Zwekkert’s initial below. The reverse on the right is in Arabic script; there is an engraving mistake in the date (mid left side). It reads 1668, instead of 1228; mistakes were common when European engravers reproduced Arabic and other unfamiliar languages.

 

This coin has been struck with the gold ½ mohur dies, obverse left, reverse right, but it is silver. The gold has Christian dates from 1813 to1816, the mint being closed on 8th July 1815. Apparently Zwekkert was empowered to continue minting gold and silver coins at the request of private individuals. There are no silver half rupees known and it is unlikely we shall ever know why this coin was struck. The gold is very rare and this striking is included as an example of the dies.

 

700,000 St. Helena copper halfpennies dated 1821 were intended for use by the local population, greatly increased by the military garrison, who were guarding Napoleon Bonaparte in exile. By the time the coins arrived, Napoleon had died and most of the garrison had left. The order had gone to Birmingham’s Soho mint, with a request that the arms for the obverse should be those used for the Penang 1810 issue.
That issue had been struck by the Royal Mint however, so new obverse as well as reverse dies had to be made.

 

Penang. Top left Rev ½ cent; Top right obverse1 cent; under is the reverse of the 2 cents.
The “money of account” in Penang was changed in 1826 from the Spanish dollar to the Bengal sicca Rupee. The pice then became a cent, with 48 cents = 1 Rupee. In this same year Penang Singapore and Malacca were united as the Straits Settlements. The Royal Mint struck ½ pice and 1 pice in 1810: local dies were made by the Madras mint to strike ½, 1 and 2 pice in 1825; and ½, 1 and 2 cents of similar design in 1828. There are noticeable, but small differences between all these issues.

 

Singapore Tokens, obverse, left and reverse right of 1 keping copper.
Singapore, founded by Sir Stamford Raffles, had no specific currency. The merchants used available currency especially Dutch doits, the exchange rates being quoted daily. They ordered tokens from Birmingham to increase supplies and to avoid paying for the Dutch currency. There are many varieties, some imitating official coins, like the one shown. Though dated 1804 it was struck from 1829 to 1844. It copies an original design issued by the East India Company for Sumatra. However it replaces the Company name with “Island of Sumatra” above the arms. The reverse in “Arabic” is meaningless. A hundred and sixty-six varieties have been noted!

 

Two obverses used for Singapore Tokens.
To avoid accusations of forgery, especially by the Dutch, a mythical “Island of Sultana” is used and on the left horses have replaced lions as shield supporters.

 

Reverses of the above tokens have mistakes in the Arabic, perhaps intentionally, though probably through not understanding the language. On the left hand specimen the Arabic date of 1219 is equivalent to 1804. On the right the date reads 1411.

 

Straits Settlements. Copper ¼ cent, ½ cent, above; 1cent below.
Coins based on the dollar standard were finally struck by the EIC’s Calcutta mint in 1845. The matrix dies were engraved by William Wyon at the Royal Mint and his initials appear on the truncation of the Queen’s bust on the ½ cent only.

 

St. Helena, crown (25p) reverse.

The trading operations of the East India Company in India and China had been wound up in 1833. From that time the Company governed India on behalf of Great Britain. Following the Indian Mutiny all its property was transferred to the Crown in 1858 under the India Act. It was finally dissolved in 1874 when the 1854 Charter expired.
This modern cupronickel coin commemorates the tercentenary (1673-1973) of St. Helena’s Royal Charter. The “East Indiaman,” in full sail on the reverse, is a fitting tribute to a unique company.

 

March 1825 – March 1942
Fort Marlborough was occupied by the Dutch

 

Situation in 1900

 


The Dokar in front of Fort Marlborough – Bencoolen 1900
Source: KITLV

 

Situation in 1920

 

 


A trio of European women dressed in sarong,
with the background of Fort Marlborough Bencoolen – 1920
Source: Tropenmuseum

 

 

 

 

March 1942 – August 1945


Fort Marlborough was captured by Imperial Japanese Army. The Prison chamber was purposed for Japanese internment camp

 

 


Compass and Message that scratched on the wall by Japanese Prisoner of War 1942-45


Siruation now in 2013

 

 

 

 

 

Becoolen  Beach in 2013  picture taken from the Fort Molborough

 

 

Yhe back of Fort <alborougn in 2014

 

 

 

 

 

Canon in the front  of Fort Malborough in 2013

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

 

the fomaus the bengkulu Flower, Rafflesia anorldi wich Rafflesia nemed wideh his great friend, botanish Dr, Joseph Arnold.

 

1818

 

Spoiler for perjuangannya


Martha Christina Tiahahu (lahir di Nusa Laut, Maluku, 4 Januari 1800 – meninggal di Laut Banda, Maluku, 2 Januari 1818 pada umur 17 tahun) adalah seorang gadis dari Desa Abubu di Pulau Nusalaut. Lahir sekitar tahun 1800 dan pada waktu mengangkat senjata melawan penjajah Belanda berumur 17 tahun. Ayahnya adalah Kapitan Paulus Tiahahu, seorang kapitan dari negeri Abubu yang juga pembantu Thomas Matulessy dalam perang Pattimura tahun 1817 melawan Belanda.

Martha Christina tercatat sebagai seorang pejuang kemerdekaan yang unik yaitu seorang puteri remaja yang langsung terjun dalam medan pertempuran melawan tentara kolonial Belanda dalam perang Pattimura tahun 1817. Di kalangan para pejuang dan masyarakat sampai di kalangan musuh, ia dikenal sebagai gadis pemberani dan konsekwen terhadap cita-cita perjuangannya.

Sejak awal perjuangan, ia selalu ikut mengambil bagian dan pantang mundur. Dengan rambutnya yang panjang terurai ke belakang serta berikat kepala sehelai kain berang (merah) ia tetap mendampingi ayahnya dalam setiap pertempuran baik di Pulau Nusalaut maupun di Pulau Saparua. Siang dan malam ia selalu hadir dan ikut dalam pembuatan kubu-kubu pertahanan. Ia bukan saja mengangkat senjata, tetapi juga memberi semangat kepada kaum wanita di negeri-negeri agar ikut membantu kaum pria di setiap medan pertempuran sehingga Belanda kewalahan menghadapi kaum wanita yang ikut berjuang.

Di dalam pertempuran yang sengit di Desa Ouw – Ullath jasirah Tenggara Pulau Saparua yang nampak betapa hebat srikandi ini menggempur musuh bersama para pejuang rakyat. Namun akhirnya karena tidak seimbang dalam persenjataan, tipu daya musuh dan pengkhianatan, para tokoh pejuang dapat ditangkap dan menjalani hukuman.

Ada yang harus mati digantung dan ada yang dibuang ke Pulau Jawa. Kapitan Paulus Tiahahu divonis hukum mati tembak.

Martha Christina berjuang untuk melepaskan ayahnya dari hukuman mati, namun ia tidak berdaya dan meneruskan bergerilyanya di hutan, tetapi akhirnya tertangkap dan diasingkan ke Pulau Jawa.

Di Kapal Perang Eversten, Martha Christina Tiahahu menemui ajalnya dan dengan penghormatan militer jasadnya diluncurkan di Laut Banda menjelang tanggal 2 Januari 1818.

Menghargai jasa dan pengorbanan, Martha Christina dikukuhkan sebagai Pahlawan Kemerdekaan Nasional oleh Pemerintah Republik Indonesia

 

 

1818

Bencoolen (Bengkulu)

 

 

Raffles in 1817

Raffles arrived in Bencoolen (Bengkulu) on 19 March 1818. Despite the prestige connected with the title, Bencoolen was a colonial backwater whose only real export was pepper and only the murder of a previous Resident, Thomas Parr, gained it any attention back home in Britain. Raffles found the place wrecked, and set about reforms immediately, mostly similar to what he had done in Java – abolishing slavery and limiting cockfighting and such games. To replace the slaves, he used a contingent of convicts, already sent to him from India. It is at this point when he realized the importance of a British presence that both challenged the Dutch hegemony in the area and could remain consistently profitable, unlike Bencoolen or Batavia. However, the strategic importance of poorly-maintained but well-positioned British possessions such as Penang or Bencoolen made it impossible for the British to abandon such unprofitable colonies in such close proximity to the Dutch in Java. The competition in the area, between Raffles and the aggressive Dutch de jure Governor, Elout, certainly led at least in part to the later Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Raffles looked into alternatives in the area – namely Bangka, which had been ceded to the Dutch after its conquest by the British during its occupation of Java.

Bintan was also under consideration. Despite the fact that Warren Hastings overlooked the island before settling upon Penang in 1786, the Riau Archipelago was an attractive choice just to the south of the Malay Peninsula, for its proximity to Malacca. In his correspondences with Calcutta, Raffles also emphasized the need to establish a certain amount of influence with the native chiefs, which had greatly waned since the return of the Dutch. Raffles sent Thomas Travers as an ambassador to the Dutch, to possibly negotiate an expansion of British economic interests. When this failed, and when Raffles’ own expeditions into his new dominion found only treacherous terrain and few exportable goods, his desire to establish a better British presence was cemented.

However, the Anglo-Dutch Convention of 1814 was not completely clear, especially on the issue of certain possessions such as Padang. The Convention of 1814 only returned Dutch territory that was held before 1803, which did not include Padang. Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau. Yet, as Raffles confirmed with the sultan regarding the absolute British influence of the area, he realized that the local rulers had only limited power over the well-cultivated and civilized country, and the treaty was largely symbolic and had little actual force.

Gouverneur-Generaal

werd van Nederlands-Indië en zijn laatste jaren doorbracht als

 

 

 

1810

 

malay bencoolen sumatra

Gouverneur van Elmina

, waar hij in 1818 overleed en werd begraven.

Daendels ging naar Elmina met het idee van Elmina e.o. iets te maken als Nederlands-Indië, maar al zijn brieven met plannen werden door het moederland niet beantwoord, men was blij van Daendels verlost te zijn.

Op 3 Meij 1818 werd den Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels ten 4 uur des namiddags in de Tombe gezet, doende het Hoofdkasteel van Elmina bij die gelegenheid 15 schoten

Tot in 1844 zijn er processen gevoerd over de nalatenschap van Daendels…

In 1962 is toch nog in Elmina een gedenkplaat voor Mr. Herman Willem Daendels aangebracht.

 

Herman Willem Daendels (1762 – 1818)

Kwam als Brigade-Generaal van het Bataafsche Legioen
samen met een Frans leger o.l.v. Pichegru in de winter van 1795 naar Nederland
waar alle rivieren tot hun geluk bevroren waren….

 

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia

Daendels ging in Indië de geschiedenis in als De Donderende Groote Heer
onder zijn leiding werd onder dwang de Grote Postweg dwars door Java aangelegd

terug in Europa trok hij met Napoleon op naar Moskou en overleefde het ternauwernood
Daendels ging ook de geschiedenis in als de man die grote delen van de Benedenstad liet afbreken en een nieuwe Bovenstad begon, met o.m. de bouw van het bovenstaande paleis, wat later echter geen paleis werd, maar dat is weer een ander verhaal, komen we zoo nog even op terug. Het gebied waar Daendels begon met de Bovenstad was al van een zeer aantrekkelijke naam voorzien :

WELTEVREDEN
Op de plattegrond uit 1897 is nog heel goed de scheiding tussen de Benedenstad en de Bovenstad te zien, de Benedenstad was oorspronkelijk natuurlijk ommuurd en bezat een versterkt kasteel, de Bovenstad kon veel ruimer worden opgezet.

Paleis Rijswijk

genoemd.

Volgens andere bronnen was het latere

Paleis Rijswijk

ooit de residentie van J.A. van Braam, die het eind 18e eeuw liet bouwen. De achtertuin grensde, daar is iedereen het over eens, tot aan het latere Koningsplein. In het stuk grond van Paleis Rijswijk, grenzend aan het Koningsplein, zou later

Paleis Koningsplein

worden gebouwd.

 

 

 

1818

 

NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY

IN THE INTERIOR OF JAVA 1816-1817

SCANNING from original Abel Clarke Book 1817

Narrative of a Journey in the Interior of China

And added the unique collections related to the story

 

 

 

 

EDITED BY

Dr IWAN S.

Private limited Edition 100 ebook

Special for Collectors

Jakarta 2010

____________________________________________________________________

TO THE

RIGHT  HONOURABLE

LORD  AMHERST

MY LORD

The high situation held by Your Lordship as head of

the Embassy of which these pages contain account,

will, in the public mind, point out the propriety of the

present Dedication. Permit me to declare that this

consideration has less influenced me than the desire

of publicly thanking Your Lordship for your saction

and support to my scientific pursuit , and uniform

kindness to myself.

I am , My Lord,

with the greatest respect

Your Lordship’s

obliged and obedint humble Servant

London,July,1818                                                                                  CLARKE ABEL

___________________________________________________________________

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER I

Departure of the Embessy from Portsmouth-Arrival of Mandeira-Town of Funchal-Mountain Torrent-Priest-Flying-fish-Remarks its habits-Pass the line-Cape Frio-South America-Harbour of Rio di Janeiro- St Sebastian-Fish and vegetable market-Visit the Nragamza shore-Sugar Loaf mountain-Musical Instrumet of negro slaves-Importation of Slave-Remarks on the slave trade-Second visit to the Sugar Loaf Mountain-Scenery of the mounitains-Visit the Botanic Garden-Cultivation of the Tea-plant-Its preparation-Plants cultivated in the Botani Garden-Ipecacuanha plant of the Brazil and  of New Spain -fire-flies-Island in the harbour-Their geological structure-Fruits-Gaberal remarks………………………………………………………..page1

CHAPTER II

Departure of the Embassy from Rio di Jeinero-Arrival off the Cape of  Good Hoop -IN THE STRAIGHT OF SUNDA-SHARK-SUCKING FISH-ARRIVAL AT SIRANG-VOLCANIC MOUNTAIN- PLASSUR PITTEE-JAVANESE INSTRUMENT-DEXTERITY OF NATIVES IN CLIMBING THE COCOA-NUT TREES-THEIR HUTS-VISIT TO THE CRATER OF GUNONG KARANG-Precipiytous ascent-Interesting plants-Benevolence of the Javanese-Visit to Pandigalang, famed for the manifactur of bracelets-Javanese arms-Kriss-Gold and silver ornaments worn by Javanese women-Native Sulphur-The Goramy, a fish common in rivers-Return to Sirang-Mineral springs-Bantam-Ceremony of circumcision-Sultan of Bantam-His death-Great bats of Java- Of the large Snake of Java-Power of snakes-Geckoo Lizard of Java-Species of-Characters of-Habits of-Departure from Sirang…………………………………………………………………………………………………24

CHAPTER III

Departure of the Embessy from Batavia Roads-Typhoon-Lemma Island-Physalia-Hongkong……………………………………………………………………………………………….page 58

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PREFACE  (read in the limit edition e-book)

________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER I (read in limited edition e-book)

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CHAPTER II

Means of conveyance having been provided to take Lord Amherst and the gemtlement of his suite over land to Batavia, they set off the morning of the 11th June for Sirang (now Serang), which his usual attention to the furtherance of my pursuit,permitted me to select my own mode of trevelling etc……etc……………(read full in CR-ROM)

It was dark before I arrived at the house of Col.Yules, the residenty of district Sirang,from whose hospitality I obtained the pleasure of remaining in a part of Java intersting in the highest degree from its scenery and productions,during the stay of the Embassador at Batavia.At day-light the following morning,Lord Amherst etc ….etc…….(read the limited edition e-book)

Our way ,during the first half of journey …..etc…etc. They also serve as places of refreshment,etc….etc……The better class carry them constantly about their persons in boxes sometimes od rather elegent form, one of which is figures in the annexed engraving. etc….etc……

Our beds were bamboo frames,covered with mats; on these, with our saddles for pillow,we passed the night…etc…etc.

The natives whom I saw in the mountain had limbs of more elegant shape,and greater symmetrry of form, than those of the plains and also appeared more active in their habits, etc……etc……

It was notorious that the name of Raffles was almost idolized by them….etc….etc

…It is a dagger worn by all classes of the native Java, and b y the Malay tribes in its neighbourhood,having sometimes a crookes or curved blade and a handle very beautiful carved. Its sheath is generally of wood or metal;frequently of gold…..etc….etc………………

Before I left Pandigalang(now Padeglang), my friend the mounaineers brought some splendid specimens of native sulphur…etc….etc

Early the next morning a party was again dispatched to the ship.still on fire,and found her copper on the larboard side alone above water, and so hot, that by throwing water upon it they sarcely coolemit sufficiently to permit their getting on board …etc…etc….

Scale-Flat,on the bac k and throat disseminated, on the belly imbricated. The scales of the back are oval and flat,and do not overlay each other still theu approach the belly etc….etc…..

CHAPTER X

ETC…ETC… . i READILY YIELDED TO THE dissipation by which the equal kindness of our countrymen and Baron Van der Capellen hoped to seduce us into  a forgetfully of our misfortunes. etc….etc

Visiting Batavia by the way of the bazaar was my frequent exercise early in the morning,….etc….etc…….

Our  evenings were sometimes spent at balls given by our countrymen or then Dutch authorities, and gave us opportunitie of seeing all,the beauty and fashhion of the colony…..etc….etc

Captain Ross (whom I have just mentined) ,while in his ship off the island of Celebes, was visited by a canoe from the shore,containing two Malays ,and the mangled bvody of a man, the bones of which were mostly broken,te arms es[ecially being dreadfully crushed…etc…etc.

A visit to Buitenzorg ,the country residence of Baron Van der Capellan,give us our only opportunity of seeing the beautiful scenery of the Island. Buitenzorg(now Bogor) is distant about thirty miles sout of Batavia …etc…etc..

Another animal which resemble in most of its external cgaracter the Orang-Outang(Orang Hutan now) from Borneo, is the large monkey ….etc…etc……the existent of thirteen ribs amongst the characteristic marks of Orang-Outang from Borneo…etc…etc….

Many of the Ladies were wll dressed, and had personal charms, especially in the eyess of those who were returning from China …etc….etc

__________________________________________________________________

THE END OF PROMOTIONAL LIMITED E-BOOK  ‘NARATIVE OF A JOURNEY IN THE INTERIOR OF JAVA 1816, AS THE PART OF JOURNEY TO CHINA. PLEASE THE COLLECTORS REGISTERE THEIR NAME TO BE THE uniquecollection Member  via comment,after the administration OK, the scanning of the original Boook  as e-book will send  to you via your e-mail.

@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010.

1814

 Terjadi perdamaian antara Inggris dan Belanda di tahun 1814,

 

1818

Thomas Stamford Raffles mengunjungi Pagaruyung di tahun 1818, dimana saat itu sudah mulai terjadi peperangan antara kaum Padri dan bangsawan (kaum adat) Pagaruyung.

Saat itu Raffles menemukan bahwa ibukota kerajaan mengalami pembakaran akibat peperangan yang terjadi.

1819

Belanda kembali memasuki Padang pada bulan Mei tahun 1819

Runtuhnya Pagaruyung

Kekuasaan raja Pagaruyung sudah sangat lemah pada saat-saat menjelang perang Padri, meskipun raja masih tetap dihormati. Daerah-daerah di pesisir barat jatuh ke dalam pengaruh Aceh, sedangkan Inderapura di pesisir selatan praktis menjadi kerajaan merdeka meskipun resminya masih tunduk pada raja Pagaruyung.

Pada awal abad ke-19 pecah konflik antara kaum Padri dan golongan bangsawan (kaum adat). Dalam satu pertemuan antara keluarga kerajaan Pagaruyung dan kaum Padri pecah pertengkaran yang menyebabkan banyak keluarga raja terbunuh. Namun Sultan Muning Alamsyah selamat dan melarikan diri ke Lubukjambi.

 

1818

Harap dicatat bahwa apa yang terjadi di pedalaman Minangkabau tetap masih gelap bagi orang Eropa sampai akhirnya Thomas Stamford Raffles berkunjung ke Pagaruyung pada 16-30 Juli 1818.

 Sebelumnya, orang Inggris dan Belanda di pantai memang mendengar ada perseteruan antarsesama orang Minang di pedalaman, tapi mereka hanya dapat kabar berita dari para pedagang yang pergi ke pantai tanpa menyaksikan sendiri dengan mata-kepala mereka apa sesungguhnya yang terjadi di pedalaman. Mungkin karena itu pula sampai akhir hayatnya, sosok Tuanku Nan Renceh tetap lebih banyak mengandung misteri, sebab tak banyak sumber Belanda yang mencatatnya.

 

1819

KNIL founded 1819(1830 official),headquarters Batavia(Jakarta)

 

In 1820,

na de dood van Van Braam, kocht het Gouvernement het huis en werd het ingericht als officiële residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië (1820 – 1879), waarbij dus werd afgeweken van het plan van Daendels, waarschijnlijk omdat het Paleis van Daendels nog lang niet klaar was.

 

Mulai bulan April 1821

Kompeni melibatkan diri dalam perang itu karena “diundang” kaum Adat. Selanjutnya perang itu adalah perlawanan mengusir penjajah Belanda.

Kepahlawanan Tuanku Tambusai lebih dihubungkan dengan episode akhir Perang Paderi. Setelah Benteng Bonjol jatuh

Karena terdesak kaum Padri, keluarga kerajaan Pagaruyung meminta bantuan kepada Belanda.

 Pada tanggal 10 Februari 1821 Sultan Alam Bagagarsyah, yaitu kemenakan dari Sultan Muning Alamsyah, beserta 19 orang pemuka adat lainnya menandatangani perjanjian penyerahan kerajaan Pagaruyung kepada Belanda.(yang terkenal dengan istilah Pelakat Panjang)

Sebagai imbalannya, Belanda akan membantu berperang melawan kaum Padri dan Sultan diangkat menjadi Regent Tanah Datar mewakili pemerintah pusat.

Setelah menyelesaikan Perang Diponegoro di Jawa, Belanda kemudian berusaha menaklukkan kaum Padri dengan kiriman tentara dari Jawa dan Maluku. Namun ambisi kolonial Belanda tampaknya membuat kaum adat dan kaum Padri berusaha melupakan perbedaan mereka dan bersekutu secara rahasia untuk mengusir Belanda.

BERSAMBUNGKEBAGIAN KEDUA

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