KISI INFO INDONESIA ABAD 15 (BERSAMBUNG)

ABAD KE 15

 

Indonesia Black Smith scene on carving stone 15th Century

JAVA  15th CENTURY MAP

OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

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1400:

Baddit Dipattung, King Berau I

with the central government in Lati River, Powder Mountain, Berau

1400

However, once you know that

 

Parameswara, a Hindu prince  fled to Temasek (Singapore’s)

 

Parameswara killed by the Temasik King, Tamagi,

then, it is highly unlikely that the Malaccan Javanese and Bugis migrants would carry

 the body of Parameswara all the way back to Singapore for burial.

 The ruling Siam’s would have never allowed this to happen.

Some land were acquired by marriage and some kingdom begged to be vassal state protection against bigger enemies.Some were prized rom successful war with the two existing power Siam and Majapahit .

About 1400 ,the Hindu ruler Parameswara of the then magnifisant island Singapore knon in history as Tamasek ran away with handful followers after constant attact on Singapore by raiders from Majapahit From Seletar Ruver Parameswara run to Muar and later futher north and founded the Kingdom of Malacca about 1402 AD.He became a Muslim when merried a Princess  Of Pasai kingdom and Took  the Persian title “Shah” ,calling himself Uskandar Shah.

 

 

Jenis : Arca Tembikar
Nama : CELENGAN BABI MAJAPAHIT
Era : Abad Ke-15, Kerajaan Majapahit
Material : Tembikar
Asal : Jawa Timur

A Terracotta Piggy Bank
JAVA, CIRCA 15TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
A Terracotta Piggy Bank
Java, circa 15th Century
Solidly standing on his four legs, with a rounded body and full belly, with long protruding snout, bulging eyes, bushy eyebrows, decorative patterns on his forehead and cheeks, a thick cord encircling his neck
13¾ in. (34.9 cm.) high

 

1405

Dalam babd ming diceritakan bahwa  Raja Manajakana mulai engadakan hubungan dengan tiongkok pada tahun ketiga Kaisar ming Yung Lo  (1405 masehi) . Waktu itu beliau baru berusia 25 tahun . Pada tgl 14 Bulan sbelas tahun itu,Menteri Sanalyapocen dan rombongan nya yang dikirim oleh Raja Manajakana telah tiba di Tiongkok.

(SK Warga bandung 1958)

1408

Kemudian tgl 20 bulan delapan  tahun ke enam Yung Lo , Raja Manajakana  beserta ratu dengan satu rombongan yang terdiri dari 150 orang lebih diantaranya termasuk putera Raj,adik laki-laki,adik perempuan ,family beserta menteri-menterinya telah tiba di nanking yaitu ibukota Kerajaan Tiongkok.Kedatangan Raja Manajakana dan rombongan disambut yang sangat meriah  dari Kaisar  Ming Ceng cu . Rombongan ini sebelumnya mendarat di Pelabuhan FuChow(Cu-Cao),propinsi fukian ,disambut dengan segala kebesaran atas perintah Kaisar Ming oleh utusan kaisar sendiri.

Setiba di nanking mereka ditempatkan dib alai tamu “ Iui Tung” dengan diadakan pesta dan saling member tanda mata. Oleh Kaisar Ming diberikan berbagai macam tanda mata, termasuk jubah bersulam naga,Tali pinggang Mas dengan bertatahkan Jade,pakaian kerajaan dll

Setelah berada satu bulan di nanking ,yaitu bulan sepuluh.Raja Manajakana jatuh gering.kaisar Ming bersusah hati,tabib-tabib yang cakap dikerahkan untuk merawat siang dan malam disamping raja.

Pada suatu hari kelihatan penyakit Raja Manajakana agak sembuh sedikit,beliau berpesan kepada ratunya :”Apabila aku meninggal ,jenazahku makamkanlah di tiongkok”

Setelah Raja Manajakana mangkat,jenazah dimakamkan dengan upacara kebesaran dan kaisar Ming berkabung dengan tdak bekerja selama tiga hari dan diperintahkannya setiap tahun diadakan sembahyang dua kali. Makam Raja Manajakana pun dirawat sepanjang tahun oleh tiga keluarga yang khusus ditunnjuk oleh kaisar.

Makam Raja Indonesia itu ditemukan dipinggir kota nanking Barat, sebelah barat daya di bukit Batu kleikir(Se Tje Kang) kira-kira 5 km dari pintu gerbang Tjung hon dekat jalan kereta api dari nanking menuju wuhu.Lebar makam 100 meter lebih,menuju kemakam ada sebuah jalan dan didekat pemakaman didapat patung disebelah menyebelah jalan,5 buah bnayaknya patung perwira,patung harimau,patung kambing,patung pegawai sipil dan patung kuda.

Dimuka makam Raja Manajakana didapat batu perinagtan yang berisi pahatan tulisan aksara kandil,kira-kira 100 banyaknya. Sebagian tanda kandil itu telah kabur karena terlalu lama.

Raja manakjakana menurut pelaporan dari Beijing pastilah sama dengan nama Maraja Kala menurut catatan Groenvelt  Kandil  na acapkali  dibunyikan  dengan bunyi ra atau da  dalam bahasa asing.

Menurut pendapat professor  Yamin maka  Manajakana menurut pelaporan Beijing  ialah sama dengan Maraja kala  meurut bacaan Groenvelt didugannya namanya yang lengkap berbunyi Maharaja Kala.

Nama-nama keluarga raja  belumlah didpat bunyinya dalam bahasa Indonesia sebagai slinan dari aksara Kanji yang telah diketahui.

Penting sekali tetang nama tanah yang dkuasai Maharaja Kala,tanah itu berbunyi Beni tau Pu ni,kata itu berasla dari kata Wuni(jawa) muni atau buni atau bonai (minangkabau) yaitu nama smacam pohon ,kata Berunai berasal dari B9er)unai yaitu sama dengan Pu-ni .Yang dimaksud dengan Pu-ni ialah Kalimantan Barat jadi benarlah raja Indonesia dari Kalimantan yang dikuburkan di nanking.

(SK Warga bandung 1958)

 

1409

Record’s Admiral Cheng ho visit Malacca in 1409, indicate that Parameswara was then still ruler of Malacca and there are references that the ruler and the people of Malacca as being already Muslim.

Also having said that, just like the grave of Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kesturi, Hang Lekir, and Hang Lekiu, there was never any names written on their grave (unlike the Acehnese Gravestones).

All that was there, was a large stone. So, perhaps it was “Officially designated” as a tourist site, and a subtle claim of “Validation”, which turned these unknown graves into the graves of warriors.

 

 

Just as the Tourism Malaysia Signage states (at the grave of Hang Tuah) “… This was a large stone, marking a grave, and hence, it must have been an important person. As such, it could have been no other than that of Hang Tuah”.

You see, this is open admission that no one really even knows whose grave this is.

 Also, by admission, “All we found was a large stone”.

Yet, today, this Alleged Hang Tuah Grave is styled like the Touristy “Hang Graves” found in town near Jonker Street. I also find it extremely ironic that Hang Tuah’s grave is situated in Kampong Keling.

 It is only dutiful of me to note now, that it becomes even more ironic that one can find alleged Soldier and Warrior Graves, but not one single Sultan. Yes. Not one single Sultan’s Grave has ever been found

 

During the 14th Century,

at the height of the Majapahit Empire,

 

they controlled the sea lanes throughout the Indonesian archipelago as well as to faraway India and China.

Despite this, our knowledge of the two great empires of the 13th and 14th centuries, Singasari and Majapahit, would be very sparse were it not for two Old Javanese texts dating from the 14th Century.

The Alienation (1501 – 1600)

Timeline (of Mayhem)

(1501 – 1600)

1509 –

Portuguese visit Melaka for the first time.

1511 –

April:

Portuguese Admiral Albuquerque sets sail from Goa to Melaka. August: Albuquerque’s forces take Melaka. Sultan of Melaka escapes to Riau. Portuguese in Melaka destroy a “Javanese” fleet. Portuguese ship sinks with treasure on way back to Goa. December: Albuquerque sends three ships under da Breu from Melaka to explore eastwards.

1512 –

Da Breu expedition travels from Melaka to Madura, Bali, Lombok, Aru and Banda. Two ships are wrecked at Banda. Da Breu returns to Melaka. Francisco Serrão repairs ship and continues to Ambon, Ternate, and Tidore. Serrão offers support to Ternate in a dispute with Tidore – his men build a Portuguese post at Ternate.

 

1513 –

A force from Jepara and Palembang attacks the Portuguese in Melaka,

but is repulsed. March Portuguese send an envoy to King of Pajajaran. Portuguese are allowed to build a fort at Sunda Kelapa (now Jakarta). Portuguese build factories at Ternate and Bacan.

1513

The first Europe

 

Europe is, by convention, one of the world’s seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally ‘divided’ from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting…

an fleet, four Portuguese

Portugal

 

Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic , is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east…

ships from Malacca

 

Malacca

Malacca is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south…

, arrived in 1513 when the Portuguese were looking for a route for spices, especially black pepper

 

Black pepper

 

Black pepper is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. The fruit, known as a peppercorn when dried, is approximately in diameter, dark red when fully mature, and, like all drupes, contains a single seed…

. The Kingdom of Sunda made a peace agreement

 

1515 –

First Portuguese visit Timor.

1520 –

Portuguese traders begin visiting Flores and Solor.

1521

Kingdom Pajajaran

Surawisesa (1521 – 1535)

Ratu Dewata (1535 – 1543)

Ratu Sakti (1543 – 1551)

Raga Mulya (1567 – 1579)


Berakhirnya jaman Pajajaran (1482 – 1579), ditandai dengan diboyongnya PALANGKA SRIMAN SRIWACANA (Tempat duduk tempat penobatan tahta) dari Pakuan ke Surasowan di Banten oleh pasukan Maulana Yusuf. Batu berukuran 200 x 160 x 20 cm itu terpaksa di boyong ke Banten karena tradisi politik waktu itu “mengharuskan” demikian.

Pertama, dengan dirampasnya Palangka tersebut, di Pakuan tidak mungkin lagi dinobatkan raja baru.

Kedua, dengan memiliki Palangka itu, Maulana Yusuf merupakan penerus kekuasaan Pajajaran yang “sah” karena buyut perempuannya adalah puteri Sri Baduga Maharaja.

Palangka Sriman Sriwacana sendiri saat ini bisa ditemukan di depan bekas Keraton Surasowan di Banten. Karena mengkilap, orang Banten menyebutnya WATU GIGILANG. Kata Gigilang berarti mengkilap atau berseri, sama artinya dengan kata Sriman.

Woww…this is really astounding, Majapahitans!But of course, it would really help if there was a candi or prasasti that could verify this chronice, rather than mere story:(

I feel bad that the sundanesse could’t feel the same way the javanesse feel when they see borobudur or prmbanan or ratu boko

Well, I guess I was trying to say that in ancient wars, there is always a story about a princess or queen who refused to succumb to the seduction of rival king and kills herself in order to keep the lineage of her family or people pure… Its like a very important thing to the men that the noble woman is not defiled, better dead than breeding a new line of offsprings for the rival kingdom. Also, kingdom alliances were always sealed with a royal marriage whereby the princess begats offsprings that share the blood of the rival rulers. Women, however beautiful and noble, were commodities in the times of peace building and war. Nowadays, such a role for women is no longer significant. The international entities have replaced the structure for negotiating peace agreements. Where are we gonna make our beautiful myths for future generations?

Anyways, your history thread has caused me to re-read VS Naipaul’s books on his travels thru Indonesia in 1979. He mentioned that Islam when it first arrived through India to Indonesia was indeed Sufist philosophy as it adapted very well to the mysterious Hindu-Buddhist animist traditions found in the lands. I quote a few passages from his book ‘Among the Believers’ Indonesia, chapter 3. It may come as a stinging read to some, but I would like to hear from someone like you who although is a Muslim, is yet far removed from the new Islamicization purification drive, and instead is possessed of your Javanese civilization completely…

“In Java, in the Hindu-Buddhist days, a pesantren was a monastery, supported by the community in return for theh spiritual guuidance and the spiritual protection it provided. It was easy for the Sufi Muslims, when the philosophical systems of the old civilization cracked, to take over such places; and it was easy for such places to continue to be counselling centers for village people. It was open to a man to go at any time to the leader or kiyai of a pesantren and ask for persona ladvice or religious instruction. It was not necessary to be enrolled in any formal course; in this way pesantren instruction could be said to be ‘unstructured’.

In the Dutch time, in the latter part of the nineteenth century, the villages began to chane. Some people became rich, and they wanted to educate their children. It was these people, the newly well-to-do of the villages, who began to turn the pesantren from sufi centers into schools for children. And Islam itself was changing in Java. The sufi side, the mystical side that was closer to the older religions, was becoming less important. The opening of the Suez Canal and the coming of the steamship made Java – until then at the eastern limit of Islam – less remote. In the days of sail it took months to get to Mecca; now the journey could be done in three to four weeks. More people went to Mecca. More people became acquainted with the purer faith: the Prophet, the messener of God, and his strict injunctions.

In the last decade of the nineteeth century the pesantrens began to be turned into schools. The Jombang pesantren school which we had visited, had been established in 1896. But they remained religious places. They remained places where the villagers supported and to which they could go for advice. Every thirty-five days the leaders of the pesantrens in an area met to discuss whatever issues had arisen….. [cut]. Why did the leaders meet every thirty five days? That was a relic of Hindu-Buddhist times. The week then had five days, and the leaders of the monasteries met every seven weeks.

[cut]

Here and there in the yard, in the very dim light, boys were pretending to study. It was pretense because the light was so dim. The boys were looking : a book on islamic law, an Arabic Grammar, the Story of Islam, How to Pray. The last book had eight stage-by-stage drawings of the postures of Islamic prayer; and it perhaps wasn’t really necessary. since the boys prayed five times a day. It was late in the evening; and the pesantren day began early.

The sufi center turned school: the discipline of the monks and dervishes applied to the young: it wasn’t traditional, and it wasn’t education. It was a breaking away from the Indonesian past; it was Islamization; it was stupefaction, greater than any that could have come with a western style curriculum. And yet it was attractive to the people concerned because, twisted up with it, was the old monkish celebration of the idea of poverty: an idea which, applied to a schhool in Java in 1979, came out as little more than the poor teaching the poor to be poor.”

 

 

1522 –

February Portuguese expedition under De Brito arrives on Banda. May De Brito expedition arrive at Ternate, builds a Portuguese fort. Banten, still Hindu, asks for Portuguese help against Muslim Demak. Portuguese build fort at Hitu on Ambon.

In 1522,

the Portuguese signed with Pajajaran a treaty.

The relationship between the Kingdom

Monarchy

A monarchy is a form of government in which the head of state reigns by some kind of perceived divine sanction. It is usually hereditary and there is usually only one monarch, though there are significant exceptions to these. The monarch often bears the title king or queen…

of Sunda and Portugal intensified when another Portuguese named Enrique Leme visited Sunda in 1522 with the intention of giving a present. He was well-received and as a result, the Portuguese gained rights to build a warehouse and expand their fort in Sunda Kelapa (the name of the location at the time). The Sundanese regarded this as a consolidation of their position against the raging Muslim

 

 

1520:

Magalhaens visiting Borneo. [10] Prince of Indian descent founded the Empire State Daha Sultanate Banjarmasin Banjar and became the first king who holds the Sultan. [11]

 

1522

1522

Relationship Sunda Kingdom with the European

Sunda kingdom had long established trade relations with European nations such as British, French and Portuguese.

Kingdom of Sunda even had a political relationship with the Portuguese.

In the year 1522,

the Kingdom of Sunda sign Sunda-Portuguese Treaty

that allowed the Portuguese built forts and warehouses in the port of Sunda Kelapa. In return, the Portuguese are required to give military aid to the Kingdom of Sunda in the face of attacks from Demak and Cirebon (which broke away from the Kingdom of Sunda).

 

 

Luso Sundanese padrão

The Luso Sundanese padrão is a stone pillar commemorating the Sunda–Portuguese treaty, better known as the Luso-Sundanese Treaty of Sunda Kalapa.-History:…

with Portugal by allowing the Portuguese to build a port in 1522 in order to defend against the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak

Sultanate of Demak

 

The Sultanate of Demak was Javanese Muslim state located on Java’s north coast in Indonesia, at the site of the present day city of Demak.

A port fief to the Majapahit kingdom thought to have been founded in the last quarter of the 15th century, it was influenced by Islam brought by Arab and…

1526

The Portuguese, however, pursued him, destroying his new capital in 1526 and driving him to seek refuge in Kampar in Sumatra.

 

1524:

Abdul Kahar VI became Sultan of Brunei until the year 1530.

 

 

1526:

On September 24 Suriansyah,

I embraced Islam Sultan Banjar is celebrated as the Day Banjarmasin City. The newly established Kingdom of escape from the Empire State for the support of the Sultanate of Demak Daha. [11]

 

1526 –

Portuguese build first fort on Timor.

 

1527 – Expeditions from Spain and Mexico try to drive the Portuguese from Maluku.

1529 – The Kings of Spain and Portugal agree that Maluku should belong to Portugal, and the Philippines should belong to Spain.

1527

According Jiyu and Petak inscription,

Ranawijaya

claimed that he already defeat Kertabhumi [21] and move capital to Daha.

This event lead the war between

Sultanate of Demak and Daha,

since Demak ruler was the descendants of Kertabhumi.

The battle was won by Demak in 1527.[22]

A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali.

The refugees probably flee to avoid Demak retribution for their support for Ranawijaya against Kertabhumi.

With the fall of Daha crushed by Demak in 1527,

1530 –

Gowa begins expanding from Makassar.

1530:

The relationship of friendship and Brunei Portuguese [12]

1530

Sultan Melaka’s  son eventually re-established

a kingdom in Johor

in about 1530.


 1533:

Saiful Rizal

became the Sultan of Brunei VII until the year 1581.
 1535

QueNe  Dewata Of Pajajaran kingdom

(1535 – 1543)

1536 –

Major Portuguese attack on Johore. Antonio da Galvão becomes governor of Portuguese post at Ternate; founds Portuguese post at Ambon. Portuguese take Sultan Tabariji of Ternate to Goa due to suspicions of anti-Portuguese activity, replace him with his brother.

1537 –

Acehnese attack on Melaka fails. Salahuddin of Aceh is replaced by Alaudin Riayat Syah I.

1538:

Kingdom of Tanjungpura led by Panembahan Kelang (1538-1550)

 

1540

– Portuguese in contact with Gowa.

1543

Queen  Sakti  Of Pajajaran(1543 – 1551)

 

1546 –

St. Francis Xavier travels to Morotai, Ambon, and Ternate.

1545:

Aji King of Crown Majesty Nature Kukar VI

became King until the year 1610, the first ruler who embraced Islam Kutai.

 

1546:

King Demak III Sultan Trenggana (Ka Tung lo)

attacked the eastern island of Java. [13]

Effect of dominion to Borneo. He received tributes from Sutan Banjarmasin.

 

 

 

1547 –

Aceh attacks Melaka.

1550 –

Portuguese begin building forts on Flores.

1550:

Sultan Rahmatullah

became Banjar II until the year 1570.

After the collapse of Demak, New York no longer send a tribute to the government in Java

1551 –

Johore attacks Portuguese Melaka with help from Jepara. Force from Ternate takes control of Sultanate of Jailolo on Halmahera with Portuguese help.

1552 –

Aceh sends embassy to the Ottoman sultan in Istanbul.

1557:

Degree Rasyd Amiril Datoe Radja Laoet Tidung

ruled the kingdom until the year 1571 located in the Tarakan Pamusian East region.

 

1558 –

Leiliato leads a force from Ternate to attack the Portuguese at Hitu. Portuguese build a fortress on Bacan.

1559 –

Portuguese missionaries land at Timor.

1560 –

Portuguese found mission and trading post at Panarukan, in easternmost Java. Spanish establish a presence at Manado.

1561 –

Portuguese Dominican mission founded on Solor.

1564 –

Smallpox epidemic at Ambon.

1566 –

Portuguese Dominican mission on Solor builds a stone fortress.

1567

Aji Mas Indra

became the ruler Paser regent until 1607.

 

King Raga Mulya Of Pajajaran

(1567 – 1579)

1568 –

Unsuccessful attack by Aceh on Portuguese Melaka.

1569 –

Portuguese build wooden fortress on Ambon island.

1570 –

Aceh attacks Johore again, but fails.

Sultan Khairun of Ternate

signs a treaty of friendship with the Portuguese,

but is found poisoned the next day. Portuguese agents are suspected. They had thrown Sultan Khairun in prison and tried to poison him when he would not yield lands to them. Babullah becomes Sultan (until 1583), and vows to drive the Portuguese out of their fortress. Maulana Yusup becomes Sultan of Banten.

1570:

Sultan Banjar Hidayatullah I to III to the year 1595.

In his administration, Mataram attack Banjarmasin and charming Crown Prince Ratu Bagus in Tuban.

1570

The Great  Mataram Kingdom

The realm had been founded sometime in the 1570s by a young Javanese noble called

 

Senopati,

 

Great King: Sultan Agung

but it was his grandson, Sultan Agung, who raised it to glory.

In the first half of the 17th century Agung pushed the boundaries of the state to the very fringes of the Javanese universe, coming up short only against Banten, Dutch Batavia and Hindu Blambangan.

He built his capital at Karta on the power-charged axis between Merapi and the sea, and formalised the Javanese-Muslim duality that is the watchword of the island’s courts even today.

 

1571:

Amiril Pengiran Tidung Dipati I

served the King until the year 1613.
 1581:

Shah became Sultan of Brunei Brunei VIII until the year 1582.

 

1574 –

Jepara led another unsuccessful attack on Melaka.

1575 –

Sultan Babullah expels the Portuguese from Ternate.

The Portuguese in Ternate were under siege in their fortress for five years, and never received help from Melaka or Goa in India. Portuguese build a fort on Tidore instead.

1576 –

Portuguese build fort at the present site of the city of Ambon.

1579 –

November:

Sir Francis Drake of England, after raiding Spanish ships and ports in America, arrives at Ternate. Sultan Babullah, who also hated the Spanish, pledges friendship to England.

1579

BANDUNG

 

This article is actually from “A Sobana Hardjasaputra”, but bludgeons his fault that the share again, good for improving the earth we love this parahyangan. most young people today have forgotten the history of Bandung that used in the proud. so I share again here. cekidot …

 

Regarding the origin of the name “Bandung”, put forward various opinions. Some say that the word “Bandung” in Sundanese, synonymous with the word “appeal” in Indonesian, means side by side.

Ngabanding (Sunda) means contiguous or adjacent.

This is among others expressed in Indonesian dictionary published by Balai Besar Reader (1994) and Sundanese-Indonesian dictionary published by Pustaka Setia (1996), that word means in pairs and mean bandung also side by side.

 

Bandung Lake in old map

Another opinion says that the word

“bandung” means big or large.

The word comes from the word milk. In Sundanese,

ngabandeng means vast pool of water

and looked Timbanganten with Tegalluar capital. The kingdom is under the domination of the Kingdom of Sunda-Pajajaran.

 

Since the mid-15th century,

the Kingdom Timbanganten hereditarily ruled by

King Pandaan Measure,

Dipati the Great, and Dipati Ukur.

In the reign of Dipati Ukur, Tatar Ukur is an area which is quite extensive, covering most areas of West Java, consists of nine regional called “Measure Sasanga”.

After the Kingdom of Sunda-Pajajaran collapse (1579/1580)

due to Forces movement of offerings in an effort to spread Islam in West Java,

 

Tatar Ukur become the Kingdom’s territory Sumedanglarang,

successors Pajajaran Kingdom. Sumedanglarang Kingdom was founded and ruled

 

the first time by King Geusan Ulun on

(1580-1608)

, with its capital in Kutamaya, a place which is located west of Sumedang now. The kingdom’s territory covers an area then called Priangan, except Galuh area (now called Ciamis).

1580 –

Maulana Muhammad becomes Sultan of Banten.

Portugal falls under Spanish crown; Portuguese colonial enterprises are disregarded. Drake visits Sulawesi and Java, on the way back to England. Ternate takes control of Butung.

1582:

Muhammad Hasan

became the Sultan of Brunei IX until year 1598

1584

MUSLIM DI CELEBES

Muslim di Celebes paranh terhapus di masa Pemerintahan Laicai’ matinroE Ri Adddenenna, Arung Mankau’ Bone/Benua Atlantis tahun1584-1595.

SOURCE

Muhammad Yusuf Tonggi

 

 

1585 –

Sultan of Aceh sends a letter to Elizabeth I of England. Portuguese ship sent to build a fort and mission on Bali is wrecked just offshore.

1587 –

Portuguese in Melaka attack Johore. Portuguese sign a truce with the Sultan of Aceh. Sir Thomas Cavendish of England visits Java.

 

1591 –

Sir James Lancaster of England reaches Aceh and Penang, but his mission is a failure. Ternate attacks Portuguese in Ambon.

1593 –

Ternate lays siege on the Portuguese in Ambon again.

1512

In 1512,

at the arrival of the Portuguese  two main kingdoms controlled  the Moluccas: they were

the sultanat of Ternate and the reign of Tidore,

the first one controlled beyond the island of Ternate also half of the island of Moti, the northern side of the island of Halmahera called by the Portuguese Moro, the island of Ambon, the east part of Ceram and the northeast area of Sulawesi.

The reign of Tidore,

controlled beyond the island of Tidore the other half of the island of Moti, the island of Makian, the great part of the island of Halmahera and the western side of New Guinea. The control on these islands was exercised directly or through vassallage.

Two others smaller reigns also existed: that of

Bacan and that of Jailolo.

The reign of Bacan,

whose main village was on the island of Kasiruta, extended its infuence on the archipelago of Bacan and on the northern side of Ceram; the reign of Bacan was a great producer of sago, basic food of the populations of the islands, but  it was scarcely populated;

 

 

the reign of Jailolo

instead had been in the past the more important of the region but in 1500s. it was in decline and it controlled only the  north-western side of Halmahera, this reign will be practically

annexed by Ternate and the Portuguese in 1551.

The sultan of Ternate succeeded to make alliance with the Portuguese and in 1522 asked and obtained the construction of a Portuguese fortress in its island. The first stone of the fortress was placed for the festivity of Saint John he Baptiste, on 24 June 1522, and for this the fort was called “Săo Joăo Baptista de Ternate”. The alliance with the Portuguese put out of balance more in favor of Ternate the power relationships with Tidore, on the contrary the king of Tidore at the arrival of the ships of the Magellan expedition ready demanded the help of the Spaniards.

 

 

 

, between these two expedition the Spaniards sent other fleets, those of Loaisa (1527)

and Saavedra (1528)

beyond to the unlucky expedition of Grijalva (1538).

 

As  is well known,  starting from the Magellan expedition,

the Spaniards tried more and more times to get the controll of the spice islands to the prejudice of the Portuguese, with which they often had severe divergences.

The Spaniards, established alliances with the sultans of Tidore and Jailolo and Spanish troops were present in the islands during the years 1527-1534 and 1544-1545.

 

The lack of discover of the return route through the Pacific prevented they of being able to compete with the Portuguese naval power.

In 1529,

in order to define the contentious, an agreement between Spain and Portugal, the treaty of Saragozza, was reached, with this treaty the king of Spain at least nominally abandoned every pretension on the islands in exchange for a sum of money. The first  period of interest of the Spaniards in the Moluccas, was characterized by the fights against the Portuguese for the control of the islands, it began with

 

 

the arrival of the Magellan expedition in 1521 and ended in 1545 with the surrender to the Portuguese of the men of the army of Villalobos

, between these two expedition the Spaniards sent other fleets, those of Loaisa (1527) and Saavedra (1528) beyond to the unlucky expedition of Grijalva (1538).

The expedition of Villalobos was prepared after the treaty of Saragozza and for this reason it was direct to not better specified islands of the spices not still occupied by  Portugal. The center of all this activity of the Spaniards remained for the whole period the island of Tidore.

This first period of interest for the Spaniards in the Moluccas, that regards the years 1521-1606,

can be subdivided in two distinct parts:

the first part

was that one, to which we have already pointed out, of the fights against the Portuguese for the control of the islands, it began with

the arrival of the shipment of Magellano in 1521 and finished in 1545 with the surrender to the Portuguese of the men of Villalobos.

1595

– April 2: Dutch expedition under De Houtman leaves for Indies. Portuguese build fort at Ende, Flores.

1596 – June 5: De Houtman expedition reaches Sumatra. June 23: De Houtman expedition reaches Banten. The initial reception is friendly, but after some bad behaviour by the Dutch, the Sultan of Banten, along with the Portuguese stationed in Banten, shell the Dutch ships. The De Houtman expedition continues along north coast of Java. A ship is lost to pirates. More bad behaviour leads to misunderstandings and violence on Madura. A prince of Madura is killed, several Dutch sailors are arrested and taken prisoner, De Houtman has to ransom them for release. Abul Mufakir becomes Sultan of Banten.

1597 – Some members of De Houtman expedition settle on Bali and refuse to leave. A Portuguese fleet under Lourenzo de Brito decides, contrary to instructions, to seek retribution from the Sultan of Banten for doing business with Dutch traders. The fleet is defeated by Banten and forced to retreat. Remnants of the De Houtman expedition (89 of an original 248 sailors) return to Holland with spices.

1598 – 22 Dutch ships in five expeditions set out for the east. The Netherlands States-General suggests that competing companies should merge. De Houtman’s second expedition includes John Davis, an English spy. Van Noort sets off to sail around the southern tip of America to the Indies.

1599 – Dutch expedition under Van Neck reaches Maluku, begins successful trading on Banda, Ambon and Ternate. June: De Houtman is killed in conflict with Sultan of Aceh. Dutch churches begin calls for missionary work in the Indies.

1600 – Van Noort expedition attacks Spanish at Guam. Portuguese establish trading post at Jepara. September: Dutch Admiral Van den Haghen makes an alliance with the Hitu against the Portuguese in Ambon. December 31: Elizabeth I of England charters East India Company.

 

The scents of Eden had caught the attention of the colonialists, which also attracted them to the Ternate and Tidore and three smaller islands adjacent to the sprawling island of Halmahera in the Northern Moluccas.

 

Maluku – Leaders of Banda met with Dutch traders in 1599

Spices were prized for their flavour and some were also believed to cure everything from the plague to venereal disease, which made spices literally worth their weight in gold.

The second part

of this first period, was instead that of the union between the crowns of Spain and Portugal, during this time

the Spanish expeditions departed from Manila in the Philippines and were organized with the aim to help the Portuguese troops against the Ternateans enemies,

that were rebelled to the Portuguese and that  had expelled them from the island of Ternate. The main objective of these expeditions was the “reconquista” of the Portuguese fortress of Ternate. None of the six successive Spanish attempt  reached the prefixed objective.

These attempts began in 1582 with the expedition of Francisco Dueńas,

this first expedition had  merely informative character to know more on the military situation of the islands, Francisco Dueńas remained in the Moluccas for approximately two months between March and April 1582. The successive expedition was that   commanded by D. Juan Ronquillo it was done between 1582 and 1583, the Spaniards collaborated with the Portuguese helping them in some punitive expeditions.

In 1584

it was the time of Pedro Sarmiento and then in 1585 of Juan de Morón also these two expeditions did not have the hoped result, this time the fortress of Ternate was attacked, but without result. A larger and better assembled army left Manila direct to the Moluccas in 1593 under the command of the governor of the Philippines Gómez Pérez Dasmarińas, but a rebellion and the murder of the same governor before reaching the Moluccas carried to the cancellation of all the operation.

 

The last Spanish expedition

of this period was that sent from Manila in aid of the fleet of Portuguese admiral André Furtado de Mendonça, the Spanish succour was commanded by Juan Juárez Gallinato, and

left  Manila to the end of 1602,

a combined Spanish-Portuguese attack against the fortress of Ternate was with no success. Was successful instead the attack that the Dutch did to the fortress of Tidore in 1605.

Tidore was conquered on 19  May 1605,

but not having a sufficient number of men in order to garrison the conquered fort, the Dutch commander the vice-admiral Cornelis Bastiaensz was limited to leave some men in a small trading farm.

The Spanish answer, this time, was not late to arrive, and the expedition of 1606

lead by the governor of the Philippines Pedro de Acuńa reestablished the Iberian control on the Moluccas. After his fast Victoria, Acuńa decided,  to deport to Manila the sultan of Ternate, Said Barakat, with the Prince, its son, and all his dignitaries, in total about thirty persons.

It was therefore from the year 1606 for 57 years, until the 1663 (with one small appendix in the island of Siau where a very small Spanish garrison remained from 1671 to 1677),

the Spanish occupied some spice islands. The period was characterized by a continuous and often hard fights against the Dutch that were nearly always masters of the seas and in condition of superiority for armament, number of soldiers and ships. For most part of the period the Spaniards had a faithful allied in the sultan of Tidore, while the Dutch had the same in that of Ternate.

1522

In 1522,

less than half a century after Islam arrived at Ternate, the Portuguese set up a fort on the island.

 

 

Thus, for the time they became allies of Ternate (a Muslim). In subsequent years several magnifying Ternate successfully baptized, but the royal dynasty and the mass of the people stick to the religion of Islam, which they profess since 1473. Christian community in Ternate remains “fortress church”. But in some other area Christian congregations born natives. Let us realize that these churches is the result of the Moluccan own initiative. In Halmahera, population of the village on the east coast of the island requested that the Portuguese in Ternate protect them from enemies and accept the religion of their protectors (1534). They were given rudimentary religious instruction, was baptized and given a new name, the name of the Portuguese. Thus, the pattern of conversion to Christianity-like conversion to Islam.

 

In the long term, Christian congregations in Halmahera can not stand, because it began in 1570 a war raged between Ternate and the Portuguese, who had killed the Sultan of Ternate, Hairun. The killing led to a long partnership turned into enmity, and political reasons described above is no longer valid. Church of the fort of Ternate were wiped out with fort, and in Halmahera was the Christian religion can not survive. However, while it successfully planted the seeds of Christians in Ambon. Around the year 1510 brought Islam to Hitu of Java. In 1538, the Sultan of Ternate (Islam) with the help of allies of the Portuguese (Christian), attacking people Hitu (a Muslim), who is assisted by a fleet of Java. People Hitu defeated. Then a number of villages around the Bay of Ambon, which has not converted to Islam, calling for the Portuguese. They also would receive their religious friends. In later Christianity spread to other villages in Ambon and Lease. Just as Christians in Halmahera, Ambon who can not live peacefully. They must constantly resist the attacks of Ternate and Hitu, and they should help in his battle against Ternate Tidore. However, in contrast to Halmahera, Ambon and Christianity can survive in the future is also widespread.

 

Christianity also spread to North Sulawesi and Sangihe. In 1563 the King of Manado and the number of people baptized. Siau king happened to be visiting there and participate baptized; population Siau island itself followed some years later. But since the Portuguese increasingly pressured by the Ternate, this seed can not be maintained. New in the 17th century, when the Spaniards from the Philippines to expand their influence into the region, successfully established congregations rather steady.

 

Christianity also spread over a region that lies outside the influence of the Sultan of Ternate, which is in East Nusa Tenggara. This area is important for Portuguese traders, since they produce sandalwood, which is sold in India and China.

Muslim

 

A Muslim is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. “Muslim” is the Arabic term for “one who submits to God”….

troops from the rising power of the Sultanate of Demak in Central Java.

Islamic Kingdom
 History of Nusantara in the era of the Islamic empire

Islam as a government presence in Indonesia around the 12th century, but in fact Islam has already arrived in Indonesia in the 7th century AD. It was already a busy shipping lane and become international through the Malacca Strait that connects the Tang Dynasty in China, the Srivijaya in Southeast Asia and the Umayyads in West Asia since the 7th century. [4]

According to Chinese sources by the end of the third quarter of 7th century, became the leader of an Arab merchant Muslim Arab settlements on the coast of Sumatra. Islam also gives effect to the existing political institutions. This is apparent in the year 100 H (718 AD) King of Srivijaya Jambi named Srindravarman send a letter to the Caliph Umar bin Abdul Aziz of the Umayyad Caliphate request sent preachers who could explain Islam to him. The letter reads: “From the King in the King who is the descendant of a thousand kings, whose wife was also grandson of a thousand kings, who in the animal cages are a thousand elephants, whose territory there are two rivers that irrigate the tree aloes, spices fragrance, nutmeg and lime lines that fragrant smell to reach out to a distance of 12 miles, to the Arab King who does not associate other gods with Allah. I have sent you a gift, which is actually a gift that is not so much, but just a sign of friendship. I want you to send me someone who can teach Islam to me and explain to me about its laws. “Two years later, the year 720 AD, King Srindravarman, which was originally Hindu, converted to Islam. Sriwijaya Jambi also known as the ‘Sribuza Islam’. Unfortunately, in 730 AD captured by Jambi Sriwijaya Sriwijaya Palembang who still adhered to Buddhism. [5]

Islam continues to mengokoh become a political institution who carry Islam. For example, an Islamic sultanate called the Sultanate of Peureulak established on 1 Muharram 225 H or 12 November 839 AD Another example is the kingdom of Ternate. Islam arrived in this kingdom in the Maluku islands in 1440. Its king, a Muslim named Bayanullah.

Islamic Sultanate then semikin spread his teachings to the people and through assimilation, replaced Hinduism as the main trust at the end of the 16th century in Java and Sumatra. Only Bali that still retain the majority Hindus. On the islands in the east, Churchman-known Christian and Muslim clergy has been active in the 16th century and 17, and currently there are a large majority of both religions on these islands.

The spread of Islam through trade relations outside the archipelago; this case, because the spreading propaganda or mubaligh an emissary of the Islamic government that came from outside Indonesia, then to feed themselves and their families, the mubaligh this work through how to trade, the spread even this mubaligh Islam to the traders from the natives, until the merchants are embracing Islam and also transmit to other people, because most traders and experts was the first kingdom to adopt the new religion. Important Islamic Kingdom including: Royal Ocean Pasai, Sultanate of Banten, which establish diplomatic relations with European countries, the Kingdom of Mataram, and the Sultanate of Ternate in the Moluccas and the Sultanate Tidore

 

In 1527,

Muslim

 

A Muslim is an adherent of Islam, a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion based on the Quran, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God as revealed to prophet Muhammad. “Muslim” is the Arabic term for “one who submits to God”….

troops coming from Cirebon

Cirebon

 

Cirebon is a port city on the north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. It is located in the province of West Java near the provincial border with Central Java, approximately 297 km east of Jakarta, at .The seat of a former Sultanate, the city’s West and Central Java border location have…

and Demak

Demak

Demak is on the north coast of Central Java province, on the island of Java, Indonesia.* Demak, Indonesia – the modern-day large town.* Demak Sultanate – the sixteenth century sultanate.* Demak Regency – the modern-day regency around the town….

attacked the Kingdom of Sunda under the leadership of Fatahillah. The king was expecting the Portuguese to come and help them hold Fatahillah’s army because of an agreement that had been in place between Sunda and the Portuguese. However, Fatahillah’s army succeeded in conquering the city on June 22, 1557, and Fatahillah changed the name of “Sunda Kelapa” to “Jayakarta” (जयकर्; “Great Deed” or “Complete Victory” in Sanskrit

Sanskrit

 

Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism….

 

 

Southern Sulawesi, ca 1500

Minor states of northern Sulawesi, 16th century

From about 1530,

the formerly small south Sulawesi state of Gowa began to grow in power, and its port, Makasar, became increasingly important as a centre of trade in the western archipelago. Gowa used military force to bring much of South Sulawesi under its domination, though the more distant and powerful states such as Wajo’ had the standing of slightly subordinate allies, rather than true vassals; only the Bugis state of Bone on the east coast successfully resisted Gowa’s campaigns. The port of Makasar became still more important in the early 17th century. Its ruler converted to Islam in 1605, making the port more attractive to Muslim traders, and it also became a centre for traders, both European and indigenous, excluded from Maluku by the monopoly practices of the VOC. Conversion to Islam led Gowa into a new bout of conquests in the region, including Wajo’ in 1610 and finally Bone in 1611. Further campaigns in the following decades took Gowa’s influence to Sumbawa, the east coast of Borneo and even the Kai and Aru Islands, though – except in Sumbawa and Butung – Makasar never exercised significant authority and in many areas, such as the northern parts of Sulawesi, the Makasar claim was a fiction supported only by the absence of significant local powers to question it.

 

 

 

Triumph of the Archipelago Portuguese Period
Period 1511-1526,

for 15 years, the archipelago became an important maritime port for the Kingdom of Portugal, which regularly become a maritime route to the island of Sumatra, Java, Banda, and Maluku.

In 1511

The Portuguese defeated the kingdom of Malacca.

In the Portuguese

1511

Popular Resistance  Moluccas against Portuguese
The Portuguese first landed in Maluku in 1511.

The next Portuguese arrival in 1513. However, Tertnate feel aggrieved by the Portuguese because of their greed to obtain monopoly profits through the efforts of the spice trade.

 

in 1512

to establish communication with the [[Kingdom of Sunda]] to sign a trade agreement,

In the year 1512

also Afonso de Albuquerque send Albreu Antonio and Francisco Serrão to lead the fleet to find a way to place of origin of spices in the Moluccas. Along the way, they stopped at Madura, Bali and Lombok. By using the skipper-skipper of Java, the fleet arrived in the Banda Islands, continue heading North until arriving at Ternate.

Portuguese presence in the waters and islands of Indonesia that has left traces of history that to this day is still maintained by local communities in the archipelago, particularly Flores, Solor and Maluku, Jakarta Kampong monument located in the eastern part of Jakarta, between Kali Cakung, Cilincing beach and soil Marunda.

Europeans first discovered the Moluccas is Portuguese, in the year 1512. At that time, two Portuguese fleet, each under the leadership of Anthony d’Abreu and Francisco Serau, landed in Banda Islands and Turtle Island. Once they make friends with residents and local kings – such as with Kingdom of Ternate on the island of Ternate, the Portuguese were given permission to establish a stronghold in Pikaoli, nor may the State Hitu old, and Mamala Ambon.Namun Island spice trade relations did not last long , because the Portuguese introduced a system of monopoly and also to spread Christianity.
One of his famous missionary Francis Xavier. Arriving in Ambon 14 February 1546, then traveled to Ternate, arrived in 1547, and tirelessly visiting the islands in the Maluku Islands to make the spread of religion.
Portuguese Friendship and Ternate ended in 1570. Warfare with the Sultan Babullah for 5 years (1570-1575), allowed the Portuguese had to leave from and expelled into Tidore Ternate and Ambon.

 

1522

especially pepper. Trade agreement is then manifested on August 21, 1522

in the form of contract documents created duplicate, one copy to the king of Sunda and one for the king of Portugal. On the same day built a monument called the [[Inscription Sunda-Portuguese Treaty]] in a place that is now the corner of Clove Road and East First Street Kali Besar, West Jakarta. With this agreement, the Portuguese allowed to build a warehouse or a fortress in the [[Sunda Kelapa]].

Popular Resistance against Portuguese
The arrival of the Portuguese to the Malay Peninsula and the Maluku Islands is an order from his country to trade.

Popular Resistance Malacca to the Portuguese
In 1511, the Portuguese fleet led by Albuquerque to attack the kingdom of Malacca. To attack the colonial Portuguese in Malacca which occurred in 1513 have failed because the power of Portuguese and more powerful weapons.

In 1527,

the fleet Demak under the leadership of Falatehan can master Banten, Suda Kelapa, and Cirebon.

Portuguese fleet to be destroyed by Falatehan and he later renamed Sunda Kelapa to Jayakarta (Jakarta)

 

In 1527,

the fleet Demak under the leadership of Falatehan can master Banten, Suda Kelapa, and Cirebon.

Portuguese fleet to be destroyed by Falatehan and he later renamed Sunda Kelapa to Jayakarta (Jakarta)

. 1553

 

Naer dat wij bij d’Ed=e. Hr. gouverneur en d’E. H=ren raden van India naer Taijoan waren gedestineert, soo sijn op den 18en Junij 1553 met bovengenoemde Iacht vande rheede van Batavia ‘tzeijl gegaen, op hebbende d’E. Hr. Cornelis Caesar om’t gouvernement van Taijoan, Formosa , met den aencleven van dien te becleden, tot vervangh van d’E

 

 

 

1554

Resistance Acehnese against the Portuguese
Beginning in 1554 until the year 1555,

the Portuguese efforts failed because the Portuguese received stiff resistance from the people of Aceh. At the time of Sultan Iskandar Muda in power, the Kingdom of Aceh was attacked the Portuguese in Malacca in 1629.

In 1533, the Sultan of Ternate appeal to all the people of Maluku to expel the Portuguese in the Moluccas.

1556

In 1556

five thousand people are baptized on the island of Timor.

 

Thus was born the Christian congregations in Flores and on several other islands. Dominicans here are active. They established a kind of religious state, with the center on the island of Solor.

 

Fort in Solor 1556

was they who built it. In this area also Christian groups involved in wars and are often attacked by outside forces. But they survived and grew into a kind of enclave of Portuguese in Southeast Asia.

 

Thus, the spread of Christianity in the 16th century was the beginning of the history of religion in Indonesia. We mention a few characteristics

. (1) Christianity is not imposed on people of Indonesia, but accepted by them based on political considerations, economic, ethnological, military.

(2) The spread of Christianity is not a purely religious phenomenon, but intertwined with other factors.

(3) The emphasis of the Christian congregation located in Eastern Indonesia.

(4) For adherents, Christianity is not a foreign element, but one’s own. Indigenous religion and culture as well as a new religion that blends into a new identity.

(5) Christians are willing to treat * hold * it, and defend their new identities against all enemies. Age was also the * right * to witness the faith who are willing to die for his faith

 

 

1570

Discounting francis drake’s brief passage through the sunda strait in the late 1570s,

 

 

In 1570,

the people of Ternate, which was led by Sultan Hairun to re-take the fight against the Portuguese, but can be tricked by the Portuguese and eventually murdered in the Fort Duurstede. Furthermore, led by Sultan Baabullah in the year 1574. Portuguese expelled who then lived on the island of Timor.

Spanish Colonization === ===
{{Main | History of Nusantara Zaman_Spanyol}}

[[Fernando Magelhans]] (sometimes also written Ferdinand) Magelan. Because of this character, who led the first fleet to circumnavigate the world and prove that the earth is round, when it was known by the [[Europe]] flat earth. Commencement [[Colonization]] for centuries by the [[Spain]] along with other European nations, especially the [[Portuguese ]],[[ England]] and [[Netherlands]].

From [[Spain]] to [[Pacific Ocean]] that the Portuguese fleet sailed the Pacific Ocean, past the [[Cape of Good Hope Africa]], to [[Strait of Malacca]]. From here proceed to the Moluccas exploration to find spices, gold equivalent commodity at the time.

“In the 16th century

when the adventure begins usually sailors Catholic country was blessed by the priest and the king before sailing through the ocean.

On September 20, 1519,

San Antonio, Concepción, Victoria, and Santiago, the biggest to the smallest-follow the mother ship Magellan, Trinidad, the second largest ship, as they set sail for South America. On 13 December, they reached Brazil, and Pao de Açúcar staring, or Sugarloaf Mountain, which is impressive, they entered the bay of Rio de Janeiro is wonderful for repairs and provisions.

Then they went south into what is now Argentina, always searching for el paso, the elusive path to the other oceans. Meanwhile, the days get colder and icebergs appear.

 

 

Finally, on March 31, 1520,

Magellan decided to spend the winter in a cold harbor of San Julián.

Sailing has now take six times longer than Columbus’ voyage across the Atlantic Ocean for the first time, and have not seen any of the strait! Their morale began as cold weather in San Julián, and the men, including several captains and officers, get frustrated and want to go home. It’s no surprise when mutiny erupts. However, thanks to a quick and decisive action on the part of Magellan, it was foiled and the two leaders are killed.

The presence of foreign vessels in the harbor must have attracted a strong local-and large-bodied. Feeling like a dwarf compared to these giants, the visitors Patagonia call that land from a Spanish word meaning “big feet”-to this day. They also observe ‘sea wolves of the calf, as well as black and white geese that swim underwater, eat fish, and has a beak like a crow’. Of course, none other than not it seals and penguins!

Polar latitudes are prone to violent storms suddenly, and before winter is over, the fleet was experiencing his first victim of small-Santiago.

However, fortunately the crew can be rescued from the sinking ship that. After that, the four surviving ship, like a little winged moths that hit in the middle of the frozen ocean currents and never let up, fight tooth and nail head south to colder waters, until October 21.

Sailing under the pouring rain that freezes, all eyes glued to a crack in the west. El paso? Yes! Finally, they turned and entered the strait later known as the Strait of Magellan! However, even this moment of triumph is tarnished. San Antonio deliberately disappear in the maze of straits and return to Spain.

The three ships which still survive, diimpit by a narrow gulf between snow-covered cliffs, with persistent sailed through the winding strait that. Brand watched so many fires in the south, possibly from Indian camps, so they call that land Tierra del Fuego, “Land of Fire.”

Magellan arrived in the Philippines

many local people and their rulers to Catholicism. But the spirit also become corrupted. He became involved in tribal disputes and, with only 60 men, attacked about 1,500 indigenous people, with the belief that guns bows, old-fashioned guns, and God will ensure his victory. Instead, he and a number of his subordinates were killed. Magellan was about 41 years. Pigafetta loyal wailing, ‘They killed reflection, lights, entertainers, and our true guide. ” A few days later, about 27 officers who only watch from their ship, was killed by tribal leaders who previously friendly.

Because now the number of crew of the cruise is low, it is impossible to sail with three ships, so they drown the Concepción and sail with

two ships are still living to their final destination, the Spice Islands.

Then, after filling the charge with the spices, the two ships separated. However, the crew of the ship Trinidad was captured by the Portuguese and imprisoned.

However, Victoria, under the command of former rebel Juan Sebastián de Elcano, miss. While avoiding all the ports except one, they take the risk of the Portuguese route around the Cape of Good Hope.

However, without stopping to fill the supply is an expensive strategy.

When they finally reached Spain on 6 September 1522-three years since their departure, only 18 men who are sick and helpless who survive.

Even so, can not be denied that they were the first person to sail around the earth.

Juan Sebastián de Elcano was a hero.

What an amazing thing, the charge spice Victoria weighing 26 tons defray the costs of the entire expedition!

When a ship that survived, Victoria,

returned to port after completing the journey around the world for the first time, only 18 men of 237 men who were on the ship in the early departure.

Among survivors, there are two Italians, Antonio Pigafetta and Martino de Judicibus. Martino de Judicibus (Spanish: Martín de Judicibus) adalan people of Genoa [1] which acts as the Head Waiter.

It works by Ferdinand Magellan on its historic journey to find a western route to the Spice Islands of Indonesia.

[2] The history of his trip immortalized in the registration of nominative in Archivo General de Indias in Seville, Spain.

The family name is called with the proper Latin patronimik, namely: “de Judicibus”. At first he was assigned to the Caravel Concepción, one of five Spanish fleet owned by Magellan. Martino de Judicibus start this expedition with the title of captain. (Read more in the book “History of Colonial Spanish in Indonesia” by David DS Lumoindong.

Before mastering the Philippine islands in 1543, Spain made the island of Manado Tua

as a stopover to obtain fresh water. Of the island’s Spanish ships entered the mainland
North Sulawesi through the river-Tondano.

Spanish traveler relationship with rural residents is established through a barter economy began in Uwuran (now city Amurang) alongside the river Rano I Apo. Barter trade of rice, resin, honey and other forest products with fish and salt.

Warehouse Coffee


Manado and Minahasa be important for Spain,

because of soil fertility and use Spanish for the planting Kofi originating from South-America to be marketed to mainland China. For that in-
wake Manado as a trade center for Chinese traders who market Kofi kedaratan China. Manado name included in the map of the world by experts the world map, Nicolas_Desliens, in 1541.

Manado also
the main attraction of Chinese society by Kofi

as an export commodity inland communities of Manado and Minahasa. Pioneered the development of Chinese traders Kofi warehouse (now around the Market 45) which later became Chinatown and the settlement. The arrivals from mainland China mingle and assimilate with inland communities and to form a pluralistic society in Manado and Minahasa
with derivatives Spanish, Portuguese and Dutch.

The appearance of the name of Manado in North Sulawesi with a variety of commercial activities carried Spain into Portugal since the appeal to establish its position in Ternate.

 

For that approach send the Portuguese Catholic mission on the ground Manado and Minahasa in 1563 and developed a religious and Catholic education. Effect of race in the Celebes Sea Adu

Between Minahasa with Ternate, there are two small islands called Mayu and Tafure. Then the two islands were used as transit port by sailors Minahasa. At that time there is competition Portuguese and Spanish in which Spain won the two islands.

Pandey Tombulu origin who became king

on the island run by a fleet of boats back to the Minahasa, but because of the summer monsoon and then stranded in Gorontalo.

Pandey boy named Potangka

continue the journey and arrived at Ratahan. In Ratahan, he was appointed commander of the war because he was an expert shot guns and rifles to fight the Portuguese attacker from Mongondouw in the region.

In 1563

the territory known Ratahan Ternate people with the name “Watasina”

because when attacked by a fleet of Kora-kora menhalau Ternate to Spain from the region (the book “De Katholieken en hares Missie” written by AJ Van Aernsbergen).

In 1570

Portuguese and Spanish conspired to kill the king of Ternate,

so make a big fuss in Ternate. When that many Islamic traders fled to Ternate and Tidore Ratahan. Pirate attacks increased in Ratahan through Bentenan, plows the sea using the slaves as rowers.

The captive slaves fled to the Ratahan pirates when night pirate boat fleet was damaged soldiers Ratahan – barely.

Tentative conclusions can we draw from this story collection

is the original inhabitants of this region is Touwuntu in lowland areas to the beach Toulumawak in the mountains, they are descendants Opok Soputan seventh century.

.

 

In 1595,

Amsterdam

 

Amsterdam is the capital and largest city of the Netherlands, with a population of 780,152 within city limits, an urban population of 1,209,419 and a metropolitan population of 2,158,592. The city is in the province of North Holland in the west of the country

then they built a fort at Ternate in 1511,

then in 1512 built the Citadel in Amurang North Sulawesi. Portuguese lost the war with Spain, the north Sulawesi area submitted in the Spanish rule (1560 to 1660). Portuguese kingdom later united with the Kingdom of Spain. (Read the book: Portuguese Colonial History in Indonesia, by David DS Lumoindong). 17th-century merchant fleet came VOC (Dutch), who later managed to expel the Portuguese from Ternate, which then backwards and mastering Portuguese East Timor (since 1515).

Colonialism and Imperialism began spreading in Indonesia around the 15th century, which begins with the landing of the Portuguese in Malacca and the Dutch-led Cornelis de Houtmen in 1596

, to seek the source of spices and trade.

Popular Resistance against Portuguese
The arrival of the Portuguese to the Malay Peninsula and the Maluku Islands is an order from his country to trade.

Popular Resistance Malacca to the Portuguese
In 1511, the Portuguese fleet led by Albuquerque to attack the kingdom of Malacca. To attack the colonial Portuguese in Malacca which occurred in 1513 have failed because the power of Portuguese and more powerful weapons

 

16th century

Name OPO ‘Soputan

appears again as the head of the 16th century walak region with head walak Raliu brothers and Potangkuman. Residents of this region comes from the 16th century natives and newcomers from Tombulu, Tompakewa (Tontemboan), Tonsea, Ternate and pirates prisoner may from Sangihe

Starting  from the year 1607,

the Dutch extended their control

on the more profitableand better part and of the Moluccas: they,

 

1478

Majapahit is traditionally said to have fallen in 1478

Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, 14th century

The port city of Melaka,

founded by Parameswara

or his descendants, quickly rose to be the most powerful state in the region. Abundant fresh water, a deep harbour and control of the narrowest part of the strait gave it an immediate advantage in attracting traders.

So too did its ruler’s careful strategy of providing excellent facilities for merchants. Specially appointed shahbandar, or harbour-lords, maintained the warehouses, policed transactions and settled disputes between the dozens of trading communities in the city. Melaka’s main trading rival, the northern Sumatra state of Samudra-Pasai, was never able to match these advantages. Melaka’s ruler also inherited from his Palembang forebears a close relationship with the orang laut, the semi-piratical sea people who had been the basis of Srivijaya’s navy.

 

Melaka also benefited from the decline of Majapahit,

from a lull in the southward expansion of the Thai, and from a close relationship with the Chinese empire.

Under the Yung-lo emperor, China briefly abandoned its hostility to trade and sought out reliable allies as trading partners in South and Southeast Asia. Melaka was the most favoured of these allies.

1407:

Settlement Hanafi Muslim Hui Chinese

first established in Sambas. [7]
 1408:

Pateh Berbai II

became the Sultan of Brunei until the year 1425.


 1420:

Aji King Mandarsyah Kukar IV

became King until the year 1475. Islam arrived in the Kutai during his reign was brought by Mr. parangan riding.

1425:

Sharif Ali,

a son of Sultan of Brunei

who came from Mecca III was crowned as the Sultan of Brunei until the year 1432.

 

 

1429:

Bhre Tanjungpura

held by Manggalawardhani Dyah Suragharini

[= hold dear Princess Bubble?] Daughter of Bhre Tumapel II (= brother Suhita) power until the year 1464.

1430

 

The Moluccas, from the “Livro das Plantas das Fortalezas, Cidades e Povoaçoes do Estado da India Oriental 1600s.

Because of the continuous trade contacts between the Moluccas and the coming merchants of Muslim faith from Arabia and other Asia zones, starting from the 1430-1460 years Maomettan faith   made its entry in the islands, in those years various kings were converted to Islam and at the arrival of the Portuguese, Islam represented an important and elitarian element, although  the majority of the population still remained BIBLIOGRAPHY:

Ramerini, Marco  “The Spanish presence in the Moluccas, 1606-1663/1671-1677” unpublished research.

Ramerini, Marco  “The Spanish forts in Tidore, a preliminar survey” unpublished article

 

1431:

The city became the center of the Kingdom Tanjungpura Sukadana until the year 1724 since the government Tunjung Coral Prince (1431-1450).
 1432:

Duke Agong IV

becomes Sultan of Brunei until the year 1485.
 1441:

A Muslim’s death with tombstones of andesitic rocks found in the Sacred Seven, District Ketapang Arab writing bertarikh year 1363 Saka or 1441 AD Tombstone shapes derived from the last century Majapahit.

1472:

title of Prince Raden Ismahayana Dipati Old Cape Coral

became King of Hedgehogs until 1542.

1475:

The establishment of the Sultanate of Borneo Demaksphere of influence reaches as Tanjungpura, Lawai and Banjarmasin.Aji Tumenggung Bayabaya Prince was crowned King of Paser Kukar V until the year 1545.

 

 

The Majapahit History Collections

Part V

The Setting Of Madjapahit War

(Perang Saat Kehancuran Majapahit )

1478-1525

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2912

 

 

1478:

Maharaja titled Raden Breech Sekar Sari Kaburungan

became King of Daha State based on the Nagara. Islam came during his reign, because his son married a daughter of Sunan Giri.


 Majapahit is traditionally said to have fallen in 1478, but the state seems to have survived in attenuated form until about the 1530s

 

 

 

1482

Kingdom Of Pajajaran

Sri Baduga Maharaja (1482 – 1521)

1482

Ada tafsiran yang dimaksud Prabu Wangi mungkin Prabu Lingga Buana (yang wafat di Bubat, Majapahit), termahsyur karena keberaniannya membela harga diri Kerajaan Sunda meskipun harus tewas di Majapahit.

Atau Prabu Wangi mungkin adalah Prabu Niskalawastu Kancana, termahsyur karena masa pemerintahannya yang panjang dan damai serta makmur (ibukota saat itu di Galuh).

Kedua raja itu adalah leluhur Jayadewata. Prabu Lingga Buana adalah Buyut Jayadewata, sedangkan Niskalawastu Kancana adalah kakek Jayadewata. “Silih” tidak berarti menggantikan langsung dalam urutan suksesi kekuasaan, tetapi berarti keharuman dan kemahsyuran namanya menyamai Prabu “Wangi”.

Siliwangi tidak lain adalah Prabu Jayadewata yang bergelar Sri Baduga Maharaja yang memerintah selama 39 tahun (1482 – 1521).

Pada masa inilah Pakuan mencapai puncak kejayaannya. Ia memindahkan ibukota dari Galuh ke Pakuan Pajajaran (sekarang Bogor).



^Bhre Kahuripan




^That supposed to be Bhre Kahuripan?

I wonder how they came up with that image. His costume is weird, I think his crown resembles Malay crown more than a Javanese one. I think Museum of Indonesia has a Malay crown that looks just like that. BTW, I’m always fascinated by the wayang figures on the imported copper coin. The wayang form is a distorted figure of human just like the one we know nowadays, but I thought before Islam wayang had a rather natural look?

 

 

1485:

Sultan Bolkiah of Brunei becomes V

until the year 1524.

Until the end of the 15th century,

Hinduism was the predominant religion in the islands of Java and Sumatra. Hinduism is said to have spread to these islands as early as the first century AD.

. Hinduism flourished in these Indonesian islands until the arrival of Islam in the 14th century. Indonesia is today the most populous Muslim-majority nation, with 86.1% Muslims (2000 census) and 3% Hindus. However, there is a self-conscious Hindu revival movement emerging from the Javanese society with constant reference to the famous Javanese prophecies of Sabdapalon and Jayabhaya.

It is interesting to note that the ancient Indian Sanskrit epic, Ramayana, makes a mention of these islands. After the abduction of Sita from the Panchavati forest, Rama and Lakshmana go in search of her. They meet

 

 

The fight between Vali and Sugreeva

Hanuman and Sugreeva near the vicinity of the mountain Rishyamukha. Rama helps Sugreeva by killing his elder brother Vali and making him the king of Kishkinda. In return of Rama’s help, Sugreeva and the Vanaras agree to find Sita. Sugreeva orders Niila, his commander to assemble the troops. He orders Vinata, a mighty vanara warrior to search the Eastern side for Sita. While doing so he describes the islands of South East Asia.

In Kishkindha Kanda of Valmiki Ramayana, chapter 40 verses 30, 31 and 32, the islands of Java and Sumatra are said to have been described by Sugreeva:

yatnavanto yava dviipam sapta raajya upashobhitam |
suvarNa ruupyakam dviipam suvarNa aakara maNDitam || 4-40-30
yava dviipam atikramya shishiro naama parvataH |
divam spR^ishati shR^ingeNa deva daanava sevitaH || 4-40-31
eteSaam giri durgeSu prapaateSu vaneSu ca |
maargadhvam sahitaaH sarve raama patniim yashasviniim || 4-40-32

“You strive hard in the island of Yava, which will be splendorous with seven kingdoms, like that even in Golden and Silver islands that are enwreathed with gold-mines, in and around Yava islands. On crossing over Yava Island, there is a mountain named Shishira, which touches heaven with its peak, and which gods and demons adore. You shall collectively rake through all the impassable mountains, waterfalls, and forests in these islands for the glorious wife of Rama.”

The islands of Yava mentioned in the above verses are said to be the modern day Java islands. The Golden and Silver islands refer to Sumatra which was earlier known as Swarnadwīpa (Island of Gold). The seven kingdoms may refer to the Indonesian archipelago. This clearly indicates the knowledge of geography of regions beyond the Bharata khand by the ancient Hindus. This also suggests that people of ancient Bharat have travelled to these lands and back.

  15th century

1405:

King of Puni

from western Borneo arrived in China

 and requested that the area to send tribute to China is no longer to Java. This king died in China. Until the year 1425 Puni relationship with China began to rare. [6]

 

The Indonesian archipelago

Before the arrival of Hinduism in the early first century AD, the native people of Indonesian Archipelago are said to have been practicing an indigenous belief system common to Austronesian people. The indigenous spiritual concepts were fused with Hinduism which evolved into Javanese Hinduism. Many of the ancient Indonesian kingdoms followed Hinduism. The most famous are the Mataram, Kediri and Singhasari kingdoms. The archipelagic empire of Majapahit which ruled between 1293 and 1500 was the most powerful last major empire in Indonesian history.


PANDAN ARANG II LEGEND

BEBERAPA PENDAPAT TENTANG ASAL USUL KI PANDAN ARANG

1.SERAT KANDHA BERDASARKAN TERJEMAHAN BUKU
BERBAHASA BELANDA (KBG. 540)
Seorang pemuda dari tanah Arab bernama Abdulah disuruh Sunan Ampel pergi ke Pulau Tirang (sekarang : Semarang), Maulana Ibnu Abdulah yang selanjutnya dikenal sebagai Kyai Pandan Arang.

2.SOEWIGNYO DALAM BUKUNYA KYAI AGENG PANDAN ARANG
BATAVIA 1938
Brawijaya raja Majapahit meninggallcan istana karena diserbu orang-orang yang masuk Islam. Di desa Sawer bertemu dengan Sunan Kalijaga.
Dalam pembicaraan panjang akhirnya Brawijaya menyerah kepada Sunan Kalijaga. Brawijaya diangkat menjadi Bupati Semarang bergelar Kyai Pandan Arang.

3.SILSILAH MUSEUM SUMENEP
Sultan Trenggana mempunyai dua orang putra :
Pangeran Mas Pandan Arang dan Ratu Ayu.
Pangeran Pandan Arang berputra Pangeran Kanoman.

4.RW DWIDJOSEOWIGNJO – 1941
Raden Patah berputra 9 orang, yang sulung bernama Raden Surya
(Pangeran Adipati Sepuh) bertempat tinggal di Sabrang Lor.
Setelah naik tahta Pangeran Sabrang Lor bergelar Sultan Syeh Slam Akbar II (1440 C = Sirno Papat Catur Aji) Sultan Akbat II berputra 4 orang :

a. Raden Emas Pembayun
b. Raden Emas Panenggak
c. Adipati Panaraga
d. Pangeran Anom Made Pandan Ngabdulsalam
Pangeran Made Pandan menurunkan Pandan Arang.

5. AN NOERTJAHJO -1953 SEJARAH WALI
Raden Patah menurunkan Pangeran Sabrang Lor (Adipati Sepuh)
atau Sultan Demak II.
Setelah mangkat putranya bernama Made Pandan tidak mati menggantikan menjadi raja.
Kerajaan diserahkan kepada Pangeran Trenggana adik Sultan Demak II.
Made Pandan meninggalkan istana pergi ke Pulau Tirang.
Made Pandan menurunkan Pandan Arang.


CERITA RAKYAT SUNAN PANDAN ARANG
Ki Pandan Arang I yang dalam pemerintahannya cukup berhasil merasa kecewa karma putrinya yang cantik jelita menderita sakit lumpuh.

Segala macam obat tela& diberikan dan orangorang pandai telah didatangkan, tetapi tidak ada kemajuan. Putrinya tetap lumpuh. Sampai-sampai mempunyai nadzar, barang siapa dapat menyembuhkan putrinya akan diambil sebagai menantu.

Pads suatu hari Sunan Kalijaga memberitahu bahwa di Gunung Gede ada orang yang pandai bernama Ranawijaya berasal dari Majapahit.
Atas permintaan Ki Pandan Arang I, Ranawijaya datang ke Kadipaten. Dengan kesaktiannya dan per-Tuhan dengan mudah sang putri dapat disembuhkan. Akhirnya Ranawijaya diambil sebagai menantu.

Pada saat Ki Pandan Arang I meninggal dunia, Ranawijaya menggantikan dengan gelar Ki Pandan Arang II. Daerahnya maju pesat, rakyatnya makmur termasuk perkembangan agama Islam cukup memuaskan. Namun kemakmuran dan keberhasilan dalam pemerintahannya membuat Ki Pandan Arang II lupa diri, ia jadi congkak, sombong dan kikir. Ia selalu mengejar harta walaupun sudah melimpah ruah.
Mengetahui keadaan semacam itu Sunan Kalijaga datang menyamar sebagai penjual rumput. Dalam kesempatan tawar menawar disisipkan peringatan terhadap perilaku Ki Pandan Arang II yang telah menyimpang dari ajaran agama Islam. Berulang Sunan Kalijaga datang memperingatkan namun tak dihiraukan.
Akhirnya Sunan Kalijaga menunjukkan kesaktiannya, setiap tanah yang dicangkulnya berubah menjadi sebongkah emas dan diberikan kepada Pandan Arang. Pandan Arang sangat heran terhadap kesaktian penjual rumput. Setelah diketahui bahwa penjual rumput itu Sunan Kalijaga maka bersujud dan bertaubat.
Pandan Arang melepaskan kedudukannya sebagai Adipati ingin berguru kepada Sunan Kalijaga. Sunan Kalijaga menyanggupi mengajarkan ilmu di Gunung Jabalkat dan tidak boleh membawa harta benda.

Setelah bulat tekadnya Pandan Arang bersama istrinya meninggalkan Semarang menuju Gunung Jabalkat, Dasar naluri seorang wanita, Nyi Pandan Arang memasukkan seluruh perhiasannya dan sementara uang dinar ke dalam tongkat yang akan dibawanya. Dalam perjalanan Nyi Pandan Arang tertinggal jauh dari suaminya. Dia dihadang tiga orang penyamun. Direbutnya tongkat tongkatnya dan seluruh bawaannya. ” Kangmas, tolong! Ada tiga orang penyamun! (Jawa: Kangmas, tulung! Wonten Tyang, salah, tiga) “.

Menurut yang punya cerita tempat itu sekarang diberi nama Salatiga (salah-tiga). Pada saat Ni Pandan Arang kembali menolong istrinya, tiga orang penyamun itu marsh merebut perhiasan yang dipakai Nyi Pandan Arang. Melihat sikap kasar para penyamun Ki Pandan Arang menjadi marah. ” Hei! Manusia mengapa nekad seperti kambing domba (Jawa : E, wong kok drufhus kaya wedhus).”
Seketika wajah Sambangdalan pemimpin penyamun itu berubah menjadl domba. Para penyamun takut mefihat kesaktian Ki Pandan Arang. Sambangdalan bertaubat dan minta supaya wajahnya dikembalikan seperti semula. Pandan Arang memaafkan kesalahannya tetapi wajahnya tetap seperti domba. Sambangdalan akhirnya menjadi pengikut Pandan Arang dan lebih dikenal dengan nama Syeh Domba.

Dalam berjalan Nyi Pandan Arang sering sekali ditinggal suaminya. Sampai di suatu tempat suaminya tak kelihatan karena sangat jauh di denan. Nyi Pandan Arang kepayahan dan beristirahat di bawah pohon. ” Kangmas, apakah sudah Napa, engkau terhadap says? Keluh Nyi Pandan Arang (Jawa Kangmas, boys lali panjenengan kayo aku).”
Menurut yang punya cerita tempat beristirahat Nyi Pandan Arang itu sekarang disebut Boyolali.

Setelah beberapa hari berjalan sampailah Ki Pandan Arang bersama istrinya di bukit Jabalkat Dia berguru kepada Sunan Kalijaga. Atas kecerdasan fan kerajinannya, Si Pandan Arang ditugasi sebagai penyiar agama Islam di daerah selatan. Ki Pandan Arang mendirikan perguruan di bukit Jabalkat. Pengikutnya makin lama makin banyak.
Selain pengetahuan agama, diajarkan pals oleh Ki Pandan Arang tentang bercocok tanam, jugs cara bergaul yang baik. Islam berkembang dengan pesatnya. Banyak orang datang masuk Islam dengan mengucapkan Sahadat Tembayat. Ajaran yang paling menonjol dari Ki Pandan Arang adalah “Patembayatan” (Kerukunan dan Kegotongroyongan).

Diceritakan bahwa pads saat mencari pengikut, Pandan Arang pernah menjadi pembantu rumah tangga Ki Tasik, seorang tokoh masyarakat terkenal di sebelah barat Jabalkat. Tugas pokoknya mencari ft bakar dan membeli bergs ke pasar, karena Nyi Tasik pekerjaannya sebagai penjual kue srabi.

Pada suatu hari Pandan Arang dimarahi karena kayu bakar yang dicarinya hanya sedikit. Kue srabi tidak dapat dimasak semuanya. Karena kemarahan Nyi Tasik, Pandan Arang memasukkan tangannya ke dalam tungku. Dari jarinya keluar api sehingga kue srabi dapat dimasak seluruhnya.
Ki Tasik dan Nyi Tasik mengakui kesaktian Pandan Arang dan masuk Islam bersama penduduk di Sekltarnya. Akhirnya Pandan Arang kembali ke Gunung Jabalkat. Berkat ajaran “Patembayatan” Ki Pandan Arang dapat mendirikan masjid di bukit Gala.
Sampai akhir hayatnya Pandan Arang menetap di Jabalkat dan jenazahnya dimakamkan di bukit Cakrakembang. Daerah Jabalkat dan sekitarnya sekarang dikenal dengan nama Tembayat atau Bayat

Kesultanan Malaka (14021511) adalah sebuah kesultanan yang didirikan oleh Parameswara, seorang putera Sriwijaya yang melarikan diri dari perebutan Palembang oleh Majapahit. Ibu kota kerajaan ini terdapat di Melaka, yang terletak pada penyempitan Selat Malaka. Kesultanan ini berkembang pesat menjadi sebuah entrepot dan menjadi pelabuhan terpenting di Asia Tenggara pada abad ke-15 dan awal 16. Malaka runtuh setelah ibu kotanya direbut Portugis pada 1511.

Kegemilangan yang dicapai oleh Kerajaan Melaka adalah daripada beberapa faktor yang penting. Antaranya, Parameswara telah mengambil kesempatan untuk menjalinkan hubungan baik dengan negara Cina ketika Laksamana Yin Ching mengunjungi Melaka pada tahun 1403. Malah, salah seorang daripada sultan Melaka telah menikahi seorang putri dari negara Cina yang bernama Putri Hang Li Po. Hubungan erat antara Melaka dengan Cina telah memberi banyak manfaat kepada Melaka. Melaka mendapat perlindungan dari Cina yang merupakan sebuah kuasa besar di dunia untuk mengelakkan serangan Siam.

Sejarah

Parameswara pada awalnya mendirikan kerajaan di Singapura pada tahun 1390-an. Negeri ini kemudian diserang oleh Jawa dan Siam, yang memaksanya hijrah lebih ke utara. Kronik Dinasti Ming mencatat Parameswara telah berdiam di ibukota baru di Melaka pada 1403, tempat armada Ming yang dikirim ke selatan menemuinya. Sebagai balasan upeti yang diberikan Kekaisaran Cina menyetujui untuk memberikan perlindungan pada kerajaan baru tersebut. [1]

Parameswara kemudian menganut agama Islam setelah menikahi putri Pasai. Laporan dari kunjungan Laksamana Cheng Ho pada 1409 menyiratkan bahwa pada saat itu Parameswara masih berkuasa, dan raja dan rakyat Melaka sudah menjadi muslim. [2]. Pada 1414 Parameswara digantikan putranya, Megat Iskandar Syah.[1][2]

Megat Iskandar Syah memerintah selama 10 tahun, dan digantikan oleh Muhammad Syah. Putra Muhammad Syah yang kemudian menggantikannya, Raja Ibrahim, tampaknya tidak menganut agama Islam, dan mengambil gelar Sri Parameswara Dewa Syah. Namun masa pemerintahannya hanya 17 bulan, dan dia mangkat karena terbunuh pada 1445. Saudara seayahnya, Raja Kasim, kemudian menggantikannya dengan gelar Sultan Mudzaffar Syah.

Di bawah pemerintahan Sultan Mudzaffar Syah Melaka melakukan ekspansi di Semenanjung Malaya dan pantai timur Sumatera (Kampar dan Indragiri). Ini memancing kemarahan Siam yang menganggap Melaka sebagai bawahan Kedah, yang pada saat itu menjadi vassal Siam. Namun serangan Siam pada 1455 dan 1456 dapat dipatahkan.

Di bawah pemerintahan raja berikutnya yang naik tahta pada tahun 1459, Sultan Mansur Syah, Melaka menyerbu Kedah dan Pahang, dan menjadikannya negara vassal. Di bawah sultan yang sama Johor, Jambi dan Siak juga takluk. Dengan demikian Melaka mengendalikan sepenuhnya kedua pesisir yang mengapit Selat Malaka.

Mansur Syah berkuasa sampai mangkatnya pada 1477. Dia digantikan oleh putranya Alauddin Riayat Syah. Sultan memerintah selama 11 tahun, saat dia meninggal dan digantikan oleh putranya Sultan Mahmud Syah. [3]

Mahmud Syah memerintah Malaka sampai tahun 1511, saat ibu kota kerajaan tersebut diserang pasukan Portugis di bawah pimpinan Alfonso de Albuquerque. Serangan dimulai pada 10 Agustus 1511 dan berhasil direbut pada 24 Agustus 1511. Sultan Mahmud Syah melarikan diri ke Bintan dan mendirikan ibukota baru di sana. Pada tahun 1526 Portugis membumihanguskan Bintan, dan Sultan kemudian melarikan diri ke Kampar, tempat dia wafat dua tahun kemudian. Putranya Muzaffar Syah kemudian menjadi sultan Perak, sedangkan putranya yang lain Alauddin Riayat Syah II mendirikan kerajaan baru yaitu Johor.

[sunting] Daftar raja-raja Malaka

  1. Parameswara (1402-1414)
  2. Megat Iskandar Syah (1414-1424)
  3. Sultan Muhammad Syah (1424-1444)
  4. Seri Parameswara Dewa Syah(1444-1445)
  5. Sultan Mudzaffar Syah (1445-1459)
  6. Sultan Mansur Syah (1459-1477)
  7. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah (1477-1488)
  8. Sultan Mahmud Syah (1488-1528)

Kesultanan Aceh Darussalam berdiri menjelang keruntuhan dari Samudera Pasai yang pada tahun 1360 ditaklukkan oleh Majapahit hingga kemundurannya di abad ke-14. Kesultanan Aceh terletak di utara pulau Sumatera dengan ibu kota Kutaraja (Banda Aceh) dengan sultan pertamnya adalah Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah yang dinobatkan pada pada Ahad, 1 Jumadil awal 913 H atau pada tanggal 8 September 1507. Dalam sejarahnya yang panjang itu (14961903), Aceh telah mengukir masa lampaunya dengan begitu megah dan menakjubkan, terutama karena kemampuannya dalam mengembangkan pola dan sistem pendidikan militer, komitmennya dalam menentang imperialisme bangsa Eropa, sistem pemerintahan yang teratur dan sistematik, mewujudkan pusat-pusat pengkajian ilmu pengetahuan, hingga kemampuannya dalam menjalin hubungan diplomatik dengan negara lain.[1]

Sejarah

Awal mula

Kesultanan Aceh didirikan oleh Sultan Ali Mughayat Syah pada tahun 1496. Diawal-awal masa pemerintahannya wilayah Kesultanan Aceh berkembang hingga mencakup Daya, Deli, Pedir, Pasai, dan Aru. Pada tahun 1528, Ali Mughayat Syah digantikan oleh putera sulungnya yang bernama Salahuddin, yang kemudian berkuasa hingga tahun 1537. Kemudian Salahuddin digantikan oleh Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah al-Kahar yang berkuasa hingga tahun 1568.

Masa kejayaan

Kesultanan Aceh mengalami masa keemasan pada masa kepemimpinan Sultan Iskandar Muda (16071636). Pada masa kepemimpinannya, Aceh telah berhasil memukul mundur kekuatan Portugis dari selat Malaka. Kejadian ini dilukiskan dalam La Grand Encyclopedie bahwa pada tahun 1582, bangsa Aceh sudah meluaskan pengaruhnya atas pulau-pulau Sunda (Sumatera, Jawa dan Kalimantan) serta atas sebagian tanah Semenanjung Melayu. Selain itu Aceh juga melakukan hubungan diplomatik dengan semua bangsa yang melayari Lautan Hindia. Pada tahun 1586, kesultanan Aceh melakukan penyerangan terhadap Portugis di Melaka dengan armada yang terdiri dari 500 buah kapal perang dan 60.000 tentara laut. Serangan ini dalam upaya memperluas dominasi Aceh atas Selat Malaka dan semenanjung Melayu. Walaupun Aceh telah berhasil mengepung Melaka dari segala penjuru, namun penyerangan ini gagal dikarenakan adanya persekongkolan antara Portugis dengan kesultanan Pahang.

Dalam lapangan pembinaan kesusasteraan dan ilmu agama, Aceh telah melahirkan beberapa ulama ternama, yang karangan mereka menjadi rujukan utama dalam bidang masing-masing, seperti Hamzah Fansuri dalam bukunya Tabyan Fi Ma’rifati al-U Adyan, Syamsuddin al-Sumatrani dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Muhakikin al-Iman, Nuruddin ar-Raniry dalam bukunya Sirat al-Mustaqim, dan Syekh Abdul Rauf Singkili dalam bukunya Mi’raj al-Tulabb Fi Fashil.

Kemunduran

Kemunduran Kesultanan Aceh bermula sejak kemangkatan Sultan Iskandar Tsani pada tahun 1641. Kemunduran Aceh disebabkan oleh beberapa faktor, diantaranya ialah makin menguatnya kekuasaan Belanda di pulau Sumatera dan Selat Malaka, ditandai dengan jatuhnya wilayah Minangkabau, Siak, Deli dan Bengkulu kedalam pangkuan penjajahan Belanda. Faktor penting lainnya ialah adanya perebutan kekuasaan diantara pewaris tahta kesultanan.

Traktat London yang ditandatangani pada 1824 telah memberi kekuasaan kepada Belanda untuk menguasai segala kawasan British/Inggris di Sumatra sementara Belanda akan menyerahkan segala kekuasaan perdagangan mereka di India dan juga berjanji tidak akan menandingi British/Inggris untuk menguasai Singapura.

Pada akhir Nopember 1871, lahirlah apa yang disebut dengan Traktat Sumatera, dimana disebutkan dengan jelas “Inggris wajib berlepas diri dari segala unjuk perasaan terhadap perluasan kekuasaan Belanda di bagian manapun di Sumatera. Pembatasan-pembatasan Traktat London 1824 mengenai Aceh dibatalkan.” Sejak itu, usaha-usaha untuk menyerbu Aceh makin santer disuarakan, baik dari negeri Belanda maupun Batavia. Setelah melakukan peperangan selama 40 tahun, Kesultanan Aceh akhirnya jatuh ke pangkuan kolonial Hindia-Belanda. Sejak kemerdekaan Indonesia pada tahun 1945, Aceh menyatakan bersedia bergabung ke dalam Republik indonesia atas ajakan dan bujukan dari Soekarno kepada pemimpin Aceh Tengku Muhammad Daud Beureueh saat itu[rujukan?].

 

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