KISI INFO INDONESIA ABAD 10 (BERSAMBUNG)

ABAD KE 10

Borobudur tempe 10th century

OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS

KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

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Abad ke-10

 

Nusantara Sesudah Kedatangan Bangsa Barat

Hingga abad ke-10 pelayaran niaga masih menempuh satu jalur yang tidak terputusputusdari timur ke barat atau sebaliknya. Sampai dengan abad itu belum adapelabuhan-pelabuhan yang memiliki cukup banyak fasilitas untuk dijadikan tempatsinggah dalam jalur niaga yang panjang. Sejak abad ke-10

907

Asal Uasul Kota Malang

Kota malang , Terletak pada ketinggian antara 429 – 667 meter diatas permukaan air laut. 112,06° – 112,07° Bujur Timur dan 7,06° – 8,02° Lintang Selatan, dengan dikelilingi gunung-gunung :
*Gunung Arjuno di sebelah Utara
*Gunung Semeru di sebelah Timur
*Gunung Kawi dan Panderman di sebelah Barat
*Gunung Kelud di sebelah Selatan

 

Wilayah cekungan Malang telah ada sejak masa purbakala menjadi kawasan pemukiman. Banyaknya sungai yang mengalir di sekitar tempat ini membuatnya cocok sebagai kawasan pemukiman.

 Wilayah Dinoyo dan Tlogomas diketahui merupakan kawasan pemukiman prasejarah. Selanjutnya, berbagai prasasti (misalnya Prasasti Dinoyo), bangunan percandian dan arca-arca, bekas-bekas pondasi batu bata, bekas saluran drainase, serta berbagai gerabah ditemukan dari periode akhir Kerajaan Kanjuruhan (abad ke-8 dan ke-9) juga ditemukan di tempat yang saling berdekatan.

Nama “Malang” sampai saat ini masih diteliti asal-usulnya oleh para ahli sejarah. Para ahli sejarah masih terus menggali sumber-sumber untuk memperoleh jawaban yang tepat atas asal-usul nama “Malang”. Sampai saat ini telah diperoleh beberapa hipotesa mengenai asal-usul nama Malang tersebut.

 
Malangkucecwara yang tertulis di dalam lambang kota Malang, menurut salah satu hipotesa merupakan nama sebuah bangunan suci. Nama bangunan suci itu sendiri diketemukan dalam dua prasasti Raja Balitung dari Jawa Tengah yakni

 Prasasti Mantyasih tahun 907,

dan Prasasti 908 yang diketemukan di satu tempat antara kota Surabaya-Malang.

 
Namun demikian dimana letak sesungguhnya bangunan suci
Malangkucecwara itu, para ahli sejarah masih belum memperoleh kesepakatan. Satu pihak menduga letak bangunan suci itu adalah di daerah Gunung Buring, satu pegunungan yang membujur di sebelah timur Kota Malang dimana terdapat salah satu puncak gunung yang bernama Malang.

 
Pembuktian atas kebenaran dugaan ini masih terus dilakukan karena ternyata, disebelah barat Kota Malang juga terdapat sebuah gunung yang bernama Malang. Pihak yang lain menduga bahwa letak sesungguhnya dari bangunan suci itu terdapat di daerah Tumpang, satu tempat di sebelah utara Kota Malang.

 

 Sampai saat ini di daerah tersebut masih terdapat sebuah desa yang bernama Malangsuka, yang oleh sebagian ahli sejarah, diduga berasal dari kata Malankuca yang diucapkan terbalik.

Pendapat di atas juga dikuatkan oleh banyaknya bangunan-bangunan purbakala yang berserakan di daerah tersebut, seperti Candi Jago dan Candi Kidal, yang keduanya merupakan peninggalan zaman Kerajaan Singasari.

Dari kedua hipotesa tersebut di atas masih juga belum dapat dipastikan manakah kiranya yang terdahulu dikenal dengan nama Malang,

 

 

 

 

Jenis : Karya Seni Fungsional & Hiasan
Nama : LAMPU GANTUNG BERMOTIF KINARI
Era : Abad Ke 9 – 10
Asal : Jawa Tengah
Material : Perunggu


Hanging Lamp in the Form of a Kinnari
Period: Central Javanese period Date: ca. second half of the 9th–early 10th century
Culture: Indonesia (Java)
Medium: Bronze
Dimensions: H. 6 in. (15.2 cm)
Classification: Sculpture

 

Jenis : Alat Ritual Keagamaan
Nama : VAJRA
Era : Abad Ke- 9 – 10
Material : Perunggu
Asal : —

A Bronze Vajra
INDONESIA, 9TH/10TH CENTURY


A Bronze Vajra
Indonesia, 9th/10th Century
The bulbous-central section flanked by flared lotus petal friezes issuing the claw-shaped prongs lined with tooth-like fringes, 10¾ in. (27.3 cm.) long

 

Although the rise of the Sailendra’s occurred in Kedu Plain in the Javanese heartland, their origin has been the subject of discussion.[3] Apart from Java itself; an earlier homeland in Sumatra, India or Cambodia has been suggested.

India

According to Majumdar; an Indian scholar, Sailendra dynasty that established themself in Indonesian archipleago, either the one that ruled Srivijaya or the ruler of Medang (Java) was originated from Kalinga (Southern India) [4].

This opinion also shared by Nilakanta Sastri and Moens. Moens further describes;

Sailendra was originated in India and established themself in Palembang before the arrival of Dapunta Hiyang. In 683, Sailendra family moved to Java because being pushed by Dapunta Hiyang and his troops.[5]

Cambodia

In 1934, the French scholar Coedes proposed a relation with the Funan kingdom in Cambodia. Coedes believed that the Funanese rulers used similar sounding ‘mountainlord’ titles, but several Cambodia specialists have discounted this. They hold there is no historical evidence for such titles in the Funan period.[6]

 

Sumatra

Other scholars hold that the Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya was involved in the rise of the dynasty in Java.[7] Supporters of this connection emphasize the shared Mahayana patronage; the intermarriages and the Ligor inscription. Also the fact that some of Sailendra’s inscriptions were written in old Malay, which suggested Srivijaya or Sumatran connections.

Java

Another theory suggested that Sailendra was a native Javanese dynasty, and there was no such things as Sanjaya dynasty since Sri Sanjaya and his offsprings belongs to Sailendra family that initially the Shivaist ruler of Mataram Kingdom.[8] The association of Sailendra with Mahayana Buddhism began after the conversion Panaraban or Panangkaran to Buddhism. This theory based on Carita Parahyangan that mention about the ailing King Sanjaya ordered his son, Rakai Panaraban or Panangkaran, to convert to buddhism, because their Shivaistic faith was feared by the people, and in favour to the more pacifist buddhist faith.

 

Sailendras in Bali

Sri Kesari Warmadewa was said to be a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty, leading a military expedition,[12] to establishing a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[13]

In 914,

he left a record of his endeavour in the Belanjong pillar in Sanur in Bali.

. 914 AD

 The name Bali dwipa (“Bali island”) has been discovered from various inscriptions, including

 

 the Blanjong pillar inscription written by Sri Kesari Warmadewa in 914 AD

read more info from wiki

The Belanjong pillar, also Blanjong pillar (Indonesian: Prasasti Blanjong), is a pillar established in 914 CE in the harbour of Belangong, in the southern area of Sanur in Bali.

 

 

The alley leading to the Belanjong pillar in Belanjong temple.

 

 

Protective enclosure for the Belanjong pillar, in Belanjong temple.

The pillar was established by king Sri Kesari Warmadewa, the first king of the Balinese Warmadewa dynasty and bears a long inscription where the king describes his military campaign in the island. It is located in the Belanjong (Blanjong) Temple, where it is housed under a protective enclosure, and is often decorated and partially covered with devotional cloth.

The inscription is written in both the Indian Sanskrit language and Old Balinese language, using two scripts, the Nagari script and the Old Balinese script (which is used to write both Balinese and Sanskrit).[1] The Old Balinese in pre-Nagari script in on one side of the pillar, while the Sanskrit inscription in Pallava-derived old Javanese script (also called Kawi script)[2] is on the other side.[3] The mix of language and script suggest that the objective of the inscription was not to communicate locally to the Balinese people, but rather to be established as a symbol of power and authority.[2]

The pillar testifies to the connections of Bali with the Sanjaya Dynasty in Central Java.[4] According to the inscription, Sri Kesari was a Buddhist king of the Sailendra Dynasty leading a military expedition,[5] to establish a Mahayana Buddhist government in Bali.[6] The inscription also tells about the success of military expeditions of offshore islands, either Nusa Penida or faraway Maluku.[2] This is the first known inscription in which a Balinese king recorded his name.[3]

Two other inscription by Kesari are known in the interior Bali, which suggest conflicts in the mountainous interior of the island.[2]

The pillar is dated according to the Indian Saka calendar, in the year 836 saka.[7]

According to French historian George Coedès:

“These inscriptions reveal a Hindu-Balinese society, independent of Java, making use of a dialect particular to the island, and practicing Hinduism and Buddhism at the same time.”

—George Coedès.[2]

The pillar was only discovered in 1932,[8] and has remained where it was initially found

 

 and mentioning “Walidwipa”. It was during this time that the complex irrigation system subak was developed to grow rice

After their eclipse in Java (late 9th cent.),

Srivijaya  retained control of Sri Vijaya, with important centers at Palembang (their capital) and in Kedah and Patani on the Malayan Peninsula. The Sailendra power was badly shaken by the Chola war of the 11th cent., but endured in some form until the Javanese invasion of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula in the 13th cent

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java,

 suddenly the capital was transferred to east java around 930 A.D.

No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya,

were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java.

An eruption of Mt. Merapi

at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash

990

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D.

 Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa

992

destructive raids  srivijaya from Java in 992.

 

932

Kerajaan Sunda adalah kerajaan yang pernah ada antara tahun 932 dan 1579 Masehi di bagian Barat pulau Jawa (Provinsi Banten,Jakarta, Jawa Barat, dan sebagian J…awa Tengah sekarang).

Kerjaan ini bahkan pernah menguasai wilayah bagian selatan Pulau Sumatera. Kerajaan ini bercorak Hindu dan Buddha, kemudian sekitar abad ke-14 diketahui kerajaan ini telah beribukota di Pakuan Pajajaran serta memiliki dua kawasan pelabuhan utama di Kalapa dan Banten.

1579

Kerajaan Sunda runtuh setelah ibukota kerajaan ditaklukan oleh Maulana Yusuf pada tahun 1579. Sementara sebelumnya kedua pelabuhan utama Kerajaan Sunda itu juga telah dikuasai oleh Kerajaan Demak pada tahun 1527, Kalapa ditaklukan oleh Fatahillah dan Banten ditaklukan oleh Maulana Hasanuddin.

*Catatan sejarah
Meskipun nama Sunda disebutkan dalam prasasti, naskah-naskah kuno, dan catatan sejarah dari luar negeri, Marwati Djoened Poesponegoro dan Nugroho Notosusanto menyatakan bahwa belum begitu banyak prasasti yang ditemukan di Jawa Barat dan secara jelas menyebutkan nama kerajaannya, walau dalam berbagai sumber kesusastraan, secara tegas Sunda merujuk kepada nama kawasan. Diduga sebelum keruntuhannya tahun 1579, Kerajaan Sunda telah mengalami beberapa kali perpindahan pusat pemerintahannya, dimulai dari Galuh dan berakhir di Pakuan Pajajaran.

*Berdirinya kerajaan Sunda
Berdasarkan Prasasti Kebonkopi II, yang berbahasa Melayu Kuno dengan tarikh 932, menyebutkan seorang “Raja Sunda menduduki kembali tahtanya”.[8]

 

 

Hal ini dapat ditafsirkan bahwa Raja Sunda telah ada sebelumnya Sementara dari sumber Tiongkok pada bukuZhufan Zhi yang ditulis pada tahun 1178 oleh Zhao Rugua menyebutkan terdapat satu kawasan dari San-fo-ts’i yang bernama Sin-tokemudian dirujuk kepada Sunda.

 

Menurut

 

Naskah Wangsakerta,

naskah yang oleh sebagian orang diragukan keasliannya serta diragukan sebagai sumber sejarah karena sangat sistematis, menyebutkan Sunda merupakan kerajaan yang berdiri menggantikan kerajaan Tarumanagara.

 Kerajaan Sunda didirikan oleh Tarusbawa pada tahun 669 (591 Saka). Kerajaan ini merupakan suatu kerajaan yang meliputi wilayah yang sekarang menjadi Provinsi Banten, Jakarta, Provinsi Jawa Barat, dan bagian barat Provinsi Jawa Tengah.

Sebelum berdiri sebagai kerajaan yang mandiri, Sunda merupakan bawahan Tarumanagara. Raja Tarumanagara yang terakhir, Sri Maharaja Linggawarman Atmahariwangsa Panunggalan Tirthabumi (memerintah hanya selama tiga tahun, 666-669 M), menikah dengan Déwi Ganggasari dari Indraprahasta. Dari Ganggasari, beliau memiliki dua anak, yang keduanya perempuan. Déwi Manasih, putri sulungnya, menikah dengan Tarusbawa dari Sunda, sedangkan yang kedua, Sobakancana, menikah dengan Dapunta Hyang Sri Janayasa, yang selanjutnya mendirikan Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Setelah Linggawarman meninggal, kekuasaan Tarumanagara turun kepada menantunya, Tarusbawa. Hal ini menyebabkan penguasa Galuh, Wretikandayun (612-702) memberontak, melepaskan diri dari Tarumanagara, serta mendirikan Kerajaan Galuh yang mandiri. Tarusbawa juga menginginkan melanjutkan kerajaan Tarumanagara, dan selanjutnya memindahkan kekuasaannya ke Sunda, di hulu sungai Cipakancilan dimana di daerah tersebut sungai Ciliwung dan sungai Cisadane berdekatan dan berjajar, dekat Bogor saat ini. Sedangkan Tarumanagara diubah menjadi bawahannya. Beliau dinobatkan sebagai raja Sunda pada hari Radite Pon, 9 Suklapaksa, bulan Yista, tahun 519 Saka (kira-kira 18 Mei 669 M). Sunda dan Galuh ini berbatasan, dengan batas kerajaanya yaitu sungai Citarum (Sunda di sebelah barat, Galuh di sebelah timur).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Teori Tanah Sunda Dan Naskah Wangsakerta

Sumber

http://kanzunqalam.wordpress.com/2011/03/09/sejarah-melayu-teori-sundaland-dan-naskah-wangsakerta/

Teori Out of Sundaland

 

Proto Melayu dan Sundaland

 

Keberadaan Peradaban di Sundaland, dikemukakan Profesor Aryso Santos dari Brasil, melalui bukunya Atlantis, The Lost Continent Finally Found, The Definitive Localization of Plato’s Lost Civilization (2005). Di dalam bukunya itu, Profesor Santos menyatakan, Sundaland adalah benua Atlantis, yang disebut-sebut Plato di dalam tulisannya Timeus dan Critias.

Sebelumnya pada tahun 1998, Oppenheimer menerbitkan buku berjudul,”Eden in the East : The Drowned Continent of Southeast Asia”. Secara singkat, buku ini mengajukan tesis bahwa Sundaland pernah menjadi suatu kawasan berbudaya tinggi, tetapi kemudian tenggelam, dan para penghuninya mengungsi ke mana-mana (out of Sundaland), yang pada akhirnya menurunkan ras-ras baru di bumi.

Hipotesis ini ia bangun berdasarkan penelitian atas geologi, arkeologi, genetika, linguistk, dan folklore atau mitologi. Berdasarkan geologi, Oppenheimer mencatat bahwa telah terjadi kenaikan permukaan laut dengan menyurutnya Zaman Es terakhir. Laut naik setinggi 500 kaki pada periode 14.000-7.000 tahun yang lalu dan telah menenggelamkan Sundaland. Arkeologi membuktikan bahwa Sundaland mempunyai kebudayaan yang tinggi sebelum banjir terjadi. Kenaikan permukaan laut ini telah menyebabkan manusia penghuni Sundaland menyebar ke mana-mana mencari daerah yang tinggi.

Dukungan bagi hipotesis Oppenheimer (1998), datang dari sekelompok peneliti arkeogenetika yang sebagian merupakan rekan sejawat Oppenheimer. Kelompok peneliti dari University of Oxford dan University of Leeds ini mengumumkan hasil peneltiannya, melalui jurnal berjudul “Molecular Biology and Evolution” edisi Maret dan Mei 2008, yakni pada makalah berjudul “Climate Change and Postglacial Human Dispersals in Southeast Asia” (Soares et al., 2008) dan “New DNA Evidence Overturns Population Migration Theory in Island Southeast Asia” (Richards et al., 2008).

Richards et al. (2008) berdasarkan penelitian DNA menantang teori konvensional saat ini bahwa penduduk Asia Tenggara (Filipina, Indonesia, dan Malaysia) datang dari Taiwan 4000 (Neolithikum) tahun yang lalu. Tim peneliti menunjukkan justru yang terjadi adalah sebaliknya, bahwa penduduk Taiwan berasal dari penduduk Sundaland, yang bermigrasi akibat Banjir Besar di Sundaland.

Ciri garis-garis DNA menunjukkan penyebaran populasi pada saat yang bersamaan dengan naiknya permukaan laut di wilayah ini, dan juga menunjukkan migrasi ke Taiwan, ke timur (New Guinea dan Pasifik), dan ke barat (daratan utama Asia Tenggara), terjadi dalam masa sekitar 10.000 tahun yang lalu.

Sementara itu Soares et al. (2008) menunjukkan bahwa haplogroup E (Note : mungkin yang dimaksud haplogroup O), yang merupakan komponen penting dalam keanekaragaman mtDNA (DNA mitokondria), secara dramatik tiba-tiba menyebar ke seluruh pulau-pulau Asia Tenggara pada periode sekitar awal Holosen, pada saat yang bersamaan dengan tenggelamnya Sundaland menjadi laut-laut Jawa, Malaka, dan sekitarnya.

Lalu komponen ini mencapai Taiwan dan Oseania, pada sekitar 8.000 tahun yang lalu. Ini membuktikan bahwa global warming dan sea-level rises pada ujung Zaman Es 14.000–7.000 tahun yang lalu, sebagai penggerak utama human diversity di wilayah ini (Sumber : mail-archive).

 

Peta Sebaran Gen di Asia Tenggara, diambil dari L. Jin et. al


Migrasi Deutero Melayu menurut Naskah Wangsakerta

Setelah selama ribuan tahun Bangsa Proto Melayu mendiami Nusantara. Pada sekitar tahun 300 SM, datang bangsa pendatang, yang dikemudian hari dikenal dengan nama Deutero Melayu.

Teori Migrasi Deutero Melayu, ternyata bukan berasal dari Sejarawan Barat (Belanda), seperti NJ. Krom, Eugene Dubois, JG. de Casparis dan sebagainya, melainkan berasal dari seorang sejarawan Nusantara, yang bernama Pangeran Wangsakerta, beliau diperkirakan hidup pada pertengahan abad ke-17M.

Melalui Naskah Wangsakerta, beliau menuturkan Silsilah Aki Tirem (Sesepuh masyarakat Salakanagara, pada abad 1 Masehi), sebagai berikut :

Aki Tirem putera Ki Srengga putera Nyai Sariti Warawiri puteri Sang Aki Bajulpakel putera Aki Dungkul putera Ki Pawang Sawer putera Datuk Pawang Marga putera Ki Bagang putera Datuk Waling putera Datuk Banda putera Nesan

Selanjutnya ia menulis, leluhur Aki Tirem bernama Aki Bajulpakel berdiam di Swarnabumi (Sumatera) bagian Selatan, kemudian Datuk Pawang Marga berdiam di Swarnabumi bagian Utara dan Datuk Banda berdiam di Langkasungka India.

Dari penyelusuran Genealogy di atas, nampak jelas bahwa jalur migrasi bangsa Deutero Melayu, adalah bermula dari tanah India, lalu memasuki Nusantara melalui Swarnabumi (Sumatera) dan kemudian menuju ke pulau Jawa (Sumber : Teori Antropologi “Migrasi Deutero Melayu”, ditemukan Panembahan Tohpati, Sejarawan Nusantara abad ke-17M).

Keragaman leluhur penduduk Nusantara, semakin diperkaya dengan kehadiran keturunan Nabi Ibrahim, dari Dinasti Pallawa yang dikenal sebagai Dewawarman I (Sumber : (Connection) Majapahit, Pallawa dan Nabi Ibrahim ?). Di kemudian hari Dewawarman I menjadi penguasa di Salakanagara, dan menikah dengan anak Aki Tirem, yang bernama Pohaci Larasati.

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  1. 1.      Itu hanya sedikit sahaja kisah orang Melayu atau Malayu atau Malai atau Malay yang diambil daripada perkataan MLY (M=Manutaram atau Manusia; L=Lokataram atau Tempat; Y=Yugataram atau Bersatu) yang sudah mendiami Alam Melayu ini (ada yang mengatakannya Sundaland, Mu, Lemuria, Kumari Kandam, Atalantis) beratus ribu tahun dahulu. Ajaran Melayu bernama, “Malaiyana Mulayanam” (Ajaran Melayu Mula Ajaran -The Root of All Knowledge) yang dicipta oleh Mahasiddha Svayana lebih 790,000 tahun dahulu di Alam Melayu ini mengandungi 173 buah kitab. Salah sebuah kitab itu bernama, “Malaiyavahasarahsarahsiyahannamvahasapulatsyaviramaningrattanam” (memang panjang namanya) yang mengajar tentang budi pekerti dan pembentukan insani. Pada zaman dahulu kala, orang Melayu bersatu padu, tetapi kemudiannya berpecah menjadi suku-suku: Jawa, Sunda, Banjar, Bugis, Aceh, Batak, Deli, Iban, Minang, Kadazan, Dusun, dsb. Selepas itu orang Melayu berpecah lagi bila agama Hindu dan Buddha masuk ke Alam Melayu di mana raja-raja dan orang Melayu memeluk agama tersebut. Identiti Melayu semakin pudar. Selepas itu masuk pula agama Islam dan raja-raja serta orang Melayu memeluk agama Islam dan terus pudarlah identiti Melayu sebenar kerana mereka mengambil identiti orang lain. Akhirnya masuklah Barat dan agama Kristian. Ada orang Melayu (majoriti di Filipina) yang memeluk agama Kristian. Kuasa Barat memecahbelahkan orang Melayu menjadi negara-negara: Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunai, Singapura, Filipina, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Kampuchea, Hong Kong dan Taiwan. Identiti terus hilang, tetapi mujurlah ada sedikit orang Melayu yang sedar tentang identiti keMelayuannya yang diwarisi dari leluhur kita di zaman dahulu kala. Lebih 300 juta orang Melayu boleh menjadi kuasa dunia, seperti di zaman leluhur kita, dengan syarat orang Melayu itu mengenepikan negara, negeri, propinsi, fahaman agama dan suku. Keterangan lebih lanjut, baca blog saya:
    drilyasharunmalaysia.blogspot.com

Komentar oleh dr ilyas harun | 22 Mei 2011 | Balas

  • ini sepertinya sedang berteori … saya coba cari kitab seperti yang anda sebutkan di atas … koq tidak ada ya ..? kenapa saya tidak menemukannya … ?

Komentar oleh oko baron vondogde | 24 Agustus 2011 | Balas

  1. 2.      Betulll… 1 melayu. Tak ada beda Suku,Ras,Agama dst yg pnting 1 jua. Bhinneka Tunggal Ika…..

Komentar oleh Vyzal | 25 Mei 2011 | Balas

  1. 3.      *Keberadaan Peradaban di Sundaland, dikemukakan Profesor Aryso Santos dari Brasil, melalui bukunya Atlantis, The Lost Continent Finally Found, The Definitive Localization of Plato’s Lost Civilization (2005). Di dalam bukunya itu, Profesor Santos menyatakan, Sundaland adalah benua Atlantis, yang disebut-sebut Plato di dalam tulisannya Timeus dan Critias.*

sepertinya ada yang aneh dengan ini

Komentar oleh securesh | 26 Agustus 2011 | Balas

  1. 4.      wah apik iki Rek, Sampeyan pembahasannya komprehensif dan analisis…aku jadi tahu..matur tengkyu nggih…

Komentar oleh masanto | 25 Desember 2011 | Balas

  1. 5.      menarik

Komentar oleh Isamudin Thamrin | 30 Desember 2011 | Balas

  1. 6.      Nabi Adam As. itu diperkirakan hidup pada 5872-4942 SM. Dan diperkirakan lokasi turunnya Adam dibumi ini yaitu di India. Bagaimana mungkin, ada peradaban maju yg berkisar pada 9.600 SM yang disebut Atlantis oleh Plato ?? Itu tandanya seakan menghapuskan doktrin Adam sebagai Manusia pertama…

satu hal lagi, Nabi Nuh As. diperkirakan hidup sekitar pada 3993-3043 SM, dan Bahtera itu ditemukan di Gunung Ararat, Turki,, bagaimana bisa penulis ini menganggap bahwa Nabi Nuh dan pengikutnya mulai membangun peradaban baru pasca peristiwa banjir itu di Sundaland atau Nusantara ??

Hipotesa Plato, dan Aryso Santos tentang Atlantis itu saya rasa hanya asumsi imajiner saja..!!!

Komentar oleh Angga | 15 Juni 2012 | Balas

  • Teori Nabi Adam hidup 5872-4942 SM itu dibuat oleh orang nonislam. Padahal, Barus, Sumut sudah didiami manusia pada 6000SM. Jadi, bohonglah barangsaiapa yg mengatakan Nabi Adam A.S. hidup pada 5872-4942 SM

Komentar oleh Kartto | 15 Juni 2012 | Balas

  1. 7.      Saya mencoba, menyusun Time Line Peradaban Manusia…

200.000 – 10 juta tahun yang lalu
Diperkirakan masa turunnya Nabi Adam

72.000 – 100.000 tahun yang lalu
Diperkirakan masa kehidupan Nabi Idris (Oziris) di Mesir Purba

20.000 – 70.000 tahun yang lalu
Peradaban Lemuria, kemudian berakhir dan mengungsi ke Planet lain

13.000 tahun yang lalu
Masa kehidupan Nabi Nuh

11.600 – 13.000 tahun yang lalu
Sebagian bangsa Lemuria, ada yang kembali ke bumi. Mereka membaur dengan Keluarga Yafet bin Nuh, dan secara bersama-sama membangun Peradaban di Sundaland. Hasil pembauran dari keduanya, dikenal sebagai Bangsa Atlantis.

Bangsa Atlantis mencoba menata kembali bumi, yang luluh lantak oleh Bencana Global di masa Nabi Nuh, dan Peradaban ini kemudian hancur oleh bencana Banjir (catatan Plato)

Penduduk Atlantis berpencar ke seluruh penjuru bumi. Mereka kemudian menjadi leluhur bangsa-bangsa di Asia Timur, seperti ras Mongoloid dan Altai

4.500 tahun yang lalu (2.500 SM)
Sebagian keturunan Penduduk Atlantis dari Kepulauan Taiwan (Teori lain mengatakan dari Yunnan Cina Selatan), pulang kampung ke Sundaland (Nusantara), dikenal sebagai bangsa Proto Melayu

WaLlahu a’lamu bishshawab


Sekian kabar saja hari ini semoga dapat mendjadi informasi jang bermanfaat. Sebelumnya saya sebagai perwakilan admin mohon maaf atas keterlambatan kami yang sangat lama dalam memberikan informasi untuk anda semua. Terima kasih,,
(mari sikapi dengan bidjaksana dan sopan berkomentar tanpa ada
oensoer SARA)
Soerat Kabar Tempoe Doeloe
Pemoedi_MerryLihat Selengkapnya

 

Jenis : Mahkota Keagamaan
Nama : PENUTUP ATAS USNISHA
Era : Abad Ke 8 – 10
Asal Perolehan : Jawa Tengah
Material : Emas

Koleksi :
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART
1000 5th Avenue, New York, NY – USA

Data Museum :

Ushnisha Cover

Period: Central Javanese period
Date: 8th–early 10th century
Culture: Indonesia (Java)
Medium: Gold
Dimensions: H. 2 5/8 in. (6.8cm)
Classification: Metalwork

Credit Line: The Samuel Eilenberg-Jonathan P. Rosen Collection of Indonesian Gold, Bequest of Samuel Eilenberg and Gift of Jonathan P. Rosen, 1998
Accession Number: 1998.544.9
This artwork is currently on display in Gallery 247

 

10th century

The Medang or Mataram Kingdom

was a HinduBuddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 10th centuries CE.

 It was based in Central Java, and later in East Java. Established by King Sanjaya, the founder of the Sanjaya dynasty, the kingdom was ruled by the Sailendra and Sanjaya families.

By 850,

the kingdom had become the dominant power in Java and was a serious rival to the hegemonic Srivijaya Empire.

Origin and formation

 

 

Canggal inscription dated 732 CE, edicted by King Sanjaya.

The earliest account of the Medang Kingdom is in the Canggal inscription, dated 732, discovered in Canggal village, southwest of the town of Magelang. This inscription, written in Sanskrit using the Pallava script, tells of the erection of a lingga (a symbol of Shiva) on the hill in the Kunjarakunja area, located on a noble island called Yawadwipa (Java) which was blessed with abundance of rice and gold. This inscription tells that Yawadwipa was ruled by King Sanna, whose long reign was marked by wisdom and virtue. After Sanna died, the kingdom fell into disunity. Sanjaya, the son of Sannaha (Sanna’s sister) ascended to the throne. He conquered the areas around his kingdom, and his wise reign blessed his land with peace and prosperity for all of his subjects.[1]

Sanna and Sanjaya are also described in the Carita Parahyangan, a book from a later period which mainly describes the history of Pasundan (the Sunda Kingdom). This book mentions that Sanna was defeated by Purbasora, King of Galuh, and retreated to Mount Merapi. Later, Sanjaya reclaimed Sanna’s kingdom and ruled West Java, Central Java, East Java, and Bali. He also battled the Malayu and Keling (against their king, Sang Srivijaya).

The dual dynasties theory

Main article: Sanjaya Dynasty

Bosch in his book “Srivijaya, de Sailendravamsa en de Sanjayavamsa” (1952) suggested that king Sanjaya was the progenitor of the Sanjaya Dynasty, and there was two dynasties that ruled Central Java; the Buddhist Sailendra and the Shivaist Sanjaya dynasty.[2] The inscription also states that Sanjaya was an ardent follower of Shaivism. From its founding in the early 8th century until 928, the kingdom was ruled by the Sanjaya dynasty. The first king was Sanjaya, who ruled in the Mataram region in the vicinity of modern Yogyakarta and Prambanan, and left the written records on the Canggal inscription. However, around the mid 8th century, the Sailendra dynasty emerged in Central Java and challenged Sanjaya domination in the region.

According to the Kalasan inscription, dated 778 CE and written in the Pranagari script in Sanskrit, the Kalasan temple was erected by the will of Guru Sang Raja Sailendravamçatilaka (the Jewel of the Sailendra family), who persuaded Panangkaran (Sanjaya’s successor) to construct a holy building for the goddess (boddhisattvadevi) Tara and build a vihara (monastery) for Buddhist monks from the Sailendra realm. Panangkaran also awarded Kalaça village to a sangha (Buddhist monastic community).[3]

The prevailing historical interpretation holds that the Sailendra dynasty co-existed next to the Sanjaya dynasty in Central Java, and much of the period was characterized by peaceful cooperation. The Sailendra, with their strong connections to Srivijaya, managed to gain control of Central Java and become overlords of the Rakai (local Javanese lords), including the Sanjayas, thus making the Sanjaya kings of Mataram their vassals. Little is known about the kingdom due to the dominance of the Sailendra, who during this period constructed Borobudur, a Buddhist monument. Samaratungga, the monarch of the Sailendra, tried to secure the Sailendra position in Java, cementing an alliance with the Sanjayas by arranging the marriage of his daughter Pramodhawardhani with Pikatan.

Around the middle of the 9th century, relations between the Sanjaya and the Sailendra deteriorated. In 852, the Sanjaya ruler, Pikatan, defeated Balaputra, the offspring of the Sailendra monarch Samaratunga and the princess Tara. This ended the Sailendra presence in Java; Balaputra retreated to the Srivijayan capital in Sumatra, where he became the paramount ruler.[4] The Balaputra defeat and the victory of Pikatan was recorded in Shivagrha inscription dated 856, edicted by Rakai Kayuwangi, Pikatan’s successor.

[edit] The single dynasty theory

Main article: Sailendra Dynasty

However, this dual Sailendra—Sanjaya dynasties theory proposed by Bosch and De Casparis was opposed by some Indonesian historians in later period. An alternate theory, proposed by Poerbatjaraka, suggests there was only one kingdom and one dynasty, the kingdom called Medang, with the capital in the Mataram area (thus the name of the kingdom: “Medang i Bhumi Mataram”), and the ruling dynasty being the Sailendra.

This theory is supported with Boechari interpretation on Sojomerto inscription and Poerbatjaraka study on Carita Parahyangan manuscript, Poerbatjaraka holds that Sanjaya and all of his offspring belongs to the Sailendra family, which initially was Shivaist Hindu. However, according to Raja Sankhara inscription (now missing); Sanjaya’s son, Panangkaran, converted to Mahāyāna Buddhism. And because of that conversion, the later series of Sailendra kings who ruled Medang become Mahāyāna Buddhists also and gave Buddhism royal patronage in Java until the end of Samaratungga’s reign.[5] The Shivaist Hindus regained royal patronage with the reign of Pikatan, which lasted until the end of the Medang Kingdom. During the reign of Kings Pikatan and Balitung, the royal Hindu Trimurti temple of Prambanan was built and expanded in the vicinity of Yogyakarta.

[edit] The capital

Most of the time, the court of the Medang Kingdom was located in Mataram, somewhere on the Prambanan Plain near modern Yogyakarta and Prambanan. However, during the reign of Rakai Pikatan, the court was moved to Mamrati. Later, in the reign of Balitung, the court moved again, this time to Poh Pitu. Unlike Mataram, historians have been unable to pinpoint the exact locations of Mamrati and Poh Pitu, although most historians agree that both were located in the Kedu Plain, somewhere around the modern Magelang or Temanggung regencies. Later, during the reign of Wawa, the court was moved back to the Mataram area.

[edit] Government and economy

The complex stratified ancient Javan society, with its refined aesthetic taste in art and culture, is evidenced through the various scenes in narrative bas-reliefs carved on various temples dated from the Medang era.

[edit] Economy

 

 

The bas-relief in 8th century Borobudur depicting rice agriculture in ancient Java

 

 

Earliest evidence of a currency system in Java. Javanese gold mas or tahil ingots, circa the 9th century.

The common people of Medang mostly made a living in agriculture, especially as rice farmers, however, some may have pursued other careers, such as hunter, trader, artisan, weaponsmith, sailor, soldier, dancer, musician, food or drink vendor, etc. Rich portrayals of daily life in 9th century Java can be seen in many temple bas-reliefs. Rice cultivation had become the base for the kingdom’s economy where the villages throughout the realm relied on their annual rice yield to pay taxes to the court. Exploiting the fertile volcanic soil of Central Java and the intensive wet rice cultivation (sawah) enabled the population to grow significantly, which contributed to the availability of labor and workforce for the state’s public projects. Certain villages and lands were given the status as sima (tax free) lands awarded through royal edict written in inscriptions. The rice yields from sima lands usually were allocated for the maintenance of certain religious buildings.

The bas-reliefs from temples of this period, especially from Borobudur and Prambanan describe occupations and careers other than agricultural pursuit; such as soldiers, government officials, court servants, massage therapists, travelling musicians and dancing troupe, food and drink sellers, logistics courier, sailors, merchants, even thugs and robbers are depicted in everyday life of 9th century Java. These occupations requires economy system that employs currency. The Wonoboyo hoard, golden artifacts discovered in 1990, revealed gold coins in shape similar to corn seeds, which suggests that 9th century Javan economy is partly monetized. On the surface of the gold coins engraved with a script “ta”, a short form of “tail” or “tahil” a unit of currency in ancient Java.

[edit] Administration

 

 

The bas relief of 8th century Borobudur depict the scene in royal court.

The King was regarded as the paramount ruler or chakravartin, where the highest power and authority lies. The king, the royal family and the kingdom’s officials had the authority to launch public projects, such as irrigation works or temple construction. The kingdom left behind several temples and monuments. The most notable ones are Prambanan, Sewu, and the Plaosan temple compound. The palace where the King resided was mentioned as kadatwan or keraton, the court was the center of kingdom’s administration. Throughout its history, the center of Medang kingdom was mostly situated in and around Prambanan Plain, named as Mataram, however during the reign of other kings, the capital may shifted to other places. Several other courts and capital cities were mentioned, such as Mamrati (Amrati) and Poh Pitu, location unknown but probably somewhere in Kedu Plain. In later Eastern Java period, other centers were mentioned; such as Tamwlang and Watugaluh (near Jombang), also Wwatan (near Madiun).

[edit] Culture

 

 

The Wonoboyo hoard displays the immense wealth and artistic achievement of the Medang kingdom.

The Wonoboyo hoard golden artifacts also attest to the wealth, art, and culture as well as the aesthetic achievement of the Medang Kingdom. The artifacts show the intricate artwork and technical mastery of the ancient Javanese goldsmith. The hoard was estimated to date from the reign of King Balitung.[6] The treasure has been identified as belonging to a noble or a member of the royal family.[7]

[edit] Religion

Since the beginning of its formation, the Medang Mataram kings seemed to favour Shivaist Hinduism, such as the construction of Gunung Wukir Hindu temple as mentioned in Canggal inscription by king Sanjaya. However during the reign of Panangkaran and the rise of Sailendras influence, Mahayana Buddhism began to blossomed and gain court favour. The Kalasan, Sari, Mendut, Pawon and the magnificent Borobudur and Sewu temples testify the Buddhist renaissance in Central Java. The court patronage on Buddhism spanned from the reign of Panangkaran to Samaratungga. During the reign of Pikatan, Shivaist Hinduism began to regain court’s favour, signified by the construction of grand Shivagrha (Prambanan).

[edit] Art and Architecture

 

 

The magnificent 9th century Hindu temple of Prambanan, Yogyakarta, was a major Hindu monument in the kingdom of Medang.

The monumental Hindu temple of Prambanan in the vicinity of Yogyakarta — initially built during the reign of King Pikatan (838—850), and expanded continuously through the reign of Lokapala (850—890) to Balitung (899–911) — is a fine example of ancient Medang Mataram art and architecture. The description of a grand temple compound dedicated for lord Shiva, and the public project to shift the course of the river near the temple (Opak river) to run straight along western wall of temple compound was also mentioned in Shivagrha inscription. The grand temple complex was dedicated to the Trimurti, the three highest gods in the Hindu pantheon (Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu). It was the largest Hindu temple ever built in Indonesia, evidence of the immense wealth and cultural achievement of the kingdom.

Other Hindu temples dated from Medang Mataram Kingdom era are: Sambisari, Gebang, Barong, Ijo, and Morangan. Although the Shivaist regain the favour, buddhist remain under royal patronage. The Sewu temple dedicated for Manjusri according to Kelurak inscription was probably initially built by Panangkaran, but later expanded and completed during Rakai Pikatan’s rule, whom married to a Buddhist princess Pramodhawardhani, daughter of Samaratungga. Most of their subjects retained their old religion; Shivaist and Buddhist seems to co-exist in harmony. The buddhist temple of Plaosan, Banyunibo and Sajiwan were built during the reign of King Pikatan and Queen Pramodhawardhani, probably in the spirit of religious reconciliation after the battle of succession between Pikatan-Pramodhawardhani against Balaputra.

[edit] Literature

From the 9th to mid 10th centuries, the Medang Kingdom witnessed the blossoming of art, culture and literature, mainly through the translation of Hindu-Buddhist sacred texts and the transmission and adaptation of Hindu-Buddhist ideas. The bas-relief narration of the Hindu epic Ramayana was carved on the wall of Prambanan Temple. During this period, the Kakawin Ramayana, an old Javanese rendering was written. This Kakawin Ramayana, also called the Yogesvara Ramayana, is attributed to the scribe Yogesvara circa the 9th century CE, who was employed in the court of the Medang in Central Java. It has 2774 stanzas in the manipravala style, a mixture of Sanskrit and archaic Javanese prose. The most influential version of the Ramayana is the Ravanavadham of Bhatti, popularly known as Bhattikavya. The Javanese Ramayana differs markedly from the original Hindu.

The name of the Medang Kingdom was written in the Laguna Copperplate Inscription, dated 822 saka (900 CE), discovered in Manila, Philippines. The discovery of the inscriptions, written in the Kawi script in a variety of Old Malay containing numerous loanwords from Sanskrit and a few non-Malay vocabulary elements whose origin is ambiguous between Old Javanese and Old Tagalog, suggests that the people or officials of the Medang Kingdom had embarked on inter-insular[clarification needed] trade and foreign relations in regions as far away as the Philippines, and that connections between ancient kingdoms in Indonesia and the Philippines existed.

[edit] Moving eastward

 

 

Sambisari temple buried five metres under volcanic debris of Mount Merapi.

Around the year 929, the centre of the kingdom was shifted from Central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok, who established the Isyana Dynasty. The exact cause of the move is still uncertain; however, a severe eruption of Mount Merapi volcano or a power struggle probably caused the move. Historians suggest that, some time during the reign of King Wawa of Mataram (924—929), Merapi volcano erupted and devastated the kingdom’s capital in Mataram. The historic massive volcano eruption is popularly known as Pralaya Mataram (the death of Mataram). The evidence for this eruption can be seen in several temples that were virtually buried under Merapi’s lahar and volcanic debris, such as the Sambisari, Morangan, Kedulan, and Pustakasala temples.

Another theory suggests that the shift of capital city eastward was to avoid a Srivijaya invasion, or was motivated by economic reasons. The Brantas river valley was considered to be a strategic location for the control of maritime trade routes to the eastern parts of archipelago, being especially vital for control of the Maluku spice trade.

Sindok moved the capital to Tamwlang and later moved it again to Watugaluh. Historian identify those names with the Tambelang and Megaluh area near modern Jombang, East Java. A later king, Dharmawangsa, moved the capital again to Wwatan, identified as the Wotan area near modern Madiun. Dharmawangsa also ordered the translation of the Mahabharata into Old Javanese in 996.

[edit] Collapse

In the late 10th century, the rivalry between the Sumatran Srivijaya and Javanese Medang became more hostile. The animosity was probably caused by the Srivijayan effort to reclaim Sailendra lands in Java, as Balaputra and his offspring — a new dynasty of Srivijaya maharajas — belonged to the Sailendra dynasty, or by Medang aspirations to challenge Srivijaya dominance as the regional power.

In 990, Dharmawangsa launched a naval invasion of Srivijaya and unsuccessfully attempted to capture Palembang. Dharmawangsa’s invasion caused the Maharaja of Srivijaya, Chulamaniwarmadewa to request protection from China. In 1006, Srivijaya managed to repelled the Medang invaders. In retaliation, Srivijaya forces assisted Haji (king) Wurawari of Lwaram to revolt, and attacked and destroyed the Medang Palace, killing Dharmawangsa and most of the royal family. With the death of Dharmawangsa and the fall of the capital, under military pressure from Srivijaya, the kingdom finally collapsed. There was further unrest and violence several years after the kingdom’s demise.

Airlangga, a son of Udayana of Bali, also a nephew of Dharmawangsa, managed to escape capture and went into exile. He later reunited the remnants of the Medang Kingdom and re-established the kingdom (including Bali) under the name of Kingdom of Kahuripan. In 1045, Airlangga abdicated his throne to resume the life of an ascetic. He divided the kingdom between his two sons, Janggala and Panjalu (Kediri) and from this point on, the kingdom was known as Kediri.

[edit] List of rulers

The ruler of Medang Kingdom[8] [9]

[edit] Central Java period

Period of reign

Personal name

Rakai (Javanese title)

Abhiseka (stylized) name

Mentioned in inscription

Year

732—760 Sanjaya Mataram Canggal 732
760—780 Pancapana Panangkaran Dharmatungga? Kalasan 778
780—800 Dharanindra Panunggalan Sanggramadhananjaya KelurakLigor B 782c 787
800—819 Samaragrawira Warak Nalanda c 860
819—838 Samaratungga Garung PenggingKarangtengah 819824
838—850 Jatiningrat Pikatan ShivagrhaTulang air
Argapura
856850
863
850—890 Lokapala KayuwangiGurun Wangi Sajanotsawatungga  ShivagrhaWuatan Tija
Wanua Tengah
Munggu Antan
856880
863
887
890—898 Dewendra LimusWatuhumalang Poh DulurKewikuan Panunggalan 890896
898—910 Balitung Watukura Sri Iswarakesawotawatungga Mantyasih 907
910—919 Daksa Hino Sri Maharaja Daksottama Bahubajra Pratipaksaksaya Uttunggawijaya Taji Gunung 910
919—924 Tulodong Layang Sajanasanata Nuragatunggadewa Lintakan 919
924—929 Wawa SumbaPangkaja Sri Wijayalokanamottungga Sanggurah 982

[edit] East Java period

Period of reign

Personal name

Rakai (Javanese title)

Abhiseka (stylized) name

Mentioned in inscription

Year

929—947 Sindok Hino Sri Maharaja Isyana Wikramadharmottunggadewa TuryanAnjukladang 929937
947—985 Sri Isyana Tunggawijaya (queen regnant) GedanganPucangan 9501041
985—990 Sri Makutawangsawarddhana Pucangan 1041
990—1006 Wijayamreta Wardhana Sri Maharaja Isyana Dharmawangsa Teguh Anantawikramottunggadewa Pucangan 1041

[edit] See also

  Indonesia portal

[edit] References

[edit] General

  • Soekmono, R, Drs., Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed. Penerbit Kanisius, Yogyakarta, 1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988

[edit] Notes

  1. 1.       ^ Drs. R. Soekmono, (1973, 5th reprint edition in 1988). Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2, 2nd ed.. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 40.
  2. 2.       ^ Dr. Bosch, “Srivijaya, de Sailendravamsa en de Sanjayavamsa”, 1952.
  3. 3.       ^ Soetarno, Drs. R. second edition (2002). “Aneka Candi Kuno di Indonesia” (Ancient Temples in Indonesia), pp. 41. Dahara Prize. Semarang. ISBN 979-501-098-0.
  4. 4.       ^ cf. De Casparis, 1956; Hall, 1985:111
  5. 5.       ^ Poerbatjaraka, 1958: 254–264
  6. 6.       ^ “Warisan Saragi Diah Bunga”. Majalah Tempo. 3 November 1990. http://majalah.tempointeraktif.com/id/arsip/1990/11/03/ILT/mbm.19901103.ILT19845.id.html. Retrieved 2010-07-21.
  7. 7.       ^ “Indonesian Gold” Treasures from the National Museum Jakarta, grafico-qld.com, accessed July 2010
  8. 8.       ^ Cœdès, George (1968). The Indianized states of Southeast Asia. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 0-8248-0368-X, 9780824803681. http://books.google.com.my/books?id=iDyJBFTdiwoC.

^ Muljana, Slamet (2006). Sriwijaya. Yogyakarta: LKiS. ISBN 979-8451-62-7.

 

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : KUBERA
Era : Abad Ke-
9/10, Kerajaan Singhasari
Material : Perunggu
Asal : Jawa Timur

An Important Bronze Figure of Kubera
INDONESIA, 9TH/10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
An Important Bronze Figure of Kubera
Indonesia, 9th/10th Century
Seated on a circular pillow over a stepped plinth supported by two lions, with his right hand in varada mudra and holding the mongoose in his left, wearing long flowing robes richly adorned with jeweled armlets and necklaces, his face with a serene expression with wide open eyes surmounted by a conical headdress, the throneback modeled as a gateway flanked by leogryphs mounted on elephants in openwork, all supporting a flaming nimbus, the pinth centered by a cluster of jewels, with a deep brown patina overall 13¾ in. (34.8 cm.) high

This bronze figure of Kubera is among the very few comparatively large Indonesian bronze figures recorded in public and private collections; another figure of Kubera is in the collection of the Musée Guimet, see A. Le Bonheur, La sculpture indonesienne au Musee Guimet, 1971, cat. no. 3 814, p. 182f. In its general concept, it follows contemporary Indian prototypes created in Nalanda, Bihar; Compare a related example in Inde, Cinq Mille Ans d’Art, Paris, Musee du Petit Palais, 1978/79, cat. no. 97, from the National Museum, New Delhi. The proximity in style is indicative of the direct exchange of Indian bronzes to the South-East Asian region at that time, likely by sea, disseminating Pala style and fueling further regional stylistic evolution.

 

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : GANESHA
Era : Abad Ke-10
Material : Perunggu
Asal : —

Dilelang terbuka oleh :

CHRISTIE’S New York Saleroom
20 Rockefeller Plaza, New York, NY 10020

Dengan Data :

A Small Bronze Figure of Ganesha
INDONESIA, CIRCA 10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
A Small Bronze Figure of Ganesha
Indonesia, circa 10th Century
Seated in svastikasana on a round cushion over a rectangular plinth, with four arms, holding a mala, a sweet, and his broken tusk, wearing a serpent brahmanical thread, ornate jatamukuta, and arm ornaments, his elephant trunk unfurling into his right hand
3¾ in. (9.6 cm.) high

 

Jenis : Arca Perunggu
Nama : VAJRASATTVA
Era : Abad Ke-10
Material : Perunggu
Asal : —

A Bronze Figue of Vajrasattva
INDONESIA, CIRCA 10TH CENTURY

Lot Description:
A Bronze Figue of Vajrasattva
Indonesia, circa 10th Century
Finely cast seated in ‘Royal Ease’ on a round lotus base, a lotus stem rising up to his left shoulder supporting a vajra, with a flaming arched mandorla surmounted by a parasol, with an attractive silvery green patina overall
5¾ in. (14.6 cm.) high

 

10th century

 

They Mysterious Move to East Java

 

Rakai Pikatan commemorated his victory

by erecting the splendid temple complex at Prambanan,

 

 which can be considered a Hindu counterpart of Buddhist Borobudur. Both are terraced an ancestor sanctuaries, highly elaborate versions of those constructed by Indonesian rulers in prehistoric times.

A succession of Hindu kings ruled in central Java,

 then suddenly the capital was transferred to east java around 930 A.D.

No satisfactory explanation has been given for this move, though a number of factors might account for it.

As mentioned before, the Sailendran kings, once installed at Sriwijaya,

were successful in shutting off the vital overseas trade from Java’s north coast, and may even have been threatening to re-invade central Java.

An eruption of Mt. Merapi

at about this time may also have closed the roads to the north coastal ports and covered much of central Java in volcanic ash.

 A partially completed temple has been unearthed at Sambisar, near Prambanan, from under five metres of volcanic debris. Then, too there is the possibility of epidemics and of mass migrations to the more fertile lands of East Java.

Whatever the reason for the move, and eastern javanese empire prospered in the 10th Century and actually attacked and occupied Sriwijaya for two years 990-1 A.D.

 

 Sriwijaya retaliated a quarter of a century later with a huge seaborne force that destroyed the Javanese capital, killed the ruler King Dharmawangsa,

 

and splintered the realm into numerous petty fiefdoms.

It took nearly 20 years for the next great king, Airlangga, to fully restore the empire.

Airlangga was King Dharmawangsa’s nephew

and he succeded to the throne in 1019

after the Sriwijayan forces had departed. With the help of loyal followers and advisors he reconquered the realm and restored its prosperity. He is best known, though, as a patron of the arts and as an ascete. Under his rule the Indian classics were translated from Sanskrit into Javanese, thus marking the flowering of indigenous Javanese arts..

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