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7th  Century.

 

Airlangga story is great. Some historians view the “pralaya disaster” that occured when he was still a kiddo, as a Srivijaya attack or an attack of a local ruler. Others think the disaster was a natural one.

According to some historians ( like the great Casparis) there was also some intermarriage between Srivijaya and Javanese kingdom in the 700’s .

Maybe another reason why Balaputra reigned in Srivijaya later without (as it seems ) much opposition.

7th Century

Buddhist kingdom of Srivijaya

600:

Some Proto Maanyan Dayak tribes migrated to Madagascar.

669

Sunda Kingdom

Sunda kingdom

was founded by Tarusbawa

in Sundanese Caka 591 (669 M).

 

According to primary historical sources from the 16th century, this kingdom is a kingdom covering an area which is now the province of Banten, Jakarta, West Java Province, and the western part of Central Java Province.
Based on the primary codex Bujangga Manik (narrating the journey Bujangga Manik, a Hindu priest who visited the Sunda sacred places of Hinduism in Java and Bali in the early 16th century), which is currently stored at Boedlian Library, Oxford University, England since 1627), limits the Kingdom of Sunda on the east is Ci pamali ( “pamali River”, now known as Kali Brebes) and Ci Serayu (which is now called Kali Serayu) in Central Java province.

Before standing as an independent kingdom, Sunda was Tarumanagara vassal. Tarumanagara the last king, Sri Maharaja Linggawarman Atmahariwangsa Panunggalan Tirthabumi (reigned only for three years, 666-669 AD), was married to Dewi Ganggasari from Indraprahasta. From Ganggasari, he has two children, both girls. Dewi Manasih, her eldest daughter, married to Tarusbawa of Sunda, while the second, Sobakancana, married with Dapuntahyang Sri Janayasa, who later founded the kingdom of Srivijaya. After Linggawarman died, power transfered to Tarusbawa. This led Galuh ruler, Wretikandayun (612-702) rebel, separated from Tarumanagara, and establish an independent kingdom Galuh. Also wanted to continue Tarusbawa Tarumanagara kingdom, and then transferred power to Sunda, Cipakancilan upstream in the area where the river Ciliwung and Cisadane rivers and adjacent rows, near Bogor today. While Tarumanagara changed to subordinates. He was crowned as the king of Sunda on Radite Pon, 9 Suklapaksa, Yista month, year 519 Saka (approximately 669 AD May 18). Sunda and Galuh borders, with a limit of Citarum river (Sunda in the west, east Galuh).

  1. Tarusbawa (669 – 723)
  2. Harisdarma, atawa Sanjaya (723 – 732)
  3. Tamperan Barmawijaya (732 – 739)
  4. Rakeyan Banga (739 – 766)
  5. Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang (766 – 783)
  6. Prabu Gilingwesi (783 – 795)
  7. Pucukbumi Darmeswara (795 – 819)
  8. Rakeyan Wuwus Prabu Gajah Kulon (819 – 891)
  9. Prabu Darmaraksa (891 – 895)
  10. Windusakti Prabu Déwageng (895 – 913)
  11. Rakeyan Kamuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi (913 – 916)
  12. Rakeyan Jayagiri (916 – 942)
  13. Atmayadarma Hariwangsa (942 – 954)
  14. Limbur Kancana (954 – 964)
  15. Munding Ganawirya (964 – 973)
  16. Rakeyan Wulung Gadung (973 – 989)
  17. Brajawisésa (989 – 1012)
  18. Déwa Sanghyang (1012 – 1019)
  19. Sanghyang Ageng (1019 – 1030)
  20. Sri Jayabupati (Detya Maharaja, 1030 – 1042)
  21. Darmaraja (Sang Mokténg Winduraja, 1042 – 1065)
  22. Langlangbumi (Sang Mokténg Kerta, 1065 – 1155)
  23. Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Ménakluhur (1155 – 1157)
  24. Darmakusuma (Sang Mokténg Winduraja, 1157 – 1175)
  25. Darmasiksa Prabu Sanghyang Wisnu (1175 – 1297)
  26. Ragasuci (Sang Mokténg Taman, 1297 – 1303)
  27. Citraganda (Sang Mokténg Tanjung, 1303 – 1311)
  28. Prabu Linggadéwata (1311-1333)
  29. Prabu Ajiguna Linggawisésa (1333-1340)
  30. Prabu Ragamulya Luhurprabawa (1340-1350)
  31. Prabu Maharaja Linggabuanawisésa ( called Sri Baduga Maharaja in carita Babad, that fallen in Bubat Incident. 1350-1357)
  32. Prabu Bunisora (1357-1371)
  33. Prabu Niskalawastukancana (1371-1475)
  34. Prabu Susuktunggal (1475-1482)
  35. Jayadéwata (Sri Baduga Maharaja or Prabu Siliwangi, Sunda-Galuh unifier. 1482-1521)
  36. Prabu Surawisésa (1521-1535)
  37. Prabu Déwatabuanawisésa (1535-1543)
  38. Prabu Sakti (1543-1551)
  39. Prabu Nilakéndra (1551-1567)
  40. Prabu Ragamulya atau Prabu Suryakancana (1567-1579)

 

 

 

 

Almost the general population have a belief that the Bogor Bogor has locative relationship with the City Pakuan, Pajajaran capital. The origin and meaning of Pakuan contained in various sources. Below is the result of source-seumber penulusuran is based on the order of time:
Carita (Story): Waruga Teachers (the 1750s).

In this ancient manuscript berhasa Sundanese Pakuan Pajajaran explained that the name is based on the site that there are trees Pakujajar banak.

K.F. Holle (1869).

In the paper entitled “De te Buitenzorg Batoe Toelis” (Batutulis in Bogor), Holle said that in villages near the city of Bogor are named Cipaku (along the river that memeiliki the same name). There are many trees found Paku. So according to Holle, the name had something to do with the presence Pakuan Cipaku and Tree Paku.Pakuan Pajajaran means trees that lined nails (“op Rijen staande pakoe bomen”).

G.P. Rouffaer (1919)

in “Encyclopedie van Niederlandsch Indie” edition Stibbe 1919. Pakuan contains the definition of “Nails”, but should be interpreted to “nail the universe” (“der spijker wereld”) which symbolizes the king personally like the title Pakubuwono and Paku Alam. “Pakuan” according Fouffaer equivalent of “Maharaja”. The word “Pajajaran” defined as “equal standing” or “counterpoise” (“evenknie”). Which meant Rouffaer is standing parallel or balanced by the Majapahit. Although not summarize the meaning Pakuan Rouffaer Pajajaran, but from his description it can be concluded that in his opinion Pakuan Pajajaran means “Maharaja standing parallel or balanced by (Maharaja) of Majapahit”. He agreed with Hoesein Djajaningrat (1913) that Pakuan Pajajaran founded in 1433.

R. Ng. Poerbatjaraka (1921).

In the paper “De-Toelis Batoe bij Buitenzorg” (Batutulis near Bogor) he explains that the word “Pakuan” would have to come from the ancient Javanese language “pakwwan” who then spelled “pakwan” (a “w”, was written on the inscription Batutulis). In the tongue of the Sundanese word will be pronounced “ferns”. The word “pakwan” means a tent or istaa. So, Pakuan Pajajaran, according Poerbatjaraka, meaning “palace lined (” aanrijen staande Hoven “).
 H. ten Dam (1957).

As an Agricultural Engineer, Ten Dam wanted to examine the socio-economic life of farmers in West Java with an original approach in terms of historical development. In the paper “Verkenningen Rondom Padjadjaran” (Introductory around Pajajaran), meaning “Pakuan” nothing to do with the “phallus” (milestones) are stuck next to a stone inscription Batutulis as a sign of power. He warned that in “Carita Parahyangan” The figures mentioned Haluwesi and the Susuktunggal it thinks still has a sense of “spikes”. He argued that the “ferns” is not a name, but a common noun meaning capital (“hoffstad”) which must be distinguished from the palace. The word “Pajajaran” an overhaul based on topography. He referred to reports Captain Wikler (1690) who reported that he had crossed the palace Pakuan in Pajajaran which lies between the Great River to River Tanggerang (also called Ciliwung and Cisadane). Ten Dam drew the conclusion that the name “Pajajaran” appears due to several kilometers Ciliwung and Cisadane flowing parallel. Thus, in the sense Pakuan Pajajaran Ten Dam is Pakuan in Pajajaran or “Dayeuh Pajajaran”.

Thus the interpretation of the name Pakuan Pajajaran

according to five sources. The official name is ever used in history there are three sources, namely:
1. Pakuan Pajajaran (complete)
2. Pakuan (without Pajajaran)
3. Pajajaran (without Pakuan)
These three titles can be found in the inscription Batutulis (numbers 1 & 2), while the number 3 can be found on the inscription Kabantenan in Jakarta.
 So, what the word means according Pajajaran own people?

In the manuscript “Carita Parahiyangan”

is a sentence reads “The Susuktunggal, inyana nu nyieunna Palangka Sriwacana Sriman Sri Baduga Maharajadiraja Queen Haji at Pakwan Pajajaran Milky Punta nu mikadatwan Sri Narayana Suradipati Madura, inyana pakwan Sanghiyang queen Gods” (The Susuktunggal, he who makes Sriman Sriwacana throne (to) Sri Maharaja Baduga Queen Ruler in Pakuan Pajajaran that resides in the palace of Sri Narayana Milky Punta Suradipati Madura, namely ferns Sanghiyang Queen of Gods).
Sanghiyang Queen of Gods

is another title for Sri Baduga. So-called “ferns” that is “kadaton” named Sri Bhima ff. “Pakuan” is a residence for the king, commonly called a palace, or castle kedaton. So Poerbatjaraka interpretation is consistent with the intended meaning of “Carita Parahiyangan”, namely “that lined the palace” The interpretation is closer to the palace again when viewed names are quite long but consists of the names that stand alone. It is estimated that there are five buildings, each palace named: Bhima, Punta, Narayana, Madura and Suradipati. This is probably the so-called in the terminology of classical “persada penta ‘(five keeraton). Suradipati palace is the name of the parent. This can be compared with the names of other courts, namely Surawisesa in Kawali, Surasowan in Banten and Surakarta in the White Rose in the past.
. Because the long names that people might prefer to summarize, Pakuan Pajajaran or Pakuan or Pajajaran. The name of the palace can be expanded to the name of the capital and eventually became the name of the country. The name of Surakarta palace and Ngayogyakarta, for example, extends into the capital’s name and name of the region. Ngayogyakarta in everyday language simply called Yogya.

Opinions Ten Dam

(Pakuan = capital) is in use, but wrong in terms of semantics. In the report Tome Pires (1513) stated that the capital of the kingdom of Sunda was named “Dayo” (dayeuh) and is located in a mountainous area, two days’ journey from the port at the mouth of the Ciliwung Kalapa. The name “Dayo” he heard from residents or magnifying Port Kalapa. So clearly, the Port of Kalapa use the word “dayeuh” (not “ferns”) intend to call when the capital. In everyday conversation, used the word “dayeuh”, whereas in the literature used “ferns” to refer to the capital of the kingdom.
As a practical matter, in the following text is used “Pakuan”

to name the capital and “Pajajaran to name the state, as is the custom of West Java community today.
 Location Pakuan (1)
1 . VOC news
 The first written report about the location of the records obtained Pakuan trip expedition forces VOC (“Verenigde Oost Indische Compagnie” / United Kumpeni East Indies) which our nation is called Kumpeni commonplace. Because Britain had a similar association with the name of the EIC (“East India Company”), it is often called Kumpeni Dutch VOC and EIC called Kumpeni England.

After reaching agreement with the Cirebon (1681), Kumpeni Netherlands signed an agreement with Bantam (1684). The agreement stipulated a limit Cisadane both sides.

To find out more about the location of “the former palace of the” Kingdom Pajajaran, VOC expedition sent three teams each led by
1. Scipio (1687)
2. Adolf Winkler (1690)
3. Abraham van Riebeeck (1703, 1704, 1709)

1. Scipio reports
Two important notes from the expedition of Scipio is
Note travel between Parung Angsana (New Land) towards Cipaku through Tajur, about the location of Factory “Unitex” now.

His records are as follows.: “The road and the land between the Cipaku Parung Angsana is the land clean and there are so many fruit trees, seems to have inhabited”.
. Painting the road after he crossed the Ciliwung. He noted “Passing the two roads with fruit trees that lined the straight and 3 pieces of debris trenches”. Of the members of his army, Scipio obtain information that all relics of King Pajajaran.
From the trip is concluded that the trace Pajajaran who can still give the “impression of the face of” the kingdom is “Site Batutulis”.

The discovery of Scipio immediately reported by the Governor-General Joanes Camphuijs to his superiors in the Netherlands.

In a report written on December 23, 1687,

he reported that according to the trust of the population, “hetselve paleijs en dat de verheven zitplaets specialijck van den getal tijgers bewaakt ent bewaart wort” (that the palace was particularly elevated seating for the king “Java” < means “Sunda”> Pajajaran is still foggy and guarded and cared for by a large number of tigers). Apparently residents report Parung Angsana nothing to do with a member of the expedition who killed the tiger near the Cisadane

on the night of August 28, 1687.

It is estimated that once a nest site Batutulis tiger and it has sprouted a link between Pajajaran delusion that vanished in the presence of tigers.

. 2. Report Adolf Winkler (1690)
. Scipio reports evocative Kumpeni Dutch leaders. Three years later reshaped the expedition team led by Captain Winkler. Winkler troops consisted of 16 whites and 26 persons as well as an expert measuring Napier.

Winkler expedition trip summary is as follows:
Like Scipio, Winkler started from barrier through Parung Kedung Angsana (New Land) then south. He passed the great road by Scipio called “twee lanen”. This does not contradict. Winkler said the road is parallel to the flow of Ciliwung and form a right-angled. He therefore noted only one way. Scipio considers this road turned sharply as the two roads meet.
After passing the river Jambuluwuk (Cibalok) and across the “moat Pakuan deep and walled up (” de diepe dwarsgragt van Pakowang “) which extends in the direction Ciliwung edges and up the road to the southeast 20 minutes after the statue. Ten minutes later (at 10:54) until the Supreme Tajur village location (the time just is not there). One minute later, he reached the base of durian road length is only 2 minutes leisurely journey on horseback.

When Scipio returned to the record as saying that the road and the land between the Cipaku Parung Angsana was clean and everywhere is full of fruit trees the port, it can be concluded that the complex “Unitex” Pajajaran it at the time of the “Royal Garden”. Tajur is an ancient Sundanese word that means “planting, plants or garden”. Great Tajur synonymous with “Cede Kebon or Botanical Gardens”. As a royal garden Tajur Great became the royal family mingle. Because it also cut off roads in this part of durian trees planted on both sides.

From the Great Tajur Winkler

headed to the area Batutulis path which later (1709) traversed the Van Riebeeck from the opposite direction. This road leading to the gates of the city (near the location of a nail factory “Sincere Rejo”, now). Therein lies the village of Lawang Gintung first before moving on to “Sekip” and then the current location (called fixed Lawang Gintung). So Pakuan gate on this side there is the cut off roads in Bantar Peuteuy (front housing complex LIPI). First there are no trees Gintung.
In Batutulis Winkler found the road rocky floors or very neat. According to the introduction explanation, that’s where the royal palace (“het conincklijke Huijs soude daerontrent gestaen hebben”). Once measured, the floor was stretching toward the old paseban. There are found 7 banyan tree.
 Near the road Winkler found a large stone which formed beautiful. Rocky road that lies before Bautulis Winkler arrived at the site, and because of the stone inscribed proceed to place the statue (“Purwa Galih”), then the location of the road should be located in the northern part of the inscribed stone (stele). Between the rocky road with a beautiful large stone connected by the “Gang Amil”. Land in the northern part of Amil Gang is concatenated with Bale Kambang (houseboat). Balen Kambang This is for chatting king. Examples Kambang Bale is still intact as found in the former Kingdom Center Klungkung in Bali. With these indications, the location must Pajajaran palace located on land that is restricted Jl. Batutulis (west side), Gang Amil (south side), the former trench that is now a housing (east side) and the “stone fortress” that was found before Scipio arrived at prasast (north side). Balekambang located at the north (outside) the fort. Beringinnya tree should be near the gate at the location of the bridge swarms Pakuan now.

Gang of Amil,

Winkler entered the inscribed stone. He preached that “the Palace Pakuan” it dikeliligi by the wall and inside there is a stone with writing as much as 81 / 2 lines (He calls such as row-9 contains only six letters and sepasan sign the cover). What is important is for both the rock using the word Winkler “stond” (feet). So after abandoned for about 110 years (since Pajajaran burak <bubar/hancur> by troops th Bantam 1579), the stones were still standing (still remains in its original position).

From the inscriptions,

leading to the statue of Winkler (commonly called Purwakalih, 1911 Pleyte still record the name of Purwa Galih). There are 3 pieces of sculpture which, according to informants Pleyte is Purwa Galih sculpture, Dark Pananjung nyawang and roe. The name of this trio are in the “Annals Pajajaran” written in Sumedang (1816) during Kornel Prince Regent, later adapted dala form CANTO 1862. Adapter to know some characteristics of manuscripts chronicle the former center of the kingdom as well as residents in the year 1687 Angsana Parung know the relationship between “Kabuyutan” Batutulis with Pajajaran kingdom and King Siliwangi. According to this chronicle, “Tree Campaka Color” (now living stump) is located not far from the square

Location Pakuan (2)
B. NEWS FROM OLD MANUSCRIPT
 In kropak (rontal or writing on palm leaves)

which are numbered 406 in the Central Mueseum there are clues that lead to the location Pakuan. 406 Kropak some have been published specifically with the name “Carita Parahiyangan”. In the unpublished part (usually called fragment C 406) on condition that the story of the establishment of courts of Sri Narayana Milky Punta Suradipati Madura. “In order kadatwan Inya, I Bujangga Sedamanah ngaran Kadatwan Bima Sri Narayana Punta Suradipati Madura. Anggeus ta ku tuluy diprebolta Maharaja Tarusbawa deung Bujangga Sedamanah. Ka broadcast Cipakancilan upstream. Katimu Bagawat Mayajati Sundanese.

 

My Bujangga Sedamanah dibaan ka Maharaja hareupeun Tarusbawa.
 (That’s where the former palace of the Bujangga Sedamanah named Sri Narayana Kadatuan Milky Punta Suradipati Madura. Once completed (built) and then blessed by the Maharaja Tarusbawa and Bujangga Sedamanah. Wanted to upstream Cipakancilan. Bagawat Sundanese Majayati discovered. By Bujangga Sedamanah brought before Maharaja Tarusbawa).

From ancient sources

that can be seen that the location of the palace will not be too far from the “upstream Cipakancilan”. Upstream Cipakancilan Lawang village located near the site of Gintung that now, because the upstream section of the river is called Ciawi. From the text we also know that since the river was already bernam Pajajaran Cipakancilan. It is only the interpreter then translated into Cipeucang rhyme. In ancient Sundanese and Javanese ancient word “deer” does mean “Peucang”.

C. RESEARCH RESULTS
 Inscription Batutulis

already studied since 1806 by making “hand prints” for the University of Leiden (The Netherlands). The first reading of the efforts made by Friederich 1853. Until 1921, there have been four experts who examined the contents. However, only C.M. Pleyte Pakuan devoted to the location, others simply explore the content of the inscription.

Pleyte results published in 1911

(his own research took place in 1903). In the paper “Het Jaartal op en Batoe-Toelis nabij Buitenzorg” (The year in Batutulis near Bogor), Pleyte explain “Waar alle Legenden, zoowel als de meer geloofwaardige historische berichten, het huidige dorpje Batoe-Toelis, als plaats waar eenmal Padjadjaran’s koningsburcht stond, aanwijzen, kwam op het er nog aan aleen. Naar eenige preciseering in deze te trachten “
(In the case of the legends and history news more entrusted Batutulis now appoint village as a place Pajajaran royal castle, the problems arising tinggalah trace the exact location)
 Kotradiksi bit of Pleyte is the first village he pointed Batutulis as the location of the palace, but later he expanded the circle location covering all areas present Batutulis Village. Pleyte identified with the city of the royal castle and kadatuan Bima Sri Narayana Suradipati with Pakuan Madura as a city.
.

Pajajaran chronicle illustrates

that Pakuan divided into “Dalem Kitha” (Jero kuta) and “Jawi Kitha” (Foreign kuta). Understanding exactly is “city in” and “outer city”. Pleyte still find the fortress of the land in Kuta Jero stretching toward meeting Sukasari on Jl. Siliwangi with Jl. Batutulis.

Other researchers

such as Ten Dam suspect lies the palace near the village of Lawang Gintung (former) Boarding the Army Engineers. Salmun Suhamir and even pointing at the current location of the Bogor Palace. However, opinion and Salmun Suhamir less supported by archaeological data and historical sources. The presumption is based only on the supposition that “Leuwi Sipatahunan” the famous old play in the play-it lies in the groove Ciliwung in Bogor Botanical Gardens. According to the story klasih, “Leuwi” (bottom) is commonly used-bath drenched by the daughters of the inhabitants of the palace. Then pull the logic that lies not far from the palace of “Leuwi Sipatahunan” it.

Bogor rhyme

leads to the location of the former residence Regiment “Cakrabirawa” (Kesatrian) near the border town. The area is said to be former royal Castle named “Mila Gold.” However this is also not supported by older historical sources. In addition, its location is too close to the topographical conditions kuta is the weakest point for the defense of the City Pakuan. City Pakuan natural fortress surrounded by cliffs of the steep river on three sides. Only the southeastern part of the city limits berlahan flat. In this section also found the rest of the fortress city of the greatest. Residents interviewed Lawang Gintung Pleyte mention the rest of the fort was “Kuta Maneuh”.

. Actually, almost all researchers guided by Captain Winkler reports (visits to Batutulis June 14, 1690).

Winkler reports key pad is not a “Hoff” (castle) which is used for inscription sites, but on the word “paseban” with 7 rods banyan on the location Gang Amil. Before the repair, Gang Amil is indeed ancient and nuanced in its edges are found stones used “Balay” long.
 However, further research that the fortress city membuktian Pakuan include Lawang area Saketeng Pleyte ever questioned. According Coolsma, Lawang Saketeng means “porte brisee, bewaakte in-en uitgang” (folding gates are guarded inside and out). Saketeng Lawang village lies not just in the former location of the gate.
The fort at this place is located on the edge of the village Cincaw a steep decline to the end of the valley Cipakancilan, then continued with Concrete Gang cliff next to the cinema “Rangga Ivory”. After crossing Jl. Suryakencana, veering to southeast parallel to the road. Rows of shops between Jl. Suryakencana with Jl. Wheels at the Substation in to the High, the actual foundation was established in the former fortress. Furthermore, following the peak valley fortress Ciliwung. Rows of stalls near the junction Jl. Siliwangi – Jl. Batutulis also established on the foundation of the former fortress. In this section meets with a castle fortress in the city that stretches down to Kuta Wetan and Dereded Jero. Outside the fort along the top of the slope continues past the office complex Ciliwung PAM, then weeding Jl. Pajajaran Kingdom, on the border of the city, turning straight to the southwest through Jl. Siliwangi (here formerly there were gates), continue to elongate until the village of Lawang Gintung. In the village of Lawang Gintung, the fort was continued with the “natural fortress” is a steep cliff top Cipaku arrived at the location Batutulis Railway Station. From here, the boundary runs along the City Pakuan railway lines up on the cliff Cipakancilan after passing the location of the Bridge swarms. Cipakancilan cliff separating the “tip of the fort” with a “fortress” at Kampung Cincaw cliff.

KINGDOM CAPITAL Pakuan SUNDA
Tome Pires (1513)

mentions that dayo (dayeuh) Kingdom of Sunda lies two days’ journey from the Port Kalapa Ciliwung located in the estuary. A Sundanese royal name tercata in two stone inscriptions found in Bogor and Sukabumi. Inscriptions in Bogor lot to do with THE KINGDOM OF FRACTIONS SUNDA TARUMANAGARA, while those in areas related to Sukabumi SUNDA UNTIL THE KINGDOM OF SRI JAYABUPATI.

  1. A.   KINGDOM OF FRACTIONS SUNDA TARUMANAGARA
     In Bogor,

 

the inscription was found in the Sand estuary,

on the edge of fields, not far from the inscription Telapak Elephant Purnawarman heritage. The inscription is now no place of origin. In the inscription
 was written


. “This sabdakalanda rakryan interpreter pangambat i kawihaji
 panyca pasagi Marsan barpulihkan pilgrimage Sundanese village “
Translation by Bosch:
 “It’s a sign of greeting Rakryan Savior Pengambat
 in the year (Saka) kawihaji (8) five (5)
 pasagi (4), the government restored begara
to the king of Sunda ‘.
 Karna year figures patterned “Sangkala” who follow the rules “angkanam vamato gatih” (the number is read from right), then the inscription was made in the year 458 Saka or 536 AD.

 

 

A few hundred yards from where the inscription, also found two other inscriptions

 

relics Purnawarman Maharaja who lettered Sangsekerta Pallava and language.

In the literature, the two inscriptions is called Inscription

 

Inscription Kebon Ciaruteun and Coffee (local coffee plantation owned by Jonathan former rig).

 

Inscription Ciaruteun originally located on the stream (river) Ciaruteun (100 meters) from the confluence with the Cisadane.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

In 1981

the inscription was removed and placed in the cupola. Ciaruteun inscription written in the form poetry 4 lines, reads:
. “Vikkrantasyavanipateh
 shrimatah purnavarmmanah
tarumanagararendrasya
 vishnoriva padadvayam “

Translation according to Vogel:
 “Both (traces) that such foot (foot) Vishnu is the king of the world belongs to the famous heroic ruler Purnawarman Tarumanagara”.

Inscription Ciaruteun illustrated a pair of “pandatala” (footprints).

 

Figure trail soles show signs of power that functions like a “signature” as of today. The presence in the village Purnawarman inscription indicates that the area includes the area authority. According to the “Reader Rajyarajya i Bhumi Collection” parwa II sarga 3, page 161, between subordinates Tarumanagara Purnawarman during the reign (395-434 AD) contained the name “Rajamandala” (King area) Sand Muhara. The land where the inscription was found in the form of low hills and flat pan flanked by three stems of the river: Cisadane, Cianten and Ciaruteun. Until the 19th century, the place was still reported by the name Sand Estuary. Dahul including the private land Ciampea. Now including the District of Cibungbulang.

. The soles of a pair of pictorial inscriptions Elephant elephant feet are given a description of a line-shaped poem reads:
 “Jayavi s halasya tarumendrsaya hastinah
 airavatabhasya vibhatidam padadavayam “
(Both tracks are the footprints of the feet
 such brilliant elephant belongs Airawata
 Tarumanagara a victorious ruler and ruled)

According to Hindu mythology,

is the name of the elephant ride Airawata Indra the god of war and penguawa Guntur. According to the Library Parawatwan i Bhumi Jawadwipa parwa I, sarga 1, war elephants Purnawarman Airawata named as the name of Indra riding the elephant, and even reported also that the flag of the Kingdom of Tarumanagara berlukiskan lotus flower on the head of an elephant.

 

Similarly Purnawarman carved crown worn a pair of bees.

Carving a flag and a pair of bees is clearly in the inscription Ciaruteun ditatahkan which has provoked debate among experts engrossing history of the meaning and value perlambangannya. Carved elephant head is crowned with lotus by experts suspected as “curly letter” which is still unsolved bacaaanya until now. Similarly, a pair of carved sign in front of the foot there is suspected as the symbol of the spider, sun twin, or a combination of solar-moon (sun and moon). Description Library of Cirebon on the flag Tarumanagara and carving a pair of “Bhramara” (bee) as a cap on the crown Purnawarman in all “youth” as a source of historical value should be recognized that there is compatibility with paintings on the inscription Ciaruteun.

In Bogor, there is still one more other inscriptions

 

the inscription stone relics Tarumanagara situated a top Bukit Koleangkak, Gintung Sand Village, District Leuwiliang.

 

On this hill flows (rivers) Cikasungka. Even this inscription carved with a pair of soles of feet and given a description of the shape of two lines of poetry:


“Shriman data kertajnyo narapatir – asamo well tarumayam temple shri name purnnavarmma pracurarupucara fedyavikyatavammo tasyedam – nitya-dksham padavimbadavyam arnagarotsadane bhaktanam yangdripanam – bhavati sukhahakaram shalyabhutam ripunam”

 

Translation according to Vogel:


“The famous and faithful to his task was no peerless king named Sri Purnawarman who ruled Taruma and dress shields can not be penetrated by the arrows of his enemies; kepunyaannyalah two feet of this trail, which has always managed to destroy the enemy fortress, which has always rewarded the honorary banquet ( to those who are loyal to him), but it is a thorn in the side of his enemies “.

Taruma kingdom founded by Rajadirajaguru Jayasingawarman in the year 358 AD

 

He died in 382 and on the edge of time dipusarakan Gomati (Jakarta). He was succeeded by his son, Dharmayawarman (382-395 AD) who, having died on the shores dipusarakan Candrabaga times. Tarumanagara Purnawarman is the third king (395-434 AD). He built a new royal capital in the year 397 that is located closer to shore and called the name “Sundapura”.

Estuary village where palm inscriptions Ciaruteun and Elephant are found, first is a “city river port” the bookie is located on the edge of a meeting with Cianten Cisadane. Until the 19th century the river’s path is still used to transport the coffee plantation. Now bamboo is still used pleh traders to transport their goods to downstream areas.

 

 

Nama Prasasti : TUK MAS

Lokasi Penemuan :
Dusun Dakawu, Desa Lebak, Kecamatan Grabag
Kabupaten Magelang, JAWA-TENGAH

Bahan : Batuan Andesit
Era Kerajaan : MATARAM Kuno
Tahun Penerbitan : Diperkirakan abad ke-5 sampai ke-7 Masehi
Aksara : Pallava-Grantha
Bahasa : Sanskrit

Mengenai Prasasti :
Prasasti terpahat pada sebuah batu yang berada di dekat sumber mata air “Tuk Mas” yang berarti “mata air emas”. Prasasti Tuk Mas memuat sejumlah ICONOGRAPHY SYMBOLS yang dipahatkan pada sebuah batu dengan sebaris aksara Pallawa Grantha yang tertulis di bagian bawahnya. Simbol-simbol tersebut antara lain adalah roda (Chakra) dengan 16 jeruji, sebuah GADA, 2 buah tempat air (Purna Kumbhas), sebuah tombak bermata tiga (Trisula), sebuah Kapak (Parasu), sebuah tongkat, sebilah pisau dan 4 buah batu rosetta bermotif teratai. Di samping itu juga terdapat sejumlah simbol yang hingga kini belum dapat terdefinisikan secara sempurna. Secara umum, beberapa dari simbol-simbol tersebut biasa diassosiasikan dengan tokoh Siva. Selain itu terdapat pula sejumlah simbol yang juga biasa di assosiasikan dengan tokoh Vishnu. Karena lokasi penemuan prasasti yang berada di sekitar sumber mata air yang mengalir, maka Dr. Nicolaas J. Krom mengatakan bahwa wilayah tersebut dahulu merupakan tempat suci yang secara khusus dipersembahkan bagi pemujaan Dewa Brahma. Atau dengan kata lain merupakan suatu “PenTIRTAan”.

Salinan dalam Bahasa Aslinya :
kvachit su chyam buruh anujata – kvachichila valuka nirgat eyam
kvachit prakirnna subha sita toya – samprasruta medhyakariva Ganga

Terjemahan kedalam Bahasa Indonesia :
“Mata air ini lahir dari teratai putih yang membawa kemurnian. Dalam beberapa bagian mengalir keluar dari batu dan pasir dan di satu tempat lain menyebarkan air yang sejuk dan jernih mengalir di sepanjang, demikian seperti halnya sungai Gangga”.

 

 

Estuary Sand inscription

 

 

 

 

 

Inscription Sand Estuary, Kampung Pasir Estuary, Ciaruteun Ilir village, district. Cibungbulang.

 

In geogrfis located at coordinates 106 ° 41 ‘30.8 “E and 06 · 31’ 40.8” LS. This inscription is located approximately 1 mile from the stone inscriptions Coffee Kebon I (Inscription Tread Elephant),

 

 

 

 

 

Content inscription reads:

contents

This sabdakalanda rakryang interpreter pengambat I kawihaji panyaca pasagi marsandeca

 

translation

It’s a sign of greeting rahyang pengambat interpreter, Berpulihkan sunda pilgrimage in the year 854 Saka that local governments be restored to the King of Sunda.

 

 

Nama Prasasti : SOJOMERTO

Lokasi Penemuan :
Desa Sojomerto, Kecamatan Reban
Kabupaten Batang, JAWA-TENGAH

Bahan : Batuan Andesit
Ukuran : panjang 43 cm, tebal 7 cm, dan tinggi 78 cm
Era : Kerajaan MATARAM Kuno
Tahun Penerbitan : Diperkirakan abad ke-7 Masehi
Aksara : JAWI (Jawa Kawi) dalam 11 Baris
Bahasa : Melayu Kuno

Isi dari Prasasti :
Prasasti ini bersifat keagamaan Siwais. Isi prasasti memuat keluarga dari tokoh utamanya, Dapunta Selendra, yaitu ayahnya bernama Santanu, ibunya bernama Bhadrawati, sedangkan istrinya bernama Sampula. Prof. Drs. Boechari berpendapat bahwa tokoh yang bernama Dapunta Selendra adalah cikal-bakal raja-raja keturunan Wangsa Sailendra yang berkuasa di Kerajaan Mataram Hindu.

Salinan dalam Bahasa Aslinya :
1. … – ryayon çrî sata …
2. … _ â kotî
3. … namah ççîvaya
4. bhatâra parameçva
5. ra sarvva daiva ku samvah hiya
6. – mih inan –is-ânda dapû
7. nta selendra namah santanû
8. namânda bâpanda bhadravati
9. namanda ayanda sampûla
10. namanda vininda selendra namah
11. mamâgappâsar lempewângih

Terjemahan kedalam Bahasa Indonesia :
Karena beberapa aksaranya rusak terkikis usia, maka yang disampaikan disini adalah penfsirannya.
Sembah kepada Siwa Bhatara Paramecwara dan semua dewa-dewa
… dari yang mulia Dapunta Selendra
Santanu adalah nama bapaknya, Bhadrawati adalah nama ibunya, Sampula adalah nama istri dari yang mulia Selendra.

 

Sunda name was first mentioned in an inscription of Kebon Coffee II.

 

 

The inscription dates to the year 854 Saka (932 M) and the Old Malay language. Fill dintaranya inscription reads “berpulihkan hajiri Sunda”, meaning previously existing interpreted Sundanese king and kingdom Tarumanagara at least after the year 932 AD ie before the end of the kingdom according to Chinese news Tarumannegara century – 7 (666 and 669 M which is the news about the kingdom tarakhir Tarumanagara).

 

 

that mentions the event of return of government to the King of Sunda was made in 536 AD In that year the ruler Tarumanagara is Suryawarman (535-561 AD) King Tarumanagara to-7.

 

Reader Jawadwipa, parwa I, sarga 1 (pages 80 and 81) provide information that in Candrawarman reign (515-535 AD), father Suryawarman, many local authorities are to receive back the power of government over the area as a reward for his loyalty to the Tarumanagara. Viewed from this perspective, then Suryawarman do the same thing as his father’s political continuation.

Interpreter Rakryan Pengambat express in the inscription Sand Estuary maybe once a Tarumanagara Senior Officials who previously was vice king as head of government in the area. What is unclear is why the inscription on the return of government to the King of Sunda was found there? whether the area is the center of the Kingdom of Sunda, or just an important place which included the Kingdom of Sunda region?

Sundanese name began to be used by the Maharaja Purnawarman in the year 397 AD

 

to refer to the capital of the kingdom which he founded. Neither the sources nor prasati Cirebon sources provide information that Purnawarman successfully subdue his enemies. Inscription Munjul in Pandeglang indicate that territory includes the coast of Sunda Strait. Library Collection, parwa II sarga 3 (pages 159-162) states that under the rule of 48 kings there Purnawarman area that stretches from SALAKANAGARA or RAJATAPURA (in Lada Bay area Pandeglang) to PURWALINGGA (now Purbolinggo) in Central Java. In tradisinal CIPAMALI (Kali Brebes) is considered to limit the power of the kings of the West Javanese rulers in the past.

Inscriptions in the Sand Purnawarman presence Estuary

, which proclaim the King of Sunda in the year 536 AD, is a phenomenon that has changed the status of the Capital Sundapura into a regional empire. This means, the central government Tarumanagara has shifted to other places [the same example can be seen from kedudukaan RAJATAPURA or SALAKANAGARA (silver city) called ARGYRE by Ptolemy in the year 150 AD City until the year 362 as its administrative Dewawarman Kings (from Dewawarman I – VIII). When the central government to switch from Rajatapura Tarumangara, then change the status of a royal Salakanagara area. Jayasingawarman Tarumanagara founder is the son of King Dewawarman VIII. He himself was one of Salankayana sages in India who fled to the archipelago since the area was attacked and conquered the kingdom of Maharaja Samudragupta Magada.

Suryawarman

not only continued his father’s political policies that give more confidence to the king to take care of local self-government, but also turned his attention to the eastern region.

 

[In the year 526 AD,

 

Manikmaya (menanu Suryawarman) has established a new kingdom in Kendan (Nagreg area between Bandung and Limbangan). These figures Manikmaya son lived with his grandfather in the capital Taruma and later became Commander of the Armed Forces Tarumanagara. The development of the eastern area becomes more developed when the great-grandson Manikmaya Galuh establish the Kingdom in the year 612 AD].

Tarumanagara only 12 people suffered during the reign of the king. In the year 669, Linggawarman (King Tarumanagara last) replaced by-law.

Linggawarman have two daughters, the eldest named Manasih be Tarusbawa and a second wife named Sobakancana became the wife DAPUNTAHYANG SRI JAYANASA SRIWIJAYA founder of the Kingdom. Tarusbawa originating from the Kingdom of Sunda Sambawa Tarumanagara replace in-law became ruler of the 13th.

 

675

pantai timur Sumatera telah disinggahi saudagar-saudagar Islam sejak abad ke-7,[1] sedangkan kronik Cina Xin Tangshu menyebutkan bahwa pada tahun, 675 orang-orang Ta-Shih (Arab) telah mempunyai perkampungan di pantai barat Sumatera.[2] Pihak yang mengatakan Islam masuk ke Minangkabau dari pantai timur Sumatera memperkirakannya masuk dari Siak, sementara pihak yang mengatakan masuk dari pantai barat memperkirakannya masuk dari Aceh.[3] Budayawan A.A. Navis berpendapat bahwa Islam telah masuk dari Aceh sejak abad ke-8.[4]

7th Century

644

Kerajaan Melayu Jambi

Abad ke 7

644

Kerajaan Malayu adalah nama sebuah kerajaan yang pernah ada di Pulau Sumatra. Pada umumnya, kerajaan ini dibedakan atas dua periode, yaitu Kerajaan Malayu Tua pada abad ke-7 yang berpusat di Minanga Tamwa, dan Kerajaan Malayu Muda pada abad ke-13 yang berpusat di Dharmasraya.

Berdasarkan letak ibu kotanya, Kerajaan Malayu Tua atau Malayu Kuno sering pula disebut dengan nama Kerajaan Malayu Jambi, sedangkan Kerajaan Malayu Muda sering pula disebut dengan nama Kerajaan Dharmasraya.

Sumber Berita Cina

Berita tentang Kerajaan Malayu antara lain diketahui dari kronik Cina berjudul T’ang-hui-yao karya Wang P’u. Disebutkan bahwa ada sebuah kerajaan bernama Mo-lo-yeu yang mengirim duta besar ke Cina pada tahun 644 atau 645. Pengiriman duta ini hanya berjalan sekali dan sesudah itu tidak terdengar lagi kabarnya.

Pendeta I Tsing dalam perjalanannya pada tahun 671685 menuju India juga sempat singgah di pelabuhan Mo-lo-yeu. Saat ia berangkat, Mo-lo-yeu masih berupa negeri merdeka, sedangkan ketika kembali ke Cina, Mo-lo-yeu telah menjadi jajahan Shih-li-fo-shih (ejaan Cina untuk Sriwijaya).

Menurut catatan I Tsing, negeri-negeri di Pulau Sumatra pada umumnya menganut agama Buddha aliran Hinayana, kecuali Mo-lo-yeu. Tidak disebutkan dengan jelas agama apa yang dianut oleh Kerajaan Malayu.

Lokasi Malayu Tua

Dr. Rouffaer berpendapat bahwa ibu kota Kerajaan Malayu menjadi satu dengan pelabuhan Malayu, dan sama-sama terletak di Kota Jambi. Sedangkan menurut Ir. Moens, pelabuhan Malayu terletak di Kota Jambi, namun istananya terletak di Palembang. Sementara itu, Prof. George Coedes lebih yakin bahwa Palembang adalah ibu kota Kerajaan Sriwijaya, bukan ibu kota Malayu.

Prof. Slamet Muljana berpendapat lain. Istilah Malayu berasal dari kata Malaya yang dalam bahasa Sansekerta bermakna “bukit”. Nama sebuah kerajaan biasanya merujuk pada nama ibu kotanya. Oleh karena itu, ia tidak setuju apabila istana Malayu terletak di Kota Jambi, karena daerah itu merupakan dataran rendah. Menurutnya, pelabuhan Malayu memang terletak di Kota Jambi, tetapi istananya terletak di pedalaman yang tanahnya agak tinggi.

Prasasti Tanyore menyebutkan bahwa ibu kota Kerajaan Malayu dilindungi oleh benteng-benteng, dan terletak di atas bukit. Slamet Muljana berpendapat bahwa istana Malayu terletak di Minanga Tamwa sebagaimana yang tertulis dalam prasasti Kedukan Bukit. Menurutnya, Minanga Tamwa adalah nama kuno dari Muara Tebo (atau Kabupaten Tebo di Provinsi Jambi).

Dikalahkan Sriwijaya

Prasasti Kedukan Bukit tahun 683 mengisahkan perjalanan Dapunta Hyang membawa 20.000 orang prajurit meninggalkan Minanga Tamwa dengan perasaan suka cita penuh kemenangan. Prof. Moh. Yamin berpendapat bahwa prasasti ini merupakan piagam proklamasi berdirinya Kerajaan Sriwijaya di bawah pimpinan Dapunta Hyang.

Pendapat Moh. Yamin ternyata tidak sesuai dengan berita dalam catatan I Tsing bahwa pada tahun 671 Kerajaan Sriwijaya sudah ada. Dikisahkan, bahwa I Tsing mendapat bantuan dari raja Shih-li-fo-shih sehingga dapat memasuki pelabuhan Malayu dalam perjalanan menuju India.

Prof. Slamet Muljana yang telah mengidentifikasi Minanga Tamwa sebagai ibu kota Kerajaan Malayu berpendapat bahwa, prasasti Kedukan Bukit merupakan piagam penaklukan Malayu oleh Sriwijaya. Naskah prasasti tersebut menunjukkan bahwa dengan kekuatan 20.000 prajurit, Dapunta Hyang berhasil menguasai Minanga Tamwa, dan meninggalkan kota itu dalam suka cita.

Jadi, penaklukan Malayu oleh Sriwijaya terjadi pada tahun 683. Pendapat ini sesuai dengan catatan I Tsing bahwa, pada saat berangkat menuju India tahun 671, Mo-lo-yeu masih menjadi kerajaan merdeka, sedangkan ketika kembali tahun 685, negeri itu telah dikuasai oleh Shih-li-fo-shih.

Pelabuhan Malayu merupakan penguasa lalu lintas Selat Malaka saat itu. Dengan direbutnya Minanga Tamwa, secara otomatis pelabuhan Malayu pun jatuh ke tangan Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Maka sejak tahun 683, Kerajaan Sriwijaya tumbuh menjadi penguasa lalu lintas dan perdagangan Selat Malaka menggantikan peran Kerajaan Malayu.

Tentang Raja Chan-pi

Setelah beberapa abad berkuasa, akhirnya Kerajaan Sriwijaya mengalami kekalahan akibat serangan Rajendra Coladewa dari India sekitar tahun 1025. Kekuasaan Wangsa Sailendra di Pulau Sumatra dan Semenanjung Malaya pun berakhir. Sejak saat itu Sriwijaya menjadi negeri jajahan Rajendra.

Dalam berita Cina berjudul Sung Hui Yao disebutkan bahwa Kerajaan San-fo-tsi tahun 1082 mengirim duta besar ke Cina yang saat itu di bawah pemerintahan Kaisar Yuan Fong. Duta besar tersebut menyampaikan surat dari raja Chan-pi bawahan San-fo-tsi, dan surat dari putri raja yang diserahi urusan negara San-fo-tsi, serta menyerahkan pula 227 tahil perhiasan, rumbia, dan 13 potong pakaian.

Pada zaman Dinasti Sung, istilah San-fo-tsi identik dengan Sriwijaya. Tidak diketahui dengan pasti apakah putri raja yang diserahi urusan negara San-fo-tsi adalah keturunan Rajendra, yang saat itu telah menguasai Sumatra dan Semenanjung Malaya. Sementara itu, raja Chan-pi kemungkinan besar adalah ejaan Cina untuk istilah Jambi.

Munculnya Wangsa Mauli

Kekalahan Kerajaan Sriwijaya akibat serangan Rajendra Coladewa telah mengakhiri kekuasaan Wangsa Sailendra atas Pulau Sumatra dan Semenanjung Malaya sejak tahun 1025. Beberapa waktu kemudian muncul sebuah dinasti baru yang mengambil alih peran Wangsa Sailendra, yaitu yang disebut dengan nama Wangsa Mauli.

Prasasti tertua yang pernah ditemukan atas nama raja Mauli adalah prasasti Grahi tahun 1183. Prasasti itu berisi perintah Maharaja Srimat Trailokyaraja Maulibhusana Warmadewa kepada bupati Grahi yang bernama Mahasenapati Galanai supaya membuat arca Buddha seberat 1 bhara 2 tula dengan nilai emas 10 tamlin. Yang mengerjakan tugas membuat arca tersebut bernama Mraten Sri Nano.

Prasasti kedua berselang lebih dari satu abad kemudian, yaitu prasasti Padangroco tahun 1286. Prasasti ini menyebut adanya seorang raja bernama Maharaja Srimat Tribhuwanaraja Mauli Warmadewa. Ia mendapat kiriman arca Amoghapasa dari atasannya, yaitu Kertanagara raja Kerajaan Singhasari di Pulau Jawa. Arca tersebut kemudian diletakkan di kota Dharmasraya.

Dharmasraya dalam Pararaton disebut dengan nama Malayu. Dengan demikian, Tribhuwanaraja dapat pula disebut sebagai raja Malayu. Tribhuwanaraja sendiri kemungkinan besar adalah keturunan dari Trailokyaraja. Oleh karena itu, Trailokyaraja pun bisa juga dianggap sebagai raja Malayu, meskipun prasasti Grahi tidak menyebutnya dengan jelas.

Yang menarik di sini adalah daerah kekuasaan Trailokyaraja pada tahun 1183 telah mencapai Grahi, yang terletak di perbatasan Kamboja. Itu artinya, setelah Sriwijaya mengalami kekalahan, Malayu bangkit kembali sebagai penguasa Selat Malaka. Namun, kapan kiranya kebangkitan tersebut dimulai tidak dapat dipastikan, karena raja Jambi pada tahun 1082 masih menjadi bawahan keluarga Rajendra.

Istilah Srimat yang ditemukan di depan nama Trailokyaraja dan Tribhuwanaraja berasal dari bahasa Tamil yang bermakna ”tuan pendeta”. Dengan demikian, kebangkitan kembali Kerajaan Malayu dipelopori oleh kaum pendeta. Namun, tidak diketahui dengan jelas apakah pemimpin kebangkitan tersebut adalah Srimat Trailokyaraja, ataukah raja sebelum dirinya, karena sampai saat ini belum ditemukan prasasti Wangsa Mauli yang lebih tua daripada prasasti Grahi.

Daerah Kekuasaan Dharmasraya

Istilah San-fo-tsi pada zaman Dinasti Sung sekitar tahun 990–an identik dengan Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Namun, ketika Sriwijaya mengalami kehancuran pada tahun 1025, istilah San-fo-tsi masih tetap dipakai dalam naskah-naskah kronik Cina untuk menyebut Pulau Sumatra secara umum.

Dalam naskah berjudul Chu-fan-chi karya Chau Ju-kua tahun 1225 disebutkan bahwa negeri San-fo-tsi memiliki 15 daerah bawahan, yaitu Pong-fong, Tong-ya-nong, Ling-ya-si-kia (Langkasuka), Ki-lan-tan (Kelantan), Fo-lo-an, Ji-lo-ting, Tsien-mai, Pa-ta (Batak ?, Patani ?), Tan-ma-ling, Kia-lo-hi (Kamboja), Pa-lin-fong (Palembang), Sin-to (Sunda), Kien-pi, Lan-mu-li, dan Si-lan (Sailan ?). Dengan demikian, wilayah kekuasaan San-fo-tsi membentang dari Srilangka (Si-lan), Kamboja (Kia-lo-hi), sampai Sunda (Sin-to).

Apabila San-fo-tsi masih dianggap identik dengan Sriwijaya, maka hal ini akan bertentangan dengan prasasti Tanyore tahun 1030, bahwa saat itu Sriwijaya telah kehilangan kekuasaannya atas Sumatra dan Semenanjung Malaya. Selain itu dalam daftar di atas juga ditemukan nama Pa-lin-fong yang identik dengan Palembang. Karena Palembang sama dengan Sriwijaya, maka tidak mungkin Sriwijaya menjadi bawahan Sriwijaya.

Sebaliknya, daftar tersebut tidak menyebutkan nama Mo-lo-yeu ataupun nama lain yang mirip Dharmasraya. Yang disebut adalah Kien-pi, yang mungkin identik dengan Jambi. Sementara itu, Jambi sendiri tidak sama dengan Dharmasraya karena kedua tempat tersebut terletak berjauhan.

Dengan demikian, istilah San-fo-tsi pada tahun 1225 tidak lagi identik dengan Sriwijaya, melainkan identik dengan Dharmasraya. Jadi, daftar 15 negeri bawahan San-fo-tsi tersebut merupakan daftar jajahan Kerajaan Dharmasraya, karena saat itu masa kejayaan Sriwijaya sudah berakhir.

Jadi, istilah San-fo-tsi yang semula bermakna Sriwijaya tetap digunakan dalam berita Cina untuk menyebut Pulau Sumatra secara umum, meskipun kerajaan yang berkuasa saat itu adalah Dharmasraya. Hal yang serupa terjadi pada abad ke-14, yaitu zaman Majapahit dan Dinasti Ming. Catatan sejarah Dinasti Ming masih menggunakan istilah San-fo-tsi, seolah-olah saat itu Sriwijaya masih ada. Sementara itu, catatan sejarah Majapahit berjudul Nagarakretagama tahun 1365 sama sekali tidak pernah menyebut adanya negeri bernama Sriwijaya.

Itu artinya, San-fo-tsi yang dikenal oleh Dinasti Ming memang bukan Sriwijaya, melainkan sebutan umum untuk Pulau Sumatra yang di dalamya antara lain terdapat negeri Dharmasraya dan Palembang.

Dikalahkan Singhasari

Pada tahun 1275 raja Kerajaan Singhasari di Pulau Jawa yang bernama Kertanagara memutuskan untuk menguasai lalu lintas perdagangan Selat Malaka. Tujuan utamanya ialah untuk membendung pengaruh kekuasaan Khubilai Khan penguasa Dinasti Yuan atau bangsa Mongol.

Menurut Nagarakretagama, rencana tersebut semula hendak dijalankan secara damai. Akan tetapi, raja Malayu menolak hal itu, sehingga Kertanagara terpaksa mengirim pasukan untuk menyerang Sumatra. Serangan tersebut terkenal dengan sebutan Ekspedisi Pamalayu yang dipimpin oleh Kebo Anabrang sebagai komandan.

Pasukan Kebo Anabrang mendarat dan merebut pelabuhan Malayu di Jambi. Mereka kemudian merebut daerah penghasil lada di Kuntu–Kampar. Dengan demikian, kehidupan ekonomi Kerajaan Malayu berhasil dilumpuhkan. Yang terakhir, Kebo Anabrang berhasil mengalahkan ibu kota Malayu, yaitu Dharmasraya.

Tidak diketahui dengan pasti kapan istana Dharmasraya jatuh ke tangan pasukan Singhasari. Prasasti Padangroco tahun 1286 hanya menyebutkan tentang pengiriman arca Amoghapasa sebagai hadiah Singhasari untuk ditempatkan di Dharmasraya. Dalam prasasti itu, Tribhuwanaraja bergelar maharaja, sedangkan Kertanagara bergelar maharajadhiraja, sehingga terbukti kalau saat itu Sumatra telah menjadi bawahan Jawa.

Sepasang Putri Malayu

Naskah Pararaton dan Kidung Panji Wijayakrama menyebutkan bahwa pasukan Kebo Anabrang kembali ke Jawa tahun 1293 membawa dua orang putri Malayu bernama Dara Jingga dan Dara Petak. Keduanya dipersembahkan kepada Raden Wijaya menantu Kertanagara. Kertanagara sendiri telah meninggal setahun sebelumnya.

Raden Wijaya merupakan raja pertama Kerajaan Majapahit. Ia mengambil Dara Petak sebagai istri yang kemudian melahirkan Jayanagara, raja kedua Majapahit. Sementara itu, Dara Jingga diserahkan kepada seorang “dewa”. Ia kemudian melahirkan Tuan Janaka yang kelak menjadi raja Malayu bergelar Mantrolot Warmadewa. Namun ada kemungkinan lain bahwa Raden Wijaya juga mengambil Dara Jingga sebagai istri, karena hal ini lumrah sebab Raden Wijaya pada waktu itu telah menjadi raja serta juga memperistri semua anak-anak perempuan Kertanagara. Dan ini dilakukan untuk menjaga ketentraman dan kestabilan kerajaan setelah peralihan kekuasaan di Singhasari.

Mantrolot Warmadewa identik dengan Adityawarman Mauli Warmadewa, putra Adwayawarman. Nama Adwayawarman ini mirip dengan Adwayabrahma, yaitu salah satu pengawal arca Amoghapasa dalam prasasti Padangroco tahun 1286. Saat itu Adwayabrahma menjabat sebagai Rakryan Mahamantri dalam pemerintahan Kertanagara. Jabatan ini merupakan jabatan tingkat tinggi. Mungkin yang dimaksud dengan “dewa” dalam Pararaton adalah tokoh ini. Dengan kata lain, Raden Wijaya menikahkan Dara Jingga dengan Adwayabrahma sehingga lahir Adityawarman.

Adityawarman sendiri menggunakan gelar Mauli Warmadewa. Hal ini menunjukkan kalau ia adalah keturunan Srimat Tribhuwanaraja. Maka, dapat disimpulkan kalau Dara Jingga (dan juga Dara Petak) adalah putri dari raja Dharmasraya tersebut. Sumber lain menyebutkan bahwa keduanya lahir dari permaisuri raja Malayu bernama Putri Reno Mandi.

Dharmasraya Zaman Majapahit

Nagarakretagama yang ditulis tahun 1365 menyebut Dharmasraya sebagai salah satu di antara sekian banyak negeri jajahan Kerajaan Majapahit di Pulau Sumatra. Dharmasraya memang telah ditaklukkan oleh Singhasari dan menjalin persaudaraan melalui perkawinan antara Dara Petak dan Raden Wijaya pada akhir abad ke-13. Namun, tidak dapat dipastikan apakah kemudian Dharmasraya tunduk begitu saja terhadap Majapahit sebagai kelanjutan dari Singhasari.

Dalam catatan Dinasti Ming, negeri San-fo-tsi (atau Sumatra) terbagi manjadi tiga dan masing-masing berusaha meminta bantuan Cina untuk lepas dari kekuasaan She-po (atau Jawa). Ketiga negeri tersebut masing-masing dipimpin oleh Seng-kia-lie-yulan, Ma-ha-na-po-lin-pang, dan Ma-na-cha-wu-li.

Secara berturut-turut pada tahun 1375, 1376, dan 1377 ketiganya mengirimkan duta besar ke Cina meminta bantuan. Namun pada tahun 1377 tentara She-po menyerang dan menghancurkan San-fo-tsi. Sejak saat itu ketiga negeri di San-fo-tsi disatukan dan diganti namanya menjadi Chiu-chiang.

Seng-kia-lie-yulan adalah Adityawarman raja Pagaruyung. Ma-ha-na-po-lin-pang adalah ejaan Cina untuk Maharaja Palembang. Sementara Ma-na-cha-wu-li adalah ejaan untuk Maharaja Mauli raja Dharmasraya.

Meskipun Adityawarman adalah cucu Srimat Tribhuwanaraja, namun ia tidak memiliki hak atas takhta Dharmasraya karena ia lahir dari Dara Jingga. Adityawarman kemudian mendirikan Kerajaan Malayapura di Pagaruyung, sedangkan Dharmasraya dipegang oleh Maharaja Mauli, yaitu keturunan Tribhuwanaraja lainnya.

Rupanya setelah Gajah Mada meninggal tahun 1364, negeri-negeri jajahan di Sumatra berusaha untuk memerdekakan diri dengan meminta bantuan Kerajaan Ming di Cina. Akan tetapi, Maharaja Hayam Wuruk yang saat itu masih berkuasa di Majapahit berhasil menumpas pemberontakan Pagaruyung, Palembang, dan Dharmasraya pada tahun 1377.

Catatan Cina menyebut bahwa setelah pemberontakan tersebut, kerajaan-kerajaan di San-fo-tsi dijadikan satu dengan nama Chiu-chiang. Menurut naskah Ying-yai-seng-lan, nama Chiu-chiang sama dengan Po-lin-pang. Itu berarti, setelah tahun 1377, wilayah jajahan Majapahit di Sumatra dijadikan satu dengan berpusat di Palembang.

 

 

670

in Sumatra growing rapidly. Explorers Chinese I Ching visited the capital of Palembang around the year 670.

At the height of glory, the Srivijaya controlled as far as West Java and the Malay Peninsula.

666

Tarumanagara the last king, Sri Maharaja Linggawarman Atmahariwangsa Panunggalan Tirthabumi (reigned only for three years, 666-669 AD),

 

was married to Dewi Ganggasari from Indraprahasta. From Ganggasari,

 

he has two children, both girls. Dewi Manasih, her eldest daughter, married to Tarusbawa of Sunda, while the second, Sobakancana, married with Dapuntahyang Sri Janayasa, who later founded the kingdom of Srivijaya.

 

After Linggawarman died, power transfered to Tarusbawa.

 

This led Galuh ruler, Wretikandayun (612-702) rebel,

separated from Tarumanagara, and

 

establish an independent kingdom Galuh.

 

Also wanted to continue Tarusbawa Tarumanagara kingdom, and then transferred power to Sunda, Cipakancilan upstream in the area where the river Ciliwung and Cisadane rivers and adjacent rows, near Bogor today. While Tarumanagara changed to subordinates. He was crowned as the king of Sunda on Radite Pon, 9 Suklapaksa, Yista month, year 519 Saka (approximately 669 AD May 18). Sunda and Galuh borders, with a limit of Citarum river (Sunda in the west, east Galuh).

669

Sunda Kingdom

 

The Sunda Kingdom was a Hindu kingdom located on the western part of Java from 669 ,Sunda KingdomSunda kingdom was founded by Tarusbawa in Sundanese Caka 591 (669 M).

 

Before standing as an independent kingdom, Sunda was Tarumanagara vassal.

 

 

  1. 1.     Tarusbawa (669 – 723)
  2. 2.    Harisdarma, atawa Sanjaya (723 – 732)
  3. 3.    Tamperan Barmawijaya (732 – 739)
  4. 4.   Rakeyan Banga (739 – 766)
  5. 5.    Rakeyan Medang Prabu Hulukujang (766 – 783)
  6. 6.   Prabu Gilingwesi (783 – 795)
  7. 7.    Pucukbumi Darmeswara (795 – 819)
  8. 8.   Rakeyan Wuwus Prabu Gajah Kulon (819 – 891)
  9. 9.   Prabu Darmaraksa (891 – 895)

10. Windusakti Prabu Déwageng (895 – 913)

11. Rakeyan Kamuning Gading Prabu Pucukwesi (913 – 916)

12.Rakeyan Jayagiri (916 – 942)

13.Atmayadarma Hariwangsa (942 – 954)

14. Limbur Kancana (954 – 964)

15.Munding Ganawirya (964 – 973)

16. Rakeyan Wulung Gadung (973 – 989)

17. Brajawisésa (989 – 1012)

18. Déwa Sanghyang (1012 – 1019)

19. Sanghyang Ageng (1019 – 1030)

  1. 20.                      Sri Jayabupati (Detya Maharaja, 1030 – 1042)

21.Darmaraja (Sang Mokténg Winduraja, 1042 – 1065)

22. Langlangbumi (Sang Mokténg Kerta, 1065 – 1155)

23. Rakeyan Jayagiri Prabu Ménakluhur (1155 – 1157)

24.Darmakusuma (Sang Mokténg Winduraja, 1157 – 1175)

25. Darmasiksa Prabu Sanghyang Wisnu (1175 – 1297)

26.Ragasuci (Sang Mokténg Taman, 1297 – 1303)

27. Citraganda (Sang Mokténg Tanjung, 1303 – 1311)

28.Prabu Linggadéwata (1311-1333)

29.Prabu Ajiguna Linggawisésa (1333-1340)

  1. 30.                      Prabu Ragamulya Luhurprabawa (1340-1350)

31.Prabu Maharaja Linggabuanawisésa ( called Sri Baduga Maharaja in carita Babad, that fallen in Bubat Incident. 1350-1357)

32. Prabu Bunisora (1357-1371)

33. Prabu Niskalawastukancana (1371-1475)

34.Prabu Susuktunggal (1475-1482)

35. Jayadéwata (Sri Baduga Maharaja or Prabu Siliwangi, Sunda-Galuh unifier. 1482-1521)

36.Prabu Surawisésa (1521-1535)

37. Prabu Déwatabuanawisésa (1535-1543)

38.Prabu Sakti (1543-1551)

39.Prabu Nilakéndra (1551-1567)

  1. 40.                      Prabu Ragamulya atau Prabu Suryakancana (1567-1579)

In about 650,

Tarumanagara kingdom was attacked and defeated by Srivijaya (a kingdom established in Sumatra island in 500).

669

Then, Tarumanegara’s influence on its small kingdoms began to decline.
In 669, Tarusbawa inherited Tarumanagara crown.

Tarusbawa was the last king of Tarumanagara. This is in line with Chinese chronicles mentioning that a messenger of Tarumanagara last visited China in 669. Tarusbawa indeed sent his messenger advising his enthronement to Chinese king in 669. Because the influence of Tarumanagara in Tarusbawa era declined as a result of severance by its vassal states as well as due to the attacks by Srivijaya, he wished to return the greatness of the kingdom as was in the era of Purnawarman controlling the kingdoms from Sunda Pura.

Hence, in 670,

he changed name Tarumanagara to be Sunda.
This event was made as a reason by king Wretikandayun (Monarchic founder of Galuh) to dissociate the small kingdom from the power of Tarumanagara and asked King Tarusbawa

to divide Tarumanagara territory into two parts.

Galuh got a support from Kalingga kingdom (the first kingdom in Java island) to separate from Tarumanagara because Galuh and Kalingga had made an alliance through dynastic marriage; a son of King Wretikandayun married Parwati (a daughter of Queen Sima) from Kalingga and Sana alias Bratasenawa alias Sena (a grandson of King Wretikandayun) married Sanaha (a granddaughter of Queen Sima).

In a weak position and wishing to avoid civil war, the young King Tarusbawa accepted the request of old King Wretikandayun.

In 670, Tarumanagara was divided into two kingdoms: Sunda Kingdom and Galuh Kingdom with the Citarum river as the boundary.

Then Galuh Kingdom comprised many vassal kingdoms which covered areas of present-day West and present-day Central Java Provinces.

King Tarusbawa then established

a new capital of his kingdom near the Cipakancilan river upstream which centuries later became

the city of Pakuan Pajajaran (or shortly called Pakuan or Pajajaran).

King Tarusbawa becomes the ancestor of Sunda kings.

683

Sailendra was originated in India and established themself in Palembang before the arrival of Dapunta Hiyang.

In 683,

Sailendra family moved to Java

because being pushed by Dapunta Hiyang and his troops

 

7th Century

It appears that Tarumanegara in West Java first controlled the trade for two centuries or more,

but that at the end of the 7th Century a new Buddhist kingdom based in Palembang took over the vital Malacca and Sunda Straits.

 

 

The kingdom was Sriwijaya

and it ruled these seas throughout the next 600 years.

Sriwijaya and the P’o-ssu TradeThe kingdom of Sriwijaya

left behind no magnificent temples or monuments because it was a thalassic (maritime) kingdom that relied for its existence not on agriculture, but on control of the trade.

 

Most of its citizens were therefore sailors who lived on boats, as do many of coastal Malay orang laut (sea people) now.

Knowledge of Sriwijaya is consequently very sketchy, and the kingdom was not even identified by scholars until 1918.

 

Four stone inscriptions in Old Malay, several in Sanskrit and a handful of statues and bronze icons are all that remain of one of the most powerful maritime empires in history.Prof O.W. Wolters has speculated that Sriwijaya rose to prominence as a result of a substitution of some Sumatran aromatics for expensive Middle Eastern frankincense and myrrh-the so-colled P’o-ssu (Persian) goods then being shipped to China in great quantities.Be that as it may,

 

Sriwijaya was also located in extremely strategic position

 

and is said to have developed large ships of between 400 and 600 tons. These were by far the largest ships in the world at this time, and they appear to have achieved regular direct sailings to India and China by at least the late 8th Century.It is significant that the P’o-ssu trade consisted mainly of incense and other rare substances used by Buddhist in China.

 

Sriwijaya’s rulers were also Buddhist

and a passing Chinese monk by the name of I-Ching stopped here for several months to study and copy Buddhist texts. There he found a thousand Buddhist monks and noted that it was a meeting place for traders from all over the world.Through Sriwijaya, controlled all coastal ports on either side of the Malacca and Sunda straits (eastern Sumatra, western Java and the Malay peninsula), none of these areas was suitable for wet-rice agriculture. The nearest such area was in central Java, and

 

 

 

 

Bima Temple,

 

Dieng Plateau Central Java,

7th century AD

On ancient Indonesian case, the era of gigantic and monumental religious Hindu-Budhist building is took place in Sailendra and Ancient Mataram Kingdom. At that time many historians believe in 8th to 10th century AD, Islam didn’t manage to reach interior central Java, where powerful and rich agriculture kingdom build this monuments

Beside architecture, the depictions of deities are different between India and Indonesia. Indian depiction of goddesses, for example, are voluptuous with rounded breast and curvy pose. While our depiction of goddesses are less voluptuous with breasts hanging naturally and the pose is also demure. Darn, I wish I could scan the pics on the book, they clearly show the differences

Did the Indian empires not send out their masons and builders to build Angkor Wat or Bagan? I know there’s resistance to this idea in Javanese temple building… but howabout the central plains of Indochina?

Unfortunately I don’t have any book regarding Angkor Wat and Bagan. But I do have a book on Thai Architecture, and it stated that it received a lot of influences from many sources, from Dvaravati to Srivijaya. I still can’t answer about the involvement of Indian masons, though. I need scholars to point the differences/similarities of the temples in Indochina and India to build my own point of view on

7th  century

 

Queen Of Persian Sasanid Kingdom Silver coin found in West Sumatra(provenance Dr Iwan)

Read more info

 

The Iran  Sasanid kindom during Empress Puran 7th Century,bring by Gujarat Trade during Srivijaya empire in Indonesia and they had trading with the Minangkabau marchant at Mingkabau Kindom (Pagaruyung),(more info only for premium member.The first report found in Indonesia-auth,anoher report from Rusia)

Queen Purandokht,

daughter of Khosrau II,

the last woman and one of the last rulers on the throne of the Sassanid dynasty, 630

In 626,

Constantinople was besieged by Slavic and Avar forces which were supported by a Persian army under Shahrbaraz on the far side of the Bosphorus, but attempts to ferry the Persians across were blocked by the Byzantine fleet and the siege ended in failure.

In 627-628,

Heraclius mounted a winter invasion of Mesopotamia and, despite the departure of his Khazar allies, defeated a Persian army commanded by Rhahzadh in the Battle of Nineveh. He then marched down the Tigris, devastating the country and sacking Khosrau’s palace at Dastagerd. He was prevented from attacking Ctesiphon by the destruction of the bridges on the Nahrawan Canal and conducted further raids before withdrawing up the Diyala into north-western Iran.[54]

The impact of Heraclius’s victories, the devastation of the richest territories of the Sassanid Empire, and the humiliating destruction of high-profile targets such as Ganzak and Dastagerd fatally undermined Khosrau’s prestige and his support among the Persian aristocracy.

In early 628

, he was overthrown and murdered by his son Kavadh II (628), who immediately brought an end to the war, agreeing to withdraw from all occupied territories. In 629, Heraclius restored the True Cross to Jerusalem in a majestic ceremony.[54] Kavadh died within months, and chaos and civil war followed. Over a period of four years and five successive kings, including two daughters of Khosrau II and spahbod Shahrbaraz, the Sassanid Empire weakened considerably. The power of the central authority passed into the hands of the generals. It would take several years for a strong king to emerge from a series of coups, and the Sassanids never had time to recover fully.[53]

 

 

The Sassanian Empire or Sassanid Persian Empire (pronounced /sæˈseɪniən/, /ˈsæsənɪd/; also spelled Sasanid or Sasanian), known to its inhabitants as Ērānshahr and Ērān in Middle Persian and resulting in the New Persian terms Iranshahr and Iran,[5] was the last pre-Islamic Persian Empire, ruled by the Sasanian Dynasty from 224 CE to 651 CE.[2][6] The Sassanid Empire, which succeeded the Parthian Empire, was recognized as one of the main powers in Western and Central Asia, alongside the Roman-Byzantine Empire, for a period of more than 400 years.[7]

The Sassanid Empire was founded by Ardashir I, after the fall of the Arsacid Empire and the defeat of the last Arsacid king, Artabanus V. During its existence, the Sassanid Empire encompassed all of today’s Iran, Iraq, Afghanistan, eastern Syria, the Caucasus (Armenia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Dagestan), southwestern Central Asia, part of Turkey, certain coastal parts of the Arabian Peninsula, the Persian Gulf area, and some areas of Balochistan (Pakistan). The native name for the Sassanid Empire in Middle Persian is Eran Shahr which means Aryan Empire.[8] According to legend, the vexilloid of the Sassanid Empire was the Derafsh Kaviani.[9] It was also hypothesized that the transition toward the Sassanid Empire represents the end of struggle of ethnic proto-Persians with their close migrant ethnic relatives, the Parthians, whose original homeland was in modern-day Central Asia.

 

Khruso II :
Persia, The Sassanid Kingdom
Khusro II The Great King Shah of Persia (590-628 AD)
Minted during the lifetime of the Prophet Muhammad.
AR 31.5mm x 0.8mm Drachm (4.13g)
Obverse: Portrait of the King Khusro II wearing great hat. 3 moons and stars in concentric rings.
Reverse: Zoroastrian Fire temple altar with 2 attendants. Concentrics rings, 4 moons and stars.

Shapur I:

Persia, The Sassanid Kingdom
Shapur I The Great King Shah of Persia (240 -272 AD)
AR Drachm 3.79g x 24.5mm
Obv. Bust if Shapur I with Helmet with ear flaps. In the name of the Great Mazda Worshiper.
Rev. Zoroastrian Alter with Two Attendants.
Defeated Three Roman Emperoers in Battle, Killed Gordian III in Battle, Forced Philip the Arab into a Shameful treaty, Captured, “footstooled” and stuffed Valerian I.
*note to self* Reshoot photo-Don’t like Yellow!

Ardashir I :
Ardashir I of Persia (Persian: اردشير یکم‎) (died 242 AD) was the founder of the Sassanid Empire, was ruler of Istakhr (since 206?), subsequently Fars Province (since 208?), and finally “King of Kings of Sassanid Empire” (after 226) with the overthrow of the Parthian Empire. The dynasty founded by Ardashir would rule for four centuries, until it was overthrown by the Rashidun Caliphate in 651.
Ardashir (Arđaxš- “r from Middle Persian and Parthian Artaxšaθra, Pahlavi ʼrthštr, “Who has the Divine Order as his Kingdom”) is also known as Ardeshīr-i Pāpagān “Ardashir, son of Pāpağ”, and other variants of his name include Latinized Artaxares and Artaxerxes.

The Sassanid empire, during Late Antiquity, is considered to have been one of Persia’s/Iran’s most important and influential historical periods, and constituted the last great Iranian empire before the Muslim conquest and the adoption of Islam.[10] In many ways, the Sassanid period witnessed the peak of ancient Persian civilization. Persia influenced Roman civilization considerably during the Sassanid period.[11] The Sassanids’ cultural influence extended far beyond the empire’s territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe,[12] Africa,[13] China and India.[14] It played a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asian medieval art.[15]


Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628, Fall of Sassanids,

and Muslim conquest of Persia

While originally seeming successful at a first glance, the campaign of Khosrau II had actually exhausted the Persian army and Persian treasuries. In an effort to rebuild the national treasuries, Khosrau overtaxed the population. Thus, seeing the opportunity,

Heraclius (610–641)

drew on all his diminished and devastated empire’s remaining resources, reorganized his armies, and mounted a remarkable counter-offensive.

Between 622 and 627

he campaigned against the Persians in Anatolia and the Caucasus, winning a string of victories against Persian forces under Khosrau, Shahrbaraz, Shahin, and Shahraplakan, sacking the great Zoroastrian temple at Ganzak, and securing assistance from the Khazars and Western Turkic Khaganate.[citation needed]

 

 

 

 

 
 

 

 

644

Kerajaan Melayu Jambi

Abad ke 7

644

Kerajaan Malayu adalah nama sebuah kerajaan yang pernah ada di Pulau Sumatra. Pada umumnya, kerajaan ini dibedakan atas dua periode, yaitu Kerajaan Malayu Tua pada abad ke-7 yang berpusat di Minanga Tamwa, dan Kerajaan Malayu Muda pada abad ke-13 yang berpusat di Dharmasraya.

Berdasarkan letak ibu kotanya, Kerajaan Malayu Tua atau Malayu Kuno sering pula disebut dengan nama Kerajaan Malayu Jambi, sedangkan Kerajaan Malayu Muda sering pula disebut dengan nama Kerajaan Dharmasraya.

Sumber Berita Cina

Berita tentang Kerajaan Malayu antara lain diketahui dari kronik Cina berjudul T’ang-hui-yao karya Wang P’u. Disebutkan bahwa ada sebuah kerajaan bernama Mo-lo-yeu yang mengirim duta besar ke Cina pada tahun 644 atau 645. Pengiriman duta ini hanya berjalan sekali dan sesudah itu tidak terdengar lagi kabarnya.

Pendeta I Tsing dalam perjalanannya pada tahun 671685 menuju India juga sempat singgah di pelabuhan Mo-lo-yeu. Saat ia berangkat, Mo-lo-yeu masih berupa negeri merdeka, sedangkan ketika kembali ke Cina, Mo-lo-yeu telah menjadi jajahan Shih-li-fo-shih (ejaan Cina untuk Sriwijaya).

Menurut catatan I Tsing, negeri-negeri di Pulau Sumatra pada umumnya menganut agama Buddha aliran Hinayana, kecuali Mo-lo-yeu. Tidak disebutkan dengan jelas agama apa yang dianut oleh Kerajaan Malayu.

Lokasi Malayu Tua

Dr. Rouffaer berpendapat bahwa ibu kota Kerajaan Malayu menjadi satu dengan pelabuhan Malayu, dan sama-sama terletak di Kota Jambi. Sedangkan menurut Ir. Moens, pelabuhan Malayu terletak di Kota Jambi, namun istananya terletak di Palembang. Sementara itu, Prof. George Coedes lebih yakin bahwa Palembang adalah ibu kota Kerajaan Sriwijaya, bukan ibu kota Malayu.

Prof. Slamet Muljana berpendapat lain. Istilah Malayu berasal dari kata Malaya yang dalam bahasa Sansekerta bermakna “bukit”. Nama sebuah kerajaan biasanya merujuk pada nama ibu kotanya. Oleh karena itu, ia tidak setuju apabila istana Malayu terletak di Kota Jambi, karena daerah itu merupakan dataran rendah. Menurutnya, pelabuhan Malayu memang terletak di Kota Jambi, tetapi istananya terletak di pedalaman yang tanahnya agak tinggi.

Prasasti Tanyore menyebutkan bahwa ibu kota Kerajaan Malayu dilindungi oleh benteng-benteng, dan terletak di atas bukit. Slamet Muljana berpendapat bahwa istana Malayu terletak di Minanga Tamwa sebagaimana yang tertulis dalam prasasti Kedukan Bukit. Menurutnya, Minanga Tamwa adalah nama kuno dari Muara Tebo (atau Kabupaten Tebo di Provinsi Jambi).

Dikalahkan Sriwijaya

Prasasti Kedukan Bukit tahun 683 mengisahkan perjalanan Dapunta Hyang membawa 20.000 orang prajurit meninggalkan Minanga Tamwa dengan perasaan suka cita penuh kemenangan. Prof. Moh. Yamin berpendapat bahwa prasasti ini merupakan piagam proklamasi berdirinya Kerajaan Sriwijaya di bawah pimpinan Dapunta Hyang.

Pendapat Moh. Yamin ternyata tidak sesuai dengan berita dalam catatan I Tsing bahwa pada tahun 671 Kerajaan Sriwijaya sudah ada. Dikisahkan, bahwa I Tsing mendapat bantuan dari raja Shih-li-fo-shih sehingga dapat memasuki pelabuhan Malayu dalam perjalanan menuju India.

Prof. Slamet Muljana yang telah mengidentifikasi Minanga Tamwa sebagai ibu kota Kerajaan Malayu berpendapat bahwa, prasasti Kedukan Bukit merupakan piagam penaklukan Malayu oleh Sriwijaya. Naskah prasasti tersebut menunjukkan bahwa dengan kekuatan 20.000 prajurit, Dapunta Hyang berhasil menguasai Minanga Tamwa, dan meninggalkan kota itu dalam suka cita.

Jadi, penaklukan Malayu oleh Sriwijaya terjadi pada tahun 683. Pendapat ini sesuai dengan catatan I Tsing bahwa, pada saat berangkat menuju India tahun 671, Mo-lo-yeu masih menjadi kerajaan merdeka, sedangkan ketika kembali tahun 685, negeri itu telah dikuasai oleh Shih-li-fo-shih.

Pelabuhan Malayu merupakan penguasa lalu lintas Selat Malaka saat itu. Dengan direbutnya Minanga Tamwa, secara otomatis pelabuhan Malayu pun jatuh ke tangan Kerajaan Sriwijaya. Maka sejak tahun 683, Kerajaan Sriwijaya tumbuh menjadi penguasa lalu lintas dan perdagangan Selat Malaka menggantikan peran Kerajaan Malayu.

 

1025

Tentang Raja Chan-pi(Jambi)

Setelah beberapa abad berkuasa, akhirnya Kerajaan Sriwijaya mengalami kekalahan akibat serangan Rajendra Coladewa dari India sekitar tahun 1025.

Kekuasaan Wangsa Sailendra di Pulau Sumatra dan Semenanjung Malaya pun berakhir. Sejak saat itu Sriwijaya menjadi negeri jajahan Rajendra.

Dalam berita Cina berjudul Sung Hui Yao disebutkan bahwa Kerajaan San-fo-tsi tahun 1082 mengirim duta besar ke Cina yang saat itu di bawah pemerintahan Kaisar Yuan Fong. Duta besar tersebut menyampaikan surat dari raja Chan-pi bawahan San-fo-tsi, dan surat dari putri raja yang diserahi urusan negara San-fo-tsi, serta menyerahkan pula 227 tahil perhiasan, rumbia, dan 13 potong pakaian.

Pada zaman Dinasti Sung, istilah San-fo-tsi identik dengan Sriwijaya. Tidak diketahui dengan pasti apakah putri raja yang diserahi urusan negara San-fo-tsi adalah keturunan Rajendra, yang saat itu telah menguasai Sumatra dan Semenanjung Malaya. Sementara itu, raja Chan-pi kemungkinan besar adalah ejaan Cina untuk istilah Jambi.

 

 

 

 

 

1100

Pemerintahan Raja Raja di Kesultanan Inderapura

 

Sekilas Kerajaan Inderapura

Kesultanan Inderapura (Kerajaan Islam Malayu, 1100 – 1911) terletak di wilayah Kabupaten Pesisir Selatan, Sumatera Barat sekarang. Pernah jaya abad XVII – XVIII, karena posisinya sebagai kota pantai, pusat perdagangan dengan komiditi unggulan emas dan lada, berbasis pelabuhan Samuderapura dengan armada kuat, ramai dikunjungi kapal dagang dan jadi rebutan pengaruh kekuatan asing (Yulizal Yunus, 2002).
Kesultanan Inderapura berdiri di atas keruntuhan Kerajaan lama Inderapura yakni periode Kerajaan Teluk Air Pura abad IX sm – XII m (80 sm – 1100 m). Kerajaan Inderapura lama didirikan anak cucu leluhur Iskandar Zulkarnaini (356-324 sm, putra Pilipeaus raja ke-2 Masedonia, 382-336 sm). Tidak disebut nama pendirinya kecuali pimpinan adat. Ada disebut tahun 134 sm lahir Indo Juita (keturunan Iskandar Zulkarnaini) kemudian tahun 110 sm menikah dengan Inderajati moyang Inderapura (asal Parsi – Turki) dan melahirkan keturunan raja-raja.
Pada episode berikutnya Zatullahsyah (anak cucu Iskandar Zulkarnaini) datang ke Air Pura dan mendirikan Kerajaan Air Pura, Teluk Air Pura (awal abad ke-12). Wilayahnya adalah Muara Campa, Air Puding dan Air Pura dekat Muara Air Sirah dan Sungai Bantaian Inderapura sekarang. Basis perekonomian rakyat tani (ladang) dan nelayan serta mencari hasil hutan.

Masa pemerintahan Zatullahsyah datang 3 orang anak saudara kandungnya (Hidayatullahsyah) yakni Sri Sultan Maharaja Alif, Sri Sultan Maharaja Depang dan Sri Sultan Maharaja Diraja, dari Rum lewat Bukit Siguntang-guntang. Tidak lama di Air Pura, Sri Sultan Maharaja Diraja mendapat perintah Zatullahsyah, pergi ke Gunung Merapi, didampingi temannya Cati Bilang Pandai dan dibantu putra sepupunya Sultan Muhammadsyah (putra Zatullahsyah – Dewi Gando Layu). Di sana ia mendirikan kerajaan di Parhyangan (Pariangan) yang disebut sebagai nagari asal seperti juga Air Pura. Sri Sultan Maharaja Diraja kawin dengan Puti Jamilan dan melahirkan Dt. Ketumanggungan, setelah Sri Sultan wafat Puti Jamilan dikawini temannya Cati Bilang Pandai dan melahirkan Dt. Parpatih nan Sabatang.

Empat Episode Sejarah Kerajaan

Di Kerajaan Air Pura kepemimpinan berlanjut dalam empat episode sejarah. Dua episode I (Kerajaan Air Pura – Indrajati) dan dua episode II (Kesultanan Inderapura – Era Regen). Dua episode I Kerajaan Air Pura dilanjutkan kepemimpinan Kerajaan Indrajati (Indra di Laut) abad XII – XVI (1100 – 1500). Berawal dari datangnya Indrayana disebut putra mahkota Kerajaan Sriwijaya yang terusir karena masuk Islam, menetap di Pasir Ganting dan mendirikan Kerajaan Indrajati. Ia sendiri raja ke-1 dan raja ke-2 anaknya bernama Indrasyah Sultan Galomatsyah. Dalam perjalanannya kerajaan ini pernah diincer ekspedisi Pamalayu I (1247) di samping Darmashraya, Siguntur yang kemudian menjadi Kerajaan Pagaruyung (1343).

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